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Sample records for tutors scored significantly

  1. Impact of Science Tutoring on African Americans' Science Scores on the High School Students' Graduation Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Edward

    This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate of the target high school was 42%---lower than the state average of 76%. The purpose of the study was to identify (a) the relationship between a science tutorial program and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, (b) the predictors of tutoring need by analyzing the relationship between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE, and (c) the findings between biology grades and scores on the science portion of the HSGE by analyzing the relationship between tutorial attendance and HSGE scores. The study was based on Piaget's cognitive constructivism, which implied the potential benefits of tutorials on high-stakes testing. This study used a 1-group pretest-posttest, quantitative methodology. Results showed a significant relationship between tutoring and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE. Results found no significant relationship between the tutorial attendance and the scores on the biology portion of the HSGE or between the biology grades and scores on the biology portion of the HSGE before tutoring. It has implications for positive social change by providing educational stakeholders with empirically-based guidance in determining the potential benefit of tutorial intervention strategies on high school graduation examination scores.

  2. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (pcorrelation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  3. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heethal Jaiprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group’s tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group’s tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors’ performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors’ scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001 and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001. The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  4. General physicians graduated from a PBL undergraduate medical curriculum: how well do they perform as PBL tutors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Lee, Joo Heung; Kee, Changwon

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted on the effectiveness of general physicians recently graduated from a medical school with Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum as PBL tutors to expand the school's tutor pool. This study aims to investigate these non-staff tutors' effectiveness in terms of student satisfaction and learning outcomes. An experimental study was conducted of 12 PBL groups of second-year medical students (n = 40). Four PBL groups were led by non-staff tutors; the other eight groups were led by staff tutors during the two PBL units. Tutor evaluation and student satisfaction questionnaires were administered and student performance scores were analysed to compare between groups led by staff tutors and non-staff tutors. The students' overall satisfaction with the non-staff tutors on a five-point Likert-scale was high (M = 4.5 +/-.638). Additionally, the student scores on written tests were comparable between groups. Yet, in one unit, the groups led by staff tutors received significantly higher scores on the group evaluation than those led by non-staff tutors. The results of this study show that the non-staff tutors performed as effectively as the staff tutors did with regard to student achievement in written exams. Still, the findings of this study suggest that different tutor backgrounds and experiences might affect student performance beyond the written exam scores.

  5. The influence of tutor training for peer tutors in the dissection course on the learning behavior of students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, T; Hirt, B; Lammerding-Koeppel, M

    2016-11-01

    Student tutors in the dissection course are expected to meet high demands in their job, to fulfill these expectations they receive training. Combined tutor training is well accepted by tutors and tutees, however, it is not known how tutor training influences student learning. Deduced from the learning goals of the tutor training, a randomized, controlled, single-blinded study was set up with a quantitative cross-sectional analysis to compare student learning behavior. A total of 197 medical students, coached either by ten trained or ten untrained tutors, were enlisted in the study. To assess the students' learning behavior we employed the LIST questionnaire. A common factor analysis was calculated to extract dimensions. Factor scores of the extracted dimensions were calculated for both groups to estimate differences in learning behavior. Factor analysis of the LIST questionnaire revealed eight factors explaining 47.57% of the overall variance. The eight factors comprise: deep learning, attention, learning organization, cooperative learning, time management, learning effort, superficial learning and learning environment. Comparing the factor scores of the extracted dimensions, students coached by trained tutors learned significantly more with their fellow students (factor score in cooperative learning 0.194 vs. -0.205, ptrained by untrained tutors. Students coached by trained tutors also tend to be better organized in their learning (factor score in learning organization 0.115 vs. -0.122, p=0.16). The learning behavior of students coached by trained tutors differs from the learning behavior of students coached by untrained tutors. Students coached by trained tutors learn significantly more often in teams than their colleagues and are better organized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Interactions between students and tutor in problem-based learning: the significance of deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2009-05-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an excellent opportunity for students to take responsibility for their learning and to develop a number of cognitive skills. These include identifying problems in the trigger, generating hypotheses, constructing mechanisms, developing an enquiry plan, ranking their hypotheses on the basis of available evidence, interpreting clinical and laboratory findings, identifying their learning needs, and dealing with uncertainty. Students also need to work collaboratively in their group, communicate effectively, and take active roles in the tutorials. Therefore, interaction in the group between students and their tutor is vital to ensure deep learning and successful outcomes. The aims of this paper are to discuss the key principles for successful interaction in PBL tutorials and to highlight the major symptoms of superficial learning and poor interactions. This comprises a wide range of symptoms for different group problems, including superficial learning. By early detection of such problems, tutors will be able to explore actions with the group and negotiate changes that can foster group dynamics and enforce deep learning.

  7. Interactions Between Students and Tutor in Problem-Based Learning: The Significance of Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy A. Azer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL is an excellent opportunity for students to take responsibility for their learning and to develop a number of cognitive skills. These include identifying problems in the trigger, generating hypotheses, constructing mechanisms, developing an enquiry plan, ranking their hypotheses on the basis of available evidence, interpreting clinical and laboratory findings, identifying their learning needs, and dealing with uncertainty. Students also need to work collaboratively in their group, communicate effectively, and take active roles in the tutorials. Therefore, interaction in the group between students and their tutor is vital to ensure deep learning and successful outcomes. The aims of this paper are to discuss the key principles for successful interaction in PBL tutorials and to highlight the major symptoms of superficial learning and poor interactions. This comprises a wide range of symptoms for different group problems, including superficial learning. By early detection of such problems, tutors will be able to explore actions with the group and negotiate changes that can foster group dynamics and enforce deep learning.

  8. Tooth Tutoring: The Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Richard; And Others

    Findings are reported on a three year cross-age tutoring program in which undergraduate dental hygiene students and college students from other disciplines trained upper elementary students to tutor younger students in the techniques of dental hygiene. Data includes pre-post scores on the Oral Hygiene Index of plaque for both experimental and…

  9. Splitting the BLOSUM Score into Numbers of Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossi Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical tools developed in the context of Shannon information theory were used to analyze the meaning of the BLOSUM score, which was split into three components termed as the BLOSUM spectrum (or BLOSpectrum. These relate respectively to the sequence convergence (the stochastic similarity of the two protein sequences, to the background frequency divergence (typicality of the amino acid probability distribution in each sequence, and to the target frequency divergence (compliance of the amino acid variations between the two sequences to the protein model implicit in the BLOCKS database. This treatment sharpens the protein sequence comparison, providing a rationale for the biological significance of the obtained score, and helps to identify weakly related sequences. Moreover, the BLOSpectrum can guide the choice of the most appropriate scoring matrix, tailoring it to the evolutionary divergence associated with the two sequences, or indicate if a compositionally adjusted matrix could perform better.

  10. Clinical significance of scoring system for systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jian; LIANG Hua-ping

    2006-01-01

    The concepts of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and scoring system were defined by the journal of Bone in 1992. SIRS was described as occurrence of two or more clinical criteria in four ones (fever or hypothermia, tachypnea, tachycardia, and leukocytosis).An early diagnosis and estimation of systemic inflammation in patients is helpful for treatment selection. This paper reviews the application of SIRS scoring system, which has been extensively validated for large groups of critical care patients with severe injury and critical surgical diseases.Recent studies have documented SIRS score as a significant predictive parameter of adverse outcome in critical care patients. Furthermore, some studies also give us a suggestion on how to reduce the overload systemic response.

  11. Apgar Scores: Examining the Long-term Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2000-01-01

    The Apgar scoring system was intended as an evaluative measure of a newborn's condition at birth and of the need for immediate attention. In the most recent past, individuals have unsuccessfully attempted to link Apgar scores with long-term developmental outcomes. This practice is not appropriate, as the Apgar score is currently defined. Expectant parents need to be aware of the limitations of the Apgar score and its appropriate uses.

  12. Analysis of WAIS-IV Index Score Scatter Using Significant Deviation from the Mean Index Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L.; Zhu, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement…

  13. Analysis of WAIS-IV Index Score Scatter Using Significant Deviation from the Mean Index Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L.; Zhu, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement…

  14. Prognostic Value of Gai's Plaque Score and Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Functionally Significant Coronary Artery Stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang Zhang; Shuang Yang; Lu-Yue Gai; Zhi-Qi Han; Qian Xin; Xiao-Bo Yang; Jun-Jie Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies.However,few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions.We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions,using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the gold standard.Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 107 visually assessed significant coronary lesions in 88 patients (mean age,59.6 ± 10.2 years;76.14% of males) who underwent CCTA,invasive coronary angiography,and invasive FFR measurement.An FFR <0.80 indicated hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis.Lesions were divided into two groups using an FFR cutoff value of 0.80.We compared Gai's plaque scores and CACS between the two groups and evaluated the correlations of these scores with FFR.The statistical methods included unpaired t-test,Mann-Whitney U-test,and Spearman's correlation coefficients.Results:Coronary lesions with FFR <0.80 had higher Gai's scores than those with FFR ≥0.80.Gai's score had the strongest correlation with FFR (r =-0.48,P < 0.01) and had a greater area under the curve =0.72 (95% confidence interval:0.61-0.82;P < 0.01) than the CACS of whole arteries and a single artery.Conclusions:Both CACS in a single artery and Gai's plaque score demonstrated a good capacity to assess functionally significant coronary artery stenosis when compared to the gold standard FFR.However,Gai's plaque score was more predictive of FFR <0.80.Gai's score can be easily calculated in daily clinical practice and could be used when considering revascularization.

  15. Apparent diffusion coefficient ratio correlates significantly with prostate cancer gleason score at final pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Løgager, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient measurements (ADCtumor and ADCratio ) and the Gleason score from radical prostatectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients with clinically localized prostate cancer scheduled for radical prostatectomy...... correlated with the Gleason score from the prostatectomy specimens. RESULTS: The association between ADC measurements and Gleason score showed a significant negative correlation (P ... ) and 0.90 (ADCratio ) when discriminating Gleason score ≤7(3+4) from Gleason score ≥7(4+3). CONCLUSION: ADC measurements showed a significant correlation with tumor Gleason score at final pathology. The ADCratio demonstrated the best correlation compared to the ADCtumor value and radically improved...

  16. Training Undergraduate Physics Peer Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.

    2004-05-01

    The University of Wisconsin's Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program matches upper level undergraduate physics students in small study groups with students studying introductory algebra-based physics. We work with students who are potentially at-risk for having academic trouble with the course. They include students with a low exam score, learning disabilities, no high school physics, weak math backgrounds, and/or on academic probation. We also work with students from groups under represented in the sciences and who may be feeling isolated or marginal on campus such as minority, returning adult, and international students. The tutors provide a supportive learning environment, extra practice problems, and an overview of key concepts. In so doing, they help our students to build confidence and problem solving skills applicable to physics and other areas of their academic careers. The Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program is modeled after a similar program for chemistry created by the University of Wisconsin's Chemistry Learning Center. Both programs are now run in collaboration. The tutors are chosen for their academic strength and excellent communication skills. Our tutors are majoring in physics, math, and secondary-level science education. The tutors receive ongoing training and supervision throughout the year. They attend weekly discipline-specific meetings to discuss strategies for teaching the content currently being discussed in the physics course. They also participate in a weekly teaching seminar with science tutors from chemistry and biochemistry to discuss teaching methods, mentoring, and general information relating to the students with whom we work. We will describe an overview of the Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program with a focus on the teacher training program for our undergraduate tutors.

  17. The effects of student support services peer tutoring on learning and study strategies, grades, and retention at a rural community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Thomas J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Student Support Services peer tutoring on rural community college students' success in an Anatomy and Physiology class as measured changes in self-reported learning and study strategies, the final grade in Anatomy and Physiology class, and persistence/retention in the following semesters. A secondary goal was to assess the relative merits of two training methods: standard peer tutoring and standard peer tutoring plus introduction to attribution theory. This Anatomy and Physiology class typically has a failure rate of 50%. The federal government annually funds more than 700 Student Support Services (SSS) grants and 162 Health Career Opportunities Programs (HCOP). Nearly 94% of these SSS programs included a tutoring component, and 84% of these programs use peer tutoring. Peer tutors were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions and students were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions. There were 31 students in the attribution condition and 28 students in the standard condition. Students were required to have a minimum of 10 hours of tutoring to be included in the analysis. Each tutored student was yoked to a control student who had not sought peer tutoring assistance. Participants were matched for age, marital status, number of adults in the family, number of children in the family and incoming academic skills (CPT Reading Test Results), financial status, and race. The results support peer tutoring as an effective method of increasing student success. The findings support the use of attribution training for tutors as a theoretical base of intervention. Students tutored by attribution trained tutors scored significantly higher on LASSI, had higher Anatomy and Physiology grades, and returned to college at a higher rate than their yoked controls. Standard trained tutors scored significantly higher on the LASSI Test Taking subscale and returned to college at a higher rate than their

  18. Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Hand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale’s (NIHSS’s association with upper extremity (UE impairment and functional outcomes. Design. Secondary, retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting. Not applicable. Participants. 146 subjects with stable, chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis. Intervention. The NIHSS, the UE Fugl-Meyer (FM, and the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT were administered prior to their participation in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Main Outcome Measures. The NIHSS, FM, and AMAT. Results. The association between the NIHSS and UE impairment was statistically significant (P=-0.204;p=0.014 but explained less than 4% of the variance among UE FM scores. The association between NIHSS total score and function as measured by the AMAT was not statistically significant (P=-0.141;p=0.089. Subjects scoring a “zero” on the NIHSS exhibited discernible UE motor deficits and varied scores on the UE FM and AMAT. Conclusion. While being used in stroke trials, the NIHSS may have limited ability to discriminate between treatment responses, even when only a relatively narrow array of impairment levels exists among patients. Given these findings, NIHSS use should be restricted to acute stroke studies and clinical settings with the goal of reporting stroke severity.

  19. Tutoring in problem-based learning medical curricula: the influence of tutor background and style on effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régo Patricia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for the superiority of particular characteristics in PBL tutors in medical curricula is generally inconclusive. Most studies have investigated the effectiveness of content experts compared with that of non-experts as measured either by student satisfaction or academic achievement. A few have compared academic staff tutors with student tutors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between students' perception of overall tutor effectiveness, particular tutor behaviours, clinical qualifications and academic appointment. Method A questionnaire designed to evaluate particular aspects of PBL tutoring technique, related either to subject-matter knowledge or to process-facilitation skill, as well as overall effectiveness, was distributed to students in first year of a PBL medical program at the end of each of three tutor terms. A total of 76 tutor terms were included in the study. Data analysis compared clinical with non-clinical tutors, and staff with non-staff tutors. Results Clinically qualified tutors used their subject-matter knowledge significantly more than non-clinical tutors and were seen as being more empathic with their students. Staff tutors placed more emphasis on assessment than non-staff tutors and were seen as having greater skill in establishing and maintaining an environment of cooperation within their PBL groups than non-staff tutors. Conclusion These results suggest that both subject-matter knowledge and process-facilitation skills are necessary but not individually sufficient characteristics of effective tutors.

  20. The near-peer tutoring programme: embracing the ‘doctors-to-teach’ philosophy – a comparison of the effects of participation between the senior and junior near-peer tutors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaw-Cheok Liew

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is an increasing pool of literature documenting the benefits of near-peer tutoring programme, little is known about the benefits for junior and senior peer tutors. Knowledge of the peer tutors’ perceived benefits at different levels of seniority will aid in the development of a near-peer tutoring programme that will better fulfil both curricula and personal aspirations of near-peer tutors. We, therefore, investigated the perceived benefits of participation in a near-peer tutoring programme for junior as well as senior near-peer tutors. Methods: Pre- and post-participation questionnaires were distributed to near-peer tutors after their clinical skills teaching sessions with Phase I undergraduate medical students. The Peer Tutor Assessment Instrument questionnaires were distributed to the 1 students, and to the 2 near-peer tutors (junior and senior after each teaching and learning session for self-evaluation. Results: The senior near-peer tutors felt that their participation in the programme had enhanced their skills (p=0.03. As a whole, the near-peer tutors were more motivated (Pre 5.32±0.46; Post 5.47±0.50; p=0.210 to participate in future teaching sessions but did not expect that having teaching experiences would make teaching as their major career path in the future (Pre 4.63±1.07; Post 4.54±0.98; p=0.701. The senior near-peer tutors were evaluated significantly higher by the students (p=0.0001. Students’ evaluations of near-peer tutors on the domain of critical analysis was higher than self-evaluations (p=0.003. Conclusions: Generally, the near-peer tutors perceived that they have benefited most in their skills enhancement and these near-peer tutors were scored highly by the students. However, senior near-peer tutors do not perceive that the programme has a lasting impact on their choice of career path.

  1. Success in tutoring electronic troubleshooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ellen M.

    1990-01-01

    Two years ago Dr. Sherrie Gott of the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory described an avionics troubleshooting tutor being developed under the Basic Job Skills Research Program. The tutor, known as Sherlock, is directed at teaching the diagnostic procedures necessary to investigate complex test equipment used to maintain F-15 fighter aircraft. Since Dr. Gott's presentation in 1987, the tutor has undergone field testing at two Air Force F-15 flying wings. The results of the field test showed that after an average of 20 hours on the tutor, the 16 airmen in the experimental group (who average 28 months of experience) showed significant performance gains when compared to a control group (having a mean experience level of 37 months) who continued participating in the existing on-the-job training program. Troubleshooting performance of the tutored group approached the level of proficiency of highly experienced airmen (averaging approximately 114 months of experience), and these performance gains were confirmed in delayed testing six months following the intervention. The tutor is currently undergoing a hardware and software conversion form a Xerox Lisp environment to a PC-based environment using an object-oriented programming language. Summarized here are the results of the successful field test. The focus is on: (1) the instructional features that contributed to Sherlock's success; and (2) the implementation of these features in the PC-based version of the avionics troubleshooting tutor.

  2. Consumers as tutors – legitimate teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Cathy

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to research the feasibility of training mental health consumers as tutors for 4th year medical students in psychiatry. Methods A partnership between a consumer network and an academic unit in Psychological Medicine was formed to jointly develop a training package for consumer tutors and a curriculum in interviewing skills for medical students. Student attitudes to mental health consumers were measured pre and post the program. All tutorial evaluation data was analysed using univariate statistics. Both tutors and students evaluated the teaching program using a 4 point rating scale. The mean scores for teaching and content for both students and tutors were compared using an independent samples t-test. Results Consumer tutors were successfully trained and accredited as tutors and able to sustain delivery of tutorials over a 4 year period. The study found that whilst the medical students started with positive attitudes towards consumers prior to the program, there was a general trend towards improved attitude across all measures. Other outcomes for tutors and students (both positive and negative are described. Conclusions Consumer tutors along with professional tutors have a place in the education of medical students, are an untapped resource and deliver largely positive outcomes for students and themselves. Further possible developments are described.

  3. Liver Stiffness Measurement-Based Scoring System for Significant Inflammation Related to Chronic Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Chen, Guo-Liang; Huang, Wen-Qi; Min, Feng; Chen, Tian; Xu, Jin-Chao; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers. Methods The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327), and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement. Results An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+) patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(−) patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+) patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(−) patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(−) patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3). Conclusions Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation. PMID:25360742

  4. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  5. Is there significant correlation between self-reported low back pain visual analogue scores and low back pain scores determined by pressure pain induction matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, David A; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether self-reported visual analogue scale (VAS) low back pain (LBP) scores are valid against matched psychophysically induced pressure pain scores. Two hundred thirty-six chronic LBP patients (some with neck pain) reported their LBP and neck pain scores on a VAS immediately before psychophysical pressure pain induction used to determine pain threshold (PTHRE), pain tolerance (PTOL), and a psychophysical pressure pain score which matched (PMAT) their current LBP. Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficients were calculated between reported VAS neck scores, reported VAS LBP scores, and the psychophysically determined LBP PMAT scores. The PMAT scores were calculated utilizing PTOL only and both PTOL and PTHRE. There was a significant correlation between the LBP PMAT scores and the reported LBP VAS scores for both types of psychophysical LBP PMAT score calculations; however, there were insignificant correlations between the LBP PMAT scores and reported neck VAS scores. Chronic LBP patients can match their self-reported VAS LBP scores to psychophysically determined LBP PMAT scores. As such, self-reported VAS chronic LBP scores appear to be valid against one type of psychophysical measurement.

  6. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (‑) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (‑) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  7. Cooperative Interactions in Peer Tutoring: Patterns and Sequences in Paired Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, David

    2010-01-01

    The research analyzes the interaction of 24 students (12 pairs) of secondary students when using peer tutoring techniques to learn Catalan. Students worked together in a program to produce an authentic writing experience. Significant increases were observed in pre- and posttest Catalan attainment scores of students. An analysis of the…

  8. Strategic Tutor Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee-kwong, Kenneth Chao

    1996-01-01

    Discusses effective tutor monitoring strategies based on experiences at the Open Learning Institute of Hong Kong. Highlights include key performance and strategic control points; situational factors, including tutor expectations and relevant culture; Theory X versus Theory Y leadership theories; and monitoring relationships with tutors. (LRW)

  9. Strategic Tutor Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee-kwong, Kenneth Chao

    1996-01-01

    Discusses effective tutor monitoring strategies based on experiences at the Open Learning Institute of Hong Kong. Highlights include key performance and strategic control points; situational factors, including tutor expectations and relevant culture; Theory X versus Theory Y leadership theories; and monitoring relationships with tutors. (LRW)

  10. Learning Through Tutoring: Low-Achieving Childern as Tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vernon L.; Feldman, Robert S.

    Low-achieving fifth-grade children either taught a third grader or studied alone for a series of daily sessions. At the end of the two-week period, the low-achievers' performance was significantly better in the tutoring condition than in the studying condition. This showed a reversal in the direction from the initial difference between conditions.…

  11. Does coronary calcium scoring with a SCORE better predict significant coronary artery stenosis than without? Correlation with computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durhan, Gamze; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Akata, Deniz [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Sunman, Hamza; Aytemir, Kudret [Hacettepe University Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Karakaya, Jale; Karaagaoglu, Ergun [Hacettepe University, Department of Biostatistics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-03

    To determine effectiveness of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) alone and combined with Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) in adult patients for significant coronary artery stenosis by using computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) as reference standard. Two thousand twenty-one patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CACS test and CTCA. Patients were examined with dual-source CT and were grouped according to their age, gender, CACS, and estimated SCORE risk. Coronary plaque existence and degree of stenosis were assessed with CTCA. Sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curves were analyzed. CACS was the single independent variable in estimating relative risk of critical stenosis and had superior outcome when compared with SCORE risk in logistic regression and ROC curve. Area under the ROC curve was greatest in the interval between 50-59 years. When SCORE was combined with CACS in patients with zero CACS, percentage of significant stenosis increased from 1.4% to 7.0% in patients with high or very high SCORE risk, and decreased to 0.9 % in patients with low or moderate SCORE risk. CACS combination with SCORE risk predicts coronary artery stenosis. When CACS is zero, CTCA can be performed in patients with high or very high SCORE risk. (orig.)

  12. Effectiveness of Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, James A.; Fletcher, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes a meta-analysis of findings from 50 controlled evaluations of intelligent computer tutoring systems. The median effect of intelligent tutoring in the 50 evaluations was to raise test scores 0.66 standard deviations over conventional levels, or from the 50th to the 75th percentile. However, the amount of improvement found in…

  13. A Hypermedia Computer-Aided Parasitology Tutoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Loumos, Vassili

    A hypermedia tutoring system for teaching parasitology to college students was developed using an object oriented software development tool, Knowledge Pro. The program was designed to meet four objectives: knowledge incorporation, tutoring, indexing of key words for Boolean search, and random generation of quiz questions with instant scoring. The…

  14. A peer mentor tutor program for academic success in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Erin; Niemer, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Due to the difficult and rigorous nature of nursing education, student retention and attrition are major concerns for faculty. This article describes the implementation and outcomes of a peer-based mentor tutor program (PMTP) for at-risk students in a traditional baccalaureate program. Funding was obtained to provide scholarship incentives for student participants and cover costs of training and materials. Criteria were determined for the selection of student mentors-tutors and the identification of at-risk students. Interventions consisted of weekly PMTP sessions offered for the first four semesters of nursing courses. Course grades were used to determine outcome differences between control and intervention groups. Students in the intervention group were found to score significantly higher than the control group on both summative and final grades.

  15. Pygmalion effects among outreach supervisors and tutors: extending sex generalizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanovich, Gloria; Eden, Dov

    2008-11-01

    Students who supervised other students who tutored grade-school pupils in a university-based outreach program were randomly assigned to Pygmalion and control conditions. Experimental supervisors were told that their tutors were ideally qualified for their tutoring role; control supervisors were told nothing about their tutors' qualifications. A manipulation check revealed that the experimental supervisors expected more of their tutors. Analysis of variance of tutorial success measures confirmed the Pygmalion effect among supervisors of both sexes. No main effect or interaction involving either supervisor sex or tutor sex was significant. As predicted, the experimental supervisors also provided better leadership and the experimental tutors increased their self-efficacy. This was the first demonstration of the Pygmalion effect among women leading men. Pygmalion effects may be produced without regard for sex.

  16. The significance of the ProtDeform score for structure prediction and alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rocha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When a researcher uses a program to align two proteins and gets a score, one of her main concerns is how often the program gives a similar score to pairs that are or are not in the same fold. This issue was analysed in detail recently for the program TM-align with its associated TM-score. It was shown that because the TM-score is length independent, it allows a P-value and a hit probability to be defined depending only on the score. Also, it was found that the TM-scores of gapless alignments closely follow an Extreme Value Distribution (EVD. The program ProtDeform for structural protein alignment was developed recently and is characterised by the ability to propose different transformations of different protein regions. Our goal is to analyse its associated score to allow a researcher to have objective reasons to prefer one aligner over another, and carry out a better interpretation of the output. RESULTS: The study on the ProtDeform score reveals that it is length independent in a wider score range than TM-scores and that PD-scores of gapless (random alignments also approximately follow an EVD. On the CASP8 predictions, PD-scores and TM-scores, with respect to native structures, are highly correlated (0.95, and show that around a fifth of the predictions have a quality as low as 99.5% of the random scores. Using the Gold Standard benchmark, ProtDeform has lower probabilities of error than TM-align both at a similar speed. The analysis is extended to homology discrimination showing that, again, ProtDeform offers higher hit probabilities than TM-align. Finally, we suggest using three different P-values according to the three different contexts: Gapless alignments, optimised alignments for fold discrimination and that for superfamily discrimination. In conclusion, PD-scores are at the very least as valuable for prediction scoring as TM-scores, and on the protein classification problem, even more reliable.

  17. Tutoring Executives Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programs have largely neglected programs catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviors already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  18. The prognostic value and pathobiological significance of Glasgow microenvironment score in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Ji, Cheng-Dong; Zhu, Jiang; Xiao, Hua-Liang; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Cui, You-Hong; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value and pathobiological significance of Glasgow microenvironment score (GMS), a parameter based on tumor stroma percentage and inflammatory cell infiltration, in gastric cancer. A total of 225 cases of gastric cancer were histologically reviewed, and GMS was evaluated for each case. The association between GMS and patients' survival was investigated. Then the relationship between GMS and mismatch repair (MMR) status, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection were determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization, and the expression of PD1/PD-L1 was examined. Furthermore, the amount of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the content and maturity of collagen components were detected using IHC, Picrosirius Red staining and second harmonic generation imaging. GMS was significantly associated with clinical outcomes of gastric cancer, and multivariate analysis indicated that GMS was an independent factor (HR 1.725, P = 0.002). Low GMS was a manifestation of better prognosis and inflammatory tumor microenvironment, which was related to MMR deficiency (P = 0.042) and EBV infection (P = 0.032), and within this microenvironment, expression of PD-L1 in carcinoma cells (P = 0.030) or in inflammatory cells (P = 0.029) was significantly higher. In contrast, high GMS linked to a poorer survival and desmoplastic stroma, in which there existed markedly increased CAFs and collagen deposition. GMS can serve as a useful prognostic factor for gastric cancer, and according to GMS, the tumor microenvironment in this cancer type may be partially classified as inflammatory or desmoplastic microenvironment that possesses different pathobiological features.

  19. Determining the relationship between students' scores using traditional homework assignments to those who used assignments on a non-traditional interactive CD with tutor helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinney, Charles Evan

    2007-12-01

    By using the book "Physics for Scientists and Engineers" by Raymond A. Serway as a guide, CD problem sets for teaching a calculus-based physics course were developed, programmed, and evaluated for homework assignments during the 2003-2004 academic year at Utah State University. These CD sets were used to replace the traditionally handwritten and submitted homework sets. They included a research-based format that guided the students through problem-solving techniques using responseactivated helps and suggestions. The CD contents were designed to help the student improve his/her physics problem-solving skills. The analyzed score results showed a direct correlation between the scores obtained on the homework and the students' time spent per problem, as well as the number of helps used per problem.

  20. Affect in Tutoring Dialogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about INES, an intelligent, multimodal tutoring environment, and how we build a tutor agent in the environment that tries to be sensitive to the mental state of the student that interacts with it. The environment was primarily designed to help students practice nursing tasks. For

  1. Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)

  2. Computer Tutors Get Personal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    After decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive psychology, a number of companies have emerged that offer intelligent tutor system (ITS) soft ware to schools. These systems try to mimic the help that a human tutor would provide to an individual student, something nearly impossible for teachers to accomplish in the…

  3. Z-score biological significance of binding hot spots of protein interfaces by using crystal packing as the reference state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Wong, Limsoon; Li, Jinyan

    2012-12-01

    Characterization of binding hot spots of protein interfaces is a fundamental study in molecular biology. Many computational methods have been proposed to identify binding hot spots. However, there are few studies to assess the biological significance of binding hot spots. We introduce the notion of biological significance of a contact residue for capturing the probability of the residue occurring in or contributing to protein binding interfaces. We take a statistical Z-score approach to the assessment of the biological significance. The method has three main steps. First, the potential score of a residue is defined by using a knowledge-based potential function with relative accessible surface area calculations. A null distribution of this potential score is then generated from artifact crystal packing contacts. Finally, the Z-score significance of a contact residue with a specific potential score is determined according to this null distribution. We hypothesize that residues at binding hot spots have big absolute values of Z-score as they contribute greatly to binding free energy. Thus, we propose to use Z-score to predict whether a contact residue is a hot spot residue. Comparison with previously reported methods on two benchmark datasets shows that this Z-score method is mostly superior to earlier methods. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Methods for Protein Interaction and Structural Prediction.

  4. Tutoring Executives Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bignoux, Stephane; Sund, Kristian J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of learning and student satisfaction in the context of online university programs have largely neglected programs catering specifically to business executives. Such executives have typically been away from higher education for a number of years, and have collected substantial practical...... experience in the subject matters they are taught. Their expectations in terms of both content and delivery may therefore be different from non-executive students. We explore perceptions of the quality of tutoring in the context of an online executive MBA program through participant interviews. We find...... that in addition to some of the tutor behaviors already discussed in the literature, executive students look specifically for practical industry knowledge and experience in tutors, when judging how effective a tutor is. This has implications for both the recruitment and training of online executive MBA tutors....

  5. Evaluation Methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Jim; Mark, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The 1993 paper in "IJAIED" on evaluation methods for Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) still holds up well today. Basic evaluation techniques described in that paper remain in use. Approaches such as kappa scores, simulated learners and learning curves are refinements on past evaluation techniques. New approaches have also arisen, in…

  6. Classifying and scoring of molecules with the NGN: new datasets, significance tests, and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Christopher JF

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper demonstrates how a Neural Grammar Network learns to classify and score molecules for a variety of tasks in chemistry and toxicology. In addition to a more detailed analysis on datasets previously studied, we introduce three new datasets (BBB, FXa, and toxicology to show the generality of the approach. A new experimental methodology is developed and applied to both the new datasets as well as previously studied datasets. This methodology is rigorous and statistically grounded, and ultimately culminates in a Wilcoxon significance test that proves the effectiveness of the system. We further include a complete generalization of the specific technique to arbitrary grammars and datasets using a mathematical abstraction that allows researchers in different domains to apply the method to their own work. Background Our work can be viewed as an alternative to existing methods to solve the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR problem. To this end, we review a number approaches both from a methodological and also a performance perspective. In addition to these approaches, we also examined a number of chemical properties that can be used by generic classifier systems, such as feed-forward artificial neural networks. In studying these approaches, we identified a set of interesting benchmark problem sets to which many of the above approaches had been applied. These included: ACE, AChE, AR, BBB, BZR, Cox2, DHFR, ER, FXa, GPB, Therm, and Thr. Finally, we developed our own benchmark set by collecting data on toxicology. Results Our results show that our system performs better than, or comparatively to, the existing methods over a broad range of problem types. Our method does not require the expert knowledge that is necessary to apply the other methods to novel problems. Conclusions We conclude that our success is due to the ability of our system to: 1 encode molecules losslessly before presentation to the learning system, and 2

  7. Computer assisted tutoring in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, N

    1997-02-01

    interpretation. The overview plots provide the user with a visual display of the variation in presentation of cases for a given disease. An important aspect of the research is the evaluation of the accuracy of this representation and its usability in browsing cases in a tutoring environment. A prototype tutoring environment has been designed based around case based teaching, and an image browser which offers the majority of the functionality available in the tutoring environment was used in the evaluations. A series of evaluations was undertaken to examine the accuracy and usability of the overview plot and its associated measures of typicality and similarity. The overview plot is shown to provide a good first approximation to the experts similarity estimates of cases within a disease and as such provides a representation of a disease that closely matches the experts view of the similarity of cases. A second series of evaluations involving novice, intermediate and expert radiologists using the computer based image browser demonstrated significant differences in how the experts, novices and intermediates interact with the image archive via the overview plot. These findings are consistent with those found in previous novice-expert studies involving chest x-ray interpretation. There were significant differences between the experts and novice/intermediates in terms of their placement of cases within the overview plot with the experts placement of cases closer to the statistical placements. The users reaction to the overview plot were favourable with subjects commenting on its intuitiveness and ease of use. Hence, it is concluded that the overview space could serve as a useful tool in assisting the training of novice and intermediate radiologists providing a vehicle for moving the less experienced subjects towards the experts' conception of a disease. The research offers a methodology for teaching based on the integration of principles from cognitive science and statistics, and

  8. The coronary calcium score is a more accurate predictor of significant coronary stenosis than conventional risk factors in symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y;

    2016-01-01

    risk factor assessment, computed tomographic coronary angiogram (CTCA) or conventional angiography and a CT scan for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring. 1539 (27.9%) patients had significant stenosis, 5.5% of whom had zero CAC. In 5074 patients, multiple binary regression showed the most important...... predictor of significant stenosis to be male gender (B=1.07) followed by diabetes mellitus (B=0.70) smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, family history of CAD and age but not obesity. When the log transformed CAC score was included, it became the most powerful predictor (B=1.25), followed by male...... gender (B=0.48), diabetes, smoking, family history and age but hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension lost significance. The CAC score is a more accurate predictor of >50% stenosis than risk factors regardless of the means of assessment of stenosis. The sensitivity of risk factors, CAC score...

  9. Is peer tutoring beneficial in the context of school resuscitation training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, C; Donnelly, P; Weston, C

    1997-09-01

    First year pupils at a Cardiff comprehensive school were trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 106 by the teacher only and 137 by the teacher assisted by older pupils (peer tutoring). Scores in a multiple choice theory test and in practical skill assessment showed no significant difference between instruction methods, but boys taught by the teacher assisted by older pupils expressed less willingness to resuscitate in an emergency than girls instructed by either method (P novice trainees (P < 0.025).

  10. Intelligent tutoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.R.; Boyle, C.F.; Reiser, B.J.

    1985-04-26

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP. 19 references, 2 figures.

  11. To What Extent Do Tutor-Related Behaviours Influence Student Learning in PBL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Esther; Yew, Elaine H. J.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how tutor behaviours influence learning in problem-based learning (PBL). A previous study had indicated a significant influence of the tutor's social congruent behaviour on the PBL process and this study further investigates this finding by examining two groups of tutors displaying differences in…

  12. Learning through Tutoring: Low-Achieving Children as Tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.; Allen, Vernon L.

    Recent evidence suggests that the use of children acting as tutors for their peers may prove beneficial to the tutor as well as to the tutee. There is now abundant, unsubstantiated anecdotal evidence, and some controlled experimental work, which suggests that the tutor benefits greatly from his involvement in teaching. The enactment of the role of…

  13. My Science Tutor: A Conversational Multimedia Virtual Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wayne; Cole, Ron; Bolaños, Daniel; Buchenroth-Martin, Cindy; Svirsky, Edward; Weston, Tim

    2013-01-01

    My Science Tutor (MyST) is an intelligent tutoring system designed to improve science learning by elementary school students through conversational dialogs with a virtual science tutor in an interactive multimedia environment. Marni, a lifelike 3-D character, engages individual students in spoken dialogs following classroom investigations using…

  14. Nonverbal Behavior in Tutoring Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    This document reports on a series of studies carried out concerning nonverbal behavior in peer tutoring interactions. The first study examined the encoding (enactment) of nonverbal behavior in a tutoring situation. Results clearly indicated that the tutor's nonverbal behavior was affected by the performance of the tutee. The question of whether or…

  15. THE HOMEWORK HELPER TUTOR MANUAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEERING, ALBERT R.

    THIS MANUAL FOR TUTORS IN THE MOBILIZATION FOR YOUTH-NEW YORK CITY BOARD OF EDUCATION HOMEWORK HELPER PROGRAM IS DESIGNED TO SUPPLEMENT THE TRAINING AND SUPERVISION THAT THE TUTORS RECEIVE FROM THE MASTER TEACHERS. THE PROGRAM EMPLOYS HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AS TUTORS FOR OTHER STUDENTS AT ALL GRADE LEVELS--ELEMENTARY, JUNIOR HIGH, AND HIGH SCHOOL.…

  16. Good teacher, good tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto LB

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lucélio B Couto, Gustavo S Romão, Reinaldo B Bestetti  Department of Medicine, University of Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil We have read with great interest the paper by Kassab et al, who have essentially shown that good teachers will be good tutors in a problem-based learning (PBL environment. We have been facing great difficulties to select tutors because there has been no tradition in PBL in our region in the preuniversity teaching. Furthermore, the majority of our teachers have been formed in a discipline-based medical curriculum. Therefore, it is reassuring to learn from the work by Kassab et al that subject-matter mastery is the powerful independent predictor of tutoring skills.  View the original paper by Kassab and colleagues.

  17. EFEKTIVITAS PEMBELAJARAN TUTOR SEBAYA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN AKUNTANSI BIAYA I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nurkhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of bilingual classroom was the manifestation of internationalization vision of the institution (Unnes to response to the progress of International Schools (SBI / RSBI. Cost Accounting I was a subject in bilingual class of FE Unnes in 2010/2011. The objective of the study was to explain the effectiveness of peer tutor learning method in Cost Accounting I in Bilingual Class. It was a class action research done in 2 months with 2 cycles. The type of peer tutor learning was tutor to student. The result of research showed that peer tutor learning method of Cost Accounting I in Bilingual Class of FE Unnes was effective. Students’ achievement increased significantly in the first and second cycle. It passes the effectiveness indicator which stated that at least 75% students could get 71. Thus, it is suggested that other types of peer tutor learning method can be investigated empirically for further researches in different designs.

  18. Tutoring Strategies: A Case Study Comparing Learning Center Tutors and Academic Department Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Geoffrey K.

    2010-01-01

    Peer tutoring at the postsecondary level has been studied extensively, particularly over the last twenty years. Peer tutoring programs are common across institutional type and size in the United States (Boylan, Bonham, Bliss, & Saxon, 1995; Maxwell, 2001) given students' preferences for tutors who share age and status similarity (Cohen, 1986;…

  19. Who Is the Preferred Tutor in Clinical Skills Training: Physicians, Nurses, or Peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abay, Ece Şükriye; Turan, Sevgi; Odabaşı, Orhan; Elçin, Melih

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Clinical skills centers allow structured training of undergraduate medical students for the acquisition of clinical skills in a simulated environment. Physician, nurse, or peer tutors are employed for training in those centers. All tutors should have appropriate training about the methodology used in the clinical skills training. Many of the studies revealed the effectiveness of various types of tutors. The aim of our study was to evaluate medical students' satisfaction with clinical skills training, and their opinions about the differences in coaching skills among the physician, nurse, and peer tutors. This study was conducted with third-year students (467 students) in 2013-2014 academic year at Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine. Participation rate was 85 % (397 students). The students attended the suturing skill training in groups of 40 students. First, a faculty member from the Department of Medical Education delivered a video demonstration and conducted discussion. After the demonstration, the students were divided into groups of 5-6 students. A physician, nurse, or a peer tutor facilitated each group. The students were asked to complete the Coaching Skills Evaluation Form after the practicum session. It contained 13 criteria for assessing the coaching skills. Additionally, the form included a question for rating the student's satisfaction with the tutor. The performance of the tutors at each step was rated on a three-point scale. Kruskal Wallis analysis was used to compare students' scores for their tutors. The students' satisfaction with tutors was high for all of the tutors. However, there was no difference between students' scores in suturing skill, and between physician, nurse, and peer tutors' coaching skills. Insights: In this study, we revealed that physician, nurse, and peer tutors were equally effective on the students' performances. They were also regarded as effective in their teaching role by students. But the most important

  20. New risk markers may change the HeartScore risk classification significantly in one-fifth of the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Hansen, T W; Christensen, M K;

    2008-01-01

    The study aim was to determine whether urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) added to risk prediction based on HeartScore and history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. A Danish population sam......CRP in subjects with low-moderate risk and UACR and Nt-proBNP in subjects with known diabetes of cardiovascular disease changed HeartScore risk classification significantly in 19% of the population.......The study aim was to determine whether urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) added to risk prediction based on HeartScore and history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. A Danish population...... sample of 2460 individuals was divided in three groups: 472 subjects receiving cardiovascular medication or having history of diabetes, prior myocardial infarction or stroke, 559 high-risk subjects with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular death above 5% as estimated by HeartScore, and 1429 low-moderate risk...

  1. Studies in Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloward, Robert D.

    This is the report of a demonstration tutorial project which was conducted in New York City as part of the Mobilization for Youth program. Eleven tutorial centers were established in neighborhood elementary schools, and 240 students from local academic and vocational high schools were hired to tutor 544 fourth- and fifth-grade pupils. Each center…

  2. The Complete Tutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between computers and multiple intelligences and explores its potential. Topics include behaviorism and cognitivism; constructivism; multiple representations in the human mind, including various forms of intelligence; individual differences; the challenge of altering early representations; and machine versus human tutors.…

  3. The Complete Tutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between computers and multiple intelligences and explores its potential. Topics include behaviorism and cognitivism; constructivism; multiple representations in the human mind, including various forms of intelligence; individual differences; the challenge of altering early representations; and machine versus human tutors.…

  4. A New Paradigm for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Example-Tracing Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleven, Vincent; McLaren, Bruce M.; Sewall, Jonathan; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    The Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) support creation of a novel type of tutors called example-tracing tutors. Unlike other types of ITSs (e.g., model-tracing tutors, constraint-based tutors), example-tracing tutors evaluate student behavior by flexibly comparing it against generalized examples of problem-solving behavior. Example-tracing…

  5. To what extent do tutor-related behaviours influence student learning in PBL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Esther; Yew, Elaine H J; Schmidt, Henk G

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how tutor behaviours influence learning in problem-based learning (PBL). A previous study had indicated a significant influence of the tutor's social congruent behaviour on the PBL process and this study further investigates this finding by examining two groups of tutors displaying differences in social congruence. The participants were 77 students under the tutelage of four tutors and a self-report questionnaire ranked two tutors to be more socially congruent as compared to the other two. Student learning was measured by a concept recall test and the results from the analysis of covariance indicated a significant impact of the tutor's social congruent behaviour on learning after the problem analysis phase but not on the self-directed learning and reporting phases. It was concluded that the academic abilities of students and the small number of tutors involved may have affected the results, which led to the second part of this study. A group of 11 tutors were selected and the impact of their behaviours on student achievement measured by the module grade was examined. Results indicated that the tutor behaviours had a greater influence on average students as compared to the academically stronger and weaker students. This finding suggests that students who are academically stronger are not as reliant on the tutor while average students may depend more on the tutor to guide and motivate them in order to achieve the learning goals.

  6. Improving the Efficiency of Dialogue in Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Kristopher J.; Britt, M. Anne; Millis, Keith; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    The current studies investigated the efficient use of dialogue in intelligent tutoring systems that use natural language interaction. Such dialogues can be relatively time-consuming. This work addresses the question of how much dialogue is needed to produce significant learning gains. In Experiment 1, a full dialogue condition and a read-only…

  7. Significance of noncalcified coronary plaque in asymptomatic subjects with low coronary artery calcium score: assessment with coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang Il; Kim, Jeong A; Jin, Kwang Nam; Yeon, Tae-Jin; Choi, Dong-Ju

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and severity of noncalcified coronary plaques (NCP) using coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and analyze predictors of significant coronary stenosis by NCP in asymptomatic subjects with low coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and all patients gave written, informed consent. The presence of plaque, severity of stenosis, plaque characteristics, and CACS were assessed in 7,515 asymptomatic subjects. We evaluated the prevalence and severity of NCP in subjects having low CACS (707 subjects; men with CACS from 1 to 50 and women from 1 to 10) in comparison to those having 0 CACS (6,040 subjects) as the reference standard. Conventional risk factors were assessed for predictors of NCP and significant stenosis by NCP. We also investigated the cardiac events of the patients through medical records. Compared to subjects with 0 CACS, those with low CACS showed higher prevalence of NCP (6.9% vs. 31.5%, P NCP (0.8% vs. 7.5%, P NCP included diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (all P NCP were classified into the low to intermediate risk according to Framingham Risk Score. At the median follow up of 42 months (range: 3-60 months), cardiac events were significantly higher in the low CACS group compared to the 0 CACS group (2.6% vs. 0.27%, P NCP were higher as compared to subjects having zero CACS and predictors of significant stenosis by NCP were DM, hypertension and LDL-Cholesterol. Therefore, CCTA may be useful for risk stratification of coronary artery disease as added value over CACS in selected populations with low CACS who have predictors of significant NCP.

  8. SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging as an adjunct to coronary calcium score for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Ziegler Franz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery calcifications (CAC are markers of coronary atherosclerosis, but do not correlate well with stenosis severity. This study intended to evaluate clinical situations where a combined approach of coronary calcium scoring (CS and nuclear stress test (SPECT-MPI is useful for the detection of relevant CAD. Methods Patients with clinical indication for invasive coronary angiography (ICA were included into our study during 08/2005-09/2008. At first all patients underwent CS procedure as part of the study protocol performed by either using a multidetector computed tomography (CT scanner or a dual-source CT imager. CAC were automatically defined by dedicated software and the Agatston score was semi-automatically calculated. A stress-rest SPECT-MPI study was performed afterwards and scintigraphic images were evaluated quantitatively. Then all patients underwent ICA. Thereby significant CAD was defined as luminal stenosis ≥75% in quantitative coronary analysis (QCA in ≥1 epicardial vessel. To compare data lacking Gaussian distribution an unpaired Wilcoxon-Test (Mann–Whitney was used. Otherwise a Students t-test for unpaired samples was applied. Calculations were considered to be significant at a p-value of Results We consecutively included 351 symptomatic patients (mean age: 61.2±12.3 years; range: 18–94 years; male: n=240 with a mean Agatston score of 258.5±512.2 (range: 0–4214. ICA verified exclusion of significant CAD in 66/67 (98.5% patients without CAC. CAC was detected in remaining 284 patients. In 132/284 patients (46.5% with CS>0 significant CAD was confirmed by ICA, and excluded in 152/284 (53.5% patients. Sensitivity for CAD detection by CS alone was calculated as 99.2%, specificity was 30.3%, and negative predictive value was 98.5%. An additional SPECT in patients with CS>0 increased specificity to 80.9% while reducing sensitivity to 87.9%. Diagnostic accuracy was 84.2%. Conclusions In patients

  9. An Examination Of Bahamian Respondents’ Task And Relationship Orientations: Do Males Have A Significantly Different Score Than Females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaudin G. Mujtaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaders get things done through building relationships and getting tasks done in a timely manner. The focus on leadership of people in different cultures are of great importance to managers since they want tasks done in a timely manner and healthy relationships maintained with their vendors and customers. To explore the orientation of respondents in the Bahamas, this research focused on the differences of male and female Bahamian respondents. From the responses of 211 individuals in Nassau, it appears that Bahamians have significantly different scores on the relationship and task orientations. They are more relationship-oriented. The responses of 46 males and 165 females demonstrate significant differences based on gender. The information is useful for international managers and expatriates working in the Bahamas. Suggestions for future research and implications are presented.

  10. Online Self-testing Resources Prepared by Peer Tutors as a Formative Assessment Tool in Pharmacology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effectiveness of optional online quizzes written by peer tutors in a pharmacology course for doctor of pharmacy students. Methods. Online quizzes were written by peer tutors for second-year pharmacy students. Quizzes reflected the material taught during lecture and were in a format similar to that of the examinations. Data related to performance on each quiz and each examination were collected throughout the semester. At the end of the semester, students and peer tutors were surveyed to gather information on the utility and success of the quizzes. Results. Students taking online quizzes performed significantly better on examinations than those who did not take quizzes. In addition, students received higher scores on examinations than when practicing with the quizzes. Surveys suggest that students liked the quizzes and felt they increased their confidence and performance on examinations. Conclusion. The quizzes were beneficial to student performance on examinations as well as student perception of performance and confidence going into the examinations. Quizzes were also beneficial learning experiences for peer tutors. PMID:27756932

  11. Online Self-testing Resources Prepared by Peer Tutors as a Formative Assessment Tool in Pharmacology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, Melinda E; Mathews, Jennifer L

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To assess the effectiveness of optional online quizzes written by peer tutors in a pharmacology course for doctor of pharmacy students. Methods. Online quizzes were written by peer tutors for second-year pharmacy students. Quizzes reflected the material taught during lecture and were in a format similar to that of the examinations. Data related to performance on each quiz and each examination were collected throughout the semester. At the end of the semester, students and peer tutors were surveyed to gather information on the utility and success of the quizzes. Results. Students taking online quizzes performed significantly better on examinations than those who did not take quizzes. In addition, students received higher scores on examinations than when practicing with the quizzes. Surveys suggest that students liked the quizzes and felt they increased their confidence and performance on examinations. Conclusion. The quizzes were beneficial to student performance on examinations as well as student perception of performance and confidence going into the examinations. Quizzes were also beneficial learning experiences for peer tutors.

  12. Tips for Reading Tutors = Consejos para los Tutores en Lectura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Reading is the basis for learning and school success. While reading is learned primarily in the classroom, many students need extra time and help. Research shows that tutoring is a great way for individuals and groups outside school to support learning, but effective tutoring requires appropriate training and careful planning. This brochure,…

  13. Stupid Tutoring Systems, Intelligent Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    The initial vision for intelligent tutoring systems involved powerful, multi-faceted systems that would leverage rich models of students and pedagogies to create complex learning interactions. But the intelligent tutoring systems used at scale today are much simpler. In this article, I present hypotheses on the factors underlying this development,…

  14. Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring. ERIC Digest, Number 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    One-to-one tutoring programs, such as peer and cross-age tutoring, can result in emotional and learning benefits for the tutor and the tutee. Peer tutoring involves two students of the same age. In cross-age tutoring, the tutor is older than the tutee. The Willamette High School Peer Tutoring Program in Eugene, Oregon; the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…

  15. Perceptions of Tutoring Roles and Psychological Distance among Instructors, Tutors and Students at a Korean University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Hong, Youngil; Choi, Hyoseon

    2017-01-01

    This study explores issues related to the tutor's role when initiating tutoring as an institutional strategy at a conventional university. Based on a pilot tutoring program implemented in four college courses, we investigated the perceptions of instructors, tutors and students regarding the role of tutoring and whether it affected the…

  16. Coaching Tutors: An Instrumental Case Study on Testing an Integrated Framework for Tutoring Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alicia L.; Grant, Chris; Donthamsetty, Reshema

    2017-01-01

    The objective for the current qualitative case study was to examine participants' perceptions on the tutor coaching and session review frameworks. The location of the study was at the tutor coaches' place of business. At the beginning of the study, tutor coaches were trained on how to implement the tutoring coaching framework with their tutors,…

  17. Perceptions of Tutoring Roles and Psychological Distance among Instructors, Tutors and Students at a Korean University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Hong, Youngil; Choi, Hyoseon

    2017-01-01

    This study explores issues related to the tutor's role when initiating tutoring as an institutional strategy at a conventional university. Based on a pilot tutoring program implemented in four college courses, we investigated the perceptions of instructors, tutors and students regarding the role of tutoring and whether it affected the…

  18. The Portuguese version of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45): Normative data, reliability, and clinical significance cut-offs scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo P P; Fassnacht, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    The Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) is one of the most extensively used standardized self-report instruments to monitor psychotherapy outcomes. The questionnaire is designed specifically for the assessment of change during psychotherapy treatments. Therefore, it is crucial to provide norms and clinical cut-off values for clinicians and researchers. The current study aims at providing study provides norms, reliability indices, and clinical cut-off values for the Portuguese version of the scale. Data from two large non-clinical samples (high school/university, N = 1,669; community, N = 879) and one clinical sample (n = 201) were used to investigate psychometric properties and derive normative data for all OQ-45 subscales and the total score. Significant and substantial differences were found for all subscales between the clinical and non-clinical sample. The Portuguese version also showed adequate reliabilities (internal consistency, test-retest), which were comparable to the original version. To assess individual clinical change, clinical cut-off values and reliable change indices were calculated allowing clinicians and researchers to monitor and evaluate clients' individual change. The Portuguese version of the OQ-45 is a reliable instrument with comparable Portuguese norms and cut-off scores to those from the original version. This allows clinicians and researchers to use this instrument for evaluating change and outcome in psychotherapy. This study provides norms for non-clinical and clinical Portuguese samples and investigates the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the OQ-45. Cut-off values and reliable change index are provided allowing clinicians to evaluate clinical change and clients' response to treatment, monitoring the quality of mental health care services. These can be used, in routine clinical practice, as benchmarks for treatment progress and to empirically base clinical decisions such as continuation of treatment or considering

  19. Health-related Quality of Life Scores Changes Significantly within the First Three Months After Hernia Mesh Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Rosenberg, Jacob; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient-related outcome measures (PROM) such as quality of life (QoL) after hernia repair are important to monitor, since QoL is an important indication of a hernia repair. Carolinas Comfort Scale (CCS) is a hernia-specific questionnaire regarding health-related QoL after a mesh hernia...... or change of scores on PROMs as a function of time after hernia repair, we compared the CCS scores with the visual analog scale (VAS) scores reflecting the subdomains of the CCS. RESULTS: A total of 166 patients completed the study. CCS scores for QoL, pain, sensation of mesh, and activity limitations...

  20. Peer Tutoring: An Economical Instructional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Kerth T.; Brown, William E.

    1979-01-01

    A peer tutoring model is described and suggestions for implementing peer tutoring programs are provided. The seven steps in the development of a peer tutoring program are: establishing a need, considering curriculum, assessing, selecting learners, selecting tutors, monitoring, and coordinating. (PHR)

  1. Pedagogical Strategies for Human and Computer Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Brian J.

    The pedagogical strategies of human tutors in problem solving domains are described and the possibility of incorporating these techniques into computerized tutors is examined. GIL (Graphical Instruction in LISP), an intelligent tutoring system for LISP programming, is compared to human tutors teaching the same material in order to identify how the…

  2. Tutoring Social Sciences learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Prades Plaza

    2016-03-01

    With this experience teaching innovation we have sought to improve our academic methodology, giving a strong weight to the tutoring, both onsite and virtual. We also have tried to encourage teamwork in groups and independent learning. Thanks to these improvements, we have continuously evaluated the students, while students self evaluate their learning process. In summary, the proposal of educational innovation that we have carried out has shown the need to promote a system of mentoring to advise, guide and support students in their learning process.

  3. Sign Language Tutoring Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Aran, Oya; Benoit, Alexandre; Carrillo, Ana Huerta; Fanard, François-Xavier; Campr, Pavel; Akarun, Lale; Caplier, Alice; Rombaut, Michele; Sankur, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    In this project, we have developed a sign language tutor that lets users learn isolated signs by watching recorded videos and by trying the same signs. The system records the user's video and analyses it. If the sign is recognized, both verbal and animated feedback is given to the user. The system is able to recognize complex signs that involve both hand gestures and head movements and expressions. Our performance tests yield a 99% recognition rate on signs involving only manual gestures and 85% recognition rate on signs that involve both manual and non manual components, such as head movement and facial expressions.

  4. Significance of incorporation of model for end-stage liver disease score with TNM staging in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing hepatic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ching-Hsien; Chau, Gar-Yang; Hsia, Chen-Yuan; King, Kuang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) system is used in hepatectomy patients for tumor staging of HCC patients. However this can only evaluate the histopathological factor. MELD score is an objective measure for liver function widely used as a severity index for priority on the waiting list for liver transplantation. Here we suggest a modified TNM staging system based on the MELD score and test its relation with post-operative outcome of HCC. We retrospectively collected 922 HCC patients undergoing hepatic resection, with TNM stage I (n=239), stage II (n=375) and stage III (n=308); giving points 0 to 2 for each stage (from I to III). Pre-operative MELD score was calculated and assigned 0 points for MELD 8. The two scores were added together to form a modified MELD-base TNM stage score and tested the correlation of this new scoring system with outcome after liver resection. The modified MELD-base TNM stage score resulted in score 0 (n=114), score 1 (n=247), score 2 (n=335), score 3 (n=164), and score 4 (n=62). The disease-free survival in each group showed significant difference (pTNM staging system reliably separates patients with HCC into homogeneous groups with respect to post-resectional prognosis. Further prospective validation studies are required to confirm the feasibility of this strategy.

  5. Experiencing the role of PBL tutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyberg-Åhlander, Viveka; Lundskog, Margareta; Hansson, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The tutor is important for student learning in the PBL group. The students expect the tutor to monitor and steer the group process and to support the learning process, helping students to become aware of their own learning. This study aimed at investigating the PBL tutor's role. Five PBL tutors at the Speech/Language Pathology program were interviewed regarding their view of the tutors' role and what support they need. The analysis of the transcribed interviews focused on finding patterns and variation regarding tutor-activity at different stages in the PBL work and in their views of their progress as tutors. The results indicate that being a tutor is a balancing act and that the tutor need continuous support and input from different sources. Tutors should be encouraged to reflect on their own reactions and interventions and to be explicit and confident in their thoughts about PBL.

  6. The Effect of Tutoring With Nonstandard Equations for Students With Mathematics Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R; Driver, Melissa K; Julian, Tyler E

    2015-01-01

    Students often misinterpret the equal sign (=) as operational instead of relational. Research indicates misinterpretation of the equal sign occurs because students receive relatively little exposure to equations that promote relational understanding of the equal sign. No study, however, has examined effects of nonstandard equations on the equation solving and equal-sign understanding of students with mathematics difficulty (MD). In the present study, second-grade students with MD (n = 51) were randomly assigned to standard equations tutoring, combined tutoring (standard and nonstandard equations), and no-tutoring control. Combined tutoring students demonstrated greater gains on equation-solving assessments and equal-sign tasks compared to the other two conditions. Standard tutoring students demonstrated improved skill on equation solving over control students, but combined tutoring students' performance gains were significantly larger. Results indicate that exposure to and practice with nonstandard equations positively influence student understanding of the equal sign. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  7. Peer Tutoring: Developing Writing in College Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS BERNARDO PEÑA-BORRERO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents partial results of a qualitative research on the Project of Inquiry (PRIN that takes place in the Psychology Degree Program at Javeriana University. This project is a formative experience focused on the importance of learning investigative abilities, through academic writing. The research was based on peer-tutoring interactions with 85 ethnographic records, which were subjected to an open and axial codification, in accordance to guidelines developed by Strauss and Corbin. The recordswere organized in emerging categories for their interpretation, in order to establish the potential significance of the pedagogic interaction. The results established the advantages of peer-tutoring in the integral progress of students and specifically the promotion of reading and writing abilities at a College level.

  8. Communication skills of tutors and family medicine physician residents in Primary Care clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde Bolívar, Francisco Javier; Pedregal González, Miguel; Pérez Fuentes, María Francisca; Alcalde Molina, María Dolores; Torío Durántez, Jesús; Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    To determine the communicative profiles of family physicians and the characteristics associated with an improved level of communication with the patient. A descriptive multicentre study. Primary Healthcare Centres in Almeria, Granada, Jaen and Huelva. 119 family physicians (tutors and 4th year resident physicians) filmed and observed with patients. Demographic and professional characteristics. Analysis of the communication between physicians and patients, using a CICAA (Connect, Identify, Understand, Agree and Assist, in English) scale. A descriptive, bivariate, multiple linear regression analysis was performed. There were 436 valid interviews. Almost 100% of physicians were polite and friendly, facilitating a dialogue with the patient and allowing them to express their doubts. However, few physicians attempted to explore the state of mind of the patient, or enquire about their family situation or any important stressful events, nor did they ask open questions. Furthermore, few physicians summarised the information gathered. The mean score was 21.43±5.91 points (maximum 58). There were no differences in the total score between gender, city, or type of centre. The linear regression verified that the highest scores were obtained from tutors (B: 2.98), from the duration of the consultations (B: 0.63), and from the age of the professionals (B: -0.1). Physicians excel in terms of creating a friendly environment, possessing good listening skills, and providing the patient with information. However the ability to empathise, exploring the psychosocial sphere, carrying out shared decision-making, and asking open questions must be improved. Being a tutor, devoting more time to consultations, and being younger, results in a significant improvement in communication with the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of ExcelTutor Software Desing an Intelligent Tutoring Sysytem on Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan KAYA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of ExcelTUTOR drill software on achievement of students, which was design as computer based intelligent tutoring system, developed by the researcher. In this study, pretest- post test with control group, which is one of the experimental research designs, was used. The experimental and control groups of the study were composed of 20 students for each group, totally 40 students who went to Gazi University, Kırşehir Faculty of Education, Social Sciences Teaching Program in 2004-2005 term and they attended “Using Computer in Social Sciences” selective course. Experimental and control group students were chosen randomly. To collect the data, two tests were developed by the researcher. One of the tests was named pre-test and the other was called as post-test. Both of which included 25 multiple choice questions. While testing the hypotheses, one way variance analysis and covariance were used. The analysis was done at 0.05 significance level. As a result, ExcelTUTOR drill software design as computer based intelligent tutoring system was found contributing to learning.

  10. Children Interactions in Literacy Tutoring Situations:A Study with Urban Marginalized Populations in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Renata Rosemberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the conversational exchanges through which child tutors mediated literacy abilities and knowledge with young children in the framework of the project “From Child to Child: A Tutor-Child Literacy Program,” that is being conducted in Bueno s Aires, Argentina. The analysis considered the conversational moves deployed by both participants in the dyad, as well as the relationship between the tutor and the tutee. Likewise, it examined longitudinal variations in the interactions registered between the first tutoring sessions and the tutoring sessions that occurred after one year of the program. The tutoring sessions were video-taped and the different conversational moves deployed by the tutor and tutee were analyzed using an especially developed system of categories. Subsequently, the distribution of the categories of the tutee and tutor’s interactional moves in the corpus was analyzed quantitatively.Results showed significant longitudinal differences in the quantity of conversational moves: the tutors and the tutees increased their participation in the performance of the activities. The results demonstrated an increase in all the conversational moves the tutors utilized to promote the learning of the younger child tutee and a decrease in those conversational moves that do not promote learning.

  11. The Difference of Personality Types Between Male and Female Psychological Tutors%男女心理委员人格类型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳

    2012-01-01

    We used the Cattell- 16PF Questionnaire to better understand the personality traits of male and female psychological tutors. All the 519 subjects are qualified psychological tutors from different departments at Huanghuai University. The results show that there is significant difference between male and female psychological tutors in some of the personality factors. Female tutors got higher scores in factors smart ( A), sensitivity (I) and fantasy (M), while male tutors got higher scores in selfreliance(Q2) and vigilance(L). Moreover, compared to the norm of 1996, there is significant difference in other factors except smart(B).%目的对心理委员进行调查与研究,了解心理委员的人格特质。工具运用卡特尔16PF人格量表对黄淮学院理工科、文科合格心理委员共519名进行测试。结果男女心理委员在人格结构上存在差异。其中,女心理委员在乐群性(A)、敏感性(1)、幻想性(M)三个因素上的得分高于男心理委员,而男心理委员在独立性(Q2)以及怀疑性(L)两个因子上的得分高于女心理委员。另外,与1996年的常模相比,男女心理委员都在聪慧性(B)上没有差异,其他各个因子与常模存在显著差异。

  12. Effects of participation in a cross year peer tutoring programme in clinical examination skills on volunteer tutors' skills and attitudes towards teachers and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora Javier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of students' teaching skills is increasingly recognised as an important component of UK undergraduate medical curricula and, in consequence, there is renewed interest in the potential benefits of cross-year peer tutoring. Whilst several studies have described the use of cross-year peer tutoring in undergraduate medical courses, its use in the clinical setting is less well reported, particularly the effects of peer tutoring on volunteer tutors' views of teachers and teaching. This study explored the effects of participation in a cross-year peer tutoring programme in clinical examination skills ('OSCE tutor' on volunteer tutors' own skills and on their attitudes towards teachers and teaching. Methods Volunteer tutors were final year MBChB students who took part in the programme as part of a Student Selected Component (SSC. Tutees were year 3 MBChB students preparing for their end of year 'OSCE' examination. Pre and post participation questionnaires, including both Likert-type and open response questions, were used. Paired data was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. All tests were two-tailed with 5% significance level. Results Tutors reflected their cohort in terms of gender but were drawn from among the more academically successful final year students. Most had previous teaching experience. They were influenced to participate in 'OSCE tutor' by a desire to improve their own teaching and associated generic skills and by contextual factors relating to the organisation or previous experience of the OSCE tutor programme. Issues relating to longer term career aspirations were less important. After the event, tutors felt that participation had enhanced their skills in various areas, including practical teaching skills, confidence in speaking to groups and communication skills; and that as a result of taking part, they were now more likely to undertake further teacher training and to make teaching a major part

  13. Older College Students as Tutors for Adult Learners in an Urban Literacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntiri, Daphne W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a university literacy tutorial program in which older adult college students received tutor training and then carried out one-to-one reading tutorials with adult male learners who were rehabilitating addicts. Offers two case studies, and shows that the program had a significant impact on tutors' commitment to community volunteerism and…

  14. Tutoring Styles That Encourage Learner Satisfaction, Academic Engagement, and Achievement in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Soo Eun; Shin, Jae-Han

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to find which tutoring styles significantly predict learners' satisfaction with an e-learning service, academic involvement, and academic achievement. The tutoring styles included subject expert, facilitator, guider, and administrator. In this study, 818 Korean sixth-grade students (ages 11-12 years), enrolled in the…

  15. Expertise Amiss: Interactivity Fosters Learning but Expert Tutors Are Less Interactive than Novice Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herppich, Stephanie; Wittwer, Jörg; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which tutors are interactive and engage in dialogue with a student tends to depend on their pedagogical expertise. Normally, tutors with pedagogical expertise are more interactive than tutors without pedagogical expertise. This finding, however, has largely been obtained when examining tutoring in procedural domains such as…

  16. AutoTutor and Family: A Review of 17 Years of Natural Language Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Benjamin D.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Hu, Xiangen

    2014-01-01

    AutoTutor is a natural language tutoring system that has produced learning gains across multiple domains (e.g., computer literacy, physics, critical thinking). In this paper, we review the development, key research findings, and systems that have evolved from AutoTutor. First, the rationale for developing AutoTutor is outlined and the advantages…

  17. Undergraduate technical skills training guided by student tutors--analysis of tutors' attitudes, tutees' acceptance and learning progress in an innovative teaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Peter; Schrauth, Markus; Kraus, Bernd; Habermehl, Daniel; Netzhammer, Nicolai; Zipfel, Stephan; Jünger, Jana; Riessen, Reimer; Nikendei, Christoph

    2008-04-09

    Skills labs provide a sheltered learning environment. As close supervision and individual feedback were proven to be important in ensuring effective skills training, we implemented a cross-year peer tutor system in our skills lab of internal medicine that allowed intense training sessions with small learning groups (3-4 students) taught by one student tutor. The expectations, experiences and criticisms of peer tutors regarding the tutor system for undergraduate skills lab training were investigated in the context of a focus group. In addition, tutees' acceptance of this learning model and of their student tutors was evaluated by means of a pre/post web-based survey. 14 voluntary senior students were intensely prepared by consultants for their peer tutor activity. 127 students participated in the project, 66.9% of which responded to the web-based survey (23 topics with help of 6-point Likert scale + free comments). Acceptance was very high (5.69 +/- 0.07, mean +/- SEM), and self-confidence ratings increased significantly after the intervention for each of the trained skills (average 1.96 +/- 0.08, all p teaching model to be sufficient, and a mere 1% expressed the wish for skills training to be provided by faculty staff only. Focus group analyses with tutors revealed 18 different topics, including profit in personal knowledge and personal satisfaction through teaching activities. The ratio of 1:4 tutor/tutees was regarded to be very beneficial for effective feedback, and the personalized online evaluation by tutees to be a strong motivator and helpful for further improvements. The tutors ascribed great importance to the continuous availability of a contact doctor in case of uncertainties. This study demonstrates that peer teaching in undergraduate technical clinical skills training is feasible and widely accepted among tutees, provided that the tutors receive sufficient training and supervision.

  18. Joining the Conversation: Scaffolding and Tutoring Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Tutoring is one of those skills which require the ability to communicate an in-depth understanding of the subject. This article is about scaffolding while tutoring, and the tutoring talents described can be applied across the curriculum. Lev Vygotsky's ideas about communication and education play a key role in the development of scaffolding…

  19. Building a Computer Tutor: Design Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Beverly; McDonald, David D.

    1985-01-01

    Description of several computerized tutoring systems is organized around types of knowledge any tutor must possess--subject area, student's information, and how to teach and communicate. Data and control structures of Meno-tutor are described to illustrate use of artificial intelligence to model the student, a domain, and teaching strategies. (MBR)

  20. Investigating Language Tutor Social Inclusion Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhuizen, Gary

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the identities of tutors working in one-to-one instructional arrangements, which entail a tutor and an adult English learner working together to meet the particular language learning needs and goals of the learner. The tutors in this study are matched with their partners through an organization in New Zealand which aims to…

  1. Multimedia Tutors for Science and Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Beverly Park; Poli, Corrado; Grosse, Ian; Day, Roberta

    We have built several multimedia tutors for science and engineering education. This paper discusses Design for Manufacturing tutors and an electronic homework systems used by over 2000 students daily. The engineering tutors instruct students on efficient procedures for designing parts for manufacture. The goal is to support a deeper understanding…

  2. Investigating Language Tutor Social Inclusion Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhuizen, Gary

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the identities of tutors working in one-to-one instructional arrangements, which entail a tutor and an adult English learner working together to meet the particular language learning needs and goals of the learner. The tutors in this study are matched with their partners through an organization in New Zealand which aims to…

  3. Instructional Aspects of Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Jules M., Ed.

    This collection contains three papers addressing the instructional aspects of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS): (1) "Some Experiences with Two Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Teaching Computer Programming: Proust and the LISP-Tutor" (van den Berg, Merrienboer, and Maaswinkel); (2) "Some Issues on the Construction of Cooperative…

  4. Teaching styles of tutors in a problem-based curriculum: students' and tutors' perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Salah; Al-Shboul, Qasim; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan; Hamdy, Hossam

    2006-08-01

    This study compared the self-rated with student-rated teaching styles of PBL tutors. We also examined the relationship between teaching styles of tutors' and students' evaluation of tutor effectiveness in tutorials. The study included 48 tutors and 276 medical students. Tutors, and students' were given a teaching style inventory with a 5-point scale consisting of 21 items that comprise four domains of teaching styles (facilitative, collaborative, suggestive and assertive). In addition, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of tutor effectiveness by students were analyzed. Tutors perceived themselves in the facilitative-collaborative end of the spectrum of styles In contrast, students perceived tutors as less 'facilitative-collaborative' and more 'suggestive-assertive' than tutors self-ratings (p teaching styles. However, other tutor attributes such as establishing rapport with students, providing academic help for them and having content expertise were considered important criteria of an effective tutor. We conclude that there is a mismatch between students' and tutors' perceptions about teaching styles of tutor. Tutor attributes other than teaching styles are important determinants of an effective tutor.

  5. Comparison of a web-based package with tutor-based methods of teaching respiratory medicine: subjective and objective evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partridge Martyn R

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality not only in the United Kingdom, but globally. A good understanding of respiratory disease and its treatment is essential for all medical graduates. As a result of changes in clinical practice, patients with some common respiratory illnesses are less often admitted to hospital, restricting the experience available to undergraduate students. Combined with a potential shortage of clinical teachers, this means that new methods of teaching need to be developed and appraised. The aim of this study was to establish whether a web-based package on the diagnosis of respiratory disease would be as effective and as acceptable to final year medical students as tutor-led methods of teaching the same material. Methods 137 out of 315 final year undergraduate students in a single medical school volunteered to take part. Each received up to two hours of tutor-lead interactive, tutor-lead didactic or electronic, Web-based teaching on the accurate diagnosis and management of respiratory disease. Post teaching performance was assessed by multiple true/false questions and data interpretation exercises, whilst students' teaching preferences were assessed by questionnaire. Results Despite a high knowledge baseline before the study, there was a small, but statistically significant increase in knowledge score after all forms of teaching. Similarly, data interpretation skills improved in all groups, irrespective of teaching format, Although paradoxically most students expressed a preference for interactive tutor-lead teaching, spirometry interpretation in those receiving web-based teaching improved significantly more [p = 0.041] than in those in the interactive group. Conclusion Web-based teaching is at least as good as other teaching formats, but we need to overcome students' reluctance to engage with this teaching method.

  6. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sé Alexandre B.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In a previous article we described the relevance of student seminars for the learning process of appliedbiochemistry for medical and nutrition students (Hermes-Lima et al., Biochem. Mol.Biol.Educ. 30:30-34,2002. First semester students of a basic biochemistry course (BioBio are divided in 10 groupsof 5 members, and each group is assigned to a specic topic (diabetes, cholesterol, etc under thesupervision of a tutor-student. The tutors have already coursed BioBio and are currently undertakingan advanced biochemistry course. In order to evaluate the learning of applied biochemistry for BioBiostudents a true or false exam (TFE is performed. This exam is made of 50 questions (5 on eachtopic elaborated by the tutors under the supervision of the teacher. The TFE corresponds to 10percent of the grade of BioBio and focus on clinical and/or applied biochemistry situations. At theend of the exam, BioBio students were asked to share their opinions about TFEs (n = 401, from2001/1 to 2003/2. When asked to give a 0-to-4 score regarding (a the diculty level of the test,(b the technical quality and (c if the exam makes an appropriate evaluation of applied biochemistryknowledge, the scores were 2.9, 3.4 and 2.9, respectively. BioBio students were also asked if they ndvalid to be evaluated by a tutor-made exam and if they would like to participate in the making ofTFEs; 96 and 58 percent answered yes, respectively.In another survey, we interviewed former BioBio students from the 2nd to the 7th semesters (n=95about TFEs (since 1999-1 regarding technical aspects, which included (1 clarity of questions, (2 levelof diculty, (3 clinical application and (4 thinking (as opposed to memorizing abilities demanded;the 0-to-4 scores were 3.1, 2.9, 2.6, and 2.5, respectively. Other four questions were on the validityof tutors writing TFEs and their capacity to perform such a task; the average score was 3.2. Oursurveys show the students good acceptance of the seminar system

  7. Undergraduate technical skills training guided by student tutors – Analysis of tutors' attitudes, tutees' acceptance and learning progress in an innovative teaching model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jünger Jana

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skills labs provide a sheltered learning environment. As close supervision and individual feedback were proven to be important in ensuring effective skills training, we implemented a cross-year peer tutor system in our skills lab of internal medicine that allowed intense training sessions with small learning groups (3–4 students taught by one student tutor. Methods The expectations, experiences and criticisms of peer tutors regarding the tutor system for undergraduate skills lab training were investigated in the context of a focus group. In addition, tutees' acceptance of this learning model and of their student tutors was evaluated by means of a pre/post web-based survey. Results 14 voluntary senior students were intensely prepared by consultants for their peer tutor activity. 127 students participated in the project, 66.9% of which responded to the web-based survey (23 topics with help of 6-point Likert scale + free comments. Acceptance was very high (5.69 ± 0.07, mean ± SEM, and self-confidence ratings increased significantly after the intervention for each of the trained skills (average 1.96 ± 0.08, all p Conclusion This study demonstrates that peer teaching in undergraduate technical clinical skills training is feasible and widely accepted among tutees, provided that the tutors receive sufficient training and supervision.

  8. Peer Tutoring as a Remedial Measure for Slow Learners in a Medical School

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    Ray (Arora Suranjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Slow Learner (SL is one who has the ability to learn necessary academic skills but at a rate and depth below average of the same age peers. Aims: To identify SL we have to judge them not just by their grade level, but by the fact that they master skills slowly, have difficulty following multistep directives, live in the present and do not have long term goals. The remedial measures for these SL were repetition, peer tutoring, enhancing their self-esteem and improve confidence. With correct monitoring, support and feedback from a teacher facilitator peer tutoring can provide deeper learning, reduce dropout, and improve social behavior. Objective: The aim was to identify SL and to peer tutor them. Material and Methods: In a group of 106 students in the first year of MBBS in a college in Mauritius 20 students were identified as SL, out of the other 86 students 2 to 3 students were selected as peer tutors. The sample size on which the questionnaire was used to determine slow learners were 106 out of which 20 were found to be slow learners. The peer tutors were selected among the 106 students. The facilitator trained the tutors. Conclusion: In our Institute we found an alarming 15-18% of SL. The SL responded positively to the peer tutoring and a significant number improved their academic performance. Peer tutoring has significant cognitive gains for both tutor and tutees. Peer tutoring improves selfconfidence, academic achievement, improves their attitude towards the subject matter and encourages greater persistence in completing tasks. Identifying SL has many pitfalls as we should confirm that they are not 'reluctant' or 'struggling' learners but SL.

  9. The macrophage activation marker sCD163 combined with markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) score predicts clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, T D; McGrail, R; Møller, Holger Jon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive identification of significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis is needed in hepatology practice. AIM: To investigate whether the combination of sCD163 as a hepatic inflammation marker and the fibrosis markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score (ELF) can...... predict portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We measured sCD163 and the ELF components (hyaluronic acid, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and procollagen-III aminopeptide) in two separate cohorts of cirrhosis patients that underwent hepatic vein catheterisation. To test...... the predictive accuracy we developed a CD163-fibrosis portal hypertension score in an estimation cohort (n = 80) and validated the score in an independent cohort (n = 80). A HVPG ≥10 mmHg was considered clinically significant. RESULTS: Both sCD163 and the ELF components increased in a stepwise manner...

  10. Nursing Students' and Tutors' Satisfaction With a New Clinical Competency System Based on the Nursing Interventions Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Parra, Maria Rosa; García-Mayor, Silvia; Kaknani-Uttumchandani, Shakira; León-Campos, Álvaro; García-Guerrero, Alfonso; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel

    2016-10-01

    To assess students' satisfaction with their clinical tutors, their clinical practices, and tutors' satisfaction with the new approach of clinical placements and tutorship. A cross-sectional study was used, with a study population of second and third year nursing students and clinical tutors. Global satisfaction was 7.47 (SD 1.61) (range from 1 to 9). Regarding students' satisfaction, 75.67% of the items were equal to or greater than 4 (range from 1 to 5). The overall mean score was 4.05 (DE 1.08). A competency-structured practicum, assessed through the Nursing Interventions Classification and supported on information and communications technologies, is a reliable and valid method that encourages students and tutors to an active participation, and implies a high degree of satisfaction in both tutors and students. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  11. Intelligent Tutoring Systems as Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Albert K. W.; Lee, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes the notion of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) as design in order to engage ITS development with more rigor. Topics include engineering design versus ITS design; systems approach; design as problem solving; a hierarchy of paradigms; the emergence of an agent-theoretic approach; and the need for an ITS design notation. (Author/LRW)

  12. A New Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Early in 1984, Logica started an ICAI research contract with MoD (Procurement Executive), which was to be undertaken in collaboration with the technical authority at the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern. A prototype system, which has become known as TUTOR, was scheduled for delivery to the client later in 1985. Initially, and for…

  13. A New Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Early in 1984, Logica started an ICAI research contract with MoD (Procurement Executive), which was to be undertaken in collaboration with the technical authority at the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern. A prototype system, which has become known as TUTOR, was scheduled for delivery to the client later in 1985. Initially, and for…

  14. Effectiveness of hands-on tutoring and guided self-directed learning versus self-directed learning alone to educate critical care fellows on mechanical ventilation – a pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Ramar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physicians require extensive training to achieve proficiency in mechanical ventilator (MV management of the critically ill patients. Guided self-directed learning (GSDL is usually the method used to learn. However, it is unclear if this is the most proficient approach to teaching mechanical ventilation to critical care fellows. We, therefore, investigated whether critical care fellows achieve higher scores on standardized testing and report higher satisfaction after participating in a hands-on tutorial combined with GSDL compared to self-directed learning alone. Methods: First-year Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (PCCM fellows (n=6 and Critical Care Internal Medicine (CCIM (n=8 fellows participated. Satisfaction was assessed using the Likert scale. MV knowledge assessment was performed by administering a standardized 25-question multiple choice pre- and posttest. For 2 weeks the CCIM fellows were exposed to GSDL, while the PCCM fellows received hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL. Results: Ninety-three percentage (6 PCCM and 7 CCIM fellows, total of 13 fellows completed all evaluations and were included in the final analysis. CCIM and PCCM fellows scored similarly in the pretest (64% vs. 52%, p=0.13. Following interventions, the posttest scores increased in both groups. However, no significant difference was observed based on the interventions (74% vs. 77%, p=0.39. The absolute improvement with the hands-on-tutoring and GSDL group was higher than GSDL alone (25% vs. 10%, p=0.07. Improved satisfaction scores were noted with hands-on tutoring. Conclusions: Hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL and GSDL alone were both associated with an improvement in posttest scores. Absolute improvement in test and satisfaction scores both trended higher in the hands-on tutorial group combined with GSDL group.

  15. Effectiveness of hands-on tutoring and guided self-directed learning versus self-directed learning alone to educate critical care fellows on mechanical ventilation - a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramar, Kannan; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Selim, Bernardo; Holets, Steven; Oeckler, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Physicians require extensive training to achieve proficiency in mechanical ventilator (MV) management of the critically ill patients. Guided self-directed learning (GSDL) is usually the method used to learn. However, it is unclear if this is the most proficient approach to teaching mechanical ventilation to critical care fellows. We, therefore, investigated whether critical care fellows achieve higher scores on standardized testing and report higher satisfaction after participating in a hands-on tutorial combined with GSDL compared to self-directed learning alone. First-year Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (PCCM) fellows (n=6) and Critical Care Internal Medicine (CCIM) (n=8) fellows participated. Satisfaction was assessed using the Likert scale. MV knowledge assessment was performed by administering a standardized 25-question multiple choice pre- and posttest. For 2 weeks the CCIM fellows were exposed to GSDL, while the PCCM fellows received hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL. Ninety-three percentage (6 PCCM and 7 CCIM fellows, total of 13 fellows) completed all evaluations and were included in the final analysis. CCIM and PCCM fellows scored similarly in the pretest (64% vs. 52%, p=0.13). Following interventions, the posttest scores increased in both groups. However, no significant difference was observed based on the interventions (74% vs. 77%, p=0.39). The absolute improvement with the hands-on-tutoring and GSDL group was higher than GSDL alone (25% vs. 10%, p=0.07). Improved satisfaction scores were noted with hands-on tutoring. Hands-on tutoring combined with GSDL and GSDL alone were both associated with an improvement in posttest scores. Absolute improvement in test and satisfaction scores both trended higher in the hands-on tutorial group combined with GSDL group.

  16. Crossing Campuses: Level 3 Tutor Visits and Vocational Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kate; Waring, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a Western Vocational Lifelong Learning Network (WVLLN) initiative aimed at supporting Level 3 vocational tutors in further education (FE) who have moved into a teaching career via professional experience rather than through higher education (HE), but who play a significant role in advising young people about progression to…

  17. Two approaches to physics tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomaniuck, Tania

    One in two first-year students at science or biomedical faculties fail in basic subjects such as mathematics, chemistry or physics. Course-specific tutoring is one of the available means for improving their performance. In the present research, two tutoring models are developed. Both incorporate independent learning, but from different perspectives and priorities. A pragmatic tutoring approach. The first part of the thesis describes the search process for an optimal course-specific tutoring strategy for a standard first-year physics course in life sciences curricula. After a number of empirical research rounds, a pragmatic compromise emerged as the most suitable form of tutoring. The approach is characterised by: (1) priority to questions from students; (2) a high degree of interactivity with the tutor and among students; (3) due consideration to the number of questions to be dealt with and the depth in which they should be discussed. Most students participating in the tutoring sessions expressed their satisfaction and performed sufficiently well in their exams. However, there was still a problem: the students' insight into the course material was restricted to first-order processing of the syllabus. While this would be satisfactory in non-scientific study programmes, it is deemed insufficient in programmes where deeper insight is required in order that students be able to deal adequately with new conceptual questions or problems. In-depth tutoring. In science programmes, the core objective is for students to acquire in-depth knowledge. Therefore, science educators are designing and studying teaching methods that are geared not only to the acquisition of in-depth knowledge as such, but also to the motivation of students to take a more in-depth approach to learning. Some of the crucial notions in their research are: the extent to which the course content ties in with students' prior knowledge, problem-setting strategies and concept-context linking. 'In

  18. Peer feedback on complex tasks by tutors trained in content knowledge or tutoring skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., Van Bruggen, J., & Sloep, P. B. (2013, 7 November). Peer feedback on complex tasks by tutors trained in content knowledge or tutoring skills. Presentation at ICO Fall School, The Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  19. Peer feedback on complex tasks by tutors trained in content knowledge or tutoring skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., Van Bruggen, J., & Sloep, P. B. (2013, 7 November). Peer feedback on complex tasks by tutors trained in content knowledge or tutoring skills. Presentation at ICO Fall School, The Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  20. 探讨Z值诊断股骨近端骨质疏松的意义%The Diagnostic Significance of Z Score in Proximal Femur Osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季志民; 马亚红; 李杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨应用Z值(Z-score)诊断绝经前妇女和小于50岁男性股骨近端骨质疏松症(Osteoporosis,OP)的意义.方法 在北京城区2744例正常人群中选择受检者,以股骨近端为测量点进行骨密度(Bone mineral density,BMD)测量观察在受试者中应用Z值对OP的诊断意义并与T值诊断OP的患病率比较.结果 受试者应用Z值诊断OP患病率较应用T值诊断明显降低,但男性在50岁以后出现患病率加速趋势.结论 应用Z值诊断绝经前妇女和小于50岁男性股骨近端OP可以避免过早的诊断OP,但其与骨折风险的相关性将有待于进一步研究.%Objective Aim To explore the diagnostic significance of Z score in proximal femur osteoporosis to pre-menopause women and men younger than 50 years old. Methods Proximal femur was chosen to determine bone mineral density in the cohort of 2744 normal residents in urban area. Z score was obtained and compared with T value in the subjects. Results The incidence rate of osteoporosis diagnosed by Z score was significantly lower than those by T value. However, the incidence becomes increasing for men older than 50 years old. Conclusion Application of Z score for diagnosis of osteoporosis to pre-menopause women and men before 50 could reduce misdiagnosis of osteoporosis at early age, but the relationship to the risk of fracture remains to be determined.

  1. Emotion Elicitation in a Socially Intelligent Service: The Typing Tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Košir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on modeling machine emotion elicitation in a socially intelligent service, the typing tutor. The aim of the study is to evaluate the extent to which the machine emotion elicitation can influence the affective state (valence and arousal of the learner during a tutoring session. The tutor provides continuous real-time emotion elicitation via graphically rendered emoticons, as an emotional feedback to learner’s performance. Good performance is rewarded by the positive emoticon, based on the notion of positive reinforcement. Facial emotion recognition software is used to analyze the affective state of the learner for later evaluation. Experimental results show the correlation between the positive emoticon and the learner’s affective state is significant for all 13 (100% test participants on the arousal dimension and for 9 (69% test participants on both affective dimensions. The results also confirm our hypothesis and show that the machine emotion elicitation is significant for 11 (85% of 13 test participants. We conclude that the machine emotion elicitation with simple graphical emoticons has a promising potential for the future development of the tutor.

  2. The Face of Private Tutoring in Russia: Evidence from Online Marketing by Private Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring is a common and worldwide phenomenon. However, there is a dearth of up-to-date research on private tutoring compared with that on institutional one-to-one teaching, which could be explained by challenges associated with data collection. This article proposes using publicly available online advertisements of private tutors as a…

  3. Nursing students' perceptions of effective problem-based learning tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew-Maich, Nancy; Martin, Lynn; Hammond, Cynthia; Palma, Amy; Pavkovic, Maria; Sheremet, Darlene; Roche, Carmen

    2016-11-16

    Aim To explore baccalaureate nursing students' perceptions of what makes an effective tutor in problem-based learning courses, and the influence of effective teaching on students' learning and experience. Method Students enrolled in all four years of a baccalaureate nursing programme completed online surveys (n=511) and participated in focus groups (n=19). Data were analysed and combined using content analysis. Findings The data were summarised using five themes, the '5 Ps' of effective teaching in problem-based learning. Nursing students perceived effective problem-based learning tutors to be prepared with knowledge and facilitation skills, person-centred, passionate, professional and able to prepare students for success in the nursing programme. Effective tutors adjusted their approaches to students throughout the four years of the nursing programme. Conclusion Effective teaching in problem-based learning is essential and has significant effects on nursing students' learning, motivation and experience. Important attributes, skills and strategies of effective problem-based learning tutors were identified and may be used to enhance teaching and plan professional development initiatives.

  4. Significance and strategies for undergraduate tutors of traditional Chinese medicine university on guiding the freshmen to deep learning%中医院校本科生导师引导新生深层学习的意义和策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫晓天; 叶进; 孙鸿杰; 张宇奇; 于胜君

    2012-01-01

    大学生的学习可以分为深层学习和表层学习,深层学习是培养学生创新意识、探究能力的学习.本文概括介绍了深层学习及其对学生成长的意义,并根据上海中医药大学对2011级新生的学习观和学习方式的调研结果,分析了中医院校本科生导师引导新生深层学习的必要性,并提出中医院校本科生导师引导新生形成深层学习的学习观和学习方式的6个方面的策略.%It can be divided into deep learning and surface learning for students' learning.The deep learning emphasizes the cultivation of innovative consciousness and inquiry ability.In this article,the author introduced the meaning of deep learning and the significance of it on students' growth,and then the results had been analyzed on freshmen' s leaning attitudes and methods in Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) The results indicated that it is necessary for undergraduate tutors of TCM University to guide the freshmen to deep learning.Six guide strategies for tutors are introduced later based the author' s experience on forming student' s deep learning attitudes/perspectives and habits.

  5. Electronic Algebra and Calculus Tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Fradkin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern undergraduates join science and engineering courses with poorer mathematical background than most contemporaries of the current faculty had when they were freshers. The problem is very acute in the United Kingdom but more and more countries adopt less resource intensive models of teaching and the problem spreads. University tutors and lecturers spend more and more time covering the basics. However, most of them still rely on traditional methods of delivery which presuppose that learners have a good memory and considerable time to practice, so that they can memorize disjointed facts and discover for themselves various connections between the underlying concepts. These suppositions are particularly unrealistic when dealing with a large number of undergraduates who are ordinary learners with limited mathematics background. The first author has developed a teaching system that allows such adult learners achieve relatively deep learning of mathematics – and remarkably quickly – through a teacher-guided (often called Socratic dialog, which aims at the frequent reinforcement of basic mathematical abstractions through Eulerian sequencing. These ideas have been applied to create a prototype of a Cognitive Mathematics Tutoring System aimed at teaching basic mathematics to University freshers., an electronic Personal Algebra and Calculus Tutor (e- PACT.

  6. Efficacy and significance of various scores for pneumonia severity in the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan; XU Feng; SHI Li-yun; DIAO Ran; CHENG Yu-sheng; CHEN Xi-yuan; JING Ji-yong; WANG Xuan-ding; SHEN Hua-hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains one of the leading causes ot death from infectious diseases around the world.Most severe CAP patients are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU),and receive intense treatment.The present study aimed to evaluate the role of the pneumonia severity index (PSI),CURB-65,and sepsis score in the management of hospitalized CAP patients and explore the effect of ICU treatment on prognosis of severe cases.Methods A total of 675 CAP patients hospitalized in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were retrospectively investigated.The ability of different pneumonia severity scores to predict mortality was compared for effectiveness,while the risk factors associated with 30-day mortality rates and hospital length of stay (LOS) were evaluated.The effect of ICU treatment on the outcomes of severe CAP patients was also investigated.Results All three scoring systems revealed that the mortality associated with the low-risk or intermediate-risk group was significantly lower than with the high-risk group.As the risk level increased,the frequency of ICU admission rose in tandem and LOS in the hospital was prolonged.The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve in the prediction of mortality were 0.94,0.91 and 0.89 for the PSI,CURB-65 and sepsis score,respectively.Compared with the corresponding control groups,the mortality was markedly increased in patients with a history of smoking,prior admission to ICU,respiratory failure,or co-morbidity of heart disease.The differences were also identified in LOS between control groups and patients with ICU treatment,heart,or cerebrovascular disease.Logistic regression analysis showed that age over 65 years,a history of smoking,and respiratory failure were closely related to mortality in the overall CAP cohort,whereas age,ICU admission,respiratory failure,and LOS at home between disease attack and hospital admission were identified as independent

  7. A Comparison of Peer and Tutor Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, John; Purchase, Helen; Luxton-Reilly, Andrew; Denny, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We report on a study comparing peer feedback with feedback written by tutors on a large, undergraduate software engineering programming class. Feedback generated by peers is generally held to be of lower quality to feedback from experienced tutors, and this study sought to explore the extent and nature of this difference. We looked at how…

  8. Electronic Tutoring: Long Distance and Long Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Denise R.; Mayberry, Bob

    Electronic tutoring can be valuable for writers and should be offered in more university settings, not just in computer labs. Among its advantages is the speed with which commentary can be returned by e-mail. Other advantages were evident in a reciprocal tutoring relationship carried on by two academics in different states. They chose not to edit…

  9. Analysis of Cognitive Tutor Geometry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tauqir

    2010-01-01

    The Carnegie Learning Cognitive Tutor curricula are based on cognitive models, which include a representation of the learner's thinking, strategies, and misconceptions. The Cognitive Tutor curricula typically speed up learning and yield greater learning as compared to traditional math curricula (Morgan & Ritter, 2002; Sarkis, 2004; Koedinger,…

  10. Summative Evaluation of the SINCGARS Tutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orey, Michael; Zhao, Ruimin; Fan, Huey-Ling; Keenan, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Describes the results of an effectiveness evaluation of an "intelligently coached simulation," the SINCGARS Tutor, that was developed to train military officers how to operate a SINCGARS radio. Posttests showed officers trained on the computerized tutor performed more accurately than a group trained on the actual equipment. (Author/LRW)

  11. Rules of engagement: developing the online tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Golden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers professional development in a context that is familiar and problematic to teaching teams in tertiary education everywhere, that of delivering online programmes with an ever-decreasing complement of staff. The Teaching Qualification Further Education (TQFE teaching team at University of Dundee confronted the reality of reduced staff numbers by centralising tutoring and support for programme participants. The new system involves standardising tutoring as far as possible through generic email, blog and microblog accounts, all badged “TQFE-Tutor” and staffed on a roster basis. Once the new “rules of engagement” via TQFE-Tutor were in place, it became clear that in addition to benefits in terms of student support, there were other unintended positive consequences: opportunities for informal professional development for staff and the promotion of effective team working. The experience of collective tutoring has facilitated collaboration on a range of innovations within online learning. This paper describes the evolution of the TQFE-Tutor innovation and reports upon a small scale study which was carried out to gather the views of the tutor team working with TQFE-Tutor. The authors conclude that the centralisation of communication and tutoring on the TQFE programme has been highly beneficial in terms of professional development for the team.

  12. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  13. Concentrating on Affective Feedforward in Online Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Ting; Chou, Yung-Hsin; Cowan, John

    2014-01-01

    With considerable input from the student voice, the paper centres on a detailed account of the experiences of Western academic, tutoring Eastern students online to develop their critical thinking skills. From their online experiences together as tutor and students, the writers present a considered case for the main emphasis in facilitative online…

  14. A Program Evaluation of Intersession Tutoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandang Kosasih Ananda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined one program which was in place in a multi-track year-round elementary school, a tutoring program delivered during the students' intersession. Through interviews, surveys, and analysis of grades recorded on report cards, the program was evaluated to determine whether goals for the program were met. Survey data revealed that students, parents, and teachers all felt overwhelmingly that the program was effective at meeting stated program goals. Report card data did not show a statistically significant increase in grades after students attended the program, but many intervening variables were not controlled for. Additional convenience factors, such as transportation, cost, and timing contributed to the program benefits

  15. A Conversational Intelligent Tutoring System to Automatically Predict Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Annabel; Crockett, Keeley; McLean, David; Edmonds, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a generic methodology and architecture for developing a novel conversational intelligent tutoring system (CITS) called Oscar that leads a tutoring conversation and dynamically predicts and adapts to a student's learning style. Oscar aims to mimic a human tutor by implicitly modelling the learning style during tutoring, and…

  16. Learning from a Computer Tutor with Natural Language Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel; Rovick, Allen; Glass, Michael; Zhou, Yujian; Evens, Martha

    2003-01-01

    CIRCSIM-Tutor is a computer tutor designed to carry out a natural language dialogue with a medical student. Its domain is the baroreceptor reflex, the part of the cardiovascular system that is responsible for maintaining a constant blood pressure. CIRCSIM-Tutor's interaction with students is modeled after the tutoring behavior of two experienced…

  17. Improvement in generic problem-solving abilities of students by use of tutor-less problem-based learning in a large classroom setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegeris, Andis; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Hurren, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) was originally introduced in medical education programs as a form of small-group learning, but its use has now spread to large undergraduate classrooms in various other disciplines. Introduction of new teaching techniques, including PBL-based methods, needs to be justified by demonstrating the benefits of such techniques over classical teaching styles. Previously, we demonstrated that introduction of tutor-less PBL in a large third-year biochemistry undergraduate class increased student satisfaction and attendance. The current study assessed the generic problem-solving abilities of students from the same class at the beginning and end of the term, and compared student scores with similar data obtained in three classes not using PBL. Two generic problem-solving tests of equal difficulty were administered such that students took different tests at the beginning and the end of the term. Blinded marking showed a statistically significant 13% increase in the test scores of the biochemistry students exposed to PBL, while no trend toward significant change in scores was observed in any of the control groups not using PBL. Our study is among the first to demonstrate that use of tutor-less PBL in a large classroom leads to statistically significant improvement in generic problem-solving skills of students.

  18. Continuous Auricular Electroacupuncture Can Significantly Improve Heart Rate Variability and Clinical Scores in Patients with Depression: First Results from a Transcontinental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the impact and acceptability of providing continuous auricular electroacupuncture as an adjunct to conventional medications for patients with depression. Ten patients with a mean age ± SD of 43.3 ± 10.4 years were able to provide informed consent. The quantitative and qualitative outcome measures were heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV, and different clinical scores. The study documented that a special kind of auricular electro acupuncture, applied over a period of three days, can improve various aspects of quality of life significantly but also highlighted the significant increase of HRV whilst having acupuncture treatment. In conclusion, our study shows stimulation-related and quantifiable clinical and physiological alterations in parameters after continuous auricular acupoint stimulation in patients with depression. Improved access to electro acupuncture treatment would be of major benefit for these patients. Further studies are necessary in order to verify the gained results.

  19. Funciones y perfil del tutor

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Maria da Nazare Mesquita Martins dos Santos; Universidade Lusofona de Lisboa

    2011-01-01

    Após uma curta introdução relativa ao conceito de educação – formação, são abordadas as características e as funções inerentes à figura do professor tutor. É igualmente salientada a importância que deve ser dada à formação dos professores para que a escola possa fornecer uma resposta eficaz aos desafios constantes impostos pela sociedade. This paper intends to explain...

  20. Effects of training peer tutors in content knowledge versus tutoring skills on giving feedback to help tutees’ complex tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of training tutors in content knowledge of a particular domain versus training them in tutoring skills of pedagogical knowledge when tutoring on a complex tutee task. Forty-seven tutor-tutee pairs of fourth year secondary school students were created

  1. Establishment and validation of an updated diagnostic FCM scoring system based on pooled immunophenotyping in CD34+ blasts and its clinical significance for myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    Full Text Available Abnormal immunophenotypes of hematopoietic cells can be detected by flow cytometry (FCM to assist the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. We previously established a FCM scoring system for the diagnosis of low-grade MDS. In this study, additional valuable antigens were involved in an updated FCM scoring system (u-FCMSS for all MDS subtypes. The u-FCMSS showed better sensitivity and specificity (89.4% and 96.5% in distinguishing MDS from non-clonal cytopenia diseases. Validation analysis of u-FCMSS exhibited comparable sensitivity and specificity (86.7% and 93.3% and high agreement rate (88.9% of FCM diagnosis with morphological diagnosis at optimal cut-off (score 3. The distribution of FCM scores in different disease stages was also analyzed. The results suggested that early scoring from abnormal expression of mature myeloid/lymphoid antigens and advanced scoring from abnormal expression of stem/progenitor antigens expression constituted the majority of FCM scores of low-grade and high-grade MDS, respectively. High early scoring was generally accompanied by low IPSS-R score and superior survival, whereas high advanced scoring was accompanied by high IPSS-R score and inferior survival. In addition, the low-risk MDS patients with high early scoring and low advanced scoring were revealed as candidates for immunosuppressive therapy, whereas those with high advanced scoring and low early scoring may be more suitable for decitabine treatment. In conclusion, the u-FCMSS is a useful tool for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment selection in MDS. Differences in classes of antigens expressed and in distribution of FCM scores may reflect distinctive stage characteristics of MDS during disease progression.

  2. Benefits and Tensions of Shadow Education: Comparative Perspectives on the Roles and Impact of Private Supplementary Tutoring in the Lives of Hong Kong Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bray

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over half of Hong Kongs secondary students receive private supplementary tutoring, and in the last grade of secondary schooling the proportion exceeds 70%. Such tutoring is widely called shadow education because it mimics the regular system − as the curriculum in the schools changes, so it changes in the shadow; and as the regular school system expands, so does the shadow. The scale of private tutoring has grown significantly in the last two decades, and has become a standard feature of the lives of many families. Some tutoring is provided one-to-one by professionals, semi-professionals or amateurs; other tutoring is provided in small groups; and yet other tutoring is provided in lecture formats. Such tutoring demands significant financial investment by households, and also consumes substantial amounts of students time. Some tutoring has benefits in helping slow learners to keep up with their peers and in stretching further the learning of high achievers. Parents may also prefer to pay other people to manage homework and related stresses. However, tutoring can also increase pressures on young people, and is not always effective. This paper presents Hong Kong data within a framework that compares local patterns with those in other parts of the world. It raises questions about the implications of patterns and about appropriate responses for families, educators and policy makers.

  3. Interactive film scenes for tutor training in problem-based learning (PBL): dealing with difficult situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Hans M; Huwendiek, Soeren; Skelin, Silvia; Kirschfink, Michael; Nikendei, Christoph

    2010-07-06

    In problem-based learning (PBL), tutors play an essential role in facilitating and efficiently structuring tutorials to enable students to construct individual cognitive networks, and have a significant impact on students' performance in subsequent assessments. The necessity of elaborate training to fulfil this complex role is undeniable. In the plethora of data on PBL however, little attention has been paid to tutor training which promotes competence in the moderation of specific difficult situations commonly encountered in PBL tutorials. Major interactive obstacles arising in PBL tutorials were identified from prior publications. Potential solutions were defined by an expert group. Video clips were produced addressing the tutor's role and providing exemplary solutions. These clips were embedded in a PBL tutor-training course at our medical faculty combining PBL self-experience with a non-medical case. Trainees provided pre- and post-intervention self-efficacy ratings regarding their PBL-related knowledge, skills, and attitudes, as well as their acceptance and the feasibility of integrating the video clips into PBL tutor-training (all items: 100 = completely agree, 0 = don't agree at all). An interactive online tool for PBL tutor training was developed comprising 18 video clips highlighting difficult situations in PBL tutorials to encourage trainees to develop and formulate their own intervention strategies. In subsequent sequences, potential interventions are presented for the specific scenario, with a concluding discussion which addresses unresolved issues. The tool was well accepted and considered worth the time spent on it (81.62 +/- 16.91; 62.94 +/- 16.76). Tutors considered the videos to prepare them well to respond to specific challenges in future tutorials (75.98 +/- 19.46). The entire training, which comprised PBL self-experience and video clips as integral elements, improved tutor's self-efficacy with respect to dealing with problematic situations (pre

  4. Detention Home Teens as Tutors: A Cooperative Cross-Age Tutoring Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Concerned professionals in the juvenile justice field frequently express concern for effective programs that help youth offenders successfully rejoin society. This mixed-method pilot study involved detention home teens functioning as tutors for special education students in a public school. Tutors were selected who, based on previous assessment as…

  5. Cross-Age Peer Tutoring in Physics: Tutors, Tutees, and Achievement in Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner, Marianne; Hopf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    International comparisons reveal that lower-secondary-level students in Austria perform below the OECD mean in science. Guided by the search for remedies and improvements in science teaching, this study investigates whether cross-age peer tutoring is an appropriate method for teaching physics. A modern and concise definition of peer tutoring is…

  6. Cross-Age Peer Tutoring in Physics: Tutors, Tutees, and Achievement in Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner, Marianne; Hopf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    International comparisons reveal that lower-secondary-level students in Austria perform below the OECD mean in science. Guided by the search for remedies and improvements in science teaching, this study investigates whether cross-age peer tutoring is an appropriate method for teaching physics. A modern and concise definition of peer tutoring is…

  7. Who Am I as a Distance Tutor? An Investigation of Distance Tutors' Professional Identity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhong

    2016-01-01

    Much research has been conducted in the area of teacher professional identity in the past decades. Nonetheless, very little attention has been paid to the professional identity of tutors in distance education. Using interviews, this study set out to investigate distance tutors' claimed and assigned professional identities, their actual, ought and…

  8. Mathematics Synchronous Peer Tutoring System for Students with Learning Disabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mengping Tsuei

    2014-01-01

      The purpose of this study was to develop and explore the impact of a synchronous peer tutoring system, which integrated a structured peer tutoring strategy with technological advances, for students...

  9. An Intelligent and Interactive Simulation and Tutoring Environment for Exploring and Learning Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Lakshman Sundeep

    Students in middle school science classes have difficulty mastering physics concepts such as energy and work, taught in the context of simple machines. Moreover, students' naive conceptions of physics often remain unchanged after completing a science class. To address this problem, I developed an intelligent tutoring system, called the Virtual Physics System (ViPS), which coaches students through problem solving with one class of simple machines, pulley systems. The tutor uses a unique cognitive based approach to teaching simple machines, and includes innovations in three areas. (1) It employs a teaching strategy that focuses on highlighting links among concepts of the domain that are essential for conceptual understanding yet are seldom learned by students. (2) Concepts are taught through a combination of effective human tutoring techniques (e.g., hinting) and simulations. (3) For each student, the system identifies which misconceptions he or she has, from a common set of student misconceptions gathered from domain experts, and tailors tutoring to match the correct line of scientific reasoning regarding the misconceptions. ViPS was implemented as a platform on which students can design and simulate pulley system experiments, integrated with a constraint-based tutor that intervenes when students make errors during problem solving to teach them and to help them. ViPS has a web-based client-server architecture, and has been implemented using Java technologies. ViPS is different from existing physics simulations and tutoring systems due to several original features. (1). It is the first system to integrate a simulation based virtual experimentation platform with an intelligent tutoring component. (2) It uses a novel approach, based on Bayesian networks, to help students construct correct pulley systems for experimental simulation. (3) It identifies student misconceptions based on a novel decision tree applied to student pretest scores, and tailors tutoring to

  10. Instruction, Cognitive Scaffolding, and Motivational Scaffolding in Writing Center Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, Jo; Thompson, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we quantitatively analyze the discourse of experienced writing center tutors in 10 highly satisfactory conferences. Specifically, we analyze tutors' instruction, cognitive scaffolding, and motivational scaffolding, all tutoring strategies identified in prior research from other disciplines as educationally effective. We find that…

  11. Developmental Process Model for the Java Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The Java Intelligent Tutoring System (JITS) was designed and developed to support the growing trend of Java programming around the world. JITS is an advanced web-based personalized tutoring system that is unique in several ways. Most programming Intelligent Tutoring Systems require the teacher to author problems with corresponding solutions. JITS,…

  12. Effectiveness of Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Meta Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Michigan J. D. Fletcher Institute for Defense Analyses This review describes a meta- analysis of findings from 50 controlled evaluations of intelligent ...requirements for the meta- analysis : six evaluations with nonconventional control groups and four with flawed implementations of intelligent tutoring...hour of intelligent tutoring; the longest provided intelligent tutoring for three semesters, or 48 weeks. Overall Effects For our primary analysis , we

  13. A Training Model for Peer Tutoring with Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacc, Nicholas

    A program in which mentally retarded persons are trained to tutor their peers is described. Considered are selection and training aspects of such a program, and emphasized is the importance of the relationship between tutor and student. Tutors are explained to learn principles of establishing specific plans and keeping basic records. (CL)

  14. International Students as Peer Tutors: Is It Lawful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach-López, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Students enrolled in Principles of Accounting courses might require peer tutoring services. Accounting Departments (schools) can assist these students by maintaining a list of students offering tutoring services for a fee. The opportunity to be included in the list of tutors must be offered to all university students, both domestic and foreign.…

  15. From PBL tutoring to PBL coaching in undergraduate medical education: an interpretative phenomenological analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Li, Huiping; Pang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Coaching psychology is of increasing interest to medical educators for its potential benefits as a facilitative method in problem-based learning (PBL). However, the field lacks empirical studies that explore the lived experiences of students and tutors in the PBL coaching process. This study aimed to elicit knowledge regarding medical students' and tutors' experiences and perceptions of PBL coaching in the context of Chinese undergraduate medical education. The qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was employed. Participants comprised third year medical students (n=20) and PBL tutors (n=5) who have adopted a coaching approach in PBL for a semester. Semi-structured interviews were utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their experiences of PBL coaching. Data analysis followed an iterative four-stage scheme of Biggerstaff and Thompson. Six main themes emerged from diverse experiences and interpretations: 1) mindsets of coaching and learning, 2) the development of learning dispositions and capacities, 3) student group collaboration, 4) tutor-student relationships, 5) personal and professional development, and 6) challenges and difficulties in implementation. It could be concluded that PBL coaching is a dynamic, facilitative process that makes a particular contribution to the learning process from psychological, emotional, and social perspectives, whilst it demonstrates significant overlaps with PBL tutoring in terms of supporting students' cognitive activities in PBL. Further research is needed to identify the barriers and challenges for medical educators to implement coaching in the PBL process.

  16. The impact of interdependent cross -age peer tutoring on social and mathematics self-concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjan Zeneli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper adds to the limited body of literature and concentrates on investigating the impact of a new peer tutoring framework, ‘Interdependent Cross Age-Peer Tutoring’ (ICAT, on the socio-academic process of learning of self-concepts. ICAT is informed by Social Interdependence Theory, a socio-psychological perspective which aims to make cross-age peer tutoring more cooperative. The intervention took place in 2013 with three schools in England: Two of the schools adopted a pre-post-test quasi experimental design and one school (school C adopted a single group design. In school A Year 8 students tutored Year 6 (n=201, in school B Year 9 students tutored Year 7 (n=115, and in school C Year 10 students tutored Year 8 (n=102. ICAT was applied once a week for a period of 35-40 minutes across six weeks, covering school -planned mathematic topics. For school A, which implemented ICAT according to programme specifications, some positive and significant effect sizes were observed.

  17. PEER TUTORING IN LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AS A NON-MAJOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The problems of stimulation cognitive activity and improvement of student learning motivation are of interest for many Russian and foreign researchers. One of the approaches to solve these problems, actively implemented in educational process abroad, is peer tutoring. Peer tutoring is a form of collaborative learning based on the models of student interactions organized in pairs or groups with shared roles «peer tutor- tutee».The aim of the study is to analyze effective models of peer tutoring used abroad, to develop alternate models and apply them while teaching reading and translation at foreign language lessons in non-linguistic university.Methodology and research methods. Peer tutoring is studied by using both qualitative and quantitative research methods such as data collection, analysis and generalizations along with the experiment and observation.Results and scientific novelty. As a result the peer tutoring models have been developed and implemented within the regular classroom settings while teaching reading and translation to students in non-linguistic university. The offered models of tutoring involve preparation realities of the Russian higher education institutions; meanwhile, there are no special centers of mentoring with separate teaching staff and psychologists in foreign universities. The advantages of peer tutoring over traditional forms of education and a group form of work when students solve a problem are designated, but their roles are not accurately distributed. The undertaken experiment lasted for two years, showed that peer tutoring advantages in foreign language training consist in the following: firstly, such way of lessons allows teachers to avoid time-losing monotonous reading and translations of texts discouraging students; secondly, exchanging opinions, students study each other and gain skills of estimation of personal and others' work; thirdly, interacting in pairs or small groups, pupils are more

  18. Analysis of the Dynamics among Tutors in an After-School Tutoring Program in a Homeless Shelter for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Goode, Gretchen S.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers of after-school tutoring primarily focus on educational outcomes with little attention to the social dynamics of such programs. In our qualitative case study, we examined the nature of interactions among tutors in a tutoring program at a homeless shelter for families. Employing Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and…

  19. Analysis of the Dynamics among Tutors in an After-School Tutoring Program in a Homeless Shelter for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Goode, Gretchen S.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers of after-school tutoring primarily focus on educational outcomes with little attention to the social dynamics of such programs. In our qualitative case study, we examined the nature of interactions among tutors in a tutoring program at a homeless shelter for families. Employing Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and…

  20. Some Experiences with Two Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Teaching Computer Programming: PROUST and the LISP-Tutor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merrienboer, J.; Maaswinkel, D.; van den Berg, Klaas; Pieters, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this article, we report on our experiences with PROUST and the LISP-Tutor, which are intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) for teaching introductory programming in respectively Pascal and LISP. After a brief discussion of the history of intelligent programming tutors, and the presentation of a

  1. Peer Tutoring with QUICK Method vs. Task Based Method on Reading Comprehension Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indrawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is a quasi-experimental research analyzing the reading comprehension achievement of the eleventh graders of Senior High School in Surabaya. This experimental research is comparing the effects of peer tutoring with QUICK method and task-based method to help the students to increase the students’ reading achievement. Besides for increasing the students’ reading achievement, this study has the main purpose to give a variation in teacher’s teaching reading techniques. This study uses independent samples t-test and paired samples t-test to indicate the students’ significant difference in achieving the reading comprehension in peer tutoring with QUICK method and task based method. Keywords: Peer tutoring with QUICK method, Task-based method, T-test, Reading achievement

  2. A Study of the Relationship Between Tutor's Personality and Teaching Effectiveness: Does culture make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbie Chan

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Good tutoring requires appropriate interpersonal and pedagogical skills. Tutor personality is a major factor affecting how tutors communicate and deals with students, and yet it is a largely unexplored context of distance education. Using the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI* this paper examines how the personality of tutors’ affects their teaching effectiveness at a distance learning institution in Hong Kong. The results are compared to those reported by Chan (2001 in a similar study using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. The results indicate that certain scales on the Chinese Tradition factor of the CPAI are significantly related to tutors’ teaching performance, and that the MBTI could not subsume all the CPAI scales. Future research with the CPAI should explore whether this Chinese Tradition factor is unique to the Chinese culture or whether it comprises elements of a universal domain useful in understanding key interpersonal aspects of personality that have been absent from Western personality inventories.

  3. A tutoring package to teach pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of a tutoring package (verbal modeling, prompts, and contingent praise/ Chinese conversations with the tutor) on the performance of a college student's Mandarin Chinese pronunciation. The effects of the tutoring package were analyzed using a multiple baseline design across two sets of 50 Chinese characters. The tutoring package produced improvement in the student's correct pronunciation of Chinese characters from 48% (pretutoring) to 90% (posttutoring). Results suggested that the tutoring package produced mastery pronunciation of targeted Mandarin Chinese vocalizations by a nonnative speaker.

  4. Research Methods Tutor: evaluation of a dialogue-based tutoring system in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Elizabeth; Hastings, Peter; Allbritton, David

    2008-08-01

    Research Methods Tutor (RMT) is a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system for use in conjunction with undergraduate psychology research methods courses. RMT includes five topics that correspond to the curriculum of introductory research methods courses: ethics, variables, reliability, validity, and experimental design. We evaluated the effectiveness of the RMT system in the classroom using a nonequivalent control group design. Students in three classes (n = 83) used RMT, and students in two classes (n = 53) did not use RMT. Results indicated that the use of RMT yieldedstrong learning gains of 0.75 standard deviations above classroom instruction alone. Further, the dialogue-based tutoring condition of the system resulted in higher gains than did the textbook-style condition (CAI version) of the system. Future directions for RMT include the addition of new topics and tutoring elements.

  5. Challenges facing PBL tutors: 12 tips for successful group facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2005-12-01

    One of the main tasks of a problem-based learning (PBL) tutor is to facilitate group discussion. Group facilitation is about process rather than content. In this process, a tutor helps the group increase their skills and progress in their discussion. Several studies have highlighted strategies and training used in preparing PBL tutors. However, PBL tutors usually feel that it is not that easy to change their teaching style to the PBL format. They are sometimes unsure about their role or what strategy they might use to facilitate their students' discussion. This article in the '12 Tips' series is a detailed description of, and provides answers to, common challenges faced by PBL tutors. The tips provided in this manuscript should help tutors with practical answers. The article may be useful to PBL tutors, medical and health educators and those responsible for PBL training workshops.

  6. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Conceptual Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschetti, Donald R.

    2007-11-01

    AutoTutor is an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) in which students can learn a variety of subjects through conversation in natural language with a software agent. The agent appears as a face on the screen, with a synthesized voice, and responds to typed input from the student. Student understanding is modeled from student responses, which are matched to high quality essay responses and known misconceptions and bad answers using one of several computational linguistic techniques. With ONR and NSF support a version of AutoTutor covering Newtonian dynamics at the level of Hewitt's Conceptual Physics has been developed and extensively tested. As a byproduct of this work, several thousand student responses to a small number of conceptual physics questions have been collated and mined for misconceptions. Recent work has allowed a comparison of latent semantic analysis and inverse word frequency measures of text match with expert answers. Some results from this process will be presented along with a demonstration of AutoTutor-Physics at work.

  7. Professionalizing tutors and tutorials in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colunga, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the necessity of professionalizing training of university teachers performing tutorial activities in higher education as a response to the demands of pupils following a part-time model. Permanent training of tutor is emphasized as a way to enhance professional and personal accomplishments. This training gives priority to educative orientation and interventional actions.

  8. Intelligent tutoring agent for settlers of Catan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Jeroen; Broek, van den Egon L.; Schobbens, P.-Y.; Vanhoof, W.; Schwanen, G.

    2006-01-01

    An Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) for the board game Settlers of Catan (SoC) is introduced. It uses CLIPS knowledge bases, connected by JCLIPS to a JAVA implementation of SoC. It is founded on a new theoretical framework that describes the development of negotiation skills in children. Using this

  9. Does Artificial Tutoring Foster Inquiry Based Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoelz, Alexander; Swertz, Christian; Forstner, Alexandra; Barberi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This contribution looks at the Intelligent Tutoring Interface for Technology Enhanced Learning, which integrates multistage-learning and inquiry-based learning in an adaptive e-learning system. Based on a common pedagogical ontology, adaptive e-learning systems can be enabled to recommend learning objects and activities, which follow inquiry-based…

  10. A Review of BioTutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhrkopf, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A review of BioTutor which is software to accompany the third edition of Neil Campbell's textbook, "Biology," is provided. The review includes a brief description of the software and a discussion of good and bad features of the software. In the closing words, the reviewer expresses a considerable amount of concern regarding the quality of this…

  11. Learning Software Component Model for Online Tutoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duraiswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Web services are interface elements which allow applications to render functional services to requesting clients using open standard protocols. A lecture method combines both social association and urban processing as course design and delivery is termed as Interface Learning. Many Interface learning services is presenting through online. To make an online tutoring scheme more effective, the previous study used web services and application programs like instant messaging based on environments in which students reside. But the downside is that it is difficult to maintain the service request queues online. The services and data storage processes are inefficient. Approach: To overcome all the above issues, a Learning Software Component Model (LSCM framework is formed in the present study to build a component model based on communication services available on the network. In addition to this, the proposed software component modeled with Learning Object (LO aspects integrates the related sub hierarchical components with the main component object framework. Based on LSCM, training schedules are identified efficiently. Results: The proposed LSCM framework is experimented to show the performance improvement with the previous online tutoring scheme based on web services in terms of delivery report, maintenance of tutoring sessions and reliability. Conclusion: Compared to an existing online tutoring through web services, the proposed LSCM framework performance is 75% better in providing learning services to the providers.

  12. Cross-Age Peer Tutors in Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Exploring the Impact of Three Types of Tutor Training on Patterns in Tutor Support and on Tutor Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; De Wever, Bram; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in an authentic university setting with fourth-year Educational Sciences' students operating as online peer tutors to facilitate freshman tutees' online collaboration and knowledge construction in a blended "Instructional Sciences" course. Taking into account prior research uncovering weaknesses in online peer tutor…

  13. Evolving Ecosystems in Education: The Nature and Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2015-01-01

    An established literature draws on ecological concepts to analyze interrelationships within education structures and processes, and the impact of shifting balances. Private supplementary tutoring--relatively new in ecosystems of education around the world--is creating significant changes in relationships, particularly as they concern teachers'…

  14. A Trial of Piracetam in Two Subgroups of Students with Dyslexia Enrolled in Summer Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Peggy T.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-three children (ages 9-13) with dyslexia completed a summer tutoring program that emphasized word-building skills. Children who received piracetam (a purportedly memory-enhancing drug) did not improve more than nonmedicated children in any aspect of reading. Children subtyped as "phonetic" improved significantly more in…

  15. Communication skills of tutors and family medicine physician residents in Primary Care clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Valverde Bolívar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Physicians excel in terms of creating a friendly environment, possessing good listening skills, and providing the patient with information. However the ability to empathise, exploring the psychosocial sphere, carrying out shared decision-making, and asking open questions must be improved. Being a tutor, devoting more time to consultations, and being younger, results in a significant improvement in communication with the patient.

  16. Addendum to Effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at Scale. Working Paper WR-1050-DEIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, John F.; Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Karam, Rita

    2014-01-01

    This addendum to previously published results presents alternative analyses of data from large-scale effectiveness studies of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I in middle schools and high schools. These alternative analyses produce results that are substantively the same as previously reported. We find a significant positive effect of 0.21 standard…

  17. A Trial of Piracetam in Two Subgroups of Students with Dyslexia Enrolled in Summer Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Peggy T.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-three children (ages 9-13) with dyslexia completed a summer tutoring program that emphasized word-building skills. Children who received piracetam (a purportedly memory-enhancing drug) did not improve more than nonmedicated children in any aspect of reading. Children subtyped as "phonetic" improved significantly more in…

  18. Evolving Ecosystems in Education: The Nature and Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2015-01-01

    An established literature draws on ecological concepts to analyze interrelationships within education structures and processes, and the impact of shifting balances. Private supplementary tutoring--relatively new in ecosystems of education around the world--is creating significant changes in relationships, particularly as they concern teachers'…

  19. Peer Tutors in the School of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Vegap

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003 the School of Medicine at theUniversidad del Rosario in Bogotá, Colombia,offers to the students a program named PeerTutors. The program’s objectives are: to generatea social interaction mechanism that favorsknowledge construction side by side withadvanced peers; to promote the development ofRecibido:Aceptado:* M.D., MSc (est.. Profesor Asistente de Cirugía. Coordinadordel Grupo de Investigación en Educación Médica.Universidad del Rosario. anisaza@urosario.edu.co** M.D. Coordinador de Tutores Pares, I semestre de2003. Universidad del Rosario.+ M.D. Coordinadora de Tutores Pares, II semestre de2003. Universidad del Rosario.+ M.D. Coordinadora de Tutores Pares, 2004. Universidaddel Rosario.§ M.D. Coordinadora de Tutores Pares, I semestre de2005. Universidad del RosarioDescargos de responsabilidad: Las ideas expuestasen el presente artículo son responsabilidad exclusivade los autores y no comprometen a ninguna institución.Disclaimer: the ideas expressed in this article areexclusively the author’s responsibility and do notcompromise any institution.Artículo originalethical, moral and coexistence oriented valuesthrough an academic experience, and to generatea space to explore specific academic interests andteacher´s potential. This article presents thetheoretic frame that supports the importance ofsocial interaction in knowledge construction, aswell as some indicators that allow a first appraisalof the program. Several achievements thataccount for the synergic value of an experiencethat not only fulfills the function of initiating aprocess of teaching formation and academicsupport, but that also builds a proactive attitudebefore learning, are highlighted.

  20. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  1. ARTIE: An Integrated Environment for the Development of Affective Robot Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernón Cuadrado, Luis-Eduardo; Manjarrés Riesco, Ángeles; De La Paz López, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade robotics has attracted a great deal of interest from teachers and researchers as a valuable educational tool from preschool to highschool levels. The implementation of social-support behaviors in robot tutors, in particular in the emotional dimension, can make a significant contribution to learning efficiency. With the aim of contributing to the rising field of affective robot tutors we have developed ARTIE (Affective Robot Tutor Integrated Environment). We offer an architectural pattern which integrates any given educational software for primary school children with a component whose function is to identify the emotional state of the students who are interacting with the software, and with the driver of a robot tutor which provides personalized emotional pedagogical support to the students. In order to support the development of affective robot tutors according to the proposed architecture, we also provide a methodology which incorporates a technique for eliciting pedagogical knowledge from teachers, and a generic development platform. This platform contains a component for identiying emotional states by analysing keyboard and mouse interaction data, and a generic affective pedagogical support component which specifies the affective educational interventions (including facial expressions, body language, tone of voice,…) in terms of BML (a Behavior Model Language for virtual agent specification) files which are translated into actions of a robot tutor. The platform and the methodology are both adapted to primary school students. Finally, we illustrate the use of this platform to build a prototype implementation of the architecture, in which the educational software is instantiated with Scratch and the robot tutor with NAO. We also report on a user experiment we carried out to orient the development of the platform and of the prototype. We conclude from our work that, in the case of primary school students, it is possible to identify, without

  2. The GALAD scoring algorithm based on AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP significantly improves detection of BCLC early stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, J; Bilgi, H; Heider, D; Schotten, C; Manka, P; Bedreli, S; Gorray, M; Ertle, J; van Grunsven, L A; Dechêne, A

    2016-12-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death in cirrhotic patients worldwide. The detection rate for early stage HCC remains low despite screening programs. Thus, the majority of HCC cases are detected at advanced tumor stages with limited treatment options. To facilitate earlier diagnosis, this study aims to validate the added benefit of the combination of AFP, the novel biomarkers AFP-L3, DCP, and an associated novel diagnostic algorithm called GALAD. Material and methods: Between 2007 and 2008 and from 2010 to 2012, 285 patients newly diagnosed with HCC and 402 control patients suffering from chronic liver disease were enrolled. AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP were measured using the µTASWako i30 automated immunoanalyzer. The diagnostic performance of biomarkers was measured as single parameters and in a logistic regression model. Furthermore, a diagnostic algorithm (GALAD) based on gender, age, and the biomarkers mentioned above was validated. Results: AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP showed comparable sensitivities and specifities for HCC detection. The combination of all biomarkers had the highest sensitivity with decreased specificity. In contrast, utilization of the biomarker-based GALAD score resulted in a superior specificity of 93.3 % and sensitivity of 85.6 %. In the scenario of BCLC 0/A stage HCC, the GALAD algorithm provided the highest overall AUROC with 0.9242, which was superior to any other marker combination. Conclusions: We could demonstrate in our cohort the superior detection of early stage HCC with the combined use of the respective biomarkers and in particular GALAD even in AFP-negative tumors.

  3. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…

  4. Improving Students' Revision of Physics Concepts through ICT-Based Co-construction and Prescriptive Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Benson; Mercer, Neil

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we describe and discuss an information and communication technology (ICT)-based intervention designed to improve secondary school students' revision (in contrast to learning) of physics concepts. We show that students' engagement in joint activities via our ICT-based intervention can provide them (and their teachers) with insights into their knowledge base and thought processes, thereby aiding a remedial process we call prescriptive tutoring. Utilising a design-based research methodology, our intervention is currently being implemented and evaluated in a public secondary school in Singapore. Statistical analysis of pre- and post-intervention test scores from the first iteration of our design experiment show that students in the experimental group significantly out-performed students in both the control and alternate intervention groups. In addition, qualitative data obtained from the students from a focus group session, individual interviews and responses to our survey questions reveal that they became more comfortable with the intervention only after they appreciated how the intervention was designed to help them.

  5. Towards an Intelligent Tutor for Mathematical Proofs

    CERN Document Server

    Autexier, Serge; Schiller, Marvin; 10.4204/EPTCS.79.1

    2012-01-01

    Computer-supported learning is an increasingly important form of study since it allows for independent learning and individualized instruction. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach to developing an intelligent tutoring system for teaching textbook-style mathematical proofs. We characterize the particularities of the domain and discuss common ITS design models. Our approach is motivated by phenomena found in a corpus of tutorial dialogs that were collected in a Wizard-of-Oz experiment. We show how an intelligent tutor for textbook-style mathematical proofs can be built on top of an adapted assertion-level proof assistant by reusing representations and proof search strategies originally developed for automated and interactive theorem proving. The resulting prototype was successfully evaluated on a corpus of tutorial dialogs and yields good results.

  6. Towards an Intelligent Tutor for Mathematical Proofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Autexier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer-supported learning is an increasingly important form of study since it allows for independent learning and individualized instruction. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach to developing an intelligent tutoring system for teaching textbook-style mathematical proofs. We characterize the particularities of the domain and discuss common ITS design models. Our approach is motivated by phenomena found in a corpus of tutorial dialogs that were collected in a Wizard-of-Oz experiment. We show how an intelligent tutor for textbook-style mathematical proofs can be built on top of an adapted assertion-level proof assistant by reusing representations and proof search strategies originally developed for automated and interactive theorem proving. The resulting prototype was successfully evaluated on a corpus of tutorial dialogs and yields good results.

  7. Case-Based Tutoring with Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Sørmo, Frode

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate methods for computerized tutoring support that is adapted to the individual student. In particular, we are concerned with providing such assistance to students solving exercises in domains where a complete or accurate problem-solving model is infeasible. We propose to do this by using concept maps as a means for students to model their own knowledge. Combined with results from earlier exercises, the concept map can form a student model that can be use...

  8. Intelligent tutoring agent for settlers of Catan

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    An Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) for the board game Settlers of Catan (SoC) is introduced. It uses CLIPS knowledge bases, connected by JCLIPS to a JAVA implementation of SoC. It is founded on a new theoretical framework that describes the development of negotiation skills in children. Using this framework, the ITA helps children in developing negotiation skills through play, which makes it unique in its kind.

  9. Learning Software Component Model for Online Tutoring

    OpenAIRE

    Duraiswamy, K.; Balakrishnan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Web services are interface elements which allow applications to render functional services to requesting clients using open standard protocols. A lecture method combines both social association and urban processing as course design and delivery is termed as Interface Learning. Many Interface learning services is presenting through online. To make an online tutoring scheme more effective, the previous study used web services and application programs like instant messaging ba...

  10. EarthTutor: An Interactive Intelligent Tutoring System for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A. M.; Parton, K.; Smith, E.

    2005-12-01

    Earth science classes in colleges and high schools use a variety of satellite image processing software to teach earth science and remote sensing principles. However, current tutorials for image processing software are often paper-based or lecture-based and do not take advantage of the full potential of the computer context to teach, immerse, and stimulate students. We present EarthTutor, an adaptive, interactive Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) being built for NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) that is integrated directly with an image processing application. The system aims to foster the use of satellite imagery in classrooms and encourage inquiry-based, hands-on earth science scientific study by providing students with an engaging imagery analysis learning environment. EarthTutor's software is available as a plug-in to ImageJ, a free image processing system developed by the NIH (National Institute of Health). Since it is written in Java, it can be run on almost any platform and also as an applet from the Web. Labs developed for EarthTutor combine lesson content (such as HTML web pages) with interactive activities and questions. In each lab the student learns to measure, calibrate, color, slice, plot and otherwise process and analyze earth science imagery. During the activities, EarthTutor monitors students closely as they work, which allows it to provide immediate feedback that is customized to a particular student's needs. As the student moves through the labs, EarthTutor assesses the student, and tailors the presentation of the content to a student's demonstrated skill level. EarthTutor's adaptive approach is based on emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Bayesian networks are employed to model a student's proficiency with different earth science and image processing concepts. Agent behaviors are used to track the student's progress through activities and provide guidance when a student encounters difficulty. Through individual

  11. Apgar score

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003402.htm Apgar score To use the sharing features on this page, ... birth. Virginia Apgar, MD (1909-1974) introduced the Apgar score in 1952. How the Test is Performed The ...

  12. Prognostic significance of the combined score of endothelial expression of nucleolin and CD31 in surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Zhao

    Full Text Available Nucleolin is implicated to play a role in angiogenesis, a vital process in tumor growth and metastasis. However, the presence and clinical relevance of nucleolin in human non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC remains largely unknown. In this study, we explored the expression and prognostic implication of nucleolin in surgically resected NSCLC patients. A cohort of 146 NSCLC patients who underwent surgical resection was selected for tissue microarray. In this tissue microarray, nucleolin expression was measured by immunofluorescence. Staining for CD31, a marker of endothelial cells, was performed to mark blood vessels. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the prognostic significance of nucleolin. Nucleolin expression was observed in 34.2% of all patients, and 64.1% in high CD31 expression patients. The disease-free survival (DFS was significantly shorter in patients with high nucleolin (CD31(hiNCL(hi compared to patients with low tumor blood vessels (CD31(loNCL(lo (5 ys of DFS 24% vs 64%, p = 0.002. Such a difference was demonstrated in the following stratified analyses: stage I (p<0.001, squamous cell carcinoma and adenosquamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.028, small tumor (<5 cm, p = 0.008, and surgery alone (p = 0.015. Multivariate analysis further revealed that nucleolin expression independently predicted for worse survival (p = 0.003. This study demonstrates that nucleolin is associated with the clinical outcomes in postoperative NSCLC patients. Thus, the expression levels of nucleolin may provide a new prognostic marker to identify patients at higher risk for treatment failure, especially in some subgroups.

  13. The Effects of ExcelTutor Software Desing an Intelligent Tutoring Sysytem on Learning

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of ExcelTUTOR drill software on achievement of students, which was design as computer based intelligent tutoring system, developed by the researcher. In this study, pretest- post test with control group, which is one of the experimental research designs, was used. The experimental and control groups of the study were composed of 20 students for each group, totally 40 students who went to Gazi University, Kırşehir Faculty of Education, Social...

  14. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  15. [Diagnostic significance of multiparametric MRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy of the prostate in patients with increased PSA levels and negative standard biopsy results to detect significant prostate cancer - Correlation with the Gleason score. Korrelation mit dem Gleason Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Manuela; Hoffmann, Manuela A; Wieler, Helmut J; Jakobs, Frank M; Taymoorian, Kasra; Gerhards, Arnd; Miederer, Matthias; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2017-08-14

    To increase diagnostic precision and to reduce overtreatment of low-risk malignant disease, multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) combined with ultrasound (US) fusion guided biopsy of the prostate were performed. In 99 male patients with increased PSA plasma levels and previous negative standard biopsy procedures, mpMRI was carried out followed by US fusion guided perineal biopsy. PI-RADS-Data (PS) of mpMRI and histopathological Gleason score (GS) were categorized and statistically compared. Lesions in 72/99 (73 %) of patients were determined to be suspect of malignancy, based on a PS 4 or 5. In 33/99 (33 %) of patients, malignancy could not be confirmed by histopathology. With regard to the remaining 66 patients with previous negative biopsy results, 42 (64 %) were diagnosed with a low-grade carcinoma (GS 6, 7a) and 24 (36 %) with a high-grade carcinoma (GS ≥ 7b). The proportion of corresponding results in mpMRI (PS 4-5) when a high-grade carcinoma had been detected, was 21/24 (88 %), which related to a sensitivity of 88 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 85 % (p = 0,002). In addition, 35 of 42 patients (83%), graded PS 4-5 in mpMRI, were diagnosed with low-grade carcinoma-positive (p < 0,001). Sensitivity to differentiation between low- and high-grade carcinomas (GS ≤ 7a vs. ≥ 7b) by means of PS was 88 % with a NPV of 70 % (p = 0,74). Our results suggest that mpMRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy is able to detect considerably higher rates of clinically relevant prostate malignancies compared to conventional diagnostic procedures. However, no statistical significance could be shown regarding the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas. It is hoped that the hybrid methods PSMA-PET/CT or PSMA-PET/MRI will lead to the next optimization step in the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas which so far has been unsatisfactory.

  16. [Integrated Peer Teaching of Communication and Clinical Skills: How to Train Student Tutors?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Nadja; Bürmann, Barbara Maatouk; Fellmer-Drueg, Erika; Roos, Marco; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph; Wischmann, Tewes; Weiss, Carmen; Eicher, Christiane; Engeser, Peter; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Jünger, Jana

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the theory-based development of a standardized training model for peer tutors. The aim is to qualify tutors to teach communication skills integrated with practical clinical skills, to medical students in the pre-clinical curriculum. As a result, students are encouraged to form a basic understanding of the biopsychosocial model of diseases early in their studies. The training model's design is based on the Kern model for curriculum development as adapted by McLean et al., who outlined the following steps: planning, implementation, and evaluation/feedback. Our focus is on development, review of feasibility, and evaluation as measured by the subjectively perceived effectiveness of the implemented training model. 2 target groups were considered: the peer tutors and the student tutees. In 2009, a 3-step training model consisting of 12 units was developed, based on the theory of patient-centered communication and the biopsychosocial model. The training was rated very positively on a 5-point Likert scale by all tutors at 2 points in time: t1 (directly after training) and t2 (after conducting 2 tutorials) (t1: M=1.67; SD=±0.86; t2: M=1.75; SD=±0.71). On a 6-point Likert scale, the tutees also evaluated their communication and clinical skills as being significantly better after completing the 10 tutorials (t2: scale for interaction and communication: M=4.81; SD: 1.09; scale for clinical examination: M=4.99; SD: 0.85) than before the tutorials (t0: scale for communication and interaction: M=3.18; SD=1.15; scale for clinical examination: M=2.88; SD: 1.09). By implementing a standardized tutor training model, one can qualify peer tutors to teach communication skills integrated with practical clinical skills during the pre-clinical phase. Practice teaching of the curricular material via role playing, tutorial simulation and an extensive feedback session, along with the definition of clinical standards for recording case histories and performing

  17. A comparison of medical students', residents' and tutors' attitudes towards communication skills learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinuevo, Beatriz; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Nolla, Maria; Clèries, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The consensus about the importance of communication skills in patient-care does not guarantee that students and faculty perceive the usefulness of these skills. This study evaluated and compared medical students', residents' and tutors' attitudes towards learning communication skills, and examined the association with gender and year of residency. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 492 participants (282 second-year students, 131 residents and 79 tutors). They completed the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) and demographic/educational information. In general, participants showed positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Medical students, residents and tutors did not differ on the Positive Attitudes Scale (CSAS-PAS). Residents scored higher than medical students on the Negative Attitudes Scale (CSAS-NAS) (P communication skills an essential component for clinical practice and they agree about the need to learn these communication skills. Attention should be paid to measuring attitudes at all three levels of medical education in the design of communication skills courses.

  18. What Do Distance Language Tutors Say about Teacher Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Research into motivation in education mainly centres on students' learning motivation. This article reports on an interview study of teacher motivation with the aim of investigating the effects of student-related factors and tutors' personal factors on the motivation of language tutors in the distance learning context. Findings from the study…

  19. Corruption Risks of Private Tutoring: Case of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on teacher-supplied private tutoring in the context of post-Soviet Georgia, and elucidates the ways in which teacher-supplied private tutoring can be related to educational corruption. The paper draws on data from in-depth interviews of 18 school teachers in different parts of Georgia in 2013. The findings of the qualitative…

  20. What Do Distance Language Tutors Say about Teacher Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Research into motivation in education mainly centres on students' learning motivation. This article reports on an interview study of teacher motivation with the aim of investigating the effects of student-related factors and tutors' personal factors on the motivation of language tutors in the distance learning context. Findings from the…

  1. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of…

  2. Corruption Risks of Private Tutoring: Case of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on teacher-supplied private tutoring in the context of post-Soviet Georgia, and elucidates the ways in which teacher-supplied private tutoring can be related to educational corruption. The paper draws on data from in-depth interviews of 18 school teachers in different parts of Georgia in 2013. The findings of the qualitative…

  3. Stepwise Advice Negotiation in Writing Center Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Innhwa

    2014-01-01

    While the delivery and reception of advice is a practice integral to a wide range of settings, little attention has been given to the detailed practices of advice resistance and how it leads to advice negotiation. Based on 7 hours of videotaped tutoring interactions among 6 tutors and 11 tutees, this conversation analytic study examines the…

  4. Implementing CBM: SQL-Tutor after Fifteen Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Antonija; Ohlsson, Stellan

    2016-01-01

    SQL-Tutor is the first constraint-based tutor. The initial conference papers about the system were published in 1998 (Mitrovic 1998a, 1998b, 1998c), with an "IJAIED" paper published in 1999 (Mitrovic and Ohlsson, "International Journal Artificial Intelligence in Education," 10(3-4), 238-256, 1999). We published another…

  5. Learners' Experiences of Peer Tutoring in the Context of Outdoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learners' Experiences of Peer Tutoring in the Context of Outdoor Learning: The ... its effectiveness in promoting learning in large class sizes which characterise ... 104 Class 6 learners as tutors, 86 Class 2 learners as tutees, and 8 teachers as ...

  6. Private Tutoring through the Internet: Globalization and "Offshoring"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alexandre; Jang, Sunhwa

    2010-01-01

    The private tutoring industry has come forward as the third great sector of education. The common sense representation about private tutoring is changing. The growing search for supplementary educational support services and the technological innovation have created a new paradigm. This paper focuses on one of the most interesting faces of this…

  7. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  8. Conceptual Tutoring Software for Promoting Deep Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Angela; Hattingh, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of the use of conceptual tutoring software to promote deep learning of the scientific concept of density among 50 final year pre-service student teachers in a natural sciences course in a South African university. Individually-paced electronic tutoring is potentially an effective way of meeting the students' varied…

  9. The Effects of Politeness-Related Instruction on Medical Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer; Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Becker, Bettina-Maria; Jucks, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Tutors often fail to address learners' misconceptions. Although this may indicate a failure to grasp these misconceptions, it may simply be due to a wish to be polite and save the learner's face. In this study we examined whether instructing tutors about the pitfalls of politeness could increase the clarity and precision of their tutorial…

  10. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  11. What Are Tutors' Experiences with Online Teaching? A Phenomenographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Cvetanka

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks an understanding of how tutors perceived the online part of a blended learning course in the context of teaching English as a foreign language at a German university. To gain knowledge about the ways in which the tutors experienced the phenomenon, a phenomenographic methodological framework was employed. Identified were four…

  12. Teaching Database Design with Constraint-Based Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Antonija; Suraweera, Pramuditha

    2016-01-01

    Design tasks are difficult to teach, due to large, unstructured solution spaces, underspecified problems, non-existent problem solving algorithms and stopping criteria. In this paper, we comment on our approach to develop KERMIT, a constraint-based tutor that taught database design. In later work, we re-implemented KERMIT as EER-Tutor, and…

  13. Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities--in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities--and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of…

  14. Conceptual Tutoring Software for Promoting Deep Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Angela; Hattingh, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of the use of conceptual tutoring software to promote deep learning of the scientific concept of density among 50 final year pre-service student teachers in a natural sciences course in a South African university. Individually-paced electronic tutoring is potentially an effective way of meeting the students' varied…

  15. Federal Law Spurs Private Companies to Market Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Karla Scoon

    2004-01-01

    For-profit education companies are ramping up their businesses to tap into millions of federal dollars set aside to provide tutoring for students attending struggling schools. Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act, Title I schools that fail to reach state achievement goals three years in a row are required to offer free tutoring to students…

  16. Relationships with undergraduate nursing exchange students--a tutor perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Liisa; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2003-03-01

    Student exchange has been used increasingly in nursing education throughout Europe as a method of learning intercultural sensitivity. In the host country, each foreign student is assigned a personal tutor to enhance learning. The aim of this study was to describe tutor-student relationships between Finnish nurse teachers and British exchange students from the tutors' perspective. The researcher's close relationship with the study context and participants caused some ethical concerns, which will be discussed. The data consisted of tutorial session observations, research diary notes, group interviews and background questionnaires. They were analysed using Spradley's developmental research sequence method for ethnographic data. The tutoring relationship was pastoral and clinical rather than academic. The pastoral aspect of the relationship was essential in assisting the students to adjust to the stress of studying in a foreign country. On the other hand, tutors were unable to support all the students to overcome their culture shock. Tutors were uncertain about their role and did not integrate Finnish culture or practice into theory, but found their role pleasant. A dialogic tutor-student relationship is important for learning intercultural sensitivity. Tutoring strategies should be developed to assist students' adjustment to the differences in the host culture and to encourage their reflection on personal, experiential and scientific cultural knowledge during their study abroad.

  17. Using Cognitive Tutor Software in Learning Linear Algebra Word Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of twelve 10th grade students using Cognitive Tutor, a math software program, to learn linear algebra word concept. The study's purpose was to examine whether students' mathematics performance as it is related to using Cognitive Tutor provided evidence to support Koedlinger's (2002) four instructional principles used…

  18. What Do Distance Language Tutors Say about Teacher Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Research into motivation in education mainly centres on students' learning motivation. This article reports on an interview study of teacher motivation with the aim of investigating the effects of student-related factors and tutors' personal factors on the motivation of language tutors in the distance learning context. Findings from the study…

  19. Federal Law Spurs Private Companies to Market Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Karla Scoon

    2004-01-01

    For-profit education companies are ramping up their businesses to tap into millions of federal dollars set aside to provide tutoring for students attending struggling schools. Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act, Title I schools that fail to reach state achievement goals three years in a row are required to offer free tutoring to students…

  20. Affective feedback in a tutoring system for procedural tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.K.J.; Vissers, M.; Akker, op den H.J.A.; Nijholt, A.; André, E.; Dybkjaer, L.; Minker, W.; Heisterkamp, P.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the affective aspects of tutoring dialogues in an ITS -called INES- that helps students to practice nursing tasks using a haptic device and a virtual environment. Special attention is paid to affective control in the tutoring process by means of selecting the appropriate feedback, taking

  1. 39 Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peer tutors in higher education are frequently given vital teaching and ... with knowledge and learning, the role of peer tutors needs to be recognised .... able to break down difficult concepts, unpack and explain dense knowledge clearly, and ..... of the issues you have noticed in students' writing - some of the common ...

  2. Peer Tutoring Effects on Omani Students' English Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajhi, Marwa N.; Aldhafri, Said S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the social cognitive learning theory (1997), peer learning can be viewed as an effective way of enhancing learning. In this study, peer tutoring, a form of peer learning, was examined. The current study investigated the influence of a peer tutoring program implemented at Sultan Qaboos University on students' English self-concept. 125…

  3. Peer Tutoring in the CIS Sandbox: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a student-created and facilitated peer-tutoring activity to assist first-year students in preparing for their final exam in an introductory information technology course. Tutors at the CIS Sandbox, a collaborative learning lab at an American university, offered a series of "Crunch Sessions" to their peers. This…

  4. Tutors' Influence on Distance Language Students' Learning Motivation: Voices from Learners and Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' influence on students' learning motivation is a well-researched topic. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies are situated in the conventional learning context despite the rapid growth of distance language learning. This study set out to investigate tutors' influence on students' learning motivation in the Chinese distance language…

  5. The INTELLIGENT RuleTutor: A Structured Approach to Intelligent Tutoring. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Alice B.

    This final report describes a general purpose system for developing intelligent tutors based on the Structural Learning Theory. The report opens with a discussion of the rules and related constructs that underlie cognitive constructs in all structural learning theories. The remainder of the text provides: (1) an introduction to the Structural…

  6. Tutors' Influence on Distance Language Students' Learning Motivation: Voices from Learners and Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' influence on students' learning motivation is a well-researched topic. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies are situated in the conventional learning context despite the rapid growth of distance language learning. This study set out to investigate tutors' influence on students' learning motivation in the Chinese distance language…

  7. The role of a PBL tutor: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Li Chong

    2008-03-01

    Based on my experience as a PBL tutor in the Faculty of Medicine since 1997, it is clear that the role of a PBL tutor is one of a master of many trades. Whilst the primary role of a PBL tutor is to ensure, as a facilitator and a guide, that students engage in self-directed learning within the tutorial setting, he or she should be able to identify issues within and outside the tutorial setting that impact on learning. A PBL tutor should know the case well before the tutorial starts, establish ground rules and recognize that the quality of learning which takes place prior to and after the tutorial by students affect personal and group dynamics within the tutorial setting. The PBL tutor occupies a central and unique role in influencing students' learning and as a mentor to students' development.

  8. [The good PBL tutor--to be or not to be: instructional films for tutors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelin, Silvia; Huwendiek, Sören; Nikendei, Christoph; Dieter, Peter; Kirschfink, Michael; Bosse, Hans-Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many faculties worldwide apply the method of problem-based learning (PBL) in their curricula as a form of instruction by which students in small groups develop problem-solving strategies on the basis of a specific case. This approach fosters self-responsible and context-dependent learning, which aims at providing an improved anchoring of knowledge. For this reason, the previous decades have seen a distribution of the method to medical schools across the world. The role of the tutor assumes particular importance since, in contrast to the traditional university system, he or she serves as a facilitator who fosters and structures content-related and group-dynamic learning processes. In some cases, this requires an intervention by the tutor. The major challenge is to intervene at the right time and in an appropriate manner. This paper presents examples of difficult PBL situations using short film sequences to demonstrate and comments on potential approaches of the tutor in attempting to resolve the problem. Standard problem situations within a PBL tutorial were defined and produced in a film. A collection of seven frequent critical PBL situations are presented in short film sequences. Potential instruments of intervention are demonstrated in the videos and discussed. The film sequences may be downloaded in the supplementary of the electronic version of this article (www.sciencedirect.com). Within the framework of a tutor-training programme, the problematic situations and interventions presented in this article will help to sensitise tutors to potentially critical PBL tutorial situations and aid the development of individual resolution approaches.

  9. Remediation of Childhood Math Anxiety and Associated Neural Circuits through Cognitive Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Iuculano, Teresa; Chen, Lang; Menon, Vinod

    2015-09-09

    Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction that is characterized by feelings of stress and anxiety in situations involving mathematical problem solving. High math-anxious individuals tend to avoid situations involving mathematics and are less likely to pursue science, technology, engineering, and math-related careers than those with low math anxiety. Math anxiety during childhood, in particular, has adverse long-term consequences for academic and professional success. Identifying cognitive interventions and brain mechanisms by which math anxiety can be ameliorated in children is therefore critical. Here we investigate whether an intensive 8 week one-to-one cognitive tutoring program designed to improve mathematical skills reduces childhood math anxiety, and we identify the neurobiological mechanisms by which math anxiety can be reduced in affected children. Forty-six children in grade 3, a critical early-onset period for math anxiety, participated in the cognitive tutoring program. High math-anxious children showed a significant reduction in math anxiety after tutoring. Remarkably, tutoring remediated aberrant functional responses and connectivity in emotion-related circuits anchored in the basolateral amygdala. Crucially, children with greater tutoring-induced decreases in amygdala reactivity had larger reductions in math anxiety. Our study demonstrates that sustained exposure to mathematical stimuli can reduce math anxiety and highlights the key role of the amygdala in this process. Our findings are consistent with models of exposure-based therapy for anxiety disorders and have the potential to inform the early treatment of a disability that, if left untreated in childhood, can lead to significant lifelong educational and socioeconomic consequences in affected individuals. Significance statement: Math anxiety during early childhood has adverse long-term consequences for academic and professional success. It is therefore important to identify ways to alleviate

  10. Designing and Evaluating Tutoring Feedback Strategies for Digital Learning Environments on the Basis of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciss, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008), and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the…

  11. Volunteers Tutoring Reading-Disabled Adult Literacy Learners: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman-Hurley, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    Library-based adult literacy programs rely on volunteers to provide tutoring services to adult learners. A high percentage of volunteer tutors are matched with a reading-disabled adult literacy learner. Although all tutors are required to complete preservice tutor training, there is a limited amount of research that documents whether they utilize…

  12. The Multiple Demands of a Tutor Coordinator: How To Balance a Very Split-Personality Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thot, Iris Dolores

    The author of this article describes the various aspects of her job as the Modern Language Tutor Coordinator at Santa Monica College. The author writes that, in general, her days consist of wearing a number of different hats each day, including that of budget and payroll administrator, grant writer, tutor screener, tutor trainer, tutor employer,…

  13. Modelo de sistemas tutores inteligentes multiagente

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Alejandro; Vallejos, Félix Anibal; Jiménez Rey, Elizabeth Miriam; Grossi, María Delia; Servetto, Arturo Carlos; Perichinsky, Gregorio

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta una línea de investigación del Proyecto de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de Buenos Aires I015: Manufactura Integrada por Computadora en Sistemas Complejos para el Desarrollo Social, Industrial y de Tecnología. Se introduce conceptos básicos de los campos en los que incursiona esta línea de investigación: Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes (STI) y Sistemas Multiagentes (SMA). Se describe los aspectos esenciales que se deben considerar en el modelado de un sistema ...

  14. PROLOG BASED AN INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM (ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda DAĞ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; components of a web-based general purpose Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS has been realized by using Visual Prolog. A framework of the system has been constructed to apply various lesson. An ITS consists of four fundamental models which are domain expert model, user model, instruction model and user interface model. In this study, domain expert model, user model and user interface model have been realized. There are user interfaces for both author and student in the system. We aimed in this study, developing studies on ITS in our country and constructing a framework for an ITS.

  15. Apgar Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Apgar Scores Page Content Article Body As soon as your ... the syringe, but is blue; her one minute Apgar score would be 8—two points off because she ...

  16. Assessing the Significance of Cohort and Period Effects in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to Verbal Test Scores and Voter Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Steven M; Yang, Yang Claire; Land, Kenneth C

    2013-01-01

    In recently developed hierarchical age-period-cohort (HAPC) models, inferential questions arise: How can one assess or judge the significance of estimates of individual cohort and period effects in such models? And how does one assess the overall statistical significance of the cohort and/or the period effects? Beyond statistical significance is the question of substantive significance. This paper addresses these questions. In the context of empirical applications of linear and generalized linear mixed-model specifications of HAPC models using data on verbal test scores and voter turnout in U.S. presidential elections, respectively, we describe a two-step approach and a set of guidelines for assessing statistical significance. The guidelines include assessments of patterns of effects and statistical tests both for the effects of individual cohorts and time periods as well as for entire sets of cohorts and periods. The empirical applications show strong evidence that trends in verbal test scores are primarily cohort driven, while voter turnout is primarily a period phenomenon.

  17. A literacy tutoring experience for prospective special educators and struggling second graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear-Swerling, Louise

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the learning of teacher candidates taking a language arts course in a special-educator preparation program and that of the second graders they tutored in a supervised field component of the course. Teacher candidates' knowledge of literacy instruction was assessed using five knowledge tasks; children were assessed on several measures of basic reading and spelling skills as well as on their knowledge of phonics concepts such as syllable types. Teacher candidates generally had inaccurate perceptions of their knowledge at pretest, but their knowledge improved significantly on all tasks after course instruction. Tutored children improved significantly from pre- to posttest on all assessments. The study suggests that carefully designed literacy coursework with field experiences can benefit both prospective special educators and struggling readers.

  18. ARDS患者中APACHEⅡ评分及CRP值对呼吸机应用的指导意义%The guide significance of the APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP in acute respiratory distress syndrome to ventilator applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓帆; 王君一; 田六九; 黄彩凤; 荣清源; 葛良

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the guide significance of APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP in acute respiratory distress syndrome to vertilator applications.Methods: Reviewed the 54 ARDS patients from October 2009 to October 2010 that had been freed from ARDS in the ICU of the First People's Hospital of Anqing City, compared the APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP in 55 ARDS before mechanical ventilation with when freed from ventilators, compared the APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP in male ARDS with in the female, and the APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP in ARDS patients with different etiology; at the same time studied the relations between APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP in ARDS patients.Results: The APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP when freed from ventilator were obviously lower than before mechanical ventilation; there was no statistical meaning in the differenee of APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP between male and female; the APACHE Ⅱ acore and CRP in trauma ARDS patients was lower than in pulmonary infection and aspiration ARDS patients without statistical mearung (P>0.05).There was a positive relation between APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP in ARDS patients (r=0 52).Conclusion: There i8 a great guide significance in the applications of mechanical ventilation through studying the change of APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP in ARDS patients.%目的:探讨APACHEⅡ评分及CRP值对ARDS患者呼吸机应用的指导意义.方法:回顾性分析安庆市第一人民医院ICU 2009年10月~2010年10月以来成功救治的55例ARDS患者,比较机械通气前及脱机时APACHEⅡ评分及CRP值,比较不同性别间ARDS患者APACHEⅡ评分及CRP值,比较不同病因间ARDS患者APACHEⅡ评分及CRP值并分析APACHEⅡ评分和CRP值的关联性.结果:脱机时APACHE评分及CRP值较机械通气前显著降低,不同性别间ARDS患者APACHEⅡ评分及CRP值无差异,外伤性ARDS患者机械通气前APACHEⅡ评分及CRP值均较肺部感染及误吸性ARDS高,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).ARDS患者APACHEⅡ评分

  19. Computer assisted tutoring in radiology

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffery, N

    1997-01-01

    radiologists using the computer based image browser demonstrated significant differences in how the experts, novices and intermediates interact with the image archive via the overview plot. These findings are consistent with those found in previous novice-expert studies involving chest x-ray interpretation. There were significant differences between the experts and novice/intermediates in terms of their placement of cases within the overview plot with the experts placement of cases closer to the statistical placements. The users reaction to the overview plot were favourable with subjects commenting on its intuitiveness and ease of use. Hence, it is concluded that the overview space could serve as a useful tool in assisting the training of novice and intermediate radiologists providing a vehicle for moving the less experienced subjects towards the experts' conception of a disease. The research offers a methodology for teaching based on the integration of principles from cognitive science and statistics, and as...

  20. A Peer Mentor Tutor Program in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.; Buehlman, J. D.; Middlecamp, C. H.

    2001-05-01

    The Peer Mentor Tutor (PMT) program in the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Physics Department matches upper level undergraduate physics majors in small groups with students potentially at-risk for having academic trouble with their gateway introductory non-calculus physics course or for feeling isolated at the University. The program enhances students'learning and confidence by providing an emphasis on problem solving, a supportive environment for asking questions, and opportunities for acquiring missing math skills. The students assisted include, among others, returning adults, students of color,students with English as a second language, and students who have never taken physics in high school. The tutors acquire teaching and leadership experience with ongoing training throughout the year. The Physics PMT program is run in collaboration with a similar program in Chemistry. The peer model is also being applied to other science courses at the University of Wisconsin. We will describe the structure of the Physics PMT program and our current efforts to expand the program into a broader Physics Learning Center that may serve multiple purposes and courses.

  1. Applying and evaluating computer-animated tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Dominic W.; Bosseler, Alexis; Stone, Patrick S.; Connors, Pamela

    2002-05-01

    We have developed computer-assisted speech and language tutors for deaf, hard of hearing, and autistic children. Our language-training program utilizes our computer-animated talking head, Baldi, as the conversational agent, who guides students through a variety of exercises designed to teach vocabulary and grammer, to improve speech articulation, and to develop linguistic and phonological awareness. Baldi is an accurate three-dimensional animated talking head appropriately aligned with either synthesized or natural speech. Baldi has a tongue and palate, which can be displayed by making his skin transparent. Two specific language-training programs have been evaluated to determine if they improve word learning and speech articulation. The results indicate that the programs are effective in teaching receptive and productive language. Advantages of utilizing a computer-animated agent as a language tutor are the popularity of computers and embodied conversational agents with autistic kids, the perpetual availability of the program, and individualized instruction. Students enjoy working with Baldi because he offers extreme patience, he doesn't become angry, tired, or bored, and he is in effect a perpetual teaching machine. The results indicate that the psychology and technology of Baldi holds great promise in language learning and speech therapy. [Work supported by NSF Grant Nos. CDA-9726363 and BCS-9905176 and Public Health Service Grant No. PHS R01 DC00236.

  2. How experienced tutors facilitate tutorial dynamics in PBL groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gin-Hong; Lin, Chaou-Shune; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial are conducted in small groups, and successful learning in such groups requires good group facilitating skills. There is a lack of research on actual skills employed by tutors in facilitating the group dynamics. To explore the process of PBL tutorial small groups, focusing on the tutors' actual behavior in facilitating group dynamics. Eight experienced tutors from various departments in medical colleges participated in this research. Forty tutorial group sessions were videotaped. Among the 636 tutorial intervention episodes, 142 of them were associated with facilitating group dynamics. Tutors interventions as well as their recalls were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative research methods were utilized to analyze the data. There were 10 tutorial group dynamic situations and 48 tutorial skills. Analysis of the tutors' intentions employing these skills in the 10 situations showed that tutors were trying to achieve the following aims: (1) iteration of PBL principles, (2) delegation of responsibility to the students, (3) creation of a good discussion forum, and (4) the generation of a good learning atmosphere. Results from this study provide PBL tutors with a practical frame of reference on group dynamic facilitating skills and stimulate further research on this topic.

  3. HIGHER EDUCATION, ONLINE TUTORING AND THE TEACHING PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roberto de Camargo Ribeiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings the analysis of a study—of a descriptive-analytical nature—about online tutoring, some of its characteristics and peculiarities as compared to face-to-face education. To this end it analyzes the results of an online questionnaire answered by 222 tutors pertaining to programs offered at Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar in partnership with Universidade Aberta do Brasil (UAB and Brazilian townships. The analysis focused on tutors’ characteristics (e.g., sex, education background and teaching experience, their work organization and activities, the division of labor (between tutors and teachers responsible for subjects, and their perceptions about the nature of tutoring and education at a distance (DE. This study is chiefly based on authors such as Lortie, Tardif, and Shulman—about face-to-face teaching—and Mill, Maggio, and Kenski—on distance education. The results of this study point to the predominance of female tutors, which resembles the makeup of the teaching body in face-to-face education at the lower levels, and indicate the respondents’ high levels of schooling and considerable face-to-face teaching experience. Despite the difficulties encountered by the tutors in this study, mainly due to their lack of experience in DE and varied technical problems, most of the tutors found it easy and pleasurable to work online. The dada also suggest that the tutors enjoyed comparative autonomy as regards actions associated with content transmission as well as actions related to (virtual classroom management. This autonomy may be the basis for the respondents’ perception that the online tutor, in the context under consideration, performs a genuine teaching function.

  4. PENGGUNAAN TUTOR SEBAYA UNTUK PENINGKATAN AKTIVITAS DAN HASIL BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakimahwati -

    2014-06-01

    Abstrak: Penggunaan Tutor Sebaya untuk Peningkatan Aktivitas dan Hasil Belajar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan aktivitas dan hasil belajar mahasiswa dengan menerapkan metode tutor sebaya pada perkuliahan Perencanaan Pembelajaran TK. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah penelitian tindakan kelas. Pelaksanaan tindakan dilakukan dua siklus terhadap mahasiswa reguler Pendidikan Guru Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (PG-PAUD Universitas Negeri Padang. Data diperoleh melalui observasi, angket dan penilaian akhir kegiatan. Data kuantitatif dianalisis dengan rerata dan persentase, dan dikom­parasikan dengan data kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan metode tutor sebaya dapat meningkatkan aktivitas dan hasil belajar mahasiswa.

  5. Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative approach to building peer tutoring capacity in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherran Clarence

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer tutors in higher education are frequently given vital teaching and learning work to do, but the training or professional development and support opportunities they are offered vary, and more often than not peer tutors are under-supported. In order to create and sustain teaching and learning environments that are better able to facilitate students’ engagement with knowledge and learning, the role of peer tutors needs to be recognised differently, as that of learning and teaching partners to both lecturers and students. Tutors then need to be offered opportunities for more in-depth professional academic development in order to fully realise this role. This paper explores a tutor development programme within a South African writing centre that aimed at offering tutors such ongoing and cumulative opportunities for learning and growth using a balanced approach, which included scholarly research and practice-based training. Using narrative data tutors provided in reflective written reports, the paper explores the kinds of development in tutors’ thinking and action that are possible when training and development is theoretically informed, coherent, and oriented towards improving practice. 

  6. Cognitive tutoring induces widespread neuroplasticity and remediates brain function in children with mathematical learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuculano, Teresa; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2015-09-30

    Competency with numbers is essential in today's society; yet, up to 20% of children exhibit moderate to severe mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Behavioural intervention can be effective, but the neurobiological mechanisms underlying successful intervention are unknown. Here we demonstrate that eight weeks of 1:1 cognitive tutoring not only remediates poor performance in children with MLD, but also induces widespread changes in brain activity. Neuroplasticity manifests as normalization of aberrant functional responses in a distributed network of parietal, prefrontal and ventral temporal-occipital areas that support successful numerical problem solving, and is correlated with performance gains. Remarkably, machine learning algorithms show that brain activity patterns in children with MLD are significantly discriminable from neurotypical peers before, but not after, tutoring, suggesting that behavioural gains are not due to compensatory mechanisms. Our study identifies functional brain mechanisms underlying effective intervention in children with MLD and provides novel metrics for assessing response to intervention.

  7. Adaptive Tutoring for Self-Regulated Learning: A Tutorial on Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    learning (SRL) per the Army Learning Model • ontology • tools • methods • standards • exemplars Adaptive Tutoring Systems • Adaptive • Affordable... Ontology -based Student model in Semantic-oriented Access to the Knowledge in Digital Libraries. In proc. of HUBUSKA Fourth Open Workshop “Semantic Web...support or direct). This team state model is a compound model of the trust states existing between team members. The trust relationships are bi -direction

  8. TUTOR TRAINING KEY ISSUE IN E-LEARNING / FORMACIÓN DE TUTORES. ASPECTO CLAVE EN ENSEÑANZA VIRTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Astudillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The tutor has special relevance for the success of a virtual learning experience; the skills of a classroom teacher are not enough. Training processes for tutors are required to develop the necessary skills to perform the role that covers technical, pedagogical, social and administrative issues. This article presents an overview of the role of the tutors in virtual learning environments, the need to train these professionals and the experience of a Course on Tutoring, developed for the Center for Training, Experimentation and Educational Research. The Center has trained in a three-year period 1,611 tutors, to work in virtual courses offered to teachers by the Chilean Ministry of Education. The course is described, together with its instructional design, and its main results, like the high degree of retention and value assigned, all of which is understood as the first step in a process that is complemented by experience to become a virtual tutor.RESUMENEn el éxito de una experiencia formativa virtual, la figura del tutor cobra especial relevancia, las competencias de un docente presencial no son suficientes. Se requiere procesos formativos para que los tutores adquieran las competencias necesarias para desempeñar su rol que abarca las áreas técnica, pedagógica, social y administrativa. Este artículo presenta una visión general del rol del tutor en los entornos virtuales de aprendizaje, las necesidades de formar a estos profesionales y la experiencia del curso de tutores desarrollado para el Centro de Perfeccionamiento Experimentaciones e Investigaciones Pedagógicas que ha formado a los largo de tres años a 1.611 tutores, para actuar en los cursos virtuales que el Ministerio de Educación Chileno ofrece a sus docentes, se presenta el curso, su diseño instruccional, los principales resultados, como el alto grado de retención y valoración de esta instancia formativa, la cual se entiende como el primer paso de un proceso que se

  9. The effect of near-peer tutoring on medical students' performance in anatomical and physiological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Katrina M; Northey, Emily E; Khalil, Mohammed K

    2017-10-01

    Healthcare professional schools across the world are implementing near-peer tutoring (NPT) programs owing to numerous benefits to both tutors and tutees. This study determined whether higher attendance at NPT sessions led to improvements in course grades for high and low performing students. Fourth-year medical students used the USMLE Step 1 question format to tutor first-year medical students during the second half of the Structure and Function (SF) module, i.e., SF2. Attendance was recorded and students were accordingly divided into three groups: high, moderate, and low-no attendance. Students' performances in SF1 and SF2 were compared using Student's t-test. Differences among the three groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffé post hoc test (PStudents who earned 70-79% (C) in SF1 were further examined on the basis of their attendance rate and performance in SF2. Those who attended three or more sessions completed a survey evaluating the NPT program. Course grades were significantly higher in SF2 than SF1 for all students, regardless of attendance rate. However, students who received a C grade in SF1 and had high or moderate attendance improved significantly in their SF2 course grade. Most students agreed that the NPT program was valuable and they evaluated the tutors highly. They also agreed that NPT prepared them for course exams and Step 1, but did not reduce anxiety and stress about Step 1. The positive effect of the NPT program resulted in its expansion to include all first-year modules. Clin. Anat. 30:922-928, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Assessing the impact of tutors on first- year academic performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language and the language of learning and teaching (LOLT); students lacking the socio- ... In this case, the tutorials and the tutors created a learning environment in which students ...... Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity.

  11. Effect of peer tutoring and cooperative learning instructional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... sampling with the use of the Pupil Rating Scale, Mathematics Tests (A and B) for ... Keywords: peer tutoring, cooperative learning, learning disabilities, personality types, school ...

  12. Tutoring Literature Students in Dr. Frankenstein's Writing Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James C.

    1992-01-01

    Uses Frankenstein's monster as an analogy for understanding the relationship of student, teacher, and literary work in an academic community, and the difficult role of the tutor in helping to make the relationship work. (PRA)

  13. Multimedia in the Writing Center: Visual Rhetoric and Tutor Training

    OpenAIRE

    Conard-Salvo, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    This presentation at the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) discusses the impact that multimedia projects have on writing centers and offers one model for integrating a visual rhetoric unit in an undergraduate tutor training course.

  14. Tutorías virtuales en tiempo real.

    OpenAIRE

    Vigneron Tenorio, Alberto; Fernández Barcell, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    En la actualidad, gracias a los avances de las herramientas informáticas y la mejora en la velocidad de trasmisión de datos por Internet, podemos realizar parte de nuestras tutorías por Internet. La versión más básica de este tipo de tutorías es la atención mediante el correo electrónico. En esta presentación vamos abordar la realización de tutorías virtuales en tiempo real. Estas tutorías, sin sustituir a las presenciales, son un útil complemento. Además, es un método eficaz para la ...

  15. Tutoring Literature Students in Dr. Frankenstein's Writing Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James C.

    1992-01-01

    Uses Frankenstein's monster as an analogy for understanding the relationship of student, teacher, and literary work in an academic community, and the difficult role of the tutor in helping to make the relationship work. (PRA)

  16. The school failure as tutor: An exploratory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, F; Olesker, W

    1973-09-01

    This paper describes a pilot program in the use of high school near dropouts as tutors for young children. The work is set in the context of adolescent developmental tasks and draws its rationale from the general human tendency to reach mastery by turning passivity into activity. We ask whether adolescents who have experienced a decade of school failure and misery might use the opportunity for a new form of more active contact with the schools to master old failures. We reasoned that the very area of failure, where these adolescents show apparent uninterest through truancy and minimal work, must be a highly emotionally charged one (albeit negatively) precisely because it is an area of failure. After describing the setting and the rationale, we analyze the experience for several tutors from the point of view of their relationship to (1) the tutees, (2) the tutor-supervisor, (3) the group of adolescent tutors, and (4) the social system of the elementary school.

  17. User documentation for the MSK and OMS intelligent tutoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Lincoln, David T.

    1991-01-01

    This user's guide describes how to use the Intelligent Tutoring Systems for the Manual Select Keyboard (MSK) and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and how to use the C code that runs the mockup version of the MSK.

  18. Modelado del estudiante en sistemas tutores inteligentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataldi, Zulma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la producción de los STI convergen las distintas epistemológicas que quedan evidenciadas en la práctica docente. Se busca una nueva opción de diseño de STI que sea más versátil centrada en la forma en que los estudiantes mantienen, organizan y adquieren los nuevos conocimientos. Las diferentes formas de pensar de los estudiantes, constituyen los estilos de aprendizaje, a través de los cuales se puede establecer el modo en que estos conocimientos se almacenan, se relacionan y se utilizan con los adquiridos anteriormente. Es necesario caracterizar a los estudiantes además considerando el tipo de inteligencia preponderante en cada uno, ya que permitirá soluciones más individualizadas. Esto conlleva a rediseñar los componentes de cada módulo del sistema tutor.

  19. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN TUTOR SEBAYA PADA MATA PELAJARAN SOSIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningrum Pusporini Anggorowati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pelaksanaannya model pembelajaran tutor sebaya (peer teaching di SMAN I Brebes. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah guru sosiologi kelas XI IPS 1 dan siswa kelas XI IPS 1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan peer teaching memerlukan persiapan yang matang, dan setiap tahap pelaksanaan hendaknya dievaluasi untuk mendapatkan hasil yang baik. Faktor pendukung dalam pelaksanaan model pembelajaran tutor sebaya antara lain yaitu adanya interaksi antara guru dengan siswa, minat belajar siswa cukup tinggi, guru dan siswa lebih akrab dalam kegiatan pembelajaran, keterlibatan tutor sebaya dalam kelompok belajar membuat suasana pembelajaran lebih menarik, sedangkan faktor penghambatnya antara lain yaitu kurangnya persiapan dari para tutor, sarana dan prasarana kurang memadai, kegiatan pembelajaran kurang kondusif, dan sumber belajar kurang memadai. The objective of this study is to examine the implementation of peer tutoring learning model (peer teaching in SMAN I Brebes. Subjects in this study were teachers sociology class XI IPS 1 and class XI IPS 1. Results show that the implementation of peer teaching requires preparation, and each stage of the implementation should be evaluated to obtain good results. Factors supporting the implementation of peer tutoring learning model, among others, the interaction between teachers and students, and also student interest is high; teachers and students are more familiar in learning activities, and peer tutor involvement in the study group to make the learning environment more attractive. The inhibiting factor of peer teaching strategy include among others the lack of preparation of the tutors, inadequate infrastructure, lack of conducive learning activities, and learning resources are inadequate.

  20. Score Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián, Z. (Zdeněk)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a distribution-dependent correlation coefficient based on the concept of scalar score. This new measure of association of continuous random variables is compared by means of simulation experiments with the Pearson, Kendall and Spearman correlation coefficients.

  1. Estrategia metodológica para capacitar al tutor de la Vanguardia Mario Muñoz. Una experiencia camagüeyana Methodological strategy to qualify tutors of the vanguards movement Mario Muñoz. A Camagüeyan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Batista Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiente preparación teórica-metodológica de los tutores de la Vanguardia Mario Muñoz Monroy se identificó como el problema científico abordado en la tesis de maestría: Estrategia metodológica para capacitar al tutor de la “Vanguardia Mario Muñoz” de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Camagüey, por lo que se trazó como objetivo diseñar una estrategia metodológica dirigida a la capacitación de estos tutores de la carrera de Medicina. Se emplearon métodos del nivel empírico y teórico. Entre los resultados se destacaron: el diseño de la estrategia metodológica conformada por la planificación de talleres teórico-metodológicos para el perfeccionamiento de la labor del tutor de la Vanguardia Mario Muñoz y la elaboración de un material complementario.The insufficient theoretic-methodological preparation of tutors of the Vanguards movement Mario Muñoz Monroy has been identified as the scientific problem rose on the master’s degree thesis: Methodological strategy to qualify tutors of the Vanguards movement “Mario Muñoz” at Medical University in Camagüey. The main objective was to design a methodological strategy meant for tutors of Medical degree. Several theoretical and empirical methods were implemented. As a significant result it could be mentioned: the design of a methodological strategy conformed by the planning of theoretic-methodological workshops for the improvement of the tutors work within the movement and by the creation of a complementary material.

  2. From PBL tutoring to PBL coaching in undergraduate medical education: an interpretative phenomenological analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coaching psychology is of increasing interest to medical educators for its potential benefits as a facilitative method in problem-based learning (PBL. However, the field lacks empirical studies that explore the lived experiences of students and tutors in the PBL coaching process. This study aimed to elicit knowledge regarding medical students’ and tutors’ experiences and perceptions of PBL coaching in the context of Chinese undergraduate medical education. Methods: The qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA was employed. Participants comprised third year medical students (n=20 and PBL tutors (n=5 who have adopted a coaching approach in PBL for a semester. Semi-structured interviews were utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their experiences of PBL coaching. Data analysis followed an iterative four-stage scheme of Biggerstaff and Thompson. Results: Six main themes emerged from diverse experiences and interpretations: 1 mindsets of coaching and learning, 2 the development of learning dispositions and capacities, 3 student group collaboration, 4 tutor–student relationships, 5 personal and professional development, and 6 challenges and difficulties in implementation. Conclusions: It could be concluded that PBL coaching is a dynamic, facilitative process that makes a particular contribution to the learning process from psychological, emotional, and social perspectives, whilst it demonstrates significant overlaps with PBL tutoring in terms of supporting students’ cognitive activities in PBL. Further research is needed to identify the barriers and challenges for medical educators to implement coaching in the PBL process.

  3. Reconfiguration of parietal circuits with cognitive tutoring in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Dietsje; Supekar, Kaustubh; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Fuchs, Lynn; Menon, Vinod

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive development is shaped by brain plasticity during childhood, yet little is known about changes in large-scale functional circuits associated with learning in academically relevant cognitive domains such as mathematics. Here, we investigate plasticity of intrinsic brain circuits associated with one-on-one math tutoring and its relation to individual differences in children's learning. We focused on functional circuits associated with the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG), cytoarchitectonically distinct subdivisions of the human parietal cortex with different roles in numerical cognition. Tutoring improved performance and strengthened IPS connectivity with the lateral prefrontal cortex, ventral temporal-occipital cortex, and hippocampus. Crucially, increased IPS connectivity was associated with individual performance gains, highlighting the behavioral significance of plasticity in IPS circuits. Tutoring-related changes in IPS connectivity were distinct from those of the adjacent AG, which did not predict performance gains. Our findings provide new insights into plasticity of functional brain circuits associated with the development of specialized cognitive skills in children.

  4. Education Program of peer tutors: tutoring in the process of school inclusion in the Physical Education class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joslei Viana de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effect of peer tutoring for a student with disability in Physical Education classes. This study was supported by the qualitative methodological approach, characterized as a case study. The research was conducted in a Municipal public school located in the State of Bahia. The participants in this research were: a student with intellectual disability associated with autism spectrum disorder and five peer tutors. For data collection instrument, systematic or structured observation was employed, not participant, in a natural environment. The Physical Education classes were filmed, before and after the training of tutors. The results showed that the intervention of the peer tutors, with teaching strategies, culminated in increasing the participation level of the student with disabilities, contributing to the process of inclusion in Physical Education classes.

  5. The student tutor experience in a problem-based learning course: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tricia Susan

    This case study, conducted from an interpretive paradigm, illuminates contextual factors related to the tutor experience when senior undergraduate dental hygiene students served as tutors for beginning undergraduate dental hygiene students, or sophomores, in a 1-semester, 2-hour long problem-based learning (PBL) course in a Baccalaureate Dental Hygiene (BDH) curriculum during the spring semester of 2008. Data were collected using various sources and methods. Six tutors and three administrators were interviewed, tutees completed an anonymous questionnaire, the tutorial process and tutor training sessions were observed, and related documents were examined. Data analysis included open and axial coding, creation of tutor profiles, and identification of patterns. Tutor behaviors varied with respect to the nature of intervention (e.g., telling, asking, clarifying, acknowledging), emphasis (process, content, social), and facilitation style (directive, suggestive, empowering). Patterns in tutor behavior and attitudes emerged related to comfort and growth, persistence and lenience, and compliance, resistance, and innovation. Differences in tutor understanding and perception of their role and the purpose of PBL influenced the role the tutor assumed. Other factors that influenced tutor behavior included tutor intentions, tutor training, and environmental factors such as the nature of problems, allotted time, and tutorial group characteristics. The influence of these factors can be understood by applying Fishbein's integrated model of behavior prediction (Fishbein, 2008). Tutor training included experiencing the PBL student role, attending class, and sharing experiences with other tutors in weekly seminar sessions facilitated by a tutor supervisor. Tutor's gained confidence, knowledge, skills, and friendship. They also had the opportunity to see things from a new perspective, that of a teacher encouraging self-direction rather than a student depending on others for direction

  6. Effects of Preventative Tutoring on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Third-Grade Students With Math and Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S; Seethaler, Pamela M; Powell, Sarah R; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L; Fletcher, Jack M

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of preventative tutoring on the math problem solving of third-grade students with math and reading difficulties. Students (n = 35) were assigned randomly to continue in their general education math program or to receive secondary preventative tutoring 3 times per week, 30 min per session, for 12 weeks. Schema-broadening tutoring taught students to (a) focus on the mathematical structure of 3 problem types; (b) recognize problems as belonging to those 3 problem-type schemas; (c) solve the 3 word-problem types; and (d) transfer solution methods to problems that include irrelevant information, 2-digit operands, missing information in the first or second positions in the algebraic equation, or relevant information in charts, graphs, and pictures. Also, students were taught to perform the calculation and algebraic skills foundational for problem solving. Analyses of variance revealed statistically significant effects on a wide range of word problems, with large effect sizes. Findings support the efficacy of the tutoring protocol for preventing word-problem deficits among third-grade students with math and reading deficits.

  7. Blended learning positively affects students' satisfaction and the role of the tutor in the problem-based learning process: results of a mixed-method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltering, Vanessa; Herrler, Andreas; Spitzer, Klaus; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2009-12-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established didactic approach in medical education worldwide. The impact of PBL depends on the tutors' quality and the students' motivation. To enhance students' motivation and satisfaction and to overcome the problems with the changing quality of tutors, online learning and face-to-face classes were systematically combined resulting in a blended learning scenario (blended problem-based learning--bPBL). The study aims at determining whether bPBL increases the students' motivation and supports the learning process with respect to the students' cooperation, their orientation, and more reliable tutoring. The blended PBL was developed in a cooperation of students and teachers. The well-established Seven Jump-scheme of PBL was carefully complemented by eLearning modules. On the first training day of bPBL the students start to work together with the online program, but without a tutor, on the final training day the tutor participates in the meeting for additional help and feedback. The program was evaluated by a mixed-method study. The traditional PBL course was compared with the blended PBL by means of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires, standardized group interviews, and students' test results. In addition log-files were analyzed. A total of 185 third-year students and 14 tutors took part in the study. Motivation, subjective learning gains and satisfaction achieved significantly higher ratings by the bPBL students compared with the students learning by traditional PBL. The tutors' opinion and the test results showed no differences between the groups. Working with the web-based learning environment was assessed as very good by the students. According to the log-file analysis, the web-based learning module was frequently used and improved the cooperation during the self-directed learning.

  8. Reporting the Effects of Interventions to the Tutor with Meta-Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Christophe; Jacoboni, Pierre; Py, Dominique; Lekira, Aina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study how to support a human tutor who regulates learners' activities, in a situation of mediated tutoring. Our goal is to provide the tutor with information about the effect of his/her interventions. To achieve this, we adopt an indicator-based approach and define the notion of meta-indicator. The distinguishing feature of…

  9. A Flowchart-Based Intelligent Tutoring System for Improving Problem-Solving Skills of Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, D.; Ahmad, R. B.; Yousefi, M.; Yusop, F. D.; Horng, S.-J.

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tutoring and personalization are considered as the two most important factors in the research of learning systems and environments. An effective tool that can be used to improve problem-solving ability is an Intelligent Tutoring System which is capable of mimicking a human tutor's actions in implementing a one-to-one personalized and…

  10. Facilitating Group Analysis of Two Case Studies Utilising Peer Tutoring: Comparison of Tasks and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lin Siew

    2016-01-01

    Peer-tutoring sessions of two groups of advanced diploma in financial accounting students with mixed proficiency were analysed thoroughly in this study. Numerous studies in peer tutoring have produced favourable results to both tutors and tutees due to the scaffolding process which promotes effective learning. However, there is a lack of studies…

  11. An Interview Reflection on "Intelligent Tutoring Goes to School in the Big City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Aleven, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Our 1997 article in "IJAIED" reported on a study that showed that a new algebra curriculum with an embedded intelligent tutoring system (the Algebra Cognitive Tutor) dramatically enhanced high-school students' learning. The main motivation for the study was to demonstrate that intelligent tutors that have cognitive science research…

  12. Measuring the Moral Reasoning Competencies of Service-Learning e-Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Feng; Liao, Ching-Jung; Walters, Brent G.; Lee, Ching-Yieh

    2016-01-01

    As education has turned towards technology to provide academic support, the incidence of e-tutoring has grown due to decreasing educational budgets and as a potential remedy for the generational digital divide. However, many service-learning e-tutoring studies have focused on tutees' academic achievement and tutors' cognitive development rather…

  13. Reexamining the Literature: The Impact of Peer Tutoring on Higher Order Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Stephanie; Riccomini, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    The body of peer-tutoring intervention research targeting higher order learning (HOL) objectives for middle and high school students with disabilities is reviewed. Peer-tutoring outcomes are synthesized and studies are analyzed to examine the influence of tutoring procedures and study design features on intervention efficacy. Findings show that…

  14. A Window into Mathematical Support: How Parents' Perceptions Change Following Observations of Mathematics Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenskow, Arla; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the perceptions of 24 parents of rising 5th-grade students with mathematics learning difficulties as part of a 10-week summer mathematics tutoring experience. During the summer tutoring program, parents observed their children participating in mathematics learning experiences during one-to-one tutoring sessions. At the…

  15. The demand for private tutoring in Turkey: unintended consequences of curriculum reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.; Bray, M.; Mazawi, A.E.; Sultana, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the private tutoring phenomenon in Turkey. It seeks to analyse the impact of the revision of primary school curriculum on the demand for private tutoring. It also outlines various academic, economic and social implications of private tutoring. Based on interviews with school

  16. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Tutor Training for Problem Based Learning in Undergraduate Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlfelder, Manfred; Konermann, Tobias; Borchard, Linda-Marie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a "Train the Tutor" programme (TtT) for developing the metacognitive skills, facilitator skills, and tutor skills of students in a problem based learning (PBL) context. The purpose of the programme was to train 2nd and 3rd year undergraduate students in psychology to become effective PBL tutors for…

  17. A Flowchart-Based Intelligent Tutoring System for Improving Problem-Solving Skills of Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, D.; Ahmad, R. B.; Yousefi, M.; Yusop, F. D.; Horng, S.-J.

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tutoring and personalization are considered as the two most important factors in the research of learning systems and environments. An effective tool that can be used to improve problem-solving ability is an Intelligent Tutoring System which is capable of mimicking a human tutor's actions in implementing a one-to-one personalized and…

  18. Analyzing Log Files to Predict Students' Problem Solving Performance in a Computer-Based Physics Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether information saved in the log files of a computer-based tutor can be used to predict the problem solving performance of students. The log files of a computer-based physics tutoring environment called Andes Physics Tutor was analyzed to build a logistic regression model that predicted success and failure of students'…

  19. ASPIRE: An Authoring System and Deployment Environment for Constraint-Based Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Antonija; Martin, Brent; Suraweera, Pramuditha; Zakharov, Konstantin; Milik, Nancy; Holland, Jay; McGuigan, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, the Intelligent Computer Tutoring Group (ICTG) has implemented many successful constraint-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) in a variety of instructional domains. Our tutors have proven their effectiveness not only in controlled lab studies but also in real classrooms, and some of them have been commercialized.…

  20. Modeling and Evaluating Tutors' Function Using Data Mining and Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjebar, Safia; Lafifi, Yacine; Seridi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In e-learning systems, the tutors play many roles and carry out several tasks that differ from one system to another. The activity of tutoring is influenced by many factors. One factor among them is the assignment of the appropriate profile to the tutor. For this reason, the authors propose a new approach for modeling and evaluating the function…

  1. Identifying and Describing Tutor Archetypes: The Pragmatist, the Architect, and the Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Jeff A.; Quinn, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify and anecdotally describe three tutor archetypes: the pragmatist, the architect, and the surveyor. These descriptions, based on observations of remedial mathematics tutors at a land-grant university, shed light on a variety of philosophical beliefs regarding and pedagogical approaches to tutoring. An analysis…

  2. Modeling and Evaluating Tutors' Function Using Data Mining and Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjebar, Safia; Lafifi, Yacine; Seridi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In e-learning systems, the tutors play many roles and carry out several tasks that differ from one system to another. The activity of tutoring is influenced by many factors. One factor among them is the assignment of the appropriate profile to the tutor. For this reason, the authors propose a new approach for modeling and evaluating the function…

  3. An Evaluation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT) from an Author’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    SCHOLAR, developed in 1970 in the form of an education tutor ( Carbonell 1970). This was a very basic form of intelligent tutoring; many have been...group instruction as effective as one- to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher. 1984;13(6):4–16. Carbonell . AI in CAI: an artificial intelligence

  4. Managing Time: A Study among Arab Open University Tutors in Kuwait Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Abdin M.; Ismail, Omer H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate how tutors at the Arab Open University (AOU) in Kuwait Branch manage their time given workloads they are assigned. Group interviews were conducted with a sample that was selected from AOU tutors in Kuwait branch. The findings showed that tutors do not ask for more time or cut down workloads; instead,…

  5. Dr Math moves to C³TO: Chatter call center/tutoring online

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dr Math is a mobile tutoring system which has been running in South Africa for three years. It links primary and secondary school pupils to tutors in mathematics. The pupils use the popular Mxit chat client on their cell phones. The tutors use full...

  6. Studying Thought Processes of Online Peer Tutors through Stimulated-Recall Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; De Wever, Bram; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the cognitive processes of older students during their peer tutoring support of freshmen engaged in asynchronous discussion groups. Stimulated-recall was applied to study the underlying motives for specific tutor behavior in the online discussions and to make tutors' concerns explicit. A grounded theory approach…

  7. Differences in the perception of characteristics of excellence of clinical tutors among residents and consultants at an emergency medicine residency program a qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Saleem Aljahany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Defining exactly what characterizes a clinical tutor as excellent and another less effective, is an important task in assessing the effectiveness of clinical training and guiding faculty development. Aim: We aimed to evaluate those characteristics and measure differences in their perception among accomplished and non-accomplished consultants and residents in the Emergency Department. We also compared perceptions between the different groups of participants. Methods: The characteristics measured were extracted from an extensive search of previously published studies summarized in a review article. A qualitative study was conducted, using a 20 item questionnaire piloted from the refined characteristics (good indicator of reliability; Cronbach′s Alpha = 0.86. The questionnaire was distributed among all consultants and residents in Saudi Board of Emergency Medicine. Results: No significant difference between consultants′ and residents′ perception was found. "Sincere" was an exception 87.8% versus 55.1%, P = 0.013. Consultants′ specifications did not seem to affect perception on overall scores and its component sub-scores. Conclusion: Since results showed no relation between accomplished and non-accomplished consultants in perceiving those qualities, we excluded the lack of knowledge of those characteristics as a cause of being accomplished or non-accomplished. We suggest a greater dedication from program developers towards creating more opportunities to involve more consultants in basic Emergency Medicine training.

  8. Prognostic significance of modified Gleason scoring system after radical prostatectomy%改良Gleason评分系统在前列腺癌术后患者预后评估中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜捷; 姜伟; 袁逸民; 张立进; 纪长威; 郭宏骞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analysis the modified Gleason scoring system for predicting the prognosis after radical prostatectomy.Methods A total of 242 patients who received radical prostatectomy from April,2006 to October 2011 were recruited.The patients who lost follow-up or had adjuvant radiation or hormonal therapy or had visceral or bone metastasis were excluded,the remaining 168 patients were evaluated in the present study.The patients' age ranged from 53 to 85 years old (mean age 69 years old).The mean PSA level was 13.31ng/ml (ranging from 4.59 to 36.12 ng/ml).According to the traditional Gleason scoring system,there were 50 patients in Gleason ≤ 6 group,86 patients in Gleason 7 group and 32 patients in Gleason≥8 group.Patients were divided in five groups according to the modified Gleason scoring system.There were 50 patients in Gleason ≤6 group,67 in Gleason 3 + 4 group,19 in Gleason 4 + 3 group,15 in Gleason 8 group and 17 in Gleason 9-10 group.The biochemical-free-survival curve was drawn by Kaplan-Meier method and the multivariate Cox regression models were used to evaluate the clinical and pathological variables for the development of biochemical recurrence.ROC curve analysis was used to determine the predicted value for 5-year BCR of modified and traditional Gleason scoring.Results Significant differences were noted between the modified Gleason scoring groups and traditional Gleason scoring groups in PSA value (P =0.005),pathological stage (P =0.002),extraprostatic extension (P =0.003),seminal vesicle invasion (P =0.004),lymph node involvement (P =0.049) and positive surgical margin (P =0.006).With a median follow-up of 68 months(ranging from 7 to 98 months),5-year BFS rates for men with Gleason grade ≤6,3 + 4,4 + 3,8 and 9-10 tumours on RP pathology were 84.0% (42/50),76.1% (51/67),57.9%(11/19),40.0% (9/15),29.4% (5/17),respectively.On multivariate analysis,the HR value of Gleason 3 + 4 group and Gleason 4 + 3 group were 1.736 and 2.075 (P < 0

  9. Designing and Evaluating Tutoring Feedback Strategies for digital learning environments on the basis of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model

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    Susanne Narciss

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008, and how it can be applied to the design and evaluation of feedback strategies for digital learning environments. The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the regulation of a learning process in order to help learners acquire or improve the competencies needed to master learning tasks. It integrates findings from systems theory with recommendations of prior research on interactive instruction and elaborated feedback, on task analyses, on error analyses, and on tutoring techniques. Based on this multi-dimensional view of formative tutoring feedback methodological implications for designing and investigating multiple effects of feedback under multiple individual and situational conditions are described. Furthermore, the paper outlines how the implications of the ITF-model have been applied in several studies to the design and evaluation of tutoring feedback strategies for digital learning environments (e.g., Narciss, 2004; Narciss & Huth, 2006; Narciss, Schnaubert, Andres, Eichelmann, Goguadze, & Sosnovsky, 2013.

  10. Qualitative Evaluation of the Java Intelligent Tutoring System

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    Edward Sykes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to support the growing trend of the Java programming language and to promote web-based personalized education, the Java Intelligent Tutoring System (JITS was designed and developed. This tutoring system is unique in a number of ways. Most Intelligent Tutoring Systems require the teacher to author problems with corresponding solutions. JITS, on the other hand, requires the teacher to only supply the problem and problem specification. JITS is designed to "intelligently" examine the student's submitted code and determines appropriate feedback based on a number of factors such as JITS' cognitive model of the student, the student's skill level, and problem details. JITS is intended to be used by beginner programming students in their first year of College or University. This paper discusses the important aspects of the design and development of JITS, the qualitative methods and procedures, and findings. Research was conducted at the Sheridan Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, Ontario, Canada.

  11. Managerial perceptions of mentor, lecturer practitioner and link tutor roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnwell, Ros; Baker, Sally-Ann; Bellis, Mike; Murray, Ruth

    2007-11-01

    Educating pre-registration nurses in clinical practice is a global issue. Within different countries problems exist in educating and supervising students in clinical practice and various models of clinical education are employed. In Wales, United Kingdom, this responsibility is divided between mentors, lecturer practitioners and link tutors. This paper reports on the third phase of a three-phase study in Wales to explore differences between mentors, lecturer practitioners and link tutors, and how they work together to assist students to integrate theory and practice. Four focus group interviews of National Health Service managers and Higher Education managers (n=22) were conducted. Qualitative content analysis revealed four themes: role characteristics and competencies, role differences, role conflict, and future options. The findings suggest a theory-practice continuum along which mentors, lecturer practitioners and link tutors occupy different positions. The article explores these different positions and offers suggestions for future role development.

  12. Enhancing Astronomy Education Through Cross-Age Student Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstrom, Erika; Taylor, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Vast distances, such as those that pervade astronomy, are difficult concepts to grasp. We are all a part of the Earth-Moon system, however most people do not comprehend the sizes and distances involved. In a pilot study, the authors found that an intervention using both discussion and kinesthetic modeling resulted in students of all ages (children up through adults) acquiring a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. We have extended this research and are currently conducting a new study in which undergraduate students serve as "tutors" in a public observatory setting. One of our conjectures is that tutors' mental representations of the Earth-Moon system will be enhanced through their active participation in the cross-age peer tutoring activity. This work is supported in part by grants from the Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching, and Learning (CIRTL), the Vanderbilt University Learning Sciences Institute, and NSF Career grant AST-0349075.

  13. Motivational and metacognitive feedback in SQL-Tutor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Alison; du Boulay, Benedict

    2015-04-01

    Motivation and metacognition are strongly intertwined, with learners high in self-efficacy more likely to use a variety of self-regulatory learning strategies, as well as to persist longer on challenging tasks. The aim of the research was to improve the learner's focus on the process and experience of problem-solving while using an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) and including motivational and metacognitive feedback based on the learner's past states and experiences. An existing ITS, SQL-Tutor, was used with first-year undergraduates studying a database module. The study used two versions of SQL-Tutor: the Control group used a base version providing domain feedback and the Study group used an extended version that also provided motivational and metacognitive feedback. This paper summarises the pre- and post-process results. Comparisons between groups showed some differing trends both in learning outcomes and behaviour in favour of the Study group.

  14. MENINGKATKAN HASIL DAN AKTIVITAS BELAJAR SISWA DALAM ANSAMBEL MUSIK MELALUI METODE TUTOR SEBAYA PADA SISWA KELAS VIII B SMP NEGERI 1 MOGA PEMALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryanto Haryanto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine (1 the improvementof students achievement in the subjects of Arts and Culture, specifically the basic skills competencies to play music ensemble, and (2 the improvement of students learning activities in the subjects of art and culture, particularly the basic competency skills of playing music ensemble. The method used is this research is classroom action research by using peer tutoring which includes four stages: (1 planning, (2 implementation, (3 observation, (4 analysis and reflection. The research design used in this research was applied research design according Chemish Tagart. This research is collaborative, involving cultural arts teachers to carry out the observation and reflection. Results were analyzed by quantitative descriptive techniques to describe the data and compare the findings with predetermined performance indicators. The results of this study indicate that: First, peer tutoring learning can improve students achievement at Moga Junior High School 1. This is proven by the material mastery improvement from 36.11% on the pre-cycle to 83.33% by the end of the second cycle. Second, peer tutoring method can improve students learning activity. This is proven by the improvement in activity score from 2.30 on the pre cycle activity to 3.51 by the end of the second cycle. Peer tutoring learning methods should be developed in schools teaching materials, especially music ensemble which requires a long time allocation to practice the skills of playing music.

  15. Pengembangan Instrumen Analisis Kompetensi Tutor Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (PAUD

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    Agus Tiyono Teguh Maryanto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan: (1 mengidentifikasi standar kompetensi dan indikator yang dapat dijadikan tolok ukur untuk menyusun standar kompetensi tutor PAUD, dan (2 mengembangkan instrumen untuk uji kompetensi tutor PAUD yang tepat dan handal berdasarkan indikator kompetensi yang telah tersusun. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan yang terdiri dari dua tahap yaitu tahap, pengembangan standar kompetensi dan pengembangan instrumen uji kompetensi tutor PAUD. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah focus group discussion ( FGD dan teknik Delphi 2 x putaran. Subjek uji coba adalah 110 orang tutor yang mengikuti Pelatihan Tenaga Pendidik PAUD Tingkat Provinsi Jawa Tengah Tahun 2004. Subjek uji coba instrumen pertama sebanyak 20 orang dari Kabupaten Magelang, dan subjek uji coba instrumen kedua sebanyak 32 orang dari Salatiga, Kota Magelang, dan Kabupaten Magelang. Temuan penelitian ada dua. (1 standar kompetensi tutor PAUD terdiri atas 4 dimensi dan 50 indikator, meliputi dimensi personal, dimensi sosial, dimensi profesional, dan dimensi akademik; (2 instrumen untuk menguji kompetensi yang berupa inventori tes dengan indeks validitas berupa angka muatan faktor terendah di atas 0,300 (kriteria yang telah ditetapkan. Koefisien reliabilitas tiap faktor pada uji coba pertama adalah . 0,879 dan tertinggi 0,984, sedangkan koefisien reliabilitas tiap faktor pada uji coba kedua terendah 0,889 dan tertinggi 0,995, telah melebihi syarat minimal untuk pengukuran kelompok yaitu 0,65. Koefisien reliabilitas tes uraian ditentukan dengan reliabilitas antar-rater dengan teknik ANAVA, dan diperoleh koefisien reliabilitas dari 3 orang penilai yaitu 0,957, sedangkan estimasi untuk seorang penilai adalah 0,881. Kata kunci: pengembangan instrumen, anahsis kompetensi, tutor paud

  16. Sistema inteligente para evaluación de programas tutores

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    Luz Daicy Alvarado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The evaluating system we show in this paper is part of a project that ties to develop a computer asisted teaching system based on inteligent tutoring. We pretends this mechanism based in automatic learning tools. have the capacity for capturing a image that reflect the subject comprehension degree by the student and identify the aspects where the student have problems. With this information the tutor will be feedbacking so he can to take a decission about the educational strategy to follow.

  17. Distance learning for training business game tutors

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    Mariana de Toledo Marinho

    Full Text Available Abstract This work is the result of research that proposes the incorporation of Distance Learning into a Business Game as a strategy to enhance tutor training, considering entrepreneurship difficulties faced by public school teachers. Part of the problem could be attributed to subject type, because, in general, it is not common to find entrepreneurship on school curricula. The Distance Learning (DL activities were developed using the Moodle platform and structured by topic to increase educational flexibility and achieve a better balance between individual reflection and online discussion. It was developed in four steps: course content development; course evaluation by computer technicians; restructuring the course based on course evaluation done by computer technicians and course evaluation by teachers from the public school system. A preliminary test was performed with informatics technicians to technically evaluate the learning environment. Based on this, the course was restructured, applying corrections and adjustments to improve environment usability. After corrections, a final test was conducted with public school system teachers to analyze user perception, which gave a positive result. Virtual learning environment evaluation is complex and multidisciplinary, requiring the technical knowledge of internet programming and a conceptual knowledge of education, especially in the field of learning. When the evaluation done by teachers was examined, it was found that deficiencies pointed out by computer technicians had been resolved, giving a positive rating. This current research concludes that DL can improve the use of games, because it is possible to structure the content related to the learning gaps of specific groups of students. In this respect the use of games results can guide the development of content.

  18. Student tutors for hands-on training in focused emergency echocardiography – a randomized controlled trial

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    Kühl Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Focused emergency echocardiography performed by non-cardiologists has been shown to be feasible and effective in emergency situations. During resuscitation a short focused emergency echocardiography has been shown to narrow down potential differential diagnoses and to improve patient survival. Quite a large proportion of physicians are eligible to learn focused emergency echocardiography. Training in focused emergency echocardiography usually comprises a lecture, hands-on trainings in very small groups, and a practice phase. There is a shortage of experienced echocardiographers who can supervise the second step, the hands-on training. We thus investigated whether student tutors can perform the hands-on training for focused emergency echocardiography. Methods A total of 30 volunteer 4th and 5th year students were randomly assigned to a twelve-hour basic echocardiography course comprising a lecture followed by a hands-on training in small groups taught either by an expert cardiographer (EC or by a student tutor (ST. Using a pre-post-design, the students were evaluated by an OSCE. The students had to generate two still frames with the apical five-chamber view and the parasternal long axis in five minutes and to correctly mark twelve anatomical cardiac structures. Two blinded expert cardiographers rated the students’ performance using a standardized checklist. Students could achieve a maximum of 25 points. Results Both groups showed significant improvement after the training (p Conclusions Hands-on training by student tutors led to a significant gain in echocardiography skills, although inferior to teaching by an expert cardiographer.

  19. Tutors' opinions of suitability of online learning programmes in continuing professional development for midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah; Papadopoulos, Irena; Kelly, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Online learning is frequently used in continuing professional development for qualified nurses and midwives. It is frequently assumed that the same package is appropriate for different groups of learners and that by reducing the need for tutorial input, tutorial time is saved. We evaluated the suitability of an online learning resource for suitability in continuing professional development for midwives. Originally developed for use as part of a work-based package for a specific audience, there had always been plans for more general use of the resource with other groups of health workers. Sequential mixed methods study. English universities. Seventy university tutors. Online questionnaire and in-depth interviews. Tutors did not consider that the online learning materials would be suitable for a wider audience without significant adaptation. They thought that uptake would increase need for tutorial input. Our findings demonstrate the pitfalls of removing learning from the context of practice. Technology customised to meet the needs of one group of learners probably does not have the potential for transfer to another group without significant adaptation. Those responsible for designing e-learning should take into account the needs of all the different audiences for whom the resource is intended from the outset, with consideration for the context in which learning will be applied to practice and how students will be supported. If the same package is to be used by different audiences and in different settings, tutors and students will require explicit instructions of how they should use the resource and depth of knowledge and level of competency that should be attained at the conclusion of the programme. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lecturing skills as predictors of tutoring skills in a problem-based medical curriculum

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    Kassab SE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah Eldin Kassab,1 Nahla Hassan,1 Marwan F Abu-Hijleh,2 Reginald P Sequeira3 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 3College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Purpose: Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. Therefore, this study aims at examining whether lecturing skills of faculty could predict their PBL tutoring skills. Methods: This study included evaluation of faculty (n=69 who participated in both tutoring and lecturing within particular PBL units at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Each faculty was evaluated by medical students (n=45±8 for lecturing and 8±2 for PBL tutoring using structured evaluation forms based on a Likert-type scale (poor to excellent. The prediction of tutoring skills using lecturing skills was statistically analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Results: Among the parameters used to judge lecturing skills, the most important predictor for tutoring skills was subject matter mastery in the lecture by explaining difficult concepts and responding effectively to students' questions. Subject matter mastery in the lecture positively predicted five tutoring skills and accounted for 25% of the variance in overall effectiveness of the PBL tutors (F=22.39, P=0.000. Other important predictors for tutoring skills were providing a relaxed class atmosphere and effective use of audiovisual aids in the lecture. Conclusion: Predicting the tutoring skills based on lecturing skills could have implications for recruiting tutors in PBL medical programs and for tutor training initiatives. Keywords: PBL, tutor, tutoring skills, lecturing skills

  1. Los espacios de tutoría en práctica profesional y sus necesidades de fortalecimiento

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    Gerardo Ignacio Sánchez Sánchez

    2014-05-01

    results indicate very positive opinions regarding the support system, designed by the University for the students in professional teaching practice and which are specified in the presence of a professional responsibility to support the demands personal, social and professional experienced practitioners. On the other hand, it emphasizes that while recognizing mentoring as a support space classroom practitioner performance with regard to planning, teaching, assessment and reflection, the vision of the performances achieved there tends to be different among the actors. Practitioners perceive a performance that, in general, is at the level of "sufficiently" and "a lot", which would indicate that they consider acquired the different performances pedagogical acquired; however, the tutors´ view is different, and place a significant percentage of practitioners in an acquisition rather partial or "regular" of educational performances engaged in the formation of a teacher.

  2. The Franchising of Private Tutoring: A View from Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Aurini, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Private tutoring is a growing industry that is being transformed by an evolution from "shadow education" provision into "learning center" franchises. Traditional shadow educators closely follow the school curriculum, offering short-term homework help and test preparation. Learning centers develop their own curricular and…

  3. Development of a personal-computer-based intelligent tutoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    A large number of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) have been built since they were first proposed in the early 1970's. Research conducted on the use of the best of these systems has demonstrated their effectiveness in tutoring in selected domains. A prototype ITS for tutoring students in the use of CLIPS language: CLIPSIT (CLIPS Intelligent Tutor) was developed. For an ITS to be widely accepted, not only must it be effective, flexible, and very responsive, it must also be capable of functioning on readily available computers. While most ITSs have been developed on powerful workstations, CLIPSIT is designed for use on the IBM PC/XT/AT personal computer family (and their clones). There are many issues to consider when developing an ITS on a personal computer such as the teaching strategy, user interface, knowledge representation, and program design methodology. Based on experiences in developing CLIPSIT, results on how to address some of these issues are reported and approaches are suggested for maintaining a powerful learning environment while delivering robust performance within the speed and memory constraints of the personal computer.

  4. Towards a Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring System Classification Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsley, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel classification scheme for Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring Systems (CITS), an emergent research field. The three emergent classifications of CITS are unstructured, semi-structured, and fully structured. While all three types of CITS offer opportunities to improve student learning gains, the full extent to which these…

  5. Effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, John F.; Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Karam, Rita

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of a technology-based algebra curriculum in a wide variety of middle schools and high schools in seven states. Participating schools were matched into similar pairs and randomly assigned to either continue with the current algebra curriculum for 2 years or to adopt Cognitive Tutor Algebra I (CTAI), which…

  6. Information Environment of Tutors in Public Secondary Schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    online environment shapes their information seeking behavior and was main avenue through ... The society exists with various classes and groups of individuals such as farmers, tutors, civil ... organization they work for, by the nature of their work or profession, by age sex or other social .... Buying newspapers / magazines.

  7. Examination of Pre-Service Teacher's Training through Tutoring Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiao-ping; Guerra, Myriam Jimena

    2017-01-01

    Pre-service teacher preparation in the United States is becoming progressively more challenging with respect to the demands on teachers. This study examined the impact of tutoring approach on pre-service teachers? skills to work with English language learners through a qualitative research design. Content analysis was used at the thematic level on…

  8. Collaboration and peer tutoring in chemistry laboratory education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of collaborative learning with hints and peer tutoring with hints, and individual learning with hints in chemistry laboratory education in a secondary school. A total of 96 eleventh graders participated in this study. The study has a randomized p

  9. The Challenges of Becoming Tutors at Electronic Environments

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    María Eugenia López Hurtado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research report of my own experience as a tutor in electronic environments which I have accumulated throughout the guidance for English learners of basic level at a public university. This article looks for illustrating the researcher's own perceptions and challenges as becoming an e-tutor. Therefore, I will introduce an overview of studies and experiences that address this issue in international contexts, and then I will refer to my own experience where I describe the roles that emerged while I was administrating and delivering e- learning pedagogical experiences such as an exploration of some skills and learning activities carried out in an English course; this description embraces three different stages (before, during and after of implementation. Subsequently, some discussion of the results is provided gathered from the research instruments I used. Finally, some conclusions and suggestions are provided in regards to the research question of the study, its outcomes on how tutors' challenges shape tutor's roles in electronic environments.

  10. Tutoring the Elderly on the Use of Recommending Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvopoulos, Anastasios; Virvou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The elderly are often unfamiliar with computer technology and can encounter great difficulties. Moreover, the terms used in such systems may prove to be a challenge for these users. The aim of this research is to tutor the elderly on using an adaptive e-shop system in order to buy products easily. Design/methodology/approach: In view of…

  11. Tutored Videotape-Instruction in Clinical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sox, Harold C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of traditional medical lecturing with a technique using a videotaped lecture that can be interrupted by a tutor for discussion or questions showed similar academic achievement rates but higher student ratings for the videotape method. The technique is recommended for specialized topics or areas in which the supply of expert lecturers…

  12. Tutoring the Elderly on the Use of Recommending Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvopoulos, Anastasios; Virvou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The elderly are often unfamiliar with computer technology and can encounter great difficulties. Moreover, the terms used in such systems may prove to be a challenge for these users. The aim of this research is to tutor the elderly on using an adaptive e-shop system in order to buy products easily. Design/methodology/approach: In view of…

  13. Exploring the personal tutor-student relationship: an autoethnographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, L D; Lane, H

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, my personal student Hannah and I narrate an account of aspects of our tutor/student relationship, features of which we consider to have wider relevance to others who occupy similar roles. The decision that we should write about our experience as personal tutor and student was one that emerged rather than was deliberately taken, and that we should write it as an autoethnography similarly became apparent. We had things to say, and wanted to present them in a style that mirrored the multifaceted relationship that developed, and which we continue to cultivate as evidenced by the writing of this piece. We suggest that the roles and relationships explored here extend beyond tutor and student boundaries, and have relevance to nurse and service-user encounters which we demonstrate through the use of particular frameworks for the analysis of our autoethnographic account. We explore these narratives of our relationship by utilizing concepts such as, 'boundaries', 'learning', 'supervision' and 'therapy'. In doing so, a shape of personal tutoring emerges which in turn may serve as a valuable teaching technique within mental health nurse education.

  14. Analysing Student Programs in the PHP Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weragama, Dinesha; Reye, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Programming is a subject that many beginning students find difficult. The PHP Intelligent Tutoring System (PHP ITS) has been designed with the aim of making it easier for novices to learn the PHP language in order to develop dynamic web pages. Programming requires practice. This makes it necessary to include practical exercises in any ITS that…

  15. Tutoring and Multi-Agent Systems: Modeling from Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennane, Abdellah

    2010-01-01

    Tutoring systems become complex and are offering varieties of pedagogical software as course modules, exercises, simulators, systems online or offline, for single user or multi-user. This complexity motivates new forms and approaches to the design and the modelling. Studies and research in this field introduce emergent concepts that allow the…

  16. A Micro-Computer Based Tutor for Teaching Arithmetic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attisha, M.; Yazdani, M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a knowledge-based tutoring system which provides pupil interaction with the microcomputer to diagnose pupils' errors in subtraction operations. Current subtraction methods; nature and origin of subtraction errors; and the structure, achievements, and future developments of the computer system are included. Thirteen references and a…

  17. The Acceptability and Efficacy of an Intelligent Social Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rebecca Polley; Bartel, Chelsea M; Brown, Emily; DeRosier, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the acceptability and efficacy of an innovative intelligent tutoring system (ITS), "Adventures Aboard the S.S. GRIN," that translates the evidence-based in-person Social Skills Group Intervention (SSGRIN), into an interactive game-based social tutorial. This randomized controlled pilot trial tested the first half of the…

  18. Collaboration and peer tutoring in chemistry laboratory education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of collaborative learning with hints and peer tutoring with hints, and individual learning with hints in chemistry laboratory education in a secondary school. A total of 96 eleventh graders participated in this study. The study has a randomized

  19. Optimizing Knowledge Sharing in Learning Networks through Peer Tutoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., Kester, L., & Sloep, P. (2009). Optimizing Knowledge Sharing in Learning Networks through Peer Tutoring. Presentation at the IADIS international conference on Cognition and Exploratory in Digital Age (CELDA 2009). November, 20-22, 2009, Rome, Italy.

  20. Optimizing Knowledge Sharing In Learning Networks Through Peer Tutoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., Kester, L., & Sloep, P. B. (2009). Optimizing Knowledge Sharing In Learning Networks Through Peer Tutoring. In D. Kinshuk, J. Sampson, J. Spector, P. Isaías, P. Barbosa & D. Ifenthaler (Eds.). Proceedings of IADIS International Conference Cognition and Exploratory Learning

  1. Language Repair Strategies in Bilingual Tutoring of Mathematics Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Meskill, Carla; Judson, Darlene; Gregory, Karen; Rogers, Patterson; Imperial, Christopher J.; Casler-Failing, Shelli

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the "language repair strategies" (aimed at repairing communication problems) of two bilingual speakers during mathematics word problem tutoring sessions. Bilingual repair was shown to gradually shift from a linguistic to an epistemic focus during problem solving (i.e., communication became more conceptually focused…

  2. Bringing a Lemon to a Lifer: Tutoring in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Mich

    2009-01-01

    This prison-based research is grounded upon "reflection-in-action", intertwining the accounts of a reflective prisoner and a reflective practitioner. Through use of ethnographic methods it seeks to make sense of the contradictions encountered while tutoring prisoners. The research story shows how meaning conflicts have been negotiated,…

  3. The Impact of an Online Tutoring Program on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy K.; Whetstone, Patti

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored the impact of an online tutoring program, Math Whizz (Whizz Education, 2014), on student mathematics achievement at 15 elementary schools. Students participated in the use of the Math Whizz program for the duration of the school year as a supplement to mathematics instruction. The Math Whizz program recorded such information…

  4. Improved Modeling of Intelligent Tutoring Systems Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegarmoghadam, Mahin; Ziarati, Koorush

    2017-01-01

    Swarm intelligence approaches, such as ant colony optimization (ACO), are used in adaptive e-learning systems and provide an effective method for finding optimal learning paths based on self-organization. The aim of this paper is to develop an improved modeling of adaptive tutoring systems using ACO. In this model, the learning object is…

  5. Recorded Readings: A Taped Parent-Tutoring Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupzyk, Sara; McCurdy, Merilee; Hofstadter, Kristi L.; Berger, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Parent tutoring has been successfully used to increase children's oral reading fluency. However, commonly used procedures pose a challenge for parents who are not proficient in reading or who speak English as a second language. A taped reading program that included listening passage preview, repeated reading, and performance feedback was developed…

  6. An Intelligent Computer-Based System for Sign Language Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…

  7. An agent-based intelligent tutoring system for nurse education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, M.; Kroezen, E.; Nijholt, A.; Akker, op den R.; Heylen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the development of a teaching environment that uses agents to support learning. An Intelligent Tutoring System will be described, that guides students during learning. This system is meant for nurse education in the first place, but it is generic in the sense that the core is s

  8. Effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, John F.; Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Karam, Rita

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of a technology-based algebra curriculum in a wide variety of middle schools and high schools in seven states. Participating schools were matched into similar pairs and randomly assigned to either continue with the current algebra curriculum for 2 years or to adopt Cognitive Tutor Algebra I (CTAI), which…

  9. Reading Tutor, A Reading Support System for Japanese Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko KAWAMURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives an overview of the tools and materials included in the Japanese language reading tutorial system Reading Tutor and the multilingual lexicographical project Reading Tutor Web Dictionary, and discusses their possible uses both for Japanese language instruction and to support autonomous language learning. The paper further presents one particular use of these tools and resources for the development of learning materials for foreign candidates to the Japanese certified care worker national examination, and concludes with suggestions for effective guidance geared at fostering autonomous vocabulary learning.-----Članek predstavlja orodja in gradiva v sistemu za podporo branju v japonščini Reading Tutor in v večjezičnem slovarskem projektu Reading Tutor Web Dictionary ter njihovo možno uporabo tako za poučevanje japonščine kot tudi za podporo samostojnemu jezikovnemu učenju. Nadalje predstavlja konkreten primer uporabe teh orodij in virov za izdelavo učnega gradiva za tuje kandidate, ki se pripravljajo na japonski državni izpit za zdravstvene delavce. V zaključku predlaga nekaj pedagoških pristopov za učinkovito podporo samostojnemu učenju besedišča.

  10. [Report of Resident Tutor (Jamaica) August 1968-1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hopeton

    The annual report of the resident tutor (Jamaica) for the University of the West Indies describes and evaluates courses and programs sponsored by the Department of Extra-Mural Studies between August 1968 and July 1969, and makes mention of attendance figures and response. Topics for courses and seminars included training in various job skills,…

  11. Discursive Practices of Private Online Tutoring Websites in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2015-01-01

    A recent development in English teaching in Russia is the emergence of private online language-tutoring schools, which offer one-on-one lessons by means of audio/videoconferencing. It remains unclear: (1) how these new providers of educational services are presenting themselves to the potential learners; (2) what ideology they tend to drawn on and…

  12. Training ESOL Instructors and Tutors for Online Conferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Beth L.; Lynn, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Individualized conferencing, a situation where instructors and tutors work individually with students, is one traditional way in which students whose first language is not English (ESOL) can receive help as they learn and practice their English speaking and writing skills. This article is a demonstration of some of the practical strategies common…

  13. An Agent-based Intelligent Tutoring System for Nurse Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, M.A.; Kroezen, E.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    This report describes the development of a teaching environment that uses agents to support learning. An Intelligent Tutoring System will be described, that guides students during learning. This system is meant for nurse education in the first place, but it is generic in the sense that the core is

  14. Identifying Training Needs of Novice Online English Language Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Buitrago, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Online and blended learning are of growing interest in the English language learning community. In Colombia, national initiatives and policies promote online educational programs and online English courses specifically. As a result, new online tutors are constantly needed for new programs and courses offered by institutions as well as by private…

  15. Analysing Student Programs in the PHP Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weragama, Dinesha; Reye, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Programming is a subject that many beginning students find difficult. The PHP Intelligent Tutoring System (PHP ITS) has been designed with the aim of making it easier for novices to learn the PHP language in order to develop dynamic web pages. Programming requires practice. This makes it necessary to include practical exercises in any ITS that…

  16. Tutor Response to Implementing an ePortfolio to Support Learning and Personal Development in Further and Higher Education Institutions in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Susi; Gordon, Lisi; Murray, Sue; Morss, Kate; Dunlop, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Emergent research indicates that electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) can have a positive impact on the learning experience, but there are significant challenges--pedagogical and technological--which may limit their effectiveness. This paper contributes to research by providing further evidence about such challenges from the tutor perspective and…

  17. SISTEMAS TUTORES INTELIGENTES COMO APOYO EN EL PROCESO DE APRENDIZAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Eduardo Millan Rojas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es la identificación de las principales características de los tutores inteligentes, su origen y evolución los cuales pueden ofrecer elementos para la formulación de nuevos proyectos de investigación relacionados con la educación y el uso de los tutores. El método utilizado es el descriptivo y sistémico, los cuales permiten recopilar los datos necesarios, la información presentada ha sido adquirida de bases de datos especializadas como IEEE, Redalyc, ACM y Science Direct, además de artículos de revistas de universidades internacionales y de proyectos de investigación descargados de Google Académico. Los Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes surgieron al combinar técnicas de inteligencia artificial (IA con los métodos clásicos de enseñanza. Estos son sistemas de software que generan un ambiente idóneo para la interacción y satisfacción de las necesidades del estudiante, adaptable a los conocimientos previos y a la capacidad de evolución de cada alumno respecto a un área del conocimiento. El funcionamiento de los STI se basa en la relación entre tres principales módulos (tutor, estudiante y dominio, para presentar al usuario la información de manera estructurada. La investigación llevada a cabo permitió reunir los aspectos más relevantes de los Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes (STI y presentarlos como una herramienta óptima para llevar a cabo un proceso de aprendizaje.

  18. The Effect of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring and Non-Reciprocal Peer Tutoring on the Performance of Students in College Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioso-Henson, Luzale

    2012-01-01

    Formalised peer-to-peer collaboration and the use of web-enhanced materials that are consistent with course objectives, graded assessments and learning outcomes is well known in educational practice. This study compared the academic gains of college students enrolled in Physics using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT) with others using non-Reciprocal…

  19. Diseño de un Banco del Tiempo Escolar basado en la metodología Peer Tutoring (Tutoría entre iguales)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Suárez, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    Reflexión sobre las prácticas, programación didáctica e innovación consistente en el diseño de un banco del tiempo llevado al ámbito escolar y basado en la metodología Peer Tutoring (Tutoría entre iguales).

  20. Rethinking Distance Tutoring in E-Learning Environments: A Study of the Priority of Roles and Competencies of Open University Tutors in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Zhang, Jingjing; Yu, Chen; Chen, Li

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the priority of the roles and competencies of tutors working in the e-learning environments where the tutors are experiencing the changes brought by reforming traditional TV and broadcasting university to open universities. The mixed methods, DACUM, non-participatory observation, and questionnaires were used to identify…

  1. Note-Taking within MetaTutor: Interactions between an Intelligent Tutoring System and Prior Knowledge on Note-Taking and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Gregory; Duffy, Melissa; Azevedo, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Hypermedia learning environments (HLE) unevenly present new challenges and opportunities to learning processes and outcomes depending on learner characteristics and instructional supports. In this experimental study, we examined how one such HLE--MetaTutor, an intelligent, multi-agent tutoring system designed to scaffold cognitive and…

  2. Directive versus Facilitative Peer Tutoring? A View on Students' Appraisal, Reported Learning Gains and Experiences within Two Differently-Tutored Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghmans, Inneke; Michiels, Lotte; Salmon, Sara; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to shed light on students' appraisal and reported learning gains in two differently-tutored learning environments (i.e. directively and facilitatively tutored). In order to investigate this, a quasi-experimental study was set up in the context of a clinical skills learning environment. Not only were participating…

  3. Orientador ou tutor é autor? Orientador, tutor o director de tesis, ¿es autor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Targino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao decorrer dos tempos, as profundas mudanças no ensino e na pesquisa advindas do avanço tecnológico e, sobretudo, a valoração crescente do ensino superior e da investigação científica vêm acarretando intensa controvérsia em torno do velho e desgastado slogan publish or perish. Cada vez mais, orientadores ou tutores de teses e trabalhos acadêmicos em geral aparecem como primeiro autor ou co-autor de trabalhos realizados por seus alunos, recorrendo ao argumento de que a autoria, como atividade e processo, sofre intensas mutações sociais, culturais, econômicas e políticas. Este é um tema que suscita debate e conduz a mudanças conceituais que exigem a reconstrução dos fundamentos teóricos que cercam a autoria, mas sem relegar a questão ética de respeito à produção do outro.

  4. PEER TUTORING INTERVENTIONS FOR STUDENT WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS: A META – SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. HOTT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A limitation in social interaction is a critical defining characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. Peer tutoring is one of the most widely utilized interventions for improvement of social interaction and academic performance. This synthesis examines the effectiveness of peer tutoring interventions in the United States using percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND. Results suggest that peer tutoring is a viable intervention for supporting social and academic development. Limitations, implycations for practice, and future research directions are reported.

  5. E-learning environment as intelligent tutoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagyová, Ingrid

    2017-07-01

    The development of computers and artificial intelligence theory allow their application in the field of education. Intelligent tutoring systems reflect student learning styles and adapt the curriculum according to their individual needs. The building of intelligent tutoring systems requires not only the creation of suitable software, but especially the search and application of the rules enabling ICT to individually adapt the curriculum. The main idea of this paper is to attempt to specify the rules for dividing the students to systematically working students and more practically or pragmatically inclined students. The paper shows that monitoring the work of students in e-learning environment, analysis of various approaches to educational materials and correspondence assignments show different results for the defined groups of students.

  6. Mining Social and Affective Data for Recommendation of Student Tutors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Boff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a learning environment where a mining algorithm is used to learn patterns of interaction with the user and to represent these patterns in a scheme called item descriptors. The learning environment keeps theoretical information about subjects, as well as tools and exercises where the student can put into practice the knowledge gained. One of the main purposes of the project is to stimulate collaborative learning through the interaction of students with different levels of knowledge. The students' actions, as well as their interactions, are monitored by the system and used to find patterns that can guide the search for students that may play the role of a tutor. Such patterns are found with a particular learning algorithm and represented in item descriptors. The paper presents the educational environment, the representation mechanism and learning algorithm used to mine social-affective data in order to create a recommendation model of tutors.

  7. A Visualization-Based Tutoring Tool for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tang-Hung; Khoo, I.-Hung

    2010-06-01

    In engineering disciplines, students usually have hard time to visualize different aspects of engineering analysis and design, which inherently are too complex or abstract to fully understand without the aid of visual explanations or visualizations. As examples, when learning materials and sequences of construction process, students need to visualize how all components of a constructed facility are assembled? Such visualization can not be achieved in a textbook and a traditional lecturing environment. In this paper, the authors present the development of a computer tutoring software, in which different visualization tools including video clips, 3 dimensional models, drawings, pictures/photos together with complementary texts are used to assist students in deeply understanding and effectively mastering materials. The paper will also discuss the implementation and the effectiveness evaluation of the proposed tutoring software, which was used to teach a construction engineering management course offered at California State University, Long Beach.

  8. Where do people look when tutoring a robot?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohan, Katrin Solveig; Fischer, Kerstin; Dondrup, Christian;

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between tutors' gaze behavior and particular kinds of linguistic behaviors. In particular, we describe how word classes are distributed over different gazing classes. For this, we collected data from human-robot interactions and used a classification...... of our participants' gazing behavior to create subsets of their utterances. The participants' speech was transcribed for 3 sessions (2 min each) of interaction with the robot and classified based on the detected gazing classes (looking at the robot, looking at the object or looking somewhere else......). The analysis shows that there are, for instance, more object related keywords when people are gazing at an object, and more personal pronouns when people are looking at the robot. Understanding the relationship between human tutors' linguistic and gazing behavior can facilitate bootstrapping the one capability...

  9. Student-centered tutoring as a model for patient-centeredness and empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirovich A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adaya Meirovich,1 Rosalie Ber,2 Michael Moore,3 Avi Rotschild4 1Department of Management of Service Organizations, Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem, 2Medical Education Unit, Ruth and Bruce Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Education in Science & Technology, 4Department of Neonatology, Carmel Medical Center, Ruth and Bruce Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Israeli Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel Background: Curriculum planners and medical teachers attempt to enhance medical students’ empathy and patient-centeredness. Despite educational efforts, there is stability in medical students’ empathy and patient-centered medicine during the preclinical stage and a decline in both of them throughout the clinical years. Student–tutor relationship plays a key role in students’ learning. This study tests the effect of learner-centered tutoring on students’ empathy, patient-centeredness, and behavior. Participants and methods: The cohort of 55 students was divided into groups of seven or eight. The experimental group’s tutors underwent LC mentoring. Empathy was assessed with the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy for Students; PC attitude was assessed with the Patient–Provider Orientation Scale (PPOS. Behavior was assessed by simulations of doctor–patient encounters with 32 students at the end of the third year. Each student participated in three such simulations, during which we analyzed ten aspects of physician–patient communication via Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS-coded audiotapes. Results: A significant group difference was found for three RIAS categories: building a relationship and patient-centeredness, where the mean percentage of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and gathering data, where the mean percentage of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group. A significant correlation was found in the experimental group between empathy and

  10. Notes on the Components for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Samuelis

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to present briefly several views on the componentsfor the intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs and to analyze the concepts behind them. We willbriefly analyze the concepts provided by the classical machine learning (ML approachesand then we discuss the role of the components in distributed environment. Finally wesynthesize the converging trends of the ITSs technologies and try to outline further possibleresearch directions in building ITS from components.

  11. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning Java Objects

    OpenAIRE

    S. Abu-Naser1; Ahmed, A; al-Masri, N; Deeb, A; E. Moshtaha; M. AbuLamdy

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a web based intelligent tutoring system for teaching Java objects to students to overcome the difficulties they face. The basic idea of this system is a systematic introduction into the concept of Java objects. The system presents the topic of Java objects and administers automatically generated problems for the students to solve. The system is dynamically adapted at run time to the student’s individual progress. The system provides explicit suppo...

  12. PROFESORADO NOVEL Y FEEDBACK DEL TUTOR. UN ESTUDIO DE CASOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mayoral Serrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la naturaleza del feedbackque los tutores proporcionaron al profesorado novel a lo largo de un programa de acompañamiento y construcción del conocimiento profesional de profesores noveles de Educación Secundaria y Ciclos Formativos. Se analizaron todas las situaciones de feedback de los tutores a los noveles a dos niveles de análisis. Uno de carácter claramente descriptivo (macroanálisis de caracterización del feedback (Van Looy and Vrijsen, 1998. Y otro de carácter más interpretativo (micronivel distinguiendo dos tipos de feedback, uno de cariz y naturaleza más afectiva y otro de cariz y naturaleza más cognitiva (Barrios Espinosa, 2008. Los principales resultados del macroanálisis, muestran cómo las tres temáticas más frecuentes se refieren al tratamiento de los contenidos, la gestión del aula y los espacios y a la interacción con los alumnos; casi más de la mitad de los comentarios son de tipo concreto y que los tutores se decantan claramente por los juicios. Los resultados referentes al microanálisis muestran que el feedback cognitivo es el más utilizado en las tres parejas frente al feedback afectivo relacionado con el apoyo emocional y el fomento de la seguridad y la autoconfianza.

  13. [The tutor-professor, transformer of professional practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardallo Porras, Lola; March i Vila, Gemma

    2007-01-01

    The emerging conceptualization of the teaching-learning process brings with it a modification in the teaching role of a university professor. To think of the function of a tutor-professor from a complex perspective will help professors to develop underneath this paradigm, facilitating the construction of thinking in integrated networks having different types of knowledge which substitute fragmented and lineal knowledge characteristic to positivist thinking. From a complex paradigm, learning acquires a new sense. The complex viewpoint is rich in matrixes, complacent with diversity capable to integrate difficulties. The final objective of teaching is to accompany a student as he/she discovers and interprets reality. The most important function of a tutor is to permit a student to construct himself/herself by means of reflexive dialogue with the student's own learning experience. The tutor's role should enable a student to make use of his/her own speech, offering secure places where a student can find his/her appropriate spot, and where the pressure of an exam becomes more a stimulus to learn than a difficulty for his/her development.

  14. Tutor Inteligente para Propuestas de Investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Miguel García Gorrostieta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudiantes de Nivel Licenciatura llevan a cabo proyec tos de final de curso en los cuales se solicita la estructuración de un trabajo de investigación. Con el fin de mejorar la calidad de dicha tarea y guiar en el desarrollo de este tipo de trabajo, se implementó un Sistema Tutor para ayudar a los estudiantes. En este artículo se presenta un Tutor Inteligente basado en la web para proporcionar asesoramiento a los estudiantes en la estructuración de borradores de proyectos de investigación. Proponemos un modelo del estudiante basado en una red para seguir el progreso de cada estudiante en el desarrollo del proyecto, así como una retroalimentación personalizada en cada evaluación. El tutor incluye un módulo para evaluar la riqueza léxica, que se realiza en términos de densidad léxica, diversidad léxica y sofisticación. Se presentan los resultados de un estudio piloto con estudiantes que usaron el sistema, además de un análisis del cuestionario con el cual se realizó la evaluación empírica, en la cual se muestra que los estudiantes encontraban a la herramienta útil para mejorar sus escri tos.

  15. Interactive Tutoring in Blended Studies: Hindrances and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Ismail Ilyas (Al-Titinchy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper distinguishes between traditional teaching known as lecturing (the teacher centered approach; and tutoring (the contemporary technology-oriented interactive teaching/learning approach. It is based on the implementation of tutoring strategies of ‘blended studies’  at the Arab Open University. It investigates the application of modern interactive teaching/learning strategies, specifying some hindering factors in the AOU-Jordan Branch context. The factors include four variables: tutors, students, course material and assessment. The paper is based on qualitative research in terms of a real teaching/leaning context, using both observation and conversation with learners, besides the use of some quantitative data retrieved from a questionnaire in which learners’ views are sought regarding a number of relevant matters. A number of suggested solutions related to each of the hindering factors are presented, which if applied, may secure shifting the balance of the teaching/learning process to a more interactive technology-based tutoring level, which in turn will enhance learners’ opportunities for the attainment of better academic standards, and secure a higher degree of achievement of the shared educational goals of learners and the educational institution they study in.                                                                                                                                                       Keywords: blended studies, interactional teaching, lecturing, tutoring, course material, English language skills

  16. El papel de los tutores en la auto-dirección del aprendizaje de los estudiantes de Enfermería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Amador Fierros

    2007-03-01

    0.96. Results: when the Kruskal-Wallis survey was conducted, statistically significant differences were found only with regard to the "Group processing" dimension among sophomores and juniors (H = 6.77; P < 0.05. Even though no statistically significant differences were found with regard to the other dimensions, it is possible to detect shifts in the students’ opinion trend about the role of tutors. Conclusion: The overall average score per scale makes it possible to conclude that the "the work of the tutor" is viewed favourably, considering that the students report that their tutor "almost always" facilitates, assists, promotes or collaborates on the development of the skills for being a self directed learner.

  17. The Effect of Peer Tutoring and Explicit Instructional Strategies on Primary School Pupils Learning Outcomes in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tella

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of explicit and peer tutoring instructional strategies (treatment, pupils ability and gender on learning outcomes in primary school Mathematics. Data analysis involved the use of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. The sample consisted of 170 primary 5 pupils selected through simple random from eight schools. The findings revealed that there was significant main effect of treatment on achievement in Mathematics and attitude towards Mathematics. Pupil's ability and gender were found not to have significant main effect on achievement in Mathematics and attitude toward Mathematics. However there was a significant interaction effect of treatment and pupils’ ability on pupils’ attitude towards Mathematics. All the two and three ways interaction effects on achievement and attitude were found not to be significant. These findings and application indicate that the significant main effect of treatment on mathematics achievement and attitude respectively provide empirical basis to suggest that primary school practicing Mathematics teacher should constantly use peer-tutoring and explicit teaching instructional strategies in Mathematics classrooms. The use of these instructional strategies in improving Mathematics achievement and attitude toward the subject should also be encouraged irrespective of student pupil’s ability and gender. There is also a need for developers of curriculum materials (e.g. teacher trainee's, textbook associated trainer's guide in Mathematics methodology to incorporate the significant findings of the present study. The textual material should contain detail of hour peer-tutoring and explicit-teaching instructional strategies could be made an integral part of Mathematics teaching at the primary school level.

  18. Earthquake forecast enrichment scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Smyth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP is a global project aimed at testing earthquake forecast models in a fair environment. Various metrics are currently used to evaluate the submitted forecasts. However, the CSEP still lacks easily understandable metrics with which to rank the universal performance of the forecast models. In this research, we modify a well-known and respected metric from another statistical field, bioinformatics, to make it suitable for evaluating earthquake forecasts, such as those submitted to the CSEP initiative. The metric, originally called a gene-set enrichment score, is based on a Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. Our modified metric assesses if, over a certain time period, the forecast values at locations where earthquakes have occurred are significantly increased compared to the values for all locations where earthquakes did not occur. Permutation testing allows for a significance value to be placed upon the score. Unlike the metrics currently employed by the CSEP, the score places no assumption on the distribution of earthquake occurrence nor requires an arbitrary reference forecast. In this research, we apply the modified metric to simulated data and real forecast data to show it is a powerful and robust technique, capable of ranking competing earthquake forecasts.

  19. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nFetal biophysical profile scoring is a sonographic-based method of fetal assessment first described by Manning and Platt in 1980. "nThe biophysical profile score was developed as a method to integrate real-time observations of the fetus and his/her intrauterine environment in order to more comprehensively assess the fetal condition. These findings must be evaluated in the context of maternal/fetal history (i.e., chronic hypertension, post-dates, intrauterine growth restriction, etc, fetal structural integrity (presence or absence of congenital anomalies, and the functionality of fetal support structures (placental and umbilical cord. For example, acute asphyxia due to placental abruption may result in an absence of the acute variables of the biophysical profile score (fetal breathing movements, fetal movement, fetal tone, and fetal heart rate reactivity with a normal amniotic fluid volume. With post maturity the asphyxial event may be intermittent and chronic resulting in a decrease in amniotic fluid volume, but with the acute variables remaining normal. "nWhile the 5 components of the biophysical profile score have remained unchanged since 1980 (Manning, 1980, the definitions of a normal and abnormal parameter have evolved with increasing experience. "nIn 1984 the definition of oligohydramnios was increased from < 1cm pocket of fluid to < 2.0 x 1.0 cm pocket. Oligohydramnios is now defined as a pocket of amniotic fluid < 2.0 x 2.0 cm (Manning, 1995a "nIf the four ultrasound variables are normal, the accuracy of the biophysical profile score was not found to be significantly improved by adding the non-stress test. As a result, in 1987 the profile score was modified to incorporate the non-stress test only when one of the ultrasound variables was abnormal (Manning 1987. Table 1 outlines the current definitions for quantifying a variable as present or absent. "nEach of the 5 components of the biophysical profile score does not have equal

  20. Learning, Interactional, and Motivational Outcomes in One-to-One Synchronous Computer-Mediated versus Face-to-Face Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Stephanie Ann; VanLehn, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Face-to-face (FTF) human-human tutoring has ranked among the most effective forms of instruction. However, because computer-mediated (CM) tutoring is becoming increasingly common, it is instructive to evaluate its effectiveness relative to face-to-face tutoring. Does the lack of spoken, face-to-face interaction affect learning gains and…

  1. The Use of a Cognitive Tutoring System in the Improvement of the Abstract Reasoning Component of Word Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. L.; Regian, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of ninth-grade students that evaluated the ability of the Word Problem Solving Tutor, a cognitive tutoring system, to improve the abstract-reasoning component of word-problem solving. Compares combinations of traditional instruction, computer-assisted instruction, and the tutoring program and discusses implications for math…

  2. Learning, Interactional, and Motivational Outcomes in One-to-One Synchronous Computer-Mediated versus Face-to-Face Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Stephanie Ann; VanLehn, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Face-to-face (FTF) human-human tutoring has ranked among the most effective forms of instruction. However, because computer-mediated (CM) tutoring is becoming increasingly common, it is instructive to evaluate its effectiveness relative to face-to-face tutoring. Does the lack of spoken, face-to-face interaction affect learning gains and…

  3. Marketized Private Tutoring as a Supplement to Regular Schooling: Liberal Studies and the Shadow Sector in Hong Kong Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Claudia; Bray, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, increasing numbers of students receive after-school private supplementary tutoring. Such tutoring may be provided through informal channels or by companies, and it may be received one-to-one, in small groups or in large classes. The tutoring is commonly called shadow education since its content mimics that of regular schooling.…

  4. An Exploration of Factors Influencing Career Progression of Tutors in Public Primary Teachers' Training Colleges in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchanje, Peter N.; Njuguna, Felicita W.; Kalai, Jeremiah M.; Bironga, Sophia M.

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to determine the influence of gender, Teachers Service Commission (TSC) adherence to career progression policy guidelines and tutors' exposure to professional development on career progression of tutors in primary teachers training colleges in Kenya. This study was a descriptive survey with 264 tutors randomly sampled from eight…

  5. How Does Private Tutoring Mediate the Effects of Socio-Economic Status on Mathematics Performance? Evidence from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalmis, Erkan Hasan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Saatcioglu, Argun

    2016-01-01

    Private tutoring refers to additional instruction out of school. With its determinants and effects, private tutoring has received increasing attention from scholars over the past decades. Because of the increasing role of school and high-stakes exams, the demand for private tutoring has increased tremendously in Turkey. The purpose of this study…

  6. Psychiatry resident-led tutorials increase medical student knowledge and improve national board of medical examiners shelf exam scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, A J S; Palmer, B A

    2015-06-01

    Psychiatry residents have tremendous potential as educators. The authors envisioned residents as small-group tutors, efficiently assessing and correcting knowledge deficits using cases with discussion prompts and teaching points. They empirically tested whether this improves knowledge acquisition. Senior residents delivered eight tutorials during clerkship, which covered child and adolescent psychiatry, anxiety, mood, psychotic, cognitive, and substance use disorders. A 50-item multiple-choice quiz was administered at the beginning and end of clerkship. National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) shelf exam scores from intervention year were compared to the 4 years prior to resident involvement. Mean score on the initial quiz was 34.5 ± 3.7 and 41.8 ± 3.5 on second attempt (p < 0.001). Mean score for NBME psychiatry subject exam during intervention year was 83.2 ± 8.9 and for the four prior years was 78.0 ± 9.3, which was significant (p = 0.002). Resident-led tutorials provide an effective means of increasing psychiatric knowledge and improving performance on NBME subject exams.

  7. A Cognitive Tutor for Genetics Problem Solving: Learning Gains and Student Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Albert; Kauffman, Linda; Maclaren, Ben; Wagner, Angela; Jones, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Genetics is a unifying theme of biology that poses a major challenge for students across a wide range of post-secondary institutions, because it entails complex problem solving. This article reports a new intelligent learning environment called the Genetics Cognitive Tutor, which supports genetics problem solving. The tutor presents complex,…

  8. How to Get out of the Prisoners' Dilemma: Educational Resource Allocation and Private Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongxia; Ding, Xiaohao

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of families in China regarding private tutoring, applying game theory to its discussion of their actions. It finds that families will definitely give their children private tutoring after school in order to obtain better educational opportunities in situations where the distribution of educational resources is…

  9. Children Interactions in Literacy Tutoring Situations: A Study with Urban Marginalized Populations in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia; Stein, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the conversational exchanges through which child tutors mediated literacy abilities and knowledge with young children in the framework of the project "From Child to Child: A Tutor-Child Literacy Program," that is being conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis considered the conversational moves deployed by…

  10. Challenges Experienced by Korean Medical Students and Tutors during Problem-Based Learning: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Tae-Lee, Jong

    2016-01-01

    How people learn is influenced by the cultural contexts in which their learning occurs. This qualitative case study explored challenges Korean medical students and tutors experienced during their PBL sessions from a cultural perspective using Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Twelve preclinical medical students and nine tutors from a large Korean…

  11. What Are They Doing in There? Case Studies of Volunteer Tutors and Adult Literacy Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzer, Alisa

    2006-01-01

    Through case studies of adult literacy learners and the volunteer tutors who instructed them, this article illustrates the strengths and challenges faced by these kinds of instructional pairs. The descriptions help to reveal critical issues that can inform researchers' and practitioners' thinking and practice with regard to tutor training and…

  12. A web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Wellink, Joan; Tramper, Johannes; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.

    2012-01-01

    When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used

  13. In search of an adequate yet affordable tutor in online learning networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Brouns, Francis; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Sloep, P., van Rosmalen, P., Kester, L., Brouns, F. M. R., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). In search of an adequate yet affordable tutor in online learning networks. In search of an adequate yet affordable tutor in online learning networks. Presentation at the 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced

  14. Impact of Professional Nursing Tutors on National Council Licensure Examination Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondeik, Shelly L.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the impact of professional nursing tutors on National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) success. Thirty-eight nursing student success rates from Northcentral Technical College, a two year technical college in Wisconsin, were analyzed by using NCLEX pass rate information, professional tutoring logs, and a…

  15. The Effect of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) on Student Achievement in Algebraic Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsai Chen; Md. Yunus, Aida Suraya; Ali, Wan Zah Wan; Bakar, Ab. Rahim

    2008-01-01

    In this experimental study, use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) followed by use of an Intelligent Tutoring System (CAI+ITS) was compared to the use of CAI (CAI only) in tutoring students on the topic of Algebraic Expression. Two groups of students participated in the study. One group of 32 students studied algebraic expression in a CAI…

  16. Applying Matched Sampling to Evaluate a University Tutoring Program for First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoord, Mark E.; Pleitz, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Our study used a case-control matching design to assess the influence of a voluntary tutoring program in improving first-year students' Grade Point Averages (GPA). To evaluate program effectiveness, we applied case-control matching to obtain 215 pairs of students with or without participation in tutoring, but matched on high school GPA and…

  17. Whose Job Is It? Exploring Subject Tutor Roles in Addressing Students' Academic Writing via Essay Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Krista; Johnson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Strong arguments have been forwarded for embedding academic writing development into the UK higher education curriculum and for subject tutors to facilitate this development (Hyland, 2000; Lea & Street, 2006; Monroe, 2003; Wingate, 2006). This small-scale case study explores subject tutors' practices and beliefs with regard to the provision of…

  18. Situated Learning, Reflective Practice and Conceptual Expansion: Effective Peer Observation for Tutor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Amani; Mladenovic, Rosina

    2015-01-01

    Despite tutors' importance, they often encounter inadequate professional development and support. This study describes the impact of peer observation of teaching activities on tutors' professional development using multiple data-sets over a three-year period. The data was analysed according to three themes: situated learning, reflective…

  19. Chinese Award-Winning Tutors' Perceptions and Practices of Classroom-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiming; Deneen, Christopher Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examines Chinese tertiary award-winning tutors' perceptions and reported practices of classroom-based assessment. Seventeen tutors in the final stage of a national university teaching contest were individually interviewed. An interview framework was developed using three process dimensions of assessment for learning (AfL). A sequential…

  20. Developing a Structured Teaching Plan for Psychiatry Tutors at Oxford University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taiar, Hasanen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to examine the teaching ways I undertook in teaching medical students and to examine the use of a structured teaching plan for the academic and clinical tutors in psychiatry. The teaching plan was developed for use, initially by Oxford University Academic tutors at the Department of Psychiatry. In addition,…

  1. Facilitating small-group learning: A comparison of student and staff tutors' behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.C. Moust (Jos); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis study focused on students' observations of student and staff tutors' behavior during two academic courses, using a thirtynine-item rating scale. The study took place within an integrated problem-based law curriculum. Six major factors in tutors' behavior were identified. Differences

  2. Student and tutor perceptions on attributes of effective problems in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to identify the attributes that students and tutors associated with effective PBL problems, and assess the extent to which these attributes related to the actual effectiveness of problems. To this end, students and tutors in focus groups were asked to discuss about possi

  3. Attitudes of Tutors towards HIV/AIDS in Teachers Training Colleges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitudes of Tutors towards HIV/AIDS in Teachers Training Colleges in Coast ... partly by the socio-cultural influences on their attitudes and life styles. ... positive attitudes and awareness of HIV/AIDS challenges for students and tutors/teachers.

  4. Challenges Experienced by Korean Medical Students and Tutors during Problem-Based Learning: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Tae-Lee, Jong

    2016-01-01

    How people learn is influenced by the cultural contexts in which their learning occurs. This qualitative case study explored challenges Korean medical students and tutors experienced during their PBL sessions from a cultural perspective using Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Twelve preclinical medical students and nine tutors from a large Korean…

  5. Effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring on the Performance of Sixth Grade Students during a Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a variation of peer tutoring on the volleyball skills of four 6th grade middle school students purposefully selected from an intact class of 21 students. Participants were average to low skilled males and females. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to…

  6. Volunteer Motivations and Satisfaction in a Tutoring Program: Implications for Recruitment and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The present study employed a functional approach to assess the motivations of tutors volunteering at a non-profit tutoring program. Based on the work of Clary et al. (1998), the "Volunteer Functions Inventory" (VFI) was used to differentiate between six different functions or motivations; values, understanding, social, career, protective and…

  7. Emerging Technologies Acceptance in Online Tutorials: Tutors' and Students' Behavior Intentions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Adhi

    2014-01-01

    Tutors' and students' intentions to use emerging technologies (ETs) in e-learning systems in higher education institutions are a central concern of researchers, academicians, and practitioners. However, tutors' and students' intentions to use ETs in e-learning systems in distance learning are relatively low. The goal of the study, developed in…

  8. Time-Quality Tradeoff of Waiting Strategies for Tutors to Retrieve Relevant Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Yang, Che-Ching; Liang, Tyne

    2011-01-01

    As more and more undergraduate students act as voluntary tutors to rural pupils after school, there is a growing need for a supporting environment to facilitate adaptive instruction. Among others, a teaching method retrieval system is intended to help tutors find relevant teaching methods for teaching a particular concept. However, teaching…

  9. A web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Wellink, Joan; Tramper, Johannes; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.

    2012-01-01

    When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used par

  10. A Web-Based Adaptive Tutor to Teach PCR Primer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Wellink, Joan; Tramper, Johannes; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.

    2012-01-01

    When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used part of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (the…

  11. Improving the Implementation and Effectiveness of Out-of-School-Time Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Burch, Patricia; Good, Annalee; Acosta, Rudy; Cheng, Huiping; Dillender, Marcus; Kirshbaum, Christi; Nisar, Hiren; Stewart, Mary

    2014-01-01

    School districts are spending millions on tutoring outside regular school day hours for economically and academically disadvantaged students in need of extra academic assistance. Under No Child Left Behind (NCLB), parents of children in persistently low-performing schools were allowed to choose their child's tutoring provider, and together with…

  12. Using Tutors to Improve Educational Games: A Cognitive Game for Policy Argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

    2017-01-01

    How might we balance assistance and penalties to intelligent tutors and educational games that increase learning and interest? We created two versions of an educational game for learning policy argumentation called Policy World. The game (only) version provided minimal feedback and penalized students for errors whereas the game+tutor version…

  13. Investigating the Relationship between Dialogue Structure and Tutoring Effectiveness: A Hidden Markov Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Kristy Elizabeth; Phillips, Robert; Ingram, Amy; Ha, Eun Young; Wallis, Michael; Vouk, Mladen; Lester, James

    2011-01-01

    Identifying effective tutorial dialogue strategies is a key issue for intelligent tutoring systems research. Human-human tutoring offers a valuable model for identifying effective tutorial strategies, but extracting them is a challenge because of the richness of human dialogue. This article addresses that challenge through a machine learning…

  14. Communication between Tutors--Students in DL: A Case Study of the Hellenic Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotis, Anastasiades; Chrysoula, Iliadou

    2010-01-01

    Two-way communication between students and tutors is one of the two key factors contributing to the success of a Distance Learning programme, the other being the complete and well-designed educational package. Both elements are essential to guide students' learning. By means of this communication the tutor can facilitate the interaction of…

  15. Student-centred GP ambassadors: Perceptions of experienced clinical tutors in general practice undergraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Below, Bernhard; Haffling, Ann-Christin; Brorsson, Annika; Mattsson, Bengt; Wahlqvist, Mats

    2015-06-01

    To explore experienced general practitioner (GP) tutor perceptions of a skilled GP tutor of medical students. Interview study based on focus groups. Twenty GPs experienced in tutoring medical students at primary health care centres in two Swedish regions were interviewed. Four focus-group interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Twenty GP tutors, median age 50, specifically selected according to age, gender, and location participated in two focus groups in Gothenburg and Malmö, respectively. Meaning units in the texts were extracted, coded and condensed into categories and themes. Three main themes emerged: "Professional as GP and ambassador to general practice", "Committed and student-centred educator", and "Coordinator of the learning environment". Experienced GP tutors describe their skills as a clinical tutor as complex and diversified. A strong professional identity within general practice is vital and GP tutors describe themselves as ambassadors to general practice, essential to the process of recruiting a new generation of general practitioners. Leaders of clinical education and health care planners must understand the complexity in a clinical tutor's assignment and provide adequate support, time, and resources in order to facilitate a sustainable tutorship and a good learning environment, which could also improve the necessary recruitment of future GPs.

  16. Self-Assessment in the REAP Tutor: Knowledge, Interest, Motivation, & Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…

  17. Effects of tutor-related behaviours on the process of problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Chng (Esther); E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTutors in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum are thought to play active roles in guiding students to develop frameworks for use in the construction of knowledge. This implies that both subject-matter expertise and the ability of tutors to facilitate the learning process must be im

  18. Classwide Peer Tutoring: An Effective Strategy for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Effective intervention procedures are essential to breaking the cycle of school failure. Tobin and Sprague (2000) conducted a review of strategies that have shown to be effective with youth served in alternative education settings. Among those were instructional strategies, including tutoring. ClassWide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) is a well-researched…

  19. Analysing tutor feedback to students: first steps towards constructing an electronic monitoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Whitelock

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Learning Environments provide the possibility of offering additional support to tutors, monitors and students in writing and grading essays and reports. They enable monitors to focus on the assignments that need most attention. This paper reports the findings from phase one of a feasibility study to assist the monitoring of student essays. It analyses tutor comments from electronically marked assignments and investigates how they match the mark awarded to each essay by the tutor. This involved carrying out a category analysis of the tutors' feedback to the students using Bales's 'interactional categories' as a theoretical basis. The advantage of this category system is that it distinguishes between task-orientated contributions, and the 'socio-emotive' element used by tutors to maintain student motivation. This reveals both how the tutor makes recommendations to improve the assignment content, and how they provide emotional support to students. Bales's analysis was presented to a group of tutors who felt an electronic feedback system based on this model would help them to get the right balance of responses to their students. These findings provide a modest start to designing a model of feedback for tutors of distance education students. Future work will entail refining these categories and testing this model with a larger sample from a different subject domain.

  20. How to Analyze Interpersonal and Individual Effects in Peer-Tutored Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bettina; Richter, Tobias; Križan, Ana; Hecht, Teresa; Ennemoser, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Reading strategy interventions relying upon peer tutoring are a common way to foster poor readers' comprehension skills. Those interventions are based on the assumption that tutees benefit from the (higher) reading skills of their tutors. However, this interpersonal effect has not yet been tested explicitly because the effectiveness of peer…

  1. Situated Learning, Reflective Practice and Conceptual Expansion: Effective Peer Observation for Tutor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Amani; Mladenovic, Rosina

    2015-01-01

    Despite tutors' importance, they often encounter inadequate professional development and support. This study describes the impact of peer observation of teaching activities on tutors' professional development using multiple data-sets over a three-year period. The data was analysed according to three themes: situated learning, reflective practice…

  2. Beliefs, Behaviours, and Professional Development of Tutors in Problem-Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Williams (Judith)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe theme of this thesis is the tutor in problem-based learning (PBL). Specifically, the objective of the five studies presented is to gain an understanding of what shapes tutors as facilitators of student learning; their beliefs about teaching, their educational intentions and goals as

  3. Time-Quality Tradeoff of Waiting Strategies for Tutors to Retrieve Relevant Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Yang, Che-Ching; Liang, Tyne

    2011-01-01

    As more and more undergraduate students act as voluntary tutors to rural pupils after school, there is a growing need for a supporting environment to facilitate adaptive instruction. Among others, a teaching method retrieval system is intended to help tutors find relevant teaching methods for teaching a particular concept. However, teaching…

  4. Effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring on the Performance of Sixth Grade Students during a Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a variation of peer tutoring on the volleyball skills of four 6th grade middle school students purposefully selected from an intact class of 21 students. Participants were average to low skilled males and females. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to…

  5. Instructional Design and Intelligent Tutoring: Theory and the Precision of Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Peter; Dannenberg, Roger B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses instructional design methods used in intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) and describes the application of instructional systems design to the creation of an ITS called Piano Tutor, a multimedia workstation that is designed to provide first-year piano lessons. The ITS curriculum is analyzed, including critical lessons and skill groups.…

  6. Possibilities and Limitations of the Application of Academic Tutoring in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Anna; Kowalczuk-Waledziak, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In the face of mass education, the need to seek individualized methods of students' teaching-learning is increasing. That causes academic tutoring to become more and more popular in higher education all over the world. The article presents the theoretical background of tutoring, the results of research in that regard and the benefits of its…

  7. Contemporary Tutorial Call: Using Purpose-Built Video as a Grammar Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Jarrad R.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increased emphasis on form-focused instruction (FFI), the use of the computer as a grammar tutor has remained largely unexamined for nearly two decades. With new technologies at hand, there is a need to take a fresh look at online grammar tutors and link designs more strongly to contemporary second language acquisition (SLA) principles…

  8. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  9. A Web-Based Adaptive Tutor to Teach PCR Primer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Wellink, Joan; Tramper, Johannes; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.

    2012-01-01

    When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used part of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (the…

  10. A web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Wellink, Joan; Tramper, Johannes; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.

    2012-01-01

    When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used par

  11. A Web-based Adaptive Tutor to Teach PCR Primer Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seters, van J.R.; Wellink, J.; Tramper, J.; Goedhart, M.J.; Ossevoort, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used par

  12. Clinical significance of VEGFR-2 and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT SUVmax pretreatment score in predicting the long-term outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Claudio V. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Emilio; Peligros, Isabel [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Pathology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Alfonso, Pilar [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Medical Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Carlos; Ochoa, Enrique [Hospital Provincial de Castellon, Institute of Oncology, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Herranz, Rafael [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute for Sanitary Research, Madrid (Spain); Carreras, Jose L. [School of Medicine Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), epidermal growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) stimulate key processes involved in tumor progression and are important targets for cancer drugs. {sup 18}F-FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) is a marker of tumor metabolic activity. The purpose of this study was to measure SUVmax combined with VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 proteins in pretreatment tumor biopsies from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving intensive neoadjuvant treatment and to correlate the findings with clinical outcome. VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 were measured using the immunoreactive score (IRS). SUVmax (median 8.4) was quantified in tumors with molecular overexpression (IRS {>=}3 + SUVmax {>=} 8.4 indicating active tumors; SUVmax <8.4 indicating inactive tumors). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore associations between tumor markers, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The study group comprised 38 patients with a median follow-up of 69.3 months (range 4.5 - 92 months). Multivariate analysis showed that active tumors (overexpressing VEGFR-2, high SUVmax) were associated with worse DFS (HR 4.73, 95 % CI 1.18 - 22.17; p = 0.04) and OS (HR 4.28, 95 % CI 1.04 - 20.12; p = 0.05). Active tumors overexpressing VEGFR-2 are associated with a worse overall outcome in patients with rectal cancer treated with induction chemotherapy followed by pelvic chemoradiation and surgery. The optimal diagnostic cut-off level for this novel biomarker association should be investigated. Evaluation in a clinical trial is required to determine whether selected patients could benefit from a VEGFR-targeting drug. (orig.)

  13. Online tutoring procedure for research project supervision: management, organization and key elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antònia Darder Mesquida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research project tutoring appears as a crucial element for teaching; it is a planned action based on the relationship between a tutor and a student. This paper presents the findings of a design and development research which has as its main aim to create an organization system for the tutoring of online research projects. That system seeks to facilitate the tutoring and supervision task with trainee researchers, providing guidance for its management and instruments for its implementation. The main conclusions arising from this research derive from considering the need to offer a solution to the problem of distance research project supervision and has materialized in organization and sequencing through a model about the variables that influence the research project tutoring problem.

  14. Intelligent tutoring system for clinical reasoning skill acquisition in dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebnukarn, Siriwan

    2009-10-01

    Learning clinical reasoning is an important core activity of the modern dental curriculum. This article describes an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for clinical reasoning skill acquisition. The system is designed to provide an experience that emulates that of live human-tutored problem-based learning (PBL) sessions as much as possible, while at the same time permitting the students to participate collaboratively from disparate locations. The system uses Bayesian networks to model individual student knowledge and activity, as well as that of the group. Tutoring algorithms use the models to generate tutoring hints. The system incorporates a multimodal interface that integrates text and graphics so as to provide a rich communication channel between the students and the system, as well as among students in the group. Comparison of learning outcomes shows that student clinical reasoning gains from the ITS are similar to those obtained from human-tutored sessions.

  15. Lessons Drawn from Implementation of Online Tutoring System in Physics Courses

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Itzhak

    2007-01-01

    The online tutoring system CAPA was implemented at Afeka College in the academic year 2000-2001 in calculus based physics courses. It was used also in the academic year 2001-2002 and was very successful in improving understanding and achievements of the students. The paper describes the system features and the case study of its implementation. Lessons drawn from use of the CAPA system are discussed. The system no doubt contributed significantly to increased understanding and higher achievements in the final exams. This was at a price that students felt that they had to devote more time to study than traditionally required. The instructor has to invest more time than traditionally done in composing new problems and managing the system. However, the increased interaction with the students makes the teaching process much more interesting and rewarding.

  16. A Study of Learners’ Reflection on Andragogical Skills of Distance Education Tutors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The researcher conducted present study with the objectives to a. evaluate attitude of learners towards academic and tutoring skills of distance education tutors, b. assess the opinion of distance learners about assessment and evaluation skills of their tutors and c. examine reflection of learners on scaffolding skills of distance education tutors. The population of the study consisted of learners of pre-service teacher education (B.Ed semester spring 2010 programme of Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad. The sample of the study was taken through the convenient sampling technique from three regions of Allama Iqbal Open University situated in the Punjab Province. A questionnaire was designed using a five-point (rating/Likert scale to elicit the reflection of (600 learners. However, the response rate was 78% (468 of the total sample. Interview schedule was also used as a research tool for collecting qualitative data from (50 respondents in five groups. The researcher analysed data quantitatively and qualitatively. The study concluded that the overall reflection of distance learners on andragogical skills of their tutors was positive. Apparently they were satisfied with andragogical skills of their tutors. They asserted that their tutors had academic and tutoring skills (consisting of encouraging, guiding & facilitating –emboldening and enabling skills, assessment & evaluation skills, and technical and social skills. However, tutors needed training to use social websites, Skype and mobile phone conferences and online discussion. Keeping in view the conclusion of the study, the researcher recommended short and long term training of tutors to use information and communication technologies appropriately.

  17. Using a Learning Model to Integrate Study Skills into a Peer-Tutoring Program. College Reading and Learning Assistance Technical Report 84-03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Ronald V.; And Others

    The use of a learning model in a peer tutoring program is discussed. Although the tutorial function is often a priority, the goal of the peer-tutoring program is to help students become independent learners. To eliminate the need for tutoring, it is necessary to determine why the student is having academic problems. To train peer tutors, a…

  18. THE FUZZY OVERLAY STUDENT MODEL IN AN INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the student model for use in an intelligent tutoring system (ITS designed for the evaluation of students’ competencies in different Higher Education Facilities. There are classification and examples of the various student models, the most suitable for the evaluation of competencies is selected and finalized. The dynamic overlay fuzzy student model builded on the domain model based on the concept of didactic units is described in this work. The formulas, chart and diagrams are provided.

  19. El problema del modelado del estudiante en Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes

    OpenAIRE

    Cataldi, Zulma; Lage, Fernando Javier

    2007-01-01

    El presente subproyecto forma parte del proyecto “Metodología de diseño y evaluación de Sistemas tutores inteligentes” que se desarrolla actualmente en Facultad de Ingeniería, donde para la producción de los STI convergen las distintas corrientes y vertientes epistemológicas que quedan evidenciadas en la práctica docente. Se busca una nueva opción que sea más versátil respecto de cómo el alumno mantiene, organiza y adquiere los nuevos conocimientos. Las diferentes formas de pensar de los alum...

  20. Relevancia del tutor en los programas a distancia

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    En 1999, la Escuela Superior de Comercio y Administración del Instituto Politécnico Nacional inició un programa mixto (presencial-distancia) en la maestría en administración y desarrollo de la educación (en Tijuana, Morelia y Cancún). Hubo maestros que, sin ser tutores, fungieron como facilitadores. Así que se pensó en la necesidad de tener un modelo tutorial apropiado a posgrado. Se hizo una investigación descriptiva caracterizando a docentes con funciones tutoriales. Se contó con una n=298 ...

  1. Questioning Mechanisms During Tutoring, Conversation, and Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    O74W10 I8 Publi I"&ln 0W4 Sft fo ftm colimm" fi Infoowiivi it qnf~ teo *5 to veli iff9 ¶fO’i w~ ’triffi. oftetwist" tft t0w 1 fo~Wr n 7vg mirwIt~ittO...show a positive relationship between question asking and achievement (Fishbein, Eckart, Lauver, van Leeuwen . & Langmeyer, 1990). In summary, the...331-339. Fishbein, H. D., Eckart, T., Lauver, E., Van Leeuwen . R., & Langmeyer. D. (1990). Learners’ questions and comprehension in a tutoring setting

  2. Test Scoring [book review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses how to obtain test scores and, in particular, how to obtain test scores from tests that consist of a combination of multiple choice and open-ended questions. The strength of the book is that scoring solutions are presented for a diversity of real world scoring problems. (SLD)

  3. Tutors' Forum: Engaging Distributed Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Rosemary; Stirling, Jeannette; Percy, Alisa

    2009-01-01

    The need to engage students studying at a distance in order to reduce isolation, foster a sense of belonging and enhance learning has received significant attention over the past few years. Conversely, very little research has focused on teachers working in this type of environment. In fact, we argue, they appear to be the forgotten dimension in…

  4. Smart Agent Based Mobile Tutoring and Querying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Sankaranarayanan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With our busy schedules today and the rising cost of education there is a need to find a convenient and cost effective means of maximizing our educational/training experiences. New trends in the delivery/access of information are becoming more technology based in all areas of society with education being no exception. The ubiquitous use of mobile devices has led to a boom in m-commerce. Mobile devices provide many services in commercial environments such as mobile banking, mobile purchasing, mobile learning, etc. It is therefore fitting that we seek to use mobile devices as a platform in delivering our convenient and cost effective solution. The proposed agent based Mobile tutoring system seeks to provide a student with a rich learning experience that will provide them with the relevant reading material based on their stage of development which allows them to move at their own pace. The system will allow the user to be able to ask certain questions and get explanations as if they were interacting with a human tutor but with the added benefit of being able to do this anytime in any location via their mobile phone.

  5. Diseño de un Sistema Tutor Inteligente Multiagente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Jiménez Rey

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presentó en una publicación previa la primera etapa de una línea de investigación dentro del Proyecto de Investigación Acreditado I015 “Manufactura Integrada por Computadora en Sistemas Complejos para el Desarrollo Social, Industrial y de Tecnología”. Se ilustraron en un marco teórico los temas básicos que pretende aunar dicho trabajo: los Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes (STI y los Sistemas Multiagentes (SMA. La creación de Sistemas Inteligentes Educativos (SIE se enfoca más como una herramienta complementaria de la enseñanza y del aprendizaje que permite aumentar la calidad del aprendizaje, que como una herramienta que sustituye en sí todo un sistema clásico de enseñanza y de aprendizaje. En este trabajo se describe los aspectos esenciales que se deben considerar en el modelado de un sistema tutor inteligente utilizando la tecnología de agentes y se propone el diseño de uno en particular, especialmente su modelo de datos.

  6. [The virtual environment of a research group: the tutors' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2012-02-01

    The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance.

  7. PROVISION OF RESEARCH SUPPORT SERVICES TO ODL LEARNERS BY TUTORS: A Focus on the Zimbabwe Open University’s Bachelor of Education (Educational Management Research Students’ Supervision Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichaona MAPOLISA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ODL learners’ perceptions of the quality of provision of research support services to the ODL learners by tutors. It focused on the Zimbabwe Open University’s (ZOU Bachelor of Education (Educational Management research students’ experiences. It was a qualitative multiple case study of four of the 10 Regional Centres of the ZOU. It purposively sampled 40 out of 160 research participants because they possessed desirable research characteristics for this study. The study was deemed significant in influencing tutors and policy makers to consider their research students’ supervision experiences as a basis for improving the quality of services for future research supervision practices and research projects. The study was guided by a two fold theory namely, thee Facilitation Theory (Nyawaranda, 2005 and the Nurturing Theory (Anderson, Pay and Mac Laughlin, 2006. Both theories advocate for the need of the supervisors to give their students a big heart. In terms of research supervision services offered by tutors the study indicated the time students were offered to meet research supervisors, prompt returns of marked work, and tutor student motivation and counselling as key services. In connection with the joys about research supervision, the students highly regarded: the manner in which tutors motivated them, tutors guidance in choosing research topic, tutor mentorship during research supervision and provision of workshops to polish up their research skills. In line with the challenges to the provision of research support services, three categories of challenges emerged. First, student-related challenges included lack of time, lack of money, lack of library facilities, lack of motivation and commitment to do research, lack of adequate theory in the area being researched on and family problems. Second, supervisor-related challenges included: too little direction, too little practical help given, too few meeting with students

  8. The learning theories’ knowledge applied in the performance of distance tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Abreu de Moraes Figueiredo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to identify the most influential theory of learning related to the practice of mentoring from behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, the sociocultural theory and connectivism, and apply the most appropriate theories to solve common problems in distance education. For this purpose, we used the literature method. It was noted that each of the theories end up being influential to the role of tutor. Therefore, the learning tends to be richer in the ratio and effective to apply different theories together. However, that support better substantiating tutor's role is humanism, the sociocultural theory and connectivism. It was noticed that the problems often experienced by students in distance education are due to failures tutor interaction and affection, implying to resolve them closer tutor with the student to have more responsibility in the exchange of information, meeting deadlines and clarity in the disclosure notes assessments. Knowledge are mainly from humanism and sociocultural theory that end up not only reasons for existence of the tutor as serving to improve the development of the quality of tutor-student interaction. Keywords: learning theories; distance learning (DL; tutor distance.

  9. The subjective experience of collaboration in interprofessional tutor teams: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The Center for Interprofessional Training in Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany, has offered courses covering interprofessional material since the winter semester 2014/15. The unusual feature of these courses is that they are co-taught by peer tutors from medicine and nursing. This study investigates the subjective experiences of these tutors during the collaborative preparation and teaching of these tutorials with the aim of identifying the effects of equal participation in the perceptions and assessments of the other professional group.Method: Semi-structured, guideline-based interviews were held with six randomly selected tutors. The interviews were analyzed using structuring content analysis.Results: The results show that collaborative work led to reflection, mostly by the university student tutors, on the attitudes held. However, the co-tutors from each professional group were perceived to different degrees as being representative of those in their profession. Asked to master a shared assignment in a non-clinical context, the members of the different professional groups met on equal footing, even if the medical students had already gathered more teaching experience and thus mostly assumed a mentoring role over the course of working on and realizing the teaching units. The nursing tutors were primarily focused on their role as tutor. Both professional groups emphasized that prior to the collaboration they had an insufficient or no idea about the theoretical knowledge or practical skills of the other professional group. Overall, the project was rated as beneficial, and interprofessional education was endorsed.Conclusion: In the discussion, recommendations based on the insights are made for joint tutor training of both professional groups. According to these recommendations, harmonizing the teaching abilities of all tutors is essential to ensure equality during cooperation

  10. Formación de investigadores en medicina familiar: El modelo de tutorización en investigación Asesor-Tutor-Residente (ATR Researchers training on family medicine: The tutoring model in investigation advisory-tutor-resident (ATR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Raúl Ponce Rosas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available El tutor de la medicina de familia, los principios y características de la tutoría y la relación tutor-residente son elementos fundamentales para el desarrollo adecuado de los cursos de especialización de esta disciplina. La tutoría o tutorización en medicina familiar es la base de la docencia y se centra en la figura de una relación humana de enseñanza individualizada tutor-residente en la práctica asistencial, docente y de investigación. Los modelos de tutorización en medicina de familia proporcionan herramientas útiles para establecer una adecuada relación tutor-residente. En este trabajo se describe el modelo de tutorización en investigación Asesor-Tutor-Residente, que se lleva a cabo en el Curso de Especialización de Medicina Familiar en la Facultad de Medicina de la UNAM, México. El modelo de tutorización en investigación Asesor-Tutor-Residente (ATR, es un paradigma de capacitación teórico-práctico en esta importante y fundamental área de la medicina de familia. El modelo ATR pretende motivar e interesar a tutores y residentes para hacer investigación con base en la demostración y la supervisión formativa a través de la asesoría continua, reflexiva, planeada y sistematizada.The tutor of the family medicine, the principles and characteristics of the tutorship, and the relationship tutor-resident they are fundamental elements for the appropriate development of the courses of specialization of this discipline. The tutorship or tutoring in family medicine are the base of the teaching and it is centered in the figure of a human relationship of teaching individualized tutor-resident in the assistance, educational practice and investigation. The tutoring models in family medicine provide useful tools to establish an appropriate relationship tutor-resident. In this work is describe the tutoring model in investigation "advisory-tutor-resident" (ATR that is carried out in the Course of Specialization of Family Medicine in

  11. Explorando las tutorías en el proceso de Convergencia Europea

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Lirola, María

    2008-01-01

    Uno de los pilares del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES) es el aprendizaje autónomo. Este tipo de aprendizaje potencia que el alumnado adquiera total protagonismo y que el profesorado asuma nuevos papeles entre los que destaca el de tutor. Para que el aprendizaje autónomo sea efectivo requiere un buen sistema de tutorías. En este artículo presentamos los resultados de una encuesta anónima de 14 preguntas relacionada con el uso de las tutorías en la universidad que fue respondida po...

  12. Automated topic spotting provides added efficiency in a chat based tutoring environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available the system. At the time of writing this paper, there are over thirty thousand pupils registered with Dr Math. Although these thirty thousand pupils do not all use Dr Math all the time, whenever a tutor logs in, the tutor is soon chatting with twenty..., MXit Lifestyle. This protocol is extremely compact and is ideal for use on a cell phone. At the time of writing this paper, MXit boasts millions of users. The majority of the pupils who contact Dr Math do so via MXit. A number of Dr Math tutors...

  13. Subgroup Balancing Propensity Score

    OpenAIRE

    DONG, JING; Zhang, Junni L; Li, Fan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the estimation of subgroup treatment effects with observational data. Existing propensity score matching and weighting methods are mostly developed for estimating overall treatment effect. Although the true propensity score should balance covariates for the subgroup populations, the estimated propensity score may not balance covariates for the subgroup samples. We propose the subgroup balancing propensity score (SBPS) method, which selects, for each subgroup, to use either the ...

  14. The relationship between the monitored performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials and the marked hypotheses generated by students in a hybrid curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addae, Jonas I.; Sahu, Pradeep; Sa, Bidyadhar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: There have been a number of published studies examining the link between the effectiveness of the problem-based learning (PBL) process and students’ performance in examinations. In a hybrid PBL/lectures curriculum, the results of such studies are of limited use because of the difficulty in dissociating the knowledge gained at lectures from that gained through PBL-related activities. Hence, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop an instrument to measure the performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials, and (2) to explore the contribution of such performances to the marks attained by students from the hypotheses generated at PBL tutorials. Methods: A monitoring instrument for assessing the performances of non-expert tutors and students at tutorials was developed and validated using principal component analysis and reliability analysis. Also, a rubric was formulated to enable a content expert to assign marks to the quality of hypotheses generated. Results: The monitoring instrument was found to be valid and reliable. There was a significant correlation between the performance of tutors at tutorials and hypotheses marks. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the performance of students and hypotheses marks. Discussion: The monitoring instrument is a useful tool for improving the PBL process, especially where the medical programme depends on non-expert PBL tutors. In addition to ensuring good PBL processes, it is important that students achieve the desired output at PBL tutorials by producing hypotheses that help them understand the basic sciences underlying the clinical cases. The latter is achieved by the use of an open-ended rubric by a subject expert to assign marks to the hypotheses, a method that also provides additional motivation to students to develop relevant and detailed hypotheses. PMID:28178915

  15. The relationship between the monitored performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials and the marked hypotheses generated by students in a hybrid curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addae, Jonas I; Sahu, Pradeep; Sa, Bidyadhar

    2017-01-01

    There have been a number of published studies examining the link between the effectiveness of the problem-based learning (PBL) process and students' performance in examinations. In a hybrid PBL/lectures curriculum, the results of such studies are of limited use because of the difficulty in dissociating the knowledge gained at lectures from that gained through PBL-related activities. Hence, the objectives of this study were: (1) to develop an instrument to measure the performance of tutors and students at PBL tutorials, and (2) to explore the contribution of such performances to the marks attained by students from the hypotheses generated at PBL tutorials. A monitoring instrument for assessing the performances of non-expert tutors and students at tutorials was developed and validated using principal component analysis and reliability analysis. Also, a rubric was formulated to enable a content expert to assign marks to the quality of hypotheses generated. The monitoring instrument was found to be valid and reliable. There was a significant correlation between the performance of tutors at tutorials and hypotheses marks. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the performance of students and hypotheses marks. The monitoring instrument is a useful tool for improving the PBL process, especially where the medical programme depends on non-expert PBL tutors. In addition to ensuring good PBL processes, it is important that students achieve the desired output at PBL tutorials by producing hypotheses that help them understand the basic sciences underlying the clinical cases. The latter is achieved by the use of an open-ended rubric by a subject expert to assign marks to the hypotheses, a method that also provides additional motivation to students to develop relevant and detailed hypotheses.

  16. The Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  17. A Reusable Interaction Management Module: Use case for Empathic Robotic Tutoring

    OpenAIRE

    Janarthanam, Srinivasan; Hastie, Helen; Deshmukh, Amol; Aylett, Ruth; Foster, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the workings of a stochastic Interaction Management and showcase this working as part of a learning environment that includes a robotic tutor who interacts with students, helping them through a pedagogical task.

  18. EDUCATIONAL INCLUSION A VIEW FROM TEACHERS-TUTORS FOR BACCALAUREATE: CHALLENGES AND DEFIANCES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irma Leticia Zapata-Rivera; Jesús López-Estrada; Mónica Liliana Rivera-Obregón

    2015-01-01

    This article provide an overview of educational inclusion about the challenges and defiances of the PIT-ADIUAS UAS in the formation of the student, through the eyes of teachers-tutors baccalaureate...

  19. Book Review: Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marimuthu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia By Mark Bray and Ora Kwo (2014, 93pp. ISBN: 978-988-17852-9-9, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.

  20. Taking over someone else's design: implications for the tutor's role in networked learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Asensio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the experiences of a particular tutor taking over a specific course. It is an example of a common situation found in higher education (HE institutions, when newly appointed or temporary part-time or full-time staff are hired to teach courses that have been designed and developed by other members of teaching staff. The experience of this particular tutor may help us to illuminate the role that tutors have more generally in networked learning environments. For the purpose of clarification, we define networked learning as 'learning in which C&IT is used to promote connections between one learner and other learners, between learners and tutors, between a learning community and its learning resources'.

  1. The effect of peer tutoring about performance of students with disabilities in inclusive classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiani dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at to investigate of the procedure of peer tutoring on the academic performance of pupils with intellectual disability in common classrooms of Early Education schools. Participate on the study two children with intellectual disability and twelve typical developmental as tutorial. The taught task was the recognition and the nomination of vowels of the alphabet, through playful activities, being that in the condition without peer tutoring the task was individualized and in the tutoring condition, the task was made in pairs. The results even so point that the peer tutoring can be effective in the improvement of the academic performance, although that is not applied for all of the children and the subject deserve more inquiry.

  2. Book Review: Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring: Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring: Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures. By Mark Bray, Ora Kwo and Boris Jokic (Eds. (2015, 292pp. ISBN: 9789881424136, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong.

  3. Book review: Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Watson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Confronting the Shadow Education System: What Government Policies for What Private Tutoring' By Mark Bray (2009, 135pp. ISBN: 078-92-803-1333-8, Paris: IIEP/UNESCO Publishing

  4. Effect of using peer tutoring to support knowledge sharing in Learning Networks: A cognitive load perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., & Sloep, P. B. (2010, 4 November). Effect of using peer tutoring to support knowledge sharing in Learning Networks: A cognitive load perspective. Presentation at ICO-Toogdag, Amstelveen, The Netherlands: VU Amsterdam.

  5. Mechanisms of peer tutoring on optimizing cognitive load during knowledge sharing in learning networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., & Sloep, P. B. (2010, 15 April). Mechanisms of peer tutoring on optimizing cognitive load during knowledge sharing in learning networks. Presentation at NELLL Colloqium, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  6. Effect of using peer tutoring to support knowledge sharing in Learning Networks: A cognitive load perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., & Sloep, P. B. (2010). Effect of using peer tutoring to support knowledge sharing in Learning Networks: A cognitive load perspective. ICO-Toogdag. November, 4, 2010, Amstelveen, The Netherlands: VU Amsterdam.

  7. Conversation as Academic Practice: Tutors' Strategies in Integrating Student Learning in a Professional Training Degree Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Bowden

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tutors are generally considered to be an additional resource in teaching and learning, as a means of augmenting that of the lecturer. This article explores tutors as academic staff with responsibilities for developing practice competencies and integrating student learning in a social care professional training degree programme. The research is small-scale, based upon data from a purposive sample of five interviews; and upon insider-participant observation notes and reflections in one single setting. The author deployed a situated ethnographic methodology alongside a frame analytic approach. The research found that in their academic practice, tutors reveal how their student contact is oriented to developing a reflective practitioner and they discuss how programme inputs impact on the student’s professional self. Simultaneously, tutors seek to create cross programme integration through finding overlaps with academic programme strands.

  8. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  9. An experimental analysis of the effectiveness and sustainability of a Chinese tutoring package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith

    2012-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of training tutors to use an instructional package to teach pronunciation and translation of the Chinese language. Tutors' correct use of the package increased from 68% of trials to 92% after training, and student correct pronunciation increased from 45% to 90%, with similar effects for translation. Continued use of the package, high social validity, and extended follow-up suggest that use of the package may be sustainable.

  10. Accelerating Development of Expertise: A Digital Tutor for Navy Technical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    effectiveness of “ clinical ” with “statistical” decision - making . In these comparisons, researchers used regression analysis to capture as accurately...contribution to successful problem- solving, decision - making , and learning seem in order. 7. Mixed-Initiative Dialogue The DARPA Digital Tutor relied... tutor for every student is, with few exceptions, obvious and decisive . Over the last 50 years, this understanding has motivated the development of

  11. Students and tutors' social representations of assessment in problem-based learning tutorials supporting change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollela Valdes R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical programmes that implement problem-based learning (PBL face several challenges when introducing this innovative learning method. PBL relies on small group as the foundation of study, and tutors facilitate learning by guiding the process rather than teaching the group. One of the major challenges is the use of strategies to assess students working in small groups. Self-, peer- and tutor-assessment are integral part of PBL tutorials and they're not easy to perform, especially for non experienced students and tutors. The undergraduate PBL medical programme was introduced in 2003, and after two years the curriculum committee decided to evaluate the tutorial assessment in the new program. Methods A random group of ten students, out of a cohort of sixty, and ten tutors (out of eighteen were selected for semi-structured interviews. The social representations' theory was used to explore how the students and tutors made sense of "assessment in tutorials". The data were content analyzed using software for qualitative and quantitative processing of text according to lexicological distribution patterns. Results Even though students and tutors are aware of the broader purpose of assessment, they felt that they were not enough trained and confident to the tutorial assessment. Assigning numbers to complex behaviors on a regular basis, as in tutorials, is counter productive to cooperative group learning and self assessment. Tutors believe that students are immature and not able to assess themselves and tutors. Students believe that good grades are closely related to good oral presentation skills and also showed a corporative attitude among themselves (protecting each other from poor grades. Conclusion Faculty training on PBL tutorials' assessment process and a systematic strategy to evaluate new programs is absolutely necessary to review and correct directions. It is envisaged that planners can make better-informed decisions about

  12. Evaluasi Tutor Online untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Layanan Tutorial Tatap Muka pada Pendidikan Jarak Jauh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Underwriting performance of tutors at the Open University (UT is determined from the evaluation of tutors is done manually by distributing a questionnaire to students. This system is costly, less preferred students, interfere with the activity of the tutorial, the questionnaire processing is still done manually, and the report can not be received on time. The solution needs to be an evaluation system based tutors online to replace the old system. This study aims to generate application-based tutor online evaluation system which can improve the quality of service tutorial face to face at UT. Application design using the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC with several stages. The first is a systems planning (needs analysis, using interview techniques, dokuemntasi and observation. Second, system analysis (system requirements analysis conducted to formulate the solution of existing problems. Third, the system design (system design, which is depicted in diagrammatic form context-level data flow diagram (DFD. Fourth systems implementation (implementation of the system, carried out using pseudocode programming code based on the programming language, and Fifth, system testing, using black box method testing. Results test show that the application is in conformity with the needs of the system, where students can assess the tutor UT simply by accessing the internet. Expected results of this study, evaluation of the application form based online tutors can help UT in terms of improving the quality of face-to-face tutorial services.

  13. Experiences of clinical tutors with English as an additional language (EAL) students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongyan; Maithus, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    Clinical tutors, referred to in the international literature as clinical supervisors, facilitators, mentors or instructors, are responsible for providing and supervising workplace learning opportunities for groups of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students. They also play a key role in assessing students. The role modeling and support provided by both clinical tutors and registered nurses (RN) or nurse preceptors helps students become familiar with the language in which nursing work is realised. As BN student cohorts in New Zealand have become more diverse in terms of cultures, ethnicities and language backgrounds, clinical tutors have to directly facilitate the development of context-specific and client-focused communication skills for students who speak English as an additional language. We undertook a study which looked at the perceptions of new nursing graduates with English as an additional language (EAL) on the development of spoken language skills for the clinical workplace. As well as interviewing graduates, we spoke to four clinical tutors in order to elicit their views on the language development of EAL students in previous cohorts. This article reports on the themes which emerged from the interviews with the tutors. These include goal setting for communication, integrating students into nursing work, making assessment less stressful, and endorsing independent learning strategies. Based on their observations and on other published research we make some suggestions about ways both clinical tutors and EAL students within their teaching groups could be supported in the development of communication skills for clinical practice.

  14. Validation of an instrument to measure tutor performance in promoting self-directed learning by using confirmatory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Amador Fierros

    Full Text Available Objective.This work sought to validate and propose an instrument to measure the performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning in students involved in processes of problem-based learning. Methods. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was applied to validate the instrument composed of 60 items and six factors (self-assessment of learning gaps within the United Nations specific context: self-assessment, reflexion, critical thinking, administration of information, group skills, using a sample of 207 students from a total of 279, which comprise the student population of the Faculty of Nursing at Universidad de Colima in Mexico. (2007. Results. The CFA results demonstrated that the instrument is acceptable to measure performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning, given that all the indicators, variances, covariances, and thresholds are statistically significant. Conclusion. The instrument permits obtaining students' opinions on how much professors contribute for them to develop each of the 60 skills described in the scale. Lastly, the results could report if professors are placing more emphasis in some areas than in other areas they should address during the problem-based learning (PBL process, or if definitely their actions are removed from the premises of PBL, information that will be useful for school management in decision making on the direction of teaching as a whole.

  15. Validation of an instrument to measure tutor performance in promoting self-directed learning by using confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador Fierros, Genoveva; Montesinos-López, Osval Antonio; Alcaráz Moreno, Noemí

    2016-04-01

    This work sought to validate and propose an instrument to measure the performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning in students involved in processes of problem-based learning. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to validate the instrument composed of 60 items and six factors (self-assessment of learning gaps within the United Nations specific context: self-assessment, reflexion, critical thinking, administration of information, group skills), using a sample of 207 students from a total of 279, which comprise the student population of the Faculty of Nursing at Universidad de Colima in Mexico. (2007). The CFA results demonstrated that the instrument is acceptable to measure performance of tutors in promoting self-directed learning, given that all the indicators, variances, covariances, and thresholds are statistically significant. The instrument permits obtaining students' opinions on how much professors contribute for them to develop each of the 60 skills described in the scale. Lastly, the results could report if professors are placing more emphasis in some areas than in other areas they should address during the problem-based learning (PBL) process, or if definitely their actions are removed from the premises of PBL, information that will be useful for school management in decision making on the direction of teaching as a whole.

  16. "I couldn't do this with opposition from my colleagues": A qualitative study of physicians' experiences as clinical tutors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödjer Stig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical contact in the early curriculum and workplace learning with active tutorship are important parts of modern medical education. In a previously published study, we found that medical students' tutors experienced a heavier workload, less reasonable demands and less encouragement, than students. The aim of this interview study was to further illuminate physicians' experiences as clinical tutors. Methods Twelve tutors in the Early Professional Contact course were interviewed. In the explorative interviews, they were asked to reflect upon their experiences of working as tutors in this course. Systematic text condensation was used as the analysis method. Results In the analysis, five main themes of physicians' experiences as clinical tutors in the medical education emerged: (a Pleasure and stimulation. Informants appreciated tutorship and meeting both students and fellow tutors, (b Disappointment and stagnation. Occasionally, tutors were frustrated and expressed negative feelings, (c Demands and duty. Informants articulated an ambition to give students their best; a desire to provide better medical education but also a duty to meet demands of the course management, (d Impact of workplace relations. Tutoring was made easier when the clinic's management provided active support and colleagues accepted students at the clinic, and (e Multitasking difficulties. Combining several duties with those of a tutorship was often reported as difficult. Conclusions It is important that tutors' tasks are given adequate time, support and preparation. Accordingly, it appears highly important to avoid multitasking and too heavy a workload among tutors in order to facilitate tutoring. A crucial factor is acceptance and active organizational support from the clinic's management. This implies that tutoring by workplace learning in medical education should play an integrated and accepted role in the healthcare system.

  17. Syntactic error modeling and scoring normalization in speech recognition: Error modeling and scoring normalization in the speech recognition task for adult literacy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorenshaw, Lex; Trawick, David

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to develop a speech recognition system to be able to detect speech which is pronounced incorrectly, given that the text of the spoken speech is known to the recognizer. Better mechanisms are provided for using speech recognition in a literacy tutor application. Using a combination of scoring normalization techniques and cheater-mode decoding, a reasonable acceptance/rejection threshold was provided. In continuous speech, the system was tested to be able to provide above 80 pct. correct acceptance of words, while correctly rejecting over 80 pct. of incorrectly pronounced words.

  18. The role of tutoring in higher education: improving the student’s academic success and professional goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tutoring is a part of the university teaching-learning process and is a basic strategy for improving the student’s academic success and professional goals. It is also in line with the policies of the European Union for improving the integration of lifelong guidance into lifelong learning strategies. This article reviews the process of implementing tutorial action plans in Catalan universities, with particular emphasis on the Universitat Rovira i Virgili. The training and functions of tutors, the recognition of the tutoring task and the tools available to tutors at the URV are described.

  19. Courses for tutors in problem-based learning. Current challenges at four Swedish universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Susan Setterud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The key role of the tutor in problem-based learning (PBL is to help students become selfregulated learners. Tutors need training to acquire the necessary facilitating skills for this task. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how PBL tutor training is currently arranged at four universities in Sweden: Linköping University, Lund Medical Faculty, Uppsala Medical School and Örebro School of Medicine. Moreover, we seek to analyse how the content and format of the tutor training courses correspond to the desired skills and competencies for PBL tutors described in the literature. We draw especially on work coming out of three pioneering universities for PBL: McMaster University, Canada; Maastricht University, The Netherlands; and Linköping University, Sweden. One aim has been to construct a framework for analysis that uses categories specifying the knowledge base, capabilities and skills to support students’ learning processes which characterise the full-fledged PBL tutor. For this framework, we have used the following categories: Knowledge of PBL and pedagogical theories, Personal traits, Student-centeredness, Ability to handle group processes, and Subject knowledge. We collected descriptions of the course design and content from the four universities, and assessed to what extent these categories were represented within the courses. Our results show that all categories inform the course content at all four universities, though the design varies between courses. In summary, we show that the four PBL tutor training courses are all designed to enable participants to experience PBL first-hand both as members of a tutorial group and as tutors. They all also include a theoretical base and offer opportunities for discussion and reflection with peers; however, there are some differences in design between the courses. According to participants, all four courses provide good preparation for the tutor role. Yet, we see a need for the

  20. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  1. Correlation and Clinical Significance of Serum Bilirubin Level and TIMI Risk Score in Patients with Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction%非ST段抬高型心肌梗死患者血清胆红素水平与TIMI危险评分的相关性及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨非 ST段抬高型心肌梗死(NSTEMI)患者血清胆红素(BIL)水平与TIMI评分的相关性及临床意义。方法收集104例 NSTEMI患者一般资料,包括年龄、性别、体质量指数、血压、糖尿病、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平以及吸烟等,清晨空腹采血测定血清总胆红素(TBIL)、直接胆红素(DBIL)、间接胆红素(IBIL)水平。采用TIMI评分标准对NSTEMI患者进行风险评估,计算NSTEMI组患者TIMI评分并进行危险分层,以评分差异分组,分为低位组、中危组、高危组;分析 NSTEMI患者血清 BIL水平与 TIMI积分的相关性及临床意义。结果高危组患者TBIL、IBIL水平明显低于中危组、低危组(P<0.01);NSTE-MI组TBIL、IBIL水平与其TIMI分值均有负相关关系(r=-0.20,P<0.05;r=-0.228,P<0.05)。结论NSTEMI 患者血清BIL 水平与TIMI 积分呈负相关,TBIL 对NSTEMI 患者早期危险度分层具有预测价值。%Objective To investigate the correlation and clinical significance of serum bilirubin(BIL)lev-el and TIMI score in patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction(NSTEMI).Methods The clinical data of 104 patients with NSTEMI patients were collected,including age,gender,body mass in-dex,blood pressure,diabetes,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)levels and smoking,and the morn-ing fasting blood determination of serum total bilirubin(TBIL),direct bilirubin(DBIL)and indirect bilirubin (IBIL).The TIMI risk score was used for risk assessment of patients with NSTEMI.TIMI scores of NSTEMI patients were calculated and their risks were stratified.Based on score differences,the patients were divided into low-risk group,middle-risk group and high-risk group.The correlation of serum bilirubin levels and TIMI risk score was analyzed as well as its clinical significance.Results 1.TIMI risk stratifica-tion showed that the levels of serum total bilirubin(TBIL)and indirect

  2. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  3. Tutor-led teaching of procedural skills in the skills lab: Complexity, relevance and teaching competence from the medical teacher, tutor and student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauter, Jan; Branchereau, Sylvie; Herzog, Wolfgang; Johannes Bugaj, Till; Nikendei, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    In current medical curricula, the transfer of procedural skills has received increasing attention. Skills lab learning and tutor-led teaching have become an inherent part of all medical curricula at German medical faculties. In 2011, the initial basis for the classification of clinical skills in medical school was created by the German Association for Medical Education (GMA) Committee's consensus statement on procedural skills. As a recommendation for medical curricula, the National Competency-based Catalogue of Learning Objectives (NKLM, 2015) lists procedural skills according to their curriculum integration and competency level. However, classification in regard to the perceived complexity, relevance, or teaching competency is still lacking. The present study aimed to investigate procedural skills taught at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg in regard to their complexity, relevance, and required teaching skills. To achieve this aim (1) the specific procedural skills in terms of complexity, that is, the degree of difficulty, and (2) the perceived relevance of taught procedural skills for studying and subsequent medical profession as well as (3) the personal preparation and required teaching skills were assessed in medical teachers, tutors and students. During the winter semester 2014/2015, the evaluations of all medical teachers, student tutors, and medical students in the skills lab teaching departments of internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, gynecology, and otorhinolaryngology at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg were assessed via a quantitative cross-sectional questionnaire survey using 7-point Likert scales. The questionnaire comprised four item sets concerning 1) demographic details, 2) procedural skill complexity, 3) practical relevance, and 4) required preparation and teaching skills. Descriptive, quantitative analysis was used for questionnaire data. The survey included the data from 17 of 20 physicians (return rate: 85 %), 10 of 10 student tutors

  4. Graves病合并Graves眼病患者131I治疗前后血清 TNF-α、H A 浓度及CAS评分变化的临床意义%The clinical significance of TNF-α,HA and CAS score in patients with Graves ophthalmopathy associated with Graves Disease that before and after 13 1 I treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁石梅; 屈伟; 焦杨; 张静; 王社教

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the level of TNF‐α,HA and CAS score in patients with GO associated with GD that before and after131 I treatment .Methods:Patient group :The level of TNG‐α,HA and AS scores in 96 patients with GO associated with GD were studied before and after 131 I treatment ,and its efficacy was observed .The control group:we randomly selected 26 employees from our hospital on routine health check‐up and tested the level of TNG‐αand HA .Results :There were significant reduction in the level of TNF‐α,HA and CAS score after131 I treatment in patients with GD combined with GO .These changes were statistically significant (P0 .05) .Conclusion :Serum TNF‐α,HA concentration and CAS scores can be used as eye disease active evaluation for GO associated with GD .They have pos‐itive significance for the treatment of disease .%目的:观察131I治疗前后Graves病合并Graves眼病患者血清TNF‐α、HA浓度、CAS评分的变化。方法:病例组:随访观察96例Graves病(GD)合并Graves眼病(GO )患者131 I治疗前后血清TNF‐α、HA浓度,CAS评分的变化。正常对照组:随机检测26例常规健康查体人员的血清TNG‐α、HA浓度。结果:131 I治疗后GD合并GO患者血清 TNF‐α、HA 浓度明显减低、CAS评分减低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);但CAS评分与 HA 浓度不呈直线相关(P>0.05)。结论:血清TNF‐α、HA浓度及CAS评分能够作为GD合并GO患者眼部病变的活动性评价指标,对疾病的治疗有积极的指导意义。

  5. An objective fluctuation score for Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm K Horne

    Full Text Available Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson's Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system.The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm.This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations.The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges.

  6. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  7. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  8. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  9. The Role of the Tutor in a College of Further Education: A Comparison of Skills Used by Personal Tutors and by Student Counsellors When Working with Students in Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nicola

    1996-01-01

    Compares the personal counseling role of the college tutor with the work of the trained student counselor. Found that a lot of role confusion exists, that untrained tutors use a smaller range of skills than counselors, and that they tend more toward advice giving and directive techniques. They feel unprepared and unsupported in their counseling…

  10. From Generating in the Lab to Tutoring Systems in Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S; Jacovina, Matthew E; Snow, Erica L; Allen, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    Work in cognitive and educational psychology examines a variety of phenomena related to the learning and retrieval of information. Indeed, Alice Healy, our honoree, and her colleagues have conducted a large body of groundbreaking research on this topic. In this article we discuss how 3 learning principles (the generation effect, deliberate practice and feedback, and antidotes to disengagement) discussed in Healy, Schneider, and Bourne (2012) have influenced the design of 2 intelligent tutoring systems that attempt to incorporate principles of skill and knowledge acquisition. Specifically, this article describes iSTART-2 and the Writing Pal, which provide students with instruction and practice using comprehension and writing strategies. iSTART-2 provides students with training to use effective comprehension strategies while self-explaining complex text. The Writing Pal provides students with instruction and practice to use basic writing strategies when writing persuasive essays. Underlying these systems are the assumptions that students should be provided with initial instruction that breaks down the tasks into component skills and that deliberate practice should include active generation with meaningful feedback, all while remaining engaging. The implementation of these assumptions is complicated by the ill-defined natures of comprehension and writing and supported by the use of various natural language processing techniques. We argue that there is value in attempting to integrate empirically supported learning principles into educational activities, even when there is imperfect alignment between them. Examples from the design of iSTART-2 and Writing Pal guide this argument.

  11. Tutoring math platform accessible for visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkowski, Michał Sebastian; Brzoza, Piotr Franciszek; Spinczyk, Dominik Roland

    2017-06-03

    There are many problems with teaching and assessing impaired students in higher education, especially in technical science, where the knowledge is represented mostly by structural information like: math formulae, charts, graphs, etc. Developing e-learning platform for distance education solves this problem only partially due to the lack of accessibility for the blind. The proposed method is based on the decomposition of the typical mathematical exercise into a sequence of elementary sub-exercises. This allows for interactive resolving of math exercises and assessment of the correctness of exercise solutions at every stage. The presented methods were prepared and evaluated by visually impaired people and students. The article presents the accessible interactive tutoring platform for math teaching and assessment, and experience in exploring it. The results of conducted research confirm good understanding of math formulae described according to elaborated rules. Regardless of the level of complexity of the math formulae the level of math formulae understanding is higher for alternative structural description. The proposed solution enables alternative descriptions of math formulae. Based on the research results, the tool for computer-aided interactive learning of mathematics adapted to the needs of the blind has been designed, implemented and deployed as a platform for on-site and online and distance learning. The designed solution can be very helpful in overcoming many barriers that occur while teaching impaired students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Educational Competitions of the Family Doctor in their Acting as Tutor in the Career of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de la Caridad Lorenzo López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: for the identification of a group of competitions characteristic of the educational work of the Family doctors that you/they act as tutors in the formative scenarios of the Primary Attention of Health in University Policlínico Cecilio Ruíz of Zárate. Objective: to identify the educational main competitions of the doctors of the family like tutors in the career of Medicine, in the Area II of the municipality of Cienfuegos. Method: pedagogic investigation of descriptive type in the mark of the medical education that looked for to define the group of educational basic competitions, what can favor a pedagogic management of more quality in the medical clinics as formative scenario of University Policlínico Cecilio Ruíz of Zárate during the year 2010. Results: 61,5% of our tutors has more than 10 years of medical formation; more than the half, their 73.1% is not categorized, 84.6% is specialist of general integral medicine, but of the half they received the preparation shop for tutors and 96.2% they consider the basic competitions as very important. Conclusion: deficiencies exist in the way of the tutor's performance for categorized personnel's lack, pedagogic scarce preparation and the assistance load of the professors in the primary attention of health.

  13. Differential impact of student behaviours on group interaction and collaborative learning: medical students' and tutors' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Maha; Velan, Gary M; O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Balasooriya, Chinthaka

    2016-08-22

    Collaboration is of increasing importance in medical education and medical practice. Students' and tutors' perceptions about small group learning are valuable to inform the development of strategies to promote group dynamics and collaborative learning. This study investigated medical students' and tutors' views on competencies and behaviours which promote effective learning and interaction in small group settings. This study was conducted at UNSW Australia. Five focus group discussions were conducted with first and second year medical students and eight small group tutors were interviewed. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. Students and tutors identified a range of behaviours that influenced collaborative learning. The main themes that emerged included: respectfulness; dominance, strong opinions and openness; constructiveness of feedback; active listening and contribution; goal orientation; acceptance of roles and responsibilities; engagement and enthusiasm; preparedness; self- awareness and positive personal attributes. An important finding was that some of these student behaviours were found to have a differential impact on group interaction compared with collaborative learning. This information could be used to promote higher quality learning in small groups. This study has identified medical students' and tutors' perceptions regarding interactional behaviours in small groups, as well as behaviours which lead to more effective learning in those settings. This information could be used to promote learning in small groups.

  14. Peer assisted learning in patient-centred interviewing: the impact on student tutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Debra; Kidd, Jane

    2005-08-01

    Effective methods for teaching patient-centred interviewing skills are resource intensive. Providing students the opportunity to work in small groups with simulated patients is highly valued and has demonstrable long-term benefits. Expanding cohorts of medical students and diminishing faculty resources led to the implementation of a peer assisted learning (PAL) project in patient-centred interviewing skills. The paper reports the evaluation of a PAL project on student tutors. The methodology included direct and indirect measures of student tutors' skills in facilitation and patient-centred interviewing. The self-report evaluations strongly suggest that participating in a PAL project has substantial benefits for student tutors that included both interviewing and facilitation skills. Objective measures revealed no change in patient-centred interviewing skills after participating in the project. The study concludes that formalizing PAL may tap a valuable resource within the medical school and provide benefits for student tutors. Careful consideration needs to be given to ways in which student tutors are supported before, during and after the project.

  15. A short questionnaire to evaluate the effectiveness of tutors in PBL: validity and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H J M; Ginns, Paul

    2005-09-01

    The tutor plays a central role in problem-based learning (PBL). In many PBL-curricula the effectiveness of the tutor is evaluated in order to provide tutors with feedback. In the literature, several tutor evaluation instruments have been described. The problem with many of these instruments is that they are quite long, due to which students become 'tired' of filling them out. Using a short questionnaire is more convenient for students, but the question is whether such a short instrument can be valid and reliable. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the validity and reliability of a short questionnaire (11 items), representing five underlying factors. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to assess the adequacy of the five factors. The results demonstrated that the five factor model had a good fit to the data. The alpha coefficients also demonstrated acceptable levels. In conclusion, the short tutor evaluation instrument (11 items) is reliable and valid and can be used for formative and summative purposes.

  16. Supplementary tutoring in Trinidad and Tobago: Some implications for policy making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Dorian A.; Lochan, Samuel N.

    2012-06-01

    Globally, private supplementary tutoring is a huge business and the practice is expanding rapidly in many regions of the world where it never existed before. In some of these regions it is posing a novel set of challenges for education planners and policy makers. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which supplementary tutoring is impacting on the goals of the formal education system in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). The participation rate in supplementary tutoring at primary school level in T&T was found to be high (88.2 per cent at Standard Five level), with the majority of the students being privately tutored by their regular school teachers. Their main motivation for taking private tutoring lessons was to try to secure a place in one of the few elite secondary schools in the country. The authors of this paper admit that there is no quick solution to the problem, especially if it is understood as a part of the process of cultural change. They contend that the key to breaking the elitist tradition lies in modifying public understanding about education and convincing parents and citizens at large that a wide range of options and opportunities exists outside the narrow confines of the old colonial economy and the old colonial schools.

  17. TraumaTutor: Perceptions of a Smartphone Application as a Learning Resource for Trauma Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wigley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We investigated perceptions of a new smartphone application (app as a learning resource. Methods. We developed TraumaTutor, an iPhone app consisting of 150 questions and explanatory answers on trauma management. This was used by 20 hospital staff that either had a special interest in managing trauma or who were studying for relevant exams, such as ATLS. A subsequent questionnaire assessed users’ experience of smartphone applications and their perceptions of TraumaTutor. Results. Of those surveyed, 85% had a device capable of running app software, and 94% of them had used apps for medical education. Specific to TraumaTutor, 85% agreed that it was pitched at the right level, 95% felt that the explanations improved understanding of trauma management, and 100% found the app easy to use. In fact, on open questioning, the clear user interface and the quality of the educational material were seen as the major advantages of TraumaTutor, and 85% agreed that the app would be a useful learning resource. Conclusions. Smartphone applications are considered a valuable educational adjunct and are commonly used by our target audience. TraumaTutor shows overwhelming promise as a learning supplement due to its immediacy, accessibility, and relevance to those preparing for courses and managing trauma.

  18. Penggunaan Jurnal Belajar dalam Pembelajaran Class Wide Peer Tutoring terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailatul Munawaroh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Standar asesmen pembelajaran sains hendaknya ditekankan pada penilaian kemampuan siswa dalam real life situation. Diperlukan adanya sistem penilaian untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Penggunaan jurnal belajar sebagai refleksi setelah proses pembelajaran menjadi alternatif untuk melatih cara berpikir siswa yang dipadukan dengan pembelajaran Class Wide Peer Tutoring agar siswa lebih aktif. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis pengaruh penggunaan jurnal belajar dalam pembelajaran Class Wide Peer Tutoring untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis siswa, mendeskripsikan penerapan jurnal belajar dalam pembelajaran Class Wide Peer Tutoring mempengaruhi peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis, dan mendeskripsikan peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis setelah perlakuan penggunaan jurnal belajar dalam pembelajaran Class Wide Peer Tutoring. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMP Muhammadiyah di Kabupaten Malang kelas VIII. Jenis penelitian ini adalah Quasy Eksperimen dengan teknik pengambilan Cluster Random Sampling. Penelitian dilaksanakan di SMP Muhammadiyah di Kabupaten Malang. Data kemampuan berpikir kritis diperoleh dengan test soal esay. Analisis data yang digunakan yaitu uji Independent t-tes. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggunaan jurnal belajar dalam pembelajaran Class Wide Peer Tutoring memiliki pengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis materi fotosintesis pada siswa kelas VIII SMP Muhammadiyah di Kabupaten Malang. Penerapan penggunaan jurnal belajar dilakukan setelah proses pembelajaran. Peningkatan kemampuan berpikir kritis lebih efektif terjadi pada kelompok eksperimen daripada kontrol.

  19. El seguimiento de la tutoría personalizada en la Universidad de Colima mediante tecnologías de información

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fuentes Covarrubias, Ricardo; Fuentes Covarrubias, Andrés Gerardo; Rodríguez Moreno, Alfredo; Parada Sandoval, María Isabel

    2009-01-01

    ... de la tutoría personalizada, para lo cual se diseñó un software mediante el cual se automatiza la tutoría personalizada y se da seguimiento al proceso desde la etapa de registro o alta, las entrevistas entre tutor y tutorado, el plan de trabajo, así...

  20. The 1986 Literacy Tutor Coordination Program: A Report to the Legislature Pursuant to Chapter 312, Laws of 1986 (ESSB 4762).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Gilbert J.

    A $100,000 appropriation for fiscal year 1986 directed the Washington State Board for Community College Education and the state's Superintendent of Public Instruction to establish a pilot program for coordinating the efforts of volunteer literacy tutors. The 12 projects funded by the program recruited and trained 1,473 volunteer tutors and…

  1. TrAVis to Enhance Online Tutoring and Learning Activities: Real-Time Visualization of Students Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Madeth; George, Sebastien; Prevot, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a part of our research work that places an emphasis on Tracking Data Analysis and Visualization (TrAVis) tools, a web-based system, designed to enhance online tutoring and learning activities, supported by computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools. TrAVis is particularly dedicated to assist both tutors and students…

  2. The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring in Remedying Misconceptions of Operating System Concepts: A Design-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakiroglu, Ünal; Öngöz, Sakine

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to examine students' experiences on collaborative work with peer tutoring in projects. The study also focused impact of peer tutoring on remedying misconceptions. The study was conducted in the context of an operating system course in which 30 pre-service ICT teachers are the participants. Data were gathered from pre-tests,…

  3. E-Tutoring lnteraction Strategy in Distance Video Conference System%基于远程视频会议系统的在线辅导教学交互策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨婧仔; 焦建利

    2014-01-01

    -tive research paradigm for data analysis. There are two conclusions in this research:1 ) proposing an interaction strategy for E-tutoring using JoinNet. This strategy has five parts:Social presence creating, emotion motivation, teaching&conversation, achievement sha-ring, evaluation & feedback (SATAE)2)Measuring the effect of SATAE interaction strategy in JoinNet. The conclusion of this study has significant and profound meaning for E-tutoring:1 ) It has important theoretical significance and application value to optimize the E-tutoring process and to improve the teaching effect of online tuto-ring;2)It has profound guiding significance to improve teachers' online teaching and improve the quality of online tu-toring;3)It provides good advice for changing the parents' attitude towards online tutoring;4)This research provides important reference for the enterprises and training institutions who engaged in online tutoring;5 ) This research pro-vides a good reference to the further research about the development of E-tutoring.%如何利用信息技术更好地实现高效的一对一个性化辅导,不仅是现实的迫切需要,也是研究的热点。本文对基于远程视频会议系统的在线辅导教学交互策略国内外现状进行研究,以社会建构理论、教学设计理论、活动理论、交际策略理论和远程教育中的交互理论为指导,在案例分析的基础上,设计了基于远程视频会议系统的在线辅导教学交互策略,并在三轮行动研究中对该策略进行修订和完善,最后提出“社会临场感建立—情感激励—教学会话—成果分享—评价反馈”的五阶段策略(简称SATAE策略),并通过对单向量表、教师反思日志、教师访谈等数据资料的分析,验证了该策略的应用效果,即能激发学生的学习兴趣,优化教学交互过程,提升基于远程视频会议系统的在线辅导教学效果。

  4. Matching tutor to student: rules and mechanisms for efficient two-stage learning in neural circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Tesileanu, Tiberiu; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Existing models of birdsong learning assume that brain area LMAN introduces variability into song for trial-and-error learning. Recent data suggest that LMAN also encodes a corrective bias driving short-term improvements in song. These later consolidate in area RA, a motor cortex analogue downstream of LMAN. We develop a new model of such two-stage learning. Using a stochastic gradient descent approach, we derive how 'tutor' circuits should match plasticity mechanisms in 'student' circuits for efficient learning. We further describe a reinforcement learning framework with which the tutor can build its teaching signal. We show that mismatching the tutor signal and plasticity mechanism can impair or abolish learning. Applied to birdsong, our results predict the temporal structure of the corrective bias from LMAN given a plasticity rule in RA. Our framework can be applied predictively to other paired brain areas showing two-stage learning.

  5. Reading comprehension competence approach and the role of tutors in primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Luna Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of reading and reading comprehension by the tudents has been the object of study of several researchers and has been frequently approach as a process of developing skills. In recent years a new competence approach has become popular. This article is aimed at describing a proposal for teaching reading at primary education by means of tutors focusing competence development. Taking Tobon’s contribution in the description of competency structure as starting point, the role of tutors is iewed as a n alternative for developing reading comprehension competence by means of comprehensive models under professional guidance in a suitable learning environment that favors the fulfillment of the pedagogical objectives set in advance. The reading comprehension competence described includes skills, abilities, morals, attitude and capacities of pupils and tutors involved. The article fully describes the training and developing process of reading comprehensions competence.

  6. EDUCATIONAL INCLUSION A VIEW FROM TEACHERS-TUTORS FOR BACCALAUREATE: CHALLENGES AND DEFIANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Leticia Zapata-Rivera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provide an overview of educational inclusion about the challenges and defiances of the PIT-ADIUAS UAS in the formation of the student, through the eyes of teachers-tutors baccalaureate Guasave Nocturna of the Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa. The importance of the article lies in the documentary analysis of the documents and signed in his rift with the reality observed in the classroom by teachers and tutors. Its approach is developed from a mixed methodology under the case study approach, supported by documentary research techniques and social research (observation and interview. The results obtained and conclusions that the team arrives, intended to call attention to the university authorities to order to comply with one of the precepts unsigned: educational inclusion through teacher-tutor professionalism in the globe NEE students.

  7. Distance learning: the practice of intercommunication between a tutor and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhubreva Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The conducted investigation has included monitoring of the provision of educational services in a remote mode – distance-learning format for adult students at Moscow Business School (MBS. It is aimed at finding best approaches for increasing a degree of “reaching” every student. The problem is that some people, including potential candidates for distance-learning programs, blame distance education for the lack of communication with teacher/tutor. They say that distance learning does not allow applying the principles of customization to it; for some of them there is no difference between E-learning and distance learning. The results of this action research show rather clearly that there are ways in the framework of distance education to use an individual approach for each of the students by the tutors. Some types of intercommunication with students in written form could be rather exhausting ones, but others could be successfully carried out by a creative tutor

  8. MESS评分在GustiloⅢb、Ⅲc型下肢损伤截肢与保肢治疗中的临床意义%Clinical significance of MESS scoring system for the treatment option of amputation or salvage in Gustilo type Ⅲb, Ⅲc lower extremity injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵忻; 阚世廉; 舒衡生; 王佳; 梅晓龙; 辛景义

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨和评价损伤肢体严重程度评分(mangled extremity severity score,MESS)系统在Gustilo Ⅲb、Ⅲc型严重下肢损伤截肢与保肢治疗中的临床意义.[方法] 2007年10月~2011年2月,共收治严重下肢损伤患者65例68肢,男51肢,女17肢;年龄18 ~67岁,平均42.5岁.按照Gustilo和Anderson开放骨折的分类方法与MESS评分系统进行分类评分.对于MESS<7分的GustiloⅢb、Ⅲc型下肢损伤给予Ⅰ期保肢手术;MESS≥7分的GustiloⅢb、Ⅲc型下肢损伤以截肢治疗为主,同时根据软组织和血管损伤情况、患者体质情况及保肢意愿,试行保肢治疗.[结果]本组MESS<7分的病例中,GustiloⅢb型患肢均保肢成功,Gustilo Ⅲc型保肢成功率为60%.本组MESS≥7分的病例中,GustiloⅢb型Ⅰ期、Ⅱ期总截肢率为20%,GustiloⅢc型Ⅰ期、Ⅱ期总截肢率为82.76%,两者比较差异有统计学意义(x2=4.46,P<0.05);GustiloⅢb型保肢成功率为92.31%,GustiloⅢc型保肢成功率为50%,两者比较差异有统计学意义(x2=5.26,P<0.05).[结论]MESS评分系统对于GustiloⅢc型严重下肢损伤截肢或保肢治疗的决策较GustiloⅢb型损伤具有更强的临床指导意义,但不能作为判断截肢或保肢的唯一标准,还应结合患肢的热缺血时间、神经损伤情况、是否伴有严重的并发伤及患者年龄进行综合的分析评价.%[ Objective] To discuss and evaluate the clinical significance of mangled extremity severity score( MESS) system for the treatment of amputation or salvage in Gustilo type Ⅲ b, Ⅲ c severe lower extremity injuries. [Method] From October 2007 to February 2011,65 patients (68 limbs) were admitted. Of these,51 limbs were males and 17 limbs were females, the mean age was 42. 5 years. All the limbs were classified by the Gustilo and Anderson classification system, graded by MESS scoring system. The Gustilo type Ⅲ b and Ⅲ c limbs whose MESS scores were less than 7 point

  9. Interweaving Autonomous Learning and Peer-tutoring in Coaching EFL Student-Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza Ariza Aleida

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we share the findings on the exploration of undergraduate efl (English as a Foreign Language student-teachers’ professional preparation and autonomous practices. Participants were tutees who attended tutorial sessions with peers in higher semesters. In this context, tutoring was based on a model we designed. As the model was implemented, they collected information by means of multiple qualitative research instruments. Results indicate that tutees’ learning process was strongly influenced by their personality and attitudes. Similarly, tutees expanded their views in regard to the English language, its learning, and their communicative competence. Finally, we pinpoint some considerations for others interested in adopting this pedagogical strategy. Key words: Peer tutoring, university tutoring, autonomous learning, independent work En este artículo compartimos hallazgos relacionados con la preparación profesional y las prácticas autónomas de estudiantes de inglés en un programa de licenciatura. Los participantes tutorados asistían a sesiones tutoriales con compañeros en semestres superiores. En este contexto, la tutoría se basó en un modelo que diseñamos. Durante la implementación del modelo se recogió información a través de múltiples instrumentos cualitativos de investigación. Los resultados revelan que el proceso de aprendizaje de los tutorados se vio fuertemente influenciado por su personalidad y sus actitudes. Asimismo, los tutorados ampliaron sus puntos de vista sobre la lengua inglesa, su aprendizaje y su competencia comunicativa. Finalmente, señalamos algunas consideraciones para los interesados en adoptar esta estrategia pedagógica Palabras clave: Tutoría entre compañeros, tutoría a nivel universitario, aprendizaje autónomo, trabajo independiente

  10. Do MCAT scores predict USMLE scores? An analysis on 5 years of medical student data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L. Gauer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the associations and predictive values of Medical College Admission Test (MCAT component and composite scores prior to 2015 with U.S. Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK scores, with a focus on whether students scoring low on the MCAT were particularly likely to continue to score low on the USMLE exams. Method: Multiple linear regression, correlation, and chi-square analyses were performed to determine the relationship between MCAT component and composite scores and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores from five graduating classes (2011–2015 at the University of Minnesota Medical School (N=1,065. Results: The multiple linear regression analyses were both significant (p<0.001. The three MCAT component scores together explained 17.7% of the variance in Step 1 scores (p<0.001 and 12.0% of the variance in Step 2 CK scores (p<0.001. In the chi-square analyses, significant, albeit weak associations were observed between almost all MCAT component scores and USMLE scores (Cramer's V ranged from 0.05 to 0.24. Discussion: Each of the MCAT component scores was significantly associated with USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK scores, although the effect size was small. Being in the top or bottom scoring range of the MCAT exam was predictive of being in the top or bottom scoring range of the USMLE exams, although the strengths of the associations were weak to moderate. These results indicate that MCAT scores are predictive of student performance on the USMLE exams, but, given the small effect sizes, should be considered as part of the holistic view of the student.

  11. Instant MuseScore

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  12. t-PSA和f/t-PSA对前列腺癌的诊断意义及其与Gleason评分的相关性分析%Significance of t-PSA and f/t-PSA in diagnosis of prostatic cancer and analysis on their correlation with Gleason score

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚朋; 曹凤宏; 李晓强

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨血清总前列腺特异性抗原(t-PSA)、游离前列腺特异性抗原/总前列腺特异性抗原(f/t-PSA)在前列腺癌和前列腺增生中的诊断意义及其与前列腺癌Gleason评分的关系。方法采用回顾性分析方法,按照一定的入组标准,收集2007~2014年在该院行前列腺增生(110例)和前列腺癌(75例)手术治疗的患者,查阅详细的病历资料,对两组患者入院时t-PSA及f/t-PSA水平、Gleason评分等相关资料进行对比分析。结果两组血清t-PSA、f/t-PSA水平比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01),血清t-PSA与Gleason评分呈正相关(rs=0.247,P<0.05),f/t-PSA值与Gleason评分呈负相关(rs=-0.298,P<0.05)。结论血清t-PSA、f/t-PSA水平在前列腺癌早期诊断中有重要临床意义,且与Gleason评分有关。%Objective To investigate the significance of serum total prostate specific antigen (t-PSA) and free prostate specific antigen/total-PSA(f/t-PSA) in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer and prostatic hyperplasia and their correlation with the Gleason score. Methods The retrospective analysis method was adopted. The patients with prostatic hyperplasia (110 cases) and prostatic cancer(75 cases) treated by operation were collected in this hospital during 2007-2014 were collected. The detailed med-ical record data were consulted. The related data of T-PSA and f/t-PSA levels and Gleason scores at admission were performed the contrastive analysis. Results The t-PSA and f/t-PSA values had statistical difference between the two groups(P<0.01),serum t-PSA was positively correlated with the Gleason score (rs=0.247,P<0.05),while the f/t-PSA value was negatively correlated with the Gleason score(rs=-0.298,P<0.05). Conclusion The serum t-PSA and f/t-PSA levels have an important clinical significance for the early diagnosis of prostatic cancer,moreover have a correlation with the Gleason score.

  13. Intelligent Tutor with Emotion Recognition and Student Emotion Management for Math Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari­a Luci­a Barron Estrada

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the development, implementation, and testing of an Intelligent Tutoring System for math in third grade elementary students, it identifies and manages the emotional state of the student; it produces affective feedback for the student during the course that also it is part of a social network. Emotions are recognized via facial expressions by means of an artificial neural network. The social network and the intelligent tutoring system with affective management have been tested in public and private elementary schools with very satisfying results.

  14. The subjective experience of collaboration in interprofessional tutor teams: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Hoffmann, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Das Medizinische Interprofessionelle Trainingszentrum der Medizinischen Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus an der Technischen Universität Dresden bietet seit dem Wintersemester 2014/2015 Lehrveranstaltungen mit interprofessionellen Inhalten an. Die Besonderheit dieser Lehreinheiten besteht darin, dass sowohl studentische TutorInnen der Medizin als auch SchülertutorInnen der Gesundheits- und Krankenpflege gemeinsam die Lehreinheiten betreuen. Die Studie untersucht das subjektive Erleben der TutorInnen während der gemeinsamen Ausarbeitung und Durchführung dieser Lehreinheiten mit dem Ziel, die Effekte der gleichberechtigten Zusammenarbeit auf die Wahrnehmung und Einschätzung der jeweils anderen Berufsgruppe herauszuarbeiten. Methode: Es wurden teilstrukturierte Leitfadeninterviews mit sechs zufällig ausgewählten TutorInnen durchgeführt. Diese werden mittels inhaltlich-strukturierender Inhaltsanalyse ausgewertet.Ergebnisse: Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass das gemeinsame Arbeiten vor allem bei den studentischen TutorInnen zu einer Reflexion bestehender Einstellungen geführt hat, jedoch wurden die jeweiligen Co-TutorInnen bei beiden Berufsgruppen in unterschiedlichem Grad als Repräsentanten ihrer Profession wahrgenommen. Durch die Bewältigung einer gemeinsamen Aufgabe in einem nicht-klinischen Kontext begegneten sich die Angehörigen der verschiedenen Berufsgruppen auf Augenhöhe, wenngleich die Medizinstudierenden bereits mehr didaktische Erfahrung aufwiesen und somit im Zuge der Erarbeitung und der Umsetzung der Lehreinheiten meist eine Mentoren-Rolle übernahmen. Die SchülertutorInnen waren vorwiegend auf ihre Rolle als TutorIn konzentriert. Hervorgehoben wurde von beiden Berufsgruppen, dass sie vor der Zusammenarbeit mangelnde oder keine Vorstellungen bezüglich des theoretischen Wissens und der praktischen Fertigkeiten der jeweils anderen Berufsgruppe besaßen. Das Projekt insgesamt wurde als gewinnbringend eingeschätzt und der Ansatz der

  15. Designing a Feedback Component of an Intelligent Tutoring System for Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anita; Atkinson, John

    In this paper, we provide a model of corrective feedback generation for an intelligent tutoring system for Spanish as a Foreign Language. We have studied two kind of strategies: ( 1) Giving-Answer Strategies (GAS), where the teacher directly gives the desired target form or indicates the location of the error, and (2) Prompting-Answer Strategies (PAS), where the teacher pushes the student less directly to notice and repair their own error. Based on different experimental settings and comparisons with face-to-face tutoring mode, we propose the design of a component of effective teaching strategies into ITS for Spanish as a foreign language.

  16. ¿Tutoría o autoría?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Targino, María das Graças

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En español: A lo largo del tiempo, con los profundos cambios en la enseñanza e investigación provenientes de los avances tecnológicos, y sobre todo por el valor creciente de la educación superior y de la investigación científica, hay intensas controversias alrededor del viejo y gastado lema "publicar o morir”. Cada vez más, tutores o directores de tesis y monografías académicas en general, se colocan como primer autor o coautor de los trabajos realizados por sus alumnos, utilizando el argumento de que la autoría, como actividad y proceso, sufre ella misma intensas mutaciones sociales, culturales, económicas y políticas. Este es un tema que despierta discusiones y conduce a cambios conceptuales que requieren la reconstrucción de sus fundamentos, ya que con respecto de la cuestión ética, debe tenerse en cuenta.In english: Over time, with the profound changes in the learning and in research provided by technological advances, and especially because of the extreme value of higher education and scientific research, there is an intense discussion around the old and worn slogan "publish or perish". Increasingly, mentors or directors of thesis and university papers, en general, put themselves as first author or coauthor of work performed by their students, by the argument that the author, as activity and process, suffers herself social, cultural, economic and political mutations. This is a topic that arouses controversy and leads to conceptual changes, which require the deconstruction of its foundations, which, however, must respect the ethic behaviour.

  17. Tensorial Orientation Scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Azzopardi, George; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Orientation scores are representations of images built using filters that only select on orientation (and not on the magnitude of the frequency). Importantly, they allow (easy) reconstruction, making them ideal for use in a filtering pipeline. Traditionally a specific set of orientations has to be c

  18. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  19. The lod score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  20. Nursing activities score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G

    Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and