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Sample records for turkish eu membership

  1. Who wants full membership? Characteristics of Turkish public support for EU membership

    OpenAIRE

    Çarkoğlu, Ali; Carkoglu, Ali

    2003-01-01

    Examines the basis of support and resistance to European Union (EU) membership among voters in Turkey. Issues concerning Turkey's candidacy for EU membership; Description of EU support across different constituencies of public opinion; Implications of EU membership support for EU-Turkey relations; Factors that influenced the expressed support for EU membership.

  2. Growth effects of EU and EZ memberships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schmid, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    of economic integration in Europe. The aim of this article is to investigate whether EU and EZ memberships enhance growth for their members. In order to perform our empirical analysis, we estimate different growth models restricting the time frame to the first 15 years of the Euro - from 1999 to 2013. We find...... a positive impact of EU membership on economic growth, but no impact of being part of the EZ, except during the financial crisis, when the EZ has a negative impact on growth amongst its members. Considering the heated political debate related to the Brexit referendum, our results favour a “yes” to the EU...

  3. Secession and EU Membership - Is an EU member state secessionist territory automatically within EU after archiving its independence or have to reapply for membership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiro Paço

    2015-07-01

    To answer to this question I will analyses the possible past experiences in secessionist territory getting membership in international organization like UN. The Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties is a good material to use in case of succession but the fact that is not in force and not signed by the greatest part of EU member state make it only advisory and not binding.

  4. ANALYSIS OF BUDGET DEFICIT IN THE CANDIDATE COUNTRIES FOR EU MEMBERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Despotović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of deficit and debt are the traditional drivers of the recession in the past. Due to the high impact of the budget deficit to increase in indebtedness and deterioration of a macroeconomic performance, the European Union in Maastricht Treaty and later in the Pact of Stability and Growth strictly defined fiscal criteria which the member states should adhere to. Fiscal criteria are particularly important when it comes to candidate countries for EU membership. The aim of this paper is that, through theoretical and empirical basis perform a comparative analysis of the budget deficit in EU countries and candidates for membership in the EU, to rank the 34 countries according to the criteria of public finances and to show the causality between the candidate countries for membership of the EU and EU member states.

  5. Turkey’s Population Dynamics As A Candidate Country For EU Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Uçak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Literally, it has been accepted that one of the major obstacles to Turkey’s EU membership is in population term. There has not been any enlargement process as large as Turkey’s population as a single state in EU history before. The enlargement in 2004 which includes 10 states involved 74 million people as whole member states while Turkey’s population is 72 million inhabitants in 2007 data which is only lower than Germany’s population in all EU member states. Thus, Turkey's accession would be different from previous enlargements because of the combined impact of high population. This study compares the population dynamics, working conditions, minimum wage rates and main macroeconomic indicators between Turkey and EU member states. Turkey has young generations compared to EU countries. In the comparison of age groups proportion in total population, 0-19 age group %21,9 in EU 27 and %36,5 in Turkey, 20-39 age group is %28 in EU 27 and %34,3 in Turkey, 40-59 age group is %27,9 in EU and %20,9 in Turkey, 60 and above age group is %22,1 in EU and %9,5 in Turkey. Thus, population dynamics of Turkey could make a contribution to offsetting the ageing of EU 27 societies if the membership would occur in the future. However, minimum wage rates in Turkey are lower than many EU member states but generally higher than EU member states located in Central and Eastern Europe. Thus, immigration possibilities from Turkey can be expected to Western European Countries, but not the same direction to Central and Eastern Europe Countries. Furthermore, the process in macroeconomic indicators will be a determinant in immigration expectations while Turkey’s GDP has been grown faster than EU level recently.

  6. Membership

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Join the Staff Association now for 2017, the remaining quarter of 2016 is free! The membership fee of the Staff Association is free for everyone joining during the last quarter of 2016. Take this opportunity to become a member of the SA. You can also enjoy our offers and partnerships, especially as we approach the holiday season. As a reminder, the membership fee is: 0.2 % of the annual basic salary for staff members with an indefinite contract (IC); the amount will be automatically charged on the salary of January; 50.00 CHF for staff members with a limited duration contract (LD), fellows and associated members of personnel.   Don’t wait any longer, join the Staff Association. We represent and defend all of you! More information on http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/

  7. Membership

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Join the Staff Association now for 2017, the remaining quarter of 2016 is free! The membership fee of the Staff Association is free for everyone joining during the last quarter of 2016. Take this opportunity to become a member of the SA. You can also enjoy our offers and partnerships, especially as we approach the holiday season. As a reminder, the membership fee is: 0.2 % of the annual basic salary for staff members with an indefinite contract (IC); the amount will be automatically; 50.00 CHF for staff members with a limited duration contract (LD), fellows and associated members of personnel.   Don’t wait any longer, join the Staff Association that represents all of you! More information on http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/

  8. Ombudsman institutions in the candidate countries on the road to EU membership: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahap Atilla OĞUŞGİL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has been attaching great importance to the values of democracy and human rights in its external policy, including to its relationship with candidate countries seeking membership in the Union. In accordance with the significance of the values stipulated by the Copenhagen political criteria, as well, it urges the countries in question, for example, to build or strengthen national oversight mechanisms that are tasked to promote the democratic governance of the state and protect human rights. This paper examines one of those oversight mechanisms – ombudsman institutions – in the candidate states conducting accession negotiations with the EU. It specifically scrutinises a fundamental characteristic for the effective functioning of these institutions – the jurisdiction and powers granted by their statutes. Relying on the findings to be noted, the paper also seeks an answer to the question of which ombudsman institution(s score(s better in terms of effectiveness and thus play(s a more significant role in the improvement and consolidation of democracy and protection of human rights in its or their countries, and as a result, contribute(s more to the fulfilment of Copenhagen political criteria during the EU accession processes.

  9. Turkish Influence in the South Caucasus and Levant: The Consequences for NATO and the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Baran, “Turkey and the Caucasus,” in Turkish Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era, ed. Idris Bal (Boca Raton, FL: Brown Walker, 2004), 269. 56 Gareth ...Bulut, et al., Turkish Foreign Policy in Post Post-Cold War Era, ed. Idris Bal (Boca Raton: Brown Walker, 2004); Ismael, Tareq and Mustafa Aydin. ed...the Caucasus.” in Turkish Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era, edited by Idris Bal. (Boca Raton: Brown Walker, 2004). Barysch, Katinka

  10. The Influence of the Interest Rate on the Level of Investment Activity in Poland after Receiving the Membership of the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Gawrycka; Anna Szymczak

    2010-01-01

    Polish economy as a member of the EU structure is considered as more reliable and stable on the international arena. This membership also appears to provide the wider range of possibilities of acquiring financial means from the European funds that constitute the inseparable element of the new investments and further development. The purpose of the following study is to investigate the relation between the interest rate and the level of the investment activity in Poland after joining the Europ...

  11. The Influence of the Interest Rate on the Level of Investment Activity in Poland after Receiving the Membership of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gawrycka

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Polish economy as a member of the EU structure is considered as more reliable and stable on the international arena. This membership also appears to provide the wider range of possibilities of acquiring financial means from the European funds that constitute the inseparable element of the new investments and further development. The purpose of the following study is to investigate the relation between the interest rate and the level of the investment activity in Poland after joining the European Union.

  12. Census taking in the Western Balkans : a challenging and often controversial task on the way to EU membership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoh, Anna-Lena

    2016-01-01

    On the road towards EU enlargement, potential member states need to comply with the EU acquis communautaire. Chapter 18 of the acquis foresees the conduct of a population census by enlargement countries. This has proven to be more challenging in the post-war environment of the former Yugoslavia than

  13. Opportunities and Threats of Ukrainian Membership in WTO for Engineering under Conditions of Co-operation with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers consequences of the membership of Ukraine in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for the engineering industry when co-operating with the EU and CU (Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia countries. It shows that, after Ukraine joined WTO, tariff rates for Ukrainian products reduced in general and liberalisation of access to the world market took place. Along with it, the internal market of Ukraine became more open for imported products. The article analyses the structure of export from Ukraine after joining WTO in the context of individual types of products. The article identifies changes that took place in the market of engineering products after Ukraine joined WTO. The article shows that by main indicators of economic security the engineering industry of Ukraine cannot be considered as stable and also that, after joining WTO, main indicators of economic security of the engineering industry of Ukraine have not improved. It analyses the structure of export and import of Ukrainian engineering products to EU, CU and other countries. It proves that the most topical for the Ukrainian engineering industry is the issue of realisation of the import-replacement potential and increase of competitiveness of domestic products. It considers the state and changes, which took place after Ukraine joined WTO, in car building. It identifies main problems of domestic car building. It analyses measures of the state programme of Ukraine on economic development.

  14. Turkish delight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodford, Julian

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the opening up of the Turkish energy markets to international investment in an effort to join the European Union. The implementation of the EU's Directive on internal electricity markets, the benefits gained by globalisation, the growth in the Turkish electricity market, the control of power supply and distribution, generating capacity, the infrastructure needed to satisfy demand, moves towards privatisation, and joint venture with local companies are discussed. Estimates of Turkey's power demand, its strategic location, and foreign companies interested in the power market are considered. (uk)

  15. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter; Borchorst, Anette

    2002-01-01

    Der er et komplekst forhold mellem EU og den danske velfærdsstat. Den sociale dimension i det europæiske samarbejde er splittet mellem et pres mod harmonisering og pres for at fastholde national suverænitet. Negativ integration har været den foretrukne interventionsform. Drivkræfterne har især...

  16. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    politiske sigte er, at det tværnationale samarbejde skal øge den politiske og kulturelle samhørighed landene imellem. I det dansk-tyske grænseområde har EU gennem mange år forsøgt at medvirke til øge samarbejdet over grænsen. Der er ydet økonomisk og politisk støtte til forskellige projekter, der kan styrke...

  17. (In)direct framing effects: the effects of news media framing on public support for Turkish membership in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Semetko, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    News framing can exert a strong influence on public opinion. Following a media content analysis, this article investigates the effects of news framing on support for membership of Turkey in the European Union. A first experimental study (n = 304) showed a significant difference in the level of

  18. The Limits of Conditionality: Turkey – EU Taxation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Cavlak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conditionality is mostly defined as the EU policy engendered for candidate countries. However, the mere use of conditionality by the EU does not essentially explain transferring of policies and EU rules towards the candidate countries. EU conditionality may be considered as a comprising approach but in certain policy areas or countries it might not be as successful as it was on other ones. The EU conditionality basically defined as a bargaining policy of affecting through reward, under which the EU provides inducements to candidate or neighbor countries to aligning with the conditions of the EU. In this study the explanatory power of conditionality would be questioned; so the main question will be “to what extent does the EU have influence on policy convergence in a candidate country that does not have a clear membership perspective? Taxation chapter in accession negotiations between Turkey and the EU has been chosen as the case of this research as providing to have an answer on this question. The main objective of this paper is ‘analyzing the extent of EU conditionality on Turkish taxation policy.’ Furthermore, it is argued in this study that “without a concrete incentive, European Union’s impact on a candidate country would be limited.”  

  19. Greek-Turkish Crises since 1955. Implications for Greek-Turkish Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS GREEK-TURKISH CRISES SINCE 1955. IMPLICATIONS FOR GREEK-TURKISH CONFLICT MANAGEMENT by...EU, WEU) have only to gain from a Greek-Turkish rapprochement. 14. SUBJECT TERMS GrEek-Turkish RElATiONS, CRiSiS MANAgEMENT, CONfLICT management 15...crises, because the intended outcome of mediation attempts has been regional stability instead of Greek-Turkish conflict management . Power mediation

  20. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... are expected to engage in playful exploration of alternative selves. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann's theory of time and decision-making and Gregory Bateson's theory of play, the article analyses three empirical examples of how games play with conceptions of time. We explore how games represent an organizational...

  1. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  2. Membership Satisfaction and the Cost of Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests a framework for measuring membership satisfaction based on a literature study. The framework is tested on data from more than 8800 members from 29 different Danish unemployment insurance funds. The framework fits the data well and is able to explain 83% of the variation...... in membership satisfaction. Furthermore the cost of administration per member and membership satisfaction is found to be able to explain differences in membership loyalty when the 29 unemployment insurance funds are compared. Finally administration costs per member are found to be dependent on the number...

  3. EU must accept Turkey's membership, Estonian president

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja Türgi presidendi Abdullah Güli ühisel pressikonverentsil Ankaras avaldas Eesti riigipea toetust Türgi liitumisele Euroopa Liiduga. Ametlik visiit Türgi Vabariiki 15.-21.04.2010

  4. Membership in CBE's Industry Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membership Benefits of Membership Membership FAQs Become a Member Board Meeting Logistics CBE's building industry, and includes manufacturers, building owners, facility managers, contractors, architects

  5. Turkish electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin [Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Odyakmaz, Necmi [E.ON Holding, Armada Business Centre, 06520 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Turkish electricity reform has progressed slowly due to internal resistance against privatisation, and gained momentum after Electricity Market Law of 2001, prepared in line with EU Energy Acquis and established required institutional and legal framework. Although the eligibility threshold has reached 39% market opening rate, the dominant position of public both as owner and decision-maker is still the major problem in the sector. Currently Turkey is self-sufficient in electricity, but likely to face shortages in 10 years if the growing demand is not met by either speeding the liberalisation process, or joining the South East Europe Electricity Market. (author)

  6. Danish Party Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Political parties have as their main assignment the creation of linkage between citizens and government. They provide one of several channels of participation in modern democracies. Yet, the general trend across the Western world is that party membership figures decline. The purpose of this article...... is to report on the state of Danish party membership; the numbers and participation. The claim of the article is that total membership figures hide evidence of membership renewal and increases, and that mere party membership figures are insufficient when evaluating political parties as channels...... of participation. Instead, membership figures at party level as well as the participation of party members need to be taken into account in order to assess parties as channels of participation. This is supported by the analyses reported here which show that even though membership figures are declining, parties...

  7. MEMBERSHIP PROCESS OF ISTANBUL IN 2020 OLYMPIC GAMES AND ECONOMIC INVESTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    MUSTAFA YILDIZ

    2014-01-01

    The Olympic Game is an expensive and costly sport organization with the participation of athletes, journalists, broadcasters and sportsmen and audiences. This cost can be born only by developed countries and this enables introduction of home countries, increase of tourism activities and acquisition of sports facilities. Membership of Istanbul for 2020 Olympic Games is the first sport organization membership officially announced by prime minister of Turkish government. Therefore the support wa...

  8. Intelligence Reform in Albania: Its Relation to Democratization and Integration into the EU and NATO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bala, Eduart

    2008-01-01

    ...) that are now part of the European Union (EU) and NATO. For most of the CEECs, the need to satisfy the challenging conditions for membership in the EU and NATO has acted as an "anchor" of democratization and other reforms...

  9. The development of environmental management system in Serbia and Montenegro as part of the EU accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Dušan S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is one of the top priorities of the EU. The EU regulates this area both within the Union and internationally. Also, the regulations concerning environmental protection in the EU to a certain extent exceed the national level. The EU environmental legislation imposes a number of challenges to membership candidates. Legal heritage of the EU is very extensive, complex and costly, and environmental problems are much more important in the EU membership candidates than in the member states. Therefore, it is of great importance for transitional countries such as Serbia and Montenegro to participate in the EU Stabilization and Association Process as well as in the WTO accession process.

  10. Council Membership Directory 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Organizations Serving the Deaf, Washington, DC.

    Information is provided on the purposes, goals, functions, membership, board of directors, calendar of events, publications, and names and addresses of the officers or executive committees of 19 national organizations serving the deaf. Organizations included are the Council of Organizations Serving the Deaf, Alexander Graham Bell Association for…

  11. Firm productivity in the western Balkans: The impact of European Union membership and access to finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard-Jones P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU, including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of membership and loans separately as treatment variables. This provides an analysis of where the treatment influence is greatest across the distribution curve and identifies the significance of selected control variables on the outcome. In the full sample, the findings indicate that EU membership and loans have a positive effect on productivity, with membership being more important than loans. Outside the EU, firms in receipt of loans are more productive than those without. However, the significance of both membership and loans is restricted to the lower end of the productivity distribution curve. The manufacturing sample shows that EU membership has a significant positive effect across 70% of the deciles measured, whilst the influence of loans is restricted to the lower deciles, with rental capital (leasing also positively significant in the lower four deciles. In the services sector, however, membership is significant up to 90% of the distribution, with loans at 60%.

  12. Armenian-Turkish Relations in the Context of European Integration of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Matevosyan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the question of Turkish European integration and the influence of problems of Armenian-Turkish relations on this process. Author analyses EU official documents on the problem of Armenian genocide recognition and settlement of bilateral relations.

  13. Avrupa Birliği Sürecinde Türk İmalat Sanayi Dış Ticaretinin Rekabet Gücü:1989-2009 Dönemi VAR Analizi(Turkish Manufacturing Industry’s Foreign Trade Competitive Power in the EU Accession Process: A VAR Analysis of 1989-2009 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan YALÇINKAYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental macro factors that have come to affect globalization are inclusive of intensifying internationalization of political economic and cultural relations among countries, reciprocal interaction of different cultures and social structures and the disappearances of different walls created by the Cold War, respectively.In the making of globalization, no one can underestimate the impact of technological progress and competitive and outward-oriented foreign trade policy strategies. In both the developing and developed countries, foreign trade policies and fiscal policies, in general , economic policies have formed the very basis of globalization. Among such unions, stands the most important one as the European UnionThe vantage point in the integration of Turkish economy to the EU has been the Customs Union. By means of this legal settlement, a variety of differentiations have been experienced and currency policies’ functionality have gained importance.

  14. Turkey's EU Quest and Political Cleavages under AKP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the extent to which the rise of political Islam (Note 1) in Turkey has triggered an intense and polarized debate about the principle eligibility of Turkey to be a full European Union (EU) member state. The Justice and Development Party’s (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi......) The overall political targets of political Islam in Turkey seems less compatible with the traditional Turkish EU quest than formerly (2) The Turkish political Islamic turnaround is contributing to a climate of increasing scepticism in Europe, and presents significant obstacles to EU accession. As a result...

  15. The Economic Effects of Croatia's Accession to the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Lejour, Arjan Marcel; Mervar, Andrea; Verweij, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    We explore the economic implications of Croatia's possible accession to the European Union. We focus on two main changes associated with the EU-membership: accession to the internal European Market and institutional reforms in Croatia triggered by the EU-membership. GDP per capita in Croatia is estimated to rise by about 1.1 percent as a result of accession to the internal market. In particular the textile and wearing apparel sectors expand. If Croatia succeeds in reforming its domestic insti...

  16. EU Udbudsretten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sune Troels; Jakobsen, Peter Stig; Kalsmose-Hjelmborg, Simon Evers

    I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk.......I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk....

  17. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  18. Enlarging the EU's internal energy market: Why would third countries accept EU rule export?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange-Gstoehl, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    Why would countries without a membership perspective seek integration into the EU's internal energy market? One major element of the EU's external energy policy is the export of EU energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond. A core legal instrument the EU uses in this context is the Energy Community Treaty (ECT). The ECT goes both geographically and regarding its depth significantly beyond neighbourhood or association policies, addressing potentially also countries in the 'far neighbourhood' and aiming at the creation of a Single Market for energy with these countries. While, however, EU candidate countries are obliged to adopt the 'acquis' before accessing the EU and therefore comply to EU rules already before they enter the Club, I argue that countries with no or only a vague membership perspective - i.e. countries where the EU cannot apply the 'conditionality' - approach (e.g., ENP countries)-aim at deeper integration with the EU because they are either eager to demonstrate their capability and potential to become part of the Club, they seek greater independence from a regional hegemon or they envisage significant economic gains as common norms, rules and standards are likely to increase economic exchange with the EU.

  19. Values, identities and social constructions of the European Union among Turkish university youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hortacsu; N. Cem-Ersoy (Nevra)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe present study aimed to investigate Turkish university youth’s constructions concerning the European Union (EU) and their reactions to the EU’s December 2002 Copenhagen summit decision to delay discussion of Turkey’s entry to the EU. Specifically it aimed to show that

  20. Financial Integration into EU: The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of integration between stock market of Romania and other stock markets of European Union (EU countries. Correlations between the stock returns represent the level of integration between the stock markets. Empirical analysis are performed with daily stock returns of 24 EU members including Romania for 2002-2012 period using panel data gravity models and correlations are investigated. Findings reveal that the following factors have significant and robust effects on the financial integration process of Romania with other 23 EU members; (i EU membership, (ii bilateral trade, (iii GDP per capita, (iv 2012 sovereign debt crisis and (v East European location. The results emphasize that intensifying economic relations with EU members can contribute the integration of Romanian stock market with other EU members. designed & hoste

  1. Gendered Communities of Practice and the Construction of Masculinities in Turkish Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, Matthew; Koca, Canan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the construction of masculinities in Turkish physical education through Carrie Paechter's conceptualisation of gendered communities of practice. According to Paechter, educational communities of practice operate as sites of gendered activity. Membership within these communities contributes to the construction of a gendered…

  2. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...

  3. Turkish Vector of German Policy in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Dvoryadkina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the Middle East policy of modern Germany, taking Turkish vector as an example. The foreign EU policy in the Middle East, as a whole and cooperation of modern Germany with Turkey in attempt to join the European Union are examined. Attention is given to the modern crisis and difficulties that stand on the way of cooperation between the two states.

  4. Intra-EU Direct Investment and Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festa Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of the intra-EU direct investment (IDI into the New Member States (NMS using a panel dataset of bilateral capital flows for the period 1993-2013. It is found out by using a simple gravity model that EU membership is the most important determinant. Unlike previous studies including non-EU countries, the distance is insignificant, which is caused by proximity of these countries to one another. A separate analysis focused on subgroups of accession countries gives some evidence that even when size of their economy, distance, institutional quality and EU accession are taken into account, Central European countries receive more IDI than the Baltic and the Balkan states. On the contrary to that, the analysis restricted to the Balkan countries which have joined the EU shows the inexistence of a negative Balkans effect in attracting foreign investment. This finding is relevant because previous studies demonstrate a persistent negative Balkans effect for non-EU Balkan countries and suggests a crucial impact of the EU accession in determining the intra-EU capital flows.

  5. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  6. Membership of Eastern European countries of the European Union -environmental perspectives. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Ten central and eastern European countries have made association agreements with the EU and submitted applications for EU membership. The countries are: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria. Accession to the EU by the central and eastern European countries requires that the countries accept the acquis communautaire (the rules of the EU) as well as the acquis politique (the political aims of the EU), including environmental issues. Accession to the EU is expected to result in substantial environmental improvements both in the central and eastern European countries and in the countries which are exposed to pollution originating from these countries. The extent of the environmental improvements when the 10 countries implement and use the rules laid down by the EU is an important issue. Another important approximation related problem is how the countries will secure the human and financial resources to meet the EU requirements. The purpose of this publication is to provide a first analysis of the tasks ahead in the environmental field during the current approximation process, including the environmental consequences/gains and the costs of accession of the 10 associated countries to the EU. This analysis deals both with general and sectoral problems, focusing on sectors with special adaptation problems which thus need targeted assistance. The analysed sectors are: air pollution, ozone depleting substances, waste, water pollution, agriculture, chemical substances, biodiversity, energy - including nuclear energy. (LN) 119 refs

  7. The geopolitics of future tourism development in an expanding EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Antony Singleton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assert the link between the process of EU accession, the consolidation of democratic processes and the improvement of economic and tourism infrastructure to incoming tourism flows. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology of this paper involves explanation of an analysis exploring links between governmental systems and the order necessary for economic development and tourism. The argument is supported by the recent history of tourism development in three countries, two within the EU and one outside. Findings – Accession to the EU (especially in the case of Eastern European countries constitutes a way to emulate the democratic freedoms and greater economic prosperity of existing EU member states. Tourism is one of the areas of economy that benefits from the stability and growth EU membership can bring. Accession to the EU has had beneficial effects for acceding in terms of political stability and tourism growth. Originality/value – The opportunities that EU membership can bring to tourism development for example (also strategies to exploit these opportunities depend to a large degree on the international relations between the EU and its rivals. The extent to which tourism demands ebb and flow is governed by a range of factors, but the issues of conflict and security are game breakers. Understanding the factors and trends involved in the peaceful resolution of conflict (democratic model or use of force to resolve conflict (military model is key in the analysis of future tourism opportunities.

  8. Turkish-Greek relations within the European Union framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Özlem; Kilic, Ozlem

    2009-01-01

    Turko-Greek relations have been strained by a number of conflicting issues such as Cyprus, Continental Shelf, Territorial Waters, the Öcalan affair, and the S-300 Missiles crisis on Cyprus. Until the December 1999 Helsinki Summit, Greece was one of the strong opponents of Turkey's membership in the European Union (EU). However, at the Helsinki Summit of 1999, Greece dropped her negative position permitting Turkey to be declared by the EU as a candidate country. This shift in foreign policy ha...

  9. Eu Enlargement and Migration: Scenarios of Croatian Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes possible incidence of pending Croatian EU accession that is to take place on the 1st of July 2013, on the labour migration from Croatia to the European Union. We apply panel data estimators using the data on emigration from 18 EU countries into Germany (which is the EU country with the largest share of ex-Yugoslav and Croatian migrants in order to construct possible scenarios of Croatian migration to the EU.Three scenarios of migration - pessimistic, realistic and optimistic - are drawn and the sensitivity of estimated coefficients on migration from Croatia into Germany during next 25 years is further discussed in detail. We conclude that, similarly to hypothetical Turkish accession, Croatian EU accession is not going to cause massive migration inflows.

  10. 10 YEARS AFTER NATO MEMBERSHIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ”10 years after NATO Membership. An Anniversary in the Shadow of a Crisis”, indeholder artikler fra politiske aktører, diplomater og forskere, der alle bidrog til til konferencen af samme navn, hvor den 10-året for baltisk medlemskab af NATO var omdrejningspunktet. Udover den danske...... forsvarsminister, er den estiske og litauiske forsvarsminister og NATO’s vicegeneralsekretær blandt bidragyderne. Konferencens formål var at fejre, inddrage og diskutere 10 års forsvarspolitisk NATO-samarbejde i Østersøområdet. Den internationale udvikling i Europa betød at konferencens dagsorden i stedet for kom...

  11. Refugees, nationalism, and political membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to understand how refugees present a problem for liberal nation-states. The point of departure is Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism where she argues that the continual existence of refugees within liberal nation-states threatens to break down the principle of equality before the law thereby enabling the rise of police-states and totalitarianism. In light of this diagnosis, three of Arendt’s philosophical heirs—Giorgio Agamben, Seyla Benhabib and Peg Birmingham—argue that it is necessary to think political membership in different and broader terms than national citizenship if we are to avoid a new rise of totalitarianism.

  12. Multiple group membership and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderlund, Anders L.; Morton, Thomas A.; Ryan, Michelle K.

    2017-01-01

    multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression......A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group...... and social support, as well as identity compatibility and perceived social inclusion. But, in this study the relationship between multiple group memberships and well-being outcomes was moderated by the perceived value and visibility of group memberships to others. Specifically, possessing multiple, devalued...

  13. Does union membership really reduce job satisfaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Lorenzo Cappellari; Claudio Lucifora

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of union membership on job satisfaction. Whilst it is common to study the effects of union status on satisfaction treating individual membership as given, in this paper, we account for the endogenous selection induced by the sorting of workers into unionised jobs. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we address the question of how the membership decision is related to overall job satisfaction and to satisfacti...

  14. Internal control activities in small Turkish companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Bilgi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present major outcomes from an empirical study concerning internal control activities in small Turkish companies, as to propose the improvement guidelines. Methods of analysis and synthesis, descriptive statistics, and statistical comparison were used. The collected data was processed with the help of the SPSS software. Тhe study is limited to organizations based in the European part of Turkey. Most of them operate in areas around large cities, such as Istanbul, Edirne, Kırklareli, and Tekirdağ. They employ on average 19-20 people and have a turnover of about TRY 3 million (≈€715,000, https://sdw.ecb.europa.eu on average. The survey concentrates mainly on small family businesses, which have been present on the market for more than ten years, with managers of good education and other characteristics that presuppose availability of internal control systems. The research results were used to compile main points of a SWOT analysis, as a part of the broader effort to help modernizing the internal control system in Turkish small businesses.

  15. Investigation of Turkish marbles as shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atasoy, H.; Tarcan, G.; Doekmen, S.

    1992-01-01

    The natural Turkish marbles, especially Usak Green (UG), Aegean Purple (AP), and Marmara White (MW) were tested as shielding materials using standard gamma sources such as Co-60, Cs-137 and Eu-152. The experiment showed that UG, AP and MW are very effective shields against gamma-rays. The result for this experiment is that the gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of UG, AP and MW are almost equal for the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 1.4 MeV. Also, the elemental compositions of the natural UG, AP and MW marbles have been determined by fast and thermal neutron activation analysis and fourteen elements including Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, V, Ti, Mn, Fe, La, Ba and Sc have been found using the gamma spectroscopic method. The range of element contents of all Turkish marbles are remarkably different, but most of the elements are common such as Ca, Fe, Na, Cl, Mg, Si. (orig.)

  16. Turkey’s Membership in the European Union: Analyzing Potential Benefits and Drawbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    began with the establishment of a coal and steel community, and it has led to an economic, social, and political union.1 Considering the historical...important tool for economic, social and political progress. Yet, this membership is not a sine qua non for Turkey. Turkey wants to be treated as well...and Germany – and its role in the consolidation of democracy in Spain and Portugal – constitute important examples.132 The EU has not, however, had

  17. The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiryol Tolga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP. Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

  18. Exchange-rate policy in eastern Europe and EU integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef M. Van Brabant

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines potential conflicts between rapid EU integration of economies in transition (EiTs and their pursuing catch-up by focusing on exchange-rate policies. After justifying the proposed inquiry, official pronouncements on ER policies that EUcandidates are expected to pursue in the run-up to and upon their accession are summarized, and the salient features of recent debates on ER regimes recalled. Inasmuch as EiTs must modernize and reconcile this obligation with EU membership, in spite of the EU's cohesion experience, the paper combines real and nominal convergence issues with institutional changes upon EU accession to draw a novel perspective on the desirable postaccession transition regime for EiTs with a fairly active ER policy and the EU's cohesion strategy. Core components of such a strategy are advocated.

  19. Building up active membership in cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Sergaki, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active membership is crucial for agricultural cooperatives as it engenders better performance. It even is the key for cooperative competitiveness. Active membership, however, decreases in many cooperatives. Thus, it is important to know what galvanizes members to become active members. The

  20. Elderly Turkish Migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Petersen, Signe Sofia Gronwald; Yazici, Suzan

    and a higher proportion of self-reported illness and are in higher risk of health problems and morbidity than their Danish counterparts. Furthermore, their health differences increase more by age. The research project aimed at finding possible explanations for these differences among Turkish and ethnic Danish......Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark: Health in a life course perspective Objective According to Statistics Denmark, Turkish immigrants constitute the largest immigrant group in Denmark with 1.1% of the population (60,390 people) in 2012. They account for a higher rate of chronic ailments...... elderly people by studying the every day life of elderly Turkish migrants. Methods Qualitative interviews were carried out with 12 Turkish men and 18 women aged 54-80. The interviews had a focus on their health practices and health perceptions in a life history perspective. The interviews were...

  1. Succession of States in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of separatism. Scotland, Catalonia, Flanders, South Tyrol – all these regions have separatist movements pursuing independence from their current National State. The breakup of an EU Member State no longer seems impossible. To date, it is unclear what impact this would have on the EU membership of the new entities (with consequences for the character of citizenship, voting rights in the council, number of MEPs etc. that emerge from the old States. The common rules of Public International Law governing the succession of States are insufficient in the case of a succession of States in the EU. Although the Treaties do not provide for such a situation and the past 60 years of European history offer only a few and not really persuasive precedents, the nature of the EU as a joint association of sovereign States (“Staatenverbund” demands a special approach: A separated State will neither be automatically excluded from the EU nor will it automatically become a new Member State.

  2. Transportforskning i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter.......Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter....

  3. Prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about the greenhouse effect and their views on environmental education in university

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kışoğlu; Hasan Gürbüz; Mehmet Erkol; Muhammed Said Akar; Mustafa Akıllı

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental factor of environmental education is teachers who are well-informed about environmental issues. This research aimed to determine prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect and to investigate the effect of gender, information source and membership in the environmental foundations on their knowledge. We also aimed to learn their views on environmental education given in universi...

  4. 45 CFR 1700.3 - Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.3 Membership. (a) The Commission is composed of the Librarian of Congress, the Director of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (who serves as an ex officio, nonvoting...

  5. Membership nominations in international scientific assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifeld, Philip; Fisher, Dana R.

    2017-10-01

    International scientific assessments are transnational knowledge-based expert networks with a mandate to advise policymakers. A well-known example is the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), which synthesized research on ecosystem services between 2001 and 2005, utilizing the knowledge of 1,360 expert members. Little, however, is known about the membership composition and the driving forces behind membership nominations in the MA and similar organizations. Here we introduce a survey data set on recruitment in the MA and analyse nomination patterns among experts as a complex network. The results indicate that membership recruitment was governed by prior contacts in other transnational elite organizations and a range of other factors related to personal affinity. Network analysis demonstrates how some core individuals were particularly influential in shaping the overall membership composition of the group. These findings add to recently noted concerns about the lack of diversity of views represented in international scientific assessments.

  6. 76 FR 57712 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics... the Performance Review Board (PRB) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's.... Bostic, Jr., Arnold A. Jackson, Theodore A. Johnson, Steven J. Jost, J. Steven Landefeld, Jennifer Madans...

  7. 76 FR 65503 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... CONTACT: Andrea Burckman, Director, Executive Resources Division, Human Capital and Client Services... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Office of Management... of Education is composed of career and non-career senior executives. The PRB reviews and evaluates...

  8. 16 CFR 1031.12 - Membership criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Employee Involvement § 1031.12 Membership criteria. (a) The Commissioners, their special assistants, and Commission officials and employees holding the...

  9. State Membership: A Question of Individual Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Melina

    2016-01-01

    The papers I, III and IV of this thesis are not available in Munin. Paper I: I. Duarte, M.: "Right to Hospitality, Right to Membership: a Critical Review of Kant's and Benhabib's Cosmopolitan Accounts on Immigration and Borders.". Published version available in "Varieties of Liberalism: Contemporary Challenges. Alnes, J. H. and Manuel Toscano (eds.), ISBN: 978-1443858120. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, p.:204-222. Paper III:Duarte, M.: "State Membership: Contesting Natur...

  10. Why Should Bilingualized Dictionary of Turkish Be Used in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Sami

    2018-01-01

    The first person to learn Turkish as a foreign language is a Chinese woman writing Turkish love letters for her exiled husband in the 4th century. However, we do not know much about how this woman learned Turkish. The known history of teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language goes back to the first concrete material produced for this process. They…

  11. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celenk, O.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The

  12. Impacts of Cyprus' European Union Accession on Turkish Cypriot Cooperatives = Avrupa Birliği Üyeliği'nin Kuzey Kıbrıs Kooperatifleri Üzerine Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about Cooperative enterprises in the European Union (EU and how they fulfill the needs and aspiration of their members and stakeholders. It considers the contribution that they make to European economy and society. Additionally, a detailed discussion is provided for the impacts of a probable Cyprus' integration to the EU on the Turkish Cypriot co-operative movement. In this study, the following sections will take place: - Introductory part related to concept and importance of cooperatives.- History of cooperatives in the European Union.- Principles of cooperatives.- Development of cooperatives in the European Union.- Impacts of Cyprus-EU integration on Turkish Cypriot cooperatives.- Conclusion.

  13. THE CRUCIAL THEMES OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review of the “terms” of the ongoing EU enlargement, in the light of the European public interest. The European public interest ought to include the prospective (Central European members, within a perspective of an enlarged Union in 2010, or so. The following forms a personalised summary of a major report published (in Dutch in September 2001 by the WRR in The Hague (a think-tank, formally under the Dutch Prime Minister, but by statute fully independent. The author was one of the lead-writers of this report. The present article merely focuses on the policy recommendations of the report. It is hoped that these kinds of critical analyses will help to stimulate solid policy debate on the EU in Romania, on the road to EU membership. The article discusses why the notion of a “core-acquis” would improve the enlargement strategy; the application of the core acquis to the internal market, environment and justice and home affairs; judicial and administrative capacity; accession to “euro-land”; the rapid reform of the CAP; a reform of “cohesion” approaches; and a note on the EU budgetary implications.

  14. EUROPEAN-TURKISH IDENTITY INTERACTION FROM THE SOCIALCONSTRUCTIVIST PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Unalp Cepel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Identity formation efforts of the EU draw attentionin Turkey’s membershipprocess. This paper is based on a hypothesis that identity, culture, norms andvalues which construct the social structure affectEuropean and Turkish identityinteraction. In the paper, right and left views within the Turkish parliament andEuropean parliament will be analyzed in the framework of social constructivism.Social constructivism which is provided as an alternative area of study in thesocial sciences to the European integration, is still evaluated as a debatedapproach in the internatioal relations literature.Wendt, Checkel, Smith,Katzenstein, Keohane and Krasner define social constructivism as an approachbetween rationalism represented with neo-realism, neo-liberalism and neo-liberalinstitutionalism- and reflectivism represented withpost-modernism and post-structuralism. On the other hand, some other authors evaluate socialconstructivism within the critical theories. This paper is based on the firstdefinition.The first assumption of the social constructivism asserts that material structuresshould be observed beyond the biological facts(Jupille, Caporaso, Checkel,2003.According to this asumption, material structures gain importance by interpretingwithin the social conditions and environment. By following this assumption, thispaper will focus on different foreign policy strategies of Turkey and Europe as aresult of different identity perceptions. The second assumption points to the natureof the actors and their relations with the institutional environment. In accordancewith this assumption, opinions, values and discourses of the party groups in theTurkish parliament and European parliament will betaken into consideration.Social constructivism stresses on the social interaction of the states and non-state actors. In this respect analyzing the social interaction within the framework ofTurkish-European identity will make a contributionto the literature.

  15. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  16. Membership Functions for Fuzzy Focal Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porębski Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on data-driven diagnostic rules, which are easy to interpret by human experts. To this end, the Dempster-Shafer theory extended for fuzzy focal elements is used. Premises of the rules (fuzzy focal elements are provided by membership functions which shapes are changing according to input symptoms. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate common membership function shapes and to introduce a rule elimination algorithm. Proposed methods are first illustrated with the popular Iris data set. Next experiments with five medical benchmark databases are performed. Results of the experiments show that various membership function shapes provide different inference efficiency but the extracted rule sets are close to each other. Thus indications for determining rules with possible heuristic interpretation can be formulated.

  17. EU Budgetary Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2013-01-01

    In this article I study the long-term evolution of the main categories of expenditure of the European Union (EU) budget (1984-2011). The aim is to assess the extent to which the EU is affected by a structural form of policy inertia, and to investigate the general pattern of policy stability...... and change in the EU in light of the two models of policy dynamics currently existing in the literature: the incrementalist model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The analysis of long series of original data extracted from the EU budget shows that EU policies do not evolve following an incrementalist...

  18. CONCEPTIONS OF THE EU AND ATTITUDES TO TURKEY'S ACCESSION IN FRENCH AND BRITISH DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine MACMILLAN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, France has oppose d full EU membership for Turkey while Britain has been one of the staunchest supporters of Turkey's EU accession bid. This paper argues that this can be explained by fundamentally different conceptions of the EU in the two countries, based in turn on differences in national concep tions of state and nation. The paper thus analyses recent French and Britis h discourse on the EU and, particularly, on Turkey's accession bid, according to Sjursen's (20 07 framework of three idealised visions of the EU. These are firstly, the EU as a problem-solving entity, secundly as a values-based community based on a common cultural identity and finally as a post-national union underscored by 'universal' rights such as democracy and human rights

  19. National Parliamentary Control of EU Policy: The Challenge of Supranational Institutional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Olsen, Ingvild

    2015-01-01

    are likely to want to impose both police patrol and fire alarm control on the government. These arguments are investigated in the case of Denmark during the 50-year period since the first Danish application for EU membership in 1961, and considerable support is found for the authors’ hypotheses....

  20. A Test of Endogenous Trade Bloc Formation Theory on EU Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Edward Baldwin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically confronts one explanation of spreading regionalism with the European experience. The domino theory asserts that forming a preferential trade area, or deepening an existing one, produces trade diversion that generates new political-economy forces in third nations as third-nation exporters seek to redress the new discrimination and profit from newly deepened preferences. The pressure increases with the bloc’s size, yet bloc size depends upon how many nations join, so a single incidence of regionalism may trigger several rounds of membership requests from nations that were previously happy to stay out. We estimate a time-series of EU trade creation and diversion over the last five decades and use these to estimate a model of EU membership demands. The results provide broad support for the model and show that trade diversion has a more powerful impact on membership than trade creation.

  1. TURKISH TRADE POLICY AND THE EFFICIENCY OF TURKISH COTTON MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Troy G.

    1999-01-01

    Turkish cotton markets are affected by import duties, export taxes, and a range of domestic subsidies. The degree of economic inefficiency arising from these government policies is estimated through the use of two partial equilibrium models, one for the Aegean market and another for the non-Aegean market. The welfare implications of these policies are also explored.

  2. 16 CFR 1018.16 - Membership selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT... volunteer, that bear any relationship to the subject area of product safety or to membership on the advisory... qualified, staff members of the Commission, including the Advisory Committee Management Officer. (d) The...

  3. 78 FR 67333 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics... eligible to serve on the Performance Review Board (PRB) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics.... Arnold William G. Bostic, Jr. Stephen B. Burke Joanne Buenzli Crane Susan R. Helper Ron S. Jarmin Enrique...

  4. 48 CFR 9901.304 - Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administrator. (d) An individual who is particularly knowledgeable about cost accounting problems and systems... Section 9901.304 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATION RULES AND PROCEDURES 9901.304 Membership...

  5. 40 CFR 26.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.107 IRB membership..., to promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human...

  6. 45 CFR 46.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.107 IRB membership. (a) Each IRB shall have... respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects. In addition...

  7. 75 FR 71417 - Manufacturing Council Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council Membership AGENCY... marketing programs in support of manufacturing industries, job creation in the manufacturing sector, or the... their travel, living and other personal expenses. Meetings are held regularly and not less than annually...

  8. 77 FR 61379 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics... eligible to serve on the Performance Review Board (PRB) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics.... Arnold William G. Bostic, Jr. Joanne Buenzli Crane Justin R. Ehrenwerth Ron S. Jarmin Theodore A. Johnson...

  9. 75 FR 57440 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics... the Performance Review Board in accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's Senior... Callahan, Nancy M. Gordon, Howard R. Hogan, Arnold A. Jackson, Theodore A. Johnson, Steven J. Jost, J...

  10. 16 CFR 1018.15 - Membership composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specified in section 20 of the Federal Hazardous Substances Act, as amended (Pub. L. 95-631, 92 Stat. 3747... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership composition. 1018.15 Section 1018.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT...

  11. 12 CFR 725.3 - Regular membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.3 Regular membership. (a) A natural person credit....5(b) of this part, and forwarding with its completed application funds equal to one-half of this... 1, 1979, is not required to forward these funds to the Facility until October 1, 1979. (3...

  12. Membership Contests: Encountering Immigrant Youth in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinen, Paivi; Suurpaa, Leena; Hoikkala, Tommi; Hautaniemi, Petri; Perho, Sini; Keskisalo, Anne-Mari; Kuure, Tapio; Kunnapuu, Krista

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses different aspects of social and societal membership, when minority groups of young immigrants living in Finland are under consideration. During its history, Finland has mainly been a country of emigration. In the 1990s the direction of moving turned to the contrary and the amount of immigrants in Finland increased relatively…

  13. 22 CFR 225.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.107 IRB membership. (a..., to promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human... individuals who are knowledgeable about and experienced in working with these subjects. (b) Every...

  14. 7 CFR 1c.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.107 IRB membership. (a) Each IRB... promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects. In... knowledgeable about and experienced in working with these subjects. (b) Every nondiscriminatory effort will be...

  15. 49 CFR 11.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.107 IRB membership. (a..., to promote respect for its advice and counsel in safeguarding the rights and welfare of human... individuals who are knowledgeable about and experienced in working with these subjects. (b) Every...

  16. Past experience with the EU Common Agricultural Policy and future challenges for landscape development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Busck, Anne Gravsholt

    and land use through the Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) and several other policies, however it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between effects of EU policies and the general trends on the European continent. In a Danish perspective, the formal effects of EU membership have been effectuated since...... the accession to the EU by 1973, however the trend towards intensification and industrialisation have emerged since the 2nd world war. Since 1973, landscape challenge have changed from intensification to debates on marginalisation in the early 1980s, introduction of the environmental policies in the mid 1980s...

  17. Byg EU om

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Der argumenteres for en række påstande vedrørende en mulig ombygning af EU med henblik på at håndtere den krise, som unionen står i. Grundlæggende for dem alle er, at enten ombygges EU på disse områder, eller også smuldrer samarbejdet. Et internationalt samarbejde som EU kollapser ikke; det mister...

  18. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...... of harmonising measures that could facilitate a better consumer protection from non-safety health risks at the EU level. The EU legislature should use this legislative competence to fill in the regulatory grey area. Two possible ways forward to better integrate food health into the EU food law framework...

  19. 12 CFR 564.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency. 564.6 Section 564.6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.6 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership in appraisal organizations...

  20. 12 CFR 925.30 - Readmission to membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Readmission to membership. 925.30 Section 925.30 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Reacquisition of Membership § 925.30 Readmission to membership. (a) In...

  1. The effect of alliance block membership on innovative performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysters, G.M.; Hagedoorn, J.; Lemmens, C.E.A.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper longitudinally explores the technology positioning strategies, i.e. block membership or non-block membership, in interorganizational networks that maximize innovative performance. Hence, we will derive some basic propositions on the effect of block membership on innovative performance

  2. Innovation in Hungary - The Impact of EU Accession and Integration into Global Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szalavetz Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that EU accession has brought about minimal changes in the patterns of innovation in Hungary. The reason why is not that the ‘EU factor’ is of minor importance; rather, it is Hungary's inability to use EU resources effectively, so as to fully benefit from EU membership. The Hungarian story also demonstrates that the EU cannot block member states from reversing reform or abusing the opportunities EU membership offers to them. We contend that globalization (global value chain integration has more effectively contributed to Hungary's knowledge-based upgrading than Europeanization (in the sense of policy transfer; access to EU Structural & Cohesion Funds, and integration in the European Research Area. This argument is substantiated with a case study on innovation strategy design and implementation, which illustrates the ambiguous impact of Europeanization, which is contrasted with our investigation of integration in global value chains, conducted through interviews of foreign-owned manufacturing companies about their R&D-based upgrading experience.

  3. Sociological analysis of contemporary Turkish political elites

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ali Arslan

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to find general characteristics of Contemporary Turkish political Elites since 1995 up to date. Social background characteristics were employed to realise the purposes. Documentary and historical research techniques were used during the study. As a result of examining the Contemporary Turkish political elites (since 1995 up to 2005) these major findings were discovered: the large majority of the Turkish parliamentary elites were well educated, male, middle aged, marrie...

  4. Cookies as agents for community membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

    2013-01-01

    When becoming a member of a community of practice, a novice must adopt certain community norms to participate, and these include the social norms of the group. Using the analytical perspective of Legitimate Peripheral Participation in a Community of Practice, this paper explores the social role of cookies as agents for community participation and membership in a physics research group. We analyze data from an ethnographic case study of a physics research group weekly research meeting. The mentors bring cookies to each meeting and view the cookies as a token of appreciation for the graduate students' work. These cookies take on a subtler role of initiating guests and students into scientific conversations and participation. Via the cookies, members also share personal histories and stories that help members strengthen their membership. The study of social norms in this research group is part of a larger study of physics expert identity development.

  5. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  6. OpenLaws.eu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wass, C.; Dini, P.; Eiser, T.; Heistracher, T.J.; Lampoltshammer, T.J.; Marcon, G.; Sageder, C.; Tsiavos, P.; Winkels, R.; Schweighofer, E.; Kummer, F.; Hötzendorfer, W.

    2013-01-01

    The OPENLAWS.eu project aims to linking existing laws, cases and legal literature throughout the EU and member states and potentially worldwide and at adding new user-friendly functionality for a higher productivity. Furthermore, the project should make it possible to easily publish new legal

  7. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  8. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  9. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  10. EU ligger i Danmark!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    EU må ikke reduceres til et spørgsmål om folkeafstemninger. Den virkelige udfordring handler om, hvordan EU-beslutninger om alt fra dyretransporter til terrorbekæmpelse kan kontrolleres på en demokratisk måde. De beslutninger, der bliver truffet i Bruxelles er i højeste grad en del af den nationa...

  11. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  12. Semantic Categories in the Domain of Motion Verbs by Adult Speakers of Danish, German, and Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessen, Moiken

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Languages differ in the ways they divide the world. This study applies cluster analysis to understand how and why languages differ in the way they express motion events. It further lays out what the parameters of the structure of the semantic space of motion are, based on data collected from participants who were adult speakers of Danish, German, and Turkish. The participants described 37 video clips depicting a large variety of motion events. The results of the study show that the segmentation of the semantic space displays a great deal of variation across all three groups. Turkish differs from German and Danish with respect to the features used to segment the semantic space – namely by using vector orientation. German and Danish differ greatly with respect to (a how fine-grained the distinctions made are, and (b how motion verbs with a common Germanic root are distributed across the semantic space. Consequently, this study illustrates that the parameters applied for categorization by speakers are, to some degree, related to typological membership, in relation to Talmy's typological framework for the expression of motion events. Finally, the study shows that the features applied for categorization differ across languages and that typological membership is not necessarily a predictor of elaboration of the motion verb lexicon.

  13. Romania’s Membership of International Financial Institutions – a Necessary Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doltu Claudiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available After a 17-year transformation process from a centralized economy to a functional market economy, Romania joined the European Union on January 1, 2007. Today, 11 years after the EU accession, Romania is still looking forward to achieve many of the real convergence conditions and also to join the euro zone. Independent of these, as an upper medium income country is now the time to evaluate its role, benefits and obligations as a shareholder in various international financial institutions – multilateral development banks and multilateral regional banks – as a first step in assuming an active and positive role in the development international community. At the EU level, international development is slowly but constant evolving to a coherent and common approach. However, individual member states still have a lot of space to maneuver to use specific individual approaches in pursuing their own interests. The objective of this paper is to signal that for Romania the right time has come to change its passive and reactive approach of its membership in various international financial institutions for a new dynamic and active approach. In terms of financial resources that can be mobilized and used for international development Romania cannot realistically aspire to stay along with the big traditional donors. However, its relatively small contribution can be leveraged by its membership in such multilateral and/or regional institutions so to maximize the benefits both for the international community and for the Romanian taxpayer.

  14. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  15. “Secularism”: A Key to Turkish Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Jung

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In posing Serif Mardin’s question of Turkey’s center-periphery relations in a revised version, this article considers secularism to be a key to understanding Turkish politics. It views the confrontation between secularists and Islamists in the light of Turkey’s center-periphery polarization and identifies the secularist doctrine of Kemalism as a major obstacle to democratic political change. The protection of Turkey’s secular order developed into the ideological cornerstone of Kemalist rule, which ranks prime amongst the ideological tools used to justify the political supremacy of the Turkish armed forces. Examining the interrelation between secularism and the almost religious cult around Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the article concludes that the increasing visibility of Islamic symbols and practices in Turkey is a logical consequence of the country’s current European Union(EU reform process, rather than a sign of Turkey’s deviation from its political and societal modernization process.

  16. Accounting Education Approach in the Context of New Turkish Commercial Code and Turkish Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Kızıl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards on accounting education. This study takes advantage of the survey method for gathering information and running the research analysis. For this purpose, questionnaire forms are distributed to university students personally and via the internet.This paper includes significant research questions such as “Are accounting academicians informed and knowledgeable on new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?”, “Do accounting academicians integrate new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards to their lectures?”, “How does modern accounting education methodology and technology coincides with the teaching of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?”, “Do universities offer mandatory and elective courses which cover the new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards?” and “If such courses are offered, what are their names, percentage in the curriculum and degree of coverage?”Research contributes to the literature in several ways. Firstly, new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards are current significant topics for the accounting profession. Furthermore, the accounting education provides a basis for the implementations in public and private sector. Besides, one of the intentions of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards is to foster transparency. That is definitely a critical concept also in terms of mergers, acquisitions and investments. Stakeholders of today’s business world such as investors, shareholders, entrepreneurs, auditors and government are in need of more standardized global accounting principles Thus, revision and redesigning of accounting educations plays an important role. Emphasized points also clearly prove the necessity and functionality of this research.

  17. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan...... nødvendigøre statslige midler. Hertil er fonden trods alt for begrænset. ... Proceduren er, at ECB indstiller til SRM's bestyrelse, at en bank skal afvikles, hvorefter EU-kommissionen og nationale tilsynsmyndigheder involveres....

  18. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  19. Quantity versus Quality in Turkish Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hasan

    This paper asserts that there have not been adequate studies about the comparative quality of Turkish universities to provide information and data for prospective students, advisors, university administrators, and policymakers. Turkey has more than 70 state and private universities. Most of these are relatively new, although Turkish higher…

  20. Concept Maps and Language: A Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci

    2003-01-01

    Concept maps are being used by an increasing number of educators in Europe and the US. This paper has four goals. First, it discusses problems in developing Novak's style concept maps in Turkish caused by linguistic differences between Turkish and English. Second, it reports the findings of a research study conducted to adapt concept maps to…

  1. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  2. INSTITUTIONS IN TRANSITION: IS THE EU INTEGRATION PROCESS RELEVANT FOR INWARD FDI IN TRANSITION EUROPEAN ECONOMIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Delevic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research challenges the contemporary view of economic policy makers in transition European economies that the EU integration process will lead to a greater inflow of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI, thereby increasing living standards. With the Brexit referendum, the integration of the EU has been threatened by a distressing existential question: is EU membership valuable for transition countries if even developed countries (like the UK vote to leave or decided not to align like Switzerland and Norway in the past? Our analysis considers the success of several countries in Eastern Europe in attracting and benefiting from FDI on their way to EU membership. Analyzing a 13-year panel data of 16 transition countries, we found no statistically significant positive association between FDI inflow and EU accession. We argue, that it is also important to consider the welfare for domestic economies that can emerge from those investments. We illustrate this through the case study of a successful combination of institutional development and local content policies implementation accompanied by sufficient FDI inflows in a non-EU country - Kazakhstan.

  3. European economic area in the system of the EU foreign policy: norwegian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Y. Barna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available European Economic Area was one of the first examples of developing the relations between the EU and other partner countries on the continent that rejected a full membership in this organization. This form of cooperation for over twenty years provides stability, predictability and constructive development of relations with the three European partners, including Norway. Currently, the EEA is seen as a model of deeper integration without getting a full-fledged membership in the EU. It should also be noted that this arrangement has proven its resistance to external shocks as reduction of members of EFTA, EU enlargement and adoption of new EU treaties. Therefore, Brussels supports the existence of the EEA and never officially put on the agenda of the termination of the agreement or revision of its provisions. For their part, most Norwegian political parties also defend the status quo. However, there are voices on the need to modernize the EEA, especially after the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty. It is also necessary to point out that the Norwegian model of cooperation with the EU has lost its original exceptionality, especially after the entry into force of the Association Agreement with Ukraine. Oslo has also to compete with a number of other countries, NGOs and other lobby groups for attention from the EU. Relations between Norway and the EU are characterized by the asymmetry of obligations under the EEA, as Oslo is obliged to unilaterally implement acquis communautaire, while having no effective leverage over decision-making in the EU. Another challenge is the weakness of the EFTA pillars in the EEA, as it is necessary to interact with an organization, which has 28 European member-countries. There are other negative aspects that gradually reduce the role of Norway in relations with the EU. Given the current challenges, different scenarios have been prepared focusing on for the further development of relations between the EU and Norway. According to

  4. EU-retten 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Udover en introduktion til EU-retten, herunder dens institutioner og retskilderne, indeholder bogen en grundig analyse af EF-traktatens regler om fri bevægelighed for varer, personer, tjenesteydelser og kapital....

  5. 2002 electricity statistics: EU and EU+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Electricity generation in the European Union (EU) decreased by 0,7% in the period of 2001 to 2002, reaching 2521,3 billion kWh. Developments varied in different countries. Conventional thermal power plants generated 1340,1 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 53.0% share in the total generation and an increase by 2.7% over the level in the previous year. Generation in nuclear power plants increased by 2.7% to 855.5 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 33,8% share in EU-wide generation. Hydroelectric plants and other plants supplied 15.2% less electricity. Eurostat statistics do not differentiate these data any further. The volume of 332.2 kWh is tantamount to a 13.1% share. In the new EU member countries and the candidate countries, electricity generation showed a moderate increase by 0.4% and 2.1%, respectively. While generation both in conventional power plants and in other plants decreased, a considerable increase is shown for nuclear power generation of +13.5% and +10.6%, respectively [de

  6. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  7. EU Agro Biogas Project

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and universities are cooperating with key industry partners in order to work towards sustainable biogas production in Europe. Fourteen partners from eight European countries are involved in the EU-AGR...

  8. EU Nuclear vs. Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncelet, Jean-Pol

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: • The Fukushima-Daiichi accident represents an opportunity for the nuclear industry to demonstrate its ability to learn from experience through “a continuous improvement strategy”; • Inside the EU: which legal framework for nuclear safety - harmonisation of licensing procedures - EU-level reactor design clearance?; • No way forward without public support: how to address, explain, convince?; • Greater cooperation between industry and international organizations: FORATOM available to contribute

  9. Fiscal Sustainability: Does EU Membership Change Policy Behavior? Empirical Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bökemeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies fiscal policy behavior with regard to sustainability for the group of the eight eastern new member states which joined the European Union in 2004. Using the approach of Bohn (1995, 998 the fiscal reaction function is estimated for the years 1996 until 2013. Further, separating the response in periods before and after accession studies potential changes in fiscal sustainability. The results of the panel regressions reveal a positive statistically significant reaction coefficient, indicating sustainable behavior. Moreover, once the responses are split in 2004 the reaction coefficient is somewhat larger in size ahead of the accession. Accounting for the crisis reveals that these years challenge fiscal sustainability.

  10. EU membership and the press: An analysis of the Brussels correspondents from the new member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.

    2008-01-01

    In light of the 2004 and 2007 enlargement of the European Union with 12 new member states we need to reconsider what we know about the Brussels press corps. Brussels journalists play a pivotal role in the European integration process. They act as agents of Europeanization, wedged between complex

  11. Set-Membership Proportionate Affine Projection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Werner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Proportionate adaptive filters can improve the convergence speed for the identification of sparse systems as compared to their conventional counterparts. In this paper, the idea of proportionate adaptation is combined with the framework of set-membership filtering (SMF in an attempt to derive novel computationally efficient algorithms. The resulting algorithms attain an attractive faster converge for both situations of sparse and dispersive channels while decreasing the average computational complexity due to the data discerning feature of the SMF approach. In addition, we propose a rule that allows us to automatically adjust the number of past data pairs employed in the update. This leads to a set-membership proportionate affine projection algorithm (SM-PAPA having a variable data-reuse factor allowing a significant reduction in the overall complexity when compared with a fixed data-reuse factor. Reduced-complexity implementations of the proposed algorithms are also considered that reduce the dimensions of the matrix inversions involved in the update. Simulations show good results in terms of reduced number of updates, speed of convergence, and final mean-squared error.

  12. The structure of the EU mediasphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaounas, Ilias; Turchi, Marco; Ali, Omar; Fyson, Nick; De Bie, Tijl; Mosdell, Nick; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2010-12-08

    A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed "data-driven inquiry" in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content analysis.

  13. The structure of the EU mediasphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Flaounas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed "data-driven inquiry" in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content

  14. The Structure of the EU Mediasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaounas, Ilias; Turchi, Marco; Ali, Omar; Fyson, Nick; De Bie, Tijl; Mosdell, Nick; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2010-01-01

    Background A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed “data-driven inquiry” in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. Conclusions/Significance While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content analysis. PMID

  15. Economic and environmental implications of Turkish accession to the European Union: A CGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Levent; Acar, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economic and environmental implications of Turkey's possible accession to the European Union (EU). The paper focuses on the impacts of three main components of Turkey's possible EU membership: (i) the free movement of labor between the EU and Turkey, (ii) the free movement of capital, and (iii) the burden-sharing of Turkey in terms of the EU's environmental objectives in the horizon of 2020, that is, the reduction of carbon emissions. Among these, a particular focus is placed on the influence of the CO 2 emission reduction targets in both regions and their consequences on the carbon price in 2020. We estimate the resource allocation effects of EU climate change policies on both regions by taking into account the likely labor movement from Turkey to the EU and capital movement in the reverse direction. The results show that different emission targets for the two regions bring about a change in comparative advantages and thus a change in interregional competitiveness.

  16. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Tufail, M.; Patzelt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactivity measurement of Turkish tea of 1986 crops is reported. The total cesium activity ranged from about 5500 Bq kg -1 up to 43600 Bq kg -1 . Some other fission products from Chernobyl could be detected in the tea samples, e.g., 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag and 125 Sb. In addition, some activity values found in tea from USSR are given. The transfer rate of cesium from tea leaves to tea water was found to be about 74%. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  17. 152Eu decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonova, K.P.; Vinogradov, V.M.; Grigor'ev, E.P.; Zolotavin, A.V.; Makarov, V.M.; Sergeev, V.O.; Usynko, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the measurement of the relative intensities of the most intensive conversion lines of 152 Eu, the determination of as reliable as possible magnitudes of the intensities of γ-quanta using all the available data on γ-radiation of 152 Eu, the measurement of the interval conversion coefficients (ICC) for the most intensive γ-transitions, the determination of the probabilities of the 152 Eu β-decays to the 152 Sm and 152 Gd levels. The conversion lines of the most intensive γ-transitions in the 152 Eu decay are studied and the corresponding ICC are measured on the beta-spectrometers of π√2 and UMB type. The balance for the γ-transitions in the 152 Sm and 152 Gd daughter nuclei are presented. This balance is used to determine the absolute intensities of γ-rays (in terms of the percentage of the 152 Eu decays) and the probabilities of β-transitions to the levels of daughter nuclei. More accurate data on γ-rays and conversion electrons obtained can be used for the calibration of gamma and beta spectrometers

  18. Accounting Education Approach in the Context of New Turkish Commercial Code and Turkish Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Cevdet Kızıl; Ayşe Tansel Çetin; Ahmed Bulunmaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of new Turkish commercial code and Turkish accounting standards on accounting education. This study takes advantage of the survey method for gathering information and running the research analysis. For this purpose, questionnaire forms are distributed to university students personally and via the internet.This paper includes significant research questions such as “Are accounting academicians informed and knowledgeable on new Turkish commerc...

  19. The EU agencies’ role in policy diffusion beyond the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    and health quality within the risk assessment. This paper shows that the EU agencies develop various entrepreneurial methods and that they actively promote policy diffusion beyond the EU through socialisation and learning within international arrangements and collaborations. However, variations......The extensive literature on the EU agencies has mainly focused on their role in the harmonisation and expansion of regulatory standards within the EU. This paper joins this literature and investigates the role of EU agencies in policy diffusion beyond the EU borders. To operationalise this...

  20. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In this paper I try to explore whether the EU can go on expanding and thereby become culturally ever more diversified, and at the same retain its stability. The answer is, in principle, affirmative. Europe has always been much diversified, and therefore it is not possible to define a European...... identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that they would apply for it. An essential part is the willingness of member states to accept a reduction of national sovereignty on some important policy fields. The EU project is basically about lifting the principles of democracy and rule by law on the international level, most and foremost among the member...

  1. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  2. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  3. [Treating vaginismus in Turkish women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, V; Ruf, G D

    2009-03-01

    Vaginismus is a sexual dysfunction involving various branches of medicine, including psychiatry and gynaecology. Psychiatric help is sought in only a small proportion of cases, although it is probable that the psychopathological aetiology is more frequent than generally recognized. This article deals with the causes and psychological circumstances in four Turkish couples who presented with unconsummated marriage for 3 to 7 years. Vaginismus F52.5 to the ICD-10 is a sexual dysfunction characterised as: deep anxiety about coitus leading to extreme spasm of musculature making coitus impossible or extremely unpleasant and painful. Four Turkish couples with unconsummated marriage due to the female partners' penetration phobia were included to this study. A patient-oriented multidimensional individual treatment (combination therapy) is a cost effective, short-term (typically 10- to 12-week) treatment model for both partners. It includes some elements of cognitive behavioural therapy and systemic partner therapy which were considered not radically different from previous therapeutic strategies. Results were successful in all cases; the couples were extremely satisfied with having a normal sex life for the first time. This led to desired pregnancies and avoiding of possible breakdown of their families. The couples did well with combination behavioural therapy. This methodology is discussed in its various aspects and with a cultural background. We also emphasise the need for physicians to be mindful of cases of vaginismus requiring psychiatric intervention rather than gynaecological treatment.

  4. SOCIAL SECURITY OF TURKISH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÖZTUNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.

  5. Perfectionism among Turkish Secondary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Camadan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze perfectionism among Turkish secondary school students. Perfectionism was compared according to the some variables like academic achievement, type of school, field (Quantitative, Verbal and Equally Weighted and gender. The study was performed with271 female and 320 male students. In this study Frost Multidimentional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS adapted into Turkish by Özbay and Mısırlı-Taşdemir (2003, was used. At the end of the study, in all subscales of perfectionism scale, there was significant variation according to student’s academic success levels. There was significant variation according to the school types in all subscales except Personal Standards subscale. While there was significant variation according to the field, in Parental Criticism and Concern over Mistakes subscales; according to gender, there was significant variation only in Doubt about Actions subscale. To not acceptnonperfect situations while trying to reach a goal may cause that students have procrastination behaviors and more anxiety. Therefore, their academic achievement may be affected negatively. With individual and group psychological counseling to perfectionist students can help them to notice their characteristics well and determine realistic goal. In this way, their academic achievement can be contributed positively

  6. Social Customs and Trade Union Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Toubøl, Jonas; Jensen, Daniel Sparwath

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the effect of social customs on one of the most important instances of collective action, namely, workers uniting in trade unions. Although many studies have used social custom theory to explain unionization, existing studies have not adequately analysed social...... customs at the workplace. Using workplace union density as a proxy for social custom, this analysis improves existing studies in a number of ways. First, multi-level analyses of a large panel data set from Denmark reveal that there is a significant positive effect of workplace union density...... in unionization are required to create self-sustaining social customs for union membership. Thirdly, we test the acceleration using segmented regression analysis and find a significant acceleration around 45–65 per cent workplace union density. In the conclusion, we discuss the implications of our study...

  7. Birth Order, Club Membership and Mass Media Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeh, Aida K.

    1976-01-01

    Examines the relationship between birth order, club membership and mass media exposure for women college students in Lebanon. Findings show the total membership rate and mass media consumption are higher among last born girls than first born. Birth order differences are explained in terms of the differential socialization of children. (Author)

  8. Three Steps to Engage Volunteers in Membership Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Tony

    2011-01-01

    There is a big world out there, and volunteers can make a significant impact in helping one reach out to others and grow his/her PTA membership. In fact, word-of-mouth marketing tied for the top spot as the most effective method of new member recruitment in Marketing General's 2010 Membership Marketing Benchmarking Report. So getting volunteers'…

  9. 12 CFR 323.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from consideration for an assignment for a federally related transaction solely by virtue of membership or lack of membership in any particular appraisal organization. (b) Competency. All staff and fee... individual's experience and educational background as they relate to the particular appraisal assignment for...

  10. 12 CFR 34.46 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from consideration for an assignment for a federally related transaction solely by virtue of membership or lack of membership in any particular appraisal organization. (b) Competency. All staff and fee... individual's experience and educational background as they relate to the particular appraisal assignment for...

  11. 12 CFR 722.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consideration for an assignment for a federally related transaction solely by virtue of membership or lack of membership in any particular appraisal organization. (b) Competency. All staff and fee appraisers performing...'s experience and educational background as they relate to the particular appraisal assignment for...

  12. 7 CFR 956.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Establishment and membership. (a) The Walla Walla Sweet Onion Marketing Committee, consisting of ten members, is... committee membership. At the time of selection, no more than two producer members may be affiliated with the...

  13. 77 FR 49440 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ..., Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Missile Defense Agency, and Pentagon... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), DoD. ACTION: Notice of board membership. SUMMARY: This notice...

  14. 78 FR 52517 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ..., Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Missile Defense Agency, and Pentagon... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), DoD. ACTION: Notice of board membership. SUMMARY: This notice...

  15. 76 FR 60473 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Services Agency, Defense Logistics Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Missile Defense Agency, and... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OSD), Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of board membership. SUMMARY...

  16. 15 CFR 8a.215 - Membership practices of certain organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership practices of certain organizations. 8a.215 Section 8a.215 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce... Coverage § 8a.215 Membership practices of certain organizations. (a) Social fraternities and sororities...

  17. Performing the EU Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only in politi......This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only...

  18. The Changing Patterns of Foreign Direct Investment in EU Accession Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Ionascu, Delia Simona; Kulawczuk, Przemyslaw

    2005-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has been maturing as the region prepared to join the European Union (EU). Since the beginning of transition the pattern of FDI has evolved, reflecting new business strategies pursued in anticipation of EU membership. Based on first...... results from a questionnaire survey conducted in 2003 in Hungary, Lithuania and Poland, we portray the recent patterns and developments in foreign investment, the motives for investment, and managers' assessment of the local business environment. Some questions have been replicated from a study conducted...

  19. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  20. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  1. Essential EU Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook takes a broad approach to EU climate law and presents all available legal instruments to combat climate change, ranging from greenhouse gas emissions trading to the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency mechanisms. After providing a definition of climate law,

  2. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  3. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  4. The EU's Biofuel Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EU is supporting biofuels, with the aim of reducing greenhouse-gas emission, encouraging the decarbonisation of fuels used in transportation, diversifying energy procurement, offering new earning opportunities in rural areas, and developing long-term replacements for oil. We publish lengthy excerpts from the recent Communication, COM(2006) 34def. which describes the strategy adopted by the Commission [it

  5. A producer survey on Turkish furniture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Öğün, Emir Polat

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Management and Graduate School of Business Administration of Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 79-80. Turkish furniture industry has been growing steadily since the liberalization of Turkish economy in early 1980’s. However, the industry faces some technological and economical problems which affects the competitiveness of the firms in the global market. The major problems ...

  6. Are Turkish University Students Autonomous or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büşra Kırtık

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tried to determine Turkish learners’ attitudes, and the Turkish education system’s approach towards learner autonomy with regard to three main points: 1 whether Turkish university students are aware of learner autonomy or not 2 whether Turkish university students have the characteristics of autonomous learners (whether they are autonomous learners or not, and 3 if the Turkish education system is suitable for fostering learner autonomy or not from the viewpoint of the participants. Participants were 50 second grade learners in the English Language Teaching Departments of Hacettepe University (N=10, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University (N=10, and Uludag University (N=30 who had already taken courses about learner autonomy.  The data were collected by means of a questionnaire which had two Likert-scale sections and an open-ended questions section. The first Likert-scale section contained 15 characteristics of autonomous learners each of which was rated by the participants in a scale from strongly disagree to agree, from 1 to 5. In the second Likert-scale section, the participants were asked to rate the Turkish education system’s five basic elements such as school curriculums, course materials, approaches used by the teachers in classrooms, learning activities, and classroom settings. Additionally, learners’ opinions about their awareness and understanding of learner autonomy were gathered by five open ended questions. The results proposed that the participants were aware of learner autonomy, and had the characteristics of autonomous learners. On the other hand, results showed that the Turkish education system was not suitable for autonomous learners and did not foster learner autonomy. The findings suggested that the Turkish education system should be designed again in such a way to support the autonomous learners and to foster learner autonomy in all sections of the education.

  7. The many faces of Turkish Odessa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skvirskaja, Vera

    2014-01-01

    between Turkish newcomers and various Turkic-speaking groups in the area both create different and overlapping “ecumenical communities” and actualize long-forgotten connections or marginal historical visions. These migrants also generate important links to the area through marriage and intimate relations...... with Slav women. I argue that alliances between Turkish migrants and Turkic-speaking minorities and local women not only allow them to make the city their own, but also create a distance from wider Odessan society....

  8. How membership of the CERN Pension Fund is taken into account by certain French Pension Funds

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Information for current and former CERN staff members from the Rhône-Alpes branch of the Caisse Régionale d’Assurance Maladie (CRAM) The Rhône-Alpes branch of the Caisse Régionale d’Assurance Maladie (CRAM) has recently informed CERN that, since 1 January 2010, periods of membership of the CERN Pension Fund can, under certain conditions, be used in the calculation of the pension paid by certain French pension funds. For more information on this subject, please consult Circular DSS/DACI/2010/85 of 4 March 2010 pertaining to the manner in which periods of membership of compulsory pension funds of European or international organisations, to which France is a party, are taken into account in determining the period used by French pension funds to establish the pension entitlement. The Circular can be accessed at the following sites: http://www.securite-sociale.fr/textes/retraite/international/affiliation_instut_international_eu.htm and http://www.c...

  9. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  10. Turkish cultural heritage: a cup of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Yılmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Setting out a fabulous journey from a tiny bean, coffee is the stimulant of the heart and mind and a mysterious plant that strengthens friendship and also takes your tiredness away during the day. Although information on how and where the coffee came from is not clear, Sheikh Şazeli is regarded as the “father” by coffee makers. The word coffee originates from “Kaffa”, a primary coffee production center in Abyssinia, Africa, which can be considered the homeland of coffee. According to this consideration, in Abyssinia, coffee was consumed with bread; it was then pulped and brought to Yemen, and Yemeni people started to cultivate coffee. The word “kahve” in Turkish does not mean the coffee plant like its synonym in Arabic but means the beverage made by boiling. Turkish coffee is a blend of high-quality Arabic-type coffee beans, originating from Brazil and Central America and moderately roasted and ground finely. The way it is prepared differentiates Turkish coffee from others. This coffee was called Turkish coffee because of a new method of preparation invented by Turkish people where it is boiled in copper coffee pots. Turkish coffee that has spread around the world with this name has been an indispensable part of the cultural and social history of Turks.

  11. An Evaluation of Forest Road Standards and Road Gradients in Turkey in View of FAO Criteria and Some EU Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Çağlar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are one of the inevitable infrastructures in conducting forestry operations. Around 1000 km under standardized forest roads have been largely repaired in addition to construction of 1000 km new forest roads in Turkey. Implementing uniform road gradient along the road sections is very important in terms of transportation techniques and safety, as well as the geometrical standardizations of the forest road. In this study, current road standards, longitudinal gradient values and their limitations in forest road constructions recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and some Europe Union (EU countries were examined. Firstly, the forest road standards and their gradient values have been defined in Turkish forest road construction practices. Afterwards, the forest road standards and the gradient values applied by FAO and some EU countries were presented, and finally, the specifications were examined by comparing them with the current practices in Turkish forestry.

  12. Attitudes of Foreigners Who Learn Turkish as a Second Language towards Turkish Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, Sedat

    2017-01-01

    There is a very close association between language and culture. Thus, cultural values should be prioritized in language training and cultural knowledge should be concurrently instructed. Turkish culture should also be introduced to learners of Turkish as a foreign language. Therefore, it is important to determine the attitudes of learners of…

  13. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenk, Ozgur; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The Netherlands), and 17 Dutch (mainstream couples living in The Netherlands) married dyads (total of 98 individuals) were independently interviewed about positive and negative characteristics of marriages, determinants of general marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction, spousal communication, marital conflict, and marital roles. Multivariate tests revealed ethnic group differences on all marriage-related domains except the conflict resolution strategies. However, univariate analyses showed differences in few themes within domains; main differences were assessed between the Turkish/Turkish-Dutch (who put more emphasis on children and economical aspects) and Dutch couples (who put more emphasis on behavior, and personality of the spouse, reciprocity, emotional sharing, and psychological roles). Turkish-Dutch couples were more similar to Turkish than to Dutch couples. Results were discussed in light of the socioeconomic development and cultural value theories, which are believed to provide a useful framework for understanding the role of culture in marital satisfaction.

  14. Internet use among Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca G; Uzel, Mehtap; Ozcan, Neslihan; Avci, Ayse

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate Internet use habits and problematic Internet use (PIU) in Turkish adolescents. Participants were 3,975 undergraduate students, 7.6% of whom used the Internet for more than 12 hours weekly. The Online Cognition Scale (OCS) was used. The most common purpose for using the Internet was playing games, followed by general information search. Female users mostly preferred searching for general information; male users preferred playing games (p game was violent games. While preference for strategy and fantasy role-play (FRP) games increased with age, preference for other games decreased (p games, followed by FRP, strategy, and sports and motor racing games. Computers and the Internet are useful, important inventions, but like other inventions, if used improperly, they may be harmful. Risk of harm raises concerns about who should use the Internet and computers, and where, when, and why the Internet and computers should be used.

  15. Democracy predicts sport and recreation membership: Insights from 52 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balish, Shea M

    2017-03-01

    Although evidence suggests sport and recreation are powerful contributors to worldwide public health, sizable gender differences persist. It is unknown whether country characteristics moderate gender differences across countries. The primary purpose of this study was to examine if countries' levels of democracy and/or gender inequality moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. The secondary purpose was to examine if democracy and/or gender inequality predicts overall rates of sport and recreation membership for both males and females. This study involved a nested cross-sectional design and employed the sixth wave (2013) of the world value survey (n Ss =71,901, n countries =52). Multiple hierarchal nonlinear Bernoulli models tested: (1) if countries' levels of democracy moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership; and (2) if democracy is associated with increased sport and recreation membership for both males and females. Countries' level of democracy fully moderated gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. Moreover, democracy was positively associated with both male and female membership, even when controlling for individual and country-level covariates. Democratic political regimes may confer health benefits via increased levels of sport and recreation membership, especially for females. Future research should test mediating mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. TIME SPAN AND CRITERIA FOR WOMEN ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT APPLICABLE FOR TURKISH GRAMEEN MICROCREDIT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemin Ashrafi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish Grameen Micro Credit Project (TGMP is quite new in Turkey which started from 2003, works as a part of Grameen Bank Bangladesh replication program. Through this female based micro credit services women can be self sufficient, empowered and raise their family's socio economic condition at the same time. As a whole TGMP is a big scope for the poorest part in the society to gain economic empowerment. This paper analyzes the relationship and association of loans in form of amount and number with membership time period for the achievement of economic empowerment and graduation of a member. An analysis is made on the basis of a regression model where economic graduaiton and empowerment of a member is quantified interms of time after which they cease to take the loans even still be the members of TGMP. Using some poverty free indicators declared by TGMP, this study also examines how the members can achieve socio-economic empowerment gradually.

  17. An assessment of the natural gas supply potential of the south energy corridor from the Caspian Region to the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrakis, Dimitrios; Thomaidis, Fotios; Ntroukas, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    Security and diversification of EU energy supply underlines the importance of an energy corridor bridging the natural gas reserves of the broader Caspian Region with the EU consumption centers. This paper examines the supply potential of this corridor, the major natural gas fields and the already existing networks. An assessment of the supply cost up to the Turkish borders is carried out, while the case of Egypt as a future supplier is also investigated. Conclusions review the prospects for the construction of the considered energy corridor

  18. Infinite Multiple Membership Relational Modeling for Complex Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    Learning latent structure in complex networks has become an important problem fueled by many types of networked data originating from practically all fields of science. In this paper, we propose a new non-parametric Bayesian multiplemembership latent feature model for networks. Contrary to existing...... multiplemembership models that scale quadratically in the number of vertices the proposedmodel scales linearly in the number of links admittingmultiple-membership analysis in large scale networks. We demonstrate a connection between the single membership relational model and multiple membership models and show...

  19. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  20. 'EU divertor celebration day'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.

    2002-01-01

    The meeting 'EU divertor celebration day' organized on 16 January 2002 at Plansee AG, Reutte, Austria was held on the occasion of the completion of manufacturing activities of a complete set of near full-scale prototypes of divertor components including the vertical target, the dome liner and the cassette body. About 30 participants attended the meeting including Dr. Robert Aymar, ITER Director, representatives from EFDA, CEA, ENEA, IPP and others

  1. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ ph...

  2. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  3. E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgalas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

  4. CHAPTER FOUR LİBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS:

    OpenAIRE

    FENDOĞLU, Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin

    2002-01-01

    CHAPTER FOUR LIBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS: Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU ABSTRACT: Turkish Constitution of 1982 is the first and only Turkish Constitution that has a main purpose on strengthening the political power not the liberty or democr...

  5. Questioning the Scholarly Discussion around Decentralization in Turkish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Soner Onder

    2016-01-01

    From the beginning of Turkish Republic till date, Turkish Education System (TES) has been steered by a handful of politicians and civil servants, who enjoy maximum centralized authority. Over the years, therefore, centralized management has repeatedly been blamed for the deadlocks hampering progress in the TES. Turkish scholars often seem to find…

  6. Moral accounts and membership categorization in primary care medical interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    Although the link between health and morality has been well established, few studies have examined how issues of morality emerge and are addressed in primary care medical encounters. This paper addresses the need to examine morality as it is (re) constructed in everyday health care interactions. A Membership Categorization Analysis of 96 medical interviews reveals how patients orient to particular membership categories and distance themselves from others as a means of accounting (Buttny 1993; Scott and Lyman 1968) for morally questionable health behaviours. More specifically, this paper examines how patients use membership categorizations in order to achieve specific social identity(ies) (Schubert et al. 2009) through two primary strategies: defensive detailing and prioritizing alternative membership categories. Thus, this analysis tracks the emergence of cultural and moral knowledge about social life as it takes place in primary care medical encounters.

  7. Advanced Concepts in Fuzzy Logic and Systems with Membership Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Starczewski, Janusz T

    2013-01-01

    This book generalizes fuzzy logic systems for different types of uncertainty, including - semantic ambiguity resulting from limited perception or lack of knowledge about exact membership functions - lack of attributes or granularity arising from discretization of real data - imprecise description of membership functions - vagueness perceived as fuzzification of conditional attributes. Consequently, the membership uncertainty can be modeled by combining methods of conventional and type-2 fuzzy logic, rough set theory and possibility theory.            In particular, this book provides a number of formulae for implementing the operation extended on fuzzy-valued fuzzy sets and presents some basic structures of generalized uncertain fuzzy logic systems, as well as introduces several of methods to generate fuzzy membership uncertainty. It is desirable as a reference book for under-graduates in higher education, master and doctor graduates in the courses of computer science, computational intelligence, or...

  8. 12 CFR 725.6 - Termination of membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.6 Termination of membership. (a) A member of... member has failed to comply with any provision of the National Credit Union Central Liquidity Facility...

  9. Membership to innovation platforms and gender in ownership of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Membership to innovation platforms and gender in ownership of productive assets in the savannas of west Africa. ... African Crop Science Journal ... inception of the project improved with participation in the innovations of the project, in terms of ...

  10. 78 FR 55244 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board; Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... the membership of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Senior Executive Service (SES... rating of a senior executive's performance, the executive's response, and the higher level official's...

  11. On PR group classes and PR algebra membership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedenko, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary and sufficient conditions are found for the membership of Lee algebras to PR algebra class, to algebras with commutation relations of [Hsub(i), Hsub(j)]=rsub(ij)Hsub(i) (i< j) type. Due to this, a criterion is obtained for the membership of the Lee froups to PR group classes, connected and simply connected Lee groups, which Lee algebras are PR algebras

  12. Luminescence properties of different Eu sites in LiMgPO4:Eu2+, Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, A; Mahlik, S; Grinberg, M; Cai, P; Kim, S I; Seo, H J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the luminescence properties of LiMgPO 4 doped with Eu 3+ and Eu 2+ are presented. Depending on the excitation wavelength, luminescence spectra consist of two distinct broad emission bands peaking at 380 nm and 490 nm related to 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 ( 8 S 7/2 ) luminescence of Eu 2+ and to europium-trapped exciton, respectively, and/or several sharp lines between the 580 nm and 710 nm region, ascribed to the 5 D 0  →  7 F J (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions in Eu 3+ . To explain all the features of the Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ luminescence we discussed the existence of two different Eu sites substituting for Li + , with short and long distance compensation. The evident effect of increasing the intensity of the Eu 2+ luminescence with increasing temperature was observed. It was considered that the charge compensation mechanism for Eu 3+ and Li + as well as Eu 2+ replacing Li + in the LiMgPO 4 is a long distance compensation that allows for the existence of some of the europium ions either as Eu 3+ at low temperature or as Eu 2+ at high temperature. We concluded that Eu 2+ in the Li + site with long distance compensation yields only 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence, whereas Eu 2+ in the Li + site with short distance compensation yields 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence and europium-trapped exciton emission. (paper)

  13. Statement about UK referendum on the EU

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Many people have expressed their concerns about the consequences of the 23 June vote in the UK for CERN, and for the UK’s relationship with CERN. CERN is an intergovernmental organisation subject to its own treaty. We are not part of the European Union, and several of our Member States, including Switzerland, in which we are headquartered, are not EU Members. Britain’s membership of CERN is not affected by the UK electorate’s vote to leave the European Union. We look forward to continuing the very constructive relationship we have shared with the UK, one of our founding members, long into the future. CERN was founded on the principle of international collaboration, and our success over the years is built on that. We will continue to work proactively to encourage ever-greater international collaboration in particle physics, and to help ensure that the UK continues to play a very active role. UK nationals remain eligible for all categories of employment at CERN, a...

  14. Psychometric properties of Frustration Discomfort Scale in a Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Harrington, Neil

    2012-08-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties of the Frustration Discomfort Scale for Turkish college students. The Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS), Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to a sample of 171 (98 women, 73 men) Turkish college students. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis yielded fit index values demonstrating viability of the four-dimensional solution as in the original. Findings also revealed that, as predicted, the Discomfort Intolerance subscale of Turkish FDS was most strongly correlated with procrastination. Overall results provided evidence for the factor validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale for use in a Turkish population.

  15. Personality traits of Turkish handgun license applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selek, Salih; Can, Serdar S; Yabanoglu, Ihsan

    2012-10-01

    Several theories have sought to explain the motivations for handgun possession and the relationship with personality. Perception of handguns also has cultural variations. The aim of the study is to evaluate handgun license applicants' personality profiles. 109 handgun license applicants were included in the study. Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) scores of the applicants were recorded. Scores were compared with Turkish and American normative data for the Inventory. The study group had significantly lower subscores on novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and higher subscores on reward dependence and persistence compared to Turkish norms and significantly lower subscores on novelty seeking, reward dependence, and self-directedness compared to American norms. Results indicate that Turkish handgun license applicants' personality features are more similar to American norms.

  16. Challenges of public procurement in EU funded projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Šostar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Membership in the European Union implies adjustment of EU projects to the rules of Structural Funds, but also adoption of legal regulations, thus influencing the process of implementation of the public procurement in EU funded projects. Each successful applicant who expressed the need for procurement of goods, services and works of a certain value, must respect the principles of public procurement. Irregularities in the procurement process can lead to the failure of returning the EU funds even several years after the end of the project. Therefore, the knowledge and proper implementation of public procurement is the main precondition for the correct implementation of each project. In order to obtain information about the current absorption capacity of the public procurement liable parties, and to identify key obstacles that stakeholders face in procurement procedures, the research was conducted by surveying 30 entities that are subject of public procurement in Croatia. Research results imply the poor quality of public procurement in the implemented projects, which often results in financial corrections, disapproving project reports, etc.

  17. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    during most of the period since the early 1990s, when aid flows from the EU started growing. Regarding trade relations, we note that the EU’s increasing use of antidumping tariffs against Vietnamese exporters during the past years could be an indication of a less friendly and more competitive attitude...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  18. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  19. [Strengthening of social participation of Turkish seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, Jennifer; Stupp, Barbara

    2018-05-04

    Traditional municipal services are not successful at reaching Turkish seniors. Compared to native Germans Turkish seniors have a lower social participation. Do native language groups hosted by a German organization promote the social participation of Turkish seniors? How does social participation take place in the ZWAR networks (between work and retirement; a project to strengthen social participation of seniors) and which factors promote or reduce social participation? Qualitative structuring content analysis of two group discussions, which were based on guided interviews. The social participation of Turkish-speaking seniors was strengthened on three levels: (1) through regular meetings of the Turkish ethnic group social relationships were promoted and German language skills and other skills were improved. Through mutual sharing and understanding of the stressors specific to migration, emotional support was provided. The sharing of mutual cultural and linguistic backgrounds created a sense of community and meetings were perceived as an antidote to migrants' exhausting lives in German society. (2) At the organizational level, participation was promoted through extensive group events. Regardless of their cultural background all participants identified as equal ZWAR members. The ZWAR project functioned as an umbrella organization for participation in the intercultural context. (3) Participation in community events created contacts with community stakeholders and fostered volunteer work. Hence, participants were able to use their skills, and therefore broaden their horizons. Turkish ZWAR networks promoted the social participation of members because integration with their ethnic group reduced access barriers, broadened members' scopes of action, and created new opportunities for participation.

  20. CONTEMPORARY USAGE OF TRADITIONAL TURKISH MOTIFS IN PRODUCT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Gumuser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the traditional Turkish motifs and its relations among present industrial designs. Traditional Turkish motifs played a very important role in 16th century onwards. The arts of the Ottoman Empire were used because of their symbolic meanings and unique styles. When we examine these motifs we encounter; Tiger Stripe, Three Spot (Çintemani, Rumi, Hatayi, Penç, Cloud, Crescent, Star, Crown, Hyacinth, Tulip and Carnation motifs. Nowadays, Turkish designers have begun to use these traditional Turkish motifs in their designs so as to create differences and awareness in the world design. The examples of these industrial designs, using the Turkish motifs, have survived and have Ottoman heritage and historical value. In this study, the Turkish motifs will be examined along with their focus on contemporary Turkish industrial designs used today.

  1. Development of EU Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    En tematiseret gennemgang af udviklingstrinene i EU's miljøpolitik fra de allerførste skirdt i 1970-72, der måtte basere sig på EU-traktatens generalklausul i Artikel 235, over declarationen på EU-topmødet i Paris i 1972, der kædede økonomisk udvikling sammen med et krav om hensyntagen til miljøet...

  2. Bibliometric Profile of Turkish Journal of Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Al

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Journal of Psychology has been indexed by the Social Science Citation Index since 1995. This study examines the Turkish Journal of Psychology and bibliometric features of its articles.  The research carried out covers 118 articles between the years 1995-2005.  The following research ques- tions have been addressed: 1 What are the subjects of the articles? 2 Is multi- ple authorship a prevalent feature of the articles? 3 What are the institutional affiliations of the authors of the articles? 4 What are the common characteris- tics of the cited articles? 5 Which types of sources (journal articles, mono- graphs, etc. get cited more often in the articles? 6 What are the most frequent- ly cited journals in the TJP? 7 Does the distribution of citations to journals fit Bradford's Law of Scattering? 8 Is there a relationship between the impact fac- tors of journals and the number of citations they get? 9 What is the rate of lit- erature obsolescence in psychology? 10 With regard to impact factor, what is the position of the TJP? Almost all of the articles were written in Turkish. The important part of the contributors was affiliated with Hacettepe, Ankara and the Middle East Technical universities. This research showed that 57% of articles (67 articles published in Turkish Journal of Psychology received no citations remaining 43% (51 articles were cited 135 times. The author self-citation ratio was 34%. In addition, journal self-citation ratio was 41%. Journals received 69% of all cita- tions in the Turkish Journal of Psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Turkish Journal of Psychology, Child Development, Developmental Psychology and Psychological Bulletin were among the most frequently cited journals. Articles that appeared in the top 18 journals received 33% of all citations. The half-life of sources cited in the Turkish Journal of Psychology was ten years. According to the impact factor rank, the Turkish Journal of

  3. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  4. Slavic borrowings in modern Turkish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Marija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Slavic borrowings in standard Turkish language Material for this paper was excerpted from the Dictionary of Turkish Standard Language (TDK Turküe Sozluk. Excerpted data which count just about 100 words were treated within lexical-semantic groups, also with pointing to certain inconsistencies in the lexicographic treatment: some words are not marked as Slavic (e.g. kumpir, som, pogrom; after some lexemes wrong etymon is stated (e.g. kopek and some of them are left without an etymon (e.g. bocuk, gocuk.

  5. Strategic neighbourhood: EU-Europe versus EU-East

    OpenAIRE

    Rahr, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    "Russia and the EU are the strongest actors on the European continent of the 21st century. Will the strategic partnership between the EU and Russia unite the entire continent under a 'common European home' or will the continent be split in two? Russia joining the rest of Europe is set to proceed initially through the Energy Alliance." (author's abstract)

  6. The Determinants of European Union (EU Foreign Direct Investments in the EU Countries from Central and Eastern Europe During 1994–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Donny

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the CEECs’ financial market development can explain the EU FDI in the CEECs during 1994–2012. The higher bank credit flows had a positive effect on the FDI in 2005–2012. This can be attributed to the major banking sector reforms undertaken before the CEECs’ EU accession. Second, the stock market size had a positive effect in 1997–2004. This is due to the fact that the EU membership announcement facilitated deeper stock market integration. Third, the higher country income, in interaction with a higher bank credit flow, had only a small positive effect in 2005–2012. The higher income CEECs have pursued much deeper bank liberalization through large-scale privatization of state-owned banks. Finally, the higher country income, in interaction with a larger stock market size, had a negative effect in 2005–2012. A possible reason for this is that the EU countries have started to divert their new FDI to the non-EU countries.

  7. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States' pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012-2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (-€9,367 million), France (-€5,589 million), and, far behind them

  8. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  9. Turkish Student Teachers' Concerns about Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Yezdan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching concerns of Turkish student teachers and how these concerns differ among year groups within the teacher education programme. Data were collected from 339 student teachers using the Teacher Concerns Checklist. Analysis of the data, including both descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis…

  10. Turkish Primary School Pupils' Views on Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bahri

    2010-01-01

    Teachers meet with unwanted behavior when they are acting as facilitators of the learning process and they resort to certain tactics to deal with them. One of these tactics is punishment. This study aimed to identify the views held by Turkish primary school pupils on punishment. According to the results of the study, pupils were punished for…

  11. Eurimages and Turkish cinema: history, identity, culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yılmazok, L.

    2012-01-01

    Out of the new sources for financing films that emerged in the post-1990 Turkish cinema, Eurimages is the only non-domestic, supra-national one wherein support decisions are taken by the representatives of various member states. Eurimages was established as a part of the framework of the Council of

  12. Turkish Adaptation of the Gratitude Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Asuman; Oguz Duran, Nagihan

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Although the study of gratitude in psychology has a very short history, the findings of several studies underline the role of gratitude in enhancing individual well-being. Therefore, it is important to be able to assess levels of individual gratitude in counseling and research settings. Since, in the Turkish literature, no…

  13. A. Davutoglu's Ideology of Turkish Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the ideology of turkish foreign policy is analyzed, elaborated and successfully put into practice by the former Minister for Foreign Affairs, and nowadays by prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu. Foreign policy strategy of Davutoglu represents set of the interconnected theoretical (the flexible approach; consistency and systematic approach; new diplomatic style and practical principles directed on increase of a role of the Turkish state on international scene - balance between democracy and safety; “zero of problems with neighbours”; preventive and priority peace diplomacy; multidimensional foreign policy; rhythmical diplomacy. Each of principles possesses certain properties and characteristics which have always been presented as a certain purpose which is necessary for reaching Turkey in the difficult international environment. Undoubtedly, A. Davutoglu's ideology has brought the huge contribution to activization and expansion of foreign policy of Turkey last decade. The merit of Davutoglu consists that it has cardinally changed the approach of the Turkish state to the foreign policy which was based earlier on such postulate - “the best friend of a Turk is a Turk”. However the destructive events which have passed and occurring today as in the Turkish state (terrorism strengthening, instability of political system, and also in region of the Middle East - civil war in Syria, deterioration of relations with Russia, Greece, Syria, Iran and Iraq have called into question a number of positions of the concept of Davutoglu in this connection in article some attention to the critic of its approach is paid also.

  14. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyurt, Secil

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth investigation of Turkish primary school students' perceptions of geography. Gender differences in students' perceptions of geography were investigated, including definitions of geography and its field of study. The findings showed that "landforms," "our geographical regions/Turkey,"…

  15. Cyberbullying and Victimisation among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Yavuz; Eristi, Bahadir

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of cyberbullying and victimisation among Turkish university students at a state college of education. A personal information form and 56 scaled items were administered to 254 students. Items addressing cyberbullying victimisation were adopted from a recent study, whereas parallel cyberbullying items were…

  16. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  17. Membership in fraternities and sororities, depression, and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Rachael; Tang, Connie; Lester, David

    2014-06-01

    College student membership in fraternities/sororities may have positive or negative effects on their behavior. This study investigated the relationships between fraternity/sorority membership, depression, and suicidal behavior. 293 undergraduate students (232 women, 61 men; M age = 22.6 yr., SD = 1.5, range = 18-24; 127 sorority sisters, 35 fraternity brothers) from a rural state college participated in the study. Depression, self-esteem and perceived social support were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, respectively. Depression and suicidal ideation correlated negatively with self-esteem and perceived social support, but were not correlated with membership in fraternities/sororities.

  18. The impact of group membership on collaborative learning with wikis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschke, Christina; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2013-02-01

    The social web stimulates learning through collaboration. However, information in the social web is often associated with information about its author. Based on previous evidence that ingroup information is preferred to outgroup information, the current research investigates whether group memberships of wiki authors affect learning. In an experimental study, we manipulated the group memberships (ingroup vs. outgroup) of wiki authors by using nicknames. The designated group memberships (being fans of a soccer team or not) were completely irrelevant for the domain of the wiki (the medical disorder fibromyalgia). Nevertheless, wiki information from the ingroup led to more integration of information into prior knowledge as well as more increase of factual knowledge than information from the outgroup. The results demonstrate that individuals apply social selection strategies when considering information from wikis, which may foster, but also hinder, learning and collaboration. Practical implications for collaborative learning in the social web are discussed.

  19. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  20. Views of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers and Their Managers Related to Professional and Organizational Socialization Processes of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbas, Mehmet; Arslan, M. Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Turkish effectively and successfully is one of the main functions of all the teaching phases of Turkish education system. In secondary education, this duty mostly depends on Turkish Language and Literature teachers. The aim of the research named "Socialization of Turkish Language and Literature teachers" is to evaluate the…

  1. Membership ballots and the value of intra-party democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolkenstein, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    On the face of it, membership ballots present a clear case in which intra- party democracy comes into collision with core principles of representative democracy: they weaken the autonomy of representatives, and undermine the authority of the voters. In this article, I investigate whether this is ......On the face of it, membership ballots present a clear case in which intra- party democracy comes into collision with core principles of representative democracy: they weaken the autonomy of representatives, and undermine the authority of the voters. In this article, I investigate whether...

  2. Stochastic Local Search for Core Membership Checking in Hedonic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinänen, Helena

    Hedonic games have emerged as an important tool in economics and show promise as a useful formalism to model multi-agent coalition formation in AI as well as group formation in social networks. We consider a coNP-complete problem of core membership checking in hedonic coalition formation games. No previous algorithms to tackle the problem have been presented. In this work, we overcome this by developing two stochastic local search algorithms for core membership checking in hedonic games. We demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithms by showing experimentally that they find solutions efficiently, particularly for large agent societies.

  3. Fuzzy Logic Controller Design for A Robot Grasping System with Different Membership Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Hamzah; Razali, Saifudin; Mohamed, Mohd Rusllim

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the membership function to the object grasping for a three fingered gripper system. The performance of three famously used membership functions is compared to identify their behavior in lifting a defined object shape. MATLAB Simulink and SimMechanics toolboxes are used to examine the performance. Our preliminary results proposed that the Gaussian membership function surpassed the two other membership functions; triangular and trapezoid memberships especially in the context of firmer grasping and less time consumption during operations. Therefore, Gaussian membership function could be the best solution when time consumption and firmer grasp are considered

  4. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  5. Turkish Political Market and the Perception of Political Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Polat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to describe the Turkish political market and determine where and how Turkish political parties are perceived by voters. The study uses a two-dimensional map to determine the voter perceptions of the parties in the Turkish political market based on a survey questionnaire applied to 400 young voters. It also investigates whether there are any major differences in the perception of parties in the political space based on voter ideologies. The study finds that young voters have clear perceptions of the positions of Turkish parties. It also finds that voter perceptions of parties vary based on voters’ ideological positions.

  6. Education for the Rights and Responsibilities of Trade Union Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    It is vitally important for workers in all regions of the world to form unions and to exercise the rights and discharge the responsibilities which membership involves. The right to organize or join a union is essential not only for the welfare of the individual worker, or for all of those belonging to the union, but also for the welfare of society…

  7. Society Membership Profile: Employment Mobility and Career Change. AIP Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Beverly Fearn; Kellman, Dawn

    Information on the influence of employment mobility and career change on the flexibility of the physics labor force is provided, noting the past several decades have brought a dramatic roller coaster of changes to the physics community. Five sections are as follows: membership composition (demographics, professional self-identification, and…

  8. Sex, Occupational Membership, and the Measurement of Psychological Androgyny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    This study examines the relationship of androgyny to occupational membership. It was hypothesized that: (1) persons in stereotypically masculine occupations would be characterized by high levels of masculininity; (2) workers in a typically feminine occupation would rate themselves as highly feminine; and (3) androgynous individuals would be…

  9. Reconsidering Hispanic Gang Membership and Acculturation in a Multivariate Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly Ventura; Barnes, J. C.; Hartley, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous qualitative research has suggested that Hispanic gang membership is linked to the process of acculturation. Specifically, studies have indicated that those who are less assimilated into mainstream American or "Anglo" society are at greater risk for joining gangs. Building on these observations, this study examines the relationship between…

  10. Party member recruitment and the representativeness of party membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Party membership figures are in decline. However, parties are still recruiting party members. Are there any differences in the social and political characteristics of old and new party members? If there is a difference, are new party members more or less representative for party voters than old...

  11. 12 CFR 925.32 - Official membership insignia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the words “Member Federal Home Loan Bank System.” [58 FR 43542, Aug. 17, 1993. Redesignated at 61 FR... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official membership insignia. 925.32 Section 925.32 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING...

  12. The Benefits of FFA Membership as Part of Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Chelsea; Stephens, Carrie A.; Stripling, Christopher; Cross, Tim; Sanok, Danielle E.; Brawner, Shelby

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to identify the benefits of FFA membership based on the fulfillment of three basic human needs: love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization. The study focused on the fulfillment of FFA members' basic human needs as defined by Abraham Maslow. The three needs on which this study focused are: love and belonging,…

  13. Memberships, Voting, Social Trust, and Online Participation in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren Ann; Slater, Robert O.

    2012-01-01

    American political and civic engagement was examined by life stage and educational attainment levels in 2008 political data. Engaged proportions of older Americans were larger than young Americans for Memberships, Voting, and Social Trust. A larger proportion of Young Adults (23%) than Older Adults (19%), however, was found for Online…

  14. 7 CFR 929.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., processor, handler, or have a financial interest in the production, sales, marketing or distribution of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Establishment and membership. (a) There is hereby established a Cranberry Marketing Committee consisting of 13...

  15. Identifying desertification risk areas using fuzzy membership and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An integrated model with fuzzy membership analysis, fuzzy rule- ... major sources of desertification in Kota are, namely Gully and Ravine erosion, inappropriate ... plant production, soil health and water quantity ..... fied for implementing preventive methods to check ...... Determination and management in soil physical proper-.

  16. Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

  17. 7 CFR 1206.30 - Establishment and membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and membership. 1206.30 Section 1206.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...) and Washington, DC (54). (2) District II includes the Customs Districts of Mobile, AL (19), New...

  18. 75 FR 59704 - Office of Management; Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mary Beth Pultz, Director, Executive Resources Team, Human Resources Services... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Management; Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY... Department of Education for 2010 is composed of career and non-career senior executives. The PRB reviews and...

  19. 7 CFR 946.22 - Establishment and membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and membership. 946.22 Section 946.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... in acreage within districts and within the production area during recent years; (2) The importance of...

  20. 7 CFR 927.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and membership. 927.20 Section 927.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... within districts and within the production area during recent years; (2) The importance of new pear...

  1. 12 CFR 614.4267 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 614.4267 Section 614.4267 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Collateral Evaluation Requirements § 614.4267 Professional association membership... real, personal, or intangible property taken as collateral in connection with extensions of credit must...

  2. 78 FR 5516 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Annual notice. SUMMARY: Notice... established a Senior Executive Service PRB. The PRB reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior...

  3. 75 FR 14214 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Annual notice. SUMMARY: Notice... established a Senior Executive Service PRB. The PRB reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior...

  4. 76 FR 39926 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Annual notice. SUMMARY: Notice... established a Senior Executive Service PRB. The PRB reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior...

  5. 78 FR 63275 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DOT-OST-2013-0184] Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Performance Review Board (PRB) appointments. SUMMARY: DOT publishes the...

  6. 77 FR 43900 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DOT-OST-2012-0111] Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Performance Review Board (PRB) appointments. SUMMARY: DOT publishes the...

  7. 76 FR 81998 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Annual notice. SUMMARY: Notice... established a Senior Executive Service PRB. The PRB reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior...

  8. 76 FR 57947 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... AND EFFICIENCY Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Council of the... of Personnel Management, each agency is required to establish one or more Senior Executive Service... appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor, along with any recommendations to the...

  9. 76 FR 63986 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DOT-OST-2011-0188] Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Performance Review Board (PRB) appointments. SUMMARY: DOT publishes the...

  10. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  11. Association between School Membership and Substance Use among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gaete

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSubstance use among adolescents is a major problem worldwide, producing many health and economic consequences. Even though there are well-known personal, familial, and social factors associated with drug use, less is known about the effect of school-related factors. School membership is a recognized variable affecting academic performance among students; however, its effect on substance use is less understood.AimsThe primary aim of this study was to explore the association between school membership and cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use among a representative sample of secondary students from municipal state-funded schools in Santiago of Chile, and secondly, to test the hypothesis that depressive or anxiety symptoms mediate this association.MethodsA total of 2,508 students from 22 state-funded schools in Santiago, Chile, answered a questionnaire. This instrument included an abbreviated version of the psychological sense of school membership (PSSM, questions regarding the use of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and scales of psychological functioning (depression, anxiety, self-concept, and problem-solving. The association analyses were performed using adjusted regression models for each outcome using all independent variables while controlling for gender and age. For the mediation effect, a combination of ordinary least square and logistic regression analyses was conducted.ResultsThere was an association between a strong PSSM and low risk for smoking (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.46–0.72, drinking (0.65; 95% CI: 0.51–0.83, and cannabis use (0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.74. We also found that depressive and anxiety symptoms do not fully mediate the association between school membership and any substance use, and 73% of this effect in the case of smoking, 80% in the case of drinking, and 78.5% in the case of cannabis use, was direct.ConclusionThis is the first study in Latin America exploring the association between school membership and substance use

  12. Prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about the greenhouse effect and their views on environmental education in university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KIŞOĞLU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental factor of environmental education is teachers who are well-informed about environmental issues. This research aimed to determine prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect and to investigate the effect of gender, information source and membership in the environmental foundations on their knowledge. We also aimed to learn their views on environmental education given in university. Twenty-six Likert-scale items developed by Cin (2006 were used for data collection. The scale was applied to 215prospective teachers from two universities in eastern Turkey. Results indicated that the majority of prospective teachers had misunderstandings about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect. According to the analysis of demographic variables, there were significant differences in participants’ mean scores based on gender and information sources. Additionally, prospective teachers found environmental education inadequate fordifferent reasons.

  13. Prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about the greenhouse effect and their views on environmental education in university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kışoğlu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental factor of environmental education is teachers who are well-informed about environmental issues. This research aimed to determine prospective Turkish elementary science teachers’ knowledge level about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect and to investigate the effect of gender, information source and membership in the environmental foundations on their knowledge. We also aimed to learn their views on environmental education given in university. Twenty-six Likert-scale items developed by Cin (2006 were used for data collection. The scale was applied to 215 prospective teachers from two universities in eastern Turkey. Results indicated that the majority of prospective teachers had misunderstandings about causes, consequences and reducing of the greenhouse effect. According to the analysis of demographic variables, there were significant differences in participants’ mean scores based on gender and information sources. Additionally, prospective teachers found environmental education inadequate for different reasons.

  14. Revision of the tsunami catalogue affecting Turkish coasts and surrounding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Altinok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The coasts of Turkey have been hit by tsunamis in the past. The first national earthquake-tsunami catalogues were compiled in the early 1980s while the most up-to-date tsunami catalogues are mainly the products of recent European projects. The EU projects GITEC and GITEC-TWO (Genesis and Impact of Tsunamis on the European Coasts and TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region have added important contributions in establishing and developing unified criteria for tsunami parameterisation, standards for the quality of the data, the data format and the database general architecture. On the basis of these new aspects and based on recent marine geophysical data, tsunamigenic earthquakes, tsunami intensities and their reliability have been revised. The current version of the database contains 134 events, most of which have affected the Turkish coasts seriously during the last 3500 years. The reliability index of 76 events was "probable" and "definite", so that they could be used for assessment of the risk along the Turkish coastal region and for implementation of prevention policies.

  15. Trace elements in Turkish tobacco determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulovali, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the concentration of trace elements in nine different brands of Turkish cigarette tobacco, pipe tobacco and tobacco ash. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed, and a gamma-ray spectrometer consisting of 40 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector coupled to 1024 and 4096-channel analyzers were used. Samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of about 10 13 cm -2 sec -1 . Concentrations of Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Eu, Hf, Hg and Th were determined in tobacco and ash; percent transference of these elements into ash were calculated. It was found out that trace elements in cigarette tobacco are left in the ash but only a small percentage is transferred into the smoke

  16. PARENTING AND SOCIAL ROLES IN TURKISH TRADITIONAL FAMILIES: ISSUES AND CHOICES IN PARENTING FOR TURKISH EXPATRIATE FAMILIES LIVING IN BUCHAREST

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet ECIRLI

    2012-01-01

    This article looks into the issues and challenges of parenting in Turkish families upholding traditional values that live in Bucharest, the capital of Romania. Based on theoretical mainstreams on parenting and the structure of Turkish families, a qualitative research was designed with two aims. The first was to describe the issues and choices in parenting for Turkish expatriate families living in a foreign country. The second was to find out to which of the three ideal-types of families accor...

  17. The protection of the environment: Protection of health and food safety - EU and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sič Magdolna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From the last century the process of harmonization and unification of the law on food safety for the protection of consumers in the European Union (EU is ongoing. According to these rules, participants in the production and distribution of food have to respect the rules in all phases of production: 'From Farm to Fork'. Honoring of the rules is based on self-control and the responsibility of producers and distributors, and is subject to public control with appropriate sanctions by competent authorities of a Member State as well as the EU. In the Republic of Serbia, after singing the Stabilization and Association Agreement, the statutory law has been approximated with the laws of the EU. That however, is not sufficient. It is necessary to develop the self-control of producers as well as to organize an efficient public control, not only because this is a necessary condition for export of food products to the single market of the EU, or for the membership in the EU, but also for ensuring safe food in the internal market of Serbia.

  18. Women otolaryngologist representation in specialty society membership and leadership positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sukgi S; Miller, Robert H

    2012-11-01

    To determine the proportion of female otolaryngologists in leadership positions relative to their number in the specialty, their membership in various otolaryngology organizations, and age. Cross-sectional analyses of otolaryngology organization membership with a subgroup analysis on female membership and leadership proportion comparing 5-year male/female cohort groups. Information on the number of members and leaders was obtained from various specialty societies by direct communication and from their Web sites between June and December 2010. The number of female and male otolaryngologists and their age distribution in 5-year age groups was obtained from the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS). Statistical analyses were used to determine whether women had proportional membership and leadership representation in various specialty societies. Additionally, female representation in other leadership roles was analyzed using the male/female ratio within the 5-year cohort groups. Female otolaryngologists were found to constitute approximately 11% of practicing otolaryngologists. The American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology had a higher proportion of female members (22%) compared to five other societies. When the gender composition within each organization was taken into account, female representation in specialty society leadership positions was proportionate to their membership across all societies. When gender and age were considered, women have achieved proportionate representation in each of the specialty societies' leadership positions. There was also proportionate representation of females as program directors, American Board of Otolaryngology directors, Residency Review Committee members, and journal editors/editorial board members. Finally, fewer female chairs or chiefs of departments/divisions were seen, but when age was taken into consideration, this difference was no longer significant. Women have achieved parity in

  19. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  20. Turkish Independence War and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru‑Nicolae Cucu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the First World War, the Ottoman Empire collapsed and the Great Powers came to take the control of its territories. Having a strategic position at the southern gate of Europe, all of Turkish lands were very important for the First World War winners, both to secure European borders and to develop the trade between Europe and Middle East. On the other side, under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk command, a new Turkey with a strong nationalist way decided to fight for emancipating. Winning the war with the Great Powers not only in a military way, but also from a diplomatic perspective, the new Turkey became a modern regional power, having institutions and laws that assured its prosperity and security. Taking into consideration the independence war evolution, this paper wants also to show the diplomatic capability of Turkish leaders to balance between powers involved in the region.

  1. Determination of Natamycin in Turkish Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Bilgic Alkaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing RP-HPLC method for determination of natamycin in Turkish yoghurt. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C8 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 µm with a mobile phase of methanol : water : acetic acid (12 : 8 : 1 v/v/v, at 1 mL/min flow rate with a detection of 303 nm. Natamycin was spiked into handmade yoghurt samples and used for validation. The method has been fully validated according to ISO 9233-2, 2007 (IDF 140-2, 2007. It was successfully applied to determination of 28 different Turkish yoghurt products. Findings dealing with the presence of natamycin in cheese samples are presented.

  2. Reform in Turkish Elementary Mathematics Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    BABADOĞAN, Cem; OLKUN, Sinan

    2006-01-01

    Disappointed from such major international studies as TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS andsome internal indicators such as national university entrance examination, the Turkish Ministry ofNational Education initiated a massive reform movement in education. These reforms includedeveloping new curricula for both elementary and secondary education and developing teachercompetencies. The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of the elementary schoolmathematics curriculum, which is a part of the ref...

  3. REVIEW OF TURKISH SCIENTIFIC TEXTS ON TEACHING TURKISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil İŞERİ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The functions of the scientific texts under the informative text type are referring to the results of a research, reinterpreting certain research results, or reaching original results. When literature reviewed, it is observed that although the studies for creating scientific text have increased recently, it seems that the desired outcome is not achieved. In addition to teaching Turkish as a mother tongue, teaching it as a foreign language has also started to gain importance. For this reason, it is necessary to carry out such studies in order to increase the productivity in the field of teaching Turkish to foreigners. The aim of the study is to determine the orientations related to the rhetorical arrangement of the scientific texts on teaching of Turkish as a foreign language, which are included in the textbooks of the International Training and Education of Turkish Language Congresses as a full text and to evaluate these texts in terms of their specific functions. Findings and determinations revealed in the study are based on a corpus comprised of a total of 64 texts included in proceedings books, written in Turkish and related to teaching Turkish to foreigners. The study is structured by qualitative research method. The data were obtained by qualitative data collection techniques through document scanning and were examined within the framework of the scientific text criteria specified by Huber and Uzun (2001. Two out of 64 articles in the sample of the study revealed that none of the expected functional steps in the introduction, main and final sections were found. No work has been found that covers all of the functional steps in the introduction, main and final sections.

  4. FAIR PLAY I N TURKISH SOCIAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail TEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We can say that we start hearing term of fair play since last 30 years in our country. While it is a sportive term it also represents respectfulness toward all mutual rights, symbol of being just and honest also we can determine it as basic moral values wh ich needs to be practise. Expression and teaching of Fair play fact starts with family and it needs to be thought as a life discipline which should appear in society. Term of Fair play isn‟t only an organizing term for sportive interrelations it also ne eds to be taken as a cultural fact. It is a way of life. Term of Fair play is a way of thinking and acting so it is is above all of sport branches. It is behaviors and emotions which are accepted as conditions of being a perfect human being by Turkish society. Purpose of this study is to investigate perspective of Turkish society toward Fair play and find lived / real fair play events to set as sample. Term of Fair play, cultural values among Turkish society and real Fair play events had been studied carefully within the theorical scope. This research is a theorical study. Screening the resources used as method for this study. Tried to investigate works, articles and researches had been done about this field and interpret the facts which can be acc epted as sample for Fair play.

  5. 11 CFR 114.7 - Membership organizations, cooperatives, or corporations without capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organizational structure. (j) A membership organization, including a trade association, cooperative, or... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership organizations, cooperatives, or... CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.7 Membership organizations, cooperatives, or corporations...

  6. 78 FR 30737 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... FR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...: This final rule reestablishes the membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No... Irish potatoes grown in Colorado. This action modifies the Committee membership structure by amending...

  7. 78 FR 40138 - Notification of Deletion of System of Records: Kid's Club Membership List (EPA-57)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... children. Participants received certificates, membership cards and stickers for joining the club. Completed... System of Records: Kid's Club Membership List (EPA-57) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Kids Club Membership List (EPA-57) published in the Federal Register on March 2, 2006, from its...

  8. Stakeholder identities in Britain's neoliberal ethical community: Polish narratives of earned citizenship in the context of the UK's EU referendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Derek; Moreh, Chris; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2018-05-21

    This article examines the narrative strategies through which Polish migrants in the UK challenge the formal rights of political membership and attempt to redefine the boundaries of 'citizenship' along notions of deservedness. The analysed qualitative data originate from an online survey conducted in the months before the 2016 EU referendum, and the narratives emerge from the open-text answers to two survey questions concerning attitudes towards the referendum and the exclusion of resident EU nationals from the electoral process. The analysis identifies and describes three narrative strategies in reaction to the public discourses surrounding the EU referendum - namely discursive complicity, intergroup hostility and defensive assertiveness - which attempt to redefine the conditions of membership in Britain's 'ethical community' in respect to welfare practices. Examining these processes simultaneously 'from below' and 'from outside' the national political community, the paper argues, can reveal more of the transformation taking place in conceptions of citizenship at the sociological level, and the article aims to identify the contours of a 'neoliberal communitarian citizenship' as internalized by mobile EU citizens. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  9. Photoluminescence of Turkish purple jade (turkiyenite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Başevirgen, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    The purple-colored unique gem material is only found in the Harmancık (Bursa) region of the western Anatolia (Turkey). Therefore, it is specially called “Turkish purple jade or turkiyenite” on the worldwide gem market. Even though its jadeite implication is the principal constituent, the material cannot be considered as a single jadeite mineral since other implications are quartz, orthoclase, epidote, chloritoid and phlogopite minerals. Even if the analytical methods are used to characterize and identify the Turkish purple jade samples in detail, the luminescence spectra, especially photoluminescence features regarding to composite mineral implications of the material are important because of the existence the numerous characteristic broad and intensive luminescence bands in the samples. We can state that the UV-irradiation luminescence centers as photoluminescence (PL) are due to the overall signals in the Turkish purple jade samples. Accordingly, the distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 743, 717, 698, 484, 465 and 442 nm in PL-2D (counter diagram and sections) and PL-3D (sequence spectra) ranging between 300 and 900 nm of wavelengths, and between 220 and 340 K of temperatures are observed. Finally, photoluminescence features of the heterogeneous-structured material cannot be simply attributed to any chemical impurities, since the jade mass has numerous heterogeneous mineral constituents instead of a single jadeite mineral. Six different mineral implications and chemical impurities in the material composition display complex and individual all kind of luminescence features. Therefore, photoluminescence as well as radioluminescence, cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence spectra provide positive identification regarding to the provenance (geographic origin) of the original Turkish purple jade (turkiyenite). - Highlights: ► The purple-colored gem material is only found in the Harmancık-Bursa region of Turkey. ► Material is called “Turkish purple

  10. Ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elders, L.A.M.; Burdorf, A.; Öry, F.G.

    2004-01-01

    The number of native Dutch and Turkish workers receiving a permanent disability pension in the Netherlands is still rising. To assess ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders, a retrospective study was conducted within a large scaffolding company. Medical files for

  11. Ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); F.G. Öry; L.A.M. Elders (Leo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe number of native Dutch and Turkish workers receiving a permanent disability pension in the Netherlands is still rising. To assess ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders, a retrospective study was conducted within a large

  12. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on one such Turkish complementary school in .... various educational services that lead to achieving certain goals .... languages, together with the issue of differences of quality of .... challenge of “tackling underachievement” of Turkish Speaking ..... Cape schools and implications for school leadership.

  13. "Turkish Modernization," Democracy, and Education: An Analysis from Dewey's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Seckin

    2009-01-01

    Dewey is an important representative of the libertarian education movement, which has its roots based on the values of the enlightenment. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between "Turkish modernization" and education from Dewey's perspective. In the paper, the place and effect of Dewey in the Turkish pedagogical vision was…

  14. New Technologies in Maritime Education and Training, Turkish Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Oral; Demirel, Ergun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce new technologies and approaches in the maritime education and training (MET) and Turkish experiment/acquisitions/contributions including some analysis which may be helpful for the future studies on this subject. As an example of such an effort, Turkish experiment/contribution on seafaring officer education…

  15. Secularity and religiosity: keystones of Turkish national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Olyunin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to many experts Turkish National Federation experiences crisis of its national identity. The article concerns the problem of secular and religious balance in Turkish nationalism. Special attention is attached to Turkey as a project and Turkey as a process, war factor in a birth of the nation, national idea reproduction, Islam nationalization and nationalism Islamisation.

  16. Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.

    2011-01-01

    The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global warming. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the environmental education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…

  17. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal…

  18. A characterization of verb use in Turkish agrammatic narrative speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bamyacı, Elif; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of narrative-speech production and the use of verbs in Turkish agrammatic speakers (n = 10) compared to non-brain-damaged controls (n = 10). To elicit narrative-speech samples, personal interviews and storytelling tasks were conducted. Turkish has a large

  19. US and Turkish preschoolers' observational knowledge of astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saçkes, Mesut; McCormick Smith, Mandy; Cabe Trundle, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-cultural study was to describe and compare US and Turkish children's observational knowledge of the day and night cycle and to identify similarities predicted by framework theory. Fifty-six (27 US and 29 Turkish) young children (ages 48-60 months) participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were individually conducted, digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method. The results demonstrate that preschoolers from the two cultures are able to make comparable informal observations of the sky, and their observational knowledge includes many similarities, with one exception, as predicted by framework theory. US children were more likely to perform better than the Turkish children on the question about the time of observation for the moon. Although science concepts and skills are better represented in US early childhood education programs than the Turkish program, the results suggest that this advantage did not translate into performance differences between US and Turkish children.

  20. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  1. Opinions of Turkish Language and Literature Teachers on the Curriculum of Turkish Literature Course Based on the Constructivist Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epcacan, Cahit

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to collect the opinions of Turkish Language and Literature teachers at secondary schools about the Curriculum of the Turkish Literature Course based on the constructivist learning theory. To this end, the descriptive method was employed to collect teacher opinions. Structured interview was used as a data…

  2. Democracy predicts sport and recreation membership: Insights from 52 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Balish, Shea M.

    2017-01-01

    Although evidence suggests sport and recreation are powerful contributors to worldwide public health, sizable gender differences persist. It is unknown whether country characteristics moderate gender differences across countries. The primary purpose of this study was to examine if countries’ levels of democracy and/or gender inequality moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. The secondary purpose was to examine if democracy and/or gender inequality pre...

  3. On the perception of religious group membership from faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas O Rule

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of social categorization has largely been confined to examining groups distinguished by perceptually obvious cues. Yet many ecologically important group distinctions are less clear, permitting insights into the general processes involved in person perception. Although religious group membership is thought to be perceptually ambiguous, folk beliefs suggest that Mormons and non-Mormons can be categorized from their appearance. We tested whether Mormons could be distinguished from non-Mormons and investigated the basis for this effect to gain insight to how subtle perceptual cues can support complex social categorizations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants categorized Mormons' and non-Mormons' faces or facial features according to their group membership. Individuals could distinguish between the two groups significantly better than chance guessing from their full faces and faces without hair, with eyes and mouth covered, without outer face shape, and inverted 180°; but not from isolated features (i.e., eyes, nose, or mouth. Perceivers' estimations of their accuracy did not match their actual accuracy. Exploration of the remaining features showed that Mormons and non-Mormons significantly differed in perceived health and that these perceptions were related to perceptions of skin quality, as demonstrated in a structural equation model representing the contributions of skin color and skin texture. Other judgments related to health (facial attractiveness, facial symmetry, and structural aspects related to body weight did not differ between the two groups. Perceptions of health were also responsible for differences in perceived spirituality, explaining folk hypotheses that Mormons are distinct because they appear more spiritual than non-Mormons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subtle markers of group membership can influence how others are perceived and categorized. Perceptions of health from non-obvious and minimal cues

  4. Density Estimation in Several Populations With Uncertain Population Membership

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2011-09-01

    We devise methods to estimate probability density functions of several populations using observations with uncertain population membership, meaning from which population an observation comes is unknown. The probability of an observation being sampled from any given population can be calculated. We develop general estimation procedures and bandwidth selection methods for our setting. We establish large-sample properties and study finite-sample performance using simulation studies. We illustrate our methods with data from a nutrition study.

  5. On the perception of religious group membership from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Nicholas O; Garrett, James V; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-12-07

    The study of social categorization has largely been confined to examining groups distinguished by perceptually obvious cues. Yet many ecologically important group distinctions are less clear, permitting insights into the general processes involved in person perception. Although religious group membership is thought to be perceptually ambiguous, folk beliefs suggest that Mormons and non-Mormons can be categorized from their appearance. We tested whether Mormons could be distinguished from non-Mormons and investigated the basis for this effect to gain insight to how subtle perceptual cues can support complex social categorizations. Participants categorized Mormons' and non-Mormons' faces or facial features according to their group membership. Individuals could distinguish between the two groups significantly better than chance guessing from their full faces and faces without hair, with eyes and mouth covered, without outer face shape, and inverted 180°; but not from isolated features (i.e., eyes, nose, or mouth). Perceivers' estimations of their accuracy did not match their actual accuracy. Exploration of the remaining features showed that Mormons and non-Mormons significantly differed in perceived health and that these perceptions were related to perceptions of skin quality, as demonstrated in a structural equation model representing the contributions of skin color and skin texture. Other judgments related to health (facial attractiveness, facial symmetry, and structural aspects related to body weight) did not differ between the two groups. Perceptions of health were also responsible for differences in perceived spirituality, explaining folk hypotheses that Mormons are distinct because they appear more spiritual than non-Mormons. Subtle markers of group membership can influence how others are perceived and categorized. Perceptions of health from non-obvious and minimal cues distinguished individuals according to their religious group membership. These data

  6. The Place of Digital Marketing on Turkish Small Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Karatum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, technology develops rapidly and continuously and it affects every aspect of our lives. Marketing concept has been affected by these developments. What we want from marketing and reaching in an increasingly virtualized world is to be a lot faster than the past. Also, new marketing channels have emerged as well. Turkish small businesses, the building blocks of Turkish economy, have the chance of addressing the marketing problems and solving the problems with the digital marketing channels. Small businesses have time and cash money limitations and this restricts their development. It is aimed to inform Turkish small businesses about Turkish population’s digital channel usage and the benefits of using digital marketing channels. As a result, digital marketing is going to improve the speed of renewal process of the Turkish small businesses and competition between them will improve the economy of Turkey. In the 21st century, technology develops rapidly and continuously and it affects every aspect of our lives. Marketing concept has been affected by these developments. What we want from marketing and reaching in an increasingly virtualized world is to be a lot faster than the past. Also, new marketing channels have emerged as well. Turkish small businesses, the building blocks of Turkish economy, have the chance of addressing the marketing problems and solving the problems with the digital marketing channels. Small businesses have time and cash money limitations and this restricts their development. It is aimed to inform Turkish small businesses about Turkish population’s digital channel usage and the benefits of using digital marketing channels. As a result, digital marketing is going to improve the speed of renewal process of the Turkish small businesses and competition between them will improve the economy of Turkey.

  7. Emotions facilitate the communication of ambiguous group memberships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that emotions intersect with obvious social categories (e.g., race), influencing both how targets are categorized and the emotions that are read from their faces. Here, we examined the influence of emotional expression on the perception of less obvious group memberships for which, in the absence of obvious and stable physical markers, emotion may serve as a major avenue for group categorization and identification. Specifically, we examined whether emotions are embedded in the mental representations of sexual orientation and political affiliation, and whether people may use emotional expressions to communicate these group memberships to others. Using reverse correlation methods, we found that mental representations of gay and liberal faces were characterized by more positive facial expressions than mental representations of straight and conservative faces (Study 1). Furthermore, participants were evaluated as expressing more positive emotions when enacting self-defined "gay" and "liberal" versus "straight" and "conservative" facial expressions in the lab (Study 2). In addition, neutral faces morphed with happiness were perceived as more gay than when morphed with anger, and when compared to unmorphed controls (Study 3). Finally, we found that affect facilitated perceptions of sexual orientation and political affiliation in naturalistic settings (Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that emotion is a defining characteristic of person construal that people tend to use both when signaling their group memberships and when receiving those signals to categorize others. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Turkish putsch through the eyes of Turkish people: image of the failed coup estimated by Turkish media in July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamedov Zaur Imalverdi oglu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Turkish media on the subject of the coup in 2016. The reviewed materials were published in the first two weeks after the coup attempt, and these most clearly convey the atmosphere of those days. The purpose of this study is to examine the formation of public opinion in connection with the coup in Turkey. The uniqueness of the work lies in the fact that almost all types of mass media were involved in the analysis: television, press, popular sites.

  9. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... on coherence and accessibility with respect to environmental legislation and that such issues deserve more attention in the transposition process.......A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... a coherent and accessible body of environmental legislation, while at the same time ensuring adequate transposition of EU environmental legislation. This article analyses the existence, or emergence, of transposition principles and practices in three Member States—the United Kingdom, the Netherlands...

  10. EU Policy. A Debate on EU Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.; Kjoelbye, L.; Aaslund, A.; Zwitserloot, R.

    2008-01-01

    Views from four experts in the field of energy on the EU's energy policy, as laid down in the Third Package, are presented. Kjoelbye and Cohen argue about the pros and cons of unbundling, Aaslund defends the policy of reciprocity towards Gazprom, and Zwitserloot warns that Europe's anti-Gazprom policy endangers security of supply

  11. From the Stereotypification of the Non-European Other to the Prototypification of the European Self: A Case Study of Turkey’s Membership to the European Union from the French Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Bogain

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In an era of increased globalisation, the need for a sense of belonging and an identity is becoming more pressing. The way nations form images of others and, conversely, conscious or unconscious images of themselves is becoming increasingly important as these images impact on public opinion and on political and decision-making discourse. With the development of supranationalism in Europe, the age-old notion of European identity has come more and more to the fore. Conflicting interpretations and a general disinclination to consider the matter leave the notion of European identity as polysemic as ever. Furthermore, the expansion of the EU has contributed to blurring this notion, so much so that in the collective psyche, it has become closely linked to the membership of the European Union and it is proving sometimes difficult to dissociate one from the other. In this context, the debate surrounding Turkey’s membership of the EU gives an insight into prototypical and stereotypical representations of Europe. As the controversy has been particularly salient in France, the aim of this study is to explore the European self-conceptions and images of the other through the example of France’s opposition to Turkey’s membership of the EU. For this purpose, opinion polls and the Press will be used as forms of narrative in order to highlight these representations and how they have evolved in time. The first part of the study will concentrate on the arguments put forward to justify the opposition to Turkey joining the EU. The second part will then evaluate how the image of the other contributes to the prototypical representation French citizens have of Europe.

  12.  Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger: An Empirical Study of EU15 Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    ) to exercise real options such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch suppliers, and to generally expand in the Euro-area. The results are robust after controlling for the size of the firms and their sales in the Euro-area. The results go beyond what...

  13. The Impact of Bulgarian Membership in NATO and the EU on the Development of the Bulgarian Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-14

    The catastrophes in reforms affected the beginning of free market interconnections. Political parties, from November 1989 to the end of 1997...integration, democratic reform, and development of a market economy.14 The initiatives implementing by the UDF government were adopted by the next two...Development of Armed Forces – 2015,” available from http://www.mod.bg/bg/ startegy /vision.html; Internet; accessed 15 Dec2006. 24 Lieutenant General Atanas

  14. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  15. Ritual Change in a Turkish Alevi Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas McElwain

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a documentation and analysis of change in ritual in the village of Sarilar, on the west bank of the Euphrates River near Yavuseli, Gaziantep. The research problem posed was identification of ritual change within the consultants' memory and some tentative ways of situating such change within the socio-economic context. The mysticism of the dervish lodge remains as a certain life attitude along with the new views of modernization that have been so well inculcated. Although modernization, at least in the Turkish Alevi context, tends to conflict with the mystical experience of the Bektashi dervish in some areas, a democratized inner core remains.

  16. Turkish Petroleum Corporation: Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A brief account of the generating electrical energy and building the most suitable generation facility activities carried out by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, Ankara during the period January 2005 to December 2005 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: 1) Our vision 2) Goals and objectives, strategies 3) Who we are 4) Board of directors 5) Domestic exploration and production activities 6) International exploration and production activities 7) Innovations in technology 8) Occupational safety and environmental protection 9) TPAO services 10) TPAO district Managements 11) Finance etc

  17. FDIs and investment policy in some European countries after their EU accession. Challenges during the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena RADULESCU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find out to what extent the accession countries will be able to benefit from an increase in the quality of foreign direct investments (FDIs that they receive due to EU membership. Although there will be some investment in new affiliates resulting in greenfield subsidiaries, transnational companies (TNCs may divest their operations in response to better location advantages elsewhere in the EU (as Spain and Portugal are experiencing because their low-cost advantages are eroded. In many Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, the share of foreign ownership in total capital stock is already typically much higher than in older EU member states, but we can already observe a trend of relocating TNCs’ subsidiaries to other emerging countries in order to diminish the costs, in the context of the present crisis and we believe that this trend will continue in the future, especially in the crisis context when the inceptive burden is heavy for governments. The conclusion of this paper is that the CEE countries haven’t faced quite similar conditions as the Southern European countries that acceded to the EU in the ‘80s. So, their benefits have considerably diminished and the present crisis didn’t help them at all to reduce their economic gaps comparing to the developed European countries.

  18. Genetic diversity of disease-associated loci in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Sefayet; Cesuroglu, Tomris; Karaca, Mehmet; Erge, Sema; Polimanti, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Many consortia and international projects have investigated the human genetic variation of a large number of ethno-geographic groups. However, populations with peculiar genetic features, such as the Turkish population, are still absent in publically available datasets. To explore the genetic predisposition to health-related traits of the Turkish population, we analyzed 34 genes associated with different health-related traits (for example, lipid metabolism, cardio-vascular diseases, hormone metabolism, cellular detoxification, aging and energy metabolism). We observed relevant differences between the Turkish population and populations with non-European ancestries (that is, Africa and East Asia) in some of the investigated genes (that is, AGT, APOE, CYP1B1, GNB3, IL10, IL6, LIPC and PON1). As most complex traits are highly polygenic, we developed polygenic scores associated with different health-related traits to explore the genetic diversity of the Turkish population with respect to other human groups. This approach showed significant differences between the Turkish population and populations with non-European ancestries, as well as between Turkish and Northern European individuals. This last finding is in agreement with the genetic structure of European and Middle East populations, and may also agree with epidemiological evidences about the health disparities of Turkish communities in Northern European countries.

  19. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  20. EU citizenship and direct taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Ros (Erik)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main question addressed in this study is: _How has the concept of EU citizenship influenced the legal autonomy of Member States; most notably in the field of direct taxation and are the implications of that influence on the tax autonomy of Member States acceptable?_

  1. EU ENLARGEMENT AT A CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cătălina Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to explore the general theme of the EU enlargement strategy in the new 2012 European context. Until now, the EU’s enlargement strategy has yielded impressive results. It succeeded in transforming ten central and eastern European countries from post-communism confusion into open-market, mature and effective systems of democratic governments, and even on the economic front, they have also made astonishing progress. It is no doubt that people in the new EU countries live better then before. In this context, the EU must continue the enlargement process to help stabilize the Balkan region that lie beyond its expanded eastern border. No one can deny that major issues concerning western Balkan countries’ accession are still on the table, and they even exert a geopolitical influence of sorts. This makes it all the more important to see stability and regional co-operation there are strategically vital. An all-out effort must now be made to complete the enlargement process and ensure there is no strategic vacuum. This article provides the framework of analyses for the EU problems and the challenges for the Balkans governments as for Brussels.

  2. Implementatie van EU-handhavingsvoorschriften

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, P.C.; Barkhuysen, T.; Boswijk, P.; Habib, K.; Kruif, C. de; Luchtman, M.J.J.P.; Ouden, W. den; Prechal, A.; Steunenberg, B.; Vervaele, J.A.E.; Voermans, W.J.M.; Vries, S.A. de; Widdershoven, R.J.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Na een verkennend onderzoek op twaalf beleidsterreinen naar aard, wijze en variatie van de EU/EG-beïnvloeding van nationale handhaving, zijn aan de hand van ‘beïnvloedingsscores’ acht beleidsterreinen geselecteerd voor nadere analyse. In het onderzoek staan de volgende vragen centraal:Hoe is de

  3. Absolute measurement of 152Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Baba, Sumiko; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Sekine, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Isamu

    1981-08-01

    A new method of the absolute measurement for 152 Eu was established based on the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4πβ-counter and a Ge(Li) γ-ray detector, in which the effective counting efficiencies of the 4πβ-counter for β-rays, conversion electrons, and Auger electrons were obtained by taking the intensity ratios for certain γ-rays between the single spectrum and the spectrum coincident with the pulses from the 4πβ-counter. First, in order to verify the method, three different methods of the absolute measurement were performed with a prepared 60 Co source to find excellent agreement among the results deduced by them. Next, the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic coincidence measurement was applied to 152 Eu sources prepared by irradiating an enriched 151 Eu target in a reactor. The result was compared with that obtained by the γ-ray spectrometry using a 152 Eu standard source supplied by LMRI. They agreed with each other within the error of 2%. (author)

  4. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  5. "Reflections of the Loss of Rumeli on the Turkish Poetry"

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Losing the land of Rumeli has had significant reflections on the Turkish poetry. Poets such as Rıza Tevfik, Mehmet kif, Aka Gündüz, Arif Nihat, etc. wrote poems on how much the sudden loss of Rumeli, which had long been under the Turkish rule, influenced the feelings of the Turkish people quite negatively. They harshly criticized the negligence and the incompetence of the rulers which accelerated the loss of the land during the Balkan War. One can easily observe the dramatic style in such po...

  6. Reflections of the Loss of Rumeli on the Turkish Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Losing the land of Rumeli has had significant reflections on the Turkish poetry. Poets such as Rıza Tevfik, Mehmet Âkif, Aka Gündüz, Arif Nihat, etc. wrote poems on how much the sudden loss of Rumeli, which had long been under the Turkish rule, influenced the feelings of the Turkish people quite negatively. They harshly criticized the negligence and the incompetence of the rulers which accelerated the loss of the land during the Balkan War. One can easily observe the dramatic style in such p...

  7. Gender equality or patriarchal dividend: Structural change in Turkish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Elizabeth; Badir, Aysel

    2008-06-01

    Turkey is attempting to join the European Union and is facing pressure to eliminate many forms of discrimination, including discrimination based on gender. In keeping with these aims, in early 2007 the Turkish government changed the law to permit Turkish men to become nurses. Given that Turkey is a highly patriarchal society and that occupational segregation by sex is a persistent feature, it is important to examine the potential outcome of the legislative changes. The aim of this paper is to explore the paradoxical potential for Turkish female nurses to experience increased discrimination in a system that is restructured by legislation to be non-discriminatory.

  8. The Attitude of Students Who Are Native Speakers of Turkish in England towards Turkish Lessons Based on Their Demographic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazik Müge TEKİN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mother tongue education (or instruction plays quite a significant role in individual students’ success in both social and academic areas. A qualified mother tongue education is crucial in ensuring those students become successful adults in their later life and adopt their own culture and identities. From time to time, there might be students who have mother tongue medium education along with those who have other languages as the medium of instruction. Among those bilingual students there are children of Turkish citizens who immigrated to Western Europe as workers. Mother tongue education is a necessity for bilingual individuals to protect their identities, to adopt to the society they already live in and to learn the language used in that very society much more easily. This makes it more important for the bilingual Turkish children living in foreign countries to receive mother tongue education. In this vein, the attitudes of Turkish students, who live in England, towards the Turkish language class are examined. 105 Turkish students between 11 and 18 years enrolled in Wisdom and Namık Kemal Turkish School in the UK were requested to fill in a questionnaire. Based on their responses, their opinions about the Turkish language class were evaluated.

  9. Adult urethral stricture: practice of Turkish urologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Mehmet; Sertkaya, Zulfu; Koca, Orhan; Calıskan, Selahattin; Kutluhan, Musab Ali; Karaman, Muhammet Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate national practice patterns in the treatment of male anterior urethral strictures among Turkish urologists. Materials and Methods: A survey form including 12 questions prepared to determine active Turkish urologists' approach to diagnosis and treatment of the adult urethral stricture (US) were filled out. Based on the survey results, the institutions which 218 urologists work and their years of expertise, methods they used for diagnosis and treatment, whether or not they perform open urethroplasty and timing of open urethroplasty were investigated. Results: Optic internal urethrotomy and dilatation are the most commonly used minimal invasive procedures in treatment of US with the ratios of 93.5% and 63.3% respectively. On the other hand it was seen that urethroplasty was a less commonly used procedure, compared to minimal invasive techniques, with the ratio of 36.7%. Survey results showed us that the number of US cases observed and open urethroplasty procedures performed increases with increasing years of professional experience. Conclusions: As a method demanding special surgical experience and known as a time-consuming and challenging procedure, open urethroplasty will be able to take a greater part in current urological practice with the help of theoretical education and practical courses given by specific centers and experienced authors. PMID:27256189

  10. Adult urethral stricture: practice of Turkish urologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akyuz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate national practice patterns in the treatment of male anterior urethral strictures among Turkish urologists. Materials and Methods: A survey form including 12 questions prepared to determine active Turkish urologists' approach to diagnosis and treatment of the adult urethral stricture (US were filled out. Based on the survey results, the institutions which 218 urologists work and their years of expertise, methods they used for diagnosis and treatment, whether or not they perform open urethroplasty and timing of open urethroplasty were investigated. Results: Optic internal urethrotomy and dilatation are the most commonly used minimal invasive procedures in treatment of US with the ratios of 93.5% and 63.3% respectively. On the other hand it was seen that urethroplasty was a less commonly used procedure, compared to minimal invasive techniques, with the ratio of 36.7%. Survey results showed us that the number of US cases observed and open urethroplasty procedures performed increases with increasing years of professional experience. Conclusions: As a method demanding special surgical experience and known as a time-consuming and challenging procedure, open urethroplasty will be able to take a greater part in current urological practice with the help of theoretical education and practical courses given by specific centers and experienced authors.

  11. Current snapshot of the Turkish ESCO market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, Ugur; Okay, Esin; Okay, Nesrin

    2013-01-01

    Turkey's Energy Efficiency Law (EEL), enacted in 2007, had been expected to transform the energy policies in government and private sectors, and offer opportunities for, then-impending, Turkish Energy Service Company (ESCO) market. Yet, the communiqué of the EEL related to ESCOs was released only recently in July 2012. In this work, we review the current status of the ESCO market in Turkey. We provide an outlook through the recent legal communiqué and present barriers, enabling factors, and opportunities, supported by country's financial and economic facts. ESCO-financing mechanism prevailing and the sources of financing in the country are also mentioned. The communiqué on ESCOs fits well in the chain of regulatory attempts to increase Turkey's competitiveness in the global markets. However, we anticipate that some of its principles and procedures to be enforced may be deterrent for small-scale candidate ESCOs and may slow down the expected development of the Turkish ESCO market. Otherwise, the communiqué should lead restructuring of a stronger ESCO market in Turkey. - Highlights: • We review the current status of the ESCO market in Turkey. • We give outlook through the recent communiqué on ESCOs. • We provide view through financial and economic facts. • We present barriers, enabling factors, and suggestions

  12. Rebalancing EU Interest Representation? Assocative Democracy and EU funding of Civil Society Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Salgado, R.

    2014-01-01

    European Union (EU) funding of civil society organizations (CSOs) is a substantial and important part of EU governance, but study of such funding is scarce and theoretically underdeveloped. To fill this gap, this article analyzes the main features of EU funding of CSOs and its effects on the EU

  13. Assessing EU perception in Kazakhstan's mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2017-01-01

    Our main findings suggest that Kazakhstan's mass media positively perceives the role of the EU in the region. Moreover, they tend to portray the EU mainly as an economic powerhouse. Our findings support some suggestions by similar studies of the EU's external perception.

  14. EU agricultural reform fails on biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pe'er, G.; Dicks, L.V.; Visconti, A.; Arlettaz, R.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.; Scott, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    In December 2013, the European Union (EU) enacted the reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for 2014–2020, allocating almost 40% of the EU's budget and influencing management of half of its terrestrial area. Many EU politicians are announcing the new CAP as “greener,” but the new environmental

  15. Public Integrity, Economic Freedom and Governance Performance. A Comparative Study for the EU Member States and Acceding Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani MATEI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the impact of corruption on the effectiveness of governance are numerous, valorising profound approaches, based on criteria and standards related to good governance, organizational behaviour. The concepts and mechanisms specific for econometrics and statistics provide the quantitative support for qualitative analyses, substantiating public policies, in view to assure effectiveness in performance measurement. For EU Member States and acceding countries, the level of development and social organization determines specific ethical behaviours. In this context, the current paper aims a comparative economic and social evaluation of the correlations between corruption, performance and economic freedom in the states mentioned, following the various significant stages of the EU enlargement. The working hypotheses turn into consideration the following issues:# Corruption holds national specific character and the statistic, econometric or sociologic analyses reveal that it is stable during time.# The climate of economic freedom and the intensity of corruption influence powerfully the economic performance.# The EU membership, “seniority” in EU, regional context determine different attitudes and perceptions on the corruption phenomena.# For the newer EU states or the acceding countries, the strategies of integrity have mimetic character and the National Integrity Systems have structured powerful connections aimed at determining an action focused on public integrity.In the analyses achieved, the EU is approached globally, at least from statistic point of view, and the conclusions aim situations specific to the groups of states that have been or will be the beneficiaries of the EU enlargement. The quantitative analyses use both own results of the researches carried out by the authors and public results of World Bank or Heritage Foundation, as well as results of authorities responsible for national statistics. The paper uses the

  16. Handling membership dynamicity in service composition for ubiquitous computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2008-01-01

    . A proposed solution is to use a service oriented architecture and implement applications as composite services. As long as the set of services that constitute the composite is static, traditional techniques can be used to specify the composite. In this paper we show how the PalCom service composition...... language can be extended to support service composites with dynamic membership and present a decentralized implementation. Preliminary user studies indicate that the extensions are easily understandable and simulations of application scenarios show that the performance of the implementation is appropriate...

  17. Handbook of mixed membership models and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Airoldi, Edoardo M; Erosheva, Elena A; Fienberg, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    In response to scientific needs for more diverse and structured explanations of statistical data, researchers have discovered how to model individual data points as belonging to multiple groups. Handbook of Mixed Membership Models and Their Applications shows you how to use these flexible modeling tools to uncover hidden patterns in modern high-dimensional multivariate data. It explores the use of the models in various application settings, including survey data, population genetics, text analysis, image processing and annotation, and molecular biology.Through examples using real data sets, yo

  18. Does generalized social trust lead to associational membership? Unraveling a bowl of well-tossed spaghetti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2011-01-01

    Within the social capital literature it is often assumed that membership of voluntary associations causes generalized social trust and not the other way around. This study challenges this assumption by investigating if generalized social trust causes membership in a novel design that yields valid...... provide rare individual level evidence for a connection between generalized social trust and collective action in that generalized social trust in particular increases membership of associations producing public goods....... results despite possible feed-back effects from membership to trust. Using individual level data from several countries, the paper shows that trust does increase membership. Treating associational membership as exogenous to trust produces biased results, it is therefore concluded. Moreover, the study...

  19. Does generalized social trust lead to associational membership? Unraveling a bowl of well-tossed spaghetti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    Within the social capital literature it is often assumed that membership of voluntary associations causes generalized social trust and not the other way around. This study challenges this assumption by investigating if generalized social trust causes membership in a novel design that yields valid....... Moreover, the study provide rare individual level evidence for a connection between generalized social trust and collective action in that generalized social trust in particular increases membership of associations producing public goods....... results despite possible feed-back effects from membership to trust. Using both individual and country level data in a multilevel analysis, the paper shows that trust does increase membership. Treating associational membership as exogenous to trust produces biased results, it is therefore concluded...

  20. Migration and reproductive behavior in Turkish migrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Nauck, Bernhard

    1987-01-01

    Migration and reproductive behavior in Turkish migrant families : a situational explanation. - In: Growth and progress in cross-cultural psychology / ed. by Cigdem Kagitcibasi. - Lisse u.a. : Swets & Zeitlinger, 1987. - S. 336- 345

  1. Prion protein gene polymorphisms in Turkish native goat breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HASAN MEYDAN

    3The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of ... Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the caprine PRNP .... Sampling localities, sample size (n) and sex of Turkish native goat breeds.

  2. A Qualitative Analysis of the Turkish Gendarmerie Assignment Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soylemez, Kadir

    2005-01-01

    ...; this number increases to 43 million (65% of the population) in the summer months. This study is an organizational analysis of the current assignment process of the Turkish General Command of the Gendarmerie...

  3. Missing data analysis and homogeneity test for Turkish precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the monthly and annual total precipitation records at stations operated by Turkish ... used in regional studies; the number of stations representing the area and the quality of the data are also very ..... Water Resources Management 22: 823–841.

  4. Invisible Barriers: The Loneliness of School Principals at Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    x

    2016-11-10

    Nov 10, 2016 ... Keywords: barriers; loneliness at work; school principals; Turkish elementary ... competencies as they face the challenges of their position (Howard & Mallory, 2008). ..... of the participants was female and six of them were.

  5. Turkish Air Force's Experiences in Chemical Material Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taskiran, Huseyin

    2002-01-01

    .... In addition, it analyzes the chemical material acquisition from business perspective. Due to operating in different environments, the Turkish Air Force and the private sector have different objectives in the acquisition of chemical materials...

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Turkish version of Looming Maladaptive Style Questionnaire (LMSQ (Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Altan Atalay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Most of the studies that examine cognitive vulnerability tend to focus on cognitive vulnerability for depression and explain anxiety through its intersection with depression. Looming Cognitive Style (LCS was suggested as a cognitive vulnerability model that is specific for anxiety. According to the model, people who have looming vulnerability tend to evaluate the threats coming from the environment as more overwhelming than they actually are and are constantly hypervigilant to the threat cues that may come from the environment. This pattern plays an important role in both generation and maintenance of anxiety disorders. A two-factor looming vulnerability scale was developed to assess looming cognitive style and the present study aims to adapt the scale into Turkish and examine its psychometric characteristics. Method: The sample is composed of 657 university students between the ages of 18 and 29. The participants were administered LMSQ-R as well as scales that assess anxiety, depression, and worry. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis results supported the original factor structure of the scale providing two distinct, but correlated factors as social and physical looming. In addition to that, total score and subscale scores had moderate to high correlations with other study variables and reliability scores appearing close to the original form provides support for the reliability of the scale. Conclusion: The Turkish version of the LMSQ-R is a reliable and valid scale that can be used with Turkish population.

  7. Psychometric evaluation of Turkish version of the Perceived Stress Scale with Turkish college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cahit; Tansey, Timothy N; Melekoglu, Macid; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Chan, Fong

    2017-12-20

    The Turkish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (T-PSS-10) measures the extent to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement structure of T-PSS-10. Two-hundred and thirty-five Turkish university students (93 men and 142 women) completed the T-PSS-10, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the General Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), and the Inventory of Common Problems (ICP). Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that a one-factor model did not fit the data, whereas a two-factor correlated model (stress related self-efficacy beliefs, stress related feelings of helplessness) provided a better fit between the model and the data. Significant moderate correlations were found for the stress-related self-efficacy beliefs and stress-related feelings of helplessness factors with depression, anxiety, academic difficulty, relationship problems and health problems. The internal consistency reliability coefficients for the stress-related self-efficacy beliefs and stress-related feelings of helplessness factors were 0.68 and 0.85, respectively. This study provided support for the reliability and validity of T-PSS-10 suggesting that it can be used as a screening instrument by health professionals working with Turkish college students.

  8. Electrochemical reduction of Eu (III) in propionic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotto, M.E.; Rabockai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some chronopotentiometric studies of Eu (III) electro-reducion in propionic media that suggests the presence of two parallel rections: Eu (III) → Eu (II) and Eu (III) → Eu (II) → Y are presented. Some experimental data, such Eu (III) reducion, electrolysis of solutions and ionic power of the system are discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  9. Usefulness Of Derivative Instruments In Emerging Markets: Turkish Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Cem Saatcioglu; Iskender Karagul; Ara G. Volkan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of derivative markets, definitions of derivative investment instruments, development of global derivative markets and the applicability of derivative markets in Turkey, given their economic value added to the Turkish economy. Readers will acquire insight into investing in various investment instruments and hedging against risk. Turkish derivative markets will be described, supportive statistical data will be presented, and readers will be introduced to the de...

  10. The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish Coffees

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Funda; Selvi, Nigar; Kıpçak, Seyhun; Özdemir, Özgül; Piskin, Mehmet; Moroydor Derun, Emek

    2015-01-01

    The Investigation of the Element Contents in the Turkish CoffeesCoffee is one of the most popular drinks across the world and its enormous commercial and social importance is obvious. Coffee has become the essential consumption matter and one of the rituals of many societies for several years.Turkish people's first confrontation with it dates back to 16th century, in Ottoman era. Since then, because of the differences in terms of preparation and presentation styles, the coffee has been n...

  11. Seigniorage Revenue and Inflation Tax in Turkish economy

    OpenAIRE

    doğru, bülent

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to test the implication of optimal seigniorage theory that in the long run higher tax rates are associated with higher inflation rates and higher nominal interest rates. For this purpose, we examine the long run relationship between nominal interest rates, inflation and tax revenue using time series dataset for Turkish Economy for the period 1980-2011. We estimate the Mankiw’s (1987) optimal seigniorage model for Turkish Economy with the cointegration and vector erro...

  12. The Interethnic and Interreligious Values in Turkish and Crimean Legends

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiia Zherdieva

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines interethnic and interreligious values in Turkish and Crimean folk legends. The folklore of both Crimea and Turkey has a multicultural background, which makes both corpuses of texts suitable for research. In the course of the study, a wide range of published Turkish and Crimean legends were reviewed and analysed. There are two deeply-rooted tendencies in the studied legends. First of all, the interethnic and interreligious relationships can be described as ghastly an...

  13. The Place of Digital Marketing on Turkish Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Serhat Karatum

    2017-01-01

    In the 21st century, technology develops rapidly and continuously and it affects every aspect of our lives. Marketing concept has been affected by these developments. What we want from marketing and reaching in an increasingly virtualized world is to be a lot faster than the past. Also, new marketing channels have emerged as well. Turkish small businesses, the building blocks of Turkish economy, have the chance of addressing the marketing problems and solving the problems with the digital mar...

  14. Conflict within the Turkish foreign policy decision making mechanism:

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz, Mustafa; Oguz, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of Turkish foreign policy decision making in a theoretical model and argues that Turkish foreign policy is a product of negotiation and compromises among various foreign policy making actors. Theoretical foundation is built on decision units framework advanced by Margaret G. Herman. It applies this framework to two cases and four decision occasions to investigate who made foreign policy decisions and how this influenced foreign policy of Turkey. The first case...

  15. Measuring Multi-Membership in Economic Integration and Its Trade Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; van Bergeijk, Peter A.G.

    2014-01-01

    impact in two major African regional blocs, Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) and Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). We find that the impact of multi-membership critically depends on the characteristics of the multi-membership of regional integration initiatives. We find...... a positive impact if an additional membership complements the integration process of the original regional integration initiative: overlapping memberships had a much stronger and significant positive effect on bilateral trade within ECOWAS compare with an insignificant impact within the SADC....

  16. EU focus on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Faced with the mounting evidence of the harmful effects of climate change, the European Union is convinced that the world must take urgent action to tackle the problem. That is why the EU has been at the forefront of international efforts to deal with climate change for well over a decade. The EU is convinced that the status quo is simply not an option. Without urgent, concerted action, the problem will continue to get worse with potentially disastrous consequences. That is why the European Union has consistently taken the lead in international moves to tackle climate change and why it will continue to develop this strategy for as long as it takes to guarantee a world for ourselves and our children where everyone can grow, breathe and live in safety

  17. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    to food, the right heat, the right to have a job"; we still live with this division today. There have been a number of attempts over the last 10-15 years, who have tried to work around these problems. One of them is a movement within the UN are trying to reinterpret what it means to have 'development...... point for reaction against the liberalization of the global economy. It is extremely interesting. Again this demonstrates the complexity of EU policy. Some Member States were quite supportive of the WTO, while others expected the ILO to take the lead. See, for example, the declaration on "Core Labour...... is this contradiction "free and fair trade" in the same sentence becomes, in an attempt both economically and politically to get it to make sense within the EU. Ian Manners is a professor and works at Roskilde University, the Institute for society and globalization. His research is globalization and Europeanisation...

  18. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  19. Ethnicity and Occupational Pension Membership in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reflecting a relatively low‐value Basic State Pension, occupational pensions have historically been a key aspect of pension protection within Britain. Existing research shows that minority ethnic groups are less likely to benefit from such pensions and are more likely to face poverty in later life, as a result of the interaction of their labour market participation and pension membership patterns. However, the lack of adequate data on ethnic minorities has so far prevented the direct comparison of different ethnic groups, as well as their comparison to the White British group. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, this article explores patterns of employment and the odds ratios of membership in an employer's pension scheme among working‐age individuals from minority ethnic groups and the White British population, taking into account factors not used by previous research, such as one's migration history and sector of employment (public/private). The analysis provides new empirical evidence confirming that ethnicity remains a strong determinant of one's pension protection prospects through being in paid work, being an employee and working for an employer who offers a pension scheme. However, once an individual is working for an employer offering a pension scheme, the effect of ethnicity on that person's odds of being a member of that scheme reduces, except among Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals for whom the differentials remain. The article also provides evidence on the pension protection of Polish individuals, a relatively ‘new’ minority group in the UK. PMID:27563161

  20. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimidis Steven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes

  1. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  2. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  3. An Analysis on Reading Texts in Teaching Turkish to Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem İŞCAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the four basic language skills, reading has a great importance in teaching Turkish to foreigners. It is required to develop reading skills to develop vocabulary. There have been some problems in teaching Turkish as second language. These problems are generally related to difference in alphabet, inadequacy of the sources used in teaching Turkish, methods and techniques used and the texts used. The basic sources used in teaching Turkish to foreigners are texts. This study aims at determination of the opinions of students in Gaziosmanpaşa University and Ondokuz Mayıs University Turkish Education and Application Center (TOMER concerning Turkish reading texts. General browsing method was used in the study. The questionnaire comprising of 24 items was applied to 25 students in beginner level and 7 students in advanced level. With this study, it is foreseen to arrange the texts being the key stone according to the wishes of and in compliance with the levels of students; giving importance to pre-reading, reading and post-reading activities and including questions with short-answer about the text as well as questions to develop high level skills.

  4. Comparison of arch forms between Turkish and North American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet A. Celebi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological differences in the mandibular arches of Turkish and North American white subjects. Methods: The sample included 132 Turkish (34 Class I, 58 Class II, and 40 Class III and 160 North American (60 Class I, 50 Class II, and 50 Class III subjects. The most facial portion of 13 proximal contact areas was digitized from photocopied images of patients' mandibular dental arches. Clinical bracket points were calculated for each tooth based on mandibular tooth thickness data. Four linear and two proportional measurements were taken. The subjects were grouped according to arch form types (tapered, ovoid and square in order to have frequency distribution compared between ethnic groups in each Angle classification. Results: The Turkish group showed significantly lower molar depth and more significant molar width-depth (W/D ratio in all three Angle classifications. On the other hand, the Turkish group also showed a significantly larger intercanine width in Class III malocclusion and intermolar width in Class II malocclusion. The most frequent arch forms seen were the ovoid arch form in the Turkish group and the tapered form in the white group. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that when treating Turkish patients, one should expect to use preformed ovoid arch form orthodontic wires in a significant percentage of patients.

  5. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2008-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  6. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2009-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  7. MARKET CONCENTRATION IN TURKISH JOURNALISM SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEM KALÇA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Concentration is a situation in which market structure of a sector is controlled by a few firms. At the present time, many analyzing methods such as Herfindahl-Hirschman and N-Firm Concentration Indexes are used to determine market structure.According to market concentration indexes, higher concentration level means more monopolistic market structure, lower concentration level means more full competitive market structure. In this study concentration levels of media groups in Turkish journalism sector within the scope of traditional journalism and internet journalism was analyzed via N-Firm Concentration and H-H Indexes. As a result of the study, it’s seen that first four biggest media groups have monopolistic competition in internet journalism sector,and oligopol structure in traditional journalism sector. According to H-H index analyze, there is monopolistic competition in the sector.

  8. EMOTION BASED ANALYSIS OF TURKISH CUSTOMER OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kahya-Ozyirmidokuz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Firms should manage their customer feedback so they can adapt to rapid changes in the environment. They have to interact with their customers to understand them and to turn their opinions into useful knowledge. Understanding customers' feelings about a product gives firmS competitive advantage through continuous market monitoring. They can thus generate improving strategies about the system to change perceptions that drive the behaviours of the customers. Firms can view their customers' happiness as a key tool for decision-making. This study calculates online product happiness by using the average emotional valence values of customer opinions. We analyse Turkish opinions about a product over a period of 3 months. We find the averages of the online emotional valence values of the product per month. We also determined the increase in happiness over time. According to the opinion valence values, we found the relations between the documents.

  9. Ethics in Turkish nursing education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgülü, Refia Selma; Dinç, Leyla

    2007-11-01

    This descriptive study investigated the current status of ethics instruction in Turkish nursing education programs. The sample for this study comprised 39 nursing schools, which represented 51% of all nursing schools in Turkey. Data were collected through a postal questionnaire. The results revealed that 18 of these nursing schools incorporated an ethics course into undergraduate and three into graduate level programs. Most of the educators focused on the basic concepts of ethics, deontological theory, ethical principles, ethical problems in health care, patient rights and codes of ethics for nurses. More than half of the educators believed that students' theoretical knowledge of ethics is applied to their clinical experiences. The teaching methods used included discussion in class, lectures, case studies, small group discussion, dramatization and demonstration. Assessment was carried out by means of written essays and written examinations.

  10. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS OFFERED IN TURKISH UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengül CETINTAS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available n this study, the departments of philology and teaching, which take place in higher education programs in Turkey and give education in foreign language, have been examined. 23 different languages are offered to philology students who wants to attend to faculty of literature. Students can prefer classical languages besides modern languages. However, English, German, French, Arabic and Japanese are offered to the students of teaching department. To teach another foreign language, pedagogical formation is also required.This study focuses on the departments of German Language Teaching and German Language and Literature. From this point, the place and the importance of other philology and foreign language teaching departments in Turkish higher education have been examined.

  11. Workplace violence: a study of Turkish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Serpil; Bozkurt, Veysel; Bayram, Nuran; Yildiz, Selver; Aytac, Mustafa; Akinci, Fusun Sokullu; Bilgel, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to address the experience of workplace violence of Turkish workers from different sectors and to investigate the impact of the exposed violence on their psychological well-being. Data were collected anonymously with printed questionnaires from the volunteer participants and depended on self-reporting. The response rate was 79.0% (1708/2161). The prevalence of workplace violence was found to be 44.8%. The most common type was verbal violence together with mobbing (bullying). Victims of physical violence were mostly males, whereas females were found to be victims of verbal, psychological and sexual violence. Most cases did not result in legal action and the victims remained silent. Psychological well-being of exposed workers in terms of depression, anxiety and stress seemed to deteriorate. Workplace violence remains a silent epidemic in Turkey. Preventive measures against workplace violence and social support for violated workers do not exist.

  12. Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2007-01-01

    Using the COPERT III program, an inventory of Turkish road transport emissions was calculated and the contributions of road transport to global and local air pollutant emissions were examined for the year 2004. It was observed that passenger cars are the main source of CO, HC, and Pb emissions while heavy duty vehicles are mainly responsible for NO x , particulate matter (PM), and SO 2 emissions. Taking the emissions for the year 2004 as the baseline, a parametric study was conducted to determine the emission reduction potentials of different road transport strategies. The results indicated that the following road transport strategies; fleet renewal, promotion of public transportation, and faster urban traffic speed are very effective strategies for reducing regulated emissions and fuel consumption (FC) from a technical point of view. It was also noted that replacement of two-stroke motorcycles with four-stroke motorcycles is as effective as fleet renewal in reducing HC emissions

  13. News impact for Turkish food prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Chadwick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric volatility is a widely encountered concept particularly in financial series. It refers to the case that “bad news” generates more volatility than “good news” of equal magnitude. In an inflationary environment “bad news” is disclosed as increasing inflation that is expected to generate higher volatility. The present article examines whether unexpected price changes affect the volatility of prices asymmetrically for 90 retail food items of the Turkish consumer price index. These 90 food items have a weight of approximately 20 percent in headline consumer price index (CPI. We employ exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (EGARCH model to extract asymmetric volatility, using monthly data between January 2003 and January 2017. Our results reveal that volatility of food prices respond asymmetrically to unexpected price shocks for 62 percent of the retail food items.

  14. The significance of music in teaching Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyzan Göher Vural

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The whole history of teaching foreign languages is, in a way, a search for the best methodologies of doing so. Methods of teaching can be seen as systems providing the optimal ways of getting basic knowledge of a foreign language for students. The existing wide variety of methods suggests the choice of those most efficient for particular individuals. Each of the methodologies used relies on a number of theoretical underpinnings. This article advances proposals on using music in teaching Turkish as a foreign language, based on the principles of suggestopedia — the psychology of positive teaching developed by G. Lozanov. It is claimed that suggestopedia helps students learn a foreign language 3 to 5 times faster than those who rely on traditional methods of study. Suggestopedia makes colloquial dialogues in a foreign language be pronounced and/or listened to in the same way as music, and music is used as a facilitating and motivating factor, without lyrics. However, teaching based on suggestopedia alone will not suffice, since in the classical form it is limited by adult audiences and small ones to boot. Other peculiarities of students and groups also have to be accounted for, such as their linguistic background: if their first language is a Turkic one, they can be expected to learn Turkish faster, since they are already familiar with the melodic mode of the language. It can nevertheless be postulated that the use of songs in language learning helps develop such skills as vocabulary, rules of grammar and correct pronunciation. Songs facilitate teaching new words, grammatical rules, learning direction, layout, numbers and demonstrative adjectives. This is both useful and interesting for all categories of learners, children as well as adults.

  15. Current Status of the MOOC Movement in the World and Reaction of the Turkish Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan Aydin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript intends to elaborate the current status of MOOC movement in the world and to reveal the results of a survey study in which the Turkish higher education institutions’ reactions to this movement was investigated. The survey was actually a part of a larger survey study that, as a deliverable of the EU funded HOME project, was conducted to contribute to the literature by providing an insight about European perspectives on MOOCs, to gain a better understanding of the strategic reasons why a higher education institution is or isn’t involved in MOOCs, and to compare these reasons with the results of similar studies in U.S. After a brief background and history of MOOC movement, following sections of the manuscript present the details (methodology and results of the survey study on the Turkish HE institutions’ strategies regarding adaptation of MOOCs. The final part of the manuscript consists of discussions and conclusions drawn in the light of the results of the study.

  16. CROATIAN WINE SECTOR IN THE LIGHT OF THE EU ACCESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Čačić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The accession process of The Republic of Croatia towards the membership in the European Union demands preparation and adjustment of the whole economy including agriculture. Wine sector, as one of the most complex agriculture sectors regarding European legislation framework, is finding itself on the point of rapid changes. The wine producers as well as the state have to adjust themselves to the new rules and to the new legal framework. The paper has analysed the current situation in the Croatian wine sector, explored the need for establishment of an institution that could help producers in wine marketing as well as the role of the government. According to the survey 73.6% wine producers sell their wine exclusively on the domestic market and 26.4% producers sell it on both domestic and international market. The results have indicated that 53.6% of the producers expect wine sale difficulties after Croatia enters the EU. According to the producers’ opinion the government should establish the institution that could help producers in marketing and consulting activities.

  17. Subsidies in Croatian agriculture and adjustment to the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Franić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After the Croatian independence and re-adoption of the free trade principles, in political debates agriculture got the role of one of the basic pillar in economic development. There is intention to protect domestic agriculture against much more developed western European agriculture and to support its competitiveness, respecting at the same time the requirements of the international trade agreements asking for decreasing domestic protection. The reform of agricultural price policy started in 1988, due to the trade policy reform within the requirements imposed by the membership in the World Trade Organization. Recent changes from 2003 tend to simplify the system of agricultural support and to equalize the level of incentives. Together with existing production subsidies, new models of income support, capital investments and rural development are introduced. The reform predicts harmonization of domestic agricultural policy measures with those conducted or should be conducted in the EU. It means the shift from the old way of supporting European agricultural markets, toward incentives for European farmer, in the way that in total support prevails income, and not production support.

  18. Dignity, Health, and Membership: Who Counts as One of Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Bryan C.

    2016-01-01

    This essay serves as an introduction to this issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy. The five articles in this issue address a range of topics from the human embryo and substantial change to conceptions of disability. They engage claims of moral status, defense of our humanity, and argue for an accurate and just classification of persons of different communities within a healthcare system. I argue in this essay that though their concerns are diverse, the authors in this issue help to answer a common question: “Who counts as one of us?” Reading these articles through the lens of membership and the themes of dignity illustrates this commonality and bears fruit for further reflection on many of the challenging issues addressed in the subsequent papers. PMID:26868673

  19. Type-2 fuzzy elliptic membership functions for modeling uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayacan, Erdal; Sarabakha, Andriy; Coupland, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Whereas type-1 and type-2 membership functions (MFs) are the core of any fuzzy logic system, there are no performance criteria available to evaluate the goodness or correctness of the fuzzy MFs. In this paper, we make extensive analysis in terms of the capability of type-2 elliptic fuzzy MFs...... in modeling uncertainty. Having decoupled parameters for its support and width, elliptic MFs are unique amongst existing type-2 fuzzy MFs. In this investigation, the uncertainty distribution along the elliptic MF support is studied, and a detailed analysis is given to compare and contrast its performance...... advantages mentioned above, elliptic MFs have comparable prediction results when compared to Gaussian and triangular MFs. Finally, in order to test the performance of fuzzy logic controller with elliptic interval type-2 MFs, extensive real-time experiments are conducted for the 3D trajectory tracking problem...

  20. The total neutron cross-sections of 151Eu, 153Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1980-12-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV-1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(α)( 151 Eu) = 9180+-150 b at 0.0253 eV; sigmasub(α)( 153 Eu) = 375+-20 b at 0.0253 eV; sigmasub(α)(Eu) = 4600+-120 b at 0.0253 eV

  1. 77 FR 30993 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Notice of Solicitation for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    .... R.J. Cabrera, Writing, Editing, and Regulatory Coordination, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 35... within or outside its membership. Nomination forms are available on the Internet at http://www.ocio.usda... taken into account the needs of the diverse groups served by the Department, membership should include...

  2. 77 FR 42257 - General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Solicitation for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...] General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan; Solicitation for Membership AGENCY... regional membership for the General Conference Committee of the National Poultry Improvement Plan. DATES... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. C. Stephen Roney, Senior Coordinator, National Poultry Improvement Plan, VS, APHIS...

  3. 75 FR 15704 - Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v. Virginia Electric and... the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e) and 825(e), Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation (Complainants) filed a formal complaint against Virginia Electric...

  4. 11 CFR 100.134 - Internal communications by corporations, labor organizations, and membership organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be voted, if it is voting stock, and has the right to receive dividends. (d) Definition of...: affirmation of membership on at least an annual basis and direct participatory rights in the governance of the... aspects of the organization's governance. (g) Additional considerations in determining membership...

  5. Staff Association membership is free of charge for the rest of 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Staff Association membership is free of charge for the rest of 2017 Starting from September 1st, membership of the Staff Association is free for all new members for the period up to the end of 2017. This is to allow you to participate in the Staff Council elections, by voting and electing your representatives. Do not hesitate any longer; join now!

  6. I want to join the zoo! A conjoint study of membership program preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Klenosky; Chi-Ok Oh; Christopher C. Panek; Jerry F. Luebke

    2009-01-01

    Membership programs are an important and often vital element for the success and economic sustainability of leisure and tourism visitor attractions. Unfortunately, very little research is available to guide membership program development and promotion efforts. To address this gap in the research literature, a research project assessed member and nonmember preferences...

  7. Analysing "Migrant" Membership Frames through Education Policy Discourse: An Example of Restrictive "Integration" Policy within Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Shaik, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes combining discourse theory and perspectives on political membership developments in Western European societies. It combines theories and examples of policy discourses about "migrant integration" in the Swiss national context in the sphere of education. This examination aims to deconstruct specific membership framing…

  8. 78 FR 9629 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 948 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-12-0044; FV12-948-2 PR] Irish Potatoes Grown in Colorado; Reestablishment of Membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 AGENCY: Agricultural... membership on the Colorado Potato Administrative Committee, Area No. 2 (Committee). The Committee locally...

  9. NEGATIVE CURRENCY-RISK-EXPOSURE FOR TURKISH EQUITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore J. Terregrossa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency-risk-exposure is an issue for Turkish equities, from two different angles: internationaltrade and foreign-portfolio-investment. The likely effect is positive for the former, and negative for the latter aspect. Consequently, the overall or net effect on equity value depends on which of these aspects of currency-risk-exposure has the greater impact. The present empirical analysis estimates currency risk of Turkish equities within a multi-factor regression setting, utilizing the framework of the Security Market Plane (SMP model. The SMP model embodies a conditional relation among three variables: beta, realized excess market-return, and expected excess portfolio-return. The SMP empirical framework is extended to include a currency-risk-factor in the present analysis. The currency-risk-factor is specified as the excess return to holding foreign currency (€; $, relative to holding domestic currency (Turkish Lira. The SMP-related factor is the cross-product term of beta and realized excess market-return (β it rMt . A regression of realized excess portfolio-returns against the corresponding currency-risk-factor and cross product-term (β it rMt finds that the Turkish stocks represented in the analysis generally have overall negative currency-risk-exposure; suggesting that unexpected currency depreciation generally leads to lower values for Turkish stocks (and portfolios of Turkish stocks. Thus, after accounting for the SMP-related interaction-effect between beta and realized excess marketreturn, currency risk is found to command a premium for the Turkish stocks represented in the analysis.

  10. Group membership and social identity in addiction recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Sarah A; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P

    2013-12-01

    Despite a growing interest in how group membership can positively impact health, little research has addressed directly the role social identity processes can have on recovery from addiction. Drawing on social identity theory and self-categorization theory, the present study investigated how recovery group membership can introduce a new social identity associated with recovery, compared to the social identity associated with addiction. We hypothesized that two processes--evaluative differentiation and identity preference--would be linked with higher self-efficacy and positive health outcomes (i.e., reduced relapse, lower levels of appetitive behavior, and elevated feelings of social connectedness [Study 2]). Study 1 recruited members (N = 61) from United Kingdom based mutual aid groups of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Study 2 recruited ex-smokers (N = 81) from online sources. In Study 1, evaluative differentiation was significantly related to lowered relapse and reduced appetitive behavior. Identity preference was related to higher levels of self-efficacy, which was related to months drug-free and reduced levels of appetitive behaviors. In Study 2, evaluative differentiation was related to identity preference. Identity preference was also related to higher self-efficacy, which in turn was related to lower relapse. Although exploratory, these results suggest that developing a social identity as a "recovering addict" or an "ex-smoker" and subsequently highlighting the difference between such identities may be a useful strategy for reducing relapse among people with problems associated with addictive behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. 151Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu3Pd20Ge6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, S.; Yoda, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Higashitaniguchi, S.; Seto, M.; Kitagawa, J.; Takabatake, T.

    2010-01-01

    151 Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 . The Eu partial phonon density of states (DOS) in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 are investigated using 151 Eu nuclear resonance inelastic scattering (NRIS). 151 Eu NRIS was carried out at BL09XU of SPring-8. Significant temperature dependence was found in the partial phonon DOS. Judging from the valence change at the Eu 4a site and the comparison with the ab initio calculation of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 , the change of the Eu DOS is caused by the electronic states. On the other hand, significant acoustic contribution was found even at the guest site of the Eu ones. In addition, slower average velocity than transverse sound velocity was obtained by Eu partial phonon DOS. Considering that heat is carried by the acoustic phonon in materials, the present results demonstrate that the moderate thermal insulation in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 is connected with the observation of slow average sound velocity at the Eu sites. (K.F.)

  12. New Member States of the EU and EMU – Convergence and the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kersan-Škabić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the Optimum Currency Area (OCA clearly accentuates the need for common economic characteristics among states if it is to work well. This paper analyses the extent to which the New Member States of the European Union (NMS satisfy the criteria of nominal and real convergence. Four of these Member States have introduced the Euro, whereas the rest are at different stages of becoming part of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. A financial crisis of global proportions implies a number of economic problems in all of the Member States of the EU, especially in the NMS where the new issues have added up to the already grave consequences of the transition period. What is needed is more unity and co-operation within the EU as well as significant financial aid from the IMF and the EU to the New Member States in order to sustain stability in the crisis period. The crisis has again raised the issue of introducing the Euro since membership of the EMU would buffer the effects of the financial crisis provided that the business cycles of the Member States were synchronized. Otherwise an independent monetary policy represents a key instrument in the liquidity regulation of the economy.

  13. Electronic Structure of Eu6C60

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Xiong; LI Hong-Nian; XU Ya-Bo; WANG Peng; ZHANG Wen-Hua; XU Fa-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We study the valence band of Eu-intercalated C60 by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy to un-derstand the ferromagnetism (FM) and the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of Eu6C60. The results reveal the semiconducting property and the remarkable 5d6s-π hybridization. Eu-C60 bonding has both ionic and covalent contributions. No more than half the 5d6s electrons transfer from Eu to the LUMO derived band of C60, and the LUMO+1 derived band is not filled. The remaining valence electrons of Eu, together with some π (LUMO, HOMO and HOMO-1) electrons, constitute the covalent bond. The electronic structure implies that the magnetic coupling in Eu6C60 should be through the intra-atomic f-sd exchange and the medium of the π electrons. The possibility of the GMR being tunnelling magnetoresistance is ruled out.

  14. Teacher Opinions on the Implementation of Values Education in Teaching Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Abdulkadir

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the realization levels of values education implementations in teaching Turkish by taking the opinions of Turkish teachers. The sample of this study conducted in the survey model comprises 108 Turkish teachers employed at different secondary schools in Erzurum, Bayburt, Gümüshane and Trabzon in the Spring…

  15. Wage Implications at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity necessarily involves active work as a determinant factor of production and beneficiary of its results. In the market economy, labor services are provided to production, as with the other factors of production, through market transactions. This article aims labor factor, the role and characteristics of labor as a production factor and the employment in the EU. As a secondary market, labor market is influenced by other markets and generates, in turn, effects that are found in all other structures of the market economy system

  16. Reducing Prejudice With Labels: Shared Group Memberships Attenuate Implicit Bias and Expand Implicit Group Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, W Anthony; Mackie, Diane M; Allen, Thomas J; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2016-02-01

    In three experiments, we used a novel Implicit Association Test procedure to investigate the impact of group memberships on implicit bias and implicit group boundaries. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that categorizing targets using a shared category reduced implicit bias by increasing the extent to which positivity was associated with Blacks. Results from Experiment 2 revealed that shared group membership, but not mere positivity of a group membership, was necessary to reduce implicit bias. Quadruple process model analyses indicated that changes in implicit bias caused by shared group membership are due to changes in the way that targets are evaluated, not to changes in the regulation of evaluative bias. Results from Experiment 3 showed that categorizing Black targets into shared group memberships expanded implicit group boundaries. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. AN OVERVIEW OF THE GENERAL EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN FOREIGN TRADE AFTER 1989, WHILE TRYING TO JOIN THE EU (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIURGIU Adriana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Those 17 years (since 1990 until the accession date to the EU of institutional and economic-social reforms which, with all the good and bad things, brought Romania to the European Union starting with 1 January 2007, and should make us now be able to emphasise a few elements connected to the Romanian foreign trade. Thus, we consider that the present paper is of a significant importance for the specialists in the foreign trade problems, as well as for the Romanian and all other EU economic operators because we will try to realise a “radiography” of all the general aspects and tendencies of the Romanian External Trade during the years 1990-2006, and their effects upon the Romania’s current and future membership to the European Union, as part of the Common Trade Policy, by presenting some relevant indicators, such as: the volume of foreign trade, volume of exports and imports, GDP growth etc.

  18. THE THEORETICAL CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK WITH REFERENCE TO THE ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS IN THE PROCESS OF ACCESSION TO THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia FEURAS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary competitive factors of a country is the state of institutions. EU membership requires substantial changes in the content and structure of the institutional framework of the acceding countries, which could generate progress or regress in their development if the existing institutions and the transferred ones are incompatible. In this article the author has undertaken the task to examine, theoretically and conceptually, the process of institutional change in terms of three concepts: Europeanization, institutional transfer and path dependence. There have been analysed the forms, tools, methods and costs of institutional transfer and possible institutional failures. This research has come to the conclusion that in the situation of the Republic of Moldova, the partial modification of institutions is mainly determined by the desire of the veto players to survive and not by the consistent abidance of the accession process to the EU.

  19. Economic situation of rural farms in conditions of the EU CAP - an attempt of the forecast till 2013 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walenty Poczta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland’s membership in the EU gives rural farms chances to improve their economic situation. Direct payments and other instruments of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP are the main factors determining the economical status of rural farms. Growth of gross margin, as well as agricultural revenues are the results of the EU support for the rural farms. However, strong differentiation of the economic situation of the rural farms according to their size and specialisation in production is noticed. As a result, there are still rural farms, in which economic situation has not change, and revenues of the agricultural population are not sufficient to assure them life standard on a par with the parity consumption fund.

  20. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  1. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  2. Understanding the DNA of EU's GDPR

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Team, IndraStra Global

    2018-01-01

    On May 25, 2018, a new data protection regulation touted as General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Regulation (European Union - EU) 2016/689, will come into force in the European Union (EU) and its 28 Member States. It will replace the 1995 EU Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. The GDPR will have a significant impact in protecting the data and digital footprint of users of apps and another digital platform. It will provide significant new data privacy protections for individuals res...

  3. EU Energy Law. Volume 4. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbeke, J.; Hartridge, O.; Lefevere, J.; Meadows, D.; Runge-Metzger, A.; Slingenberg, Y.; Vainio, M.; Vis, P.; Zapfel, P.

    2006-06-01

    Gives valuable insights in the why's, how's, trade-offs, and critical design choices of the Emission Trading System of the European Union (EU ETS). The chapters deal with (1) The EU ETS: the result of a decade of policy action on the economic dimension of EU environmental policy; (2) The international climate policy developments of the 1990s: UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol, the Marrakech Agreements and the EU's Kyoto ratification decision; (3) Emissions trading: What is it? Design options and misconceptions; (4) The EU ETS Directive 2003/87/EEC explained; (5) The EU ETS Linking Directive explained; (6) The economic efficiency benefits of the EU ETS; (7) The NAP I experience; (8) The key importance of the Registry Regulation and of solid monitoring and verification; and (9) The potential role of the EU ETS for the elaboration of the post-2012 international climate regime. Conclusions are in chapter 10

  4. Den brede, folkelige debat om EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2005-01-01

    I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet.......I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet....

  5. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The engagement of JRC IPTS in the GTAP contributing team to the EU domestic support has opened up the opportunity to use the CATS database when compiling EU domestic support payments by member state, which are subsequently calibrated into the GTAP database. To maintain consistency, the GTAP version...... 9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...

  6. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  7. Renewable energies in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    On January 23, 2008, the European Commission presented proposals in the form of a directive in an effort to give more specific shape to the objective adopted in the spring, i.e. to increase to 20% by 2020 the share of renewable energies in energy consumption in the Community. The proposal was to include legally binding goals for the overall share of renewable energy sources and the share of biofuels in the transport sector. The proposed directive on 'promoting the use of energy from renewable sources' calls upon each member state to ensure that its share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption in 2020 at least corresponds to the target mentioned in Annex I Part A. In addition to the targets, the EU Commission charted a tentative course towards a minimum increase in the share of renewable energies in the period between 2011 and 2020. Finally, the member states are obliged to adopt national action plans. Unfortunately, the EU is missing an important target in its proposed directive: It should establish a framework for harmonized conditions promoting the use of renewable energies. One aspect to be welcomed is the introduction of a system of certificates of origin. It represents the entry, in principle, into a trading system with certificates of origin. The Green Package incorporates a wealth of new approaches. They will have to be tested and, if necessary, supplemented. Something else is evident, however: The directive established the foundations of a vast number of new regulations and red tape. (orig.)

  8. Financial Policies of Turkish Industrial Companies during the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Gokce Adas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Latest global financial crisis that shrank the credit market affected the companies’ financial policies since the credit contraction led the firms to rely more on their own resources rather than external financing. The expectation during such crises is more equity issues along with less borrowing. In economic literature there are some evidence supporting this fact for developed countries. As an emerging country Turkey’s case is different than that of advanced countries. The era commenced with Lehman turmoil by passed Turkish economy in the first years due to the solid, strong and healthy banking sector due to the measurements taken after 2001 banking crisis of Turkey. Therefore, international lenders did not hesitate directing their funds to Turkish banks. As a result, Turkish companies did not suffer in financing their investments through bank loans. Moreover, the growth policy of Turkey based on current account deficit supported Turkish economy and in turn the firms due to the abundance of liquidity after the peak of the crisis. In this work we examined 164 industrial firms that are traded on Borsa Istanbul to see if there happened to be a shift in their financing preferences during the recent global crisis. We found that the importance of borrowing had not decreased and that contradicts the expectations. As of equity issues, before and after 2009 no radical change has been observed. In 2009 where the crisis hit worst Turkish economy leading a 4.7% GDP decrease, the equity issues were doubled.

  9. Reliability and validity of the Incontinence Quiz-Turkish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Kerime C; Çıtak Karakaya, İlkim; Tunalı, Nur; Karakaya, Mehmet G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Incontinence Quiz, which was developed by Branch et al. (1994), to assess women's knowledge of and attitudes toward urinary incontinence. Comprehensibility of the Turkish version of the 14-item Incontinence Quiz, which was prepared following translation-back translation procedures, was tested on a pilot group of eight women, and its internal reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were assessed in 150 women who attended the gynecology clinics of three hospitals in İçel, Turkey. Physical and sociodemographic characteristics and presence of incontinence complaints were also recorded. Data were analyzed at the 0.05 alpha level, using SPSS version 22. The scale had good reliability and validity. The internal reliability coefficient (Cronbach α) was 0.80, test-retest correlation coefficients were 0.83-0.94; and with regard to construct validity, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient was 0.76 and Barlett sphericity test was 562.777 (P = 0.000). Turkish version of the Incontinence Quiz had a four-factor structure, with Eigenvalues ranging from 1.17 to 4.08. The Incontinence Quiz-Turkish version is a highly comprehensible, reliable and valid scale, which may be used to assess Turkish-speaking women's knowledge of and attitudes toward urinary incontinence. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. A Turkish study of medical student learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaca, S; Gulpinar, M

    2011-12-01

    A good understanding of the learning styles of students is necessary for optimizing the quality of the learning process. There are few studies in Turkey on the subject of the learning characteristics of medical students. The aim of this study was to define the learning patterns of Turkish medical students based on the Turkish version of Vermunts Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS). The Turkish version of the ILS was developed and administered to 532 medical students. Learning patterns were investigated using factor analysis. Internal consistencies of scales ranged from 0.43 to 0.80. The Turkish version of the ILS identified four learning styles among medical students. In comparing the pre-clinical and clinical phases of medical students related to mental models of learning, statistically significant differences (p learning characteristics: lack of regulation; certificate; self-test and ambivalent orientation; intake of knowledge; and use of knowledge. The Turkish version of the ILS can be used to identify learning styles of medical students. Our findings indicate an intermediate position for our students on a teacher-regulated to student-regulated learning continuum. A variety of teaching methods and learning activities should be provided in medical schools in order to address the range of learning styles.

  11. Serbs in education during the Turkish government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlić-Božović Jasna Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present opportunities cultural educational social policy and the Serbian people during the Turkish government. The intention is also to investigate the extent and level of education - literacy through the process of learning, reading, writing and acquiring new knowledge. The paper will also be discussed and the impact of other counters and their schools (Russia, Germany, Greece on the entire educational system in Serbia in the Serbian education period. Legal regulation and development of spiritual awareness and desire for literacy, will also find its place in this paper. Based on all the foregoing, it follows that the literacy during the Ottoman rule was very limited, and that the small number and percentage of population of certain social groups (nobility, clergy. There fore education was meager and insignificant, that and that, as concept, was reduced to literacy. Also, the church was the meeting place of all those who strove for literacy, and together with the monasteries of the first and only school in which they were taught reading and writing. During the First Serbian Uprising, except churches, the need for some kind of education begins to have, and government or authority which forms a first and basic institution of society. Looking at the wider development of literacy in Serbia can be concluded that education had its ups and downs, which are periodically changed depending on the social and political conditionally. Thus, at the close of the Middle Ages to the territorial possession of Despot Stefan Lazarevic (1389-1427 and its owner George Brankovic (1427-1456, with constant theats to the Turkish conquest occurred one interesting moment. Thjere is still an independent country, and despite the double vassalage to Turkey and Hungary, has seen a tumultuous economy and education rise, which was also the basis for the rise of Serbia culture. In the Serbian despots then we come to real cult of art and education, as earlier

  12. Measuring multi-membership in economic integration and its trade-impact. A comparative study of ECOWAS and SADC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; van Bergeijk, Peter A.G.

    in two major African Regional blocs, ECOWAS and SADC. We find that the impact of multi-membership critically depends on the characteristics of the multi-membership of regional integration initiatives. We find a positive impact if an additional membership complements the integration process...... of the original regional integration initiative: overlapping memberships had a much stronger and significant positive effect on bilateral trade within ECOWAS compare to an insignificant impact within SADC....

  13. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  14. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  15. Eestimaa.eu kuulub lätlasele ja riik.eu hollandlasele / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Zone Medias eu domeeninimesid registreeriva Jaanus Puttingu hinnangul on Eesti riik olnud passiivne EL-i domeeninime .eu sisaldavate lehekülgede kaitsmisel, sajad Eestile olulised domeeninimed on juba nii siinsete kui ka piiritaguste inimeste käes. Lisa: Rahvaliit.eu kuulub kinnisvaraportaalile

  16. Energy transfer between the Eu2+ dipole and aggregate centers in CsBr:Eu crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Turchak, R.; Voznjak, T.

    2007-01-01

    The energy transfer between the Eu 2+ -V Cs dipole centers and presumable CsEuBr 3 aggregate centers has been studied in CsBr:Eu crystals by means of investigation of their time-resolved emission spectra and luminescence decay kinetics at 300 K

  17. The 'primacy' and 'direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    The rules on invoking EU norms before the Court of Justice and Member State courts are at the core of EU constitutional law. International agreements binding on the EU form an integral part of EU law and have primacy over inconsistent secondary EU legislation. Moreover, they also have primacy over...

  18. Penetration strategies of Turkish corporations in Kosovo’s market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan VARDARI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments and increasing competition in recent years have prevented companies from producing and selling only in domestic markets, but also causing their foreign resources and investments to be directed to foreign markets. In this case, once businesses decide to join a particular market, they have to decide which is the best way to penetrate there. Turkish multinational corporations, which have been spreading all over the world with their investments, have conquered world markets with their exports, initiatives and acquisitions, they have entered in foreign markets in various forms and have a significant share in world trade volume with their successful investments. From this point of view, this study examines the strategies by which Turkish multinationals enter foreign markets especially in Kosovo and the impact that those companies have had in the development of the Kosovo economy and the strategies by which Turkish multinationals enter foreign markets.

  19. The Dictionary of Authors and Poets in Turkish Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Akkılık

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author of this work, Hikmet Altınkaynak, is a graduate of İstanbul University's Faculty of Letters. He is a critic of contemporary literary history as well as the social trends that comprise it. He has hosted literary discussion programs on television and radio, and has worked as a journalist and as a journal editor, manager, writer, and publisher. Altınkaynak's work has been included in numerous journals and course texts.  He is currently an Instructor of Turkish language at Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul. His project, "The Dictionary of Authors and Poets in Turkish Literature" is much more than a simple dictionary.  It can be considered an encyclopedia, guidebook, or a general source of information.  Regardless of what one calls it, this work is an unequaled treasure of thirteen centuries of Turkish literary history, and includes entries on approximately 1400 poets and writers.

  20. Turkish EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of English as a Lingua Franca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görsev İnceçay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the perceptions of; (1 Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language teachers about ELF, (2 Turkish EFL teachers and teacher educators about the role of ELF on language teacher education. Data came from a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. A hundred Turkish EFL teachers working at two universities in Istanbul responded to the questionnaire. Ten randomly selected EFL teachers and 10 teacher educators working in language teacher education departments of two universities were interviewed to elicit their views about the role of ELF in language teacher education. Findings of the study revealed a number of important results and implications for the field

  1. Cognitive testing in non-demented Turkish immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T. Rune; Vogel, Asmus M.; Gade, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Nielsen, T. R. Vogel, A., Gade, A. & Waldemar, G. (2012). Cognitive testing in healthy Turkish immigrants - comparison of the RUDAS and the MMSE. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 53, 455-460. Methods for culturally and linguistically appropriate cognitive testing of elderly minority populations...... are lacking in Europe. The aim of this study was to compare performance on the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in Turkish immigrants in Denmark and determine the impact of demographic and health-related variables on test performance. A sample...... of non-demented community-dwelling Turkish immigrants was recruited from the greater Copenhagen area. All participants completed a structured interview regarding demographic, physical and mental health status, as well as measures of depression and acculturation, and cognitive testing with the RUDAS...

  2. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2007-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

  3. Teacher Autonomy Perceptions of Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim KHEZERLOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.

  4. Psychological problems of Turkish migrants in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, P T

    1981-04-01

    The path of adjustment for Turkish migrants--young and old, male and female--to a highly industralized Western society is a difficult one fraught with parlous conditions over which they have little control, largely because of Germany attitudes toward and treatment of Gastarbeiter in general and Turks in particular. Holding other variables constant, the psychological problems discerned as unique to Turkish Gastarbeiter are on the rise. These problems are of such a dimension that they clearly show the urgent need for Germans, the German government and its agencies, the Turkish government, and mental health professionals to come to grips with the existing situation. A program should be devised that (1) prepares the Turks for their new life before emigration; (2) educate the host country to lessen prejudice and heighten appreciation of the alien culture.

  5. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  6. The Historical Development of the Turkish Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray GÖÇ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to give information about historical development of Turkish intelligence especially from last periods of ottoman to nowadays. It has studied the effects on services in stage of history and has given information about roles played by them in forming of today’s community structure. This study contains information about a-thousand-year effect of a sequence began by secret service of ottoman and continued by union and progress, MAH (national labor service, JİTEM (gendarmes intelligence and anti terror unit, ÖHD (special operations department and MİT (national intelligence service over Anatolia lands, besides some resources such as book, magazine and article, in this study, there is an interview of Mehmet ELKATMIŞ who is the president of Susurluk commission of investigation and has several studies on this subject, of Şamil Tayyar who is the deputy of justice and development party (Ak Party and of journalist Nasuhi Güngür on this subject. The study examines. On the other hand, the problem that intelligence services give maneuver stepping out of line of law to the state. Could the state try to adopt illegality as a principle on behalf of its continuity by means of intelligence services, could it be possible? Or, could intelligence services perform unconventional behaviors occasionally by saying “in the name of the state”? These questions have been examined.

  7. Milk-based traditional Turkish desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Ozcan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional foods are the reflection of cultural inheritance and affect the lifestyle habits. Culture can be viewed as a system of socially transmitted patterns of behaviour that characterises a particular group. Despite the fact of globalisation, these are key elements to accurately estimate a population’s dietary patterns and how these have been shaped through time. In Turkey, a meal with family or friends traditionally ends with a dessert, which is a testimony to the hosts’ hospitality or to the housewife’s love and affection for her husband and children, since sweets and desserts are important elements of Turkish cuisine. However, the consciousnesses of nutrition and healthy eating, due to rapid change in popular life style and dietary patterns, has contributed to the increased interest in traditional foods with potential health benefits, with increased uncertainty for dessert consumption. Dairy desserts are extensively consumed due to their nutritive and sensoric characteristics. Some of traditional dairy desserts are Mustafakemalpasa, Gullac, Kazandibi, Hosmerim and Tavukgogsu, which are mainly made from milk or fresh cheese, and the current paper discusses their manufacturing processes and composition.

  8. Turkish nuclear program: a frustrated ambition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognet, G.

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has launched an ambitious program for the construction of 3 plants involving a total of 12 reactors. Only the Akkuyu and the Sinop projects have been materialized by 2 international agreements. The Akkuyu project will benefit from Russian technology and financing while the Sinop project will rely on a Franco-Japanese technology: the ATMEA reactor. In the eighties there were previous projects on the same sites but they failed due to the lack of financing. Today's economic policy of the Turkish government relies on the construction of big infrastructures in the sectors of transport, defense and energy and nuclear plants are an integral part of it. Turkey's nuclear programme faces various challenges of different types: the seismic risk is very high, the regulation body is consistent for research reactors but not for power plants, there is a lack of trained people in nuclear sciences and engineering, contracts stipulate that local company should be involved in the construction but the industrial sector lacks enterprises that have been certified for working in the nuclear sector, nuclear controversy is emerging in Turkey and diplomatic difficulties with Russia concerning Syria conflict jeopardizes the project. (A.C.)

  9. Turkish version of the Academic Motivation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Gürhan

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the college version of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) into Turkish. The participants were 797 college students (437 men, 360 women) with a mean age of 20.1 yr. A seven-factor model of the scale, as well as alternative models (five-, three-, two-, and one-factor models) were investigated and compared through confirmatory factor analysis. The seven-factor model demonstrated adequate fit to the data. The fit indices obtained from the five-factor model were acceptable also. Hancock's coefficient H values and test-retest correlation coefficients of the subscales indicated that reliability of the scale was adequate except for the identified regulation subscale. The CFA conducted for the groups of men and women produced more acceptable fit indices values for men than women, but women obtained significantly higher scores from the AMS subscales. Correlations among the seven subscales partially supported the simplex pattern which claims that the neighboring subscales should have stronger positive correlations than the non-neighboring subscales and that the subscales which are the farthest apart should have the strongest negative relationships.

  10. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) o...

  11. Principles and Practices of EU External Representation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    With this working paper, CLEER aims to offer a better insight into selected legal aspects concerning the European Union’s redefined diplomatic persona. In particular, the working paper will address issues pertaining to the Lisbon Treaty’s organising principles of EU external action, both under EU

  12. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...

  13. EU criminal law and fundamental rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul; Mitsilegas, V.; Bergström, M.; Konstadinides, Th.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter first offers a background analysis to EU fundamental rights law, recalling the historical affirmation of the protection of fundamental rights as a EU concern, and the important innovation brought about by the Lisbon Treaty (section 2) and the multiplicity of actors involved in the system

  14. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstås...

  15. News and campaign dynamics in EU 27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.; Schuck, A.; Maier, M.; Stengel, K.; Haubold, V.; Süß, K.; Tenscher, J.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation provides an introduction to the media content analysis of the European election campaign conducted in the 27 EU member states in the 3 weeks leading up to the June 2009 elections. The analysis is an integral part of the PIREDEU project (www.piredeu.eu): Providing an Infrastructure

  16. EU Studies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garski, Salla; Jørgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In this brief chapter we take stock of Danish and Swedish scholarship on the European Union (EU). We intend to analyze and evaluate Danish and Swedish scholarship on EU issues, using a mixed methodology integrated into the analysis of this chapter. The method integrates a secondary analysis...

  17. Separated and unaccompanied children in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O’Donnell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of EU law, policy and practical measures address the situation of separated and unaccompanied children who arrive in the EU. However, in the current sensitive political climate, there is a risk of attention and resources being diverted from building on progress.

  18. Optimal Rather than Mandatory EU Company Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertig, G.; McCahery, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A significant debate rages within the EU about whether to give firms the choice to opt in or out of corporate law provisions. Both sides agree that more flexibility and adaptability of legal rules to business needs is crucial. Nevertheless, and not surprisingly, many still view EU mandatory

  19. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  20. Through the EU's Back and Front Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen......Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen...

  1. Detection of genetically modified organisms in soy products sold in Turkish market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Mandaci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PCR-based technique for GMO detection is the most reliable choice because of its high sensitivity and specificity. As a candidate of the European Union, Turkey must comply with the rules for launching into the market, traceability, and labeling of GMOs as established by EU legislation. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess soybean products in the Turkish market to verify compliance with legislation using qualitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay to detect the presence of GM soybean and to quantify its amount of GM soybean in the samples tested positive using real-time PCR. DNA extracted by the modified CTAB method was properly used for PCR amplification of food materials. The amplification of a 118 bp DNA fragment of the lectin gene from soybean by PCR was successfully achieved in all samples. The GMO screening was based on the detection of 35S promoter and NOS terminator sequences. The GM positive samples were subjected to detection of Roundup ReadyTM soybean (RR using quantitative real-time PCR. It was found that 100% of the tested food samples contained less than 0.1 per cent of EPSPS gene.

  2. E-LEARNING TURKISH LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR: Analyzing Learners' Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GEORGALAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several modules of the website has been measured, examined and analyzed. The research was carried out between the years 2010- 2011 and included the analysis of several million clicks. The results show particular attitudes, habits and preferences throughout the e-learning process. There is a preference of users to exercises against theory. Fast cross-link exercises are preferred to slower “fill in” ones. During the weekends, visitors tend to use less e-learning facilities and select more light activities than the rest days of the week. Society trends and fashions like TV serials have a serious impact to the number of people who decide to learn a new foreign language, in particular Turkish. There is a strong preference of the audience to use online TV against online radio facilities for language practice. The subjects that Greek learners of Turkish language spend more time are verbs conjugation and vocabulary learning. They focus on elementary grammar subjects like the Alphabet, the numbers and the formation of plural. Finally, they try to learn the syntax of Turkish language through sentence structure puzzles and give priority to special grammar issues like noun compounds that are not present in Greek language.

  3. Towards a Practice Turn in EU Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how practice theory can be recruited for the study of European integration. New generations of EU researchers are fascinated by the prospect of leaving the armchair and studying the people and artefacts that make the EU on an everyday level. This article surveys key practice......-oriented, anthropological and micro-sociological studies of the EU and European integration and shows how their findings challenge more traditional understandings of the dynamics of European integration. Moving beyond a stock-taking, the article distinguishes between ‘order- ing’ and ‘disordering’ practices and explores...... the potential of a practice turn in EU studies for both theory (overcoming dualism, replacing substantialism with processualism and rethinking power) and methods (including unstructured interviews, fieldwork and participant observation). A practice turn will force us to rethink core assumptions about the EU...

  4. Why use experiments in EU Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    two things. First, by summarising the use of experiments in EU research, it provides an overview of the evolution of the use of experiments within EU studies. This includes a content exploration of the pioneering sub-areas within EU studies where experimentation is frequently used. Particular focus......The past decades have witnessed an explosion in the use of experiments. Though experiments have been increasingly applied, their recognition as useful methodological tools to investigate EU-related research questions has lagged behind the rest of the political science community. This article does...... is paid on election, framing and deliberation studies. Second, the article argues for the promising potentials experimentation provides for EU studies, overcoming problems of causal estimation as well as endogeneity concerns. The article concludes by addressing some of the critiques often made against...

  5. Turkish Image in The Works of Juan Goytisolo

    OpenAIRE

    SARI SEO LECOQ, Kübra

    2016-01-01

    Inthis article we aim to analize how is perceived Turkey and Turkish people bythe West during the historical process in the non-fictional writings of JuanGoytisolo, who is one of the contemporary writers of Spain. The interest of JuanGoytisolo for Turkish and Islamic World is well-known. However, this positiveattention has never been an obstacle for a realistic approach. The books ofGoytisolo that we incorporated by reference when we were preparing this articleare ‘Estambul Otomano’, ‘Cronica...

  6. Is political risk still an issue for Turkish stock market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Günay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the effects of internal political risk on the Turkish stock market in the period of 2001–2014. Empirical analyses are conducted through various methods to obtain breaks and regimes in the return volatilities of the BIST100 index. According to the results, while the number of breaks has increased in recent years, the risk level of recent periods is significantly lower than the early regimes, and the risk level trend for all regimes show a negative slope. In conclusion, the Turkish stock market responds to political events, but according to our results, not as significantly as in the past.

  7. The interactional establishment of the membership category ‘nonnative speaker’ in gatekeeping encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranekjær, Louise; Kappa, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the membership category ‘nonnative speaker’ is interactionally established and initiated by the ‘native speaker’ interviewers during internship interviews between Danish employers and born abroad1 candidates. The analysis is based on 16 recorded internship interviews...... and related to studies that demonstrate how membership categories are fundamentally indexical of the context of interaction (Day, 2006; Drew & Heritage, 1992; Mondada, 2004). By taking on a membership categorization analysis (MCA) approach and utilizing conversation analytic (CA) tools, this paper shows three...

  8. Membership function used to construction of a hand homogeneous phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, Ana Luiza Menegatti; Alvarez, Matheus; Alves, Allan Felipe Fattori; Rosa, Maria Eugenia Dela; Miranda, Jose Ricardo de Arruda

    2014-01-01

    Fractures and dislocations of the hand are some injuries most frequently encountered in trauma of the musculoskeletal system. In evaluating these lesions, in addition to physical examination, radiography, in at least two incidents, is the investigation of choice, and rarely is necessary the help of other images to establish the diagnosis and treatment. The image quality of X-ray examination is therefore essential. In this study, a homogeneous phantom hand was developed to be used in the optimization of images from hand using computed radiography system process. In this procedure were quantified thicknesses of different tissues that constitute an anthropomorphic phantom hand. To perform the classification and quantification of tissue was applied membership functions for histograms of CT scans. The same procedure was adopted for retrospective examinations of 30 patients of the Hospital das Clinicas, Botucatu Medicine School, UNESP (HCFMB-UNESP). The results showed agreement between the thicknesses of tissues that make up the anthropomorphic phantom and sampling of patients, presenting variations between 12.63% and 6.48% for soft tissue and bone, respectively. (author)

  9. Design alternatives for process group membership and multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Robert; Gleeson, Barry

    1991-01-01

    Process groups are a natural tool for distributed programming, and are increasingly important in distributed computing environments. However, there is little agreement on the most appropriate semantics for process group membership and group communication. These issues are of special importance in the Isis system, a toolkit for distributed programming. Isis supports several styles of process group, and a collection of group communication protocols spanning a range of atomicity and ordering properties. This flexibility makes Isis adaptable to a variety of applications, but is also a source of complexity that limits performance. This paper reports on a new architecture that arose from an effort to simplify Isis process group semantics. Our findings include a refined notion of how the clients of a group should be treated, what the properties of a multicast primitive should be when systems contain large numbers of overlapping groups, and a new construct called the casuality domain. As an illustration, we apply the architecture to the problem of converting processes into fault-tolerant process groups in a manner that is 'transparent' to other processes in the system.

  10. Does ethical membership matter? Moral identification and its organizational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Douglas R; Chang, Young K; Shao, Ruodan

    2015-05-01

    This research meaningfully connects the literatures on identification and business ethics by proposing the new construct of moral identification. Moral identification is defined here as the perception of oneness or belongingness associated with an organization that exhibits ethical traits (e.g., care, kindness, and compassion), which also involves a deliberate concern of the membership with an ethical organization. Integrating social identity theory with theory on the moral self, this research examines an overall theoretical model where moral identification plays a significant role in explaining employee attraction, motivation, and retention (i.e., 3 components of the overall theoretical framework). These components were examined separately in 3 empirical studies and findings from these studies first revealed that moral identification explained why job seekers with strong (vs. weak) moral identities were more attracted to a socially responsible organization (Study 1). Second, moral identification was associated with lower employee unethical proorganizational behavior (Study 2). Finally, moral identification was negatively related to employees' turnover intentions. Organizations' legal compliance moderated this relation such that it was stronger when organizations have higher (vs. lower) levels of legal compliance (Study 3). Taken together, these studies suggest that moral identification offers new insights in explaining both potential and current employees' behaviors when morality is contextually relevant and subjectively meaningful. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Waste management association with compulsory membership ante portas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2004-01-01

    In the course of considerations in the early nineties of reforming atomic energy law, the possibilities was analyzed to privatize the final storage of radioactive waste. One key idea incorporated the finding that the government was of limited usefulness when acting as an entrepreneur, while privatization of this duty could solve the problems associated with planning, building, and operating a repository more speedily and, above all, more economically. In the reform of atomic energy law, final storage remained a government function. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) is now considering ''reforming the regulations on the final storage of radioactive waste.'' One of the basic ideas underlying this concept is to transfer to an association the site selection, installation, and operation of a repository. The federal government then could limit its functions of those of legal supervision. The upshot would be that the former duties of the federal government of exploring and establishing repositories would be transferred to the association, membership of which would be compulsory and which would have the legal form of a public corporation. A structure of this kind raises a number of organizational and legal problems which are discussed in this contribution. (orig.)

  12. Succinct Data Structures for Retrieval and Approximate Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietzfelbinger, Martin; Pagh, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    The retrieval problem is the problem of associating data with keys in a set. Formally, the data structure must store a function that has specified values on the elements of a given set S ⊆ U, |S| = n, but may have any value on elements outside S. All known methods (e. g. those based on perfect hash...... functions), induce a space overhead of Θ(n) bits over the optimum, regardless of the evaluation time. We show that for any k, query time O(k) can be achieved using space that is within a factor 1 + e − k of optimal, asymptotically for large n. The time to construct the data structure is O(n), expected....... If we allow logarithmic evaluation time, the additive overhead can be reduced to O(loglogn) bits whp. A general reduction transfers the results on retrieval into analogous results on approximate membership, a problem traditionally addressed using Bloom filters. Thus we obtain space bounds arbitrarily...

  13. The quest for a European civic culture : The EU and EU Citizenship in policies and practices of citizenship education in seven EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.E.; van der Kolk, M.; Berkeley, Dominic; Koska, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Since the Treaty of Maastricht (1992) all nationals of EU member states hold EU citizenship too. EU citizens hold EU citizenship rights in addition to their national rights. These rights include civil, social, economic and political rights. Holding these rights does not guarantee actual

  14. The New European and/or EU Studies Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea; Dolghi, Dorin; Pantea, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In this part we will present turn by turn the evolution of the curriculum in four domains which are developing in the area of European and/or EU Studies: EU Intercultural Dialogue Studies, EU International Relations and Diplomacy Studies, EU Communication and Information Studies, EU and Comparative Regionalism, from several points of view. First, we will take into consideration the perspective that each curriculum from the four domains has in the ensemble of European and/or EU Studies, t...

  15. Virgin Mary’s Importance in Islam and its Reflection on Classical Turkish Literature and Turkish Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhekim Koçin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The language used by a poet or an author in a literary work in verse or prose, and the way he uses idioms, proverbs and literary arts in that language indicate the success of his art. The achievement of author in this matter makes him well known in the country where he lives. However, the topic choice is as important as an artist’s language skills. That’s why poets and authors prefer universal subjects such as love, death, religion, religious personalities (like prophets, saints, etc. and humanity (man's way of living and right to live in their works. If artists produce universal subjects with a clear language, a fluent wording and a strong story line, this achievement makes them famous both nationally and internationally. This fact can also be applied to the literature of any nation. Literary works containing local subjects cannot take their place in the world’s literary history. Classical Turkish literature (Ottoman Period Turkish Literature is extremely rich in subject matter. The period in which Classical Turkish Literature continued its existence was the period when the Ottoman state dominated large geographical regions in Asia, Europe and Africa. Accordingly, the lifestyles, beliefs, traditions and customs of people from different religions, races and cultures living in these geographies; in other words, the issues that are important to these people were also reflected in the literature produced in this period. The subject of this article Virgin Mary is an important religious and a historical personality primarily for the Ottoman state’s Christians and Muslim subjects as well as those who weren’t the subjects of Ottoman Empire. In this article, first how Virgin Mary took part in the two most important sources of Classical Turkish literature, Koran and the hadiths will be summarized. Secondly, Virgin Mary’s place in Classical Turkish literature and the vocabulary and concepts that Turkish language gained through Virgin Mary will

  16. Concentration depolarization of luminescence of Eu3+-doped glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodunov, E.N.; Lebedev, V.P.; Malyshev, V.A.; Przheuskij, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental study of concentrational depolarization luminescence (CDL) of phosphate and germanate glasses, containing Eu 3+ ions, has been carried out. On the basis of three-body self-consistent approximation the theory of CDL is conceived, which takes into account Eu-Eu interaction of higher multipolarities. By comparing the theory with the experiment energy transfer radii for Eu-Eu dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions are determined. The attempt to discriminate Eu-Eu interaction types in the studied range of Eu 3+ ion concentration change has failed owing to law accuracy of luminescence emittance anisotropy measurement

  17. When Is Group Membership Zero-Sum? Effects of Ethnicity, Threat, and Social Identity on Dual National Identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smithson

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into marginalizing racism, a form of prejudice whereby ingroup members claim that specific individuals belong to their group, but also exclude them by not granting them all of the privileges of a full ingroup member. One manifestation of this is that perceived degree of outgroup membership will covary negatively with degree of ingroup membership. That is, group membership may be treated as a zero-sum quantity (e.g., one cannot be both Australian and Iraqi. Study 1 demonstrated that judges allocate more zero-sum membership assignments and lower combined membership in their country of origin and their adopted country to high-threat migrants than low-threat migrants. Study 2 identified a subtle type of zero-sum reasoning which holds that stronger degree of membership in one's original nationality constrains membership in a new nationality to a greater extent than stronger membership in the new nationality constrains membership in one's original nationality. This pattern is quite general, being replicated in large samples from four nations (USA, UK, India, and China. Taken together, these studies suggest that marginalizing racism is more than a belief that people retain a "stain" from membership in their original group. Marginalizing racism also manifests itself as conditional zero-sum beliefs about multiple group memberships.

  18. Certified Health Education Specialists' Participation in Professional Associations: Implications for Marketing and Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.; Roe, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    A number of health education professional associations exist to advance the profession through research, practice, and professional development. Benefits of individual membership may include continuing education, networking, leadership, professional recognition, advocacy, professional mobility, access to research findings, advances in the…

  19. Impacts of extension access and cooperative membership on technology adoption and household welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wossen, Tesfamicheal; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Alene, Arega; Haile, Mekbib G; Feleke, Shiferaw; Olanrewaju, Adetunji; Manyong, Victor

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines the impacts of access to extension services and cooperative membership on technology adoption, asset ownership and poverty using household-level data from rural Nigeria. Using different matching techniques and endogenous switching regression approach, we find that both extension access and cooperative membership have a positive and statistically significant effect on technology adoption and household welfare. Moreover, we find that both extension access and cooperative membership have heterogeneous impacts. In particular, we find evidence of a positive selection as the average treatment effects of extension access and cooperative membership are higher for farmers with the highest propensity to access extension and cooperative services. The impact of extension services on poverty reduction and of cooperatives on technology adoption is significantly stronger for smallholders with access to formal credit than for those without access. This implies that expanding rural financial markets can maximize the potential positive impacts of extension and cooperative services on farmers' productivity and welfare.

  20. The Prospects of Membership in International Organizations: The Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Emini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the perspective of Kosovo and its membership in international organizations. There are three pillars upon which the analysis of the paper is built. Initially the general question of theoretical frameworks in general the organizations which focus on the elaboration of the very concept of statehood and state-building in general and specifically on Kosovo. The final section deals with a range of behaviors and initiatives of countries in general and the challenges for membership in international organizations. With the aim of contextualizing the subject, the paper focuses on the case of Kosovo state and membership in international organizations with a view to strengthening the international subjectivity and security in the international arena. Finally, the paper concludes that the importance of the accession countries, namely Kosovo's membership in international organizations, and the use of multilateral diplomacy are vital to their safety and welfare.

  1. 77 FR 10725 - Establishment of the Consumer Advisory Board and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... the Bureau's functions under the Federal consumer financial protection laws, and which will provide... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Establishment of the Consumer Advisory Board and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice...

  2. EU, Eastern Europe and Values Imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an idea of'values imperialism'as a helpful way of conceptualising the relationship between the EU and the states that came within its sphere of influence after the end of the Cold War, particularly its 'neighbours' in Eastern Europe. Values imperialism places its emphasis on the 'superstructure', including norms, laws and social practices. EU larger objective was that the assumptions about government and ownership that were favoured by the dominant powers (EU and the West in the broad term should be absorbed and recapitulated by those countries that were subordinate. The broad framework ofsubordination was established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements that began to be concluded from 1994 onwards. Patterns of'values imperialism'could also be discovered in the EU Common Strategies on Russia and Ukraine that were adopted in 1999. Article also points out several cases when the EU intervened directly in the domestic affairs of the Eastern Europe countries in a manner that was not always compatible with the provisions on state sovereignty: a 'European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights', launched in 2006, interventions ofEU representatives in the work of local courts and organisation of exit polls, which could be used to discredit the official election results and in this way to undermine the position of local governments. Finally, the author concludes that the EU used 'values imperialism'practices in order to extend its influence, particularly in the Eastern Europe.

  3. Coordinating the Uncoordinated: The EU Forest Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Aggestam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The second European Union (EU Forest Strategy responds to new challenges facing both forests and the forest-based sector which highlights the EU’s need for a policy framework ensuring coordination and coherence of forest-related policies. The objective of the present article is to analyse whether the new Strategy contributes towards horizontal policy coherence of EU forest-related policies, given its shared and exclusive competences. This is achieved by comparing European Commission and forest industry policy priorities as articulated in the Strategy and through research carried out for the recent Cumulative Cost Assessment (CCA of forest-based industries. Results from the comparative analysis demonstrate that the Strategy does not address many EU policies and policy instruments that affect the whole forest value chain and that it clearly omits existing EU policy instrument objectives that entail significant costs for the forest-based industry. It is therefore argued that without coordinating collective EU goals and gathering strong political support, it is at best extremely difficult or at worst impossible, to achieve coherence for EU forest-related policies across the whole forest value chain. Improving coherence of Union forest-related policies will require the Strategy to address more policy areas and instruments, including clearly defined parameters of what constitutes an EU forest-related policy. These pressing needs reach beyond what the Strategy presently sets out to achieve.

  4. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON EU AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Shrestha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigates the medium term economic impact of climate changes on the EU agriculture. The yield change data under climate change scenarios are taken from the BIOMA (Biophysical Models Application simulation environment. We employ CAPRI modelling framework to identify the EU aggregate economic effects as well as regional impacts. We take into account supply and market price adjustments of the EU agricultural sector as well as technical adaptation of crops to climate change. Overall results indicate an increase in yields and production level in the EU agricultural sector due to the climate change. In general, there are relatively small effects at the EU aggregate. For example, the value of land use and welfare change by approximately between -2% and 0.2%. However, there is a stronger impact at regional level with some stronger effects prevailing particularly in the Central and Northern EU and smaller impacts are observed in Southern Europe. Regional impacts of climate change vary by a factor higher up to 10 relative to the aggregate EU impacts. The price adjustments reduce the response of agricultural sector to climate change in particular with respect to production and income changes. The technical adaption of crops to climate change may result in a change production and land use by a factor between 1.4 and 6 relative to no-adaptation situation.

  5. Information Technology Strategies for Honor Society and Organization Membership Retention in Online Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Emily E; Wasco, Jennifer J

    Membership retention in an honor society or organization is of utmost importance for sustainability. However, retaining members in organizations that serve online education nursing students can be a challenging task. Understanding the importance of creating a sense of community to promote retention within an honor society chapter, nursing faculty at a small private university implemented different online approaches. This article highlights successful information technology strategies to promote membership retention in organizations for online nursing students.

  6. Party Members in Context. Social networks and local branches as context for party membership

    OpenAIRE

    Paulis, Emilien

    2018-01-01

    In this doctoral dissertation, I put party members and activists back in context. I stress theimportance of two contextual dimensions, often overlooked in the scientific literature. On theone hand, I put forward social network explanations of party membership and activism,emphasizing the importance of social interactions, relations and structures, which were scarcelyexplored as potential triggers. Like other forms of participation, party membership haspredominantly been portrayed through indi...

  7. Compensation to the pension fund for the reduction of the active membership

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Following the Council's approval of compensation to the Pension Fund for the reduction of the active membership between 1995 and 1997 at its meeting of 18 June 1998 (CERN/FC/4074-CERN/2241), the Governing Board proposes that the Finance Committee should recommend the Council to approve compensation of 16.1 MCHF for the reduction of the active membership between 1998 and 2000, which should be added to the amount owing to the Pension Fund at the end of 2001.

  8. Identifying groups at risk for 1-year membership termination from a fitness center at enrollment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Hooker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans do not engage in adequate regular physical activity despite its well-known health benefits. Even when individuals attempt to become more active by joining a fitness center, estimates suggest that nearly half terminate their membership within the first 6 months. A better understanding of who is at risk for early membership termination upon joining may help researchers develop targeted interventions to improve the likelihood that individuals will successfully maintain memberships and physical activity. This study's purpose was to identify, based on a wellness assessment (WA used in fitness centers, individuals at risk for fitness membership termination prior to 1-year. Center members (N = 441; Mage = 41.9, SD = 13.1; 74.4% female completed a comprehensive WA of stress, life satisfaction, physical fitness, metabolic health, and sleep quality at the beginning of their memberships and were followed for one year. Latent class analyses utilized the WA to identify four groups: (a healthy, (b unhealthy, (c poor psychological wellness, and (d poor physical wellness. Participants in the poor psychological wellness group (OR = 2.24, p = 0.007 and the unhealthy group (OR = 2.40, p = 0.037 were significantly more likely to terminate their memberships at 1-year as compared to the healthy group. Participants with poor physical wellness visited the fitness center less frequently than healthy participants (p < 0.01. Results suggest that poor psychological wellness is a risk factor for terminating memberships, whereas poor physical wellness is not. Future studies should replicate these latent classes and develop targeted interventions to address psychological wellness as a method to improve fitness membership retention.

  9. Connected languages : Effects of intensifying contact between Turkish and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirçay, Derya

    2017-01-01

    In today’s globalized world movement of people, information and knowledge is made easier each passing day. Thus, isolated, monolingual communities are rare in the modern world. This dissertation looks into bilinguals’ use of their languages within the community of Turkish-Dutch speakers in the

  10. Effect of altitude on fatty acid composition in Turkish hazelnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change of fatty acid composition in Delisava, Yomra, Sivri and Karayaglı Turkish hazelnut varieties with altitude. Fatty acid composition were determined by gas chromatography (GC) equiped with flame ionisation detector (FID) after obtained fatty acid methyl esters from crude ...

  11. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  12. Turkish Parents' Perceptions of Their Involvement in Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdener, Mehmet Akif

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement has an influence on children's educational engagement during the elementary years. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of rural Turkish parents about their involvement in schooling with elementary school students based on Epstein's (1995) six types of parental involvement (parenting, communicating,…

  13. Turkish Geography Student Teachers' Concerns towards the Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Adem

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the levels of concern of Turkish geography student teachers towards the teaching profession. The study was conducted with 293 geography student teachers who are enrolled in the last class of the Geography Student Teachers Program of the Faculties of Education and enrolled in a Non-Thesis Master's Degree…

  14. Everyday urban public space : Turkish immigrant women's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünlü Yücesoy, E.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the use, experience, and appropriation of everyday urban public spaces by Turkish immigrant women living in Enschede, the Netherlands. Based on the two premises of conceptualizing the urban public space as a social construct and of valorizing users as social actors, the main

  15. Ethnic identity and acculturation of Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, R.; Bender, M.; Chasiotis, A.; van de Vijver, A.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated associations of ethnic identity, acculturation orientations, and acculturation outcomes (psychological well-being and socio-cultural adjustment) in a sample of 279 Turkish-Bulgarian adolescents through self-reports and parent reports. This group has a long history of discrimination

  16. The Adaptation of Academic Motivation Scale to Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaguven, M. Hulya Unal

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the psychometric evidence of Turkish form of the Academic Motivation Scale. The scale was based on the tenets of self-determination theory. It was designed to assess an individual's academic motivation if intrinsically or extrinsically driven with 28 questions. University form of the scale was translated into Turkish…

  17. Prion Protein Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Native Goat Breeds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    In these diseases, a neuronal glycoprotein known as prion protein PrPC ... sheep or goats in Turkey, but the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) does not .... Turkish goat breeds was approximately 6.3%, which is a low starting point for ...

  18. Turkish Music Genre Classification using Audio and Lyrics Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder ÇOBAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Music Information Retrieval (MIR has become a popular research area in recent years. In this context, researchers have developed music information systems to find solutions for such major problems as automatic playlist creation, hit song detection, and music genre or mood classification. Meta-data information, lyrics, or melodic content of music are used as feature resource in previous works. However, lyrics do not often used in MIR systems and the number of works in this field is not enough especially for Turkish. In this paper, firstly, we have extended our previously created Turkish MIR (TMIR dataset, which comprises of Turkish lyrics, by including the audio file of each song. Secondly, we have investigated the effect of using audio and textual features together or separately on automatic Music Genre Classification (MGC. We have extracted textual features from lyrics using different feature extraction models such as word2vec and traditional Bag of Words. We have conducted our experiments on Support Vector Machine (SVM algorithm and analysed the impact of feature selection and different feature groups on MGC. We have considered lyrics based MGC as a text classification task and also investigated the effect of term weighting method. Experimental results show that textual features can also be effective as well as audio features for Turkish MGC, especially when a supervised term weighting method is employed. We have achieved the highest success rate as 99,12\\% by using both audio and textual features together.

  19. Risk of Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Turkish Dietetic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)…

  20. Lexical inferencing: perceptions and actual behaviours of Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine Turkish English as a Foreign Language Learners' (EFL) handling of unknown words while reading English texts. The study also examines the relationship between these learners' perceptions and actual practices in the employment of knowledge sources while trying to guess the ...

  1. Turkish Students' Conceptions about the Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepni, Salih; Keles, Esra

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the Turkish students' understanding level of electric circuits consisting of two bulbs and one battery was investigated by using open-ended questions. Two-hundred fifty students, whose ages range from 11 to 22, were chosen from five different groups at primary, secondary and university levels in Trabzon in Turkey. In analyzing…

  2. Adaptation of Sport Brand Personality Scale to Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgüt, Ilyas; Özbal, Ayse Feray

    2018-01-01

    Validity and reliability of Turkish form of sport brand personality scale, which was developed by Mitsis and Leckie (2016), was presented in this study. Scale was designed to reflect the impact of individuals' favorite athletes on them in other words the strength of the role model factor. In study, participants were tried to reach through an…

  3. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  4. Many Lives of Women Rectors at Turkish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Suzan; Gümüseli, Ali Ilker

    2017-01-01

    Women at Turkish Universities do not have the same level of representation as rectors as they have academics at the higher education. It is vital to have women, as one of the genders which comprises the community, at the higher education management as rectors to ensure the gender equality in Turkey. As well as the traditional roles assigned to…

  5. Ethical Issues in Turkish Sport Media: Perceptions of Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of professional football players on the obedience of the Turkish Sport Media to journalistic ethical codes. ... It was determined that the ethical codes, namely gossip, private life and honesty are frequently violated, and the ethical codes, namely newsgathering and ...

  6. Invisible Barriers: The Loneliness of School Principals at Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological insight is the notion that all participants agreed on and emphasised when asked to offer a definition of loneliness at schools. Participants also agreed on the fact that the organisational climate at Turkish schools represented the most significant reason for principals' loneliness at work. The school principals that ...

  7. Character Strengths Are Prominent as Mate Preferences of Turkish Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Elizabeth Michelle; Pearce, Amy R.; Khramtsova, Irina

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed the traits and characteristics that Turkish students deem most important in a long-term romantic partner. We collected quantitative and qualitative data on characteristics desired in romantic partners from students attending Bahçesehir Üniversitesi in Istanbul, Turkey. Like our previous cross-cultural studies conducted in…

  8. Knowledge and attitudes of Turkish endodontists towards digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed. Questionnaires were given to a sample of endodontists and PhD students in endodontics who attended the 11th International Congress of the Turkish Endodontic Society in Istanbul in 2012. Following the congress, the same questionnaires were ...

  9. The Prevalence of Injuries in Professional Turkish Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…

  10. Stress and Life Satisfaction of Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cahit; Tansey, Timothy N.; Melekoglu, Macid; Çakiroglu, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perceived stress and life satisfaction of Turkish college students. The "Satisfaction with Life Scale" (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), the "Perceived Stress Scale" (Cohen & Williamson, 1988), and a brief demographic questionnaire were administered to 235 college…

  11. Career Decision-Making Difficulties of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanli, Feride

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study are (1) to adapt the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) to Turkish high school students and (2) to examine gender differences, grade differences, and differences between "decided" and "undecided" students. The sample consisted of 2509 adolescent students. The results showed that…

  12. Parental beliefs and practices regarding childhood fever in Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental beliefs and practices regarding childhood fever in Turkish primary care. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... problem in pediatric age and is one of the most common reasons parents seek medical attention. ... Parents with a child with fever aged between 0 and 14 years were interviewed.

  13. The Quest for Turkish Scholarships: African Students, Transformation and Hopefulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2018-01-01

    on qualitative data collected through interviews, focus groups and discussions with African students in Istanbul, Turkey, this paper finds that the activities as well as the meaning making of African students towards existing Turkish educational and scholarship opportunities, remain essential in understanding...

  14. Eating Attitudes and Their Psychological Correlates among Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat; Asci, F. Hulya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gul

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the…

  15. Cyberbullying in Turkish Middle Schools: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Harun

    2011-01-01

    This study explored Turkish students' experience of cyberbullying and their use of social networking tools. A total of 756 7th-grade students participated from eight different middle schools in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. A 15-item questionnaire was used in a classroom environment to collect data. Results revealed that male students were…

  16. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from…

  17. Turkish Metalinguistic Awareness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varisoglu, Behice

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a useful, valid and reliable measurement tool that will help teacher candidates determine their Turkish metalinguistic awareness. During the development of the scale, a pool of items was created by scanning the relevant literature and examining other awareness scales. The materials prepared were re-examined…

  18. Cyber Bullying @ Schools: What Do Turkish Adolescents Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Cigdem; Yildirim, Ali; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Cyber bullying is an emerging form of peer bullying, becoming prominent especially over the past decade. The aim of this study was to investigate through interviews the perceptions of Turkish high school students about cyber bullying. The sample consisted of six male and one female high school students all aged 15 years who identified as being…

  19. Dutch business opportunities in the Turkish biodiesel sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Elbersen, H.W.; Yilmaz, G.

    2009-01-01

    To research possibilities for Dutch businesses to be involved in the Turkish biodiesel sector, a short literature study and unstructured interviews with sector stakeholders were performed. Turkey is interested to develop its biofuel sector particularly to improve its security of energy supply, more

  20. Turkish Primary School Teachers' Opinions about Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Cigdem

    2013-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the most important topics in a mathematics education. Through problem posing, students gain mathematical abilities and concepts and teachers can evaluate their students and arrange adequate learning environments. The aim of the present study is to investigate Turkish primary school teachers' opinions about problem posing…

  1. Nature Connectedness and Landscape Preferences of Turkish Preservice Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Simge; Olgan, Refika; Yilmaztekin, Elif Öztürk

    2016-01-01

    The current paper had two aims, first to investigate Turkish pre-service preschool teachers' perceptions of different kinds of landscapes that can be used to achieve their educational goals, their ideas about the characteristics of these settings, and the contribution to children's education, the resource needs, motivations, and barriers they…

  2. Building Technology Transfer Capacity in Turkish Universities: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranga, Marina; Temel, Serdal; Ar, Ilker Murat; Yesilay, Rustem Baris; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar

    2016-01-01

    University technology transfer has been receiving significant government funding since 2012. Results of this major investment are now expected by the Turkish government and society, not only in terms of better teaching and research performance, but also of new jobs, new products and services, enhanced regional development and contribution to…

  3. Parenting Styles and Life Satisfaction of Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya

    2012-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' perception of satisfaction from various life domains according to gender and parenting styles among 562 Turkish adolescents [53.2% girls; Mean (M) age = 14.1, Standard Deviation (SD) = 0.85]. The participants completed the multidimensional students' life satisfaction scale and the parenting style inventory. The…

  4. Travel health attitudes among Turkish business travellers to African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Engin Burak; Kayabas, Uner; Binbasioglu, Hulisi; Otlu, Baris; Bayindir, Yasar; Bozdogan, Bulent; Karatas, Mehmet

    The number of international travellers is increasing worldwide. Although health risks related to international travel are important and generally well-understood, the perception of these risks was unclear among Turkish travellers. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes and health risk awareness of Turkish travellers travelling to African countries. A survey was performed of Turkish travellers bound for Africa from Istanbul International Ataturk Airport in July 2013. A total of 124 travellers were enrolled in the study. Among them, 62.9% had information about their destination but only 11.3% had looked for information on health problems related to travel and their destination. Of all travellers, 53.2% had at least one vaccination before travelling. The most commonly administered vaccine was for typhoid. Among the travellers, 69.3% and 80.6% had "no idea" about yellow fever vaccination and malaria prophylaxis, respectively. A positive correlation was found between a higher level of travellers' education and receiving the recommended vaccination for the destination. Our study revealed significant gaps in the vaccination and chemoprophylaxis uptake of Turkish travellers departing to Africa. An awareness and training program should be developed for travellers, as well as public health workers, to address health risks related to travel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wellness and Self-Esteem among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz-Duran, Nagihan; Tezer, Esin

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the differences among 465 Turkish first year university students regarding overall wellness and four of its dimensions (cognitive emotional wellness-CEW, relational wellness-RW, life goal-LG, and physical wellness-PW) in terms of self-esteem levels and gender. The data were gathered by administering the Rosenberg…

  6. Attachment Styles and Self-Image in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Fusun Cuhadaroglu; Tuzun, Zeynep; Pehlivanturk, Berna; Unal, Fatih; Gokler, Bahar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the attachment styles and the relation of these styles to the self-image in Turkish adolescents. The study included 378 adolescents (196 females and 182 males) from high schools with different socioeconomic status (SES) who were administered Relationship Scale Questionnaires and Offer Self-Image…

  7. Teacher Self-Efficacy According to Turkish Cypriot Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, Cemil; Ozbas, Serap

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the self-efficacy of Turkish Cypriot science teachers working at high schools in Northern Cyprus. The study sample was 200 science teachers who participated in the survey. The Teacher Self-Efficacy (TSE) Scale was used as a data source. It was observed that the science teachers' efficacy beliefs about student engagement in…

  8. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...... of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...... of the African security regime, the level of which remains mediocre at best....

  9. The total neutron cross-sections of 151Eu, 153Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) ( 151 Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) ( 153 Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula. (orig.)

  10. Total neutron cross-sections of /sup 151/Eu, /sup 153/Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) (/sup 151/Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) (/sup 153/Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula.

  11. The effect of chain membership on hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, T J

    1997-06-01

    To compare the cost structures of hospitals in multihospital systems and independently owned hospitals. The American Hospital Association's Annual Survey from 1990 for data on hospital costs and attributes. Area characteristics came from the Area Resource File, and the Medicare case-mix index came from the Health Care Financing Administration. Data on wages are from the Bureau of the Census' State and Metropolitan Area Data Book. The Guide to Hospital Performance from HCIA, Inc. provided data on quality of care. Separate cost functions were estimated for chain and independent hospitals. Hybrid translog cost functions included measures of outputs, input prices, and hospital and area characteristics. The estimation method accounted for the simultaneous determination of costs and chain membership, and for any nonrandom selection of hospitals into chains. Several economic cost measures were calculated to compare the cost structures of the two types of hospitals. Data from all sources were merged at the hospital level to form the study sample. Hospitals in multihospital systems were less costly than independently owned hospitals. Among independent hospitals, for-profits had the highest costs. There were no statistically significant differences in costs by ownership among chain members. Economies of scale were enjoyed in both types of hospitals only at high volumes of output, while economies of scope occurred at all volumes for chain hospitals, but only at low and medium volumes for independent hospitals. This study provides support for the idea that growth of the multihospital system sector can provide a market solution to the problem of constraining costs. It does not, however, support the property rights theory that proprietary hospitals are more efficient than nonprofit hospitals.

  12. Rejected applications: an early American Academy of Neurology struggles to define its membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D

    2014-07-22

    To review membership application materials (especially rejected applications) to the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) during its formative years (1947-1953). Detailed study of materials in the AAN Historical Collection. The author identified 73 rejected applications. Rejected applicants (71 male, 2 female) lived in 25 states. The largest number was for the Associate membership category (49). These were individuals "in related fields who have made and are making contributions to the field of neurology." By contrast, few applicants to Active membership or Fellowship status were rejected. The largest numbers of rejectees were neuropsychiatrists (19), neurosurgeons (16), and psychiatrists (14). The AAN, established in the late 1940s, was a small and politically vulnerable organization. A defining feature of the fledgling society was its inclusiveness; its membership was less restrictive than that of the older American Neurological Association. At the same time, the society needed to preserve its core as a neurologic society rather than one of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Hence, the balance between inclusiveness and exclusive identity was a difficult one to maintain. The Associate membership category, more than any other, was at the heart of this issue of self-definition. Associate members were largely practitioners of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Their membership was a source of consternation and was to be carefully been held in check during these critical formative years. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. The EU model evaluation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The model evaluation group (MEG) was launched in 1992 growing out of the Major Technological Hazards Programme with EU/DG XII. The goal of MEG was to improve the culture in which models were developed, particularly by encouraging voluntary model evaluation procedures based on a formalised and consensus protocol. The evaluation intended to assess the fitness-for-purpose of the models being used as a measure of the quality. The approach adopted was focused on developing a generic model evaluation protocol and subsequent targeting this onto specific areas of application. Five such developments have been initiated, on heavy gas dispersion, liquid pool fires, gas explosions, human factors and momentum fires. The quality of models is an important element when complying with the 'Seveso Directive' requiring that the safety reports submitted to the authorities comprise an assessment of the extent and severity of the consequences of identified major accidents. Further, the quality of models become important in the land use planning process, where the proximity of industrial sites to vulnerable areas may be critical. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. EU POLICY ON EDUCATION FUNDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina PANA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On average, EU countries allocate 6.4% of total public expenditure for the direct support of the public sector at all levels of education. In view of a more rational allocation of resources seriously diminished by the crisis there are made efforts to identify educational areas considered problematic in terms of accessing various education programs. This paper presents pre-school funding policies and policies to support families with preschool and school age children in the European Union through a comparative analysis of the focus group type. There are also presented concrete ways of achieving that family support such as tax cuts, family allowances or by taking into account certain factors in order to establish fees. In all countries where taxes are paid for pre-compulsory education (ISCED A there is a mechanism by which parental contributions can be adjusted according to the means available taking into account criteria such as family income, number of children, family status (children who live with one parent geographic area, etc.

  15. Cathodoluminescence properties of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, A. N.; Petrova, M. A.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) doped with Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ ions is very interesting as a phosphor for conversion of light-emitting diode light for white light sources. The europium ion occupies the structural position of yttrium in yttrium aluminium garnet and has valence state Eu 3+ . Our sample was doped with Zr 4+ , which is why some of the europium ions had valence state Eu 2+ . As a rule, luminescence of Eu 3+ ions is observed in the orange and red range of spectrum. The luminescence of Eu 2+ in yttrium aluminum garnet is characterized by an intensive broad band with maximum of intensity at about 560 nm (green color). In this work, we studied the intensity and decay time dependences on europium concentration, and the influence of excitation power density on the cathodoluminescence of the sample. The most interesting result is the change of visible cathodoluminescence color in dependence on the density of the exciting power

  16. The Euro Zone Crisis and Differentiation in the European Union: a Threat to the Goals of the EU or an Instrument of Managing the Divergence of National Interests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilpišauskas Ramūnas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the institutional evolution of the European Union (EU in reacting to the euro zone crisis and the new forms of differentiation in the EU. It presents and elaborates several arguments. First, despite calls to complete the creation of the “genuine Economic and Monetary Union“ and to make a step towards federal structure of the Union with single currency and single central budget used to react to asymmetric shocks, most decisions actually agreed upon by member states since the start of the crisis can be seen as attempts to avoid exactly such a scenario. Second, although the divide between the “Northern“ and “Southern“ groups of the EU member states seems attractive in its simplicity, it is a gross simplification of the current situation and hides important differences of member state preferences within each of the groupings. Third, it is also too simplistic to see the membership in the euro zone as the main characteristic defining the state of differentiation in the EU. As it is discussed in the text, both euro zone member states and EU countries outside the euro zone participate in different initiatives of integration and show different national preferences. Finally, the text concludes with a formulation of the main policy dilemmas for Lithuania in terms of ongoing process of complex differentiation and taking into account the prospect of joining the euro zone in 2015.

  17. Implementation of integrated homecare in EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    ://www.integratedhomecare.eu/ ) aims to develop a strategy for better clinical continuity in EU. Data and Method A systematic literature review on integrated care forms the base for design of an HTA of integrated home care (IHC) for chronic conditions in such a state of disablement that patient schools are not enough. The EUnet...... approach with the adaption to local conditions in a decentralized approach. This means that a regional level with direct cooperation between the administrative/financial and the clinical/specialist levels is focused. This meso- level is addressed by an international network of national specialist groups......  Implementation of Integrated Home Care in EU Objective WHO put the fragmented delivery of health and social services for large groups of chronic conditions on the research agenda in 2002 as implemented in the call EU-FP7-HEALTH-2007-3.1.6. This granted project ( http...

  18. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  19. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  20. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.