Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes
Rodi, Wolfgang
The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kahn, F.D.
1983-01-01
A relativistic plasma flow can explain many of the observations on the one-sided jets, which are associated with radio sources that show superluminal motions in their cores. The pressure from the ambient medium will communicate across the jet in a relatively short distance, typically 30 kpc. The friction between the jet and the external medium then makes the flow go turbulent. As a result the jet dissipates energy and will be brought to rest within a few hundred kpc, if it does not strike an obstacle before. The mean flow in the jet is strongly sheared and stretches the lines of force of any magnetic field frozen into the plasma. The dominant field direction, as seen from the rest frame of the plasma, is therefore parallel to the length of the jet. Polarization measurements have shown that this is in fact the case. (author)
Turbulent jet in confined counterflow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of ...
Studies on the properties of turbulent jets, 6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishigaki, Hiroshi
1984-01-01
The round turbulent buoyant jet issuing vertically into quiescent fluid is studied analytically. Formulae on maximum velocity, temperature, concentration and entrainment rate are derived. These formulae agree well with the available experimental data for whole region of jet and plume. Quantitative classification as to the flow regime of jet, transition and plume are given for the nondimensional distance from jet exit. (author)
Turbulent jet in confined counterflow
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
framework for presenting the results of the flowfield and jet penetration length. ... A turbulent jet is a basic free shear flow and has received research attention (see, .... MBE76 identify this to be a transitional zone and for. √ .... higher return flow and also higher velocity from counterflow due to a narrower gap thus leading.
Turbulent Buoyant Jets in Flowing Ambients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Hai-Bo; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, Ole
1991-01-01
The mean behaviour of horizontal turbulent buoyant jets in co-flowing currents is investigated experimentally and numerically, in terms of jet trajectory, dilution and centerline density deficit and velocity decay. It is demonstrated in the paper that the laboratory data on the jet trajectory and...
Mixing by turbulent buoyant jets in slender containers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voropayev, S.I.; Nath, C.; Fernando, H.J.S.
2012-01-01
A turbulent buoyant jet injected vertically into a slender cylinder containing a stratified fluid is investigated experimentally. The working fluid is water, and salt is used to change its density to obtain either a positively or negatively buoyant jet. The interest is the vertical density distribution in container and its dependence on time and other parameters. For each case (lighter or heavier jet) the experimental data could be collapsed into a ‘universal’ time dependent behavior, when properly non-dimensionalized. A theoretical model is advanced to explain the results. Possible applications include refilling of crude oil into U.S. strategic petroleum reserves caverns. -- Highlights: ► We addresses a critical issue on refill of Strategic Petroleum Reserves. ► We conduct experiments on negatively/positively buoyant turbulent jets in long cavern. ► Basing on results of experiments we developed theoretical model for refill operations.
Heated water jet in coflowing turbulent stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirazi, M.A.; McQuivey, R.S.; Keefer, T.N.
1974-01-01
Effects of ambient turbulence on temperature and salinity distributions of heated water and neutrally buoyant saltwater jets were studied for a wide range of densimetric jet Froude numbers, jet discharge velocities, and ambient turbulence levels in a 4-ft-wide channel. Estimates of vertical and lateral diffusivity coefficients for heat and for salt were obtained from salinity and temperature distributions taken at several stations downstream of the injection point. Readily usable correlations are presented for plume center-line temperature, plume width, and trajectory. The ambient turbulence affects the gross behavior characteristics of the plume. The effects vary with the initial jet Froude number and the jet to ambient velocity ratio. Heat and salinity are transported similarly and the finite source dimensions and the initial jet characteristics alter the numerical value of the diffusivity
Self-similar solutions for toroidal magnetic fields in a turbulent jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komissarov, S.S.; Ovchinnikov, I.L.
1989-01-01
Self-similar solutions for weak toroidal magnetic fields transported by a turbulent jet of incompressible fluid are obtained. It is shown that radial profiles of the self-similar solutions form a discrete spectrum of eigenfunctions of a linear differential operator. The strong depatures from the magnetic flux conservation law, used frequently in turbulent jet models for extragalactic radio sources, are found
Turbulence characteristics in cylindrical liquid jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.
1994-01-01
A study has been made of the flow patterns and turbulence characteristics in free liquid jets in order to determine the rate of decay of turbulence properties along the jet. Mean streamwise velocities and streamwise velocities and streamwise and cross-streamwise turbulence intensities were measured using laser Doppler velocimetry. The jet Reynolds number was varied between 1000 and 30 000, with the diameter of the liquid jet D=3.051 mm. Using a power law model for the time decay of turbulence kinetic energy, it was found that turbulence decays, on average with an exponent N=1, independent of the Reynolds number. A constant power for the decay implies Reynolds number similarity throughout this range. Substantial reductions in the degree of anisotropy occur downstream from the injector exit as the jet relaxes from a fully developed turbulent pipe flow profile to a flat profile. For the intermediate range of Reynolds numbers (10 000--20 000), the relaxation distance was 20D, almost independent of the Reynolds number. At high values of Reynolds number (20 000--30 000), the relaxation process was very fast, generally within three diameters from the injector exit
Visualization of a Turbulent Jet Using Wavelets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hui LI
2001-01-01
An application of multiresolution image analysis to turbulence was investigated in this paper, in order to visualize the coherent structure and the most essential scales governing turbulence. The digital imaging photograph of jet slice was decomposed by two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform based on Daubechies, Coifman and Baylkin bases. The best choice of orthogonal wavelet basis for analyzing the image of the turbulent structures was first discussed. It is found that these orthonormal wavelet families with index N＜10 were inappropriate for multiresolution image analysis of turbulent flow. The multiresolution images of turbulent structures were very similar when using the wavelet basis with the higher index number, even though wavelet bases are different functions. From the image components in orthogonal wavelet spaces with different scales, the further evident of the multi-scale structures in jet can be observed, and the edges of the vortices at different resolutions or scales and the coherent structure can be easily extracted.
Lagrangian statistics across the turbulent-nonturbulent interface in a turbulent plane jet.
Taveira, Rodrigo R; Diogo, José S; Lopes, Diogo C; da Silva, Carlos B
2013-10-01
Lagrangian statistics from millions of particles are used to study the turbulent entrainment mechanism in a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent plane jet at Re(λ) ≈ 110. The particles (tracers) are initially seeded at the irrotational region of the jet near the turbulent shear layer and are followed as they are drawn into the turbulent region across the turbulent-nonturbulent interface (TNTI), allowing the study of the enstrophy buildup and thereby characterizing the turbulent entrainment mechanism in the jet. The use of Lagrangian statistics following fluid particles gives a more correct description of the entrainment mechanism than in previous works since the statistics in relation to the TNTI position involve data from the trajectories of the entraining fluid particles. The Lagrangian statistics for the particles show the existence of a velocity jump and a characteristic vorticity jump (with a thickness which is one order of magnitude greater than the Kolmogorov microscale), in agreement with previous results using Eulerian statistics. The particles initially acquire enstrophy by viscous diffusion and later by enstrophy production, which becomes "active" only deep inside the turbulent region. Both enstrophy diffusion and production near the TNTI differ substantially from inside the turbulent region. Only about 1% of all particles find their way into pockets of irrotational flow engulfed into the turbulent shear layer region, indicating that "engulfment" is not significant for the present flow, indirectly suggesting that the entrainment is largely due to "nibbling" small-scale mechanisms acting along the entire TNTI surface. Probability density functions of particle positions suggests that the particles spend more time crossing the region near the TNTI than traveling inside the turbulent region, consistent with the particles moving tangent to the interface around the time they cross it.
Numerical calculation of two-phase turbulent jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saif, A.A.
1995-05-01
Two-phase turbulent round jets were numerically simulated using a multidimensional two-phase CFD code based on the two-fluid model. The turbulence phenomena were treated with the standard k-{epsilon} model. It was modified to take into account the additional dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy by the dispersed phase. Within the context of the two-fluid model it is more appropriate and physically justified to treat the diffusion by an interfacial force in the momentum equation. In this work, the diffusion force and the additional dissipation effect by the dispersed phase were modeled starting from the classical turbulent energy spectrum analysis. A cut-off frequency was proposed to decrease the dissipation effect by the dispersed phase when large size particles are introduced in the flow. The cut-off frequency combined with the bubble-induced turbulence effect allows for an increase in turbulence for large particles. Additional care was taken in choosing the right kind of experimental data from the literature so that a good separate effect test was possible for their models. The models predicted the experimental data very closely and they were general enough to predict extreme limit cases: water-bubble and air-droplet jets.
Fluid jet electric discharge source
Bender, Howard A [Ripon, CA
2006-04-25
A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.
Self-similar solutions for poloidal magnetic field in turbulent jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komissarov, S.S.; Ovchinnikov, I.L.
1990-01-01
Evolution of a large-scale magnetic field in a turbulent extragalactic source radio jets is considered. Self-similar solutions for a weak poloidal magnetic field transported by turbulent jet of incompressible fluid are found. It is shown that the radial profiles of the solutions are the eigenfunctions of a linear differential operator. In all the solutions, the strength of a large-scale field decreases more rapidly than that of a small-scale turbulent field. This can be understood as a decay of a large-scale field in the turbulent jet
Jet collimation by turbulent viscosity. I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henriksen, R.N.
1987-01-01
In this paper it is assumed that the subscale turbulent eddies induced in an ambient medium by the emergence of a (already collimated) jet from a galactic nucleus (VLBI jet) are the source of the viscosity which causes material to be entrained into the large-scale (VLA) jet. New analytic solutions are derived by a generalization of the self-similar Ansatz used in the Landau-Squires solution to include variable density and viscosity. It is shown that such a process of viscous collimation of the VLA jets can account for the observed collimation-luminosity correlation, the magnetic flux, and the inferred mass flux of these jets. Order of magnitude comparisons of velocity and density fields with recently observed emission-line flow regions near radio jets are made. All of the viscosity-dependent observational checks imply roughly the same plausible value for the eddy viscosity. It is emphasized that storing the initial VLBI jet energy in the intermediate scales occupied by the turbulent eddies allows this energy to be largely undetected. 35 references
Connections between turbulence and jet morphology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benford, G.
1982-01-01
The author discusses the crucial problem of how to generate large scale turbulence and convey the stored energy to reaccelerated particles, without simultaneously heating the jet so that it expands drastically. He assumes that the cascade process is efficient enough, and allows estimations of the time scale for energy transfer. (Auth.)
Synchrotron brightness distribution of turbulent radio jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henriksen, R.N.; Bridle, A.H.; Chan, K.L.
1982-01-01
In this paper we introduce the notion of radio jets as turbulent mixing regions. We further propose that the essential small-scale viscous dissipation in these jets is by Lighthill emission of MHD waves and by their subsequent strong damping due, at least partly, to gyroresonant acceleration of suprathermal particles. The equilibrium eddy, wave, and particle spectra are not found exactly in this paper but the problem is defined and rough estimates of the spectra are given to aid in the observational interpretation
Sooting turbulent jet flame: characterization and quantitative soot measurements
Köhler, M.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.; Crosland, B. M.; Thomson, K. A.; Smallwood, G. J.
2011-08-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelers require high-quality experimental data sets for validation of their numerical tools. Preferred features for numerical simulations of a sooting, turbulent test case flame are simplicity (no pilot flame), well-defined boundary conditions, and sufficient soot production. This paper proposes a non-premixed C2H4/air turbulent jet flame to fill this role and presents an extensive database for soot model validation. The sooting turbulent jet flame has a total visible flame length of approximately 400 mm and a fuel-jet Reynolds number of 10,000. The flame has a measured lift-off height of 26 mm which acts as a sensitive marker for CFD model validation, while this novel compiled experimental database of soot properties, temperature and velocity maps are useful for the validation of kinetic soot models and numerical flame simulations. Due to the relatively simple burner design which produces a flame with sufficient soot concentration while meeting modelers' needs with respect to boundary conditions and flame specifications as well as the present lack of a sooting "standard flame", this flame is suggested as a new reference turbulent sooting flame. The flame characterization presented here involved a variety of optical diagnostics including quantitative 2D laser-induced incandescence (2D-LII), shifted-vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (SV-CARS), and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Producing an accurate and comprehensive characterization of a transient sooting flame was challenging and required optimization of these diagnostics. In this respect, we present the first simultaneous, instantaneous PIV, and LII measurements in a heavily sooting flame environment. Simultaneous soot and flow field measurements can provide new insights into the interaction between a turbulent vortex and flame chemistry, especially since soot structures in turbulent flames are known to be small and often treated in a statistical manner.
Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leboeuf, J.N.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Drake, J.B.; Lynch, V.E.; Newman, D.E.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spong, D.A.
1994-01-01
The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center's CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated
The deterministic chaos and random noise in turbulent jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, Tian-Liang; Liu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng
2014-01-01
A turbulent flow is usually treated as a superposition of coherent structure and incoherent turbulence. In this paper, the largest Lyapunov exponent and the random noise in the near field of round jet and plane jet are estimated with our previously proposed method of chaotic time series analysis [T. L. Yao, et al., Chaos 22, 033102 (2012)]. The results show that the largest Lyapunov exponents of the round jet and plane jet are in direct proportion to the reciprocal of the integral time scale of turbulence, which is in accordance with the results of the dimensional analysis, and the proportionality coefficients are equal. In addition, the random noise of the round jet and plane jet has the same linear relation with the Kolmogorov velocity scale of turbulence. As a result, the random noise may well be from the incoherent disturbance in turbulence, and the coherent structure in turbulence may well follow the rule of chaotic motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, H. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Youn, Y. J.; Song, C. H.
2008-01-01
An experimental research was performed to develop an empirical correlation of the turbulent water jet induced by the steam jet through a single hole in a subcooled water pool. A moveable pitot tube including a thermal couple was used to measure a local velocity and temperature of the turbulent water jet. The experimental results show that the velocity and the temperature distributions agree well with the theory of axially symmetric turbulent jet. The correlation predicting the maximum velocity of the turbulent jet was modified from the previous correlation and a new correlation to predict the characteristic length was developed based on the test results
Advances in fluid modeling and turbulence measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wada, Akira; Ninokata, Hisashi; Tanaka, Nobukazu
2002-01-01
The context of this book consists of four fields: Environmental Fluid Mechanics; Industrial Fluid Mechanics; Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics; and Turbulence Measurements. Environmental Fluid Mechanics includes free surface flows in channels, rivers, seas, and estuaries. It also discusses wind engineering issues, ocean circulation model and dispersion problems in atmospheric, water and ground water environments. In Industrial Fluid Mechanics, fluid phenomena in energy exchanges, modeling of turbulent two- or multi-phase flows, swirling flows, flows in combustors, variable density flows and reacting flows, flows in turbo-machines, pumps and piping systems, and fluid-structure interaction are discussed. In Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, progress in modeling turbulent flows and heat/mass transfers, computational fluid dynamics/numerical techniques, parallel computing algorithms, applications of chaos/fractal theory in turbulence are reported. In Turbulence Measurements, experimental studies of turbulent flows, experimental and post-processing techniques, quantitative and qualitative flow visualization techniques are discussed. Separate abstracts were presented for 15 of the papers in this issue. The remaining 89 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)
Turbulence Statistics of a Buoyant Jet in a Stratified Environment
McCleney, Amy Brooke
Using non-intrusive optical diagnostics, turbulence statistics for a round, incompressible, buoyant, and vertical jet discharging freely into a stably linear stratified environment is studied and compared to a reference case of a neutrally buoyant jet in a uniform environment. This is part of a validation campaign for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Buoyancy forces are known to significantly affect the jet evolution in a stratified environment. Despite their ubiquity in numerous natural and man-made flows, available data in these jets are limited, which constrain our understanding of the underlying physical processes. In particular, there is a dearth of velocity field data, which makes it challenging to validate numerical codes, currently used for modeling these important flows. Herein, jet near- and far-field behaviors are obtained with a combination of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and multi-scale time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) for Reynolds number up to 20,000. Deploying non-intrusive optical diagnostics in a variable density environment is challenging in liquids. The refractive index is strongly affected by the density, which introduces optical aberrations and occlusions that prevent the resolution of the flow. One solution consists of using index matched fluids with different densities. Here a pair of water solutions - isopropanol and NaCl - are identified that satisfy these requirements. In fact, they provide a density difference up to 5%, which is the largest reported for such fluid pairs. Additionally, by design, the kinematic viscosities of the solutions are identical. This greatly simplifies the analysis and subsequent simulations of the data. The spectral and temperature dependence of the solutions are fully characterized. In the near-field, shear layer roll-up is analyzed and characterized as a function of initial velocity profile. In the far-field, turbulence statistics are reported for two different scales, one
Oscillations of a Turbulent Jet Incident Upon an Edge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.C. Lin; D. Rockwell
2000-09-19
For the case of a jet originating from a fully turbulent channel flow and impinging upon a sharp edge, the possible onset and nature of coherent oscillations has remained unexplored. In this investigation, high-image-density particle image velocimetry and surface pressure measurements are employed to determine the instantaneous, whole-field characteristics of the turbulent jet-edge interaction in relation to the loading of the edge. It is demonstrated that even in absence of acoustic resonant or fluid-elastic effects, highly coherent, self-sustained oscillations rapidly emerge above the turbulent background. Two clearly identifiable modes of instability are evident. These modes involve large-scale vortices that are phase-locked to the gross undulations of the jet and its interaction with the edge, and small-scale vortices, which are not phase-locked. Time-resolved imaging of instantaneous vorticity and velocity reveals the form, orientation, and strength of the large-scale concentrations of vorticity approaching the edge in relation to rapid agglomeration of small-scale vorticity concentrations. Such vorticity field-edge interactions exhibit rich complexity, relative to the simplified pattern of vortex-edge interaction traditionally employed for the quasi-laminar edgetone. Furthermore, these interactions yield highly nonlinear surface pressure signatures. The origin of this nonlinearity, involving coexistence of multiple frequency components, is interpreted in terms of large- and small-scale vortices embedded in distributed vorticity layers at the edge. Eruption of the surface boundary layer on the edge due to passage of the large-scale vortex does not occur; rather apparent secondary vorticity concentrations are simply due to distension of the oppositely-signed vorticity layer at the tip of the edge. The ensemble-averaged turbulent statistics of the jet quickly take on an identity that is distinct from the statistics of the turbulent boundary layer in the channel
Computational fluid dynamics incompressible turbulent flows
Kajishima, Takeo
2017-01-01
This textbook presents numerical solution techniques for incompressible turbulent flows that occur in a variety of scientific and engineering settings including aerodynamics of ground-based vehicles and low-speed aircraft, fluid flows in energy systems, atmospheric flows, and biological flows. This book encompasses fluid mechanics, partial differential equations, numerical methods, and turbulence models, and emphasizes the foundation on how the governing partial differential equations for incompressible fluid flow can be solved numerically in an accurate and efficient manner. Extensive discussions on incompressible flow solvers and turbulence modeling are also offered. This text is an ideal instructional resource and reference for students, research scientists, and professional engineers interested in analyzing fluid flows using numerical simulations for fundamental research and industrial applications. • Introduces CFD techniques for incompressible flow and turbulence with a comprehensive approach; • Enr...
A numerical study of a supercritical fluid jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sierra-Pallares, J.; Garcia-Serna, J.; Cocero, M.J.; Parra-Santos, M.T.; Castro-Ruiz, F.
2009-01-01
This study affords the numerical solution of the mixing of a submerged turbulent jet under supercritical conditions and near-critical conditions. Turbulence plays a very important role in the behaviour of chemical engineering equipment. An accurate prediction of the turbulence at supercritical conditions with low computational cost is crucial in designing new processes such as reactions in supercritical media, high pressure separation processes, nanomaterials processing and heterogeneous catalysis. At high-pressure, the flow cannot be modelled accurately using the ideal-gas assumption. Therefore, the real gas models must be used in order to solve accurately the fluid flow and heat transfer problems where the working fluid behaviour deviate seriously from the ideal-gas assumption. The jet structure has three parts clearly distinguished: the injection, the transition and the fully developed jet. Once the flow is dominated by the turbulent eddies of the shear layer, the flow is fully developed and the radial profiles match a similarity profile. This work reports the state of the project that is not completed and is being processed now. This work is devoted to establish the distance downstream from the injector where the jet become self-preserving and the shape of the similarity profiles. This system is of interest in the design of supercritical reactor inlets, where two streams should be mixed in the shortest length, or mixing conditions strongly affect the behaviour of the processes. The numerical results have been validated with experimental measurements made in the jet mixing region. The radial profiles for average velocity, density and temperature are analyzed. The parameters of the profile that match better the numerical results are summarized in Table 1. The density requires a lower value of n than these for velocity and temperature, which reflect smoother profiles. These conclusions are in good agreement with the results from Oschwald and Schik. (author)
Non-equilibrium turbulence scalings in turbulent planar jets
Cafiero, Gioacchino; Vassilicos, John Christos; Turbulence, Mixing; Flow Control Group Team
2017-11-01
A revised version of the Townsend George theory, as proposed by Dairay et al. 2015, is applied to the study of turbulent planar jets (Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017). Requiring the self-similarity of only few quantities along with the non-equilibrium dissipation scaling law (Vassilicos 2015), it implies new mean flow and jet width scalings. In particular, the ratio of characteristic cross-stream to centreline streamwise velocities decays as the -1/3 power of streamwise distance in the region where the non-equilibrium dissipation scaling holds. In the definition of Cɛ both in Dairay et al. 2015 and in Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017 the local Reynolds number is based on the local flow width rather than on the integral lengthscale. We verify that the ratio of the integral lengthscale to the flow width is constant, thus enabling the use of the integral flow width in place of the integral lengthscale for defining Cɛ. The importance of this result is twofold: firstly it further strengthens the scalings obtained in the works of Dairay et al. 2015 and Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017; secondly the flow width is immediately accessible by any mean flow measurement, whereas the estimation of the integral lengthscale often requires an additional hypothesis. ERC Advanced Grant 320560.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimenna, R.A.; Lee, S.Y.
1995-05-01
The application of computational fluid dynamics methods to the analysis of mixing in the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site requires a demonstration that the computer codes can properly represent the behavior of fluids in the tanks. The motive force for mixing the tanks is a set of jet pumps taking suction from the tank fluid and discharging turbulent jets near the bottom of the tank. The work described here focuses on the free turbulent jet in water as the simplest case of jet behavior for which data could be found in the open literature. Calculations performed with both CFDS-FLOW3D and FLUENT were compared with data as well as classical jet theory. Results showed both codes agreed reasonably well with each other and with the data, but that results were sensitive to the computational mesh and, to a lesser degree, the selection of turbulence models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dimenna, R.A.; Lee, S.Y.
1995-05-01
The application of computational fluid dynamics methods to the analysis of mixing in the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site requires a demonstration that the computer codes can properly represent the behavior of fluids in the tanks. The motive force for mixing the tanks is a set of jet pumps taking suction from the tank fluid and discharging turbulent jets near the bottom of the tank. The work described here focuses on the free turbulent jet in water as the simplest case of jet behavior for which data could be found in the open literature. Calculations performed with both CFDS-FLOW3D and FLUENT were compared with data as well as classical jet theory. Results showed both codes agreed reasonably well with each other and with the data, but that results were sensitive to the computational mesh and, to a lesser degree, the selection of turbulence models.
Laminar turbulent transition in heated free jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krejci, L.; Marsik, F.; Nenicka, V.
1998-01-01
The evolution of heat and mass transfer in the initial region of a transitional plasma plume is investigated and discussed. The results show that these transport processes are controlled and limited by the plume shear layer instability. The process of laminar-turbulent transition is consecutively controlled by the plume core shear layer instability where interrelation of the effective thickness of the shear temperature and density layers play decisive role. When the absolute instability occurs the resonances in the jet and arc chamber must be taken into account. These processes are manifested in three events. Between the first and second phase, there is a maximum of arc heater exit average enthalpy. The other two thresholds occur at maximum and minimum stagnation heat flux from the plume core. It seems that these processes also influence the thermal energy production in the arc chamber cavity. (author)
Characteristics of transitional and turbulent jet diffusion flames in microgravity
Bahadori, Yousef M.; Small, James F., Jr.; Hegde, Uday G.; Zhou, Liming; Stocker, Dennis P.
1995-01-01
This paper presents the ground-based results obtained to date in preparation of a proposed space experiment to study the role of large-scale structures in microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames by investigating the dynamics of vortex/flame interactions and their influence on flame characteristics. The overall objective is to gain an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. Understanding of the role of large-scale structures on the characteristics of microgravity transitional and turbulent flames will ultimately lead to improved understanding of normal-gravity turbulent combustion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urbin, Gerald [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)
1998-02-02
This study highlights the potentialities of the numerical technique of large scale simulation in describing and understanding the turbulent flows in a complex geometry. Particularly, it is focussed on flows of free jet, confined jets and multiple jets of high solidity grid. Spatial simulations of the circular zone close to a free jet, of high Reynolds number were performed. In spite of an evident sensitivity to upstream conditions good agreement between our statistical predictions and different experimental measurements was obtained. The multiple coherent vortical structures implied in the transition to turbulence of the jet were found. At the same time, helical or annular axisymmetric vortices were observed. Also, an original vortical arrangement was evidenced, resulting from the alternating inclination and local pairing of these rings. It could been forced through an ad-hoc excitation which modifies subsequently drastically the jet development. When an axisymmetric excitation is imposed after formation of annular structures, pairs of counter-rotative longitudinal vortices occur and generate lateral jets. Their nature and presence in case of a helical excitation are discussed. An efficient method for controlling their number is developed. Then, one is studied the very low frequency periodic phenomenon of backward-facing transition to turbulence which develops in the confined jet and grid multiple jets (a phenomenon generic in numerous flows). It was found to depend not only on the characteristic of the re-circulation (pre-transition) zones but also on the upstream flow (zone of post-transition stagnation, pressure effect). Large scale transversal motions of the fluid have been found beginning from the grid. An interpretation of this phenomenon is suggested 193 refs., 109 figs.
Comparison of two turbulence models in simulating an axisymmetric jet evolving into a tank
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kendil, F Zidouni [Nuclear research Center of Birine, Ain-Oussara (Algeria); Danciu, D-V; Lucas, D [Institute of Safety Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Salah, A Bousbia [Theoretical and Applied Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics - USTHB, Algiers (Algeria); Mataoui, A, E-mail: zidounifaiza@yahoo.fr, E-mail: d.danciu@hzdr.de [Department of mechanical and Nuclear Engineering University of Pisa-2, Pisa (Italy)
2011-12-22
Experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been carried out to investigate a turbulent water jet plunging into a tank filled with the same liquid. To avoid air bubble entrainment which may be caused by surface instabilities, the free falling length of the jet is set to zero. For both impinging region and recirculation zone, measurements are made using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Instantaneous- and time-averaged velocity fields are obtained. Numerical data is obtained on the basis of both {kappa} - {epsilon} and SSG (Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski) of Reynolds Stresses Turbulent Model (RSM) in three dimensional frame and compared to experimental results via the axial velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. For axial distances lower than 5cm from the jet impact point, the axial velocity matches well the measurements, using both models. A progressive difference is found near the jet for higher axial distances from the jet impact point. Nevertheless, the turbulence kinetic energy agrees very well with the measurements when applying the SSG-RSM model for the lower part of the tank, whereas it is underestimated in the upper region. Inversely, the {kappa} - {epsilon} model shows better results in the upper part of the water tank and underestimates results for the lower part of the water tank. From the overall results, it can be concluded that, for single phase flow, the {kappa} - {epsilon} model describes well the average axial velocity, whereas the turbulence kinetic energy is better represented by the SSG-RSM model.
Influence of coherent structures on the evolution of an axisymmetric turbulent jet
Breda, Massimiliano; Buxton, Oliver R. H.
2018-03-01
The role of initial conditions in affecting the evolution toward self-similarity of an axisymmetric turbulent jet is examined. The jet's near-field coherence was manipulated by non-circular exit geometries of identical open area, De2, including a square and a fractal exit, for comparison with a classical round orifice jet. Hot-wire anemometry and 2D-planar particle image velocimetry experiments were performed between the exit and a location 26De downstream, where the Reynolds stress profiles are self-similar. This study shows that a fractal geometry significantly changes the near-field structure of the jet, breaking up the large-scale coherent structures, thereby affecting the entrainment rate of the background fluid into the jet stream. It is found that many of the jet's turbulent characteristics scale with the number of eddy turnover times rather than simply the streamwise coordinate, with the entrainment rate (amongst others) found to be comparable across the different jets after approximately 3-4 eddies have been overturned. The study is concluded by investigating the jet's evolution toward a self-similar state. No differences are found for the large-scale spreading rate of the jets in the weakly self-similar region, so defined as the region for which some, but not all of the terms of the mean turbulent kinetic energy equation are self-similar. However, the dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy was found to vary more gradually in x than predicted according to the classical equilibrium theories of Kolmogorov. Instead, the dissipation was found to vary in a non-equilibrium fashion for all three jets tested.
Turbulent Boyant Jets and Plumes in Flowing Ambient Environments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Hai-Bo
and the stage of plume. The stability criteria for the upstream wedge created by the submerged turbulent buoyant jet were established by applying the Bernoulli equations for a two-dimensional problem and by considering the front velocity driven by the buoyancy force for a three-dimensional problem....... The integral model was developed on the basis of the volume control method ( for jets with two-dimensional trajectories ) and the differential method ( for jets with three-dimensional trajectories ). The turbulence model adopted here was the k - ε model based on Launder and Spalding. The mathematical models...
Studies of turbulent round jets through experimentation, simulation, and modeling
Keedy, Ryan
This thesis studies the physics of the turbulent round jet. In particular, it focuses on three different problems that have the turbulent round jet as their base flow. The first part of this thesis examines a compressible turbulent round jet at its sonic condition. We investigate the shearing effect such a jet has when impinging on a solid surface that is perpendicular to the flow direction. We report on experiments to evaluate the jet's ability to remove different types of explosive particles from a glass surface. Theoretical analysis revealed trends and enabled modeling to improve the predictability of particle removal for various jet conditions. The second part of thesis aims at developing a non-intrusive measurement technique for free-shear turbulent flows in nature. Most turbulent jet investigations in the literature, both in the laboratory and in the field, required specialized intrusive instrumentation and/or complex optical setups. There are many situations in naturally-occurring flows where the environment may prove too hostile or remote for existing instrumentation. We have developed a methodology for analyzing video of the exterior of a naturally-occurring flow and calculating the flow velocity. We found that the presence of viscosity gradients affects the velocity analysis. While these effects produce consistent, predictable changes, we became interested in the mechanism by which the viscosity gradients affect the mixing and development of the turbulent round jet. We conducted a stability analysis of the axisymmetric jet when a viscosity gradient is present. Finally, the third problem addressed in this thesis is the growth of liquid droplets by condensation in a turbulent round jet. A vapor-saturated turbulent jet issues into a cold, dry environment. The resulting mixing produces highly inhomogeneous regions of supersaturation, where droplets grow and evaporate. Non-linear interactions between the droplet growth rate and the supersaturation field make
Momentum and scalar transport at the turbulent/non-turbulent interface of a jet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westerweel, J.; Fukushima, C.; Pedersen, Jakob Martin
2009-01-01
and well-defined bounding interface between the turbulent and non-turbulent regions of flow. The jet carries a fluorescent dye measured with planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and the surface discontinuity in the scalar concentration is identified as the fluctuating turbulent jet interface. Thence...... velocity and mean scalar and a tendency towards a singularity in mean vorticity. These actual or asymptotic discontinuities are consistent with the conditional mean momentum and scalar transport equations integrated across the interface. Measurements of the fluxes of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy...
Isothermal and Reactive Turbulent Jets in Cross-Flow
Gutmark, Ephraim; Bush, Scott; Ibrahim, Irene
2004-11-01
Jets in cross flow have numerous applications including vertical/short takeoff/landing (V/STOL) aircraft, cooling jets for gas turbine blades and combustion air supply inlets in gas turbine engine. The properties exhibited by these jets are dictated by complex three dimensional turbulence structures which form due to the interaction of the jet with the freestream. The isothermal tests are conducted in a wind tunnel measuring the characteristics of air jets injected perpendicular into an otherwise undisturbed air stream. Different nozzle exit geometries of the air jets were tested including circular, triangular and elongated configurations. Jets are injected in single and paired combinations with other jets to measure the effect of mutual interaction on the parameters mentioned. Quantitative velocity fields are obtained using PIV. The data obtained allows the extraction of flow parameters such as jet structure, penetration and mixing. The reacting tests include separate and combined jets of fuel/air mixture utilized to explore the stabilization of combustion at various operating conditions. Different geometrical configurations of transverse jets are tested to determine the shape and combination of jets that will optimize the jets ability to successfully stabilize a flame.
Fluid and gyrokinetic simulations of impurity transport at JET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordman, H; Skyman, A; Strand, P
2011-01-01
Impurity transport coefficients due to ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) mode and trapped-electron mode turbulence are calculated using profile data from dedicated impurity injection experiments at JET. Results obtained with a multi-fluid model are compared with quasi-linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic...... simulation results obtained with the code GENE. The sign of the impurity convective velocity (pinch) and its various contributions are discussed. The dependence of the impurity transport coefficients and impurity peaking factor −∇nZ/nZ on plasma parameters such as impurity charge number Z, ion logarithmic...
Numerical and experimental study of two turbulent opposed plane jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Besbes, Sonia; Mhiri, Hatem [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Route de Ouardanine, Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, UNIMECA, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, 60 rue Joliot-Curie, 13453 Marseille (France)
2003-09-01
The turbulent interaction between two opposed plane jets separated by a distance H is experimentally studied by using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method and numerically investigated by means of a finite volume code. Two turbulence models have been tested: the standard k-{epsilon} model and a second-order model. The validation of the numerical study was performed by comparing the results with experimental data obtained for the case of two interacting opposed jets at ambient temperature (isothermal case). The effect of the angle of inclination of the jets is studied. Conclusions of the validation are then used to study the interaction between two jets, one being maintained at ambient temperature whereas the other is heated. Results show that the stagnation point moves towards the heated jet. It is shown that the heating induces a stabilizing effect on the flow. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKendrick, D.; Biggs, S.R.; Fairweather, M.; Rhodes, D.
2008-01-01
The impingement of a fluid jet onto a surface has broad applications across many industries. Within the UK nuclear industry, during the final stages of fuel reprocessing, impinging fluid jets are utilised to mobilise settled sludge material within storage tanks and ponds in preparation for transfer and ultimate immobilisation through vitrification. Despite the extensive applications of impinging jets within the nuclear and other industries, the study of two-phase, solid loaded, impinging jets is limited, and generally restricted to computational modelling. Surprisingly, very little fundamental understanding of the turbulence structure within such fluid flows through experimental investigation is found within the literature. The physical modelling of impinging jet systems could successfully serve to aid computer model validation, determine operating requirements, evaluate plant throughput requirements, optimise process operations and support design. Within this project a method is illustrated, capable of exploring the effects of process and material variables on flow phenomena of impinging jets. This is achieved via the use of non-intrusive measurement techniques Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Ultrasonic Doppler Velocity Profiler (UDVP) and high speed imaging. The turbulence structure for impinging jets, and their resultant radial wall jets, is presented at different jet-to-plate ratios, jet Reynolds numbers and jet outlet diameters. (authors)
Liquid jets for experiments on complex fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinke, Ingo
2015-02-01
The ability of modern storage rings and free-electron lasers to produce intense X-ray beams that can be focused down to μm and nm sizes offers the possibility to study soft condensed matter systems on small length and short time scales. Gas dynamic virtual nozzles (GDVN) offer the unique possibility to investigate complex fluids spatially confined in a μm sized liquid jet with high flow rates, high pressures and shear stress distributions. In this thesis two different applications of liquid jet injection systems have been studied. The influence of the shear flow present in a liquid jet on colloidal dispersions was investigated via small angle X-ray scattering and a coherent wide angle X-ray scattering experiment on a liquid water jet was performed. For these purposes, liquid jet setups that are capable for X-ray scattering experiments have been developed and the manufacturing of gas dynamic virtual nozzles was realized. The flow properties of a liquid jet and their influences on the liquid were studied with two different colloidal dispersions at beamline P10 at the storage ring PETRA III. The results show that high shear flows present in a liquid jet lead to compressions and expansions of the particle structure and to particle alignments. The shear rate in the used liquid jet could be estimated to γ ≥ 5.4 . 10 4 Hz. The feasibility of rheology studies with a liquid jet injection system and the combined advantages is discussed. The coherent X-ray scattering experiment on a water jet was performed at the XCS instrument at the free-electron laser LCLS. First coherent single shot diffraction patterns from water were taken to investigate the feasibility of measuring speckle patterns from water.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choo, Yeon Jun; Song, Chul-Hwa
2010-01-01
This experimental research is on the fluid-dynamic features produced by a steam injection into a subcooled water pool. The relevant phenomena could often be encountered in water cooled nuclear power plants. Two major topics, a turbulent jet and the internal circulation produced by a steam injection, were investigated separately using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) as a non-intrusive optical measurement technique. Physical domains of both experiments have a two-dimensional axi-symmetric geometry of which the boundary and initial conditions can be readily and well defined. The turbulent jet experiments with the upward discharging configuration provide the parametric values for quantitatively describing a turbulent jet such as the self-similar velocity profile, central velocity decay, spreading rate, etc. And in the internal circulation experiments with the downward discharging configuration, typical flow patterns in a whole pool region are measured in detail, which reveals both the local and macroscopic characteristics of the mixing behavior in a pool. This quantitative data on the condensing jet-induced mixing behavior in a pool could be utilized as benchmarking for a CFD simulation of relevant phenomena.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pietri, L.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.; Fulachier, L. [Institut de Recherche sur les Phinomenes Hors Equilibre Equipe Turbulence, 13 - Marseille (France)
1997-12-31
Turbulent flows with strong density variations, like helium jets in the ambient air, have specific properties linked with the difference of gas densities. This paper presents some experimental results of turbulence properties inside such flows: the Reynolds tensions and the associated turbulent viscosity, and some characteristics linked with the statistical properties of the different turbulence scales. These last results allows to show the complexity of such flows characterized by the influence of external parameters (Reynolds number, initial density ratio, initial momentum flux) that govern the evolution of these parameters inside the jet from the nozzle up to regions where similarity properties are reached. (J.S.) 12 refs.
The interaction of synthetic jets with turbulent boundary layers
Cui, Jing
In recent years, a promising approach to the control of wall bounded as well as free shear flows, using synthetic jet (oscillatory jet with zero-net-mass-flux) actuators, has received a great deal of attention. A variety of impressive flow control results have been achieved experimentally by many researchers including the vectoring of conventional propulsive jets, modification of aerodynamic characteristics of bluff bodies, control of lift and drag of airfoils, reduction of skin-friction of a flat plate boundary layer, enhanced mixing in circular jets, and control of external as well as internal flow separation and of cavity oscillations. More recently, attempts have been made to numerically simulate some of these flowfields. Numerically several of the above mentioned flow fields have been simulated primarily by employing the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) equations with a turbulence model and a limited few by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). In simulations, both the simplified boundary conditions at the exit of the jet as well as the details of the cavity and lip have been included. In this dissertation, I describe the results of simulations for several two- and three-dimensional flowfields dealing with the interaction of a synthetic jet with a turbulent boundary layer and control of separation. These simulations have been performed using the URANS equations in conjunction with either one- or a two-equation turbulence model. 2D simulations correspond to the experiments performed by Honohan at Georgia Tech. and 3D simulations correspond to the CFD validation test cases proposed in the NASA Langley Research Center Workshop---"CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control" held at Williamsburg VA in March 2004. The sources of uncertainty due to grid resolution, time step, boundary conditions, turbulence modeling etc. have been examined during the computations. Extensive comparisons for various flow variables are made with the
Numerical study of jet noise radiated by turbulent coherent structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bastin, F.
1995-08-01
a numerical approach of jet mixing noise prediction is presented, based on the assumption that the radiated sound field is essentially due to large-scale coherent turbulent structures. A semi-deterministic turbulence modelling is used to obtain the flow coherent fluctuations. This model is derived from the k-{epsilon} model and validated on the 2-D compressible shear layer case. Three plane jets at Mach 0.5, 1.33 and 2 are calculated. The semi-deterministic modelling yields a realistic unsteady representation of plane jets but not appropriate for axisymmetric jet computations. Lighthill`s analogy is used to estimate the noise radiated by the flow. Three integral formulations of the theory are compared and the most suitable one is expressed in space-time Fourier space. This formulation is associated to a geometrical interpretation of acoustic computations in (k, {omega}) plane. The only contribution of coherent structures cannot account for the high-frequency radiation of a subsonic jet and thus, the initial assumption is not verified in the subsonic range. The interpretation of Lighthill`s analogy in (k, {omega}) plane allows to conclude that the missing high-frequency components are due to the inner structure of the coherent motion. For supersonic jets, full acoustic spectra are obtained, at least in the forward arc where the dominant radiation is emitted. For the fastest jet (M = 2), no Mach waves are observed, which may be explained by a ratio of the structures convection velocity to the jet exit velocity lower in plane than in circular jets. This point is confirmed by instability theory calculations. Large eddy simulations (LES) were performed for subsonic jets. Data obtained in the plane jet case show that this technique allows only a slight improvement of acoustic results. To obtain a satisfactory high-frequency radiation, very fine grids should be considered, and the 2-D approximation could not be justified anymore. (Abstract Truncated)
Analysis of a turbulent buoyant confined jet modeled using realizable k-ε model
El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu; Heidemann, Wolfgang; Mü ller-Steinhagen, Hans M.
2010-01-01
Through this paper, analyses of components of the unheated/heated turbulent confined jet are introduced and some models to describe them are developed. Turbulence realizable k-ε model is used to model the turbulence of this problem. Numerical
Turbulent flow field structure of initially asymmetric jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Bong Whan; Kim, Suk Woo
2000-01-01
The near field structure of round turbulent jets with initially asymmetric velocity distributions is investigated experimentally. Experiments are carried out using a constant temperature hot-wire anemomentry system to measure streamwise velocity in the jets. The measurements are undertaken across the jet at various streamwise stations in a range starting from the jet exit plane and up to a downstream location of twelve diameters. The experimental results include the distributions of mean and instantaneous velocities, vorticity field, turbulence intensity, and the Reynolds shear stresses. The asymmetry of the jet exit plane was obtained by using circular cross-section pipes with a bend upstream of the exit. Three pipes used here include a straight pipe, and 90 and 160 degree-bend pipes. Therefore, at the upstream of the pipe exit, secondary flow through the bend and mean streamwise velocity distribution could be controlled by changing the curvature of pipes. The jets into the atmosphere have two levels of initial velocity skewness in addition to an axisymmetric jet from a straight pipe. In case of the curved pipe, a six diameterlong straight pipe section follows the bend upstream of the exit. The Reynolds number based on the exit bulk velocity is 13,400. The results indicate that the near field structure is considerably modified by the skewness of an initial mean velocity distribution. As the skewness increases, the decay rate of mean velocity at the centerline also increases
Interaction between plasma synthetic jet and subsonic turbulent boundary layer
Zong, Haohua; Kotsonis, Marios
2017-04-01
This paper experimentally investigates the interaction between a plasma synthetic jet (PSJ) and a subsonic turbulent boundary layer (TBL) using a hotwire anemometer and phase-locked particle imaging velocimetry. The PSJ is interacting with a fully developed turbulent boundary layer developing on the flat wall of a square wind tunnel section of 1.7 m length. The Reynolds number based on the freestream velocity (U∞ = 20 m/s) and the boundary layer thickness (δ99 = 34.5 mm) at the location of interaction is 44 400. A large-volume (1696 mm3) three-electrode plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) with a round exit orifice (D = 2 mm) is adopted to produce high-speed (92 m/s) and short-duration (Tjet = 1 ms) pulsed jets. The exit velocity variation of the adopted PSJA in a crossflow is shown to remain almost identical to that in quiescent conditions. However, the flow structures emanating from the interaction between the PSJ and the TBL are significantly different from what were observed in quiescent conditions. In the midspan xy plane (z = 0 mm), the erupted jet body initially follows a wall-normal trajectory accompanied by the formation of a distinctive front vortex ring. After three convective time scales the jet bends to the crossflow, thus limiting the peak penetration depth to approximately 0.58δ99. Comparison of the normalized jet trajectories indicates that the penetration ability of the PSJ is less than steady jets with the same momentum flow velocity. Prior to the jet diminishing, a recirculation region is observed in the leeward side of the jet body, experiencing first an expansion and then a contraction in the area. In the cross-stream yz plane, the signature structure of jets in a crossflow, the counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP), transports high-momentum flow from the outer layer to the near-wall region, leading to a fuller velocity profile and a drop in the boundary layer shape factor (1.3 to 1.2). In contrast to steady jets, the CVP produced by the PSJ
Kinetic energy budgets near the turbulent/nonturbulent interface in jets
Taveira, Rodrigo R.; da Silva, Carlos B.
2013-01-01
The dynamics of the kinetic energy near the turbulent/nonturbulent (T/NT) interface separating the turbulent from the irrotational flow regions is analysed using three direct numerical simulations of turbulent planar jets, with Reynolds numbers based on the Taylor micro-scale across the jet shear layer in the range Reλ ≈ 120-160. Important levels of kinetic energy are already present in the irrotational region near the T/NT interface. The mean pressure and kinetic energy are well described by the Bernoulli equation in this region and agree with recent results obtained from rapid distortion theory in the turbulent region [M. A. C. Teixeira and C. B. da Silva, "Turbulence dynamics near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface," J. Fluid Mech. 695, 257-287 (2012)], 10.1017/jfm.2012.17 while the normal Reynolds stresses agree with the theoretical predictions from Phillips ["The irrotational motion outside a free turbulent boundary," Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 51, 220 (1955)], 10.1017/S0305004100030073. The use of conditional statistics in relation to the distance from the T/NT interface allow a detailed study of the build up of kinetic energy across the T/NT interface, pointing to a very different picture than using classical statistics. Conditional kinetic energy budgets show that apart from the viscous dissipation of kinetic energy, the maximum of all the mechanisms governing the kinetic energy are concentrated in a very narrow region distancing about one to two Taylor micro-scales from the T/NT interface. The (total and fluctuating) kinetic energy starts increasing in the irrotational region by pressure-velocity interactions - a mechanism that can act at distance, and continue to grow by advection (for the total kinetic energy) and turbulent diffusion (for the turbulent kinetic energy) inside the turbulent region. These mechanisms tend to occur preferentially around the core of the large-scale vortices existing near T/NT interface. The production of turbulent
Transport of inertial particles in a turbulent premixed jet flame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battista, F; Picano, F; Casciola, C M; Troiani, G
2011-01-01
The heat release, occurring in reacting flows, induces a sudden fluid acceleration which particles follow with a certain lag, due to their finite inertia. Actually, the coupling between particle inertia and the flame front expansion strongly biases the spatial distribution of the particles, by inducing the formation of localized clouds with different dimensions downstream the thin flame front. A possible indicator of this preferential localization is the so-called Clustering Index, quantifying the departure of the actual particle distribution from the Poissonian, which would correspond to a purely random spatial arrangement. Most of the clustering is found in the flame brush region, which is spanned by the fluctuating instantaneous flame front. The effect is significant also for very light particles. In this case a simple model based on the Bray-Moss-Libby formalism is able to account for most of the deviation from the Poissonian. When the particle inertia increases, the effect is found to increases and persist well within the region of burned gases. The effect is maximum when the particle relaxation time is of the order of the flame front time scale. The evidence of this peculiar source of clustering is here provided by data from a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent premixed jet flame and confirmed by experimental data.
Buoyancy Effects in Turbulent Jet Flames in Crossflow
Boxx, Isaac; Idicheria, Cherian; Clemens, Noel
2003-11-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of buoyancy on the structure of turbulent, non-premixed hydrocarbon jet-flames in crossflow (JFICF). This was accomplished using a small jet-in-crossflow facility which can be oriented at a variety of angles with respect to the gravity vector. This facility enables us to alter the relative influence of buoyancy on the JFICF without altering the jet-exit Reynolds number, momentum flux ratio or the geometry of the system. Results are compared to similar, but non-buoyant, JFICF studied in microgravity. Departures of jet-centerline trajectory from the well-known power-law scaling of turbulent JFICF were used to explore the transition from a buoyancy-influenced regime to a momentum dominated one. The primary diagnostic was CCD imaging of soot-luminosity. We present results on ethylene jet flames with jet-exit Reynolds numbers of 1770 to 8000 and momentum flux ratios of 5 to 13.
Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2001-04-01
Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is put on understanding of effects on turbulent characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)
VARIABILITY IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM PROPAGATING TURBULENT RELATIVISTIC JETS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pollack, Maxwell; Pauls, David; Wiita, Paul J., E-mail: wiitap@tcnj.edu [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey P.O. Box 7718, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718 (United States)
2016-03-20
We use the Athena hydrodynamics code to model propagating two-dimensional relativistic jets as approximations to the growth of radio-loud active galactic nuclei for various input jet velocities and jet-to-ambient matter density ratios. Using results from these simulations we estimate the changing synchrotron emission by summing the fluxes from a vertical strip of zones behind the reconfinement shock, which is nearly stationary, and from which a substantial portion of the flux variability should arise. We explore a wide range of timescales by considering two light curves from each simulation; one uses a relativistic turbulence code with bulk velocities taken from our simulations as input, while the other uses the bulk velocity data to compute fluctuations caused by variations in the Doppler boosting due to changes in the direction and the speed of the flow through all zones in the strip. We then calculate power spectral densities (PSDs) from the light curves for both turbulent and bulk velocity origins for variability. The range of the power-law slopes of the PSDs for the turbulence induced variations is −1.8 to −2.3, while for the bulk velocity produced variations this range is −2.1 to −2.9; these are in agreement with most observations. When superimposed, these power spectra span a very large range in frequency (about five decades), with the turbulent fluctuations yielding most of the shorter timescale variations and the bulk flow changes dominating the longer periods.
VARIABILITY IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM PROPAGATING TURBULENT RELATIVISTIC JETS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pollack, Maxwell; Pauls, David; Wiita, Paul J.
2016-01-01
We use the Athena hydrodynamics code to model propagating two-dimensional relativistic jets as approximations to the growth of radio-loud active galactic nuclei for various input jet velocities and jet-to-ambient matter density ratios. Using results from these simulations we estimate the changing synchrotron emission by summing the fluxes from a vertical strip of zones behind the reconfinement shock, which is nearly stationary, and from which a substantial portion of the flux variability should arise. We explore a wide range of timescales by considering two light curves from each simulation; one uses a relativistic turbulence code with bulk velocities taken from our simulations as input, while the other uses the bulk velocity data to compute fluctuations caused by variations in the Doppler boosting due to changes in the direction and the speed of the flow through all zones in the strip. We then calculate power spectral densities (PSDs) from the light curves for both turbulent and bulk velocity origins for variability. The range of the power-law slopes of the PSDs for the turbulence induced variations is −1.8 to −2.3, while for the bulk velocity produced variations this range is −2.1 to −2.9; these are in agreement with most observations. When superimposed, these power spectra span a very large range in frequency (about five decades), with the turbulent fluctuations yielding most of the shorter timescale variations and the bulk flow changes dominating the longer periods
Numerical simulations of turbulent jet ignition and combustion
Validi, Abdoulahad; Irannejad, Abolfazl; Jaberi, Farhad
2013-11-01
The ignition and combustion of a homogeneous lean hydrogen-air mixture by a turbulent jet flow of hot combustion products injected into a colder gas mixture are studied by a high fidelity numerical model. Turbulent jet ignition can be considered as an efficient method for starting and controlling the reaction in homogeneously charged combustion systems used in advanced internal combustion and gas turbine engines. In this work, we study in details the physics of turbulent jet ignition in a fundamental flow configuration. The flow and combustion are modeled with the hybrid large eddy simulation/filtered mass density function (LES/FMDF) approach, in which the filtered form the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order finite difference scheme for the turbulent velocity and the FMDF transport equations are solved with a Lagrangian stochastic method to obtain the scalar (temperature and species mass fractions) field. The hydrogen oxidation is described by a detailed reaction mechanism with 37 elementary reactions and 9 species.
The effects of protostellar jet feedback on turbulent collapse
Murray, Daniel; Goyal, Shivam; Chang, Philip
2018-03-01
We present results of hydrodynamic simulations of massive star-forming regions with and without protostellar jets. We show that jets change the normalization of the stellar mass accretion rate, but do not strongly affect the dynamics of star formation. In particular, M*(t) ∝ f2(t - t*)2, where f = 1 - fjet is the fraction of mass accreted on to the protostar, fjet is the fraction ejected by the jet, and (t - t*)2 is the time elapsed since the formation of the first star. The star formation efficiency is non-linear in time. We find that jets have only a small effect (of order 25 per cent) on the accretion rate on to the protostellar disc (the `raw' accretion rate). We show that the small-scale structures - the radial density, velocity, and mass accretion profiles - are very similar in the jet and no-jet cases. Finally, we show that the inclusion of jets does drive turbulence but only on small (parsec) scales.
New class of turbulence in active fluids
Bratanov, Vasil; Frey, Erwin
2015-01-01
Turbulence is a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, occurring from astrophysical to biophysical scales. At the same time, it is widely recognized as one of the key unsolved problems in modern physics, representing a paradigmatic example of nonlinear dynamics far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Whereas in the past, most theoretical work in this area has been devoted to Navier–Stokes flows, there is now a growing awareness of the need to extend the research focus to systems with more general patterns of energy injection and dissipation. These include various types of complex fluids and plasmas, as well as active systems consisting of self-propelled particles, like dense bacterial suspensions. Recently, a continuum model has been proposed for such “living fluids” that is based on the Navier–Stokes equations, but extends them to include some of the most general terms admitted by the symmetry of the problem [Wensink HH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14308–14313]. This introduces a cubic nonlinearity, related to the Toner–Tu theory of flocking, which can interact with the quadratic Navier–Stokes nonlinearity. We show that as a result of the subtle interaction between these two terms, the energy spectra at large spatial scales exhibit power laws that are not universal, but depend on both finite-size effects and physical parameters. Our combined numerical and analytical analysis reveals the origin of this effect and even provides a way to understand it quantitatively. Turbulence in active fluids, characterized by this kind of nonlinear self-organization, defines a new class of turbulent flows. PMID:26598708
Deposition of micron liquid droplets on wall in impinging turbulent air jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Tianshu; Nink, Jacob; Merati, Parviz [Western Michigan University, Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Tian, Tian; Li, Yong [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan Automotive Laboratory, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shieh, Tom [Toyota Technical Center, Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, Inc, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2010-06-15
The fluid mechanics of the deposition of micron liquid (olive oil) droplets on a glass wall in an impinging turbulent air jet is studied experimentally. The spatial patterns of droplets deposited on a wall are measured by using luminescent oil visualization technique, and the statistical data of deposited droplets are obtained through microscopic imagery. Two distinct rings of droplets deposited on a wall are found, and the mechanisms of the formation of the inner and outer rings are investigated based on global diagnostics of velocity and skin friction fields. In particular, the intriguing effects of turbulence, including large-scale coherent vortices and small-scale random turbulence, on micron droplet deposition on a wall and coalescence in the air are explored. (orig.)
Scanning tomographic particle image velocimetry applied to a turbulent jet
Casey, T. A.
2013-02-21
We introduce a modified tomographic PIV technique using four high-speed video cameras and a scanning pulsed laser-volume. By rapidly illuminating adjacent subvolumes onto separate video frames, we can resolve a larger total volume of velocity vectors, while retaining good spatial resolution. We demonstrate this technique by performing time-resolved measurements of the turbulent structure of a round jet, using up to 9 adjacent volume slices. In essence this technique resolves more velocity planes in the depth direction by maintaining optimal particle image density and limiting the number of ghost particles. The total measurement volumes contain between 1 ×106 and 3 ×106 velocity vectors calculated from up to 1500 reconstructed depthwise image planes, showing time-resolved evolution of the large-scale vortical structures for a turbulent jet of Re up to 10 000.
Statistics of turbulent structures in a thermal plasma jet
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hlína, Jan; Šonský, Jiří; Něnička, Václav; Zachar, Andrej
2005-01-01
Roč. 38, - (2005), s. 1760-1768 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1057202; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : turbulent structures * thermal plasma jet Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.957, year: 2005
Spectra of turbulent static pressure fluctuations in jet mixing layers
Jones, B. G.; Adrian, R. J.; Nithianandan, C. K.; Planchon, H. P., Jr.
1977-01-01
Spectral similarity laws are derived for the power spectra of turbulent static pressure fluctuations by application of dimensional analysis in the limit of large turbulent Reynolds number. The theory predicts that pressure spectra are generated by three distinct types of interaction in the velocity fields: a fourth order interaction between fluctuating velocities, an interaction between the first order mean shear and the third order velocity fluctuations, and an interaction between the second order mean shear rate and the second order fluctuating velocity. Measurements of one-dimensional power spectra of the turbulent static pressure fluctuations in the driven mixing layer of a subsonic, circular jet are presented, and the spectra are examined for evidence of spectral similarity. Spectral similarity is found for the low wavenumber range when the large scale flow on the centerline of the mixing layer is self-preserving. The data are also consistent with the existence of universal inertial subranges for the spectra of each interaction mode.
A numerical study of non-isothermal turbulent coaxial jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kriaa, Wassim; Abderrazak, Kamel; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Monastir (Tunisia); Palec, Georges le; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, Marseille (France)
2008-07-15
In this work, we propose to study non isothermal air-air coaxial jets with two different approaches: parabolic and elliptic approaches. The standard k-{epsilon} model and the RSM model were applied in this study. The numerical resolution of the equations governing this flow type was carried out for: the parabolic approach, by a ''home-made'' CFD code based on a finite difference method, and the elliptic approach by an industrial code (FLUENT) based on a finite volume method. In forced convection mode (Fr={infinity}), the two turbulence models are valid for the prediction of the mean flow. But for turbulent sizes, k-{epsilon} model gives results closer to those achieved in experiments compared to RSM Model. Concerning the limit of validity of the parabolic and elliptic approaches, we showed that for velocities ratio r lower than 1, the results of the two approaches were satisfactory. On the other hand, for r>1, the difference between the results became increasingly significant. In mixed convection mode (Fr{approx_equal}20), the results obtained by the two turbulence models for the mean axial velocity were very different even in the plume region. For the temperature and the turbulent sizes the two models give satisfactory results which agree well with the correlations suggested by the experimenters for X{>=}20. Thus, the second order model with {sigma}{sub t}=0.85 is more effective for a coaxial jet study in a mixed convection mode. (orig.)
Particle clustering within a two-phase turbulent pipe jet
Lau, Timothy; Nathan, Graham
2016-11-01
A comprehensive study of the influence of Stokes number on the instantaneous distributions of particles within a well-characterised, two-phase, turbulent pipe jet in a weak co-flow was performed. The experiments utilised particles with a narrow size distribution, resulting in a truly mono-disperse particle-laden jet. The jet Reynolds number, based on the pipe diameter, was in the range 10000 developed technique. The results show that particle clustering is significantly influenced by the exit Stokes number. Particle clustering was found to be significant for 0 . 3 financial contributions by the Australian Research Council (Grant No. DP120102961) and the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (Grant No. USO034).
Scalar transport across the turbulent/non-turbulent interface in jets: Schmidt number effects
Silva, Tiago S.; B. da Silva, Carlos; Idmec Team
2016-11-01
The dynamics of a passive scalar field near a turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) is analysed through direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent planar jets, with Reynolds numbers ranging from 142 <= Reλ <= 246 , and Schmidt numbers from 0 . 07 <= Sc <= 7 . The steepness of the scalar gradient, as observed from conditional profiles near the TNTI, increases with the Schmidt number. Conditional scalar gradient budgets show that for low and moderate Schmidt numbers a diffusive superlayer emerges at the TNTI, where the scalar gradient diffusion dominates, while the production is negligible. For low Schmidt numbers the growth of the turbulent front is commanded by the molecular diffusion, whereas the scalar gradient convection is negligible. The authors acknowledge the Laboratory for Advanced Computing at University of Coimbra for providing HPC, computing, consulting resources that have contributed to the research results reported within this paper. URL http://www.lca.uc.pt.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Huhu; Lee Saya; Hassan, Yassin A.; Ruggles, Arthur E.
2014-01-01
The design of next generation (Gen. IV) high-temperature nuclear reactors including gas-cooled and sodium-cooled ones involves massive numerical works especially the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The high cost of large-scale experiments and the inherent uncertainties existing in the turbulent models and wall functions of any CFD codes solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations necessitate the high-spacial experimental data sets for benchmarking the simulation results. In Gen. IV conceptual reactors, the high- temperature flows mix in the upper plenum before entering the secondary cooling system. The mixing condition should be accurately estimated and fully understood as it is related to the thermal stresses induced in the upper plenum and the magnitudes of output power oscillations due to any changes of primary coolant temperature. The purpose of this study is to use Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) technique to measure the flow field of two submerged parallel jets issuing from two rectangular channels. The LDA data sets can be used to validate the corresponding simulation results. The jets studied in this work were at room temperature. The turbulent characteristics including the distributions of mean velocities, turbulence intensities, Reynolds stresses were studied. Uncertainty analysis was also performed to study the errors involved in this experiment. The experimental results in this work are valid for benchmarking any steady-state numerical simulations using turbulence models to solve RANS equations. (author)
Suppression of plasma turbulence during optimised shear configurations in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conway, G.D.; Borba, D.N.; Alper, B.
1999-08-01
Density turbulence suppression is observed in the internal transport barrier (ITB) region of JET discharges with optimised magnetic shear. The suppression occurs in two stages. First, low frequency turbulence is reduced across the plasma core by a toroidal velocity shear generated by intense auxiliary heating. Then when the ITB forms, high frequency turbulence is reduced locally within the steep pressure gradient region of the ITB, consistent with the effects of enhanced E x B poloidal shear. The turbulence suppression is correlated with reduced plasma transport and improved fusion performance. Much effort has been spent in recent years in developing alternative scenarios for operating tokamak fusion reactors. One particular scenario involves reversing or reducing the central magnetic shear to form an internal transport barrier (ITB). The result is reduced plasma core energy transport and enhanced fusion performance. It is believed that ITBs may be formed through a combination of E x B velocity shear and magnetic shear stabilisation of plasma turbulence and instabilities. In this Letter we present results from JET optimised shear discharges showing that turbulence suppression during ITB formation occurs in two stages. First low frequency turbulence is reduced across the plasma core, coinciding with a region of strong toroidal velocity shear; then high frequency turbulence is locally suppressed around the ITB region, consistent with enhanced pressure gradient driven E x B poloidal shear. The measurements were made using a system of X-mode reflectometers consisting of two, dual-channel toroidal correlation reflectometers at 75 GHz (covering plasma outboard edge) and 105 GHz (core and inboard edge), and a 92-96 GHz swept frequency radial correlation reflectometer (plasma core). Reflectometry is a powerful tool for measuring density fluctuations. The highly localised reflection of the microwave beam gives excellent spatial localisation. Measurements can be made
Swirl effect on flow structure and mixing in a turbulent jet
Kravtsov, Z. D.; Sharaborin, D. K.; Dulin, V. M.
2018-03-01
The paper reports on experimental study of turbulent transport in the initial region of swirling turbulent jets. The particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence techniques are used to investigate the flow structure and passive scalar concentration, respectively, in free air jet with acetone vapor. Three flow cases are considered, viz., non-swirling jets and swirling jets with and without vortex breakdown and central recirculation zone. Without vortex breakdown, the swirl is shown to promote jet mixing with surrounding air and to decrease the jet core length. The vortex core breakdown further enhances mixing as the jet core disintegrates at the nozzle exit.
Analysis of the flow structure of a turbulent thermal plasma jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spores, R.A.
1989-01-01
The goal of this research project is to attain a better understanding of the fluid mechanics associated with the high temperature jet of a thermal plasma torch. The analysis of a plasma, which has the ability to vaporize anything placed inside it without proper cooling, presents a unique research challenge. Several types of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques has been used to examine the jet from different perspectives. To actually map out the mean gas velocities and turbulence intensities throughout the jet, laser Doppler anemometry has been employed. The plasma gas and entrained air him been seeded separately in order to conditionally sample the two fluids and attain information about the gas mixing process. Both radial and axial turbulence levels have been measured in order to analyze the non-isotropic nature of the jet. A parabolic numerical code has been modified and compared with the obtained experimental results. A new diagnostic technique for plasma torches, which involves the spectral analysis of voltage, optical (temperature), and acoustical (pressure) fluctuations, has been implemented. The acoustical spectrum can provide information about the existence of coherent structures in the flow while the cross correlation of the acoustical signal with the voltage fluctuations can tell one to what extent perturbations of the internal arc affect the external flow. Since temperature is a scalar that is dependent on the flow field, observing temperature fluctuations can likewise help one to understand the mechanics of the flow. Flow visualization of the plasma jet using a high speed video camera has also been undertaken in order to better understand the entrainment process
Characteristics of strongly-forced turbulent jets and non-premixed jet flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakshminarasimhan, K.; Ezekoye, O.A. [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Austin, TX (United States); Clemens, N.T. [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Austin, TX (United States)
2006-10-15
Previous researchers have demonstrated that strong pulsations of the fuel flow rate can significantly reduce the flame length and luminosity of laminar/transitional non-premixed jet flames. The physical mechanisms responsible for these changes are investigated experimentally in acoustically-forced jet flows where the peak velocity fluctuations are up to eight times the mean flow velocity. Both reacting and non-reacting flows were studied and Reynolds numbers, based on the mean flow properties, ranged from 800 to 10,000 (corresponding to peak Reynolds numbers of 1,450-23,000), and forcing frequencies ranged from 290 to 1,140 Hz. Both the first and second organ-pipe resonance modes of the fuel delivery tube were excited to obtain these frequencies. An analysis of the acoustic forcing characteristics within the resonance tube is provided in order to understand the source of the high amplitude forcing. Flow visualization of jets with first resonant forcing confirms the presence of large-scale coherent vortices and strong reverse flow near the exit of the fuel tube. With second-resonant forcing, however, vortices are not emitted from the tube as they are drawn back into the fuel tube before they can fully form. Increased fine-scale turbulence is associated with both resonant cases, but particularly at second resonance. The power spectra of the velocity fluctuations for a resonantly pulsed jet show the presence of an inertial subrange indicating that the flow becomes fully turbulent even for mean-Reynolds-number jets that are nominally laminar. It is shown that these pulsed jet flows exhibit strong similarities to synthetic jets and that the Strouhal number, based on the maximum velocity at the fuel tube exit, is the dominant parameter for scaling these flows. The Strouhal number determines the downstream location where the coherent vortices breakdown, and is found to provide better collapse of flame length data (both current and previous) than other parameters that have
Turbulent Fluid Motion 6: Turbulence, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Deterministic Chaos
Deissler, Robert G.
1996-01-01
Several turbulent and nonturbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are obtained. The unaveraged equations are used numerically in conjunction with tools and concepts from nonlinear dynamics, including time series, phase portraits, Poincare sections, Liapunov exponents, power spectra, and strange attractors. Initially neighboring solutions for a low-Reynolds-number fully developed turbulence are compared. The turbulence is sustained by a nonrandom time-independent external force. The solutions, on the average, separate exponentially with time, having a positive Liapunov exponent. Thus, the turbulence is characterized as chaotic. In a search for solutions which contrast with the turbulent ones, the Reynolds number (or strength of the forcing) is reduced. Several qualitatively different flows are noted. These are, respectively, fully chaotic, complex periodic, weakly chaotic, simple periodic, and fixed-point. Of these, we classify only the fully chaotic flows as turbulent. Those flows have both a positive Liapunov exponent and Poincare sections without pattern. By contrast, the weakly chaotic flows, although having positive Liapunov exponents, have some pattern in their Poincare sections. The fixed-point and periodic flows are nonturbulent, since turbulence, as generally understood, is both time-dependent and aperiodic.
Characteristics and structure of turbulent 3D offset jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agelin-Chaab, M.; Tachie, M.F.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We investigated three-dimensional turbulent offset jets using particle image velocimetry. → We examined the effects of offset height and Reynolds number on the structure of 3D offset jets. → Effects of Reynolds number and offset height on the decay and growth rates exist close to the exit. → This study provides additional insight and comprehensive data for validating numerical models. - Abstract: Three-dimensional turbulent offset jets were investigated using a particle image velocimetry technique. The measurements were performed at three different exit Reynolds numbers and for four offset heights. The results in the early region of flow development clearly show significant effects of Reynolds number and offset height on the decay of maximum mean velocity and growth of the shear layer. On the contrary, the decay and spread rates were found to be nearly independent of offset height at larger downstream distances. The decay rates of 1.18 ± 0.03 as well as the spread rates of 0.055 ± 0.001 and 0.250 ± 0.005 obtained, respectively, in the wall-normal and lateral directions fall in the range of values reported in previous studies. The locations of the maximum mean velocities increased nearly linearly with streamwise distance in the self-similar region. Analysis from two-point velocity correlations revealed substantially larger structures in the outer layer and self-similar region than in the inner layer and developing region. It was also observed that the hairpin vortices in the inner regions of the wall jets are inclined at angles of 11.2 o ± 0.6 o , which are in good agreement with reported values in boundary layer studies.
Two-fluid turbulence including electron inertia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrés, Nahuel, E-mail: nandres@iafe.uba.ar; Gómez, Daniel [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CC. 67, suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gonzalez, Carlos; Martin, Luis; Dmitruk, Pablo [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2014-12-15
We present a full two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description for a completely ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current, electron pressure, and electron inertia. According to this description, each plasma species introduces a new spatial scale: the ion inertial length λ{sub i} and the electron inertial length λ{sub e}, which are not present in the traditional MHD description. In the present paper, we seek for possible changes in the energy power spectrum in fully developed turbulent regimes, using numerical simulations of the two-fluid equations in two-and-a-half dimensions. We have been able to reproduce different scaling laws in different spectral ranges, as it has been observed in the solar wind for the magnetic energy spectrum. At the smallest wavenumbers where plain MHD is valid, we obtain an inertial range following a Kolmogorov k{sup −5∕3} law. For intermediate wavenumbers such that λ{sub i}{sup −1}≪k≪λ{sub e}{sup −1}, the spectrum is modified to a k{sup −7∕3} power-law, as has also been obtained for Hall-MHD neglecting electron inertia terms. When electron inertia is retained, a new spectral region given by k>λ{sub e}{sup −1} arises. The power spectrum for magnetic energy in this region is given by a k{sup −11∕3} power law. Finally, when the terms of electron inertia are retained, we study the self-consistent electric field. Our results are discussed and compared with those obtained in the solar wind observations and previous simulations.
ADIABATIC HEATING OF CONTRACTING TURBULENT FLUIDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robertson, Brant; Goldreich, Peter
2012-01-01
Turbulence influences the behavior of many astrophysical systems, frequently by providing non-thermal pressure support through random bulk motions. Although turbulence is commonly studied in systems with constant volume and mean density, turbulent astrophysical gases often expand or contract under the influence of pressure or gravity. Here, we examine the behavior of turbulence in contracting volumes using idealized models of compressed gases. Employing numerical simulations and an analytical model, we identify a simple mechanism by which the turbulent motions of contracting gases 'adiabatically heat', experiencing an increase in their random bulk velocities until the largest eddies in the gas circulate over a Hubble time of the contraction. Adiabatic heating provides a mechanism for sustaining turbulence in gases where no large-scale driving exists. We describe this mechanism in detail and discuss some potential applications to turbulence in astrophysical settings.
Direct Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Autoigniting Hydrogen Jets
Asaithambi, Rajapandiyan
Autoignition is an important phenomenon and a tool in the design of combustion engines. To study autoignition in a canonical form a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent autoigniting hydrogen jet in vitiated coflow conditions at a jet Reynolds number of 10,000 is performed. A detailed chemical mechanism for hydrogen-air combustion and non-unity Lewis numbers for species transport is used. Realistic inlet conditions are prescribed by obtaining the velocity eld from a fully developed turbulent pipe flow simulation. To perform this simulation a scalable modular density based method for direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible reacting flows is developed. The algorithm performs explicit time advancement of transport variables on structured grids. An iterative semi-implicit time advancement is developed for the chemical source terms to alleviate the chemical stiffness of detailed mechanisms. The algorithm is also extended from a Cartesian grid to a cylindrical coordinate system which introduces a singularity at the pole r = 0 where terms with a factor 1/r can be ill-defined. There are several approaches to eliminate this pole singularity and finite volume methods can bypass this issue by not storing or computing data at the pole. All methods however face a very restrictive time step when using a explicit time advancement scheme in the azimuthal direction (theta) where the cell sizes are of the order DelrDeltheta. We use a conservative finite volume based approach to remove the severe time step restriction imposed by the CFL condition by merging cells in the azimuthal direction. In addition, fluxes in the radial direction are computed with an implicit scheme to allow cells to be clustered along the jet's shear layer. This method is validated and used to perform the large scale turbulent reacting simulation. The resulting flame structure is found to be similar to a turbulent diusion flame but stabilized by autoignition at the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian Ries
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, thermal transport and entropy production mechanisms in a turbulent round jet of compressed nitrogen at supercritical thermodynamic conditions are investigated using a direct numerical simulation. First, thermal transport and its contribution to the mixture formation along with the anisotropy of heat fluxes and temperature scales are examined. Secondly, the entropy production rates during thermofluid processes evolving in the supercritical flow are investigated in order to identify the causes of irreversibilities and to display advantageous locations of handling along with the process regimes favorable to mixing. Thereby, it turned out that (1 the jet disintegration process consists of four main stages under supercritical conditions (potential core, separation, pseudo-boiling, turbulent mixing, (2 causes of irreversibilities are primarily due to heat transport and thermodynamic effects rather than turbulence dynamics and (3 heat fluxes and temperature scales appear anisotropic even at the smallest scales, which implies that anisotropic thermal diffusivity models might be appropriate in the context of both Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS and large eddy simulation (LES approaches while numerically modeling supercritical fluid flows.
Comparative study of turbulent mixing in jet in cross-flow configurations using LES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wegner, B.; Huai, Y.; Sadiki, A.
2004-01-01
Mixing processes in turbulent fluid motion are of fundamental interest in many situations in engineering practice. Due to its practical importance in a vast number of applications, the generic configuration of the jet in cross-flow has been studied extensively in the past. Recently, the question has received a lot of attention, whether the unsteady behavior of the jet in cross-flow can be influenced by either active or passive means in order to control and enhance the mixing process. In the present paper, we use the large eddy simulation (LES) methodology to investigate how turbulent mixing can be enhanced by varying the angle between the jet and the oncoming cross-flow. After validating the computations against measurements by Andreopoulos and Rodi, we analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the mixing process for three configurations with different angles. It is shown that the inclination influences the characteristics of vortical structures and secondary motion which in turn have an effect on the mixing process. Besides a PDF of the passive scalar and a scalar energy spectrum, a mixedness parameter is used to provide information with respect to the quality and rate of mixing
Manipulation of Turbulent Boundary Layers Using Synthetic Jets
Berger, Zachary; Gomit, Guillaume; Lavoie, Philippe; Ganapathisubramani, Bharath
2015-11-01
This work focuses on the application of active flow control, in the form of synthetic jet actuators, of turbulent boundary layers. An array of 2 synthetic jets are oriented in the spanwise direction and located approximately 2.7 meters downstream from the leading edge of a flat plate. Actuation is applied perpendicular to the surface of the flat plate with varying blowing ratios and reduced frequencies (open-loop). Two-component large window particle image velocimetry (PIV) was performed at the University of Southampton, in the streamwise-wall-normal plane. Complementary stereo PIV measurements were performed at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), in the spanwise-wall-normal plane. The freestream Reynolds number is 3x104, based on the boundary layer thickness. The skin friction Reynolds number is 1,200 based on the skin friction velocity. The experiments at Southampton allow for the observation of the control effects as the flow propagates downstream. The experiments at UTIAS allow for the observation of the streamwise vorticity induced from the actuation. Overall the two experiments provide a 3D representation of the flow field with respect to actuation effects. The current work focuses on the comparison of the two experiments, as well as the effects of varying blowing ratios and reduced frequencies on the turbulent boundary layer. Funded Supported by Airbus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zidouni Kendil Faiza
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of the current study is to numerically investigate, through computational fluid dynamics modeling, a water jet injected vertically downward through a straight circular pipe into a water bath. The study also aims to obtain a better understanding of jet behavior, air entrainment and the dispersion of bubbles in the developing flow region. For these purposes, three dimensional air and water flows were modeled using the volume of fluid technique. The equations in question were formulated using the density and viscosity of a 'gas-liquid mixture', described in terms of the phase volume fraction. Three turbulence models with a high Reynolds number have been considered i. e. the standard k-e model, realizable k-e model, and Reynolds stress model. The predicted flow patterns for the realizable k-e model match well with experimental measurements found in available literature. Nevertheless, some discrepancies regarding velocity relaxation and turbulent momentum distribution in the pool are still observed for both the standard k-e and the Reynolds stress model.
Measurements of Turbulent Convection Speeds in Multistream Jets Using Time-Resolved PIV
Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.
2017-01-01
Convection speeds of turbulent velocities in jets, including multi-stream jets with and without flight stream, were measured using an innovative application of time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The paper describes the unique instrumentation and data analysis that allows the measurement to be made. Extensive data is shown that relates convection speed, mean velocity, and turbulent velocities for multiple jet cases. These data support the overall observation that the local turbulent convection speed is roughly that of the local mean velocity, biased by the relative intensity of turbulence.
Measurements of Turbulence Convection Speeds in Multistream Jets Using Time-Resolved PIV
Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.
2017-01-01
Convection speeds of turbulent velocities in jets, including multi-stream jets with and without flight stream, were measured using an innovative application of time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The paper describes the unique instrumentation and data analysis that allows the measurement to be made. Extensive data is shown that relates convection speed, mean velocity, and turbulent velocities for multiple jet cases. These data support the overall observation that the local turbulent convection speed is roughly that of the local mean velocity, biased by the relative intensity of turbulence.
A computer model for dispersed fluid-solid turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, C.H.; Tulig, T.J.
1985-01-01
A computer model is being developed to simulate two-phase turbulent flow phenomena in fluids containing finely dispersed solids. The model is based on a dual-continuum picture of the individual phases and an extension of a two-equation turbulence closure theory. The resulting set of nonlinear partial differential equations are solved using a finite difference procedure with special treatment to promote convergence. The model has been checked against a number of idealized flow problems with known solutions. The authors are currently comparing model predictions with measurements to determine a proper set of turbulence parameters needed for simulating two-phase turbulent flows
Ruan, S; Swaminathan, Nedunchezhian; Darbyshire, O
2014-01-01
This study focuses on the modelling of turbulent lifted jet flames using flamelets and presumed PDF approach with interests on both flame lift-off height and flame brush structure. First, flamelet models used to capture contributions from premixed and non-premixed modes to the partially premixed combustion in the lifted jet flame are assessed using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data for turbulent lifted hydrogen jet flame. The joint PDFs of mixture fraction, Z, and progress ...
LES of turbulent jet in cross-flow: Part 1 – A numerical validation study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik
2012-01-01
The paper presents results of a LES based numerical simulation of the turbulent jet-in-cross-flow (JICF) flowfield, with Reynolds number based on cross-flow velocity and jet diameter Re=2400 and jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio of R=3.3. The JICF flow case has been investigated in great detail...
Turbulence, Magnetic Reconnection in Turbulent Fluids and Energetic Particle Acceleration
Lazarian, A.; Vlahos, L.; Kowal, G.; Yan, H.; Beresnyak, A.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.
2012-11-01
Turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysics. It radically changes many astrophysical phenomena, in particular, the propagation and acceleration of cosmic rays. We present the modern understanding of compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, in particular its decomposition into Alfvén, slow and fast modes, discuss the density structure of turbulent subsonic and supersonic media, as well as other relevant regimes of astrophysical turbulence. All this information is essential for understanding the energetic particle acceleration that we discuss further in the review. For instance, we show how fast and slow modes accelerate energetic particles through the second order Fermi acceleration, while density fluctuations generate magnetic fields in pre-shock regions enabling the first order Fermi acceleration of high energy cosmic rays. Very importantly, however, the first order Fermi cosmic ray acceleration is also possible in sites of magnetic reconnection. In the presence of turbulence this reconnection gets fast and we present numerical evidence supporting the predictions of the Lazarian and Vishniac (Astrophys. J. 517:700-718, 1999) model of fast reconnection. The efficiency of this process suggests that magnetic reconnection can release substantial amounts of energy in short periods of time. As the particle tracing numerical simulations show that the particles can be efficiently accelerated during the reconnection, we argue that the process of magnetic reconnection may be much more important for particle acceleration than it is currently accepted. In particular, we discuss the acceleration arising from reconnection as a possible origin of the anomalous cosmic rays measured by Voyagers as well as the origin cosmic ray excess in the direction of Heliotail.
Cascade of circulations in fluid turbulence.
Eyink, Gregory L
2006-12-01
Kelvin's theorem on conservation of circulations is an essential ingredient of Taylor's theory of turbulent energy dissipation by the process of vortex-line stretching. In previous work, we have proposed a nonlinear mechanism for the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem in ideal turbulence at infinite Reynolds number. We develop here a detailed physical theory of this cascade of circulations. Our analysis is based upon an effective equation for large-scale coarse-grained velocity, which contains a turbulent-induced vortex force that can violate Kelvin's theorem. We show that singularities of sufficient strength, which are observed to exist in turbulent flow, can lead to nonvanishing dissipation of circulation for an arbitrarily small coarse-graining length in the effective equations. This result is an analog for circulation of Onsager's theorem on energy dissipation for singular Euler solutions. The physical mechanism of the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem is diffusion of lines of large-scale vorticity out of the advected loop. This phenomenon can be viewed as a classical analog of the Josephson-Anderson phase-slip phenomenon in superfluids due to quantized vortex lines. We show that the circulation cascade is local in scale and use this locality to develop concrete expressions for the turbulent vortex force by a multiscale gradient expansion. We discuss implications for Taylor's theory of turbulent dissipation and we point out some related cascade phenomena, in particular for magnetic flux in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Turbulent Jet Flames Into a Vitiated Coflow. PhD Thesis awarded Spring 2003
Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Cabra, Ricardo
2004-01-01
Examined is the vitiated coflow flame, an experimental condition that decouples the combustion processes of flows found in practical combustors from the associated recirculating fluid mechanics. The configuration consists of a 4.57 mm diameter fuel jet into a coaxial flow of hot combustion products from a lean premixed flame. The 210 mm diameter coflow isolates the jet flame from the cool ambient, providing a hot environment similar to the operating conditions of advanced combustors; this important high temperature element is lacking in the traditional laboratory experiments of jet flames into cool (room) air. A family of flows of increasing complexity is presented: 1) nonreacting flow, 2) all hydrogen flame (fuel jet and premixed coflow), and 3) set of methane flames. This sequence of experiments provides a convenient ordering of validation data for combustion models. Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF diagnostics at the Turbulent Diffusion Flame laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories produced instantaneous multiscalar point measurements. These results attest to the attractive features of the vitiated coflow burner and the well-defined boundary conditions provided by the coflow. The coflow is uniform and steady, isolating the jet flame from the laboratory air for a downstream distance ranging from z/d = 50-70. The statistical results show that differential diffusion effects in this highly turbulent flow are negligible. Complementing the comprehensive set of multiscalar measurements is a parametric study of lifted methane flames that was conducted to analyze flame sensitivity to jet and coflow velocity, as well as coflow temperature. The linear relationship found between the lift-off height and the jet velocity is consistent with previous experiments. New linear sensitivities were found correlating the lift-off height to coflow velocity and temperature. A blow-off study revealed that the methane flame blows off at a common coflow temperature (1260 K), regardless of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haixu Liu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A pure two-fluid model was used for investigating transverse liquid jet to a supersonic crossflow. The well-posedness problem of the droplet phase governing equations was solved by applying an equation of state in the kinetic theory. A k-ε-kp turbulence model was used to simulate the turbulent compressible multiphase flow. Separation of boundary layer in front of the liquid jet was predicted with a separation shock induced. A bow shock was found to interact with the separation shock in the simulation result, and the adjustment of shock structure caused by the interaction described the whipping phenomena. The predicted penetration height showed good agreement with the empirical correlations. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energies of both the gas and droplet phases were presented for comparison, and effects of the jet-to-air momentum flux ratio and droplet diameter on the penetration height were also examined in this work.
Computational fluid dynamics investigation of turbulent separated ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
Turbulent mixing is largely suppressed by the proximity of a wall boundary and ... the uncertainty between the experimental and CFD values falls within ± 3.8% of f .... Numerical, Experimental, and Theoretical Aspects, Vieweg, Berlin, 1989, pp.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shojaeefard, M.H.; Pirnia, A.; Fallahian, M.A. [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahani, M. [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Tehran, Faculty of New Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2012-06-15
In this study the effects of induced jet at trailing edge of a two dimensional airfoil on its boundary layer shape, separation over surface and turbulent parameters behind trailing edge are numerically investigated and compared against a previous experimental data. After proving independency of results from mesh size and obtaining the required mesh size, different turbulent models are examined and RNG k-epsilon model is chosen because of good agreement with experimental data in velocity and turbulent intensity variations. A comparison between ordinary and jet induced cases, regarding numerical data, is made. The results showed that because of low number of measurement points in experimental study, turbulent intensity extremes are not captured. While in numerical study, these values and their positions are well calculated and exact variation of turbulent intensity is acquired. Also a study in effect of jet at high angles of attack is done and the results showed the ability of jet in controlling separation and reducing wake region. (orig.)
Jet diffusion in stagnant ambient fluid
Abraham, G.
1963-01-01
Submarine outfall disposal of domestic and industrial sewage is a method of disposal of steadily growing importance. The flow from an ocean outfall is essentially that of a submerged horizontal or vertical jet. Thus a study of the hydrodynamics of such jets is needed to evaluate the dilution of the
Introduction to the theory of fluid and magnetofluid turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, D.
1984-03-01
This set of notes was transcribed from the tape recording of three lectures given at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, in June, 1983. The lectures were intended to provide an introduction to the theory of magnetofluid turbulence which is a relatively new branch of plasma physics. It is related more closely to classic fluid dynamics than to the nonlinear theory of plasma oscillation. For this reason, fluid turbulence theory was reviewed as the background of the subject. The first lecture is on the origins of fluid and magnetofluid turbulence. The universal transition to turbulence takes place at sufficiently high Reynolds number, well above the critical threshold. The second lecture is on closures, attempt on dynamical theories. The Navier-Stokes case is discussed, and the attempt to reduce the number of the degrees of freedom, the importance of helicity in MHD, the direct interaction approximation (DIA) and others are explained. The third lecture is on the cascade and inverse cascade in fluid and magnetofluid. The idea of cascade was introduced into the theory of Navier-Stokes turbulence around 1941. The calculation of a form for inertial range energy spectra, the relation with dissipation rate, the tendency of migrating to long wavelength, the simulation of decaying turbulence, the numbers characterizing MHD and others are discussed. (Kako, I.)
Numerical modeling of normal turbulent plane jet impingement on solid wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, C.Y.; Maxwell, W.H.C.
1984-10-01
Attention is given to a numerical turbulence model for the impingement of a well developed normal plane jet on a solid wall, by means of which it is possible to express different jet impingement geometries in terms of different boundary conditions. Examples of these jets include those issuing from VTOL aircraft, chemical combustors, etc. The two-equation, turbulent kinetic energy-turbulent dissipation rate model is combined with the continuity equation and the transport equation of vorticity, using an iterative finite difference technique in the computations. Peak levels of turbulent kinetic energy occur not only in the impingement zone, but also in the intermingling zone between the edges of the free jet and the wall jet. 20 references.
A glimpse of fluid turbulence from the molecular scale
Komatsu, Teruhisa S.
2014-08-01
Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of freely decaying turbulence in three-dimensional space are reported. Fluid components are defined from the microscopic states by eliminating thermal components from the coarse-grained fields. The energy spectrum of the fluid components is observed to scale reasonably well according to Kolmogorov scaling determined from the energy dissipation rate and the viscosity of the fluid, even though the Kolmogorov length is of the order of the molecular scale. © 2014 The Authors.
Turbulent spark-jet ignition in SI gas fuelled engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pielecha Ireneusz
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article contains a thermodynamic analysis of a new combustion system that allows the combustion of stratified gas mixtures with mean air excess coefficient in the range 1.4-1.8. Spark ignition was used in the pre-chamber that has been mounted in the engine cylinder head and contained a rich mixture out of which a turbulent flow of ignited mixture is ejected. It allows spark-jet ignition and the turbulent combustion of the lean mixture in the main combustion chamber. This resulted in a two-stage combustion system for lean mixtures. The experimental study has been conducted using a single-cylinder test engine with a geometric compression ratio ε = 15.5 adapted for natural gas supply. The tests were performed at engine speed n = 2000 rpm under stationary engine load when the engine operating parameters and toxic compounds emissions have been recorded. Analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the evaluated combustion system offers large flexibility in the initiation of charge ignition through an appropriate control of the fuel quantities supplied into the pre-chamber and into the main combustion chamber. The research concluded with determining the charge ignition criterion for a suitably divided total fuel dose fed to the cylinder.
Numerical study of the inlet conditions on a turbulent plane two dimensional wall jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kechiche, Jamel; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Lab. de Mecanique des Fluides et de Transferts Thermiques, Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, Marseille, 13 (France)
2004-11-01
The low Reynolds number turbulence model of Herrero et al. [Int J Heat Mass Trans 34 (1991) 711] is used in this work to study turbulent isothermal or non-isothermal plane two dimensional wall jets in stagnant surroundings. In this model, the empirical constant C{sub {mu}} = 0.09 appearing in the Kolmogorov-Prandtl relation was replaced by the function proposed by Ljuboja and Rodi [J Fluids Eng 102 (1980) 350] to take account of the damping effect of the wall on the lateral fluctuations. The system of equations governing the studied configuration is solved with a finite difference scheme using a staggered grid for numerical stability, not uniform in the two directions of the flow. In the present work, we are interested particularly in the influence of the inlet conditions at the nozzle exit on the jet characteristic parameters. The obtained results show that the inlet conditions affect the flow in the vicinity of the region of the nozzle. Starting from a certain distance, the established region is reached (auto-similar region), and the results become independent of the flow characteristics at the nozzle exit. The results are also compared to those suggested in the literature. The agreement with the experimental data is satisfactory for all studied flow configurations, which provides validation of our results. (Author)
Karabasov, S A
2010-08-13
Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mhiri, H.; Habli, S.; El Golli, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, G.; Bournot, Ph. [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille (France)
1999-11-01
We intend to solve equations governing turbulent plane-vertical isotherm and non isotherm jets by taking into account inflow conditions at the exit of the nozzle. The analysis is focused on the influence of these conditions on this type of flow. Two cases are considered (uniform and parabolic velocity and temperature profiles). A finite difference scheme is developed to solve the governing equations. This numeric model allows us to show that the region of fully developed regime begins much nearer the nozzle for the turbulent case than for the laminar flow case. Indeed, the turbulence increases the mixing between the incoming gas from the nozzle and the ambient fluid, and consequently the size of the potential core zone decreases. The results are compared to other works introducing mathematical variables based on the energy conservation for the case of the mixed convection and the momentum conservation for the forced convection, which allows the validation of our results. (authors)
An experimental study on turbulent lifted flames of methane in coflow jets at elevated temperatures
Choi, Byungchul; Chung, Suk-Ho
2013-01-01
An experimental study was conducted on the effects of initial temperature variation on the stabilization characteristics of turbulent nonpremixed flames in coflow jets of methane fuel diluted by nitrogen. The typical behavior seen in the study
Turbulent structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames
Liao, Ying-Hao; Hermanson, James C.
2013-01-01
The structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally in a co-flow swirl combustor. The dynamics of the large-scale flame structures, including variations in flame dimensions, the degree
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahman, M.; Rautaheimo, P.; Siikonen, T.
1997-12-31
A numerical investigation is carried out to predict the turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of two-dimensional single and three impinging slot jets. Two low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} models, namely the classical model of Chien and the explicit algebraic stress model of Gatski and Speziale, are considered in the simulation. A cell-centered finite-volume scheme combined with an artificial compressibility approach is employed to solve the flow equations, using a diagonally dominant alternating direction implicit (DDADI) time integration method. A fully upwinded second order spatial differencing is adopted to approximate the convective terms. Roe`s damping term is used to calculate the flux on the cell face. A multigrid method is utilized for the acceleration of convergence. On average, the heat transfer coefficients predicted by both models show good agreement with the experimental results. (orig.) 17 refs.
Turbulence-flame interactions in DNS of a laboratory high Karlovitz premixed turbulent jet flame
Wang, Haiou; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2016-09-01
In the present work, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a laboratory premixed turbulent jet flame was performed to study turbulence-flame interactions. The turbulent flame features moderate Reynolds number and high Karlovitz number (Ka). The orientations of the flame normal vector n, the vorticity vector ω and the principal strain rate eigenvectors ei are examined. The in-plane and out-of-plane angles are introduced to quantify the vector orientations, which also measure the flame geometry and the vortical structures. A general observation is that the distributions of these angles are more isotropic downstream as the flame and the flow become more developed. The out-of-plane angle of the flame normal vector, β, is a key parameter in developing the correction of 2D measurements to estimate the corresponding 3D quantities. The DNS results show that the correction factor is unity at the inlet and approaches its theoretical value of an isotropic distribution downstream. The alignment characteristics of n, ω and ei, which reflect the interactions of turbulence and flame, are also studied. Similar to a passive scalar gradient in non-reacting flows, the flame normal has a tendency to align with the most compressive strain rate, e3, in the flame, indicating that turbulence contributes to the production of scalar gradient. The vorticity dynamics are examined via the vortex stretching term, which was found to be the predominant source of vorticity generation balanced by dissipation, in the enstrophy transport equation. It is found that although the vorticity preferentially aligns with the intermediate strain rate, e2, the contribution of the most extensive strain rate, e1, to vortex stretching is comparable with that of the intermediate strain rate, e2. This is because the eigenvalue of the most extensive strain rate, λ1, is always large and positive. It is confirmed that the vorticity vector is preferentially positioned along the flame tangential plane, contributing
Exact Theory of Compressible Fluid Turbulence
Drivas, Theodore; Eyink, Gregory
2017-11-01
We obtain exact results for compressible turbulence with any equation of state, using coarse-graining/filtering. We find two mechanisms of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation: scale-local energy cascade and ``pressure-work defect'', or pressure-work at viscous scales exceeding that in the inertial-range. Planar shocks in an ideal gas dissipate all kinetic energy by pressure-work defect, but the effect is omitted by standard LES modeling of pressure-dilatation. We also obtain a novel inverse cascade of thermodynamic entropy, injected by microscopic entropy production, cascaded upscale, and removed by large-scale cooling. This nonlinear process is missed by the Kovasznay linear mode decomposition, treating entropy as a passive scalar. For small Mach number we recover the incompressible ``negentropy cascade'' predicted by Obukhov. We derive exact Kolmogorov 4/5th-type laws for energy and entropy cascades, constraining scaling exponents of velocity, density, and internal energy to sub-Kolmogorov values. Although precise exponents and detailed physics are Mach-dependent, our exact results hold at all Mach numbers. Flow realizations at infinite Reynolds are ``dissipative weak solutions'' of compressible Euler equations, similarly as Onsager proposed for incompressible turbulence.
2015-07-01
about the jet nozzle location (taken as the moment reference point [ MRP ]). Also listed are the resultant force center of pressure and the...turbulent intensity JI jet interaction jet force amplification factor jet moment amplification factor about MRP (0) jet... MRP induced by jet thrust force, N-m (0) moment about missile nose induced by jet thrust force, N-m moment about MRP induced by
Subchannel analysis with turbulent mixing rate of supercritical pressure fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Jianhui; Oka, Yoshiaki
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Subchannel analysis with turbulent mixing rate law of supercritical pressure fluid (SPF) is carried out. • Turbulent mixing rate is enhanced, compared with that calculated by the law of pressurized water reactor (PWR). • Increase in maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) is smaller comparing with PWR model. • The sensitivities of MCST on non-uniformity of subchannel area and power peaking are reduced by using SPF model. - Abstract: The subchannel analysis with turbulent mixing rate law of supercritical pressure fluid (SPF) is carried out for supercritical-pressurized light water cooled and moderated reactor (Super LWR). It is different from the turbulent mixing rate law of pressurized water reactor (PWR), which is widely adopted in Super LWR subchannel analysis study, the density difference between adjacent subchannels is taken into account for turbulent mixing rate law of SPF. MCSTs are evaluated on three kinds of fuel assemblies with different pin power distribution patterns, gap spacings and mass flow rates. Compared with that calculated by employing turbulent mixing rate law of PWR, the increase in MCST is smaller even when peaking factor is large and gap spacing is uneven. The sensitivities of MCST on non-uniformity of the subchannel area and power peaking are reduced
Jets of an electroconducting fluid in rotating flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorbachev, L P; Kalyakin, A N; Potanin, E P; Tubin, A A
1976-04-01
A study was made of weak-intensity jets of an electroconducting incompressible fluid in rotating flows, caused by the action of a uniform axial magnetic field B and a radial electric field E =E/sub 0/r. The induced magnetic field is neglected. Hydrodynamic characteristics were obtained for flows during conservation of the jet flow rate or momentum. The presence of a counterflow in the jet and the weak dependence of the flow parameters on the linear coordinate were demonstrated. 7 references, 1 figure.
Laminar and turbulent nozzle-jet flows and their acoustic near-field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bühler, Stefan; Obrist, Dominik; Kleiser, Leonhard
2014-01-01
We investigate numerically the effects of nozzle-exit flow conditions on the jet-flow development and the near-field sound at a diameter-based Reynolds number of Re D = 18 100 and Mach number Ma = 0.9. Our computational setup features the inclusion of a cylindrical nozzle which allows to establish a physical nozzle-exit flow and therefore well-defined initial jet-flow conditions. Within the nozzle, the flow is modeled by a potential flow core and a laminar, transitional, or developing turbulent boundary layer. The goal is to document and to compare the effects of the different jet inflows on the jet flow development and the sound radiation. For laminar and transitional boundary layers, transition to turbulence in the jet shear layer is governed by the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. With the turbulent nozzle boundary layer, the jet flow development is characterized by a rapid changeover to a turbulent free shear layer within about one nozzle diameter. Sound pressure levels are strongly enhanced for laminar and transitional exit conditions compared to the turbulent case. However, a frequency and frequency-wavenumber analysis of the near-field pressure indicates that the dominant sound radiation characteristics remain largely unaffected. By applying a recently developed scaling procedure, we obtain a close match of the scaled near-field sound spectra for all nozzle-exit turbulence levels and also a reasonable agreement with experimental far-field data
Double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent swirling annular jet flow
Vanierschot, M.; Perçin, M.; van Oudheusden, B.W.
2018-01-01
In this paper, we report on the structure and dynamics of double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent annular swirling jet. Double helix breakdown has been reported previously for the laminar flow regime, but this structure has rarely been observed in turbulent flow. The flow field is
The structure of turbulent jets, vortices and boundary layer: laboratory and field observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekula, E.; Redondo, J.M.
2008-01-01
The main aim of this work is research, understand and describe key aspects of the turbulent jets and effects connected with them such as boundary layer interactions on the effect of a 2D geometry. Work is based principally on experiments but there are also some comparisons between experimental and field results. A series of experiments have been performed consisting in detailed turbulent measurements of the 3 velocity components to understand the processes of interaction that lead to mixing and mass transport between boundaries and free shear layers. The turbulent wall jet configuration occurs often in environmental and industrial processes, but here we apply the laboratory experiments as a tool to understand jet/boundary interactions in the environment. We compare the structure of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images of coastal jets and vortices and experimental jets (plumes) images searching for the relationship between these two kinds of jets at very different Reynolds numbers taking advantage of the self-similarity of the processes. In order to investigate the structure of ocean surface detected jets (SAR) and vortices near the coast, we compare wall and boundary effects on the structure of turbulent jets (3D and 2D) which are non-homogeneous, developing multifractal and spectral techniques useful for environmental monitoring in space.
Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow fluid film bearings
Andres, Luis San
1993-01-01
A thermohydrodynamic analysis is presented and a computer code developed for prediction of the static and dynamic force response of hydrostatic journal bearings (HJB's), annular seals or damper bearing seals, and fixed arc pad bearings for cryogenic liquid applications. The study includes the most important flow characteristics found in cryogenic fluid film bearings such as flow turbulence, fluid inertia, liquid compressibility and thermal effects. The analysis and computational model devised allow the determination of the flow field in cryogenic fluid film bearings along with the dynamic force coefficients for rotor-bearing stability analysis.
Spectral analysis of the turbulent mixing of two fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinkamp, M.J.
1996-02-01
The authors describe a spectral approach to the investigation of fluid instability, generalized turbulence, and the interpenetration of fluids across an interface. The technique also applies to a single fluid with large variations in density. Departures of fluctuating velocity components from the local mean are far subsonic, but the mean Mach number can be large. Validity of the description is demonstrated by comparisons with experiments on turbulent mixing due to the late stages of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, when the dynamics become approximately self-similar in response to a constant body force. Generic forms for anisotropic spectral structure are described and used as a basis for deriving spectrally integrated moment equations that can be incorporated into computer codes for scientific and engineering analyses.
The turbulent mixing of non-Newtonian fluids
Demianov, A. Yu; Doludenko, A. N.; Inogamov, N. A.; Son, E. E.
2013-07-01
The turbulence caused by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability represents a complicated phenomenon. It is usually related to the major hydrodynamic activities, the tangling of the media contact boundary, merging, separation and intermixing of originally smoothed initial structures. An important role in the theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is played by the discontinuity of density on a contact interface between two homogeneous (in terms of density) fluids. A numerical modeling of the intermixing of two fluids with different rheology whose densities differ twice as a result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability has been carried out. The coefficients of turbulent intermixing in a multimode statement of the problem for the Bingham, dilatant and pseudo-plastic fluids have been obtained.
Turbulent characteristics of shear-thinning fluids in recirculating flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, A.S. [Inst. Superior de Engenharia do Porto (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal)
2000-03-01
A miniaturised fibre optic laser-Doppler anemometer was used to carry out a detailed hydrodynamic investigation of the flow downstream of a sudden expansion with 0.1-0.2% by weight shear-thinning aqueous solutions of xanthan gum. Upstream of the sudden expansion the pipe flow was fully-developed and the xanthan gum solutions exhibited drag reduction with corresponding lower radial and tangential normal Reynolds stresses, but higher axial Reynolds stress near the wall and a flatter axial mean velocity profile in comparison with Newtonian flow. The recirculation bubble length was reduced by more than 20% relative to the high Reynolds number Newtonian flow, and this was attributed to the occurrence further upstream of high turbulence for the non-Newtonian solutions, because of advection of turbulence and earlier high turbulence production in the shear layer. Comparisons with the measurements of Escudier and Smith (1999) with similar fluids emphasized the dominating role of inlet turbulence. The present was less anisotropic, and had lower maximum axial Reynolds stresses (by 16%) but higher radial turbulence (20%) than theirs. They reported considerably longer recirculating bubble lengths than we do for similar non-Newtonian fluids and Reynolds numbers. (orig.)
BOOK REVIEW: Plasma and Fluid Turbulence: Theory and Modelling
Yoshizawa, A.; Itoh, S. I.; Itoh, K.
2003-03-01
The area of turbulence has been covered by many books over the years. This has, of course, mainly been fluid turbulence, while the area of plasma turbulence has been treated much less. This book by Yoshizawa et al covers both plasma and fluid turbulence, in a way that does justice to both areas at the same time as cross-disciplinary aspects are illuminated. The book should be useful to physicists working in both areas partly because it examines fundamental aspects in a pedagogical way, partly because it is up to date and partly because of the cross-disciplinary aspects which enrich both areas. It is written as an advanced textbook. The reader should have previous knowledge of at least one of the areas and also some background in statistical physics. The book starts with the very important and highly up to date area of structure formation which is relevant both to fluids and plasmas. Here, pipe flow of fluids is treated as an introduction to the area, then follows discussion of the generation of magnetic fields by turbulent motion in stellar objects and stucture formation in plasmas confined by a magnetic field. Also the concept of bifurcation is introduced. This part builds up knowledge from the simple fluid case to the problems of magnetic confinement of plasmas in a very pedagogical way. It continues by introducing the fundamentals of fluid turbulence. This is done very systematically and concepts useful for industrial applications like the K-e method and several ways of heuristic modelling are introduced. Also the two dimensional vortex equation, which is also relevant to magnetized plasmas is introduced. In chapter 5 the statistical theory of turbulence is treated. It starts with a very nice and easy to understand example of renormalization of a simple nonlinear equation where the exact solution is known. It introduces the method of partial renormalization, Greens functions and the direct interaction approximation (DIA). The book then continues with an
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
Fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanojevic, M; Duhovnik, J; Jelic, N; Kendl, A; Kuhn, S
2005-01-01
A fluid model of the magnetic presheath in a turbulent boundary plasma is presented. Turbulent transport corrections of the classical three-dimensional fluid transport equations, which can be used to study magnetic presheaths in various geometries, are derived by means of the ensemble averaging procedure from the statistical theory of plasma turbulence. Then, the magnetic presheath in front of an infinite plane surface is analysed in detail. The linearized planar magnetic presheath equations are applied to the plasma-presheath-magnetic-presheath boundary (i.e. the magnetic presheath edge), whereas the original non-linear planar magnetic presheath equations are used for the entire magnetic presheath, allowing for various sets of experimentally relevant free model parameters to be applied. Important new results of this study are, among others, new expressions for the fluid Bohm criterion at the Debye sheath edge and for the ion flux density perpendicular to the wall. These new results, which exhibit corrections due to the turbulent charged particle transport, can qualitatively explain the fact that whenever the angle between the magnetic field and the wall is very small (i.e. several degrees) or zero, electric currents, measured by Langmuir probes in the boundary regions of nuclear fusion devices and in various low-temperature plasmas, are anomalously enhanced in comparison with those expected or predicted by other theoretical models
Turbulent flow and heat transfer from a slot jet impinging on a moving plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chattopadhyay, Himadri; Saha, Sujoy K.
2003-01-01
The flow field due to an impinging jet over a moving surface at a moderately high Reynolds number, emanating from a rectangular slot nozzle has been computed using the large eddy simulation technique. A dynamic subgrid-scale stress model has been used for the small scales of turbulence. The velocity of the impinging surface perpendicular to the jet velocity has been varied up to two times the jet velocity at the nozzle exit. Turbulence quantities such as kinetic energy, production rate of turbulent kinetic energy and the Reynolds stresses are calculated for different surface velocities. It has been observed that, while the turbulent kinetic energy increases with increasing velocity of the impinging surface, production rate of turbulence initially increases with increasing surface velocity and then comes down. By analyzing the components of turbulent production it was found that P 33 is the dominant term up to the surface velocity of one unit and when the surface velocity is two times the jet velocity at the nozzle exit, the major contribution to turbulence production comes from P 13 and partly from P 11 . Heat transfer from the plate initially increases with non-dimensional surface velocity up to 1.2 and then comes down
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duri, D.
2012-01-01
This experimental work is focused on the statistical study of the high Reynolds number turbulent velocity field in an inertially driven liquid helium axis-symmetric round jet at temperatures above and below the lambda transition (between 2.3 K and 1.78 K) in a cryogenic wind tunnel. The possibility to finely tune the fluid temperature allows us to perform a comparative study of the quantum He II turbulence within the classical framework of the Kolmogorov turbulent cascade in order to have a better understanding of the energy cascade process in a superfluid. In particular we focused our attention on the intermittency phenomena, in both He I and He II phases, by measuring the high order statistics of the longitudinal velocity increments by means of the flatness and the skewness statistical estimators. A first phase consisted in developing the cryogenic facility, a closed loop pressurized and temperature regulated wind tunnel, and adapting the classic hot-wire anemometry technique in order to be able to work in such a challenging low temperature environment. A detailed calibration procedure of the fully developed turbulent flow was the carried out at 2.3 K at Reynolds numbers based on the Taylor length scale up to 2600 in order to qualify our testing set-up and to identify possible facility-related spurious phenomena. This procedure showed that the statistical properties of the longitudinal velocity increments are in good agreement with respect to previous results. By further reducing the temperature of the working fluid (at a constant pressure) below the lambda point down to 1.78 K local velocity measurements were performed at different superfluid density fractions. The results show a classic behaviour of the He II energy cascade at large scales while, at smaller scales, a deviation has been observed. The occurrence of this phenomenon, which requires further investigation and modelling, is highlighted by the observed changing sign of the third order structure
Vortex Thermometry for Turbulent Two-Dimensional Fluids.
Groszek, Andrew J; Davis, Matthew J; Paganin, David M; Helmerson, Kristian; Simula, Tapio P
2018-01-19
We introduce a new method of statistical analysis to characterize the dynamics of turbulent fluids in two dimensions. We establish that, in equilibrium, the vortex distributions can be uniquely connected to the temperature of the vortex gas, and we apply this vortex thermometry to characterize simulations of decaying superfluid turbulence. We confirm the hypothesis of vortex evaporative heating leading to Onsager vortices proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 165302 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.165302, and we find previously unidentified vortex power-law distributions that emerge from the dynamics.
Mean-Lagrangian formalism and covariance of fluid turbulence.
Ariki, Taketo
2017-05-01
Mean-field-based Lagrangian framework is developed for the fluid turbulence theory, which enables physically objective discussions, especially, of the history effect. Mean flow serves as a purely geometrical object of Lie group theory, providing useful operations to measure the objective rate and history integration of the general tensor field. The proposed framework is applied, on the one hand, to one-point closure model, yielding an objective expression of the turbulence viscoelastic effect. Application to two-point closure, on the other hand, is also discussed, where natural extension of known Lagrangian correlation is discovered on the basis of an extended covariance group.
The role of the intense vorticity structures in the turbulent structure of the jet edge
Reis, Ricardo J. N.; da Silva, Carlos B.; Pereira, José C. F.
In free shear flows (jets, mixing layers and wakes) there is an highly contorted interface dividing the turbulent from the non-turbulent flow: the turbulent/non-turbulent (T/NT) interface. Across this interface important exchanges of mass, momentum and heat take place, in a process known as turbulent entrainment. Recently, the classical idea of the turbulent entrainment caused by engulfing [1] have been questioned, and it has been shown that the entrainment is mainly caused by small scale eddy motions (nibbling) [2, 3]). However, it is still argued that the entrainment rate is still largely governed by the large scale motions induced by the intense vorticity structures (IVS). The goal of the present work is to assess characterize the geometry and analyze the influence of these large scales structures in shaping the turbulent/nonturbulent interface.
Investigating the Structures of Turbulence in a Multi-Stream, Rectangular, Supersonic Jet
Magstadt, Andrew S.
Supersonic flight has become a standard for military aircraft, and is being seriously reconsidered for commercial applications. Engine technologies, enabling increased mission capabilities and vehicle performance, have evolved nozzles into complex geometries with intricate flow features. These engineering solutions have advanced at a faster rate than the understanding of the flow physics, however. The full consequences of the flow are thus not known, and using predictive tools becomes exceedingly difficult. Additionally, the increasing velocities associated with supersonic flight exacerbate the preexisting jet noise problem, which has troubled the engineering community for nearly 65 years. Even in the simplest flows, the full consequences of turbulence, e.g. noise production, are not fully understood. For composite flows, the fluid mechanics and acoustic properties have been studied even less sufficiently. Before considering the aeroacoustic problem, the development, structure, and evolution of the turbulent flow-field must be considered. This has prompted an investigation into the compressible flow of a complex nozzle. Experimental evidence is sought to explain the stochastic processes of the turbulent flow issuing from a complex geometry. Before considering the more complicated configuration, an experimental campaign of an axisymmetric jet is conducted. The results from this study are presented, and guide research of the primary flow under investigation. The design of a nozzle representative of future engine technologies is then discussed. Characteristics of this multi-stream rectangular supersonic nozzle are studied via time-resolved schlieren imaging, stereo PIV measurements, dynamic pressure transducers, and far-field acoustics. Experiments are carried out in the anechoic chamber at Syracuse University, and focus primarily on the flow-field. An extensive data set is generated, which reveals a detailed view of a very complex flow. Shear, shock waves, unequal
Turbulent jet erosion of a stably stratified gas layer in a nuclear reactor test containment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishay, Liel [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Bieder, Ulrich [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, Centre de SACLAY DEN/SAC/DANS/DM2S/STMF/LMSF, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ziskind, Gennady [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Rashkovan, Alex, E-mail: rashbgu@gmail.com [Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center Negev (NRCN), PO Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • We model stably stratified layer erosion by vertical turbulent round jet. • Separate effect studies are performed as a platform for choosing modeling approach. • A test performed in MISTRA facility, CEA, Saclay is modeled using Fluent and Trio-U codes. • The proposed modeling approach showed good agreement with the MISTRA facility LOWMA-3 test. - Abstract: A number of integral and separate effect experiments were performed in the last two decades for validation of containment computational tools. The main goal of these benchmark experiments was to assess the ability of turbulence models and computational fluid dynamics codes to predict hydrogen concentration distribution and steam condensation rate in a nuclear reactor containment in the course of severe accidents. It appears from the published literature that the predictive capability of the existing computational tools still needs to be improved. This work examines numerically the temporal evolution of helium concentration in the experiment called LOWMA-3, performed in the MISTRA facility of CEA-Saclay, France. In the experiment, helium is used to mimic hydrogen of a real-case accident. The aim of this separate effect experiment, where steam condensation was not involved, is to predict helium concentration field. The conditions of the experiment are such that both the momentum transport and molecular diffusion contributions to the mixing process are of the same order of magnitude (Fr ∼ 1). A commercial CFD code, Fluent, and a CEA in-house code, Trio-U, are used for flow and helium concentration fields temporal evolution prediction in the present study. The preliminary separate effect studies provide guidance to an optimal modeling approach for the LOWMA-3 experiment. Temporal evolution of helium concentration in the stratification layer is shown, and a comparison to the experiment is discussed. It is shown that correct modeling of the round jet flowfield is essential for a reliable
Turbulent jet erosion of a stably stratified gas layer in a nuclear reactor test containment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishay, Liel; Bieder, Ulrich; Ziskind, Gennady; Rashkovan, Alex
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We model stably stratified layer erosion by vertical turbulent round jet. • Separate effect studies are performed as a platform for choosing modeling approach. • A test performed in MISTRA facility, CEA, Saclay is modeled using Fluent and Trio-U codes. • The proposed modeling approach showed good agreement with the MISTRA facility LOWMA-3 test. - Abstract: A number of integral and separate effect experiments were performed in the last two decades for validation of containment computational tools. The main goal of these benchmark experiments was to assess the ability of turbulence models and computational fluid dynamics codes to predict hydrogen concentration distribution and steam condensation rate in a nuclear reactor containment in the course of severe accidents. It appears from the published literature that the predictive capability of the existing computational tools still needs to be improved. This work examines numerically the temporal evolution of helium concentration in the experiment called LOWMA-3, performed in the MISTRA facility of CEA-Saclay, France. In the experiment, helium is used to mimic hydrogen of a real-case accident. The aim of this separate effect experiment, where steam condensation was not involved, is to predict helium concentration field. The conditions of the experiment are such that both the momentum transport and molecular diffusion contributions to the mixing process are of the same order of magnitude (Fr ∼ 1). A commercial CFD code, Fluent, and a CEA in-house code, Trio-U, are used for flow and helium concentration fields temporal evolution prediction in the present study. The preliminary separate effect studies provide guidance to an optimal modeling approach for the LOWMA-3 experiment. Temporal evolution of helium concentration in the stratification layer is shown, and a comparison to the experiment is discussed. It is shown that correct modeling of the round jet flowfield is essential for a reliable
An Experimental Study of Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames in Crossflow Under Low-Gravity Conditions
Boxx, Isaac G.; Idicheria, Cherian A.; Clemens, Noel T.
2002-11-01
We will present results of a study of turbulent nonpremixed jet flames in crossflow under normal and low gravity conditions. This enables us to experimentally separate the competing influences of initial jet-to-crossflow momentum ratio and buoyancy effects on the flame structure. The low gravity conditions (10-30 milli-g) are achieved by dropping a self-contained jet flame rig in the University of Texas 1.25-second drop tower facility. This rig uses a small blow-through wind tunnel to create the crossflow. The jet flames issue from an orifice that is flush with the wall. High-speed CCD imaging of jet flame luminosity is the primary diagnostic. We present results for hydrocarbon jet flames with initial jet-to-crossflow momentum ratios of 10-20. Results such as flame trajectory, flame length, large scale structure and flame tip dynamics will be presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wojtas Krzysztof
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Simulations of turbulent mixing in two types of jet mixers were carried out using two CFD models, large eddy simulation and κ-ε model. Modelling approaches were compared with experimental data obtained by the application of particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence methods. Measured local microstructures of fluid velocity and inert tracer concentration can be used for direct validation of numerical simulations. Presented results show that for higher tested values of jet Reynolds number both models are in good agreement with the experiments. Differences between models were observed for lower Reynolds numbers when the effects of large scale inhomogeneity are important.
Turbulent mixing and fluid transport within Florida Bay seagrass meadows
Hansen, Jennifer C. R.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.
2017-10-01
Seagrasses serve an important function in the ecology of Florida Bay, providing critical nursery habitat and a food source for a variety of organisms. They also create significant benthic structure that induces drag, altering local hydrodynamics that can influence mixing and nutrient dynamics. Thalassia testudinum seagrass meadows were investigated to determine how shoot density and morphometrics alter local wave conditions, the generation of turbulence, and fluid exchange above and within the canopy. Sparsely vegetated and densely vegetated meadows were monitored, with shoot densities of 259 ± 26 and 484 ± 78 shoots m-2, respectively. The temporal and spatial structure of velocity and turbulence were measured using acoustic Doppler velocimeters and an in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) system positioned both above and within the seagrass canopy. The retention of fluid within the canopy was determined by examining e-folding times calculated from the concentration curves of dye plumes released within the seagrass canopy. Results show that a shear layer with an inflection point develops at the top of the seagrass canopy, which generates instabilities that impart turbulence into the seagrass meadow. Compared to the overlying water column, turbulence was enhanced within the sparse canopy due to flow interaction with the seagrass blades, but reduced within the dense canopy. Wave generated oscillatory motion penetrated deeper into the canopy than unidirectional currents, enhancing fluid exchange. Both shoot density and the relative magnitude of wave- versus current-driven flow conditions were found to be important controls on turbulent exchange of water masses across the canopy-water interface.
Visualization of the heat release zone of highly turbulent premixed jet flames
Lv, Liang; Tan, Jianguo; Zhu, Jiajian
2017-10-01
Visualization of the heat release zone (HRZ) of highly turbulent flames is significantly important to understand the interaction between turbulence and chemical reactions, which is the foundation to design and optimize engines. Simultaneous measurements of OH and CH2O using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) were performed to characterize the HRZ. A well-designed piloted premixed jet burner was employed to generate four turbulent premixed CH4/air jet flames, with different jet Reynolds numbers (Rejet) ranging from 4900 to 39200. The HRZ was visualized by both the gradient of OH and the pixel-by-pixel product of OH and CH2O. It is shown that turbulence has an increasing effect on the spatial structure of the flame front with an increasing height above the jet exit for the premixed jet flames, which results in the broadening of the HRZ and the increase of the wrinkling. The HRZ remains thin as the Rejet increases, whereas the preheat zone is significantly broadened and thickened. This indicates that the smallest turbulent eddies can only be able to enter the flame front rather than the HRZ in the present flame conditions. The flame quenching is observed with Rejet = 39200, which may be due to the strong entrainment of the cold air from outside of the burned gas region.
Clustering and entrainment effects on the evaporation of dilute droplets in a turbulent jet
Dalla Barba, Federico; Picano, Francesco
2018-03-01
The evaporation of droplets within turbulent sprays involves unsteady, multiscale, and multiphase processes which make its comprehension and modeling capabilities still limited. The present work aims to investigate the dynamics of droplet vaporization within a turbulent spatial developing jet in dilute, nonreacting conditions. We address the problem considering a turbulent jet laden with acetone droplets and using the direct numerical simulation framework based on a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian approach and the point droplet approximation. A detailed statistical analysis of both phases is presented. In particular, we show how crucial is the preferential sampling of the vapor phase induced by the inhomogeneous localization of the droplets through the flow. Strong droplet preferential segregation develops suddenly downstream from the inflow section both within the turbulent core and the jet mixing layer. Two distinct mechanisms have been found to drive this phenomenon: the inertial small-scale clustering in the jet core and the intermittent dynamics of droplets across the turbulent-nonturbulent interface in the mixing layer, where dry air entrainment occurs. These phenomenologies strongly affect the overall vaporization process and lead to an impressive widening of the droplet size and vaporization rate distributions in the downstream evolution of the turbulent spray.
Trajectory of a synthetic jet issuing into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer
Berk, Tim; Baidya, Rio; de Silva, Charitha; Marusic, Ivan; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2017-11-01
Synthetic jets are zero-net-mass-flux actuators that can be used in a range of flow control applications. For several pulsed/synthetic jet in cross-flow applications the variation of the jet trajectory in the mean flow with jet and boundary layer parameters is important. This trajectory will provide an indication of the penetration depth of the pulsed/synthetic jet into a boundary layer. Trajectories of a synthetic jet in a turbulent boundary layer are measured for a range of actuation parameters in both low- and high Reynolds numbers (up to Reτ = 13000). The important parameters influencing the trajectory are determined from these measurements. The Reynolds number of the boundary layer is shown to only have a small effect on the trajectory. In fact, the critical parameters are found to be the Strouhal number of the jet based on jet dimensions as well as the velocity ratio of the jet (defined as a ratio between peak jet velocity and the freestream velocity). An expression for the trajectory of the synthetic (or pulsed) jet is derived from the data, which (in the limit) is consistent with known expressions for the trajectory of a steady jet in a cross-flow. T.B. and B.G. are grateful to the support from the ERC (Grant Agreement No. 277472) and the EPSRC (Grant ref. no. EP/L006383/1).
Low frequency fluid drift turbulence in magnetised plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.
2001-03-01
We start with the first principles of fluid dynamics and classical electrodynamics and then find the regime in which we can reduce to quasineutral dynamics, which also implicitly underlies MHD. Then, we find the limits under which we can specialise to the MHD model as a subset, first of two fluid dynamics, then of the fluid drift dynamics that results when the motions are not vigorous enough to compress the magnetic field. In Chapters 4 and 5 we find the basic character of small disturbances in this system. Chapters 6 through 9 treat various aspects of fluid drift turbulence, also called drift wave turbulence, moving from a simple consideration of the underlying nonlinear dynamics, to some methods by which one can diagnose computations to find out what is going on, and then to the nonlinear instability which is the hallmark of this physics, and then to the interactions with large scale sheared flows. Chapter 10 introduces interchange turbulence, which is the plasma analog of the buoyant convection well known from fluid dynamics. Chapters 11 through 13 treat electromagnetic drift wave turbulence in closed magnetic field geometry, starting with a simplified model treating only the electron pressure and then introducing the electron and ion temperatures. Chapter 14 treats the basic characteristics of the transport that results from fluid drift turbulence, as this is quite different from the kinetic diffusion, such as heat conduction, that is more familiar. Appendices A and B treat the details of the numerical methods and models of magnetic field geometry necessary to treat all but the simplest cases. For this subject is dominated by nonlinear physics and therefore numerical computation. Computations therefore form an integral part of its study right from the beginning. Citations to the literature are not intended to be comprehensive but to serve as starting points for further reading, a section for which is included in every chapter. Much of this work is very new, and
Reproducing scalar mixing of turbulent jets in a 3D periodic box
Rah, K. Jeff; Blanquart, Guillaume
2017-11-01
A triply periodic DNS is a convenient framework to analyze the turbulent mixing process, since it can produce statistically stationary turbulence. In addition, the periodic boundary condition makes it easy to compute the spatial spectra of scalars. However, it is difficult to create a realistic turbulent flow with such a geometry. In this current investigation, we aim to develop a method to simulate a realistic turbulent mixing process inside a 3D periodic box. The target real flow is an axisymmetric jet with passive scalars on its centerline. The velocity and scalar information of turbulent jets on the centerline is applied to the momentum equation and scalar transport equation in physical space. The result is the combination of a mean gradient term and a linear forcing term in the scalar equation. These new forcing terms are derived to replicate the scalar mixing properties of jets in a triply periodic DNS. The present analysis differs from other forcing schemes for their derivation process did not involve any use of the velocity or scalar information of a real turbulent flow. A set of DNS has been performed with the new forcing term, and various turbulent parameters and spectral relations are compared against experiments.
Sukhodolov, Alexander N.; Krick, Julian; Sukhodolova, Tatiana A.; Cheng, Zhengyang; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Constantinescu, George S.
2017-06-01
Only a handful of field studies have examined turbulent flow structure at discordant confluences; the dynamics of flow at such confluences have mainly been examined in the laboratory. This paper reports results of a field-based investigation of turbulent flow structure at a discordant river confluence. These results support the hypothesis that flow at a discordant alluvial confluence with a velocity ratio greater than 2 exhibits jet-like characteristics. Scaling analysis shows that the dynamics of the jet core are quite similar to those of free jets but that the complex structure of flow at the confluence imposes strong effects that can locally suppress or enhance the spreading rate of the jet. This jet-like behavior of the flow has important implications for morphodynamic processes at these types of confluences. The highly energetic core of the jet at this discordant confluence is displaced away from the riverbed, thereby inhibiting scour; however, helical motion develops adjacent to the jet, particularly at high flows, which may promote scour. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the presence or absence of a depositional wedge at the mouth of the tributary can strongly influence detachment of the jet from the bed and the angle of the jet within the confluence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stieglitz, Robert; Daubner, Markus; Batta, A.; Lefhalm, C.-H.
2007-01-01
The MEGAPIE target installed at the Paul-Scherrer Institute is an example of a spallation target using eutectic liquid lead-bismuth (Pb 45 Bi 55 ) both as coolant and neutron source. An adequate cooling of the target requires a conditioning of the flow, which is realized by a main flow transported in an annular gap downwards, u-turned at a hemispherical shell into a cylindrical riser tube. In order to avoid a stagnation point close to the lowest part of the shell a jet flow is superimposed to the main flow, which is directed towards to the stagnation point and flows tangentially along the shell. The heated jet experiment conducted in the THEADES loop of the KALLA laboratory is nearly 1:1 representation of the lower part of the MEGAPIE target. It is aimed to study the cooling capability of this specific geometry in dependence on the flow rate ratio (Q main /Q jet ) of the main flow (Q main ) to the jet flow (Q jet ). Here, a heated jet is injected into a cold main flow at MEGAPIE relevant flow rate ratios. The liquid metal experiment is accompanied by a water experiment in almost the same geometry to study the momentum field as well as a three-dimensional turbulent numerical fluid dynamic simulation (CFD). Besides a detailed study of the envisaged nominal operation of the MEGAPIE target with Q main /Q jet = 15 deviations from this mode are investigated in the range from 7.5 ≤ Q main /Q jet ≤ 20 in order to give an estimate on the safe operational threshold of the target. The experiment shows that, the flow pattern establishing in this specific design and the turbulence intensity distribution essentially depends on the flow rate ratio (Q main /Q jet ). All Q main /Q jet -ratios investigated exhibit an unstable time dependent behavior. The MEGAPIE design is highly sensitive against changes of this ratio. Mainly three completely different flow patterns were identified. A sufficient cooling of the lower target shell, however, is only ensured if Q main /Q jet ≤ 12
Reconnection-driven Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in a Simulated Coronal-hole Jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uritsky, Vadim M.; Roberts, Merrill A. [Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); DeVore, C. Richard; Karpen, Judith T., E-mail: vadim.uritsky@nasa.gov [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2017-03-10
Extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray jets occur frequently in magnetically open coronal holes on the Sun, especially at high solar latitudes. Some of these jets are observed by white-light coronagraphs as they propagate through the outer corona toward the inner heliosphere, and it has been proposed that they give rise to microstreams and torsional Alfvén waves detected in situ in the solar wind. To predict and understand the signatures of coronal-hole jets, we have performed a detailed statistical analysis of such a jet simulated by an adaptively refined magnetohydrodynamics model. The results confirm the generation and persistence of three-dimensional, reconnection-driven magnetic turbulence in the simulation. We calculate the spatial correlations of magnetic fluctuations within the jet and find that they agree best with the Müller–Biskamp scaling model including intermittent current sheets of various sizes coupled via hydrodynamic turbulent cascade. The anisotropy of the magnetic fluctuations and the spatial orientation of the current sheets are consistent with an ensemble of nonlinear Alfvén waves. These properties also reflect the overall collimated jet structure imposed by the geometry of the reconnecting magnetic field. A comparison with Ulysses observations shows that turbulence in the jet wake is in quantitative agreement with that in the fast solar wind.
Two-step simulation of velocity and passive scalar mixing at high Schmidt number in turbulent jets
Rah, K. Jeff; Blanquart, Guillaume
2016-11-01
Simulation of passive scalar in the high Schmidt number turbulent mixing process requires higher computational cost than that of velocity fields, because the scalar is associated with smaller length scales than velocity. Thus, full simulation of both velocity and passive scalar with high Sc for a practical configuration is difficult to perform. In this work, a new approach to simulate velocity and passive scalar mixing at high Sc is suggested to reduce the computational cost. First, the velocity fields are resolved by Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Then, by extracting the velocity information from LES, the scalar inside a moving fluid blob is simulated by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). This two-step simulation method is applied to a turbulent jet and provides a new way to examine a scalar mixing process in a practical application with smaller computational cost. NSF, Samsung Scholarship.
A study of the condensation of a high-velocity vapor jet on a coflowing turbulent liquid jet
Ovsiannikov, V. A.; Levin, A. A.
A method for the experimental determination of the local value of the heat transfer coefficient under conditions of jet condensation is proposed which employs a heat balance expression in differential form. The method is used in an experimental study of the heat transfer characteristics of the condensation of a high-velocity coaxial jet of a slightly superheated (3 percent) steam on a coflowing cylindrical turbulent water jet. In the experiment, the relative velocities reach hundreds of m/s; the temperature nonequilibrium of the phases is high, as is the steam flow mass density during the initial contact; heat transfer between the phases is significant. The results can be used as the basis for determining experimental criterial dependences for jet condensation.
Arc Voltage Fluctuation in DC Laminar and Turbulent Plasma Jets Generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan Wenxia; Meng Xian; Wu Chengkang
2006-01-01
Arc voltage fluctuations in a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma generator are experimentally studied, in generating a jet in the laminar, transitional and turbulent regimes. The study is with a view toward elucidating the mechanism of the fluctuations and their relationship with the generating parameters, arc root movement and flow regimes. Results indicate that the existence of a 300 Hz alternating current (AC) component in the power supply ripples does not cause the transition of the laminar plasma jet into a turbulent state. There exists a high frequency fluctuation at 4 kHz in the turbulent jet regime. It may be related to the rapid movement of the anode attachment point of the arc
Asymmetric bubble collapse and jetting in generalized Newtonian fluids
Shukla, Ratnesh K.; Freund, Jonathan B.
2017-11-01
The jetting dynamics of a gas bubble near a rigid wall in a non-Newtonian fluid are investigated using an axisymmetric simulation model. The bubble gas is assumed to be homogeneous, with density and pressure related through a polytropic equation of state. An Eulerian numerical description, based on a sharp interface capturing method for the shear-free bubble-liquid interface and an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver for generalized fluids, is developed specifically for this problem. Detailed simulations for a range of rheological parameters in the Carreau model show both the stabilizing and destabilizing non-Newtonian effects on the jet formation and impact. In general, for fixed driving pressure ratio, stand-off distance and reference zero-shear-rate viscosity, shear-thinning and shear-thickening promote and suppress jet formation and impact, respectively. For a sufficiently large high-shear-rate limit viscosity, the jet impact is completely suppressed. Thresholds are also determined for the Carreau power-index and material time constant. The dependence of these threshold rheological parameters on the non-dimensional driving pressure ratio and wall stand-off distance is similarly established. Implications for tissue injury in therapeutic ultrasound will be discussed.
An experimental and numerical study into turbulent condensing steam jets in air
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oerlemans, S. [Faculty of Applied Physics Eindhoven, Univ. of Technology Eindhoven (Netherlands); Badie, R. [Philips Research Laboratories Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dongen, M.E.H. van [Faculty of Applied Physics, Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)
2001-07-01
Temperatures, velocities, and droplet sizes are measured in turbulent condensing steam jets produced by a facial sauna, for varying nozzle diameters and varying initial velocities (Re=3,600-9,200). The release of latent heat due to droplet condensation causes the temperature in the two-phase jet to be significantly higher than in a single-phase jet. At some distance from the nozzle, droplets reach a maximum size and start to evaporate again, which results in a change in sign of latent heat release. The distance of maximum size is determined from droplet size measurements. The experimental results are compared with semi-analytical expressions and with a fully coupled numerical model of the turbulent condensing steam jet. The increase in centreline temperature due to droplet condensation is successfully predicted. (orig.)
Jet meandering by a foil pitching in quiescent fluid
Shinde, Sachin Y.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
2013-04-01
The flow produced by a rigid symmetric NACA0015 airfoil purely pitching at a fixed location in quiescent fluid (the limiting case of infinite Strouhal number) is studied using visualizations and particle image velocimetry. A weak jet is generated whose inclination changes continually with time. This meandering is observed to be random and independent of the initial conditions, over a wide range of pitching parameters.
DNS and LES/FMDF of turbulent jet ignition and combustion
Validi, Abdoulahad; Jaberi, Farhad
2014-11-01
The ignition and combustion of lean fuel-air mixtures by a turbulent jet flow of hot combustion products injected into various geometries are studied by high fidelity numerical models. Turbulent jet ignition (TJI) is an efficient method for starting and controlling the combustion in complex propulsion systems and engines. The TJI and combustion of hydrogen and propane in various flow configurations are simulated with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) and the hybrid large eddy simulation/filtered mass density function (LES/FMDF) models. In the LES/FMDF model, the filtered form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order finite difference scheme for the turbulent velocity and the FMDF transport equation is solved with a Lagrangian stochastic method to obtain the scalar field. The DNS and LES/FMDF data are used to study the physics of TJI and combustion for different turbulent jet igniter and gas mixture conditions. The results show the very complex and different behavior of the turbulence and the flame structure at different jet equivalence ratios.
Spray Formation of Herschel-Bulkley Fluids using Impinging Jets
Rodrigues, Neil; Gao, Jian; Chen, Jun; Sojka, Paul E.
2015-11-01
The impinging jet spray formation of two non-Newtonian, shear-thinning, Herschel-Bulkley fluids was investigated in this work. The water-based gelled solutions used were 1.0 wt.-% agar and 1.0 wt.-% kappa carrageenan. A rotational rheometer and a capillary viscometer were used to measure the strain-rate dependency of viscosity and the Herschel-Bulkley Extended (HBE) rheological model was used to characterize the shear-thinning behavior. A generalized HBE jet Reynolds number Rej , gen - HBE was used as the primary parameter to characterize the spray formation. A like-on-like impinging jet doublet was used to produce atomization. Shadowgraphs were captured in the plane of the sheet formed by the two jets using a CCD camera with an Nd:YAG laser beam providing the back-illumination. Typical behavior for impinging jet atomization using Newtonian liquids was not generally observed due to the non-Newtonian, viscous properties of the agar and kappa carrageenan gels. Instead various spray patterns were observed depending on Rej , gen - HBE. Spray characteristics of maximum instability wavelength and sheet breakup length were extracted from the shadowgraphs. Multi-University Research Initiative Grant Number W911NF-08-1-0171.
Passive scalar dynamics near the turbulent/nonturbulent interface in a jet
Taveira, Rodrigo R.; da Silva, Carlos
2011-11-01
The present work uses several direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent planar jets at Reynolds number ranging from Reλ = 120 to Reλ = 160 and Schmidt numbers raging from Sc = 0 . 7 to 7.0 to analyze the nature and properties of the ``scalar interface'' and to investigate the dynamics of turbulent mixing of a passive scalar. Specifically, we employ conditional statistics in relation to the distance from the T/NT interface in order to eliminate the intermittency that affects common turbulence statistics close to the jet edge. The physical mechanisms behind scalar mixing near the T/NT interfaces and their associated turbulent scales and topology are investigated. A sharp scalar interface exists separating the Turbulent and the irrotational flow regions. The thickness of this scalar interface δθ is also of the order of the Taylor micro-scale, λ. However, the thickness of the scalar gradient variance I (where Gj = ∂ θ / ∂xj) is much smaller. Very intense scalar gradient sheet structures along regions of intense strain, in particular at the T/NT interface. The scalar gradient transport equation is analyzed in order to further investigate the physical mechanism of scalar turbulent mixing at the jet edge. Almost all mixing takes place in a confined region close to the interface, beyond which they become reduced to an almost in perfect - balance between production and dissipation of scalar variance.
The structure of vortex tube segments in fluid turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Lipo
2011-01-01
Geometrical description of the flow fields is an important direction to understand the physics of turbulence. Recently several new analysis approaches addressing the entire field properties have been developed, such as dissipation element analysis for the scalar fields and streamtube segment analysis (J. Fluid Mech. 2010, 648: 183-203) for the velocity vector field. By decomposing into a fundamental structure, i.e. stream-tube segments, the velocity field can be understood from the statistics of these relative simple units. Similar idea can be adopted to analyze the vorticity field. The classic concept of vortex tube has been remaining as a topic of essential importance in many aspects. However, the vortex tube structure is not complete to represent the entire turbulent fields, because of its ambiguous definition and small volume portion. This work presents tentatively the vorticitytube segment structure to overcome the existing deficiency. Vorticitytube segments reveal an inherent topology of turbulence vorticity fields. Based on statistics conditioned on different vorticitytube segments, some problems can be newly understood, such as the enstrophy production. Results hereof may also serve for turbulence modeling.
Four-fluid description of turbulent plasma focus dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayd, A.; Maurer, M.; Meinke, P.; Kaeppeler, H.J.
1984-06-01
The dynamic phenomena in the compression, pinch and late phases of the plasma focus experiment POSEIDON in its operational mode at 60 kV, 280 kJ, were previously calculated from a two-fluid theory using the new hybrid code REDUCE/FORTRAN. Two important results were found: the neutron production already in the pinch phase for currents larger than 500 kA and filamentary structures on and around the pinch axis. In a continuation of this work, a four-fluid system of dynamical equations was formulated and programmed with the REDUCE/FORTRAN code. Besides macro-turbulence, the new four-fluid theory includes micro-instabilities and anomalous transport properties, as well as the runaway effect for electrons and ions. First results from calculations with this new theory are presented and are compared with previous calculations and with recent experimental observations. (orig.)
Effect of LES models on the entrainment of a passive scalar in a turbulent planar jet
Chambel Lopes, Diogo; da Silva, Carlos; Reis, Ricardo; Raman, Venkat
2011-11-01
Direct and large-eddy simulations (DNS/LES) of turbulent planar jets are used to study the role of subgrid-scale models in the integral characteristics of the passive scalar mixing in a jet. Specifically the effect of subgrid-scale models in the jet spreading rate and centreline passive scalar decay rates are assessed and compared. The modelling of the subgrid-scale fluxes is particularly challenging in the turbulent/nonturbulent (T/NT) region that divides the two regions in the jet flow: the outer region where the flow is irrotational and the inner region where the flow is turbulent. It has been shown that important Reynolds stresses exist near the T/NT interface and that these stresses determine in part the mixing and combustion rates in jets. The subgrid scales of motion near the T/NT interface are far from equilibrium and contain an important fraction of the total kinetic energy. Model constants used in several subgrid-scale models such as the Smagorinsky and the gradient models need to be corrected near the jet edge. The procedure used to obtain the dynamic Smagorinsky constant is not able to cope with the intermittent nature of this region.
Horizontal H 2-air turbulent buoyant jet resulting from hydrogen leakage
El-Amin, Mohamed
2012-02-01
The current article is devoted to introducing mathematical and physical analyses with numerical investigation of a buoyant jet resulting from hydrogen leakage in air from a horizontal round source. H 2-air jet is an example of the non-Boussinesq buoyant jet in which a low-density gas jet is injected/leak into a high-density ambient. The density of the mixture is a function of the concentration only, the binary gas mixture is assumed to be of a linear mixing type and the rate of entrainment is assumed to be a function of the plume centerline velocity and the ratio of the mean plume and ambient densities. On the other hand, the local rate of entrainment consists of two components; one is the component of entrainment due to jet momentum while the other is the component of entrainment due to buoyancy. The top-hat profile assumption is used to obtain the mean centerline velocity, width, density and concentration of the H 2-air horizontal jet in addition to kinematic relations which govern the jet trajectories. A set of ordinary differential equations is obtained and solved numerically using Runge-Kutta method. In the second step, the mean axial velocity, mean concentration and mean density of the jet are obtained based on Gaussian model. Finally, several quantities of interest, including the cross-stream velocity, Reynolds stress, velocity-concentration correlation (radial flux), turbulent eddy viscosity and turbulent eddy diffusivity, are obtained by solving the governing partial differential equations. Additionally, the turbulent Schmidt number is estimated and the normalized jet-feed material density and the normalized momentum flux density are correlated. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zonal flows and turbulence in fluids and plasmas
Parker, Jeffrey Bok-Cheung
In geophysical and plasma contexts, zonal flows are well known to arise out of turbulence. We elucidate the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence without zonal flows to statistically inhomogeneous turbulence with steady zonal flows. Starting from the Hasegawa--Mima equation, we employ both the quasilinear approximation and a statistical average, which retains a great deal of the qualitative behavior of the full system. Within the resulting framework known as CE2, we extend recent understanding of the symmetry-breaking 'zonostrophic instability'. Zonostrophic instability can be understood in a very general way as the instability of some turbulent background spectrum to a zonally symmetric coherent mode. As a special case, the background spectrum can consist of only a single mode. We find that in this case the dispersion relation of zonostrophic instability from the CE2 formalism reduces exactly to that of the 4-mode truncation of generalized modulational instability. We then show that zonal flows constitute pattern formation amid a turbulent bath. Zonostrophic instability is an example of a Type I s instability of pattern-forming systems. The broken symmetry is statistical homogeneity. Near the bifurcation point, the slow dynamics of CE2 are governed by a well-known amplitude equation, the real Ginzburg-Landau equation. The important features of this amplitude equation, and therefore of the CE2 system, are multiple. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. In an idealized, infinite system, there is a continuous band of zonal flow wavelengths that allow a nonlinear equilibrium. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets. These behaviors are shown numerically to hold in the CE2 system, and we calculate a stability diagram. The stability diagram is in agreement with direct numerical simulations of the quasilinear
Etude du transfert thermique entre un jet rond turbulent et une paroi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dans ce travail, on s\\'intéresse à l\\'étude du transfert de chaleur d\\'une plaque plane soumise à l\\'action d\\'un jet d\\'air perpendiculaire. L\\'étude de la possibilité d\\'améliorer le transfert de chaleur est effectuée en fonction des paramètres caractéristiques de l\\'interaction jet - paroi. Le problème du jet rond turbulent frappant ...
Numerical Study of Thermal Radiation Effect on Confined Turbulent Free Triangular Jets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kiyan Parham
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of thermal radiation on turbulent free triangular jets. Finite volume method is applied for solving mass, momentum, and energy equations simultaneously. Discrete ordinate method is used to determine radiation transfer equation (RTE. Results are presented in terms of velocity, kinetic energy, and its dissipation rate fields. Results show that thermal radiation speeds the development of velocity on the jet axis and enhances kinetic energy; therefore, when radiation is added to free jet its mixing power, due to extra kinetic energy, increases.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Regunath, G.; Zimmerman, W. B.; Tesař, Václav; Hewakandamby, B.N.
2008-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 6 (2008), s. 973-986 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : jet * swirling jet * helicity * PIV Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.854, year: 2008 http://www.springerlink.com/
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Qiong; Lu Daogang; Lu Jing
2012-01-01
The 3D temperature fluctuation phenomenon caused by the mixing of the coaxial-jet hot and cold fluids was simulated by Fluent software. Several special turbulence models were applied to prediction of this phenomenon, i.e. large eddy simulation model (LES), Reynolds stress model (RSM) and standard k-ω model. By the comparison of the computed data and experimental ones, it is shown that LES is capable of predicting the mixing process. LES model best predicts the time-averaged temperature in the radius, height and azimuth directions. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes method (RANS) predicts the extended mixing of the hot and cold fluids. It is also shown that the transient temperature fluctuations are accurately predicted by LES model, while those not by RANS. (authors)
Development of hybrid fluid jet/float polishing process
Beaucamp, Anthony T. H.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Freeman, Richard R.
2013-09-01
On one hand, the "float polishing" process consists of a tin lap having many concentric grooves, cut from a flat by single point diamond turning. This lap is rotated above a hydrostatic bearing spindle of high rigidity, damping and rotational accuracy. The optical surface thus floats above a thin layer of abrasive particles. But whilst surface texture can be smoothed to ~0.1nm rms (as measured by atomic force microscopy), this process can only be used on flat surfaces. On the other hand, the CNC "fluid jet polishing" process consists of pumping a mixture of water and abrasive particles to a converging nozzle, thus generating a polishing spot that can be moved along a tool path with tight track spacing. But whilst tool path feed can be moderated to ultra-precisely correct form error on freeform optical surfaces, surface finish improvement is generally limited to ~1.5nm rms (with fine abrasives). This paper reports on the development of a novel finishing method, that combines the advantages of "fluid jet polishing" (i.e. freeform corrective capability) with "float polishing" (i.e. super-smooth surface finish of 0.1nm rms or less). To come up with this new "hybrid" method, computational fluid dynamic modeling of both processes in COMSOL is being used to characterize abrasion conditions and adapt the process parameters of experimental fluid jet polishing equipment, including: (1) geometrical shape of nozzle, (2) position relative to the surface, (3) control of inlet pressure. This new process is aimed at finishing of next generation X-Ray / Gamma Ray focusing optics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murakami, Satoshi [Customer System Co. Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Muramatsu, Toshiharu
1999-05-01
A three-dimensional thermal striping analysis was carried out using a direct numerical simulation code DINUS-3, for a coaxial jet configuration using air and sodium as a working fluid, within the framework of the EJCC thermo-hydraulic division. From the analysis, the following results have been obtained: (1) Calculated potential core length in air and sodium turbulence flows agreed with a theoretical value (5d - 7d ; d : diameter of jet nozzle) in the two-dimensional free jet theory. (2) Hydraulic characteristics in sodium flows as the potential core length can be estimated by the use of that of air flow characteristics. (3) Shorter thermally potential core length defined by spatial temperature distribution was evaluated in sodium flows, compared with that in air flows. This is due to the higher thermal conductivity of sodium. (4) Thermal characteristics in sodium flows as the thermally potential core length can not be evaluated, based on that air thermal characteristics. (author)
Numerical modeling of turbulent jet diffusion flames in the atmospheric surface layer
Hernández, J.; Crespo, A.; Duijm, N.J.
1995-01-01
The evolution of turbulent jet diffusion flames of natural gas in air is predicted using a finite-volume procedure for solving the flow equations. The model is three dimensional, elliptic and based on the conserved-scalar approach and the laminar flamelet concept. A laminar flamelet prescription for
Blazar Variability from Turbulence in Jets Launched by Magnetically Arrested Accretion Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riordan, Michael O’; Pe’er, Asaf [Physics Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); McKinney, Jonathan C., E-mail: michael_oriordan@umail.ucc.ie [Department of Physics and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2017-07-10
Blazars show variability on timescales ranging from minutes to years, the former being comparable to and in some cases even shorter than the light-crossing time of the central black hole. The observed γ -ray light curves can be described by a power-law power density spectrum (PDS), with a similar index for both BL Lacs and flat-spectrum radio quasars. We show that this variability can be produced by turbulence in relativistic jets launched by magnetically arrested accretion flows (MADs). We perform radiative transport calculations on the turbulent, highly magnetized jet launching region of a MAD with a rapidly rotating supermassive black hole. The resulting synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton emission, originating from close to the black hole horizon, is highly variable. This variability is characterized by PDS, which is remarkably similar to the observed power-law spectrum at frequencies less than a few per day. Furthermore, turbulence in the jet launching region naturally produces fluctuations in the plasma on scales much smaller than the horizon radius. We speculate that similar turbulent processes, operating in the jet at large radii (and therefore a high bulk Lorentz factor), are responsible for blazar variability over many decades in frequency, including on minute timescales.
Blazar Variability from Turbulence in Jets Launched by Magnetically Arrested Accretion Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riordan, Michael O’; Pe’er, Asaf; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2017-01-01
Blazars show variability on timescales ranging from minutes to years, the former being comparable to and in some cases even shorter than the light-crossing time of the central black hole. The observed γ -ray light curves can be described by a power-law power density spectrum (PDS), with a similar index for both BL Lacs and flat-spectrum radio quasars. We show that this variability can be produced by turbulence in relativistic jets launched by magnetically arrested accretion flows (MADs). We perform radiative transport calculations on the turbulent, highly magnetized jet launching region of a MAD with a rapidly rotating supermassive black hole. The resulting synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton emission, originating from close to the black hole horizon, is highly variable. This variability is characterized by PDS, which is remarkably similar to the observed power-law spectrum at frequencies less than a few per day. Furthermore, turbulence in the jet launching region naturally produces fluctuations in the plasma on scales much smaller than the horizon radius. We speculate that similar turbulent processes, operating in the jet at large radii (and therefore a high bulk Lorentz factor), are responsible for blazar variability over many decades in frequency, including on minute timescales.
Analysis of a turbulent buoyant confined jet modeled using realizable k-ε model
El-Amin, Mohamed
2010-06-13
Through this paper, analyses of components of the unheated/heated turbulent confined jet are introduced and some models to describe them are developed. Turbulence realizable k-ε model is used to model the turbulence of this problem. Numerical simulations of 2D axisymmetric vertical hot water confined jet into a cylindrical tank have been done. Solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while velocity, pressure, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. For seeking verification, an experiment was conducted for measuring of the temperature of the same system, and comparison between the measured and simulated temperature shows a good agreement. Using the simulated results, some models are developed to describe axial velocity, centerline velocity, radial velocity, dynamic pressure, mass flux, momentum flux and buoyancy flux for both unheated (non-buoyant) and heated (buoyant) jet. Finally, the dynamics of the heated jet in terms of the plume function which is a universal quantity and the source parameter are studied and therefore the maximum velocity can be predicted theoretically. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Effect of LES models on the entrainment characteristics in a turbulent planar jet
Chambel Lopes, Diogo; da Silva, Carlos; Raman, Venkat
2012-11-01
The effect of subgrid-scale (SGS) models in the jet spreading rate and centreline passive scalar decay rates are assessed and compared. The modelling of the subgrid-scale fluxes is particularly challenging in the turbulent/nonturbulent (T/NT) region that divides the two regions in the jet flow: the outer region where the flow is irrotational and the inner region where the flow is turbulent: it has been shown that important Reynolds stresses exist near the T/NT interface and that these stresses determine in part the mixing and combustion rates in jets. In this work direct and large-eddy simulations (DNS/LES) of turbulent planar jets are used to study the role of subgrid-scale models in the integral characteristics of the passive scalar mixing in a jet. LES show that different SGS modes lead to different spreading rates for the velocity and scalar fields, and the scalar quantities are more affected than the velocity e.g. SGS models affect strongly the centreline mean scalar decay than the centreline mean velocity decay. The results suggest the need for a minimum resolution close to the Taylor micro-scale in order to recover the correct results for the integral quantities and this can be explained by recent results on the dynamics of the T/NT interface.
An experimental study on turbulent lifted flames of methane in coflow jets at elevated temperatures
Choi, Byungchul
2013-01-01
An experimental study was conducted on the effects of initial temperature variation on the stabilization characteristics of turbulent nonpremixed flames in coflow jets of methane fuel diluted by nitrogen. The typical behavior seen in the study showed that the liftoff height increased linearly with the jet velocity regardless of the initial temperature in the turbulent regime. Two models were investigated for predicting liftoff heights in the methane jets: the premixed flame model and the large-scale mixing model. For the premixed flame model, the liftoff heights in the methane jets were accurately predicted using the thermal diffusivity of the unburned gas temperature αst,0, instead of that of the burned gas temperature αst,b. For the large-scale mixing model, however, the prediction of liftoff heights differed slightly for the various fuel mole fractions. However, when considering the initial fuel mass fraction YF,0, the liftoff heights were successfully predicted. This result implies that the characteristics of the unburned fuel-air mixture play a crucial role for flame stabilization in coflow jets for a variety of initial conditions. In the turbulent regime, the blowout velocity and the liftoff height at blowout could be accurately predicted by the two models based on a consideration of the physical properties and the buoyancy effect of the initial temperature variation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turbulent Statistics From Time-Resolved PIV Measurements of a Jet Using Empirical Mode Decomposition
Dahl, Milo D.
2013-01-01
Empirical mode decomposition is an adaptive signal processing method that when applied to a broadband signal, such as that generated by turbulence, acts as a set of band-pass filters. This process was applied to data from time-resolved, particle image velocimetry measurements of subsonic jets prior to computing the second-order, two-point, space-time correlations from which turbulent phase velocities and length and time scales could be determined. The application of this method to large sets of simultaneous time histories is new. In this initial study, the results are relevant to acoustic analogy source models for jet noise prediction. The high frequency portion of the results could provide the turbulent values for subgrid scale models for noise that is missed in large-eddy simulations. The results are also used to infer that the cross-correlations between different components of the decomposed signals at two points in space, neglected in this initial study, are important.
Input-output analysis of high-speed turbulent jet noise
Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.
2015-11-01
We apply input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with Mach numbers 0 . 6 parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of suboptimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why PSE misses some of the farfield sound in this case. Finally, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of suboptimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES data onto the corresponding input modes, the weighted gain of each mode is examined.
Formation, growth, and transport of soot in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed jet flame
Attili, Antonio
2014-07-01
The formation, growth, and transport of soot is investigated via large scale numerical simulation in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed n-heptane/air jet flame at a jet Reynolds number of 15,000. For the first time, a detailed chemical mechanism, which includes the soot precursor naphthalene and a high-order method of moments are employed in a three-dimensional simulation of a turbulent sooting flame. The results are used to discuss the interaction of turbulence, chemistry, and the formation of soot. Compared to temperature and other species controlled by oxidation chemistry, naphthalene is found to be affected more significantly by the scalar dissipation rate. While the mixture fraction and temperature fields show fairly smooth spatial and temporal variations, the sensitivity of naphthalene to turbulent mixing causes large inhomogeneities in the precursor fields, which in turn generate even stronger intermittency in the soot fields. A strong correlation is apparent between soot number density and the concentration of naphthalene. On the contrary, while soot mass fraction is usually large where naphthalene is present, pockets of fluid with large soot mass are also frequent in regions with very low naphthalene mass fraction values. From the analysis of Lagrangian statistics, it is shown that soot nucleates and grows mainly in a layer close to the flame and spreads on the rich side of the flame due to the fluctuating mixing field, resulting in more than half of the total soot mass being located at mixture fractions larger than 0.6. Only a small fraction of soot is transported towards the flame and is completely oxidized in the vicinity of the stoichiometric surface. These results show the leading order effects of turbulent mixing in controlling the dynamics of soot in turbulent flames. Finally, given the difficulties in obtaining quantitative data in experiments of turbulent sooting flames, this simulation provides valuable data to guide the development of
Formation, growth, and transport of soot in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed jet flame
Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Mü eller, Michael E.; Pitsch, Heinz G.
2014-01-01
The formation, growth, and transport of soot is investigated via large scale numerical simulation in a three-dimensional turbulent non-premixed n-heptane/air jet flame at a jet Reynolds number of 15,000. For the first time, a detailed chemical mechanism, which includes the soot precursor naphthalene and a high-order method of moments are employed in a three-dimensional simulation of a turbulent sooting flame. The results are used to discuss the interaction of turbulence, chemistry, and the formation of soot. Compared to temperature and other species controlled by oxidation chemistry, naphthalene is found to be affected more significantly by the scalar dissipation rate. While the mixture fraction and temperature fields show fairly smooth spatial and temporal variations, the sensitivity of naphthalene to turbulent mixing causes large inhomogeneities in the precursor fields, which in turn generate even stronger intermittency in the soot fields. A strong correlation is apparent between soot number density and the concentration of naphthalene. On the contrary, while soot mass fraction is usually large where naphthalene is present, pockets of fluid with large soot mass are also frequent in regions with very low naphthalene mass fraction values. From the analysis of Lagrangian statistics, it is shown that soot nucleates and grows mainly in a layer close to the flame and spreads on the rich side of the flame due to the fluctuating mixing field, resulting in more than half of the total soot mass being located at mixture fractions larger than 0.6. Only a small fraction of soot is transported towards the flame and is completely oxidized in the vicinity of the stoichiometric surface. These results show the leading order effects of turbulent mixing in controlling the dynamics of soot in turbulent flames. Finally, given the difficulties in obtaining quantitative data in experiments of turbulent sooting flames, this simulation provides valuable data to guide the development of
Occurrence of turbulent flow conditions in supercritical fluid chromatography.
De Pauw, Ruben; Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken
2014-09-26
Having similar densities as liquids but with viscosities up to 20 times lower (higher diffusion coefficients), supercritical CO2 is the ideal (co-)solvent for fast and/or highly efficient separations without mass-transfer limitations or excessive column pressure drops. Whereas in liquid chromatography the flow remains laminar in both the packed bed and tubing, except in extreme cases (e.g. in a 75 μm tubing, pure acetonitrile at 5 ml/min), a supercritical fluid can experience a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in more typical operation modes. Due to the significant lower viscosity, this transition for example already occurs at 1.3 ml/min for neat CO2 when using connection tubing with an ID of 127 μm. By calculating the Darcy friction factor, which can be plotted versus the Reynolds number in a so-called Moody chart, typically used in fluid dynamics, higher values are found for stainless steel than PEEK tubing, in agreement with their expected higher surface roughness. As a result turbulent effects are more pronounced when using stainless steel tubing. The higher than expected extra-column pressure drop limits the kinetic performance of supercritical fluid chromatography and complicates the optimization of tubing ID, which is based on a trade-off between extra-column band broadening and pressure drop. One of the most important practical consequences is the non-linear increase in extra-column pressure drop over the tubing downstream of the column which leads to an unexpected increase in average column pressure and mobile phase density, and thus decrease in retention. For close eluting components with a significantly different dependence of retention on density, the selectivity can significantly be affected by this increase in average pressure. In addition, the occurrence of turbulent flow is also observed in the detector cell and connection tubing. This results in a noise-increase by a factor of four when going from laminar to turbulent flow (e.g. going
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of Jet Mixing in Tanks of Different Scales
Breisacher, Kevin; Moder, Jeffrey
2010-01-01
For long-duration in-space storage of cryogenic propellants, an axial jet mixer is one concept for controlling tank pressure and reducing thermal stratification. Extensive ground-test data from the 1960s to the present exist for tank diameters of 10 ft or less. The design of axial jet mixers for tanks on the order of 30 ft diameter, such as those planned for the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS) LH2 tank, will require scaling of available experimental data from much smaller tanks, as well designing for microgravity effects. This study will assess the ability for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to handle a change of scale of this magnitude by performing simulations of existing ground-based axial jet mixing experiments at two tank sizes differing by a factor of ten. Simulations of several axial jet configurations for an Ares V scale EDS LH2 tank during low Earth orbit (LEO) coast are evaluated and selected results are also presented. Data from jet mixing experiments performed in the 1960s by General Dynamics with water at two tank sizes (1 and 10 ft diameter) are used to evaluate CFD accuracy. Jet nozzle diameters ranged from 0.032 to 0.25 in. for the 1 ft diameter tank experiments and from 0.625 to 0.875 in. for the 10 ft diameter tank experiments. Thermally stratified layers were created in both tanks prior to turning on the jet mixer. Jet mixer efficiency was determined by monitoring the temperatures on thermocouple rakes in the tanks to time when the stratified layer was mixed out. Dye was frequently injected into the stratified tank and its penetration recorded. There were no velocities or turbulence quantities available in the experimental data. A commercially available, time accurate, multi-dimensional CFD code with free surface tracking (FLOW-3D from Flow Science, Inc.) is used for the simulations presented. Comparisons are made between computed temperatures at various axial locations in the tank at different times and those observed experimentally. The
Turbulence production by a steam-driven jet in a water vessel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wissen, R.J.E. van; Schreel, K.R.A.M.; Geld, C.W.M. van der [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wieringa, J. [Unilever Research and Development, Vlaardingen (Netherlands)
2004-04-01
Direct steam injection is an efficient means of heating a volume of liquid. Usually the steam is injected via a nozzle, yielding a strong jet that condenses rapidly and transforms into a self-similar single phase jet. In the experiments reported in this paper, superheated steam is injected, centrally, at the bottom of a vertical, cylindrical water vessel. The resulting jet is turbulent (Re=7.9 x 10{sup 4}-18.1 x 10{sup 4} with the length scale based on the width of the jet, r{sub 1/2} and the velocity scale based on the centerline velocity, U{sub 0}). Using PIV in a vertical plane through the central axis, instantaneous velocity fields have been measured at a rate of 15 Hz. Near the inlet, the jet is mainly steam that rapidly condenses. Further downstream, the jet is essentially single phase, although some residual air is present as microscopically small bubbles. In the area directly downstream of the steam part, the ratio of r{sub 1/2} to the vessel radius R (32.5 cm) is about 1/14. The production of turbulent kinetic energy has been quantified for the main process conditions. Its dependencies on temperature, nozzle opening and inlet steam pressure have been determined. This production of energy is related to the stresses exerted on small particles in the mixture, and break-up of particles is discussed. (author)
Modeling the Emission from Turbulent Relativistic Jets in Active ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-07-12
Jul 12, 2014 ... Victoria Calafut1,2,∗ & Paul J. Wiita1. 1Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, 2000 Pennington Road .... The paper is structured as follows. ..... values of the maximum value of the turbulent velocity, vt, as illustrated in the last ... light-year provides a fundamental timestep of ≃9 days for v0 = 0.1c.
Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben
1995-01-01
This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically and...
A turbulent jet in crossflow analysed with proper orthogonal decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik; Pedersen, Jakob Martin; Özcan, Oktay
2007-01-01
and pipe diameter was 2400 and the jet to crossflow velocity ratios were R = 3.3 and R = 1.3. The experimental data have been analysed by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). For R = 3.3, the results in several different planes indicate that the wake vortices are the dominant dynamic flow structures...
Etude aerodynamique d'un jet turbulent impactant une paroi concave
LeBlanc, Benoit
Etant donne la demande croissante de temperatures elevees dans des chambres de combustion de systemes de propulsions en aerospatiale (turbomoteurs, moteur a reaction, etc.), l'interet dans le refroidissement par jets impactant s'est vu croitre. Le refroidissement des aubes de turbine permet une augmentation de temperature de combustion, ce qui se traduit en une augmentation de l'efficacite de combustion et donc une meilleure economie de carburant. Le transfert de chaleur dans les au bages est influence par les aspects aerodynamiques du refroidissement a jet, particulierement dans le cas d'ecoulements turbulents. Un manque de comprehension de l'aerodynamique a l'interieur de ces espaces confinees peut mener a des changements de transfert thermique qui sont inattendus, ce qui augmente le risque de fluage. Il est donc d'interet pour l'industrie aerospatiale et l'academie de poursuivre la recherche dans l'aerodynamique des jets turbulents impactant les parois courbes. Les jets impactant les surfaces courbes ont deja fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes. Par contre des conditions oscillatoires observees en laboratoire se sont averees difficiles a reproduire en numerique, puisque les structures d'ecoulements impactants des parois concaves sont fortement dependantes de la turbulence et des effets instationnaires. Une etude experimentale fut realisee a l'institut PPRIME a l'Universite de Poitiers afin d'observer le phenomene d'oscillation dans le jet. Une serie d'essais ont verifie les conditions d'ecoulement laminaires et turbulentes, toutefois le cout des essais experimentaux a seulement permis d'avoir un apercu du phenomene global. Une deuxieme serie d'essais fut realisee numeriquement a l'Universite de Moncton avec l'outil OpenFOAM pour des conditions d'ecoulement laminaire et bidimensionnel. Cette etude a donc comme but de poursuivre l'enquete de l'aerodynamique oscillatoire des jets impactant des parois courbes, mais pour un regime d'ecoulement transitoire, turbulent
Large scale Direct Numerical Simulation of premixed turbulent jet flames at high Reynolds number
Attili, Antonio; Luca, Stefano; Lo Schiavo, Ermanno; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Creta, Francesco
2016-11-01
A set of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed jet flames at different Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers is presented. The simulations feature finite rate chemistry with 16 species and 73 reactions and up to 22 Billion grid points. The jet consists of a methane/air mixture with equivalence ratio ϕ = 0 . 7 and temperature varying between 500 and 800 K. The temperature and species concentrations in the coflow correspond to the equilibrium state of the burnt mixture. All the simulations are performed at 4 atm. The flame length, normalized by the jet width, decreases significantly as the Reynolds number increases. This is consistent with an increase of the turbulent flame speed due to the increased integral scale of turbulence. This behavior is typical of flames in the thin-reaction zone regime, which are affected by turbulent transport in the preheat layer. Fractal dimension and topology of the flame surface, statistics of temperature gradients, and flame structure are investigated and the dependence of these quantities on the Reynolds number is assessed.
On two distinct Reynolds number regimes of a turbulent square jet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minyi Xu
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The effects of Reynolds number on both large-scale and small-scale turbulence properties are investigated in a square jet issuing from a square pipe. The detailed velocity fields were measured at five different exit Reynolds numbers of 8×103≤Re≤5×104. It is found that both large-scale properties (e.g., rates of mean velocity decay and spread and small-scale properties (e.g., the dimensionless dissipation rate constant A=εL/〈u2〉3/2 are dependent on Re for Re≤3×104 or Reλ≤190, but virtually become Re-independent with increasing Re or Reλ. In addition, for Reλ>190, the value of A=εL/〈u2〉3/2 in the present square jet converges to 0.5, which is consistent with the observation in direct numerical simulations of box turbulence, but lower than that in circular jet, plate wake flows, and grid turbulence. The discrepancies in critical Reynolds number and A=εL/〈u2〉3/2 among different turbulent flows most likely result from the flow type and initial conditions.
Blow-off characteristics of turbulent premixed flames in curved-wall Jet Burner
Mansour, Morkous S.
2015-08-02
This study concerns the flame dynamics of a curved-wall jet (CWJ) stabilized turbulent premixed flame as it approaches blow-off conditions. Time resolved OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) delineated reaction zone contours and simultaneously stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) quantified the turbulent flow field features. Ethylene/air flames were stabilized in CWJ burner to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff. For stably burning flames far from blowoff, flames are characterized with a recirculation zone (RZ) upstream for flame stabilization followed by an intense turbulent interaction jet (IJ) and merged-jet regions downstream; the flame front counterparts the shear layer vortices. Near blowoff, as the velocity of reactants increases, high local stretch rates exceed the extinction stretch rates instantaneously resulting in localized flame extinction along the IJ region. As Reynolds number (Re) increases, flames become shorter and are entrained by larger amounts of cold reactants. The increased strain rates together with heat loss effects result in further fragmentation of the flame, eventually leading to the complete quenching of the flame. This is explained in terms of local turbulent Karlovitz stretch factor (K) and principal flow strain rates associated with C contours. Hydrogen addition and increasing the RZ size lessen the tendency of flames to be locally extinguished.
On the use of microjets to suppress turbulence in a Mach 0.9 axisymmetric jet
Arakeri, V. H.; Krothapalli, A.; Siddavaram, V.; Alkislar, M. B.; Lourenco, L. M.
2003-09-01
We have experimentally studied the effect of microjets on the flow field of a Mach 0.9 round jet. Planar and three-dimensional velocity field measurements using particle image velocimetry show a significant reduction in the near-field turbulent intensities with the activation of microjets. The axial and normal turbulence intensities are reduced by about 15% and 20%, respectively, and an even larger effect is found on the peak values of the turbulent shear stress with a reduction of up to 40%. The required mass flow rate of the microjets was about 1% of the primary jet mass flux. It appears that the microjets influence the mean velocity profiles such that the peak normalized vorticity in the shear layer is significantly reduced, thus inducing an overall stabilizing effect. Therefore, we seem to have exploited the fact that an alteration in the instability characteristics of the initial shear-layer can influence the whole jet exhaust including its noise field. We have found a reduction of about 2 dB in the near-field overall sound pressure level in the lateral direction with the use of microjets. This observation is qualitatively consistent with the measured reduced turbulence intensities.
Novel cavitation fluid jet polishing process based on negative pressure effects.
Chen, Fengjun; Wang, Hui; Tang, Yu; Yin, Shaohui; Huang, Shuai; Zhang, Guanghua
2018-04-01
Traditional abrasive fluid jet polishing (FJP) is limited by its high-pressure equipment, unstable material removal rate, and applicability to ultra-smooth surfaces because of the evident air turbulence, fluid expansion, and a large polishing spot in high-pressure FJP. This paper presents a novel cavitation fluid jet polishing (CFJP) method and process based on FJP technology. It can implement high-efficiency polishing on small-scale surfaces in a low-pressure environment. CFJP uses the purposely designed polishing equipment with a sealed chamber, which can generate a cavitation effect in negative pressure environment. Moreover, the collapse of cavitation bubbles can spray out a high-energy microjet and shock wave to enhance the material removal. Its feasibility is verified through researching the flow behavior and the cavitation results of the negative pressure cavitation machining of pure water in reversing suction flow. The mechanism is analyzed through a computational fluid dynamics simulation. Thus, its cavitation and surface removal mechanisms in the vertical CFJP and inclined CFJP are studied. A series of polishing experiments on different materials and polishing parameters are conducted to validate its polishing performance compared with FJP. The maximum removal depth increases, and surface roughness gradually decreases with increasing negative outlet pressures. The surface becomes smooth with the increase of polishing time. The experimental results confirm that the CFJP process can realize a high material removal rate and smooth surface with low energy consumption in the low-pressure environment, together with compatible surface roughness to FJP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Flame kernel generation and propagation in turbulent partially premixed hydrocarbon jet
Mansour, Mohy S.
2014-04-23
Flame development, propagation, stability, combustion efficiency, pollution formation, and overall system efficiency are affected by the early stage of flame generation defined as flame kernel. Studying the effects of turbulence and chemistry on the flame kernel propagation is the main aim of this work for natural gas (NG) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). In addition the minimum ignition laser energy (MILE) has been investigated for both fuels. Moreover, the flame stability maps for both fuels are also investigated and analyzed. The flame kernels are generated using Nd:YAG pulsed laser and propagated in a partially premixed turbulent jet. The flow field is measured using 2-D PIV technique. Five cases have been selected for each fuel covering different values of Reynolds number within a range of 6100-14400, at a mean equivalence ratio of 2 and a certain level of partial premixing. The MILE increases by increasing the equivalence ratio. Near stoichiometric the energy density is independent on the jet velocity while in rich conditions it increases by increasing the jet velocity. The stability curves show four distinct regions as lifted, attached, blowout, and a fourth region either an attached flame if ignition occurs near the nozzle or lifted if ignition occurs downstream. LPG flames are more stable than NG flames. This is consistent with the higher values of the laminar flame speed of LPG. The flame kernel propagation speed is affected by both turbulence and chemistry. However, at low turbulence level chemistry effects are more pronounced while at high turbulence level the turbulence becomes dominant. LPG flame kernels propagate faster than those for NG flame. In addition, flame kernel extinguished faster in LPG fuel as compared to NG fuel. The propagation speed is likely to be consistent with the local mean equivalence ratio and its corresponding laminar flame speed. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Application of low Reynolds number k-{epsilon} turbulence models to the study of turbulent wall jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kechiche, Jamel; Mhiri, Hatem [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, route de Ouardanine, 5000, Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, 60, rue Joliot-Curie, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, 13453 cedex 13, Marseille (France)
2004-02-01
In this work, we use closure models called ''low Reynolds number k-{epsilon} models'', which are self-adapting ones using different damping functions, in order to explore the computed behavior of a turbulent plane two-dimensional wall jets. In this study, the jet may be either isothermal or submitted to various wall boundary conditions (uniform temperature or a uniform heat flux) in forced convection regime. A finite difference method, using a staggered grid, is employed to solve the coupled governing equations with the inlet and the boundary conditions. The predictions of the various low Reynolds number k-{epsilon} models with standard or modified C{sub {mu}} adopted in this work were presented and compared with measurements and numerical results found in the literature. (authors)
CFD calculations on the IFMIF Li-jet fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casal, N.
2007-01-01
IFMIF is an accelerator-based neutron source to test fusion candidate materials, in which two deuteron beams will strike a target of liquid lithium. The deuteron-lithium stripping reactions will produce the required energy neutron flux to simulate the fusion reactor irradiation. The lithium jet must remove up to 10 MW of beam power deposited on it, so a lithium velocity as high as 20 m/s is required in the target. In addition, in the beam power deposition area, the lithium flows over a concave backwall so that the centrifugal forces avoid lithium boiling. A stable liquid free surface is a very critical requirement of the target system, otherwise the neutron field could be altered. In this line, 1mm of amplitude has been established as the limit of lithium free surface perturbations in IFMIF present design. The experimental results of a number of water and lithium facilities together with previous fluiddynamics calculations show that the lithium free surface stability can hardly fulfill or even will exceed this design requirement. Other effects, like lithium jet thickness variation, have also been observed and predicted by calculations. Therefore, hydrodynamical stability of the lithium jet is a major issue and the possible occurrences that could affect it must be examined. To look into these problems, a simulation of the target area has been carried out by means of a CFX 5.7 code calculation. RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes) CFD codes are a very useful tool to supply information of main flow parameters, but there is the necessity to validate the models supporting the results by experimental data. In addition, owing to the uncertainties associated with modelling the free surface of liquid metal with the available turbulent approaches, efforts have been devoted to support the results by means of model assessment. The behaviour of the free surface and lithium jet thickness has been studied considering the liquid fraction volume as a first rough indicator of the
Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Lu, Shouxiang; Delichatsios, Michael; Chung, Suk-Ho
2015-01-01
The blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in cross flows were studied, especially concerning the effect of ambient pressure, by conducting experiments at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures. The combined effects of air flow
Cascades and Dissipative Anomalies in Compressible Fluid Turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregory L. Eyink
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a nonperturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or “coarse-grained” solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. The anomalous dissipation of kinetic energy is shown to be due not only to local cascade but also to a distinct mechanism called pressure-work defect. Irreversible heating in stationary, planar shocks with an ideal-gas equation of state exemplifies the second mechanism. Entropy conservation anomalies are also found to occur via two mechanisms: an anomalous input of negative entropy (negentropy by pressure work and a cascade of negentropy to small scales. We derive “4/5th-law”-type expressions for the anomalies, which allow us to characterize the singularities (structure-function scaling exponents required to sustain the cascades. We compare our approach with alternative theories and empirical evidence. It is argued that the “Big Power Law in the Sky” observed in electron density scintillations in the interstellar medium is a manifestation of a forward negentropy cascade or an inverse cascade of usual thermodynamic entropy.
Cascades and Dissipative Anomalies in Compressible Fluid Turbulence
Eyink, Gregory L.; Drivas, Theodore D.
2018-02-01
We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a nonperturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or "coarse-grained" solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. The anomalous dissipation of kinetic energy is shown to be due not only to local cascade but also to a distinct mechanism called pressure-work defect. Irreversible heating in stationary, planar shocks with an ideal-gas equation of state exemplifies the second mechanism. Entropy conservation anomalies are also found to occur via two mechanisms: an anomalous input of negative entropy (negentropy) by pressure work and a cascade of negentropy to small scales. We derive "4 /5 th-law"-type expressions for the anomalies, which allow us to characterize the singularities (structure-function scaling exponents) required to sustain the cascades. We compare our approach with alternative theories and empirical evidence. It is argued that the "Big Power Law in the Sky" observed in electron density scintillations in the interstellar medium is a manifestation of a forward negentropy cascade or an inverse cascade of usual thermodynamic entropy.
Emergence of multi-scaling in fluid turbulence
Donzis, Diego; Yakhot, Victor
2017-11-01
We present new theoretical and numerical results on the transition to strong turbulence in an infinite fluid stirred by a Gaussian random force. The transition is defined as a first appearance of anomalous scaling of normalized moments of velocity derivatives (or dissipation rates) emerging from the low-Reynolds-number Gaussian background. It is shown that due to multi-scaling, strongly intermittent rare events can be quantitatively described in terms of an infinite number of different ``Reynolds numbers'' reflecting a multitude of anomalous scaling exponents. We found that anomalous scaling for high order moments emerges at very low Reynolds numbers implying that intense dissipative-range fluctuations are established at even lower Reynolds number than that required for an inertial range. Thus, our results suggest that information about inertial range dynamics can be obtained from dissipative scales even when the former does not exit. We discuss our further prediction that transition to fully anomalous turbulence disappears at Rλ < 3 . Support from NSF is acknowledged.
POD Mode Robustness for the Turbulent Jet Sampled with PIV
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hodzic, Azur; Meyer, Knud Erik; Velte, Clara Marika
2017-01-01
An important challenge in the description and simulation of turbulence is the large amount of information that is needed to describe even relatively simple flows in detail. The frequent disagreement between Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes-based simulations and experiments is well known. Albeit, d...... and even high speed volumetric PIV systems providing fully three dimensional velocity fields. Another challenge is how do we verify simulations against experiments and ensure that we indeed have simulated the same flow that we have measured?......An important challenge in the description and simulation of turbulence is the large amount of information that is needed to describe even relatively simple flows in detail. The frequent disagreement between Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes-based simulations and experiments is well known. Albeit......, direct numerical simulations and in certain cases large eddy simulations tend to agree fairly well with experiments, their practical implementation introduces the problem of data storage. The experimentalist, however, experiences the same problem, using highspeed particle image velocimetry (PIV) systems...
Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M.; Picano, F.
2014-01-01
Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures – the so-called ligaments – in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties
Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Picano, F. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2014-05-15
Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures – the so-called ligaments – in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties.
Grinding Fluid Jet Characteristics and Their Effect on a Gear Profile Grinding Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philip Geilert
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Profile gear grinding is characterized by a high level of achievable process performance and workpiece quality. However, the wide contact length between the workpiece and the grinding wheel is disadvantageous for the fluid supply to the contact zone and leads to the risk of locally burning the workpiece surface. For the reduction of both the thermal load and the risk of thermo-mechanical damage, the usage of a grinding fluid needs to be investigated and optimized. For this purpose, different kinds of grinding fluid nozzles were tested, which provide different grinding fluid jet characteristics. Through a specific design of the nozzles, it is possible to control the fluid flow inside the nozzle. It was found that this internal fluid flow directly influences the breakup of the coolant fluid jet. There are three groups of jet breakup (“droplet”, “wave & droplet”, and “atomization”. The first experimental results show that the influence of the jet breakup on the process performance is significant. The “wave & droplet” jet breakup can achieve a high process performance, in contrast to the “atomization” jet breakup. It can therefore be assumed that the wetting of the grinding wheel by the grinding fluid jet is significantly influenced by the jet breakup.
Understanding and predicting soot generation in turbulent non-premixed jet flames.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Hai (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Kook, Sanghoon; Doom, Jeffrey; Oefelein, Joseph Charles; Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.; Pickett, Lyle M.
2010-10-01
This report documents the results of a project funded by DoD's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) on the science behind development of predictive models for soot emission from gas turbine engines. Measurements of soot formation were performed in laminar flat premixed flames and turbulent non-premixed jet flames at 1 atm pressure and in turbulent liquid spray flames under representative conditions for takeoff in a gas turbine engine. The laminar flames and open jet flames used both ethylene and a prevaporized JP-8 surrogate fuel composed of n-dodecane and m-xylene. The pressurized turbulent jet flame measurements used the JP-8 surrogate fuel and compared its combustion and sooting characteristics to a world-average JP-8 fuel sample. The pressurized jet flame measurements demonstrated that the surrogate was representative of JP-8, with a somewhat higher tendency to soot formation. The premixed flame measurements revealed that flame temperature has a strong impact on the rate of soot nucleation and particle coagulation, but little sensitivity in the overall trends was found with different fuels. An extensive array of non-intrusive optical and laser-based measurements was performed in turbulent non-premixed jet flames established on specially designed piloted burners. Soot concentration data was collected throughout the flames, together with instantaneous images showing the relationship between soot and the OH radical and soot and PAH. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for ethylene combustion, including fuel-rich chemistry and benzene formation steps, was compiled, validated, and reduced. The reduced ethylene mechanism was incorporated into a high-fidelity LES code, together with a moment-based soot model and models for thermal radiation, to evaluate the ability of the chemistry and soot models to predict soot formation in the jet diffusion flame. The LES results highlight the importance of including an optically-thick radiation
Entropic lattice Boltzmann model for charged leaky dielectric multiphase fluids in electrified jets.
Lauricella, Marco; Melchionna, Simone; Montessori, Andrea; Pisignano, Dario; Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Succi, Sauro
2018-03-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann model for charged leaky dielectric multiphase fluids in the context of electrified jet simulations, which are of interest for a number of production technologies including electrospinning. The role of nonlinear rheology on the dynamics of electrified jets is considered by exploiting the Carreau model for pseudoplastic fluids. We report exploratory simulations of charged droplets at rest and under a constant electric field, and we provide results for charged jet formation under electrospinning conditions.
Watanabe, Tomoaki; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Nagata, Koji; Ito, Yasumasa
2016-04-01
Spatially developing planar jets with passive scalar transports are simulated for various Reynolds (Re = 2200, 7000, and 22 000) and Schmidt numbers (Sc = 1, 4, 16, 64, and 128) by the implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) using low-pass filtering as an implicit subgrid-scale model. The budgets of resolved turbulent kinetic energy k and scalar variance are explicitly evaluated from the ILES data except for the dissipation terms, which are obtained from the balance in the transport equations. The budgets of k and in the ILES agree well with the DNS and experiments for both high and low Re cases. The streamwise decay of the mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate obeys the power low obtained by the scaling argument. The mechanical-to-scalar timescale ratio C ϕ is evaluated in the self-similar region. For the high Re case, C ϕ is close to the isotropic value (C ϕ = 2) near the jet centerline. However, when Re is not large, C ϕ is smaller than 2 and depends on the Schmidt number. The T/NT interface is also investigated by using the scalar isosurface. The velocity and scalar fields near the interface depend on the interface orientation for all Re. The velocity toward the interface is observed near the interface facing in the streamwise, cross-streamwise, and spanwise directions in the planar jet in the resolved velocity field.
Large Eddy Simulation of a cooling impinging jet to a turbulent crossflow
Georgiou, Michail; Papalexandris, Miltiadis
2015-11-01
In this talk we report on Large Eddy Simulations of a cooling impinging jet to a turbulent channel flow. The impinging jet enters the turbulent stream in an oblique direction. This type of flow is relevant to the so-called ``Pressurized Thermal Shock'' phenomenon that can occur in pressurized water reactors. First we elaborate on issues related to the set-up of the simulations of the flow of interest such as, imposition of turbulent inflows, choice of subgrid-scale model and others. Also, the issue of the commutator error due to the anisotropy of the spatial cut-off filter induced by non-uniform grids is being discussed. In the second part of the talk we present results of our simulations. In particular, we focus on the high-shear and recirculation zones that are developed and on the characteristics of the temperature field. The budget for the mean kinetic energy of the resolved-scale turbulent velocity fluctuations is also discussed and analyzed. Financial support has been provided by Bel V, a subsidiary of the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control of Belgium.
Turbulent structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames
Liao, Ying-Hao
2013-11-02
The structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally in a co-flow swirl combustor. The dynamics of the large-scale flame structures, including variations in flame dimensions, the degree of turbulent flame puff interaction, and the turbulent flame puff celerity were determined from high-speed imaging of the luminous flame. All of the tests presented here were conducted with a fixed fuel injection velocity at a Reynolds number of 5000. The flame dimensions were generally found to be more impacted by swirl for the cases of longer injection time and faster co-flow flow rate. Flames with swirl exhibited a flame length up to 34% shorter compared to nonswirled flames. Both the turbulent flame puff separation and the flame puff celerity generally decreased when swirl was imposed. The decreased flame length, flame puff separation, and flame puff celerity are consistent with a greater momentum exchange between the flame and the surrounding co-flow, resulting from an increased rate of air entrainment due to swirl. Three scaling relations were developed to account for the impact of the injection time, the volumetric fuel-to-air flow rate ratio, and the jet-on fraction on the visible flame length. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mergheni, M.A. [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS, Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France)]|[LESTE Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Sautet, J.C.; Godard, G. [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS, Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Ben Ticha, H.; Ben Nasrallah, S. [LESTE Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)
2009-03-15
The effect of solid particles on the flow characteristics of axisymmetric turbulent coaxial jets for two flow conditions was studied. Simultaneous measurements of size and velocity distributions of continuous and dispersed phases in a two-phase flow are presented using a Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) technique. Spherical glass particles with a particle diameter range from 102 to 212 {mu}m were used in this two-phase flow, the experimental results indicate a significant influence of the solid particles and the Re on the flow characteristics. The data show that the gas phase has lower mean velocity in the near-injector region and a higher mean velocity at the developed region. Near the injector at low Reynolds number (Re = 2839) the presence of the particles dampens the gas-phase turbulence, while at higher Reynolds number (Re = 11 893) the gas-phase turbulence and the velocity fluctuation of particle-laden jets are increased. The particle velocity at higher Reynolds number (Re = 11 893) and is lower at lower Reynolds number (Re = 2839). The slip velocity between particles and gas phase existed over the flow domain was examined. More importantly, the present experiment results suggest that, consideration of the gas characteristic length scales is insufficient to predict gas-phase turbulence modulation in gas-particle flows. (author)
On the Surface Breakup of a Non-turbulent Round Liquid Jet in Cross-flow
Behzad, Mohsen; Ashgriz, Nasser
2011-11-01
The atomization of a non-turbulent liquid jet injected into a subsonic cross-flow consists of two parts: (1) primary breakup and (2) secondary breakup. Two distinct regimes for the liquid jet primary breakup have been recognized; the so called column breakup and surface breakup. In the column breakup mode, the entire liquid jet undergoes disintegration into large liquid lumps. Quiet differently in the surface breakup regime, liquid fragments with various sizes and shapes are separated from the surface of the jet. Despite many experimental studies the mechanisms of jet surface breakup is not fully understood. Thus this study aims at providing useful observations regarding the underlying physics involving the surface breakup mechanism of a liquid jet in cross-flow, using detailed numerical simulations. The results show that a two-stage mechanism can be responsible for surface breakup. In the first stage, a sheet-like structure extrudes towards the downstream, and in the second stage it disintegrates into ligaments and droplets due to aerodynamic instability.
Interstellar turbulence model : A self-consistent coupling of plasma and neutral fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaikh, Dastgeer; Zank, Gary P.; Pogorelov, Nikolai
2006-01-01
We present results of a preliminary investigation of interstellar turbulence based on a self-consistent two-dimensional fluid simulation model. Our model describes a partially ionized magnetofluid interstellar medium (ISM) that couples a neutral hydrogen fluid to a plasma through charge exchange interactions and assumes that the ISM turbulent correlation scales are much bigger than the shock characteristic length-scales, but smaller than the charge exchange mean free path length-scales. The shocks have no influence on the ISM turbulent fluctuations. We find that nonlinear interactions in coupled plasma-neutral ISM turbulence are influenced substantially by charge exchange processes
Turbulent jet diffusion flame length evolution with cross flows in a sub-pressure atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Lu, Shouxiang; Ding, Hang
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Quantifying turbulent jet diffusion flame length with cross flows. • Unique data revealed for a sub-atmospheric pressure. • Non-dimensional global correlation proposed for flame trajectory-line length. - Abstract: This paper investigates the evolution characteristics of turbulent jet diffusion flame (flame trajectory-line length, flame height in vertical jet direction) with increasing cross flows in a sub-pressure (64 kPa) atmosphere. The combined effect of cross flow and a special sub-pressure atmosphere condition is revealed, where no data is available in the literatures. Experiments are carried out with a wind tunnel built specially in Lhasa city (altitude: 3650 m; pressure: 64 kPa) and in Hefei city (altitude: 50 m; pressure: 100 kPa), using nozzles with diameter of 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm and propane as fuel. It is found that, as cross flow air speed increases from zero, the flame trajectory-line length firstly decreases and then becomes almost stable (for relative small nozzle, 3 mm in this study) or increases (for relative large nozzle, 4 mm and 5 mm in this study) beyond a transitional critical cross flow air speed in normal pressure, however decreases monotonically until being blown-out in the sub-pressure atmosphere. The flame height in jet direction decreases monotonically with cross air flow speed and then reaches a steady value in both pressures. For the transitional state of flame trajectory-line length with increasing cross air flow speed, the corresponding critical cross flow air speed is found to be proportional to the fuel jet velocity, meanwhile independent of nozzle diameter. Correlation models are proposed for the flame height in jet direction and the flame trajectory-line length for both ambient pressures, which are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.
The role of magnetic turbulence in astrophysical jet launching and cosmic ray transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casse, Fabien
2001-01-01
The first part of my thesis shows how Keplerian discs can launch MHD jets, under some conditions. The key points of this first part are the adding of viscosity inside the disc and a relevant energy equation, In particular, I have shown both analytically and numerically that the angular momentum transport is constrained by the MHD turbulence properties. I have also shown that one must take into account a relevant energy equation in order to have a more realistic description of jets observed in the Universe. Moreover, some energy turbulent transport mechanisms cannot be described in a simple MHD approach. In order to better understand the interaction between a turbulent magnetic field and charged particles, I have undertaken a study dealing with spatial and angular diffusion of hadrons with a chaotic magnetic field generated by a magnetic turbulence. In this study, it clearly appears that the spatial diffusion coefficient along the mean magnetic field extrapolate the results of quasi-linear theory for weak turbulence. At the opposite, in the inertial range, the spatial diffusion coefficient across the mean magnetic field is inconsistent with such a theory. Indeed the spatial diffusion coefficient across the mean magnetic field has a behaviour that can be interpreted as a chaotic diffusion regime as the one predicted by Rechester and Rosenbluth. Moreover, outside this range, the behaviours of all spatial diffusion coefficients are different of those expected in the framework of quasi-linear theory. At last, it has been found that a Bohm diffusion regime never occurs whatever the magnetic chaos. (author) [fr
Turbulent Dynamics of Partially-Ionized Fluids in 2D
Benavides, S.; Flierl, G.
2017-12-01
Ionization occurs in the upper atmospheres of Hot Jupiters, as well asthe interiors of Gas Giants, leading to Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effectswhich can significantly alter the flow. The interactions of these MHDregions with the non-ionized atmosphere will occur in transitionregions where only a fraction of the fluid is ionized. We areexploring the dynamics of Partially-Ionized MHD (PIMHD) using a twofluid model - one neutral and one ionized and subject to MHD -coupled by a collision, or Joule heating, term proportional to thedifference in velocities. By varying both the ionization fraction aswell as the collision frequency (coupling), we examine the parameterspace of 2D PIMHD turbulence in hopes of better understanding itscharacteristics in certain, possibly realistic, regimes. We payparticular attention to the Joule heating term and its role indissipation and energy exchange between the two species. Thisknowledge will serve as the basis to further studies in which we lookat, in a more realistic setting, the PIMHD dynamics in Gas Giant orHot Jupiter atmospheres.
The evolution of the flame surface in turbulent premixed jet flames at high Reynolds number
Luca, Stefano; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio
2017-11-01
A set of direct numerical simulations of turbulent premixed flames in a spatially developing turbulent slot burner at four Reynolds number is presented. This configuration is of interest since it displays turbulent production by mean shear as in real combustion devices. The gas phase hydrodynamics are modeled with the reactive, unsteady Navier-Stokes equations in the low Mach number limit, with finite-rate chemistry consisting of 16 species and 73 reactions. For the highest jet Reynolds number of 22 ×103, 22 Billion grid points are employed. The jet consists of a lean methane/air mixture at 4 atm and preheated to 800 K. The analysis of stretch statistics shows that the mean total stretch is close to zero. Mean stretch decreases moving downstream from positive to negative values, suggesting a formation of surface area in the near field and destruction at the tip of the flame; the mean contribution of the tangential strain term is positive, while the mean contribution of the propagative term is always negative. Positive values of stretch are due to the tangential strain rate term, while large negative values are associated with the propagative term. Increasing Reynolds number is found to decrease the correlation between stretch and the single contributions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Hao; Huang, Qian-Min; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-Lin
2015-01-01
An experimental study is performed to investigate the local high-frequency perturbation effects of a synthetic jet injection on a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Parameters of the synthetic jet are designed to force a high-frequency perturbation from a thin spanwise slot in the wall. In the test locations downstream of the slot, it is found that skin-friction is reduced by the perturbation, which is languishingly evolved downstream of the slot with corresponding influence on the near-wall regeneration mechanism of turbulent structures. The downstream slot region is divided into two regions due to the influence strength of the movement of spanwise vortices generated by the high-frequency perturbation. Interestingly, the variable interval time average technique is found to be disturbed by the existence of the spanwise vortices’ motion, especially in the region close to the slot. Similar results are obtained from the analysis of the probability density functions of the velocity fluctuation time derivatives, which is another indirect technique for detecting the enhancement or attenuation of streamwise vortices. However, both methods have shown consistent results with the skin-friction reduction mechanism in the far-away slot region. The main purpose of this paper is to remind researchers to be aware of the probable influence of spanwise vortices’ motion in wall-bounded turbulence control. (paper)
LES/FMDF of turbulent jet ignition in a rapid compression machine
Validi, Abdoulahad; Schock, Harold; Toulson, Elisa; Jaberi, Farhad; CFD; Engine Research Labs, Michigan State University Collaboration
2015-11-01
Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) is an efficient method for initiating and controlling combustion in combustion systems, e.g. internal combustion engines. It enables combustion in ultra-lean mixtures by utilizing hot product turbulent jets emerging from a pre-chamber combustor as the ignition source for the main combustion chamber. Here, we study the TJI-assisted ignition and combustion of lean methane-air mixtures in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) for various flow/combustion conditions with the hybrid large eddy simulation/filtered mass density function (LES/FMDF) computational model. In the LES/FMDF model, the filtered form of compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order finite difference scheme for the turbulent velocity, while the FMDF transport equation is solved with a Lagrangian stochastic method to obtain the scalar (species mass fraction and temperature) field. The LES/FMDF data are used to study the physics of TJI and combustion in RCM. The results show the very complex behavior of the reacting flow and the flame structure in the pre-chamber and RCM.
Cabra, R.; Chen, J. Y.; Dibble, R. W.; Myhrvold, T.; Karpetis, A. N.; Barlow, R. S.
2002-01-01
An experiment and numerical investigation is presented of a lifted turbulent H2/N2 jet flame in a coflow of hot, vitiated gases. The vitiated coflow burner emulates the coupling of turbulent mixing and chemical kinetics exemplary of the reacting flow in the recirculation region of advanced combustors. It also simplifies numerical investigation of this coupled problem by removing the complexity of recirculating flow. Scalar measurements are reported for a lifted turbulent jet flame of H2/N2 (Re = 23,600, H/d = 10) in a coflow of hot combustion products from a lean H2/Air flame ((empty set) = 0.25, T = 1,045 K). The combination of Rayleigh scattering, Raman scattering, and laser-induced fluorescence is used to obtain simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of the major species, OH, and NO. The data attest to the success of the experimental design in providing a uniform vitiated coflow throughout the entire test region. Two combustion models (PDF: joint scalar Probability Density Function and EDC: Eddy Dissipation Concept) are used in conjunction with various turbulence models to predict the lift-off height (H(sub PDF)/d = 7,H(sub EDC)/d = 8.5). Kalghatgi's classic phenomenological theory, which is based on scaling arguments, yields a reasonably accurate prediction (H(sub K)/d = 11.4) of the lift-off height for the present flame. The vitiated coflow admits the possibility of auto-ignition of mixed fluid, and the success of the present parabolic implementation of the PDF model in predicting a stable lifted flame is attributable to such ignition. The measurements indicate a thickened turbulent reaction zone at the flame base. Experimental results and numerical investigations support the plausibility of turbulent premixed flame propagation by small scale (on the order of the flame thickness) recirculation and mixing of hot products into reactants and subsequent rapid ignition of the mixture.
Driving Solar Spicules and Jets with Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence: Testing a Persistent Idea
Cranmer, Steven R.; Woolsey, Lauren N.
2015-10-01
The solar chromosphere contains thin, highly dynamic strands of plasma known as spicules. Recently, it has been suggested that the smallest and fastest (Type II) spicules are identical to intermittent jets observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. These jets appear to expand out along open magnetic field lines rooted in unipolar network regions of coronal holes. In this paper we revisit a thirty-year-old idea that spicules may be caused by upward forces associated with Alfvén waves. These forces involve the conversion of transverse Alfvén waves into compressive acoustic-like waves that steepen into shocks. The repeated buffeting due to upward shock propagation causes nonthermal expansion of the chromosphere and a transient levitation of the transition region (TR). Some older models of wave-driven spicules assumed sinusoidal wave inputs, but the solar atmosphere is highly turbulent and stochastic. Thus, we model this process using the output of a time-dependent simulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The resulting mode-converted compressive waves are strongly variable in time, with a higher TR occurring when the amplitudes are large and a lower TR when the amplitudes are small. In this picture, the TR bobs up and down by several Mm on timescales less than a minute. These motions produce narrow, intermittent extensions of the chromosphere that have similar properties as the observed jets and Type II spicules.
DRIVING SOLAR SPICULES AND JETS WITH MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE: TESTING A PERSISTENT IDEA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cranmer, Steven R.; Woolsey, Lauren N.
2015-01-01
The solar chromosphere contains thin, highly dynamic strands of plasma known as spicules. Recently, it has been suggested that the smallest and fastest (Type II) spicules are identical to intermittent jets observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. These jets appear to expand out along open magnetic field lines rooted in unipolar network regions of coronal holes. In this paper we revisit a thirty-year-old idea that spicules may be caused by upward forces associated with Alfvén waves. These forces involve the conversion of transverse Alfvén waves into compressive acoustic-like waves that steepen into shocks. The repeated buffeting due to upward shock propagation causes nonthermal expansion of the chromosphere and a transient levitation of the transition region (TR). Some older models of wave-driven spicules assumed sinusoidal wave inputs, but the solar atmosphere is highly turbulent and stochastic. Thus, we model this process using the output of a time-dependent simulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The resulting mode-converted compressive waves are strongly variable in time, with a higher TR occurring when the amplitudes are large and a lower TR when the amplitudes are small. In this picture, the TR bobs up and down by several Mm on timescales less than a minute. These motions produce narrow, intermittent extensions of the chromosphere that have similar properties as the observed jets and Type II spicules
DRIVING SOLAR SPICULES AND JETS WITH MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE: TESTING A PERSISTENT IDEA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cranmer, Steven R. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Woolsey, Lauren N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2015-10-10
The solar chromosphere contains thin, highly dynamic strands of plasma known as spicules. Recently, it has been suggested that the smallest and fastest (Type II) spicules are identical to intermittent jets observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. These jets appear to expand out along open magnetic field lines rooted in unipolar network regions of coronal holes. In this paper we revisit a thirty-year-old idea that spicules may be caused by upward forces associated with Alfvén waves. These forces involve the conversion of transverse Alfvén waves into compressive acoustic-like waves that steepen into shocks. The repeated buffeting due to upward shock propagation causes nonthermal expansion of the chromosphere and a transient levitation of the transition region (TR). Some older models of wave-driven spicules assumed sinusoidal wave inputs, but the solar atmosphere is highly turbulent and stochastic. Thus, we model this process using the output of a time-dependent simulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The resulting mode-converted compressive waves are strongly variable in time, with a higher TR occurring when the amplitudes are large and a lower TR when the amplitudes are small. In this picture, the TR bobs up and down by several Mm on timescales less than a minute. These motions produce narrow, intermittent extensions of the chromosphere that have similar properties as the observed jets and Type II spicules.
Fluid dynamics characteristics of IFMIF Li-jet under deuteron load
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuertes, F.M.; Casal, N.; Barbero, R.; Garcia, A.; Branas, B.; Riccardi, B.
2006-01-01
IFMIF is an accelerator-based neutron source with the purpose of testing and fully qualify fusion candidate materials. Two 40 MeV deuteron beams, 125 mA current each, strike a target of liquid lithium flowing over a concave back-plate. The deuteron-lithium stripping reactions produce an intense high energy neutron flux which simulates the fusion reactor irradiation. To remove the beam power deposited on it (up to 10 MW), the lithium jet must have a speed around 20 m/s, which may give rise to flow instabilities. However, a stable liquid free surface is a very critical requirement of the target system, otherwise the neutron field could be altered. Therefore, the possible occurrences that could affect the hydrodynamical stability of the lithium jet are being examined in the frame of EFDA Technology Workprogramme. This paper summarizes the studies of the fluid dynamics characteristics of the lithium jet under the deuteron heat load, based on applications of the CFX 5.7 code, a commercial Navier-Stokes equations solver with specific modelling of turbulence, like the classical k - ε among others. Significant effort has been dedicated to develop an optimized and reliable numerical mesh, able to illustrate the behaviour of the lithium free surface and other issues like heat transport along the stream and to the back-plate, and lithium vaporization. First activities were dedicated to explore the effects on the results of a three-dimensional unstructured numerical mesh covering the area from the nozzle upstream the target to the exit of the target region. Subsequently, a more effective approach to this issue has been undertaken by developing a fine two-dimensional mesh along the longitudinal flow direction, with refined areas in the free surface and close to the wall regions. The numerical convergence criteria have been found to be strongly sensitive with respect to small modifications of the adopted unstructured mesh. Owing to the uncertainties associated with modelling
Time Resolved Scanning PIV measurements at fine scales in a turbulent jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, Y.; Torregrosa, M.M.; Villegas, A.; Diez, F.J.
2011-01-01
The temporal and spatial complexity of turbulent flows at intermediate and small scales has prevented the acquisition of full three-dimensional experimental data sets for validating classical turbulent theory and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Experimental techniques like Particle Velocimetry, PIV, allow non-intrusive planar measurements of turbulent flows. The present work applied a Time Resolved Scanning PIV system, TRS-PIV, capable of obtaining three-dimensional two-component velocities to measure the small scales of a turbulent jet. When probing the small scales of these flows with PIV, the uncertainty of the measured turbulent properties are determined by the characteristics of the PIV system and specially the thickness of the laser sheet. A measurement of the particle distribution across the thickness of the laser sheet is proposed as a more detailed description of the PIV sheet thickness. The high temporal and spatial resolution of the TRS-PIV system allowed obtaining quasi-instantaneous volumetric vector fields at the far field of a round turbulent jet in water, albeit for a low Reynolds number of 1478 due to the speed limitations of the present camera and scanning system. Six of the nine components of the velocity gradient tensor were calculated from the velocity measurements. This allowed the visualization with near Kolmogorov-scale resolution of the velocity gradient structures in three-dimensional space. In general, these structures had a complex geometry corresponding to elongated shapes in the form of sheets and tubes. An analysis of the probability density function, pdf, of the velocity gradients calculated showed that the on-diagonal (off-diagonal) velocity gradient components were very similar to each other even for events at the tails of the pdfs, as required for homogeneous isotropy. The root mean square of the components of the velocity gradients is also calculated and their ratio of off-diagonal components to on-diagonal components
Direct numerical simulation of an isothermal reacting turbulent wall-jet
Pouransari, Zeinab; Brethouwer, Geert; Johansson, Arne V.
2011-08-01
In the present investigation, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to study a binary irreversible and isothermal reaction in a plane turbulent wall-jet. The flow is compressible and a single-step global reaction between an oxidizer and a fuel species is solved. The inlet based Reynolds, Schmidt, and Mach numbers of the wall-jet are Re = 2000, Sc = 0.72, and M = 0.5, respectively, and a constant coflow velocity is applied above the jet. At the inlet, fuel and oxidizer enter the domain separately in a non-premixed manner. The turbulent structures of the velocity field show the common streaky patterns near the wall, while a somewhat patchy or spotty pattern is observed for the scalars and the reaction rate fluctuations in the near-wall region. The reaction mainly occurs in the upper shear layer in thin highly convoluted reaction zones, but it also takes place close to the wall. Analysis of turbulence and reaction statistics confirms the observations in the instantaneous snapshots, regarding the intermittent character of the reaction rate near the wall. A detailed study of the probability density functions of the reacting scalars and comparison to that of the passive scalar throughout the domain reveals the significance of the reaction influence as well as the wall effects on the scalar distributions. The higher order moments of both the velocities and the scalar concentrations are analyzed and show a satisfactory agreement with experiments. The simulations show that the reaction can both enhance and reduce the dissipation of fuel scalar, since there are two competing effects; on the one hand, the reaction causes sharper scalar gradients and thus a higher dissipation rate, on the other hand, the reaction consumes the fuel scalar thereby reducing the scalar dissipation.
Numerical simulation and analysis of confined turbulent buoyant jet with variable source
El-Amin, Mohamed
2016-01-23
In this work, experimental and numerical investigations are undertaken for confined buoyant turbulent jet with varying inlet temperatures. Results of the experimental work and numerical simulations for the problem under consideration are presented. Four cases of different variable inlet temperatures and different flow rates are considered. The realizable k-ɛ turbulence model is used to model the turbulent flow. Comparisons show good agreements between simulated and measured results. The average deviation of the simulated temperature by realizable k-ɛ turbulent model and the measured temperature is within 2%. The results indicate that temperatures along the vertical axis vary, generally, in nonlinear fashion as opposed to the approximately linear variation that was observed for the constant inlet temperature that was done in a previous work. Furthermore, thermal stratification exits, particularly closer to the entrance region. Further away from the entrance region the variation in temperatures becomes relatively smaller. The stratification is observed since the start of the experiment and continues during the whole course. Numerical experiments for constant, monotone increasing and monotone decreasing of inlet temperature are done to show its effect on the buoyancy force in terms of Richardson number.
Numerical simulation and analysis of confined turbulent buoyant jet with variable source
El-Amin, Mohamed; Al-Ghamdi, Abdulmajeed; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu
2016-01-01
In this work, experimental and numerical investigations are undertaken for confined buoyant turbulent jet with varying inlet temperatures. Results of the experimental work and numerical simulations for the problem under consideration are presented. Four cases of different variable inlet temperatures and different flow rates are considered. The realizable k-ɛ turbulence model is used to model the turbulent flow. Comparisons show good agreements between simulated and measured results. The average deviation of the simulated temperature by realizable k-ɛ turbulent model and the measured temperature is within 2%. The results indicate that temperatures along the vertical axis vary, generally, in nonlinear fashion as opposed to the approximately linear variation that was observed for the constant inlet temperature that was done in a previous work. Furthermore, thermal stratification exits, particularly closer to the entrance region. Further away from the entrance region the variation in temperatures becomes relatively smaller. The stratification is observed since the start of the experiment and continues during the whole course. Numerical experiments for constant, monotone increasing and monotone decreasing of inlet temperature are done to show its effect on the buoyancy force in terms of Richardson number.
Correlation of optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame
松山, 新吾; Matsuyama, Shingo
2014-01-01
This article investigates the correlation between optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame. To simulate the H2O emission from an H2/O2 diffusion flame, radiative transfer is calculated on flame data obtained by numerical simulation. H2O emission characteristics are examined for a one-dimensional opposed-flow diffusion flame. The results indicate that H2O emission intensity is linearly dependent on flame thickness. The simulation of H2O emission is then exte...
Transition to turbulence and noise radiation in heated coaxial jet flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gloor, Michael, E-mail: gloor@ifd.mavt.ethz.ch; Bühler, Stefan; Kleiser, Leonhard [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)
2016-04-15
Laminar-turbulent transition and noise radiation of a parametrized set of subsonic coaxial jet flows with a hot primary (core) stream are investigated numerically by Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and direct noise computation. This study extends our previous research on local linear stability of heated coaxial jet flows by analyzing the nonlinear evolution of initially laminar flows disturbed by a superposition of small-amplitude unstable eigenmodes. First, a baseline configuration is studied to shed light on the flow dynamics of coaxial jet flows. Subsequently, LESs are performed for a range of Mach and Reynolds numbers to systematically analyze the influences of the temperature and the velocity ratios between the primary and the secondary (bypass) stream. The results provide a basis for a detailed analysis of fundamental flow-acoustic phenomena in the considered heated coaxial jet flows. Increasing the primary-jet temperature leads to an increase of fluctuation levels and to an amplification of far-field noise, especially at low frequencies. Strong mixing between the cold bypass stream and the hot primary stream as well as the intermittent character of the flow field at the end of the potential core lead to a pronounced noise radiation at an aft angle of approximately 35{sup ∘}. The velocity ratio strongly affects the shear-layer development and therefore also the noise generation mechanisms. Increasing the secondary-stream velocity amplifies the dominance of outer shear-layer perturbations while the disturbance growth rates in the inner shear layer decrease. Already for r{sub mic} > 40R{sub 1}, where r{sub mic} is the distance from the end of the potential core and R{sub 1} is the core-jet radius, a perfect 1/r{sub mic} decay of the sound pressure amplitudes is observed. The potential-core length increases for higher secondary-stream velocities which leads to a shift of the center of the dominant acoustic radiation in the downstream direction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldstein, Melvyn L., E-mail: arcadi.usmanov@nasa.gov [Code 672, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2014-06-10
We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are
Study of the parabolic and elliptic approaches validities for a turbulent co-flowing jet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud Houda
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An axisymmetric turbulent jet discharged in a co-flowing stream was studied with the aid of parabolic and elliptic approaches. The simulations were performed with two in-house codes. Detailed comparisons of data show good agreement with the corresponding experiments; and different behaviors of jet dilution were found in initial region at different ranges of velocities ratios. It has been found that the two approaches give practically the same results for the velocities ratios Ru ≤ 1.5. Further from this value, the elliptic approach highlights the appearance of the fall velocity zone and that’s due to the presence of a trough low pressure. This fall velocity has not been detected by the parabolic approach and that’s due to the jet entrainment by the ambient flow. The intensity of this entrainment is directly related to the difference between the primary (jet and the secondary flow (co-flow. In fact, by increasing the velocities ratios Ru, the sucked flux by the outer stream becomes more important; the fall velocity intensifies and changes into a recirculation zone for Ru ≥ 5.
Blow-out of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames at sub-atmospheric pressures
Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Chung, Suk-Ho
2016-01-01
Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in quiescent air at sub-atmospheric pressures (50–100 kPa) were studied experimentally using propane fuel with nozzle diameters ranging 0.8–4 mm. Results showed that the fuel jet velocity at blow-out limit increased with increasing ambient pressure and nozzle diameter. A Damköhler (Da) number based model was adopted, defined as the ratio of characteristic mixing time and characteristic reaction time, to include the effect of pressure considering the variations in laminar burning velocity and thermal diffusivity with pressure. The critical lift-off height at blow-out, representing a characteristic length scale for mixing, had a linear relationship with the theoretically predicted stoichiometric location along the jet axis, which had a weak dependence on ambient pressure. The characteristic mixing time (critical lift-off height divided by jet velocity) adjusted to the characteristic reaction time such that the critical Damköhler at blow-out conditions maintained a constant value when varying the ambient pressure.
Investigation of turbulent swirling jet-flames by PIV / OH PLIF / HCHO PLIF
Lobasov, A. S.; Chikishev, L. M.
2018-03-01
The present paper reports on the investigation of fuel-lean and fuel-rich turbulent combustion in a high-swirl jet. Swirl rate of the flow exceeded a critical value for breakdown of the swirling jet’s vortex core and formation of the recirculation zone at the jet axis. The measurements were performed by the stereo PIV, OH PLIF and HCHO PLIF techniques, simultaneously. The Reynolds number based on the flow rate and viscosity of the air was fixed as 5 000 (the bulk velocity was U 0 = 5 m/s). Three cases of the equivalence ratio ϕ of the mixture issuing from the nozzle-burner were considered, viz., 0.7, 1.4 and 2.5. The latter case corresponded to a lifted flame of fuel-rich swirling jet flow, partially premixed with the surrounding air. In all cases the flame front was subjected to deformations due to large-scale vortices, which rolled-up in the inner (around the central recirculation zone) and outer (between the annular jet core and surrounding air) mixing layers.
The application of complex network time series analysis in turbulent heated jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charakopoulos, A. K.; Karakasidis, T. E.; Liakopoulos, A.; Papanicolaou, P. N.
2014-01-01
In the present study, we applied the methodology of the complex network-based time series analysis to experimental temperature time series from a vertical turbulent heated jet. More specifically, we approach the hydrodynamic problem of discriminating time series corresponding to various regions relative to the jet axis, i.e., time series corresponding to regions that are close to the jet axis from time series originating at regions with a different dynamical regime based on the constructed network properties. Applying the transformation phase space method (k nearest neighbors) and also the visibility algorithm, we transformed time series into networks and evaluated the topological properties of the networks such as degree distribution, average path length, diameter, modularity, and clustering coefficient. The results show that the complex network approach allows distinguishing, identifying, and exploring in detail various dynamical regions of the jet flow, and associate it to the corresponding physical behavior. In addition, in order to reject the hypothesis that the studied networks originate from a stochastic process, we generated random network and we compared their statistical properties with that originating from the experimental data. As far as the efficiency of the two methods for network construction is concerned, we conclude that both methodologies lead to network properties that present almost the same qualitative behavior and allow us to reveal the underlying system dynamics
Skin friction drag reduction on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer using synthetic jets
Belanger, Randy; Boom, Pieter D.; Hanson, Ronald E.; Lavoie, Philippe; Zingg, David W.
2017-11-01
In these studies, we investigate the effect of mild synthetic jet actuation on a flat plate turbulent boundary layer with the goal of interacting with the large scales in the log region of the boundary layer and manipulating the overall skin friction. Results will be presented from both large eddy simulations (LES) and wind tunnel experiments. In the experiments, a large parameter space of synthetic jet frequency and amplitude was studied with hot film sensors at select locations behind a pair of synthetic jets to identify the parameters that produce the greatest changes in the skin friction. The LES simulations were performed for a selected set of parameters and provide a more complete evaluation of the interaction between the boundary layer and synthetic jets. Five boundary layer thicknesses downstream, the skin friction between the actuators is generally found to increase, while regions of reduced skin friction persist downstream of the actuators. This pattern is reversed for forcing at low frequency. Overall, the spanwise-averaged skin friction is increased by the forcing, except when forcing at high frequency and low amplitude, for which a net skin friction reduction persists downstream. The physical interpretation of these results will be discussed. The financial support of Airbus is gratefully acknowledged.
An Experimental Study of the Structure of Turbulent Non-Premixed Jet Flames in Microgravity
Boxx, Isaac; Idicheria, Cherian; Clemens, Noel
2000-11-01
The aim of this work is to investigate the structure of transitional and turbulent non-premixed jet flames under microgravity conditions. The microgravity experiments are being conducted using a newly developed drop rig and the University of Texas 1.5 second drop tower. The rig itself measures 16”x33”x38” and contains a co-flowing round jet flame facility, flow control system, CCD camera, and data/image acquisition computer. These experiments are the first phase of a larger study being conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center 2.2 second drop tower facility. The flames being studied include methane and propane round jet flames at jet exit Reynolds numbers as high as 10,000. The primary diagnostic technique employed is emission imaging of flame luminosity using a relatively high-speed (350 fps) CCD camera. The high-speed images are used to study flame height, flame tip dynamics and burnout characteristics. Results are compared to normal gravity experimental results obtained in the same apparatus.
Blow-out of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames at sub-atmospheric pressures
Wang, Qiang
2016-12-09
Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in quiescent air at sub-atmospheric pressures (50–100 kPa) were studied experimentally using propane fuel with nozzle diameters ranging 0.8–4 mm. Results showed that the fuel jet velocity at blow-out limit increased with increasing ambient pressure and nozzle diameter. A Damköhler (Da) number based model was adopted, defined as the ratio of characteristic mixing time and characteristic reaction time, to include the effect of pressure considering the variations in laminar burning velocity and thermal diffusivity with pressure. The critical lift-off height at blow-out, representing a characteristic length scale for mixing, had a linear relationship with the theoretically predicted stoichiometric location along the jet axis, which had a weak dependence on ambient pressure. The characteristic mixing time (critical lift-off height divided by jet velocity) adjusted to the characteristic reaction time such that the critical Damköhler at blow-out conditions maintained a constant value when varying the ambient pressure.
Zhang, Wei; He, Zhiguo; Jiang, Houshuo
2017-11-01
Time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used to measure instantaneous two-dimensional velocity vector fields of laboratory-generated turbulent buoyant plumes in linearly stratified saltwater over extended periods of time. From PIV-measured time-series flow data, characteristics of plume mean flow and turbulence have been quantified. To be specific, maximum plume penetration scaling and entrainment coefficient determined from the mean flow agree well with the theory based on the entrainment hypothesis for buoyant plumes in stratified fluids. Besides the well-known persistent entrainment along the plume stem (i.e., the 'plume-stem' entrainment), the mean plume velocity field shows persistent entrainment along the outer edge of the plume cap (i.e., the 'plume-cap' entrainment), thereby confirming predictions from previous numerical simulation studies. To our knowledge, the present PIV investigation provides the first measured flow field data in the plume cap region. As to measured plume turbulence, both the turbulent kinetic energy field and the turbulence dissipation rate field attain their maximum close to the source, while the turbulent viscosity field reaches its maximum within the plume cap region; the results also show that maximum turbulent viscosity scales as νt,max = 0.030(B/N)1/2, where B is source buoyancy flux and N is ambient buoyancy frequency. These PIV data combined with previously published numerical simulation results have implications for understanding the roles of hydrothermal plume turbulence, i.e. plume turbulence within the cap region causes the 'plume-cap' entrainment that plays an equally important role as the 'plume-stem' entrainment in supplying the final volume flux at the plume spreading level.
Complexity analysis of the turbulent environmental fluid flow time series
Mihailović, D. T.; Nikolić-Đorić, E.; Drešković, N.; Mimić, G.
2014-02-01
We have used the Kolmogorov complexities, sample and permutation entropies to quantify the randomness degree in river flow time series of two mountain rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina, representing the turbulent environmental fluid, for the period 1926-1990. In particular, we have examined the monthly river flow time series from two rivers (the Miljacka and the Bosnia) in the mountain part of their flow and then calculated the Kolmogorov complexity (KL) based on the Lempel-Ziv Algorithm (LZA) (lower-KLL and upper-KLU), sample entropy (SE) and permutation entropy (PE) values for each time series. The results indicate that the KLL, KLU, SE and PE values in two rivers are close to each other regardless of the amplitude differences in their monthly flow rates. We have illustrated the changes in mountain river flow complexity by experiments using (i) the data set for the Bosnia River and (ii) anticipated human activities and projected climate changes. We have explored the sensitivity of considered measures in dependence on the length of time series. In addition, we have divided the period 1926-1990 into three subintervals: (a) 1926-1945, (b) 1946-1965, (c) 1966-1990, and calculated the KLL, KLU, SE, PE values for the various time series in these subintervals. It is found that during the period 1946-1965, there is a decrease in their complexities, and corresponding changes in the SE and PE, in comparison to the period 1926-1990. This complexity loss may be primarily attributed to (i) human interventions, after the Second World War, on these two rivers because of their use for water consumption and (ii) climate change in recent times.
Numerical study of an impinging jet to a turbulent channel flow in a T-Junction configuration
Georgiou, Michail; Papalexandris, Miltiadis
2016-11-01
In this talk we report on Large Eddy Simulations of an impinging planar jet to a turbulent channel flow in a T-Junction configuration. Due to its capacity for mixing and heat transfer enhancement, this type of flow is encountered in various industrial applications. In particular, our work is related to the emergency cooling systems of pressurized water reactors. As is well known, this type of flow is dominated by a large separation bubble downstream the jet impingement location. Secondary regions of flow separation are predicted both upstream and downstream the impinging jet. We describe how these separation regions interact with the shear layer that is formed by the injection of the jet to the crossflow, and how they affect the mixing process. In our talk we further examine the influence of the jet's velocity to characteristic quantities of the jet, such as penetration length and expansion angle, as well as to the first and second-order statistics of the flow.
Structure of pulsed plasma jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavolowsky, J.A.
1987-01-01
A pulsed plasma jet is a turbulent, inhomogeneous fluid mechanical discharge capable of initiating and enhancing combustion. Having shown the ability to ignite lean fuel mixtures, it now offers the potential for real-time control of combustion processes. This study explored the fluid-mechanical and chemical properties of such jets. The fluid-mechanical structure of the jet was examined using two optical diagnostic techniques. Self-light streak photography provided information on the motion of luminous gas particles in its core. It revealed that plasma jets behave either totally subsonic or embody a supersonic core. The turbulent, thermal evolution of the jet was explored using high-speed-laser schlieren cinematography. By examining plasma jet generators with both opaque and transparent plasma cavities, detailed information on plasma formation and jet structure, beginning with the electric arc discharge in the cavity, was obtained. These records revealed the production of thermal stratifications in the cavity that could account for the plasma particles in the jet core. After the electrical discharges ceased, the turbulent jet behaved as a self-similar plume. Molecular-beam mass spectrometry was used to determine temperature and species concentration in the jet. Both non-combustible and combustible jets were studied
Analysis of flame shapes in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Hee Jang
2009-01-01
This paper addresses the characteristics of flame shapes and flame length in three types of coaxial air flames realizable by varying coaxial air and/or fuel velocity. Forcing coaxial air into turbulent jet flames induces substantial changes in flame shapes and NOx emissions through the complex flow interferences that exist within the mixing region. Mixing enhancement driven by coaxial air results in flame volume decrease, and such a diminished flame volume finally reduces NOx emissions significantly by decreasing NOx formation zone where a fuel/air mixture burns. It is found that mixing in the vicinity of high temperature zone mainly results from the increase of diffusive flux than the convective flux, and that the increase of mass diffusion is amplified as coaxial air is increased. Besides, it is reaffirmed that nonequilibrium chemistry including HO 2 /H 2 O 2 should be taken into account for NOx prediction and scaling analysis by comparing turbulent combustion models. In addition, it is found that coaxial air can break down the self-similarity law of flames by changing mixing mechanism, and that EINOx scaling parameters based on the self-similarity law of simple jet flames may not be eligible in coaxial air flames
Analysis of flame shapes in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Hee Jang [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)
2009-06-15
This paper addresses the characteristics of flame shapes and flame length in three types of coaxial air flames realizable by varying coaxial air and/or fuel velocity. Forcing coaxial air into turbulent jet flames induces substantial changes in flame shapes and NOx emissions through the complex flow interferences that exist within the mixing region. Mixing enhancement driven by coaxial air results in flame volume decrease, and such a diminished flame volume finally reduces NOx emissions significantly by decreasing NOx formation zone where a fuel/air mixture burns. It is found that mixing in the vicinity of high temperature zone mainly results from the increase of diffusive flux than the convective flux, and that the increase of mass diffusion is amplified as coaxial air is increased. Besides, it is reaffirmed that nonequilibrium chemistry including HO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} should be taken into account for NOx prediction and scaling analysis by comparing turbulent combustion models. In addition, it is found that coaxial air can break down the self-similarity law of flames by changing mixing mechanism, and that EINOx scaling parameters based on the self-similarity law of simple jet flames may not be eligible in coaxial air flames
Double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent swirling annular jet flow
Vanierschot, M.; Percin, M.; van Oudheusden, B. W.
2018-03-01
In this paper, we report on the structure and dynamics of double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent annular swirling jet. Double helix breakdown has been reported previously for the laminar flow regime, but this structure has rarely been observed in turbulent flow. The flow field is investigated experimentally by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. Notwithstanding the axisymmetric nature of the time-averaged flow, analysis of the instantaneous three-dimensional (3D) vortical structures shows the existence of a vortex core along the central axis which breaks up into a double helix downstream. The winding sense of this double helix is opposite to the swirl direction (m =-2 ) and it is wrapped around a central vortex breakdown bubble. This structure is quite different from double helix breakdown found in laminar flows where the helix is formed in the wake of the bubble and not upstream. The double helix precesses around the central axis of the jet with a precessing frequency corresponding to a Strouhal number of 0.27.
Statistical analysis of the velocity and scalar fields in reacting turbulent wall-jets
Pouransari, Z.; Biferale, L.; Johansson, A. V.
2015-02-01
The concept of local isotropy in a chemically reacting turbulent wall-jet flow is addressed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Different DNS databases with isothermal and exothermic reactions are examined. The chemical reaction and heat release effects on the turbulent velocity, passive scalar, and reactive species fields are studied using their probability density functions (PDFs) and higher order moments for velocities and scalar fields, as well as their gradients. With the aid of the anisotropy invariant maps for the Reynolds stress tensor, the heat release effects on the anisotropy level at different wall-normal locations are evaluated and found to be most accentuated in the near-wall region. It is observed that the small-scale anisotropies are persistent both in the near-wall region and inside the jet flame. Two exothermic cases with different Damköhler numbers are examined and the comparison revealed that the Damköhler number effects are most dominant in the near-wall region, where the wall cooling effects are influential. In addition, with the aid of PDFs conditioned on the mixture fraction, the significance of the reactive scalar characteristics in the reaction zone is illustrated. We argue that the combined effects of strong intermittency and strong persistency of anisotropy at the small scales in the entire domain can affect mixing and ultimately the combustion characteristics of the reacting flow.
Modeling of Dissipation Element Statistics in Turbulent Non-Premixed Jet Flames
Denker, Dominik; Attili, Antonio; Boschung, Jonas; Hennig, Fabian; Pitsch, Heinz
2017-11-01
The dissipation element (DE) analysis is a method for analyzing and compartmentalizing turbulent scalar fields. DEs can be described by two parameters, namely the Euclidean distance l between their extremal points and the scalar difference in the respective points Δϕ . The joint probability density function (jPDF) of these two parameters P(Δϕ , l) is expected to suffice for a statistical reconstruction of the scalar field. In addition, reacting scalars show a strong correlation with these DE parameters in both premixed and non-premixed flames. Normalized DE statistics show a remarkable invariance towards changes in Reynolds numbers. This feature of DE statistics was exploited in a Boltzmann-type evolution equation based model for the probability density function (PDF) of the distance between the extremal points P(l) in isotropic turbulence. Later, this model was extended for the jPDF P(Δϕ , l) and then adapted for the use in free shear flows. The effect of heat release on the scalar scales and DE statistics is investigated and an extended model for non-premixed jet flames is introduced, which accounts for the presence of chemical reactions. This new model is validated against a series of DNS of temporally evolving jet flames. European Research Council Project ``Milestone''.
Bogey , Christophe; Bailly , Christophe
2007-01-01
International audience; Noise generation is investigated in subsonic isothermal round jets at Mach numbers M =0.6 and M =0.9, with Reynolds numbers ReD =1700 and ReD 105, using causality methods on data provided by large-eddy simulations. The correlations between broadband sound pressure signals and broadband turbulence signals along the jet axis and the shear layer are calculated. The normalized correlations are found to be significant between the pressure emitted in the downstream direction...
An accurate conservative level set/ghost fluid method for simulating turbulent atomization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desjardins, Olivier; Moureau, Vincent; Pitsch, Heinz
2008-01-01
This paper presents a novel methodology for simulating incompressible two-phase flows by combining an improved version of the conservative level set technique introduced in [E. Olsson, G. Kreiss, A conservative level set method for two phase flow, J. Comput. Phys. 210 (2005) 225-246] with a ghost fluid approach. By employing a hyperbolic tangent level set function that is transported and re-initialized using fully conservative numerical schemes, mass conservation issues that are known to affect level set methods are greatly reduced. In order to improve the accuracy of the conservative level set method, high order numerical schemes are used. The overall robustness of the numerical approach is increased by computing the interface normals from a signed distance function reconstructed from the hyperbolic tangent level set by a fast marching method. The convergence of the curvature calculation is ensured by using a least squares reconstruction. The ghost fluid technique provides a way of handling the interfacial forces and large density jumps associated with two-phase flows with good accuracy, while avoiding artificial spreading of the interface. Since the proposed approach relies on partial differential equations, its implementation is straightforward in all coordinate systems, and it benefits from high parallel efficiency. The robustness and efficiency of the approach is further improved by using implicit schemes for the interface transport and re-initialization equations, as well as for the momentum solver. The performance of the method is assessed through both classical level set transport tests and simple two-phase flow examples including topology changes. It is then applied to simulate turbulent atomization of a liquid Diesel jet at Re=3000. The conservation errors associated with the accurate conservative level set technique are shown to remain small even for this complex case
Brocchini, M
2006-01-01
This book contains a collection of 11 research and review papers devoted to the topic of fluid-structure interaction.The subject matter is divided into chapters covering a wide spectrum of recognized areas of research, such as: wall bounded turbulence; quasi 2-D turbulence; canopy turbulence; large eddy simulation; lake hydrodynamics; hydraulic hysteresis; liquid impacts; flow induced vibrations; sloshing flows; transient pipe flow and air entrainment in dropshaft.The purpose of each chapter is to summarize the main results obtained by the individual research unit through a year-long activity on a specific issue of the above list. The main feature of the book is to bring state of the art research on fluid structure interaction to the attention of the broad international community.This book is primarily aimed at fluid mechanics scientists, but it will also be of value to postgraduate students and practitioners in the field of fluid structure interaction.
Advances in engineering turbulence modeling. [computational fluid dynamics
Shih, T.-H.
1992-01-01
Some new developments in two equation models and second order closure models are presented. In this paper, modified two equation models are proposed to remove shortcomings such as computing flows over complex geometries and the ad hoc treatment near the separation and reattachment points. The calculations using various two equation models are compared with direct numerical solutions of channel flows and flat plate boundary layers. Development of second order closure models will also be discussed with emphasis on the modeling of pressure related correlation terms and dissipation rates in the second moment equations. All existing models poorly predict the normal stresses near the wall and fail to predict the three dimensional effect of mean flow on the turbulence. The newly developed second order near-wall turbulence model to be described in this paper is capable of capturing the near-wall behavior of turbulence as well as the effect of three dimension mean flow on the turbulence.
3D fluid simulations of tokamak edge turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeiler, A.; Biskamp, D.; Drake, J.F.; Guzdar, P.N.
1995-09-01
3D simulations of drift resistive ballooning turbulence are presented. The turbulence is basically controlled by a parameter α, the ratio of the drift wave frequency to the ideal ballooning growth rate. If this parameters is small (α≤1, corresponding to Ohmic or L-mode plasmas), the system is dominated by ballooning turbulence, which is strongly peaked at the outside of the torus. If it is large (α≥1, corresponding to H-mode plasmas) field line curvature plays a minor role. The turbulence is nonlinearly sustained even if curvature is removed and all modes are linearly stable due to magnetic shear. In the nonlinear regime without curvature the system obeys a different scaling law compared to the low α regime. The transport scaling is discussed in both regimes and the implications for OH-, L-mode and H-mode transport are discussed. (orig.)
A numerical study of a turbulent axisymmetric jet emerging in a co-flowing stream
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahmoud, Houda, E-mail: mahhouda2003@yahoo.f [Unite de thermique et thermodynamique des procedes industriels, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, route de Ouardanine, 5020 Monastir (Tunisia); Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem [Unite de thermique et thermodynamique des procedes industriels, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, route de Ouardanine, 5020 Monastir (Tunisia); Palec, Georges Le; Bournot, Philippe [IUSTI, UMR CNRS 6595, 5 Rue Enrico Fermi, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, 13013 Marseille (France)
2010-11-15
In this work, we propose a numerical study of an axisymmetric turbulent jet discharging into co-flowing stream with different velocities ratios ranging between 0 and {infinity}. The standard k-{epsilon} model and the RSM model were applied in this study. The numerical resolution of the governing equations was carried out using two computed codes: the first is a personal code and the second is a commercial CFD code FLUENT 6.2. These two codes are based on a finite volume method. The present predictions are compared with the experimental data. The results show that the two turbulence models are valid to predict the average and turbulent flow sizes. Also, the effect of the velocities ratios on the flow structure was examined. For R{sub u} > 1, it is noted the appearance of the fall velocity zone due to the presence of a trough low pressure. This fall velocity becomes increasingly intense according to R{sub u} and changes into a recirculation zone for R{sub u} {>=} 4.5. This zone is larger and approaches more the nozzle injection when R{sub u} increases.
Validation of an LES Model for Soot Evolution against DNS Data in Turbulent Jet Flames
Mueller, Michael
2012-11-01
An integrated modeling approach for soot evolution in turbulent reacting flows is validated against three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data in a set of n-heptane nonpremixed temporal jet flames. As in the DNS study, the evolution of the soot population is described statistically with the Hybrid Method of Moments (HMOM). The oxidation of the fuel and formation of soot precursors are described with the Radiation Flamelet/Progress Variable (RFPV) model that includes an additional transport equation for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) to account for the slow chemistry governing these species. In addition, the small-scale interactions between soot, chemistry, and turbulence are described with a presumed subfilter PDF approach that accounts for the very large spatial intermittency characterizing soot in turbulent reacting flows. The DNS dataset includes flames at three different Damköhler numbers to study the influence of global mixing rates on the evolution of PAH and soot. In this work, the ability of the model to capture these trends quantitatively as Damköhler number varies is investigated. In order to reliably assess the LES approach, the LES is initialized from the filtered DNS data after an initial transitional period in an effort to minimize the hydrodynamic differences between the DNS and the LES.
Influence of Pilot Flame Parameters on the Stability of Turbulent Jet Flames
Guiberti, Thibault F.
2016-11-08
This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effects of pilot parameters on flame stability in a turbulent jet flame. The Sydney inhomogeneous piloted burner is employed as the experimental platform with two main fuels, namely, compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. Various concentrations of five gases are used in the pilot stream, hydrogen, acetylene, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, to enable a sufficient range in exploring the following parameters: pilot heat release, temperature, burnt gas velocity, equivalence ratio, and H/C ratio. The experimental results are mainly presented in the form of blow-off limits and supported by simple calculations, which simulate various conditions of the pilot–mixture interface. It is found that increasing the pilot adiabatic flame temperature benefits the flame stability and has an even greater influence than the heat release, which is also known to enhance the blow-off limits. Conversely, increasing the pilot burnt gas velocity reduces the blow-off velocity, except for the limiting case when the jet is fully non-premixed. The H/C ratio has negligible effects, while resorting to lean pilots significantly increases the stability of globally rich partially premixed and premixed jets. Such findings are consistent with trends obtained from laminar flame calculations for rich fuel/air mixtures issuing against hot combustion products to simulate the pilot stream.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Masa-aki; Muramatsu, Toshiharu
2004-06-01
It is important to evaluate thermal-striping phenomena, which is the thermal fatigue issue in the structure generated by the temperature fluctuation due to the fluid mixing. Especially, the high amplitude and the high number of repetitions of the temperature fluctuation are needed to take into consideration. Moreover, it is necessary to consider the comparatively low frequency components of fluid temperature fluctuation, since the influence to structure material is large. Therefore, it is required to know the generating mechanism and conditions of the high amplitude and the low frequency component of fluid temperature fluctuation. In Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, basic research on the promote system for fluid mixing is conducted, which system ('Turbulence promoter') is expected to reduce the large amplitude and low frequency components of fluid temperature fluctuation in T junction pipe. In this investigation, it is aimed to validate the effect and to generalize the mixing characteristics of 'Turbulence promoter' on the fluid mixing in T-junction pipe, and to contribute the knowledge to the rational design of LMFBR. In this report, numerical simulation for the existing experiment was conducted using a quasi-direct simulation code (DINUS-3). From the numerical simulation, the following results are obtained. (1) Numerical calculations could simulate well the flow patterns observed in the visualization experiment, in impinging jet case (Pattern-C) and deflecting jet cases (Pattern-B1 and Pattern-B). (2) By installing Turbulence promoter', cross-section area of main pipe after the mixing point is narrowed, and the fluid of main pipe is accelerated and flows along the slope of the promoter on the opposite side of branch pipe. this accelerated flow acts to prevent the collision of the branch pipe flow to the promoter. Therefore, the branch pipe flow conditions in deflecting jet category are extended. (3) At the throat of the main pipe, the flow was separated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steen, M.
1989-01-01
A suspension of glass fibers in alcohol has been used to investigate a upward vertical developing pipe flow. The refractive index of the alcohol was matched to that of the glass fibers, making the whole suspension transparent. Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) was applied, and fluid velocities could then be measured for consistencies up to c = 12 g/l. Radial profiles of axial U-velocity and turbulence spectra have been recorded at various positions (z/D = 2, 5, 36) downstream of an orifice (step) with 64% open area. Measurements were taken for different consistencies (c = 1.2, 12 g/l), fiber lengths (l = 1, 3 mm) and Reynolds numbers (R e = 8.5 ⋅ 10 3 , 6.5 ⋅ 10 4 ). The fiber crowding factor (n f ) has been used to discuss the observed effects of the present fibers on momentum transfer and turbulence structure. The results show both an increase (l= 1 mm, c= 1.2 g/l) and decrease (l=3 mm, c = 12 g/l) in turbulence levels in the presence of fibers. Suspensions with long fibers at the highest consistency show plug flow in parts of the core. This causes damping of the turbulence mainly at smaller length scales. For short fibers at low consistency, the increased turbulent energy was mainly observed at small length scales in the spectrum. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karpp, R.R.
1980-10-01
This report treats analytically the problem of the symmetric impact of two compressible fluid streams. The flow is assumed to be steady, plane, inviscid, and subsonic and that the compressible fluid is of the Chaplygin (tangent gas) type. In the analysis, the governing equations are first transformed to the hodograph plane where an exact, closed-form solution is obtained by standard techniques. The distributions of fluid properties along the plane of symmetry as well as the shapes of the boundary streamlines are exactly determined by transforming the solution back to the physical plane. The problem of a compressible fluid jet penetrating into an infinite target of similar material is also exactly solved by considering a limiting case of this solution. This new compressible flow solution reduces to the classical result of incompressible flow theory when the sound speed of the fluid is allowed to approach infinity. Several illustrations of the differences between compressible and incompressible flows of the type considered are presented
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordkvist, Mikkel; Vognsen, Marie; Nienow, Alfred W.
2008-01-01
Mixing times were obtained by the iodine-thiosulphate decolorization technique using rotary jet heads (RJH) for mixing in a Perspex tank with an inner diameter of 0.75 m and an aspect ratio of 2.5 using both water (turbulent flow) and shear-thinning, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions...
Application of foam-extend on turbulent fluid-structure interaction
Rege, K.; Hjertager, B. H.
2017-12-01
Turbulent flow around flexible structures is likely to induce structural vibrations which may eventually lead to fatigue failure. In order to assess the fatigue life of these structures, it is necessary to take the action of the flow on the structure into account, but also the influence of the vibrating structure on the fluid flow. This is achieved by performing fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations. In this work, we have investigated the capability of a FSI toolkit for the finite volume computational fluid dynamics software foam-extend to simulate turbulence-induced vibrations of a flexible structure. A large-eddy simulation (LES) turbulence model has been implemented to a basic FSI problem of a flexible wall which is placed in a confined, turbulent flow. This problem was simulated for 2.32 seconds. This short simulation required over 200 computation hours, using 20 processor cores. Thereby, it has been shown that the simulation of FSI with LES is possible, but also computationally demanding. In order to make turbulent FSI simulations with foam-extend more applicable, more sophisticated turbulence models and/or faster FSI iteration schemes should be applied.
Mansour, Morkous S.; Chung, Suk-Ho
2015-01-01
Mixing characteristics in the cold flow of non-premixed cases were first examined using acetone fluorescence technique, indicating substantial transport between the fuel and air by exhibiting appreciable premixing conditions.PIV measurements revealed that velocity gradients in the shear layers at the boundaries of the annularjets generate the turbulence, enhanced with the collisions in the interaction jet, IJ,region. Turbulent mean and rms velocities were influenced significantly by Re and high rms turbulent velocities are generated within the recirculation zone improving the flame stabilization in this burner.Premixed and non-premixed flames with high equivalence ratio were found to be more resistant to local extinction and exhibited a more corrugated and folded nature, particularly at high Re. For flames with low equivalence ratio, the processes of local quenching at IJ region and of re-ignition within merged jet region maintained these flames further downstream particularly for non-premixed methane flame, revealing a strong intermittency.
Application of a k-epsilon closure to a heated turbulent offset jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raghunath, G.; Kumar, R.; Liburdy, J.A.
1986-01-01
The complex flow which occurs when a heated turbulent jet discharges above a cool, isothermal surface was investigated numerically. This flow is influenced by significant flow curvature, buoyancy, impingement, and recirculation. The main features of the flow have been characterized in the literature by the exit Reynolds number and offset ratio. It is the purpose of this study to assess the applicability of a modified k-epsilon closure model to this flow. Comparisons with limited data for the unheated case and flow predictions for the heated case are presented. The impingement distance is determined to within 2 percent of the experimental results. However, detailed velocity profiles are not well predicted near the wall. Curvature modification and the wall boundary condition for epsilon significantly affect the solution. 15 references
Experimental investigation of small scale geometries in a turbulent round jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gampert, Markus; Schaefer, Philip; Peters, Norbert, E-mail: mgampert@itv.rwth-aachen.de [Institute for Combustion Technology, RWTH Aachen Templergraben 64, 52056 Aachen (Germany)
2011-12-22
In the present work, we present a method to gather highly accurate three-dimensional measurements of a scalar field in order to experimentally validate the theory of dissipation elements as developped by Wang and Peters (2006, 2008). Combining a two-dimensional high-speed Rayleigh scattering technique with Taylor's hypothesis allows to resolve the concentration field of gaseous propane discharging into ambient air from a turbulent round jet at a Reynolds number (based on nozzle diameter and exit velocity) of 2,800 down to the Kolmogorov scale in every spatial direction. Based on the acquired data, the normalized probability density function of the length of dissipation elements P-tilde (l-tilde) is investigated at various downstream positions x/d = 15 - 40 and an excellent agreement with the theoretically derived model equation is obtained.
Cabra, R.; Hamano, Y.; Chen, J. Y.; Dibble, R. W.; Acosta, F.; Holve, D.
2000-01-01
An experimental investigation is presented of a novel vitiated coflow spray flame burner. The vitiated coflow emulates the recirculation region of most combustors, such as gas turbines or furnaces; additionally, since the vitiated gases are coflowing, the burner allows exploration of the chemistry of recirculation without the corresponding fluid mechanics of recirculation. As such, this burner allows for chemical kinetic model development without obscurations caused by fluid mechanics. The burner consists of a central fuel jet (droplet or gaseous) surrounded by the oxygen rich combustion products of a lean premixed flame that is stabilized on a perforated, brass plate. The design presented allows for the reacting coflow to span a large range of temperatures and oxygen concentrations. Several experiments measuring the relationships between mixture stoichiometry and flame temperature are used to map out the operating ranges of the coflow burner. These include temperatures as low 300 C to stoichiometric and oxygen concentrations from 18 percent to zero. This is achieved by stabilizing hydrogen-air premixed flames on a perforated plate. Furthermore, all of the CO2 generated is from the jet combustion. Thus, a probe sample of NO(sub X) and CO2 yields uniquely an emission index, as is commonly done in gas turbine engine exhaust research. The ability to adjust the oxygen content of the coflow allows us to steadily increase the coflow temperature surrounding the jet. At some temperature, the jet ignites far downstream from the injector tube. Further increases in the coflow temperature results in autoignition occurring closer to the nozzle. Examples are given of methane jetting into a coflow that is lean, stoichiometric, and even rich. Furthermore, an air jet with a rich coflow produced a normal looking flame that is actually 'inverted' (air on the inside, surrounded by fuel). In the special case of spray injection, we demonstrate the efficacy of this novel burner with a
Turbulent structure and emissions of strongly-pulsed jet diffusion flames
Fregeau, Mathieu
This current research project studied the turbulent flame structure, the fuel/air mixing, the combustion characteristics of a nonpremixed pulsed (unsteady) and unpulsed (steady) flame configuration for both normal- and microgravity conditions, as well as the flame emissions in normal gravity. The unsteady flames were fully-modulated, with the fuel flow completely shut off between injection pulses using an externally controlled valve, resulting in the generation of compact puff-like flame structures. Conducting experiments in normal and microgravity environments enabled separate control over the relevant Richardson and Reynolds numbers to clarify the influence of buoyancy on the flame behavior, mixing, and structure. Experiments were performed in normal gravity in the laboratory at the University of Washington and in microgravity using the NASA GRC 2.2-second Drop Tower facility. High-speed imaging, as well as temperature and emissions probes were used to determine the large-scale structure dynamics, the details of the flame structure and oxidizer entrainment, the combustion temperatures, and the exhaust emissions of the pulsed and steady flames. Of particular interest was the impact of changes in flame structure due to pulsing on the combustion characteristics of this system. The turbulent flame puff celerity (i.e., the bulk velocity of the puffs) was strongly impacted by the jet-off time, increasing markedly as the time between pulses was decreased, which caused the degree of puff interaction to increase and the strongly-pulsed flame to more closely resemble a steady flame. This increase occurred for all values of injection time as well as for constant fuelling rate and in both the presence and absence of buoyancy. The removal of positive buoyancy in microgravity resulted in a decrease in the flame puff celerity in all cases, amounting to as much as 40%, for both constant jet injection velocity and constant fuelling rate. The mean flame length of the strongly
Exploratory investigation of the HIPPO gas-jet target fluid dynamic properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meisel, Zach, E-mail: zmeisel@nd.edu [Department of Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Shi, Ke; Jemcov, Aleksandar [Hessert Laboratory for Aerospace Research, Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Couder, Manoel [Department of Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)
2016-08-21
In order to optimize the performance of gas-jet targets for future nuclear reaction measurements, a detailed understanding of the dependence of the gas-jet properties on experiment design parameters is required. Common methods of gas-jet characterization rely on measuring the effective thickness using nuclear elastic scattering and energy loss techniques; however, these tests are time intensive and limit the range of design modifications which can be explored to improve the properties of the jet as a nuclear reaction target. Thus, a more rapid jet-characterization method is desired. We performed the first steps towards characterizing the gas-jet density distribution of the HIPPO gas-jet target at the University of Notre Dame's Nuclear Science Laboratory by reproducing results from {sup 20}Ne(α,α){sup 20}Ne elastic scattering measurements with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations performed with the state-of-the-art CFD software ANSYS Fluent. We find a strong sensitivity to experimental design parameters of the gas-jet target, such as the jet nozzle geometry and ambient pressure of the target chamber. We argue that improved predictive power will require moving to three-dimensional simulations and additional benchmarking with experimental data.
A glimpse of fluid turbulence from the molecular scale
Komatsu, Teruhisa S.; Matsumoto, Shigenori; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu
2014-01-01
. The energy spectrum of the fluid components is observed to scale reasonably well according to Kolmogorov scaling determined from the energy dissipation rate and the viscosity of the fluid, even though the Kolmogorov length is of the order of the molecular
Simulation of buoyancy-induced turbulent flow from a hot horizontal jet
El-Amin, Mohamed
2014-02-01
Experimental visualizations and numerical simulations of a horizontal hot water jet entering cold water into a rectangular storage tank are described. Three different temperature differences and their corresponding Reynolds numbers are considered. Both experimental visualization and numerical computations are carried out for the same flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k - ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow while the buoyancy is modeled using the Boussinesq approximation. Polynomial approximations of the water properties are used to compare with the Boussinesq approximation. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank as well as the Froude number are analyzed. The experimental visualizations are performed at intervals of five seconds for all different cases. The simulated results are compared with the visualized results, and both of them show the stratification phenomena and buoyancy force effects due to temperature difference and density variation. After certain times, depending on the case condition, the flow tends to reach a steady state. © 2014 Publishing House for Journal of Hydrodynamics.
The Effects of Buoyancy on Characteristics of Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames
Idicheria, Cherian; Boxx, Isaac; Clemens, Noel
2002-11-01
This work addresses the influence of buoyant forces on the underlying structure of turbulent nonpremixed jet flames. Buoyancy effects are investigated by studying transitional and turbulent propane and ethylene flames (Re_D=2500-10500) at normal, low and microgravity conditions. The reduced gravity experiments are conducted by dropping a combustion rig in the University of Texas 1.25-second drop tower and the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower. The diagnostic employed is high-speed luminosity imaging using a CCD camera. The images obtained are used to compare flame length, mean, RMS and flame tip oscillation characteristics The results showed that, in contrast to previous studies, the high Reynolds number flames at all gravity levels were essentially identical. Furthermore, the parameter ξL (Becker and Yamazaki, 1978) is sufficient for quantifying the effects of buoyancy on the flame characteristics. The large-scale structure and flame tip dynamics are essentially identical to those of purely momentum driven flames provided ξL is less than approximately 3.
Analysis of Flame Characteristics in a Laboratory-Scale Turbulent Lifted Jet Flame via DNS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haiou Wang
2013-09-01
Full Text Available A fully compressible 3D solver for reacting flows has been developed and applied to investigate a turbulent lifted jet flame in a vitiated coflow by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS to validate the solver and analyze the flame characteristics. An eighth-order central differencing scheme is used for spatial discretization and a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is employed for time integration. The DNS results agree well with the experimental measurements for the conditional means of reactive scalars. However, the lift-off height is under predicted. The mean axial velocity develops into a self-similar profile after x/D = 6. The normalized flame index is employed to characterize the combustion regime. It is found that at the flame base the gradients of the reactants are opposed and diffusion combustion is dominant. Further downstream, the contribution of premixed combustion increases and peaks at x/D = 8. Finally, the stabilization process is examined. The turbulent lifted flame is proved to stabilize in the lean mixtures and low scalar dissipation rate regions.
Scalar mixing in LES/PDF of a high-Ka premixed turbulent jet flame
You, Jiaping; Yang, Yue
2016-11-01
We report a large-eddy simulation (LES)/probability density function (PDF) study of a high-Ka premixed turbulent flame in the Lund University Piloted Jet (LUPJ) flame series, which has been investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiments. The target flame, featuring broadened preheat and reaction zones, is categorized into the broken reaction zone regime. In the present study, three widely used mixing modes, namely the Interaction by Exchange with the Mean (IEM), Modified Curl (MC), and Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree (EMST) models are applied to assess their performance through detailed a posteriori comparisons with DNS. A dynamic model for the time scale of scalar mixing is formulated to describe the turbulent mixing of scalars at small scales. Better quantitative agreement for the mean temperature and mean mass fractions of major and minor species are obtained with the MC and EMST models than with the IEM model. The multi-scalar mixing in composition space with the three models are analyzed to assess the modeling of the conditional molecular diffusion term. In addition, we demonstrate that the product of OH and CH2O concentrations can be a good surrogate of the local heat release rate in this flame. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11521091 and 91541204).
Experimental study of turbulent-jet wave packets and their acoustic efficiency
Breakey, David E. S.; Jordan, Peter; Cavalieri, André V. G.; Nogueira, Petrônio A.; Léon, Olivier; Colonius, Tim; Rodríguez, Daniel
2017-12-01
This paper details the statistical and time-resolved analysis of the relationship between the near-field pressure fluctuations of unforced, subsonic free jets (0.4 ≤M ≤0.6 ) and their far-field sound emissions. Near-field and far-field microphone measurements were taken on a conical array close to the jets and an azimuthal ring at 20∘ to the jet axis, respectively. Recent velocity and pressure measurements indicate the presence of linear wave packets in the near field by closely matching predictions from the linear homogenous parabolized stability equations, but the agreement breaks down both beyond the end of the potential core and when considering higher order statistical moments, such as the two-point coherence. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), interpreted in terms of inhomogeneous linear models using the resolvent framework allows us to understand these discrepancies. A new technique is developed for projecting time-domain pressure measurements onto a statistically obtained POD basis, yielding the time-resolved activity of each POD mode and its correlation with the far field. A single POD mode, interpreted as an optimal high-gain structure that arises due to turbulent forcing, captures the salient near-field-far-field correlation signature; further, the signatures of the next two modes, understood as suboptimally forced structures, suggest that these POD modes represent higher order, acoustically important near-field behavior. An existing Green's-function-based technique is used to make far-field predictions, and results are interpreted in terms of POD/resolvent modes, indicating the acoustic importance of this higher order behavior. The technique is extended to provide time-domain far-field predictions.
Drop formation from axi-symmetric fluid jets
Driessen, T.W.
2013-01-01
In DoD inkjet printing, an ink jet is ejected from a nozzle, which forms a liquid filament after breaking up from the nozzle. The stability of this filament must be controlled for optimal print quality. This stability is the focus of the research comprised in this thesis. We start the investigation
Fluid Dynamics of Jets with Applications to V/STOL.
1982-01-01
Velocity coefficient Rr Local Reynolds number v Cinematic viscosity R Particle’s Reynolds number C1,C2 Non dimensional coordinates U0 Jet exit... realisme de la solution tant sur le plan fonctionnel que technologique, le recollement 6tant spontan# et stable et l’architecture extr~mement rustique. Les
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gori, Fabio; Petracci, Ivano; Angelino, Matteo
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Zone of flow establishment contains a newly identified undisturbed region of flow. • In the undisturbed region of flow the velocity profile is similar to the exit one. • In undisturbed region of flow the height of average PIV visualizations is constant. • In the undisturbed region of flow the turbulence on the centerline is equal to exit. • Length of undisturbed region of flow decreases with Reynolds number increase. -- Abstract: The paper presents average flow visualizations and measurements, obtained with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique, of a submerged rectangular free jet of air in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re = 35,300 to Re = 2200, where the Reynolds number is defined according to the hydraulic diameter of a rectangular slot of height H. According to the literature, just after the exit of the jet there is a zone of flow, called zone of flow establishment, containing the region of mixing fluid, at the border with the stagnant fluid, and the potential core, where velocity on the centerline maintains a value almost equal to the exit one. After this zone is present the zone of established flow or fully developed region. The goal of the paper is to show, with average PIV visualizations and measurements, that, before the zone of flow establishment is present a region of flow, never mentioned by the literature and called undisturbed region of flow, with a length, L U , which decreases with the increase of the Reynolds number. The main characteristics of the undisturbed region is the fact that the velocity profile maintains almost equal to the exit one, and can also be identified by a constant height of the average PIV visualizations, with length, L CH , or by a constant turbulence on the centerline, with length L CT . The average PIV velocity and turbulence measurements are compared to those performed with the Hot Film Anemometry (HFA) technique. The average PIV visualizations show that the region of constant height has
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Nobuyuki; Igarashi, Minoru; Kamide, Hideki
2002-01-01
We performed a water experiment on parallel triple-jet and a calculation using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a quantification of thermal striping. The local temperatures and velocities were measured by using thermocouples and the particle image velocimetry (PIV), respectively. The calculation was carried out using the quasi-DNS code, DINUS-3, which was based on the finite difference method. The oscillation of the jets obtained from the flow visualization was related to the movements of the twin vortices between the jets by using the PIV. The experimental temperatures/velocities results were close to the numerical results. The heat transportation among the jets was evaluated by using the turbulent heat fluxes obtained from the quasi-DNS. (author)
Non-Boussinesq turbulent buoyant jet of a low-density gas leaks into high-density ambient
El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu; Kanayama, Hiroshi
2010-01-01
In this article, we study the problem of low-density gas jet injected into high-density ambient numerically which is important in applications such as fuel injection and leaks. It is assumed that the local rate of entrainment is consisted of two components; one is the component of entrainment due to jet momentum while the other is the component of entrainment due to buoyancy. The integral models of the mass, momentum and concentration fluxes are obtained and transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations using some similarity transformations. The resulting system is solved to determine the centerline quantities which are used to get the mean axial velocity, mean concentration and mean density of the jet. Therefore, the centerline and mean quantities are used together with the governing equation to determine some important turbulent quantities such as, cross-stream velocity, Reynolds stress, velocity- concentration correlation, turbulent eddy viscosity and turbulent eddy diffusivity. Throughout this paper the developed model is verified by comparing the present results with experimental results and jet/plume theory from the literature. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Non-Boussinesq turbulent buoyant jet of a low-density gas leaks into high-density ambient
El-Amin, Mohamed
2010-12-01
In this article, we study the problem of low-density gas jet injected into high-density ambient numerically which is important in applications such as fuel injection and leaks. It is assumed that the local rate of entrainment is consisted of two components; one is the component of entrainment due to jet momentum while the other is the component of entrainment due to buoyancy. The integral models of the mass, momentum and concentration fluxes are obtained and transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations using some similarity transformations. The resulting system is solved to determine the centerline quantities which are used to get the mean axial velocity, mean concentration and mean density of the jet. Therefore, the centerline and mean quantities are used together with the governing equation to determine some important turbulent quantities such as, cross-stream velocity, Reynolds stress, velocity- concentration correlation, turbulent eddy viscosity and turbulent eddy diffusivity. Throughout this paper the developed model is verified by comparing the present results with experimental results and jet/plume theory from the literature. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Modeling of turbulent flows in porous media and at the interface with a free fluid medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandesris, M.
2006-12-01
This work deals with the numerical simulation of turbulent flows in the whole nuclear reactor core, using multi-scale approaches. First, a macroscopic turbulence model is built, based on a porous media approach, to describe the flow in the fuel assemblies part of the nuclear core. Then, we study the jump conditions that have to be applied at a free fluid/porous interface. A thorough analytical study is carried out for laminar flows. This study allows to answer some fundamental questions about the physical meaning of the jump conditions, the values of the jump parameters and the location of the interface. Using these results, jump conditions for turbulent flows are proposed. The model is then applied to the simulation of a turbulent flow in a simplified model of a reactor core. (author)
Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analysis (ROMA of probability distributions in fluid turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. C. Wu
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analysis (ROMA was introduced by Chang and Wu (2008 to describe the multifractal characteristic of intermittent events. The procedure provides a natural connection between the rank-ordered spectrum and the idea of one-parameter scaling for monofractals. This technique has successfully been applied to MHD turbulence simulations and turbulence data observed in various space plasmas. In this paper, the technique is applied to the probability distributions in the inertial range of the turbulent fluid flow, as given in the vast Johns Hopkins University (JHU turbulence database. In addition, a new way of finding the continuous ROMA spectrum and the scaled probability distribution function (PDF simultaneously is introduced.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Theron, M.; Bellenoue, M. [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, CNRS UPR 9028, Poitiers (France)
2006-06-15
In this paper, we explore the effects of heat release on mixing and flow structure in a high-speed subsonic turbulent H{sub 2} jet in an air coflow. Heat release effects are determined from the comparison of nonreacting and reacting jet behavior, boundary conditions being identical in both cases. Experiments are performed in a wind tunnel specifically designed for this purpose. Planar laser induced fluorescence on OH radicals and on acetone (seeded in the hydrogen jet) are used to characterize the cartography of scalars, and laser Doppler velocimetry is used to characterize velocity profiles in the far field of the H{sub 2} jet. Results show significant effects of heat release on mixing and flow structure, indicating an overall reduction of mixing and entrainment in the reacting jet compared to the nonreacting jet. First, a change is observed in the orientation of coherent structures originating from Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities, and responsible for air entrainment within the jet, which appear 'flatter' in the jet flame. Then, the flame length is increased over what would be predicted from the intersection of the mean stoichiometric contour with the centerline of the nonreacting jet. And finally, the longitudinal average velocity decrease along the jet axis is quicker in the nonreacting jet, and nondimensional transverse velocity fluctuations are about half as high in the reacting jet as in the nonreacting jet, indicating a reduction of the turbulence intensity of the flow in this direction in the jet flame. (author)
Towards a collisionless fluid closure in plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dif Pradalier, G
2005-07-01
In this work 2 generic possible descriptions of a plasma have been compared namely the kinetic and the fluid approaches. The latter focuses on the successive moments (n, u, p, q,...) of the distribution function, whereas the former describes the time-evolution in phase space of this distribution function, both being based on the Vlasov equation. The fluid description is attractive for the Vlasov equation is tractable with great difficulties. Nevertheless it rests on a major difficulty: as the set of fluid equations constitute an infinite hierarchy, a closure equation must be chosen. The first chapter details physical characteristics of a fundamental kinetic interaction mechanism between waves and particles. In chapter 2 we propose a fluid closure that allows analytic comparison with a linear fully kinetic result, near an homogeneous, electrostatic, Maxwellian equilibrium. This approach consists in adjusting chosen parameters in order to minimize the discrepancies between fluid and kinetic linear response functions. In chapter 3 we present a general frame for a fluid closure in a magnetized plasma. This is attempted in a linear, simplified model with low dimensionality.
Langevin equation of a fluid particle in wall-induced turbulence
Brouwers, J.J.H.
2010-01-01
We derive the Langevin equation describing the stochastic process of fluid particle motion in wall-inducedturbulence (turbulent flow in pipes, channels, and boundary layers including the atmospheric surface layer).The analysis is based on the asymptotic behavior at a large Reynolds number. We use
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joong Hun Bae; Jung Yul Yoo; Haecheon Choi
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The influence of variable fluid property on turbulent convective heat transfer is investigated using direct numerical simulations. We consider thermally-developing flows of air and supercritical-pressure CO 2 in a vertical annular channel where the inner wall is heated with a constant heat flux and the outer wall is insulated. Turbulence statistics show that the heat and momentum transport characteristics of variable-property flows are significantly different from those of constant-property flows. The difference is mainly caused by the spatial and temporal variations of fluid density. The non-uniform density distribution causes fluid particles to be accelerated either by expansion or buoyancy force, while the temporal density fluctuations change the heat and momentum transfer via transport of turbulent mass flux, ρ'u' i . Both effects of the spatial and temporal variations of density are shown to be important in the analysis of turbulent convective heat transfer for supercritical-pressure fluids. For variable-property heated air flows, however, the effect of temporal density fluctuations can be neglected at low Mach number, which is in good accordance with the Morkovin's hypothesis. (authors)
Development of bubble-induced turbulence model for advanced two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosoi, Hideaki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki
2011-01-01
A two-fluid model can simulate two-phase flow by computational cost less than detailed two-phase flow simulation method such as interface tracking method. The two-fluid model is therefore useful for thermal hydraulic analysis in the large-scale domain such as rod bundles. However, since the two-fluid model includes a lot of constitutive equations verified by use of experimental results, it has problems that the result of analyses depends on accuracy of the constitutive equations. To solve these problems, an advanced two-fluid model has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In this model, interface tracking method is combined with two-fluid model to accurately predict large interface structure behavior. Liquid clusters and bubbles larger than a computational cell are calculated using the interface tracking method, and those smaller than the cell are simulated by the two-fluid model. The constitutive equations to evaluate the effects of small bubbles or droplets on two-phase flow are also required in the advanced two-fluid model, just as with the conventional two-fluid model. However, the dependency of small bubbles and droplets on two-phase flow characteristics is relatively small, and fewer experimental results are required to verify the characteristics of large interface structures. Turbulent dispersion force model is one of the most important constitutive equations for the advanced two-fluid model. The turbulent dispersion force model has been developed by many researchers for the conventional two-fluid model. However, existing models implicitly include the effects of large bubbles and the deformation of bubbles, and are unfortunately not applicable to the advanced two-fluid model. In the previous study, the authors suggested the turbulent dispersion force model based on the analogy of Brownian motion. And the authors improved the turbulent dispersion force model in consideration of bubble-induced turbulence to improve the analysis results for small
The effects of buoyancy on turbulent nonpremixed jet flames in crossflow
Boxx, Isaac G.
An experimental research study was conducted to investigate what effect buoyancy had on the mean and instantaneous flow-field characteristics of turbulent jet-flames in crossflow (JFICF). The study used an experimental technique wherein a series of normal-gravity, hydrogen-diluted propane JFICF were compared with otherwise identical ones in low-gravity. Experiments were conducted at the University of Texas Drop Tower Facility, a new microgravity science laboratory built for this study at the University of Texas at Austin. Two different diagnostic techniques were employed, high frame-rate digital cinematographic imaging and planar laser Mie scattering (PLMS). The flame-luminosity imaging revealed significant elongation and distortion of the large-scale luminous structure of the JFICF. This was seen to affect the flametip oscillation and burnout characteristics. Mean and root-mean-square (RMS) images of flame-luminosity were computed from the flame-luminosity image sequences. These were used to compare visible flame-shapes, flame chord-lengths and jet centerline-trajectories of the normal- and low-gravity flames. In all cases the jet-centerline penetration and mean luminous flame-width were seen to increase with decreasing buoyancy. The jet-centerline trajectories for the normal-gravity flames were seen to behave differently to those of the low-gravity flames. This difference led to the conclusion that the jet transitions from a momentum-dominated forced convection limit to a buoyancy-influenced regime when it reaches xiC ≈ 3, where xiC is the Becker and Yamazaki (1978) buoyancy parameter based on local flame chord-length. The mean luminous flame-lengths showed little sensitivity to buoyancy or momentum flux ratio. Consistent with the flame-luminosity imaging experiments, comparison of the instantaneous PLMS flow-visualization images revealed substantial buoyancy-induced elongation and distortion of the large-scale shear-layer vortices in the flow. This effect
Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph
2017-11-01
Very little experimental data exits on the flow structure in the near field of a crude oil jet fragmenting in water because of inability to probe dense droplet cloud. Refractive index-matching is applied to overcome this challenge by using silicone oil and sugar water as a surrogate liquid pair. Their density ratio, viscosity ratio, and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Simultaneous PLIF and PIV measurements are conducted by fluorescently tagging the oil and seeding both phases with particles. With increasing jet Reynolds and Weber numbers, the oil plume breakup occurs closer to the nozzle, the spreading angle of the jet increases, and the droplet sizes decrease. The varying spread rate is attributed to differences in droplet size distributions. The location of primary oil breakup is consistent with the region of high strain rate fluctuations. What one may perceive as oil droplets in opaque fluids actually consists of multi-layers containing water droplets, which sometimes encapsulate smaller oil droplets, creating a ``Russian Doll'' like phenomenon. This system forms as ligaments of oil and water wrap around each other during entrainment. Results include profiles of mean velocity and turbulence parameters along with energy spectra. Gulf of Mexico Research Inititave.
Towards numerical simulations of supersonic liquid jets using ghost fluid method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majidi, Sahand; Afshari, Asghar
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A ghost fluid method based solver is developed for numerical simulation of compressible multiphase flows. • The performance of the numerical tool is validated via several benchmark problems. • Emergence of supersonic liquid jets in quiescent gaseous environment is simulated using ghost fluid method for the first time. • Bow-shock formation ahead of the liquid jet is clearly observed in the obtained numerical results. • Radiation of mach waves from the phase-interface witnessed experimentally is evidently captured in our numerical simulations. - Abstract: A computational tool based on the ghost fluid method (GFM) is developed to study supersonic liquid jets involving strong shocks and contact discontinuities with high density ratios. The solver utilizes constrained reinitialization method and is capable of switching between the exact and approximate Riemann solvers to increase the robustness. The numerical methodology is validated through several benchmark test problems; these include one-dimensional multiphase shock tube problem, shock–bubble interaction, air cavity collapse in water, and underwater-explosion. A comparison between our results and numerical and experimental observations indicate that the developed solver performs well investigating these problems. The code is then used to simulate the emergence of a supersonic liquid jet into a quiescent gaseous medium, which is the very first time to be studied by a ghost fluid method. The results of simulations are in good agreement with the experimental investigations. Also some of the famous flow characteristics, like the propagation of pressure-waves from the liquid jet interface and dependence of the Mach cone structure on the inlet Mach number, are reproduced numerically. The numerical simulations conducted here suggest that the ghost fluid method is an affordable and reliable scheme to study complicated interfacial evolutions in complex multiphase systems such as supersonic liquid
Multiphysics control of a two-fluid coaxial atomizer supported by electric-charge on the liquid jet
Machicoane, Nathanael; Osuna, Rodrigo; Aliseda, Alberto
2017-11-01
We present an experimental setup to investigate multiphysics control strategies on atomization of a laminar fluid stream by a coaxial turbulent jet. Spray control (i.e. driving the droplet size distribution and the spatio-temporal location of the droplets towards a desired objective) has many potential engineering applications, but requires a mechanistic understanding of the processes that control droplet formation and transport (primary and secondary instabilities, turbulent transport, hydrodynamic and electric forces on the droplets, ...). We characterize experimentally the break-up dynamics in a canonical coaxial atomizer, and the spray structure (droplet size, location, and velocity as a function of time) in a series of open loop conditions with harmonic forcing of the gas swirl ratio, liquid injection rate, the electric field strength at the nozzle and along the spray development region. The effect of these actuators are characterized for different gas Reynolds numbers ranging from 104-106. This open-loop characterization of the injector will be used to develop reduced order models for feedback control, as well as to validate assumptions underlying an adjoint-based computational control strategy. This work is part of a large-scale project funded by an ONR MURI to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanisms for feedback control of sprays.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pouransari, Zeinab; Vervisch, Luc; Johansson, Arne V.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► A non-premixed turbulent flame close to a solid surface is studied using DNS. ► Heat release effects delay transition and enlarge fluctuation of density and pressure. ► The fine-scale structures damped and surface wrinkling diminished due to heat-release. ► Using semilocal scaling improves the collapse of turbulence statistic in inner region. ► There are regions of the flame where considerable (up to 10%) premixed burning occurs. -- Abstract: The present study concerns the role of heat release effects on characteristics mixing scales of turbulence in reacting wall-jet flows. Direct numerical simulations of exothermic reacting turbulent wall-jets are performed and compared to the isothermal reacting case. An evaluation of the heat-release effects on the structure of turbulence is given by examining the mixture fraction surface characteristics, diagnosing vortices and exploring the dissipation rate of the fuel and passive scalar concentrations, and moreover by illustration of probability density functions of reacting species and scatter plots of the local temperature against the mixture fraction. Primarily, heat release effects delay the transition, enlarge the fluctuation intensities of density and pressure and also enhance the fluctuation level of the species concentrations. However, it has a damping effect on all velocity fluctuation intensities and the Reynolds shear stress. A key result is that the fine-scale structures of turbulence are damped, the surface wrinkling is diminished and the vortices become larger due to heat-release effects. Taking into account the varying density by using semi-local scaling improves the collapse of the turbulence statistics in the inner region, but does not eliminate heat release induced differences in the outer region. Examining the two-dimensional premultiplied spanwise spectra of the streamwise velocity fluctuations indicates a shifting in the positions of the outer peaks, associated with large
Köhler, M.; Boxx, I.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.
2011-05-01
We describe a newly developed combustion diagnostic for the simultaneous planar imaging of soot structure and velocity fields in a highly sooting, lifted turbulent jet flame at 3000 frames per second, or two orders of magnitude faster than "conventional" laser imaging systems. This diagnostic uses short pulse duration (8 ns), frequency-doubled, diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers to excite laser-induced incandescence (LII) at 3 kHz, which is then imaged onto a high framerate CMOS camera. A second (dual-cavity) DPSS laser and CMOS camera form the basis of a particle image velocity (PIV) system used to acquire 2-component velocity field in the flame. The LII response curve (measured in a laminar propane diffusion flame) is presented and the combined diagnostics then applied in a heavily sooting lifted turbulent jet flame. The potential challenges and rewards of application of this combined imaging technique at high speeds are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The piezoelectric micro-jet, which can achieve the drop-on-demand requirement, is based on ink-jet technology and small droplets can be ejected out by precise control. The droplets are driven out of the nozzle by the acoustic pressure waves which are generated by the piezoelectric vibrator. The propagation processes of the acoustic pressure waves are affected by the acoustic properties of the fluid and the shell material of the micro-jet, as well as the excitations and the structure sizes. The influences of the fluid density and acoustic velocity in the fluid on the nozzle pressure and support reaction force of the vibrator are analyzed in this paper. The effects of the shell material on the ejection performance are studied as well. In order to improve the ejection performance of the micro-jet, for ejecting a given fluid, the recommended methods of selecting the shell material and adjusting excitations are provided based on the results, and the influences of the factors on working frequencies are obtained as well.
Reduction of light oil usage as power fluid for jet pumping in deep heavy oil reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, S.; Li, H.; Yang, D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Regina Univ., SK (Canada); Zhang, Q. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying, Shandong (China); He, J. [China National Petroleum Corp., Haidan District, Beijing (China). PetroChina Tarim Oilfield Co.
2008-10-15
In deep heavy oil reservoirs, reservoir fluid can flow more easily in the formation as well as around the bottomhole. However, during its path along the production string, viscosity of the reservoir fluid increases dramatically due to heat loss and release of the dissolved gas, resulting in significant pressure drop along the wellbore. Artificial lifting methods need to be adopted to pump the reservoir fluids to the surface. This paper discussed the development of a new technique for reducing the amount of light oil used for jet pumping in deep heavy oil wells. Two approaches were discussed. Approach A uses the light oil as a power fluid first to obtain produced fluid with lower viscosity, and then the produced fluid is reinjected into the well as a power fluid. The process continues until the viscosity of the produced fluid is too high to be utilized. Approach B combines a portion of the produced fluid with the light oil at a reasonable ratio and then the produced fluid-light oil mixture is used as the power fluid for deep heavy oil well production. The viscosity of the blended power fluid continue to increase and eventually reach equilibrium. The paper presented the detailed processes of both approaches in order to indicate how to apply them in field applications. Theoretic models were also developed and presented to determine the key parameters in the field operations. A field case was also presented and a comparison and analysis between the two approaches were discussed. It was concluded from the field applications that, with a certain amount of light oil, the amount of reservoir fluid produced by using the new technique could be 3 times higher than that of the conventional jet pumping method. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.
Comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of slab ion temperature gradient driven turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Horton, W. [University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Fusion Studies, Austin, Texas (United States)
2002-10-01
A detailed comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of collisionless slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence is made. The nondissipative closure model (NCM) for linearly unstable modes, which is presented by Sugama, Watanabe, and Horton [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2617 (2001)], and the dissipative closure model by Hammett and Perkins (HP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] are used in separate fluid simulations. The validity of these closure models for quantitative prediction of the turbulent thermal transport is examined by comparing nonlinear results of the fluid simulations with those of the collisionless kinetic simulation of high accuracy. Simulation results show that, in the saturated turbulent state, the turbulent thermal diffusivity {chi} obtained from the HP model is significantly larger than the {chi} given by the NCM which is closer to {chi} measured in the kinetic simulation. Contrary to the dissipative form of the parallel heat flux closure relation assumed in the HP model, the NCM describes well the exact kinetic simulation, in which for some unstable wave numbers k, the imaginary part of the ratio of the parallel heat flux q{sub k} to the temperature fluctuation T{sub k} is a oscillatory function of time and sometimes takes positive values. The positive values of Im(q{sub k}/T{sub k}), imply the negative parallel heat diffusivity, correlate with the occasional inward heat flux occurring for the wave numbers k, and reduce the total {chi}. (author)
Comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of slab ion temperature gradient driven turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Horton, W.
2002-10-01
A detailed comparison between kinetic and fluid simulations of collisionless slab ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence is made. The nondissipative closure model (NCM) for linearly unstable modes, which is presented by Sugama, Watanabe, and Horton [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2617 (2001)], and the dissipative closure model by Hammett and Perkins (HP) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] are used in separate fluid simulations. The validity of these closure models for quantitative prediction of the turbulent thermal transport is examined by comparing nonlinear results of the fluid simulations with those of the collisionless kinetic simulation of high accuracy. Simulation results show that, in the saturated turbulent state, the turbulent thermal diffusivity χ obtained from the HP model is significantly larger than the χ given by the NCM which is closer to χ measured in the kinetic simulation. Contrary to the dissipative form of the parallel heat flux closure relation assumed in the HP model, the NCM describes well the exact kinetic simulation, in which for some unstable wave numbers k, the imaginary part of the ratio of the parallel heat flux q k to the temperature fluctuation T k is a oscillatory function of time and sometimes takes positive values. The positive values of Im(q k /T k ), imply the negative parallel heat diffusivity, correlate with the occasional inward heat flux occurring for the wave numbers k, and reduce the total χ. (author)
EINOx scaling in a non-premixed turbulent hydrogen jet with swirled coaxial air
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, Jeongseog; Hwang, Jeongjae; Yoon, Youngbin [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)
2010-08-15
The effect of swirl flow on pollutant emission (nitrous oxide) was studied in a non-premixed turbulent hydrogen jet with coaxial air. A swirl vane was equipped in a coaxial air feeding line and the angle of the swirl vane was varied from 30 to 90 degrees. Under a fixed global equivalence ratio of {phi}{sub G} = 0.5, fuel jet air velocity and coaxial air velocity were varied in an attached flame region as u{sub F} = 85.7-160.2 m/s and u{sub A} = 7.4-14.4 m/s. In the present study, two mixing variables of coaxial air and swirl flow were considered: the flame residence time and global strain rate. The objective of the current study was to analyze the flame length behavior, and the characteristics of nitrous oxide emissions under a swirl flow conditions, and to suggest a new parameter for EINOx (the emission index of nitrous oxide) scaling. From the experimental results, EINOx decreased with the swirl vane angle and increased with the flame length (L). We found the scaling variables for the flame length and EINOx using the effective diameter (d{sub F,eff}) in a far-field concept. Normalized flame length (L divided by d{sub F,eff}) fitted well with the theoretical expectations. EINOx increased in proportion to the flame residence time ({proportional_to}{tau}{sub R}{sup 1/2.8}) and the global strain rate ({proportional_to}S{sub G}{sup 1/2.8}). (author)
Mansour, Morkous S.
2015-06-30
A novel double-slit curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner was proposed and employed, which utilizes the Coanda effect by supplying fuel and air as annular-inward jets over a curved surface. We investigated the stabilization characteristics and structure of methane/air, and propane/air turbulent premixed and non-premixed flames with varying global equivalence ratio, , and Reynolds number, Re. Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals were conducted. The burner showed potential for stable operation for methane flames with relatively large fuel loading and overall rich conditions. These have a non-sooting nature. However, propane flames exhibit stable mode for a wider range of equivalence ratio and Re. Mixing characteristics in the cold flow of non-premixed cases were first examined using acetone fluorescence technique, indicating substantial transport between the fuel and air by exhibiting appreciable premixing conditions.PIV measurements revealed that velocity gradients in the shear layers at the boundaries of the annularjets generate the turbulence, enhanced with the collisions in the interaction jet, IJ,region. Turbulent mean and rms velocities were influenced significantly by Re and high rms turbulent velocities are generated within the recirculation zone improving the flame stabilization in this burner.Premixed and non-premixed flames with high equivalence ratio were found to be more resistant to local extinction and exhibited a more corrugated and folded nature, particularly at high Re. For flames with low equivalence ratio, the processes of local quenching at IJ region and of re-ignition within merged jet region maintained these flames further downstream particularly for non-premixed methane flame, revealing a strong intermittency.
Prediction of Turbulence-Generated Noise in Unheated Jets. Part 2; JeNo Users' Manual (Version 1.0)
Khavaran, Abbas; Wolter, John D.; Koch, L. Danielle
2009-01-01
JeNo (Version 1.0) is a Fortran90 computer code that calculates the far-field sound spectral density produced by axisymmetric, unheated jets at a user specified observer location and frequency range. The user must provide a structured computational grid and a mean flow solution from a Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) code as input. Turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate from a k-epsilon or k-omega turbulence model must also be provided. JeNo is a research code, and as such, its development is ongoing. The goal is to create a code that is able to accurately compute far-field sound pressure levels for jets at all observer angles and all operating conditions. In order to achieve this goal, current theories must be combined with the best practices in numerical modeling, all of which must be validated by experiment. Since the acoustic predictions from JeNo are based on the mean flow solutions from a RANS code, quality predictions depend on accurate aerodynamic input.This is why acoustic source modeling, turbulence modeling, together with the development of advanced measurement systems are the leading areas of research in jet noise research at NASA Glenn Research Center.
Turbulent transport stabilization by ICRH minority fast ions in low rotating JET ILW L-mode plasmas
Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Di Siena, A.; Delabie, E.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T.; Lerche, E.; Menmuir, S.; Tsalas, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET
2018-05-01
The first experimental demonstration that fast ion induced stabilization of thermal turbulent transport takes place also at low values of plasma toroidal rotation has been obtained in JET ILW (ITER-like wall) L-mode plasmas with high (3He)-D ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) power. A reduction of the gyro-Bohm normalized ion heat flux and higher values of the normalized ion temperature gradient have been observed at high ICRH power and low NBI (neutral beam injection) power and plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic simulations indicate that ITG (ion temperature gradient) turbulence stabilization induced by the presence of high-energetic 3He ions is the key mechanism in order to explain the experimental observations. Two main mechanisms have been identified to be responsible for the turbulence stabilization: a linear electrostatic wave-fast particle resonance mechanism and a nonlinear electromagnetic mechanism. The dependence of the stabilization on the 3He distribution function has also been studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nan Gui
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical investigation of correlation between the fluid particle acceleration and the intensity of turbulence in swirling flows at a large Reynolds number is carried out via direct numerical simulation. A weak power-law form correlation ur.m.sE~C(aLφ between the Lagrangian acceleration and the Eulerian turbulence intensity is derived. It is found that the increase of the swirl level leads to the increase of the exponent φ and the trajectory-conditioned correlation coefficient ρ(aL,uE and results in a weak power-law augmentation of the acceleration intermittency. The trajectory-conditioned convection of turbulence fluctuation in the Eulerian viewpoint is generally linearly proportional to the fluctuation of Lagrangian accelerations, indicating a weak but clear relation between the Lagrangian intermittency and Eulerian intermittency effects. Moreover, except the case with vortex breakdown, the weak linear dependency is maintained when the swirl levels change, only with the coefficient of slope varied.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarh, B.; Gokalp, I.; Sanders, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France)
1997-12-31
In the framework of the studies carried out by the LCSR on variable density flows and diffusion turbulent flames, this paper deals with the study of the influence of density variation on the characteristics of a heated rectangular turbulent jet emerging in a stagnant surrounding atmosphere and more particularly on the determination of turbulent viscosity. The dynamical field is measured using laser-Doppler anemometry while the thermal field is measured using cold wire anemometry. A numerical predetermination of the characteristics of this jet, based on a k-{epsilon} modeling, is carried out. (J.S.) 6 refs.
Two-fluid electromagnetic simulations of plasma-jet acceleration with detailed equation-of-state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thoma, C.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Bruner, N.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.
2011-01-01
We describe a new particle-based two-fluid fully electromagnetic algorithm suitable for modeling high density (n i ∼ 10 17 cm -3 ) and high Mach number laboratory plasma jets. In this parameter regime, traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) techniques are challenging due to electron timescale and lengthscale constraints. In this new approach, an implicit field solve allows the use of large timesteps while an Eulerian particle remap procedure allows simulations to be run with very few particles per cell. Hall physics and charge separation effects are included self-consistently. A detailed equation of state (EOS) model is used to evolve the ion charge state and introduce non-ideal gas behavior. Electron cooling due to radiation emission is included in the model as well. We demonstrate the use of these new algorithms in 1D and 2D Cartesian simulations of railgun (parallel plate) jet accelerators using He and Ar gases. The inclusion of EOS and radiation physics reduces the electron temperature, resulting in higher calculated jet Mach numbers in the simulations. We also introduce a surface physics model for jet accelerators in which a frictional drag along the walls leads to axial spreading of the emerging jet. The simulations demonstrate that high Mach number jets can be produced by railgun accelerators for a variety of applications, including high energy density physics experiments.
Two-fluid electromagnetic simulations of plasma-jet acceleration with detailed equation-of-state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thoma, C.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Bruner, N. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E. [Prism Computational Sciences, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53711 (United States)
2011-10-15
We describe a new particle-based two-fluid fully electromagnetic algorithm suitable for modeling high density (n{sub i} {approx} 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) and high Mach number laboratory plasma jets. In this parameter regime, traditional particle-in-cell (PIC) techniques are challenging due to electron timescale and lengthscale constraints. In this new approach, an implicit field solve allows the use of large timesteps while an Eulerian particle remap procedure allows simulations to be run with very few particles per cell. Hall physics and charge separation effects are included self-consistently. A detailed equation of state (EOS) model is used to evolve the ion charge state and introduce non-ideal gas behavior. Electron cooling due to radiation emission is included in the model as well. We demonstrate the use of these new algorithms in 1D and 2D Cartesian simulations of railgun (parallel plate) jet accelerators using He and Ar gases. The inclusion of EOS and radiation physics reduces the electron temperature, resulting in higher calculated jet Mach numbers in the simulations. We also introduce a surface physics model for jet accelerators in which a frictional drag along the walls leads to axial spreading of the emerging jet. The simulations demonstrate that high Mach number jets can be produced by railgun accelerators for a variety of applications, including high energy density physics experiments.
Fluid simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandberg, I.; Isliker, H.; Pavlenko, V.P.; Hizanidis, K.; Vlahos, L.
2006-01-01
The evolution of the toroidal ion temperature gradient mode instability is numerically studied by using the equations based on the standard reactive fluid model. The long-term dynamics of the instability are investigated using random-phase, small-amplitude fluctuations for initial conditions. The main events during the evolution of the instability that lead to the formation of large-scale coherent structures are described and the role of the dominant nonlinearities is clarified. The polarization drift nonlinearity leads to the inverse energy cascade while the convective ion heat nonlinearity is responsible for the saturation of the instability. Finally, the sensitivity of the saturated state to the initial plasma conditions is examined
The effect of sediments on turbulent plume dynamics in a stratified fluid
Stenberg, Erik; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Brandt, Luca
2017-11-01
We report large eddy simulation results of sediment-loaded turbulent plumes in a stratified fluid. The configuration, where the plume is discharged from a round source, provides an idealized model of subglacial discharge from a submarine tidewater glacier and is a starting point for understanding the effect of sediments on the dynamics of the rising plume. The transport of sediments is modeled by means of an advection-diffusion equation where sediment settling velocity is taken into account. We initially follow the experimental setup of Sutherland (Phys. Rev. Fluids, 2016), considering uniformly stratified ambients and further extend the work to pycnocline-type stratifications typical of Greenland fjords. Apart from examining the rise height, radial spread and intrusion of the rising plume, we gain further insights of the plume dynamics by extracting turbulent characteristics and the distribution of the sediments inside the plume.
Two-equation and multi-fluid turbulence models for Rayleigh–Taylor mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kokkinakis, I.W.; Drikakis, D.; Youngs, D.L.; Williams, R.J.R.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We present a new improved version of the K–L model. • The improved K–L is found in good agreement with the multi-fluid model and ILES. • The study concerns Rayleigh–Taylor flows at initial density ratios 3:1 and 20:1. - Abstract: This paper presents a new, improved version of the K–L model, as well as a detailed investigation of K–L and multi-fluid models with reference to high-resolution implicit large eddy simulations of compressible Rayleigh–Taylor mixing. The accuracy of the models is examined for different interface pressures and specific heat ratios for Rayleigh–Taylor flows at initial density ratios 3:1 and 20:1. It is shown that the original version of the K–L model requires modifications in order to provide comparable results to the multi-fluid model. The modifications concern the addition of an enthalpy diffusion term to the energy equation; the formulation of the turbulent kinetic energy (source) term in the K equation; and the calculation of the local Atwood number. The proposed modifications significantly improve the results of the K–L model, which are found in good agreement with the multi-fluid model and implicit large eddy simulations with respect to the self-similar mixing width; peak turbulent kinetic energy growth rate, as well as volume fraction and turbulent kinetic energy profiles. However, a key advantage of the two-fluid model is that it can represent the degree of molecular mixing in a direct way, by transferring mass between the two phases. The limitations of the single-fluid K–L model as well as the merits of more advanced Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes models are also discussed throughout the paper.
Tian, Ran; Dai, Xiaoye; Wang, Dabiao; Shi, Lin
2018-06-01
In order to improve the prediction performance of the numerical simulations for heat transfer of supercritical pressure fluids, a variable turbulent Prandtl number (Prt) model for vertical upward flow at supercritical pressures was developed in this study. The effects of Prt on the numerical simulation were analyzed, especially for the heat transfer deterioration conditions. Based on the analyses, the turbulent Prandtl number was modeled as a function of the turbulent viscosity ratio and molecular Prandtl number. The model was evaluated using experimental heat transfer data of CO2, water and Freon. The wall temperatures, including the heat transfer deterioration cases, were more accurately predicted by this model than by traditional numerical calculations with a constant Prt. By analyzing the predicted results with and without the variable Prt model, it was found that the predicted velocity distribution and turbulent mixing characteristics with the variable Prt model are quite different from that predicted by a constant Prt. When heat transfer deterioration occurs, the radial velocity profile deviates from the log-law profile and the restrained turbulent mixing then leads to the deteriorated heat transfer.
Heat and mass transfers in the jets; Transferts de chaleur et de masse dans les jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-07-01
This day on the heat and mass transfers in the jets, was organized by the SFT (French Society of Thermic) to present the state of the art in the domain. Fifteen presentations allowed the participants to discuss about turbulent flows, simulation of fluid flow and jets impacts. (A.L.B.)
Two-Fluid Description of Wave-Particle Interactions in Strong Buneman Turbulence
Che, H.
2014-01-01
To understand the nature of anomalous resistivity in magnetic reconnection, we investigate turbulence-induced momentum transport and energy dissipation while a plasma is unstable to the Buneman instability in force-free current sheets. Using 3D particle-in-cell simulations, we find that the macroscopic effects generated by wave-particle interactions in Buneman instability can be approximately described by a set of electron fluid equations. We show that both energy dissipation and momentum tra...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menon, G.J.; Sielwa, J.T.
1977-01-01
The study is presented of the effects of heat transfer and the variations of the properties of the fluids in turbulent flow in tube. One model for the turbulent Eddy viscosity and termal Eddy diffusivity developed by CEBECI; NA and HABIB was utilized. The theoretical results agree well with experimental results [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Payri, Raul; López, J. Javier; Martí-Aldaraví, Pedro; Giraldo, Jhoan S.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • LES in a non-reacting jet with co-flow is performed with OpenFoam. • Smagorinsky (SMAG) and One Equation Eddy (OEE) approaches are compared. • A turbulent pipe is used to generate and map coherent inlet turbulence structure. • Fluctuating inlet boundary condition requires much less computational cost. - Abstract: In this paper, the behavior and turbulence structure of a non-reacting jet with a co-flow stream is described by means of Large Eddy Simulations (LES) carried out with the computational tool OpenFoam. In order to study the influence of the sub-grid scale (SGS) model on the main flow statistics, Smagorinsky (SMAG) and One Equation Eddy (OEE) approaches are used to model the smallest scales involved in the turbulence of the jet. The impact of cell size and turbulent inlet boundary condition in resulting velocity profiles is analyzed as well. Four different tasks have been performed to accomplish these objectives. Firstly, the simulation of a turbulent pipe, which is necessary to generate and map coherent turbulence structure into the inlet of the non-reacting jet domain. Secondly, a structured mesh based on hexahedrons has been built for the jet and its co-flow. The third task consists on performing four different simulations. In those, mapping statistics from the turbulent pipe is compared with the use of fluctuating inlet boundary condition available in OpenFoam; OEE and SMAG approaches are contrasted; and the effect of changing cell size is investigated. Finally, as forth task, the obtained results are compared with experimental data. As main conclusions of this comparison, it has been proved that the fluctuating boundary condition requires much less computational cost, but some inaccuracies were found close to the nozzle. Also, both SGS models are capable to simulate this kind of jets with a co-flow stream with exactitude.
Anisotropic turbulence and zonal jets in rotating flows with a β-effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Galperin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical studies of small-scale forced, two-dimensional turbulent flows on the surface of a rotating sphere have revealed strong large-scale anisotropization that culminates in the emergence of quasi-steady sets of alternating zonal jets, or zonation. The kinetic energy spectrum of such flows also becomes strongly anisotropic. For the zonal modes, a steep spectral distribution, E(n=CZ (Ω/R2 n-5, is established, where CZ=O(1 is a non-dimensional coefficient, Ω is the angular velocity, and R is the radius of the sphere, respectively. For other, non-zonal modes, the classical, Kolmogorov-Batchelor-Kraichnan, spectral law is preserved. This flow regime, referred to as a zonostrophic regime, appears to have wide applicability to large-scale planetary and terrestrial circulations as long as those are characterized by strong rotation, vertically stable stratification and small Burger numbers. The well-known manifestations of this regime are the banded disks of the outer planets of our Solar System. Relatively less known examples are systems of narrow, subsurface, alternating zonal jets throughout all major oceans discovered in state-of-the-art, eddy-permitting simulations of the general oceanic circulation. Furthermore, laboratory experiments recently conducted using the Coriolis turntable have basically confirmed that the lateral gradient of ''planetary vorticity'' (emulated via the topographic β-effect is the primary cause of the zonation and that the latter is entwined with the development of the strongly anisotropic kinetic energy spectrum that tends to attain the same zonal and non-zonal distributions, −5 and , respectively, in both the slope and the magnitude, as the corresponding spectra in other environmental conditions. The non-dimensional coefficient CZ in the −5 spectral law appears to be invariant, , in a variety of simulated and natural flows. This paper provides a brief review of the zonostrophic regime. The review includes the
Horizontal H 2-air turbulent buoyant jet resulting from hydrogen leakage
El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu
2012-01-01
The current article is devoted to introducing mathematical and physical analyses with numerical investigation of a buoyant jet resulting from hydrogen leakage in air from a horizontal round source. H 2-air jet is an example of the non
Experimental study of MHD effects on turbulent flow of flibe simulant fluid in a circular pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, Junichi; Morley, N.B.; Abdou, M.A.; Satake, Shin-ichi; Yokomine, Takehiko
2007-01-01
Experimental studies of MHD turbulent pipe flow of Flibe simulant fluid have been conducted as a part of US-Japan JUPITER-II collaboration. Flibe is considered as a promising candidate for coolant and tritium breeder in some fusion reactor design concepts because of its low electrical conductivity compared to liquid metals. This reduces the MHD pressure drop to a negligible level; however, turbulence can be significantly suppressed by MHD effects in fusion reactor magnetic field conditions. Heat transfer in the Flibe coolant is characterized by its high Prandtl number. In order to achieve sufficient heat transfer and to prevent localized heat concentration in a high Prandtl number coolant, high turbulence is essential. Even though accurate prediction of the MHD effects on heat transfer for high Prandtl number fluids in the fusion environment is very important, reliable data is not available. In these experiments, an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide is used as a simulant fluid for Flibe. This paper presents the experimental results obtained by flow field measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The PIV measurements provide 2-dimensional 2-velocity component information on the MHD flow field. The test section is a circular pipe with 89 mm inner diameter and 7.0 m in length, which is 79 times pipe diameter. This relatively large diameter pipe is selected in order to maximize the MHD effects measured by Hartmann number (Ha=BL(sigma/mu)1/2), and to allow better resolution of the flow in the near-wall region. The test section is placed under maximum 2 Tesla magnetic fields for 1.4m of the axial length. The hydrodynamic developing length under the magnetic field is expected to be 1.2 m. In order to apply PIV technique in the magnetic field condition, special optical devices and visualization sections were created. PIV measurements are performed for Re = 11600 with variable Hartmann numbers. The turbulence statistics of the MHD turbulent flow
Sahu, M. K.; Pandey, K. M.; Chatterjee, S.
2018-05-01
In this two dimensional numerical investigation, small rectangular channel with right angled triangular protrusions in the bottom wall of test section is considered. A slot nozzle is placed at the middle of top wall of channel which impinges air normal to the protruded surface. A duct flow and nozzle flow combined to form cross flow which is investigated for heat transfer enhancement of protruded channel. The governing equations for continuity, momentum, energy along with SST k-ω turbulence model are solved with finite volume based Computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. The range of duct Reynolds number considered for this analysis is 8357 to 51760. The ratios of pitch of protrusion to height of duct considered are 0.5, 0.64 and 0.82. The ratios of height of protrusion to height of duct considered are 0.14, 0.23 and 0.29. The effect of duct Reynolds number, pitch and height of protrusion on thermal-hydraulic performance is studied under cross flow condition. It is found that heat transfer rate is more at relatively larger pitch and small pressure drop is found in case of low height of protrusion.
Study on effects of turbulence promoter on fluid mixing in T-junction piping system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagao, Akihiro; Hibara, Hideki; Ochi, Junji; Muramatsu, Toshiharu
2004-07-01
Flows in T-junction piping system with turbulence promoter have been investigated experimentally using flow visualization techniques (the dye injection method) and velocity measurement by LDV. Effects of turbulent promoter on characteristics of fluid mixing and thermal-striping phenomena are examined. From the experiment, following results are obtained. (1) Arch vortex is formed further than the case without promoter in the upstream station and is rapidly transported to the downstream direction. (2) Secondary flow induced in the cross section become stronger and the diffusion of axial momentum is promoted, as the height of turbulence promoter is higher. (3) Main flow deflects towards to the opposite side of branch pipe at the T-junction, as the height of turbulence promoter is higher, and as velocity ratio becomes smaller, and the flow continues to deflect to a considerably downstream station. (4) Velocity fluctuation is observed in the position where the vortex is formed, and it becomes a maximum at z/Dm=2. In the further downstream, velocity fluctuation decreases with the vortex breakdown, and it considerably remains to the downstream. (author)
Banerjee, Supratik; Kritsuk, Alexei G.
2018-02-01
Three-dimensional, compressible, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence of an isothermal, self-gravitating fluid is analyzed using two-point statistics in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers (both kinetic and magnetic). Following an alternative formulation proposed by Banerjee and Galtier [Phys. Rev. E 93, 033120 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.033120; J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 50, 015501 (2017), 10.1088/1751-8113/50/1/015501], an exact relation has been derived for the total energy transfer. This approach results in a simpler relation expressed entirely in terms of mixed second-order structure functions. The kinetic, thermodynamic, magnetic, and gravitational contributions to the energy transfer rate can be easily separated in the present form. By construction, the new formalism includes such additional effects as global rotation, the Hall term in the induction equation, etc. The analysis shows that solid-body rotation cannot alter the energy flux rate of compressible turbulence. However, the contribution of a uniform background magnetic field to the flux is shown to be nontrivial unlike in the incompressible case. Finally, the compressible, turbulent energy flux rate does not vanish completely due to simple alignments, which leads to a zero turbulent energy flux rate in the incompressible case.
On the late phase of relaxation of two-dimensional fluids: turbulence of unitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spineanu, F; Vlad, M
2017-01-01
The two-dimensional ideal fluid and the plasma confined by a strong magnetic field exhibit an intrinsic tendency to organization due to the inverse spectral cascade. In the asymptotic states reached at relaxation the turbulence has vanished and there are only coherent vortical structures. We are interested in the regime that precedes these ordered flow patterns, in which there still is turbulence and imperfect but robust structures have emerged. To develop an analytical description we propose to start from the stationary coherent states and (in the direction opposite to relaxation) explore the space of configurations before the extremum of the functional that defines the structures has been reached. We find necessary to assemble different but related models: point-like vortices, its field theoretical formulation as interacting matter and gauge fields, chiral model and surfaces with constant mean curvature. These models are connected by the similar ability to described randomly interacting coherent structures. They derive exactly the same equation for the asymptotic state (sinh-Poisson equation, confirmed by numerical calculation of fluid flows). The chiral model, to which one can arrive from self-duality equation of the field theoretical model for fluid and from constant mean curvature surface equations, appears to be the suitable analytical framework. Its solutions, the unitons, aquire dynamics when the system is not at the extremum of the action. In the present work we provide arguments that the underlying common nature of these models can be used to develop an approach to fluid and plasma states of turbulence interacting with structures. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Massacret, Nicolas; Moysan, Joseph; Ploix, Marie-Aude; Chaouch, Naim; Jeannot, Jean-Philippe
2016-01-01
Ultrasonic monitoring in high temperature fluids with turbulences requires the knowledge of wave propagation in such media and the development of simulation tools. Applications could be the monitoring of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The objectives are mainly acoustic telemetry and thermometry, which involve the propagation of ultrasounds in turbulent and heated sodium flows. We developed a ray-tracing model to simulate the wave propagation and to determine wave deviations and delays due to an inhomogeneous medium. In previous work we demonstrated the sensitivity of ultrasounds to temperature gradients in liquid sodium. To complete that study, we need to investigate the sensitivity of ultrasounds to vortices created in a moving fluid. We designed a specific experimental setup called IKHAR (Instabilities of Kelvin-Helmholtz for Acoustic Research) in order to assess the validity of the ray-tracing model and the potential of ultrasounds for monitoring such fluid. In this experiment, Von Karman instabilities were created in a flow of water. Fluid temperature was homogeneous in our experimental setup. Through a careful choice of the parameters, periodic vortices were generated. The experiment was also simulated using Comsol registered to allow discussion about repeatability. The throughtransmission method was used to measure wave delays due to the vortices. Arrays of transducers were used to measure time of flight variations of several nanoseconds with a high spatial resolution. Results were similar to simulation results. They demonstrate that beam delays due to vortices can be measured and confirm the potential of ultrasounds in monitoring very inhomogeneous fluid media such as liquid sodium used as coolant fluid in nuclear fast reactors.
Wang, Qiang
2015-07-22
The blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in cross flows were studied, especially concerning the effect of ambient pressure, by conducting experiments at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures. The combined effects of air flow and pressure were investigated by a series of experiments conducted in an especially built wind tunnel in Lhasa, a city on the Tibetan plateau where the altitude is 3650 m and the atmospheric pressure condition is naturally low (64 kPa). These results were compared with results obtained from a wind tunnel at standard atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) in Hefei city (altitude 50 m). The size of the fuel nozzles used in the experiments ranged from 3 to 8 mm in diameter and propane was used as the fuel. It was found that the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow first increased (“cross flow dominant” regime) and then decreased (“fuel jet dominant” regime) as the fuel jet velocity increased in both pressures; however, the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow was much lower at sub-atmospheric pressure than that at standard atmospheric pressure whereas the domain of the blow-out limit curve (in a plot of the air speed of the cross flow versus the fuel jet velocity) shrank as the pressure decreased. A theoretical model was developed to characterize the blow-out limit of nonpremixed jet flames in a cross flow based on a Damköhler number, defined as the ratio between the mixing time and the characteristic reaction time. A satisfactory correlation was obtained at relative strong cross flow conditions (“cross flow dominant” regime) that included the effects of the air speed of the cross flow, fuel jet velocity, nozzle diameter and pressure.
Numerical Analysis of Mixed Fluid Jet Flows through Cutting Fluid Supplying Nozzle
S, Chung; B, Shin
2017-01-01
Metal cutting operation involves generation of heat due to friction between the tool and the cutting materials. This heat needs to be carried away otherwise it creates white spots. To reduce this abnormal heat cutting fluid is used. Cutting fluid also has an important role in the lubrication of the cutting edges of machine tools and the pieces, and in sluicing away the resulting swarf. As a cutting fluid, water is a great conductor of heat but is not stable at high temperatures, so to improve...
Dhariwal, Rohit; Bragg, Andrew D.
2018-03-01
In this paper, we consider how the statistical moments of the separation between two fluid particles grow with time when their separation lies in the dissipation range of turbulence. In this range, the fluid velocity field varies smoothly and the relative velocity of two fluid particles depends linearly upon their separation. While this may suggest that the rate at which fluid particles separate is exponential in time, this is not guaranteed because the strain rate governing their separation is a strongly fluctuating quantity in turbulence. Indeed, Afik and Steinberg [Nat. Commun. 8, 468 (2017), 10.1038/s41467-017-00389-8] argue that there is no convincing evidence that the moments of the separation between fluid particles grow exponentially with time in the dissipation range of turbulence. Motivated by this, we use direct numerical simulations (DNS) to compute the moments of particle separation over very long periods of time in a statistically stationary, isotropic turbulent flow to see if we ever observe evidence for exponential separation. Our results show that if the initial separation between the particles is infinitesimal, the moments of the particle separation first grow as power laws in time, but we then observe convincing evidence that at sufficiently long times the moments do grow exponentially. However, this exponential growth is only observed after extremely long times ≳200 τη , where τη is the Kolmogorov time scale. This is due to fluctuations in the strain rate about its mean value measured along the particle trajectories, the effect of which on the moments of the particle separation persists for very long times. We also consider the backward-in-time (BIT) moments of the article separation, and observe that they too grow exponentially in the long-time regime. However, a dramatic consequence of the exponential separation is that at long times the difference between the rate of the particle separation forward in time (FIT) and BIT grows
Fast Propagation in Fluid Transport Models with Evolution of Turbulence Saturation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Bruna, D.
2012-07-01
This report compiles and extends two works on models that reproduce the experimental facts of non local transport and pulse propagation in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The works are based on fluid transport models, originally designed to explain the formation of edge or internal transport barriers, that include fast evolution equations for the particle and heat fluxes. The heating of the plasma core in response to a sudden edge cooling or the propagation of turbulent fronts around transport barriers are a consequence of the competing roles of linear drive and non-linear reduction of the turbulent fluxes. Possibilities to use the models to interpret TJ-II plasmas are discussed. (Author) 62 refs.
Lavery, N.; Taylor, C.
1999-07-01
Multigrid and iterative methods are used to reduce the solution time of the matrix equations which arise from the finite element (FE) discretisation of the time-independent equations of motion of the incompressible fluid in turbulent motion. Incompressible flow is solved by using the method of reduce interpolation for the pressure to satisfy the Brezzi-Babuska condition. The k-l model is used to complete the turbulence closure problem. The non-symmetric iterative matrix methods examined are the methods of least squares conjugate gradient (LSCG), biconjugate gradient (BCG), conjugate gradient squared (CGS), and the biconjugate gradient squared stabilised (BCGSTAB). The multigrid algorithm applied is based on the FAS algorithm of Brandt, and uses two and three levels of grids with a V-cycling schedule. These methods are all compared to the non-symmetric frontal solver. Copyright
Fast Propagation in Fluid Transport Models with Evolution of Turbulence Saturation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez-Bruna, D.
2012-01-01
This report compiles and extends two works on models that reproduce the experimental facts of non local transport and pulse propagation in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The works are based on fluid transport models, originally designed to explain the formation of edge or internal transport barriers, that include fast evolution equations for the particle and heat fluxes. The heating of the plasma core in response to a sudden edge cooling or the propagation of turbulent fronts around transport barriers are a consequence of the competing roles of linear drive and non-linear reduction of the turbulent fluxes. Possibilities to use the models to interpret TJ-II plasmas are discussed. (Author) 62 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.; Jenko, F.; Peeters, A.G.; Teo, A.C.Y.
1999-01-01
(1) Computations of turbulence from the electromagnetic gyro fluid model are performed in a flux surface geometry representing the actual MHD equilibrium of the ASDEX Upgrade edge flux surfaces. The transition to ideal ballooning seen in simple geometries as the plasma beta rises is suppressed, leaving the transport at quantitatively realistic levels. Computations for core parameters at half-radius geometry show significant contribution due to the finite beta electron dynamics, possibly removing the standard ITG threshold. (2) Strong inward vorticity transport in edge turbulence, resulting from ion diamagnetic flows, may lead to a build up of mean ExB vorticity fast enough to cause an H-mode transition. (3) Friction of mean ion flows against neutrals involves both toroidal and poloidal flow components, leading to a finite radial current due to a given ExB profile even with zero poloidal rotation. (author)
Lee, Insu
Confined non-reacting turbulent jets are ideal for recirculating the hot flue gas back into the furnace from an external exhaust duct. Such jets are also used inside the furnace to internally entrain and recirculate the hot flue gas to preheat and dilute the reactants. Both internal and external implementation of confined turbulent jets increase the furnace thermal efficiency. For external implementation, depending on the circumstances, the exhaust gas flow may be co- or counter-flow relative to the jet flow. Inside the furnaces, fuel and air jets are injected separately. To create a condition which can facilitate near homogeneous combustion, these jets have to first mix with the burned gas inside the furnace and simultaneously being heated and diluted prior to combustion. Clearly, the combustion pattern and emissions from reacting confined turbulent jets are affected by jet interactions, mixing and entrainment of hot flue gas. In this work, the flow and mixing characteristics of a non-reacting and reacting confined turbulent jet are investigated experimentally and numerically. This work consists of two parts: (i) A study of flow and mixing characteristics of non-reacting confined turbulent jets with co- or counter-flowing exhaust/flue gas. Here the axial and radial distributions of temperature, velocity and NO concentration (used as a tracer gas) were measured. FLUENT was used to numerically simulate the experimental results. This work provides the basic understanding of the flow and mixing characteristics of confined turbulent jets and develops some design considerations for recirculating flue gas back into the furnace as expressed by the recirculation zone and the stagnation locations. (ii) Numerical calculations of near homogeneous combustion are performed for the existing furnace. The exact geometry of the furnace in the lab is used and the real dimensional boundary conditions are considered. The parameters such as air nozzle diameter (dair), fuel nozzle
Two-fluid description of wave-particle interactions in strong Buneman turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Che, H. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)
2014-06-15
To understand the nature of anomalous resistivity in magnetic reconnection, we investigate turbulence-induced momentum transport and energy dissipation while a plasma is unstable to the Buneman instability in force-free current sheets. Using 3D particle-in-cell simulations, we find that the macroscopic effects generated by wave-particle interactions in Buneman instability can be approximately described by a set of electron fluid equations. We show that both energy dissipation and momentum transport along electric current in the current layer are locally quasi-static, but globally dynamic and irreversible. Turbulent drag dissipates both the streaming energy of the current sheet and the associated magnetic energy. The net loss of streaming energy is converted into the electron component heat conduction parallel to the magnetic field and increases the electron Boltzmann entropy. The growth of self-sustained Buneman waves satisfies a Bernoulli-like equation that relates the turbulence-induced convective momentum transport and thermal momentum transport. Electron trapping and de-trapping drive local momentum transports, while phase mixing converts convective momentum into thermal momentum. The drag acts like a micro-macro link in the anomalous heating processes. The decrease of magnetic field maintains an inductive electric field that re-accelerates electrons, but most of the magnetic energy is dissipated and converted into the component heat of electrons perpendicular to the magnetic field. This heating process is decoupled from the heating of Buneman instability in the current sheets. Ion heating is weak but ions play an important role in assisting energy exchanges between waves and electrons. Cold ion fluid equations together with our electron fluid equations form a complete set of equations that describes the occurrence, growth, saturation and decay of the Buneman instability.
Two-fluid description of wave-particle interactions in strong Buneman turbulence
Che, H.
2014-06-01
To understand the nature of anomalous resistivity in magnetic reconnection, we investigate turbulence-induced momentum transport and energy dissipation while a plasma is unstable to the Buneman instability in force-free current sheets. Using 3D particle-in-cell simulations, we find that the macroscopic effects generated by wave-particle interactions in Buneman instability can be approximately described by a set of electron fluid equations. We show that both energy dissipation and momentum transport along electric current in the current layer are locally quasi-static, but globally dynamic and irreversible. Turbulent drag dissipates both the streaming energy of the current sheet and the associated magnetic energy. The net loss of streaming energy is converted into the electron component heat conduction parallel to the magnetic field and increases the electron Boltzmann entropy. The growth of self-sustained Buneman waves satisfies a Bernoulli-like equation that relates the turbulence-induced convective momentum transport and thermal momentum transport. Electron trapping and de-trapping drive local momentum transports, while phase mixing converts convective momentum into thermal momentum. The drag acts like a micro-macro link in the anomalous heating processes. The decrease of magnetic field maintains an inductive electric field that re-accelerates electrons, but most of the magnetic energy is dissipated and converted into the component heat of electrons perpendicular to the magnetic field. This heating process is decoupled from the heating of Buneman instability in the current sheets. Ion heating is weak but ions play an important role in assisting energy exchanges between waves and electrons. Cold ion fluid equations together with our electron fluid equations form a complete set of equations that describes the occurrence, growth, saturation and decay of the Buneman instability.
Two-fluid description of wave-particle interactions in strong Buneman turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Che, H.
2014-01-01
To understand the nature of anomalous resistivity in magnetic reconnection, we investigate turbulence-induced momentum transport and energy dissipation while a plasma is unstable to the Buneman instability in force-free current sheets. Using 3D particle-in-cell simulations, we find that the macroscopic effects generated by wave-particle interactions in Buneman instability can be approximately described by a set of electron fluid equations. We show that both energy dissipation and momentum transport along electric current in the current layer are locally quasi-static, but globally dynamic and irreversible. Turbulent drag dissipates both the streaming energy of the current sheet and the associated magnetic energy. The net loss of streaming energy is converted into the electron component heat conduction parallel to the magnetic field and increases the electron Boltzmann entropy. The growth of self-sustained Buneman waves satisfies a Bernoulli-like equation that relates the turbulence-induced convective momentum transport and thermal momentum transport. Electron trapping and de-trapping drive local momentum transports, while phase mixing converts convective momentum into thermal momentum. The drag acts like a micro-macro link in the anomalous heating processes. The decrease of magnetic field maintains an inductive electric field that re-accelerates electrons, but most of the magnetic energy is dissipated and converted into the component heat of electrons perpendicular to the magnetic field. This heating process is decoupled from the heating of Buneman instability in the current sheets. Ion heating is weak but ions play an important role in assisting energy exchanges between waves and electrons. Cold ion fluid equations together with our electron fluid equations form a complete set of equations that describes the occurrence, growth, saturation and decay of the Buneman instability
Idicheria, Cherian Alex
An experimental study was performed with the aim of investigating the structure of transitional and turbulent nonpremixed jet flames under different gravity conditions. In particular, the focus was to determine the effect of buoyancy on the mean and fluctuating characteristics of the jet flames. Experiments were conducted under three gravity levels, viz. 1 g, 20 mg and 100 mug. The milligravity and microgravity conditions were achieved by dropping a jet-flame rig in the UT-Austin 1.25-second and the NASA-Glenn Research Center 2.2-second drop towers, respectively. The principal diagnostics employed were time-resolved, cinematographic imaging of the visible soot luminosity and planar laser Mie scattering (PLMS). For the cinematographic flame luminosity imaging experiments, the flames studied were piloted nonpremixed propane, ethylene and methane jet flames at source Reynolds numbers ranging from 2000 to 10500. From the soot luminosity images, mean and root-mean square (RMS) images were computed, and volume rendering of the image sequences was used to investigate the large-scale structure evolution and flame tip dynamics. The relative importance of buoyancy was quantified with the parameter, xL , as defined by Becker and Yamazaki [1978]. The results show, in contrast to previous microgravity studies, that the high Reynolds number flames have the same flame length irrespective of the gravity level. The RMS fluctuations and volume renderings indicate that the large-scale structure and flame tip dynamics are essentially identical to those of purely momentum driven flames provided xL is approximately less than 2. The volume-renderings show that the luminous structure celerities (normalized by jet exit velocity) are approximately constant for xL 8. The celerity values for xL > 8 are seen to follow a x3/2L scaling, which can be predicted with a simplified momentum equation analysis for the buoyancy-dominated regime. The underlying turbulent structure and mean mixture
Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamagishi, Osamu, E-mail: yamagisi@nifs.ac.jp; Sugama, Hideo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)
2016-03-15
Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amati, G.; Koal, K.; Massaioli, F.; Sreenivasan, K.R.; Verzicco, R.
2006-12-01
The results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent Boussinesq convection are briefly presented. The flow is computed for a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio 1/2 in order to compare with the results from recent experiments. The results span eight decades of Ra from 2x10 6 to 2x10 14 and form the baseline data for a strictly Boussinesq fluid of constant Prandtl number (Pr=0.7). A conclusion is that the Nusselt number varies nearly as the 1/3 power of Ra for about four decades towards the upper end of the Ra range covered. (author)
Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model
Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo
2016-03-01
Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.
Mixing characterization of highly underexpanded fluid jets with real gas expansion
Förster, Felix J.; Baab, Steffen; Steinhausen, Christoph; Lamanna, Grazia; Ewart, Paul; Weigand, Bernhard
2018-03-01
We report a comprehensive speed of sound database for multi-component mixing of underexpanded fuel jets with real gas expansion. The paper presents several reference test cases with well-defined experimental conditions providing quantitative data for validation of computational simulations. Two injectant fluids, fundamentally different with respect to their critical properties, are brought to supercritical state and discharged into cold nitrogen at different pressures. The database features a wide range of nozzle pressure ratios covering the regimes that are generally classified as highly and extremely highly underexpanded jets. Further variation is introduced by investigating different injection temperatures. Measurements are obtained along the centerline at different axial positions. In addition, an adiabatic mixing model based on non-ideal thermodynamic mixture properties is used to extract mixture compositions from the experimental speed of sound data. The concentration data obtained are complemented by existing experimental data and represented by an empirical fit.
Multi-CPU plasma fluid turbulence calculations on a CRAY Y-MP C90
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Curtis, B.C.; Troutman, R.L.
1993-01-01
Significant improvements in real-time efficiency have been obtained for plasma fluid turbulence calculations by microtasking the nonlinear fluid code KITE in which they are implemented on the CRAY Y-MP C90 at the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). The number of processors accessed concurrently scales linearly with problem size. Close to six concurrent processors have so far been obtained with a three-dimensional nonlinear production calculation at the currently allowed memory size of 80 Mword. With a calculation size corresponding to the maximum allowed memory of 200 Mword in the next system configuration, they expect to be able to access close to ten processors of the C90 concurrently with a commensurate improvement in real-time efficiency. These improvements in performance are comparable to those expected from a massively parallel implementation of the same calculations on the Intel Paragon
Multi-CPU plasma fluid turbulence calculations on a CRAY Y-MP C90
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Curtis, B.C.; Troutman, R.L.
1993-01-01
Significant improvements in real-time efficiency have been obtained for plasma fluid turbulence calculations by microtasking the nonlinear fluid code KITE in which they are implemented on the CRAY Y-MP C90 at the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). The number of processors accessed concurrently scales linearly with problem size. Close to six concurrent processors have so far been obtained with a three-dimensional nonlinear production calculation at the currently allowed memory size of 80 Mword. With a calculation size corresponding to the maximum allowed memory of 200 Mword in the next system configuration, we expect to be able to access close to nine processors of the C90 concurrently with a commensurate improvement in real-time efficiency. These improvements in performance are comparable to those expected from a massively parallel implementation of the same calculations on the Intel Paragon
Biomimetic structures for fluid drag reduction in laminar and turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Yong Chae; Bhushan, Bharat
2010-01-01
Biomimetics allows one to mimic nature to develop materials and devices of commercial interest for engineers. Drag reduction in fluid flow is one of the examples found in nature. In this study, nano, micro, and hierarchical structures found in lotus plant surfaces, as well as shark skin replica and a rib patterned surface to simulate shark skin structure were fabricated. Drag reduction efficiency studies on the surfaces were systematically carried out using water flow. An experimental flow channel was used to measure the pressure drop in laminar and turbulent flows, and the trends were explained in terms of the measured and predicted values by using fluid dynamics models. The slip length for various surfaces in laminar flow was also investigated based on the measured pressure drop. For comparison, the pressure drop for various surfaces was also measured using air flow.
Advances in the simulation of toroidal gyro Landau fluid model turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waltz, R.E.; Kerbel, G.D.; Milovich, J.; Hammett, G.W.
1994-12-01
The gyro-Landau fluid (GLF) model equations for toroidal geometry have been recently applied to the study ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence using the 3D nonlinear ballooning mode representation (BMR). The present paper extends this work by treating some unresolved issues conceming ITG turbulence with adiabatic electrons. Although eddies are highly elongated in the radial direction long time radial correlation lengths are short and comparable to poloidal lengths. Although transport at vanishing shear is not particularly large, transport at reverse global shear, is significantly less. Electrostatic transport at moderate shear is not much effected by inclusion of local shear and average favorable curvature. Transport is suppressed when critical ExB rotational shear is comparable to the maximum linear growth rate with only a weak dependence on magnetic shear. Self consistent turbulent transport of toroidal momentum can result in a transport bifurcation at suffciently large r/(Rq). However the main thrust of the new formulation in the paper deals with advances in the development of finite beta GLF models with trapped electron and BMR numerical methods for treating the fast parallel field motion of the untrapped electrons
New developments in isotropic turbulent models for FENE-P fluids
Resende, P. R.; Cavadas, A. S.
2018-04-01
The evolution of viscoelastic turbulent models, in the last years, has been significant due to the direct numeric simulation (DNS) advances, which allowed us to capture in detail the evolution of the viscoelastic effects and the development of viscoelastic closures. New viscoelastic closures are proposed for viscoelastic fluids described by the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Peterlin constitutive model. One of the viscoelastic closure developed in the context of isotropic turbulent models, consists in a modification of the turbulent viscosity to include an elastic effect, capable of predicting, with good accuracy, the behaviour for different drag reductions. Another viscoelastic closure essential to predict drag reduction relates the viscoelastic term involving velocity and the tensor conformation fluctuations. The DNS data show the high impact of this term to predict correctly the drag reduction, and for this reason is proposed a simpler closure capable of predicting the viscoelastic behaviour with good performance. In addition, a new relation is developed to predict the drag reduction, quantity based on the trace of the tensor conformation at the wall, eliminating the need of the typically parameters of Weissenberg and Reynolds numbers, which depend on the friction velocity. This allows future developments for complex geometries.
Electron Fluid Description of Wave-Particle Interactions in Strong Buneman Turbulence
Che, Haihong
2013-10-01
To understand the nature of anomalous resistivity in magnetic reconnection, we investigate turbulence-induced momentum transport and energy dissipation associated with electron heating in Buneman instability. Using 3D particle-in-cell simulations, we find that the macroscopic effects generated by wave-particle interactions can be described by a set of electron fluid equations. These equations show that the energy dissipation and momentum transports in Buneman instability are locally quasi-static but globally non-static and irreversible. Turbulence drag dissipates both the bulk energy of electron streams and the associated magnetic energy. The decrease of magnetic field maintains an inductive electric field that re-accelerates electrons. The net loss of streaming energy is converted into electron heat and increases the electron Boltzmann entropy. The growth of self-sustained Buneman waves satisfies a Bernoulli-like equation which relates the turbulence-induced convective momentum transport and thermal momentum transport. Electron trapping and de-trapping drives local momentum transports, while phase mixing converts convective momentum into thermal momentum.These two local momentum transports sustain the Buneman waves and act as the micro-macro link in the anomalous heating process. This research is supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program at NASA/GSFC administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA.
Mier-Torrecilla, Monica; Geyer, Adelina; Phillips, Jeremy C.; Idelsohn, Sergio R.; Oñate, Eugenio
2010-05-01
In this work we investigate numerically the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid using the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), a newly developed tool that combines the flexibility of particle-based methods with the accuracy of the finite element discretization. In order to test the applicability of PFEM to the study of negatively buoyant jets, we have compared the two-dimensional numerical results with experiments investigating the injection of a jet of dyed water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. In both simulations and experiments, the fountain inlet flow velocity and nozzle diameter were varied to cover a wide range of Reynolds Re and Froude numbers Fr, such that 0.1 < Fr < 30, reproducing both weak and strong fountains in a laminar regime (8 < Re < 1350). Numerical results, together with the experimental observations, allow us to describe three different fountain behaviors that have not been previously reported. Based on the Re and Fr values for the numerical and experimental simulations, we have built a regime map to define how these values may control the occurrence of each of the observed flow types. Whereas the Fr number itself provides a prediction of the maximum penetration height of the jet, its combination with the Re number provides a prediction of the flow behavior for a specific nozzle diameter and injection velocity. Conclusive remarks concerning the dynamics of negatively buoyant jets may be applied later on to several geological situations, e.g. the flow structure of a fully submerged subaqueous eruptive vent discharging magma or the replenishment of magma chambers in the Earth's crust.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lo, C.-Y.; Chang-Jian, C.-W.
2008-01-01
This study presents a dynamic analysis of a rotor supported by two turbulent flow model journal bearings and lubricated with couple stress fluid under nonlinear suspension. The dynamics of the rotor center and bearing center is studied. The dynamic equations are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. The analysis methods employed in this study is inclusive of the dynamic trajectories of the rotor center and bearing center, power spectra, Poincare maps and bifurcation diagrams. The maximum Lyapunov exponent analysis is also used to identify the onset of chaotic motion. The results show that the values of dimensionless parameters l* strongly influence dynamic motions of bearing and rotor centre. It is found that couple stress fluid improve the stability of the system when l* > 0.4 even if the flow of this system is turbulent. We also demonstrated that the dimensionless rotational speed ratios s and the dimensionless unbalance parameter β are also significant system parameters. The modeling results thus obtained by using the method proposed in this paper can be employed to predict the stability of the rotor-bearing system and the undesirable behavior of the rotor and bearing center can be avoided
Chikishev, Leonid; Lobasov, Aleksei; Sharaborin, Dmitriy; Markovich, Dmitriy; Dulin, Vladimir; Hanjalic, Kemal
2017-11-01
We investigate flame-flow interactions in an atmospheric turbulent high-swirl methane/air lean jet-flame at Re from 5,000 to 10,000 and equivalence ratio below 0.75 at the conditions of vortex breakdown. The focus is on the spatial correlation between the propagation of large-scale vortex structures, including precessing vortex core, and the variations of the local heat release. The measurements are performed by planar laser-induced fluorescence of hydroxyl and formaldehyde, applied simultaneously with the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry technique. The data are processed by the proper orthogonal decomposition. The swirl rate exceeded critical value for the vortex breakdown resulting in the formation of a processing vortex core and secondary helical vortex filaments that dominate the unsteady flow dynamics both of the non-reacting and reacting jet flows. The flame front is located in the inner mixing layer between the recirculation zone and the annular swirling jet. A pair of helical vortex structures, surrounding the flame, stretch it and cause local flame extinction before the flame is blown away. This work is supported by Russian Science Foundation (Grant No 16-19-10566).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thiele, R.; Ma, W.; Anglart, H.
2011-01-01
Despite many advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), heat transfer modeling and validation of code for liquid metal flows needs to be improved. This contribution aims to provide validation of several turbulence models implemented in OpenFOAM. 6 different low Reynolds number and 3 high Reynolds number turbulence models have been validated against experimental data for 3 different Reynolds numbers. The results show that most models are able to predict the temperature profile tendencies and that especially the k-ω-SST by Menter has good predictive capabilities. However, all turbulence models show deteriorating capabilities with decreasing Reynolds numbers. (author)
Fluid simulations of ∇Te-driven turbulence and transport in boundary plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.; Cohen, R.H.
1993-01-01
This paper is a report on simulations of a new drift wave type instability driven by the electron temperature gradient in tokamak scrapeoff-layers (SOL). A 2D(x,y) fluid code has been developed in order to explore the anomalous transport in the boundary plasmas. The simulation consists of a set of fluid equations (in the electrostatic limit) for the vorticity ∇ perpendicular 2 φ, the electron density n e and the temperature T e in a shearless plasma slab confined by a uniform, straight magnetic field B z with two diverter (or limiter) plates intercepting the magnetic field. The model has two regions separated by a magnetic separatrix: in the edge region inside the separatrix, the model is periodic along the magnetic field while in the SOL region outside the separatrix, the magnetic field is taken to be of finite length with model (logical sheath) boundary conditions at diverter (or limiter) plates. The simulation results show that the observed linear instability agrees well with theory, and that a saturated state of turbulence is reached. In saturated turbulence, clear evidence of the expected long-wavelength mode penetration into the edge is seen, an inverse cascade of wave energy (toward both long wavelengths and low frequencies) is observed. The simulation results also show that amplitudes of potential and the electron temperature fluctuations are somewhat above and the heat flux are somewhat below those of the simplest mixing-length estimates. The results from the self-consistent simulations to determine the microturbulent SOL electron temperature profile agree reasonably with the experimental measurements. The effects on the mode of neutral gas collisions at the divertor sheath and comparisons with the ionization driven turbulence are discussed
Clercx, H J H; van Heijst, G J F; Zoeteweij, M L
2003-06-01
The role of bottom friction and the fluid layer depth in numerical simulations and experiments of freely decaying quasi-two-dimensional turbulence in shallow fluid layers has been investigated. In particular, the power-law behavior of the compensated kinetic energy E0(t)=E(t)e(2lambda t), with E(t) the total kinetic energy of the flow and lambda the bottom-drag coefficient, and the compensated enstrophy Omega(0)(t)=Omega(t)e(2lambda t), with Omega(t) the total enstrophy of the flow, have been studied. We also report on the scaling exponents of the ratio Omega(t)/E(t), which is considered as a measure of the characteristic length scale in the flow, for different values of lambda. The numerical simulations on square bounded domains with no-slip boundaries revealed bottom-friction independent power-law exponents for E0(t), Omega(0)(t), and Omega(t)/E(t). By applying a discrete wavelet packet transform technique to the numerical data, we have been able to compute the power-law exponents of the average number density of vortices rho(t), the average vortex radius a(t), the mean vortex separation r(t), and the averaged normalized vorticity extremum omega(ext)(t)/square root E(t). These decay exponents proved to be independent of the bottom friction as well. In the experiments we have varied the fluid layer depth, and it was found that the decay exponents of E0(t), Omega(0)(t), Omega(t)/E(t), and omega(ext)(t)/square root E(t) are virtually independent of the fluid layer depth. The experimental data for rho(t) and a(t) are less conclusive; power-law exponents obtained for small fluid layer depths agree with those from previously reported experiments, but significantly larger power-law exponents are found for experiments with larger fluid layer depths.
On the relative rotational motion between rigid fibers and fluid in turbulent channel flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marchioli, C. [Department of Electrical, Management and Mechanical Engineering, University of Udine, 33100 Udine (Italy); Zhao, L., E-mail: lihao.zhao@ntnu.no [Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Andersson, H. I. [Department of Electrical, Management and Mechanical Engineering, University of Udine, 33100 Udine (Italy); Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)
2016-01-15
In this study, the rotation of small rigid fibers relative to the surrounding fluid in wall-bounded turbulence is examined by means of direct numerical simulations coupled with Lagrangian tracking. Statistics of the relative (fiber-to-fluid) angular velocity, referred to as slip spin in the present study, are evaluated by modelling fibers as prolate spheroidal particles with Stokes number, St, ranging from 1 to 100 and aspect ratio, λ, ranging from 3 to 50. Results are compared one-to-one with those obtained for spherical particles (λ = 1) to highlight effects due to fiber length. The statistical moments of the slip spin show that differences in the rotation rate of fibers and fluid are influenced by inertia, but depend strongly also on fiber length: Departures from the spherical shape, even when small, are associated with an increase of rotational inertia and prevent fibers from passively following the surrounding fluid. An increase of fiber length, in addition, decouples the rotational dynamics of a fiber from its translational dynamics suggesting that the two motions can be modelled independently only for long enough fibers (e.g., for aspect ratios of order ten or higher in the present simulations)
Attili, Antonio
2015-06-30
The alignment of vorticity and gradients of conserved and reactive scalars with the eigenvectors of the strain rate tensor (i.e., the principal strains) is investigated in a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent nonpremixed flame achieving a Taylor’s scale Reynolds number in the range 100≤Reλ≤150 (Attili et al. Comb. Flame, 161, 2014). The vorticity vector displays a pronounced tendency to align with the direction of the intermediate strain. These alignment statistics are in almost perfect agreement with those in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (Ashurst et al. Physics of Fluids 30, 1987) and differ significantly from the results obtained in other nonpremixed flames in which vorticity alignment with the most extensive strain was observed (Boratavet al. Physics of Fluids 8, 1996). The gradients of conserved and reactive scalars align with the most compressive strain. It is worth noting that conditioning on the local values of the mixture fraction, or equivalently conditioning on the distance from the flame sheet, does not affect the statistics. Our results suggest that turbulence overshadows the effects of heat release and chemical reactions. This may be due to the larger Reynolds number achieved in the present study compared to that in previous works.
Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
The alignment of vorticity and gradients of conserved and reactive scalars with the eigenvectors of the strain rate tensor (i.e., the principal strains) is investigated in a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent nonpremixed flame achieving a Taylor’s scale Reynolds number in the range 100≤Reλ≤150 (Attili et al. Comb. Flame, 161, 2014). The vorticity vector displays a pronounced tendency to align with the direction of the intermediate strain. These alignment statistics are in almost perfect agreement with those in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (Ashurst et al. Physics of Fluids 30, 1987) and differ significantly from the results obtained in other nonpremixed flames in which vorticity alignment with the most extensive strain was observed (Boratavet al. Physics of Fluids 8, 1996). The gradients of conserved and reactive scalars align with the most compressive strain. It is worth noting that conditioning on the local values of the mixture fraction, or equivalently conditioning on the distance from the flame sheet, does not affect the statistics. Our results suggest that turbulence overshadows the effects of heat release and chemical reactions. This may be due to the larger Reynolds number achieved in the present study compared to that in previous works.
Blow-off characteristics of turbulent premixed flames in curved-wall Jet Burner
Mansour, Morkous S.; Mannaa, O.; Chung, Suk-Ho
2015-01-01
and simultaneously stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) quantified the turbulent flow field features. Ethylene/air flames were stabilized in CWJ burner to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff. For stably burning flames far from blowoff
Flame kernel generation and propagation in turbulent partially premixed hydrocarbon jet
Mansour, Mohy S.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Zayed, M. F.
2014-01-01
Flame development, propagation, stability, combustion efficiency, pollution formation, and overall system efficiency are affected by the early stage of flame generation defined as flame kernel. Studying the effects of turbulence and chemistry
SPREADING OF A FLUID JET ON THE CORRUGATED SURFACE OF THE STRUCTURED PACKING OF WET SCRUBBERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gorodilov A.A.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The new packing for wet scrubbers for cooling exhaust gases of furnaces is presented. Spreading features of the fluid jet on the corrugated surface of the proposed packing have been studied. Flow rate of the liquid flowing through slits to the opposite side of the packing element was determined. Several regimes of a fluid flow on the surface of the proposed structured packing were determined. An optimal range of rational flow rates for more intense cooling of exhaust gases is proposed. It was discovered that the range of optimum flow rates may be extended if the surface of the packing element is pre-wetted. The way of increasing the rate of effective interfacial surface area for gas-liquid contact per unit volume of the packing of the scrubber is presented.
Boxx, I.; Carter, C. D.; Meier, W.
2014-08-01
Tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomographic-PIV) is a recently developed measurement technique used to acquire volumetric velocity field data in liquid and gaseous flows. The technique relies on line-of-sight reconstruction of the rays between a 3D particle distribution and a multi-camera imaging system. In a turbulent flame, however, index-of-refraction variations resulting from local heat-release may inhibit reconstruction and thereby render the technique infeasible. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of tomographic-PIV in a turbulent flame. An additional goal was to determine the feasibility of acquiring usable tomographic-PIV measurements in a turbulent flame at multi-kHz acquisition rates with current-generation laser and camera technology. To this end, a setup consisting of four complementary metal oxide semiconductor cameras and a dual-cavity Nd:YAG laser was implemented to test the technique in a lifted turbulent jet flame. While the cameras were capable of kHz-rate image acquisition, the laser operated at a pulse repetition rate of only 10 Hz. However, use of this laser allowed exploration of the required pulse energy and thus power for a kHz-rate system. The imaged region was 29 × 28 × 2.7 mm in size. The tomographic reconstruction of the 3D particle distributions was accomplished using the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique. The results indicate that volumetric velocimetry via tomographic-PIV is feasible with pulse energies of 25 mJ, which is within the capability of current-generation kHz-rate diode-pumped solid-state lasers.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Vollmer, David R
2008-01-01
... advection, forming an intense inversion. Such a configuration may be associated with vertically-intersecting ageostrophic jet circulations or trough-induced differential vertical motions leading to cold air undercutting a warm layer aloft...
On the structure of pulsed plasma jets
Cavolowsky, John Arthur
A pulsed plasma jet is a turbulent, inhomogeneous fluid mechanical discharge capable of initiating and inhancing combustion. Having shown the ability to ignite lean fuel mixtures, is now offers the potential for real-time control of combustion processes. The fluid mechanical and chemical properties of such jets are explored. The fluid mechanical structure of the jet was examined using two optical diagnostic techniques. Self-light streak photography provided information on the motion of luminous gas particles in its core. The turbulent, thermal evolution of the jet was explored using high speed laser schlieren cinematography. By examine plasma jet generators with both opaque and transparent plasma cavities, detailed information on plasma formation and jet structure, beginning with the electric arc discharge in the cavity, was obtained. Molecular beam mass spectroscopy was used to determine temperature and species concentration in the jet. Both noncombustible and combustible jets were studied. Species measurements in combustible jets revealed significant concentrations of radicals and products of complete as well as incomplete combustion.
LES of turbulent jet in cross flow: Part 2 – POD analysis and identification of coherent structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik
2012-01-01
The paper presents results of a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) investigation of the LES based numerical simulation of the jet-in-crossflow (JICF) flowfield with Reynolds number based on the cross flow velocity and jet diameter Re=2400 and the velocity ratio of R=3.3. LES results are valida......The paper presents results of a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) investigation of the LES based numerical simulation of the jet-in-crossflow (JICF) flowfield with Reynolds number based on the cross flow velocity and jet diameter Re=2400 and the velocity ratio of R=3.3. LES results...... results are directly compared and found to be in close agreement with results of a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) based planar (2D) snapshot POD analysis by Meyer et al. (JFM 583, p. 199–227, 2007), indicating that LES is able to predict the same large scale flow dynamics as that captured by PIV. Some...... for the creation of wake vortices and that the wake vortex originates from the hanging vortex, but grows quickly by “sucking up” the wall boundary layer fluid and vorticity....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yik Siang Pang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD study of a natural gas combustion burner focusing on the effect of combustion, thermal radiation and turbulence models on the temperature and chemical species concentration fields. The combustion was modelled using the finite rate/eddy dissipation (FR/EDM and partially premixed flame models. Detailed chemistry kinetics CHEMKIN GRI-MECH 3.0 consisting of 325 reactions was employed to model the methane combustion. Discrete ordinates (DO and spherical harmonics (P1 model were employed to predict the thermal radiation. The gas absorption coefficient dependence on the wavelength is resolved by the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (WSGGM. Turbulence flow was simulated using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS based models. The findings showed that a combination of partially premixed flame, P1 and standard k-ε (SKE gave the most accurate prediction with an average deviation of around 7.8% of combustion temperature and 15.5% for reactant composition (methane and oxygen. The results show the multi-step chemistry in the partially premixed model is more accurate than the two-step FR/EDM. Meanwhile, inclusion of thermal radiation has a minor effect on the heat transfer and species concentration. SKE turbulence model yielded better prediction compared to the realizable k-ε (RKE and renormalized k-ε (RNG. The CFD simulation presented in this work may serve as a useful tool to evaluate a performance of a natural gas combustor. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 26th July 2017; Revised: 9th October 2017; Accepted: 30th October 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Pang, Y.S., Law, W.P., Pung, K.Q., Gimbun, J. (2018. A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Turbulence, Radiation, and Combustion Models for Natural Gas Combustion Burner. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 155-169 (doi:10.9767/bcrec
Simulation of Sweep-Jet Flow Control, Single Jet and Full Vertical Tail
Childs, Robert E.; Stremel, Paul M.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Heineck, James T.; Kushner, Laura K.; Storms, Bruce L.
2016-01-01
This work is a simulation technology demonstrator, of sweep jet flow control used to suppress boundary layer separation and increase the maximum achievable load coefficients. A sweep jet is a discrete Coanda jet that oscillates in the plane parallel to an aerodynamic surface. It injects mass and momentum in the approximate streamwise direction. It also generates turbulent eddies at the oscillation frequency, which are typically large relative to the scales of boundary layer turbulence, and which augment mixing across the boundary layer to attack flow separation. Simulations of a fluidic oscillator, the sweep jet emerging from a nozzle downstream of the oscillator, and an array of sweep jets which suppresses boundary layer separation are performed. Simulation results are compared to data from a dedicated validation experiment of a single oscillator and its sweep jet, and from a wind tunnel test of a full-scale Boeing 757 vertical tail augmented with an array of sweep jets. A critical step in the work is the development of realistic time-dependent sweep jet inflow boundary conditions, derived from the results of the single-oscillator simulations, which create the sweep jets in the full-tail simulations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver Overow, with high-order spatial discretization and a range of turbulence modeling. Good results were obtained for all flows simulated, when suitable turbulence modeling was used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schekochihin, A.A.; Cowley, S.C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.; Howes, G.G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulent motions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the 'inertial range' above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-field strength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misguich, J.H.; Balescu, R.
1981-02-01
Three different time regimes are presented for relative spatial diffusion of charged particles in fluctuating electric fields, which behave like tau 3 , exp (tau) and tau 3 , respectively. The first regime, corresponding to a quasi-linear description of the trajectories, is analogous to the one observed in fluid turbulence and is valid in the limit of a small amplitude turbulent spectrum, or for not too small initial separation of the particles. The third regime, appearing for long times, describes the diffusion of independent particles at very large separations. Its existence is ensured by the nonlinear renormalization of the propagators. The second, intermediate, regime appears in a stochastic treatment of the renormalization effect for particles with a very small spatial and velocity difference, and describes Dupree's clumps diffusion. The appearance of the corresponding regime is similar to that of the Suzuki scaling regime of non-linear Langevin equations. It is also shown that the clumps have a behaviour similar to an intrinsic stochasticity, but which is of extrinsic nature. Similar failure of the quasi-linear approximation for spacific velocity domains has been previously studied and solved for classical Landau collisions, as well as for pitch angle diffusion where renormalization effects have been proved also to be important
Information Theory Analysis of Cascading Process in a Synthetic Model of Fluid Turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimo Materassi
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The use of transfer entropy has proven to be helpful in detecting which is the verse of dynamical driving in the interaction of two processes, X and Y . In this paper, we present a different normalization for the transfer entropy, which is capable of better detecting the information transfer direction. This new normalized transfer entropy is applied to the detection of the verse of energy flux transfer in a synthetic model of fluid turbulence, namely the Gledzer–Ohkitana–Yamada shell model. Indeed, this is a fully well-known model able to model the fully developed turbulence in the Fourier space, which is characterized by an energy cascade towards the small scales (large wavenumbers k, so that the application of the information-theory analysis to its outcome tests the reliability of the analysis tool rather than exploring the model physics. As a result, the presence of a direct cascade along the scales in the shell model and the locality of the interactions in the space of wavenumbers come out as expected, indicating the validity of this data analysis tool. In this context, the use of a normalized version of transfer entropy, able to account for the difference of the intrinsic randomness of the interacting processes, appears to perform better, being able to discriminate the wrong conclusions to which the “traditional” transfer entropy would drive.
L-H transition dynamics in fluid turbulence simulations with neoclassical force balance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chôné, L. [Aix–Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Beyer, P.; Fuhr, G.; Benkadda, S. [Aix–Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Sarazin, Y.; Bourdelle, C. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)
2014-07-15
Spontaneous transport barrier generation at the edge of a magnetically confined plasma is reproduced in flux-driven three-dimensional fluid simulations of electrostatic turbulence. Here, the role on the radial electric field of collisional friction between trapped and passing particles is shown to be the key ingredient. Especially, accounting for the self-consistent and precise dependence of the friction term on the actual plasma temperature allows for the triggering of a transport barrier, provided that the input power exceeds some threshold. In addition, the barrier is found to experience quasi-periodic relaxation events, reminiscent of edge localised modes. These results put forward a possible key player, namely, neoclassical physics via radial force balance, for the low- to high-confinement regime transition observed in most of controlled fusion devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aringazin, A.K.; Mazhitov, M.I.
2003-01-01
We describe a formal procedure to obtain and specify the general form of a marginal distribution for the Lagrangian acceleration of fluid particle in developed turbulent flow using Langevin type equation and the assumption that velocity fluctuation u follows a normal distribution with zero mean, in accord to the Heisenberg-Yaglom picture. For a particular representation, β=exp[u], of the fluctuating parameter β, we reproduce the underlying log-normal distribution and the associated marginal distribution, which was found to be in a very good agreement with the new experimental data by Crawford, Mordant, and Bodenschatz on the acceleration statistics. We discuss on arising possibilities to make refinements of the log-normal model
Elwina; Yunardi; Bindar, Yazid
2018-04-01
this paper presents results obtained from the application of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Fluent 6.3 to modelling of temperature in propane flames with and without air preheat. The study focuses to investigate the effect of air preheat temperature on the temperature of the flame. A standard k-ε model and Eddy Dissipation model are utilized to represent the flow field and combustion of the flame being investigated, respectively. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data of propane flame taken from literature. The results of the study show that a combination of the standard k-ε turbulence model and eddy dissipation model is capable of producing reasonable predictions of temperature, particularly in axial profile of all three flames. Both experimental works and numerical simulation showed that increasing the temperature of the combustion air significantly increases the flame temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gori, Fabio; Petracci, Ivano; Angelino, Matteo
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Flow with Negligible Disturbances, or first type, with length L ND = L 1 . • Flow with Small Disturbances, or second type, with length L SD . • Total length, L ND + L SD = L 2 , is in agreement with average Undisturbed flow, L U . • Flow with Coherent Vortices, or third type, with length L CV . • Total length, L ND + L SD + L CV = L 3 , is in agreement with average Potential core, L P . - Abstract: The paper is aimed at investigating the influence of the Reynolds number on the instant flow evolution of a rectangular free jet of air in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re = 35,300 to Re = 2,200, where the Reynolds number, Re, is defined according to the hydraulic diameter, D, of a rectangular slot of height H, equal to about D = 2H. The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique allows obtaining the instant PIV visualizations on the central symmetry section of the rectangular jet. The visual inspection of the instant frames with one and two vortices, except for Re = 35,300 where only one vortex images are detected, shows that after the jet exit is present the Flow with Constant Instant Height, with a length L CIH which increases with the decrease of the Reynolds number, from a ratio L CIH /H equal to L CIH /H = 0.9 at Re = 35,300 to L CIH /H = 4.0 at Re = 2,200. The instant PIV measurements, carried out at several distances from the jet exit, show that the variations of the ratio U/U ‾ 0 of the centerline instant velocity, U, to the exit average velocity, U ‾ 0 , remain below ±4% for a length L CIV , defining the Flow with Constant Instant Velocity on the centerline. The ratio L CIV /H increases from L CIV /H = 1.1 at Re = 35,300 to L CIV /H = 4.1 at Re = 2,200 and is quite similar to L CIH /H. The instant PIV measurements of the centerline turbulence intensity, Tu, show that its variations remain below ±4% for a length L CIT , defining the Flow with Constant Instant Turbulence on the centerline. The ratio L CIT /H is equal to L CIV /H
Fluid simulations of ∇Te-driven turbulence and transport in boundary plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.
1992-01-01
It is clear that the edge plasma plays a crucial role in global tokamak confinement. This paper is a report on simulations of a new drift wave type instability driven by the electron temperature gradient in tokamak scrapeoff-layers (SOL). A 2d fluid code has been developed in order to explore the anomalous transport in the boundary plasmas. The simulation consists of a set of fluid equations for the vorticity ∇ perpendicular 2 φ, the electron density n c and the temperature T c in a shearless plasma slab confined by a uniform, straight magnetic field B z with two divertor (or limiter) plates intercepting the magnetic field. The model has two regions separated by a magnetic separatrix: in the edge region inside the separatrix, the model is periodic along the magnetic field while in the SOL region outside the separatrix, the magnetic field is taken to be of finite length with model boundary conditions at diverter plates. The simulation results show that the observed linear instability agrees well with theory, and that a saturated state of turbulence is reached. In saturated turbulence, clear evidence of the expected long-wavelength mode penetration into the edge is seen, an inverse cascade of wave energy is observed. The simulation results also show that amplitudes of potential and the electron temperature fluctuations are somewhat above and the heat flux are somewhat below those of the simplest mixing-length estimates, and furthermore the large-scale radial structures of fluctuation quantities indicate that the cross-field transport is not diffusive. After saturation, the electron density and temperature profiles are flattened. A self-consistent simulation to determine the microturbulent SOL electron temperature profile has been done, the results of which reasonably agree with the experimental measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.
1985-11-01
The author critiques the model of tokamak edge turbulence by P.W. Terry and P.H. Diamond (Phys. Fluids 28, 1419, 1985). The critique includes a discussion of the physical basis, consistency and quantitative accuracy of the Terry-Diamond model. 19 refs
Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David
2012-01-01
Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (“syngas”) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k–ϵ turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulence–chemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.
Evaluating the far-field sound of a turbulent jet with one-way Navier-Stokes equations
Pickering, Ethan; Rigas, Georgios; Towne, Aaron; Colonius, Tim
2017-11-01
The one-way Navier-Stokes (OWNS) method has shown promising ability to predict both near field coherent structures (i.e. wave packets) and far field acoustics of turbulent jets while remaining computationally efficient through implementation of a spatial marching scheme. Considering the speed and relative accuracy of OWNS, a predictive model for various jet configurations may be conceived and applied for noise control. However, there still remain discrepancies between OWNS and large eddy simulation (LES) databases which may be linked to the previous neglect of nonlinear forcing. Therefore, to better predict wave packets and far field acoustics, this study investigates the effect of nonlinear forcing terms derived from high-fidelity LES databases. The results of the nonlinear forcings are evaluated for several azimuthal modes and frequencies, as well as compared to LES derived acoustics using spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD). This research was supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the Office of Naval Research (Grant No. N00014-16-1-2445) and the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Munki; Choi, Youngil; Oh, Jeongseog; Yoon, Youngbin [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)
2009-12-15
This study examines the effect of acoustic excitation using forced coaxial air on the flame characteristics of turbulent hydrogen non-premixed flames. A resonance frequency was selected to acoustically excite the coaxial air jet due to its ability to effectively amplify the acoustic amplitude and reduce flame length and NO{sub x} emissions. Acoustic excitation causes the flame length to decrease by 15% and consequently, a 25% reduction in EINO{sub x} is achieved, compared to coaxial air flames without acoustic excitation at the same coaxial air to fuel velocity ratio. Moreover, acoustic excitation induces periodical fluctuation of the coaxial air velocity, thus resulting in slight fluctuation of the fuel velocity. From phase-lock PIV and OH PLIF measurement, the local flow properties at the flame surface were investigated under acoustic forcing. During flame-vortex interaction in the near field region, the entrainment velocity and the flame surface area increased locally near the vortex. This increase in flame surface area and entrainment velocity is believed to be a crucial factor in reducing flame length and NO{sub x} emission in coaxial jet flames with acoustic excitation. Local flame extinction occurred frequently when subjected to an excessive strain rate, indicating that intense mass transfer of fuel and air occurs radially inward at the flame surface. (author)
Salomone, Horacio D.; Olivieri, Néstor A.; Véliz, Maximiliano E.; Raviola, Lisandro A.
2018-05-01
In the context of fluid mechanics courses, it is customary to consider the problem of a sphere falling under the action of gravity inside a viscous fluid. Under suitable assumptions, this phenomenon can be modelled using Stokes’ law and is routinely reproduced in teaching laboratories to determine terminal velocities and fluid viscosities. In many cases, however, the measured physical quantities show important deviations with respect to the predictions deduced from the simple Stokes’ model, and the causes of these apparent ‘anomalies’ (for example, whether the flow is laminar or turbulent) are seldom discussed in the classroom. On the other hand, there are various variable-mass problems that students tackle during elementary mechanics courses and which are discussed in many textbooks. In this work, we combine both kinds of problems and analyse—both theoretically and experimentally—the evolution of a system composed of a sphere pulled by a chain of variable length inside a tube filled with water. We investigate the effects of different forces acting on the system such as weight, buoyancy, viscous friction and drag force. By means of a sequence of mathematical models of increasing complexity, we obtain a progressive fit that accounts for the experimental data. The contrast between the various models exposes the strengths and weaknessess of each one. The proposed experience can be useful for integrating concepts of elementary mechanics and fluids, and is suitable as laboratory practice, stressing the importance of the experimental validation of theoretical models and showing the model-building processes in a didactic framework.
Stress assessment in piping under synthetic thermal loads emulating turbulent fluid mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa Garrido, Oriol, E-mail: oriol.costa@ijs.si; El Shawish, Samir, E-mail: samir.elshawish@ijs.si; Cizelj, Leon, E-mail: leon.cizelj@ijs.si
2015-03-15
Highlights: • Generation of complex space-continuous and time-dependent temperature fields. • 1D and 3D thermo-mechanical analyses of pipes under complex surface thermal loads. • Surface temperatures and stress fluctuations are highly linearly correlated. • 1D and 3D results agree for a wide range of Fourier and Biot numbers. • Global thermo-mechanical loading promotes non-equibiaxial stress state. - Abstract: Thermal fatigue assessment of pipes due to turbulent fluid mixing in T-junctions is a rather difficult task because of the existing uncertainties and variability of induced thermal stresses. In these cases, thermal stresses arise on three-dimensional pipe structures due to complex thermal loads, known as thermal striping, acting at the fluid-wall interface. A recently developed approach for the generation of space-continuous and time-dependent temperature fields has been employed in this paper to reproduce fluid temperature fields of a case study from the literature. The paper aims to deliver a detailed study of the three-dimensional structural response of piping under the complex thermal loads arising in fluid mixing in T-junctions. Results of three-dimensional thermo-mechanical analyses show that fluctuations of surface temperatures and stresses are highly linearly correlated. Also, surface stress fluctuations, in axial and hoop directions, are almost equi-biaxial. These findings, representative on cross sections away from system boundaries, are moreover supported by the sensitivity analysis of Fourier and Biot numbers and by the comparison with standard one-dimensional analyses. Agreement between one- and three-dimensional results is found for a wide range of studied parameters. The study also comprises the effects of global thermo-mechanical loading on the surface stress state. Implemented mechanical boundary conditions develop more realistic overall system deformation and promote non-equibiaxial stresses.
Direct injection of high pressure gas : scaling properties of pulsed turbulent jets
Baert, R.S.G.; Klaassen, A.; Doosje, E.
2010-01-01
Existing gasoline DI injection equipment has been modified to generate single hole pulsed gas jets. Injection experiments have been performed at combinations of 3 different pressure ratios (2 of which supercritical) respectively 3 different hole geometries (i.e. length to diameter ratios). Injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fougairolle, P.
2009-07-01
This work consists in the experimental study of a jet in crossflow in a closed wind tunnel. Depending on the value of the velocity ratio (r U j /U∞), this confined rectangular jet can interact or impact with the opposite wall from the one it issues. The jet is slightly heated (∼10 C) in order to stay in the passive scalar case. An improvement of the experimental facility has been done to obtain thermal boundary conditions compatible with the measurements of slight differences of temperature, imposed by the passive scalar. Concerning the metrology, hot and cold wire anemometry and thermometry are used, and all the anemometric devices are developed and built in the lab. Probes made with Wollaston wire (Pt-Rh) of 0.35μm diameter are coupled with an anemometer and a thermometer optimized to maximize the signal to noise ratio. The results are obtained both thanks to visualizations by fast camera shots for several velocity ratios (r between 3 and 12), and thanks to local hot and cold wire measurements, in the particular case of two velocity ratios (r = 3.3 and 9.4). Mixing properties of the scalar are studied by the plot of statistical values of velocity and temperature in different plans, perpendicularly to the three axis. The analysis of spectral densities of the signals on several typical locations emphasizes some features of the dynamic behaviour of the jet. (author)
Turbulence suppression by E x B shear in JET optimized shear pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beer, M.A.; Budny, R.V.; Challis, C.D.; Conway, G.
2000-01-01
The authors calculate microinstability growth rates in JET optimized shear plasmas with a comprehensive gyrofluid model, including sheared E x B flows, trapped electrons, and all dominant ion species in realistic magnetic geometry. They find good correlation between E x B shear suppression of microinstabilities and both the formation and collapse of the internal transport barrier
Stereoscopic PIV and POD applied to the far turbulent axisymmetric jet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wähnström, Maja; George, William K.; Meyer, Knud Erik
2006-01-01
here applies stereoscopic PIV to the far field of the same jet in which the mode-2 phenomenon was first noticed. Indeed azimuthal mode-1 is maximal if all three velocity components are considered, so the new findings are confirmed. This work also addresses a number of outstanding issues from all...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Howes, G. G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.
2009-04-23
This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulentmotions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the "inertial range" above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-fieldstrength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations
Dörnbrack, Andreas; Sharman, Robert
2015-04-01
Observational evidence indicates a higher incidence of turbulence near the tropopause, especially over mountainous terrain. Previous work by McHugh and Sharman (2013) indicate this may be due to nonlinear amplification of topographically-induced gravity waves as they impinge on the tropopause. However, that study did not consider nonlinear topography amplification effects, nor did it consider the more realistic case of a jet stream in the vicinity of the tropopause. This study extends the McHugh and Sharman study by considering these effects using fully nonlinear simulations with the jet modeled as a sech**2 profile. Sensitivity studies are performed to study such effects as the location of the nose of the jet relative to the tropopause height, the jet width, the height of the tropopause, and the size and shape of the obstacle. Momentum and energy flux profiles are used to deduce those configurations most conducive to gravity wave amplification, breakdown and turbulence near the tropopause. McHugh J., Sharman R., 2013: Generation of mountain wave-induced mean flows and turbulence near the tropopause. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 139: 1632-1642. DOI:10.1002/qj.2035
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Dastgeer
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Interstellar scintillation and angular radio wave broadening measurements show that interstellar and solar wind (electron density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k-5/3 power spectrum extending over many decades in wavenumber space. The ubiquity of the Kolmogorov-like interstellar medium (ISM density spectrum led to an explanation based on coupling incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD fluctuations to density fluctuations through a 'pseudosound' relation within the context of 'nearly incompressible' (NI hydrodynamics (HD and MHD models. The NI theory provides a fundamentally different explanation for the observed ISM density spectrum in that the density fluctuations can be a consequence of passive scalar convection due to background incompressible fluctuations. The theory further predicts generation of long-scale structures and various correlations between the density, temperature and the (magneto acoustic as well as convective pressure fluctuations in the compressible ISM fluids in different thermal regimes that are determined purely by the thermal fluctuation level. In this paper, we present the results of our two dimensional nonlinear fluid simulations, exploring various nonlinear aspects that lead to inertial range ISM turbulence within the context of a NI hydrodymanics model. In qualitative agreement with the NI predictions and the in-situ observations, we find that i the density fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like spectrum via a passive convection in the field of the background incompressible fluctuations, ii the compressible ISM fluctuations form long scale flows and structures, and iii the density and the temperature fluctuations are anti-correlated.
Optimization of a Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Model of Churn-Turbulent Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donna Post Guillen
2009-07-01
A hydrodynamic model of two-phase, churn-turbulent flows is being developed using the computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE-CMFD. The numerical solutions obtained by this model are compared with experimental data obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Institute of Safety Research at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The TOPFLOW data is a high quality experimental database of upward, co-current air-water flows in a vertical pipe suitable for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. A five-field CMFD model was developed for the continuous liquid phase and four bubble size groups using mechanistic closure models for the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Mechanistic models for the drag and non-drag interfacial forces are implemented to include the governing physics to describe the hydrodynamic forces controlling the gas distribution. The closure models provide the functional form of the interfacial forces, with user defined coefficients to adjust the force magnitude. An optimization strategy was devised for these coefficients using commercial design optimization software. This paper demonstrates an approach to optimizing CMFD model parameters using a design optimization approach. Computed radial void fraction profiles predicted by the NPHASE-CMFD code are compared to experimental data for four bubble size groups.
Theoretical analysis and semianalytical solutions for a turbulent buoyant hydrogen-air jet
El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, S.; Salama, Amgad
2012-01-01
Semianalytical solutions are developed for turbulent hydrogen-air plume. We derived analytical expressions for plume centerline variables (radius, velocity, and density deficit) in terms of a single universal function, called plume function. By combining the obtained analytical expressions of centerline variables with empirical Gaussian expressions of the mean variables, we obtain semianalytical expressions for mean quantities of hydrogen-air plume (velocity, density deficit, and mass fraction).
NOx emission characteristics in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Hee Jang; Park, Yang Ho; Yoon, Young Bin
2009-01-01
The characteristics of NOx emissions in pure hydrogen nonpremixed jet flames with coaxial air are analyzed numerically for a wide range of coaxial air conditions. Among the models tested in simple nonpremixed jet flame, the one-half power scaling law could be reproduced only by the Model C using the HO 2 /H 2 O 2 reaction, implying the importance of chemical nonequilibrium effect. The flame length is reduced significantly by augmenting coaxial air, and could be represented as a function of the ratio of coaxial air to fuel velocity. Predicted EINOx scaling showed a good concordance with experimental data, and the overall one-half power scaling was observed in coaxial flames with Model C when flame residence time was defined with flame volume instead of a cubic of the flame length. Different level of oxygen mass fraction at the stoichiometric surface was observed as coaxial air was increased. These different levels imply that the coaxial air strengthens the nonequilibrium effect
POD applied to stereo PIV data of the far turbulent axisymmetric jet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wänström, Maja; George, William K.; Meyer, Knud Erik
positions of 60, 70 and 100 diameters using stereoscopic PIV. In addition to the standard PIV processing, a novel application of the snapshot POD was used to filter the data in preparation for the classical POD analysis. The two-point Reynolds stress tensor was reconstructed from the dominant snapshot POD......An experiment was performed to evaluate spatial resolution requirements for multiple and single component POD applications to cross-sections of the far axisymmetic jet. The jet of Gamard et al. was used at an exit Reynolds number of 20,000. Three-component velocity data were obtained at downstream......-modes, and the convex hull of this data set was extended using symmetry conditions. The results are believed to be relevant to not only understanding previous experiments with hot-wires, but also DNS and LES....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, R.J.
1988-01-01
Most flows of fluids, in nature and in technology, are turbulent. Since much of the energy expended by machines and devices that involve fluid flows is spent in overcoming drag caused by turbulence, there is a strong motivation to understand the phenomena. Surprisingly, the peculiar, quantum-mechanical form of turbulence that can form in superfluid helium may turn out to be much simpler to understand that the classical turbulence that forms in normal fluids. It now seems that the study of superfluid turbulence may provide simplified model systems for studying some forms of classical turbulence. There are also practical motivations for studying superfluid turbulence. For example, superfuid helium is often used as a coolant in superconducting machinery. Superfluid turbulence is the primary impediment to the transfer of heat by superfluid helium; an understanding of the phenomena may make it possible to design more efficient methods of refrigeration for superconducting devices. 8 figs
Investigation of Turbulent Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial Water Jet Pump with Large Eddy Simulation
Hah, Chunill; Katz, Joseph
2012-01-01
Detailed steady and unsteady numerical studies were performed to investigate tip clearance flow in an axial water jet pump. The primary objective is to understand physics of unsteady tip clearance flow, unsteady tip leakage vortex, and cavitation inception in an axial water jet pump. Steady pressure field and resulting steady tip leakage vortex from a steady flow analysis do not seem to explain measured cavitation inception correctly. The measured flow field near the tip is unsteady and measured cavitation inception is highly transient. Flow visualization with cavitation bubbles shows that the leakage vortex is oscillating significantly and many intermittent vortex ropes are present between the suction side of the blade and the tip leakage core vortex. Although the flow field is highly transient, the overall flow structure is stable and a characteristic frequency seems to exist. To capture relevant flow physics as much as possible, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were applied for the current investigation. The present study reveals that several vortices from the tip leakage vortex system cross the tip gap of the adjacent blade periodically. Sudden changes in local pressure field inside tip gap due to these vortices create vortex ropes. The instantaneous pressure filed inside the tip gap is drastically different from that of the steady flow simulation. Unsteady flow simulation which can calculate unsteady vortex motion is necessary to calculate cavitation inception accurately even at design flow condition in such a water jet pump.
Teodorovich, E. V.
2018-03-01
In order to find the shape of energy spectrum within the framework of the model of stationary homogeneous isotropic turbulence, the renormalization-group equations, which reflect the Markovian nature of the mechanism of energy transfer along the wavenumber spectrum, are used in addition to the dimensional considerations and the energy balance equation. For the spectrum, the formula depends on three parameters, namely, the wavenumber, which determines the upper boundary of the range of the turbulent energy production, the spectral flux through this boundary, and the fluid kinematic viscosity.
Optimized parallel convolutions for non-linear fluid models of tokamak ηi turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milovich, J.L.; Tomaschke, G.; Kerbel, G.D.
1993-01-01
Non-linear computational fluid models of plasma turbulence based on spectral methods typically spend a large fraction of the total computing time evaluating convolutions. Usually these convolutions arise from an explicit or semi implicit treatment of the convective non-linearities in the problem. Often the principal convective velocity is perpendicular to magnetic field lines allowing a reduction of the convolution to two dimensions in an appropriate geometry, but beyond this, different models vary widely in the particulars of which mode amplitudes are selectively evolved to get the most efficient representation of the turbulence. As the number of modes in the problem, N, increases, the amount of computation required for this part of the evolution algorithm then scales as N 2 /timestep for a direct or analytic method and N ln N/timestep for a pseudospectral method. The constants of proportionality depend on the particulars of mode selection and determine the size problem for which the method will perform equally. For large enough N, the pseudospectral method performance is always superior, though some problems do not require correspondingly high resolution. Further, the Courant condition for numerical stability requires that the timestep size must decrease proportionately as N increases, thus accentuating the need to have fast methods for larger N problems. The authors have developed a package for the Cray system which performs these convolutions for a rather arbitrary mode selection scheme using either method. The package is highly optimized using a combination of macro and microtasking techniques, as well as vectorization and in some cases assembly coded routines. Parts of the package have also been developed and optimized for the CM200 and CM5 system. Performance comparisons with respect to problem size, parallelization, selection schemes and architecture are presented
Radiative heat transfer in a heat generating and turbulently convecting fluid layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Chan, S.H.; Chawla, T.C.; Cho, D.H.
1980-01-01
The coupled problem of radiative transport and turbulent natural convection in a volumetrically heated, horizontal gray fluid medium, bounded from above by a rigid, isothermal wall and below by a rigid, adiabatic wall, is investigated analytically. An approximate method based upon the boundary layer approach is employed to obtain the dependence of heat transfer at the upper wall on the principal parameters of the problem, which, for moderate Prandtl number, are the Rayleigh number, Ra, the optical thickness, KL, and the conduction-radiation coupling parameter, N. Also obtained in this study is the behaviour of the thermal boundary layer at the upper wall. At large kL, the contribution of thermal radiation to heat transfer in the layer is found to be negligible for N > 10, moderate for N approximately 1, and overwhelming for N < 0.1. However, at small kL, thermal radiation is found to be important only for N < 0.01. While a higher level of turbulence results in a thinner boundary layer, a larger effect of radiation is found to result in a thicker one. Thus, in the presence of strong thermal radiation, a much larger value of Ra is required for the boundary layer approach to remain valid. Under severe radiation conditions, no boundary layer flow regime is found to exist even at very high Rayleigh numbers. Accordingly, the ranges of applicability of the present results are determined and the approximate method justified. In particular, the validity of the present analysis is tested in three limiting cases, ie those of kL → infinity, N → infinity, and Ra → infinity, and is further confirmed by comparison with the numerical solution (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Lixing; Zhang, Jian [Qinghua Univ., Beijing (China)
1990-11-01
Two-dimensional turbulent evaporating gas-droplet two-phase flows in an afterburner diffusor of turbofan jet engines are simulated here by a k-epsilon turbulence model and a particle trajectory model. Comparison of predicted gas velocity and temperature distributions with experimental results for the cases without liquid spray shows good agreement. Gas-droplet two-phase flow predictions give plausible droplet trajectories, fuel-vapor concentration distribution, gas-phase velocity and temperature field in the presence of liquid droplets. One run of computation with this method is made for a particular afterburner. The results indicate that the location of the atomizers is not favorable to flame stabilization and combustion efficiency. The proposed numerical modeling can also be adopted for optimization design and performance evaluation of afterburner combustors of turbofan jet engines. 7 refs.
Super resolution PLIF demonstrated in turbulent jet flows seeded with I2
Xu, Wenjiang; Liu, Ning; Ma, Lin
2018-05-01
Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) represents an indispensable tool for flow and flame imaging. However, the PLIF technique suffers from limited spatial resolution or blurring in many situations, which restricts its applicability and capability. This work describes a new method, named SR-PLIF (super-resolution PLIF), to overcome these limitations and enhance the capability of PLIF. The method uses PLIF images captured simultaneously from two (or more) orientations to reconstruct a final PLIF image with resolution enhanced or blurring removed. This paper reports the development of the reconstruction algorithm, and the experimental demonstration of the SR-PLIF method both with controlled samples and with turbulent flows seeded with iodine vapor. Using controlled samples with two cameras, the spatial resolution in the best case was improved from 0.06 mm in the projections to 0.03 mm in the SR image, in terms of the spreading width of a sharp edge. With turbulent flows, an image sharpness measure was developed to quantify the spatial resolution, and SR reconstruction with two cameras can effectively improve the spatial resolution compared to the projections in terms of the sharpness measure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toda, Saburo; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Muramatsu, Toshiharu
2002-03-01
In a region where two fluids with different temperatures are mixed together, unsteady temperature fluctuation, i.e. thermal striping, occurs in going through the unstable mixing process of the fluids, and structural materials in the surrounding area may be damaged by high-cycle thermal fatigue. In this report, in order to clarify the relation between the thermal striping and temperature fluctuation of structural wall, PIV measuring system is applied to visualize the fluid mixing state in a T-junction area in which important parameters for the fluid mixing are the flow velocity and aperture ratios of a main pipe to a small pipe and an incidence angle of the small pipe to the main pipe as well as temperature difference of the two flows. As a result of visualization experiments in a isothermal field, it is confirmed that a jet-axis, which is a stream line flowing out from the center of the small pipe, vibrates unsteadily and that its behavior is strongly affected by circulating flow, Karman vortex formed behind the jet axis, and especially flow-fluctuation which exists as a background-flow in the main pipe. Especially, the frequency band of the flow-fluctuation in the main pipe almost corresponds to that of the vibration of the jet-axis where the ratio of flow rate is low. Furthermore, in order to estimate the vibration state of the jet-axis and to find out the conditions for preventing the thermal fatigue, the penetration depth of the jet-axis is generalized. From measurements of temperature fluctuation of wall, it is shown that a high power fluctuation area exists universally behind the junction point of the small pipe where the flow rate of the small pipe flow is relatively lower than that of the main pipe flow. The band of dominant frequency of the temperature fluctuation is almost the same as the flow-fluctuation and the jet-axis vibration mentioned above. In addition, visualization experiments of secondary flow formed in a 90-degree bend, which is installed
Shaari, M. F.; Abu Bakar, H.; Nordin, N.; Saw, S. K.; Samad, Z.
2013-12-01
Contractile body is an alternative mechanism instead of rotating blade propeller to generate water jet for locomotion. The oscillating motion of the actuator at different frequencies varies the pressure and volume of the pressure chamber in time to draw in and jet out the water at a certain mass flow rate. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of the actuating frequency of the fluid flow in the pressure chamber of the thruster during this inflation-deflation process. A 70mm × 70mm × 18mm (L × W × T) 2D water jet thruster was fabricated for this purpose. The contractile function was driven using two lateral pneumatic actuators where the fluid flow analysis was focused on the X-Y plane vector. Observation was carried out using a video camera and Matlab image measurement technique to determine the volume of the flowing mass. The result demonstrated that the greater actuating frequency decreases the fluid flow rate and the Reynolds number. This observation shows that the higher frequency would give a higher mass flow rate during water jet generation.
NOx emission characteristics in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Hee Jang [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yang Ho; Yoon, Young Bin [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2009-06-15
The characteristics of NOx emissions in pure hydrogen nonpremixed jet flames with coaxial air are analyzed numerically for a wide range of coaxial air conditions. Among the models tested in simple nonpremixed jet flame, the one-half power scaling law could be reproduced only by the Model C using the HO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction, implying the importance of chemical nonequilibrium effect. The flame length is reduced significantly by augmenting coaxial air, and could be represented as a function of the ratio of coaxial air to fuel velocity. Predicted EINOx scaling showed a good concordance with experimental data, and the overall one-half power scaling was observed in coaxial flames with Model C when flame residence time was defined with flame volume instead of a cubic of the flame length. Different level of oxygen mass fraction at the stoichiometric surface was observed as coaxial air was increased. These different levels imply that the coaxial air strengthens the nonequilibrium effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier; Fox, Rodney O.
2016-01-01
Simulations of strongly coupled (i.e., high-mass-loading) fluid-particle flows in vertical channels are performed with the purpose of understanding the fundamental physics of wall-bounded multiphase turbulence. The exact Reynolds-averaged (RA) equations for high-mass-loading suspensions are presented, and the unclosed terms that are retained in the context of fully developed channel flow are evaluated in an Eulerian–Lagrangian (EL) framework for the first time. A key distinction between the RA formulation presented in the current work and previous derivations of multiphase turbulence models is the partitioning of the particle velocity fluctuations into spatially correlated and uncorrelated components, used to define the components of the particle-phase turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and granular temperature, respectively. The adaptive spatial filtering technique developed in our previous work for homogeneous flows [J. Capecelatro, O. Desjardins, and R. O. Fox, “Numerical study of collisional particle dynamics in cluster-induced turbulence,” J. Fluid Mech. 747, R2 (2014)] is shown to accurately partition the particle velocity fluctuations at all distances from the wall. Strong segregation in the components of granular energy is observed, with the largest values of particle-phase TKE associated with clusters falling near the channel wall, while maximum granular temperature is observed at the center of the channel. The anisotropy of the Reynolds stresses both near the wall and far away is found to be a crucial component for understanding the distribution of the particle-phase volume fraction. In Part II of this paper, results from the EL simulations are used to validate a multiphase Reynolds-stress turbulence model that correctly predicts the wall-normal distribution of the two-phase turbulence statistics.
Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier; Fox, Rodney O.
2016-03-01
Simulations of strongly coupled (i.e., high-mass-loading) fluid-particle flows in vertical channels are performed with the purpose of understanding the fundamental physics of wall-bounded multiphase turbulence. The exact Reynolds-averaged (RA) equations for high-mass-loading suspensions are presented, and the unclosed terms that are retained in the context of fully developed channel flow are evaluated in an Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) framework for the first time. A key distinction between the RA formulation presented in the current work and previous derivations of multiphase turbulence models is the partitioning of the particle velocity fluctuations into spatially correlated and uncorrelated components, used to define the components of the particle-phase turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and granular temperature, respectively. The adaptive spatial filtering technique developed in our previous work for homogeneous flows [J. Capecelatro, O. Desjardins, and R. O. Fox, "Numerical study of collisional particle dynamics in cluster-induced turbulence," J. Fluid Mech. 747, R2 (2014)] is shown to accurately partition the particle velocity fluctuations at all distances from the wall. Strong segregation in the components of granular energy is observed, with the largest values of particle-phase TKE associated with clusters falling near the channel wall, while maximum granular temperature is observed at the center of the channel. The anisotropy of the Reynolds stresses both near the wall and far away is found to be a crucial component for understanding the distribution of the particle-phase volume fraction. In Part II of this paper, results from the EL simulations are used to validate a multiphase Reynolds-stress turbulence model that correctly predicts the wall-normal distribution of the two-phase turbulence statistics.
Turbulent/non-turbulent interfaces detected in DNS of incompressible turbulent boundary layers
Watanabe, T.; Zhang, X.; Nagata, K.
2018-03-01
The turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI) detected in direct numerical simulations is studied for incompressible, temporally developing turbulent boundary layers at momentum thickness Reynolds number Reθ ≈ 2000. The outer edge of the TNTI layer is detected as an isosurface of the vorticity magnitude with the threshold determined with the dependence of the turbulent volume on a threshold level. The spanwise vorticity magnitude and passive scalar are shown to be good markers of turbulent fluids, where the conditional statistics on a distance from the outer edge of the TNTI layer are almost identical to the ones obtained with the vorticity magnitude. Significant differences are observed for the conditional statistics between the TNTI detected by the kinetic energy and vorticity magnitude. A widely used grid setting determined solely from the wall unit results in an insufficient resolution in a streamwise direction in the outer region, whose influence is found for the geometry of the TNTI and vorticity jump across the TNTI layer. The present results suggest that the grid spacing should be similar for the streamwise and spanwise directions. Comparison of the TNTI layer among different flows requires appropriate normalization of the conditional statistics. Reference quantities of the turbulence near the TNTI layer are obtained with the average of turbulent fluids in the intermittent region. The conditional statistics normalized by the reference turbulence characteristics show good quantitative agreement for the turbulent boundary layer and planar jet when they are plotted against the distance from the outer edge of the TNTI layer divided by the Kolmogorov scale defined for turbulent fluids in the intermittent region.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caughey, David
2010-10-08
A Symposium on Turbulence and Combustion was held at Cornell University on August 3-4, 2009. The overall goal of the Symposium was to promote future advances in the study of turbulence and combustion, through an unique forum intended to foster interactions between leading members of these two research communities. The Symposium program consisted of twelve invited lectures given by world-class experts in these fields, two poster sessions consisting of nearly 50 presentations, an open forum, and other informal activities designed to foster discussion. Topics covered in the lectures included turbulent dispersion, wall-bounded flows, mixing, finite-rate chemistry, and others, using experiment, modeling, and computations, and included perspectives from an international community of leading researchers from academia, national laboratories, and industry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botelho, D.A.; Moreira, M.L.
1991-06-01
The Reynolds turbulent transport equations for an incompressible fluid are integrated on a bi-dimensional staggered grid, for velocity and pressure, using the SIMPLER method. With the resulting algebraic relations it was developed the TURBO program, which final objectives are the thermal stratification and natural convection analysis of nuclear reactor pools. This program was tested in problems applications with analytic or experimental solutions previously known. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anas Almowarai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Water based carbon nanotube (CNT dispersion was produced by wet-jet milling method. Commercial CNT was originally agglomerated at the particle size of less than 1 mm. The wet-jet milling process exfoliated CNTs from the agglomerates and dispersed them into water. Sedimentation of the CNTs in the dispersion fluid was not observed for more than a month. The produced CNT dispersion was characterized by the SEM and the viscometer. CNT/PTFE composite film was formed with the CNT dispersion in this study. The electrical conductivity of the composite film increased to 10 times when the CNT dispersion, which was produced by the wet-jet milling method, was used as a constituent of the film. Moreover, the composite film was applied to bipolar plate of fuel cell and increased the output power of the fuel cell to 1.3 times.
Gas concentration and temperature in acoustically excited Delft turbulent jet flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ana Maura A. Rocha; Joao A. Carvalho Jr.; Pedro T. Lacava [Sao Paulo State University, Guaratingueta (Brazil)
2008-11-15
This paper shows the experimental results for changes in the flame structure when acoustic fields are applied in natural gas Delft turbulent diffusion flames. The acoustic field (pulsating combustion) generates zones of intense mixture of reactants in the flame region, promoting a more complete combustion and, consequently, lower pollutant emissions, increase in convective heat transfer rates, and lower fuel consumption. The results show that the presence of the acoustic field changes drastically the flame structure, mainly in the burner natural frequencies. However, for higher acoustic amplitudes, or acoustic pressures, a hydrogen pilot flame is necessary in order to keep the main flame anchored. In the flame regions where the acoustic field is more intense, premixed flame characteristics were observed. Besides, the pulsating regime modifies the axial and radial combustion structure, which could be verified by the radial distribution of concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, and by the temperature profile. The experiments also presented the reduction of flame length with the increase of acoustic amplitude. 30 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.
Soot volume fraction in a piloted turbulent jet non-premixed flame of natural gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qamar, N.H.; Alwahabi, Z.T.; King, K.D. [Fluid Mechanics, Energy and Combustion Group, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Chan, Q.N. [Fluid Mechanics, Energy and Combustion Group, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Nathan, G.J. [Fluid Mechanics, Energy and Combustion Group, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Roekaerts, D. [Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, 1, NL-2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)
2009-07-15
Planar laser-induced incandescence (LII) has been used to measure soot volume fraction in a well-characterised, piloted, turbulent non-premixed flame known as the ''Delft Flame III''. Simulated Dutch natural gas was used as the fuel to produce a flame closely matching those in which a wide range of previous investigations, both experimental and modelling, have been performed. The LII method was calibrated using a Santoro-style burner with ethylene as the fuel. Instantaneous and time-averaged data of the axial and radial soot volume fraction distributions of the flame are presented here along with the Probability Density Functions (PDFs) and intermittency. The PDFs were found to be well-characterised by a single exponential distribution function. The distribution of soot was found to be highly intermittent, with intermittency typically exceeding 97%, which increases measurement uncertainty. The instantaneous values of volume fraction are everywhere less than the values in strained laminar flames. This is consistent with the soot being found locally in strained flame sheets that are convected and distorted by the flow. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto
2015-09-29
Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.
Potter, William J.
2018-01-01
Blazar jets are renowned for their rapid violent variability and multiwavelength flares, however, the physical processes responsible for these flares are not well understood. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent inhomogeneous fluid jet emission model for blazars. We model optically thick radio flares for the first time and show that they are delayed with respect to the prompt optically thin emission by ∼months to decades, with a lag that increases with the jet power and observed wavelength. This lag is caused by a combination of the travel time of the flaring plasma to the optically thin radio emitting sections of the jet and the slow rise time of the radio flare. We predict two types of flares: symmetric flares - with the same rise and decay time, which occur for flares whose duration is shorter than both the radiative lifetime and the geometric path-length delay time-scale; extended flares - whose luminosity tracks the power of particle acceleration in the flare, which occur for flares with a duration longer than both the radiative lifetime and geometric delay. Our model naturally produces orphan X-ray and γ-ray flares. These are caused by flares that are only observable above the quiescent jet emission in a narrow band of frequencies. Our model is able to successfully fit to the observed multiwavelength flaring spectra and light curves of PKS1502+106 across all wavelengths, using a transient flaring front located within the broad-line region.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matteini, L.; Horbury, T. S.; Schwartz, S. J. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Pantellini, F. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Universit Paris-Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Velli, M. [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, UCLA, California (United States)
2015-03-20
We investigate the properties of plasma fluid motion in the large-amplitude, low-frequency fluctuations of highly Alfvénic fast solar wind. We show that protons locally conserve total kinetic energy when observed from an effective frame of reference comoving with the fluctuations. For typical properties of the fast wind, this frame can be reasonably identified by alpha particles which, due to their drift with respect to protons at about the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field, do not partake in the fluid low-frequency fluctuations. Using their velocity to transform the proton velocity into the frame of Alfvénic turbulence, we demonstrate that the resulting plasma motion is characterized by a constant absolute value of the velocity, zero electric fields, and aligned velocity and magnetic field vectors as expected for unidirectional Alfvénic fluctuations in equilibrium. We propose that this constraint, via the correlation between velocity and magnetic field in Alfvénic turbulence, is the origin of the observed constancy of the magnetic field; while the constant velocity corresponding to constant energy can only be observed in the frame of the fluctuations, the corresponding constant total magnetic field, invariant for Galilean transformations, remains the observational signature in the spacecraft frame of the constant total energy in the Alfvén turbulence frame.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parihar, A.; Kulkarni, A.; Stern, F.; Xing, T.; Moeykens, S.
2005-01-01
Flow over an Ahmed body is a key benchmark case for validating the complex turbulent flow field around vehicles. In spite of the simple geometry, the flow field around an Ahmed body retains critical features of real, external vehicular flow. The present study is an attempt to implement such a real life example into the course curriculum for undergraduate engineers. FlowLab, which is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool developed by Fluent Inc. for use in engineering education, allows students to conduct interactive application studies. This paper presents a synopsis of FlowLab, a description of one FlowLab exercise, and an overview of the educational experience gained by students through using FlowLab, which is understood through student surveys and examinations. FlowLab-based CFD exercises were implemented into 57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes and 58:160 Intermediate Mechanics of Fluids courses at the University of Iowa in the fall of 2004, although this report focuses only on experiences with the Ahmed body exercise, which was used only in the intermediate-level fluids class, 58:160. This exercise was developed under National Science Foundation funding by the authors of this paper. The focus of this study does not include validating the various turbulence models used for the Ahmed body simulation, because a two-dimensional simplification was applied. With the two-dimensional simplification, students may setup, run, and post process this model in a 50 minute class period using a single-CPU PC, as required for the 58:160 class at the University of Iowa. It is educational for students to understand the implication of a two- dimensional approximation for essentially a three-dimensional flow field, along with the consequent variation in both qualitative and quantitative results. Additionally, through this exercise, students may realize that the choice of the respective turbulence model will affect simulation prediction. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad El Sayed
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A lifted hydrogen/nitrogen turbulent jet flame issuing into a vitiated coflow is investigated using the conditional moment closure (CMC supplemented by the presumed mapping function (PMF approach for the modelling of conditional mixing and velocity statistics. Using a prescribed reference field, the PMF approach yields a presumed probability density function (PDF for the mixture fraction, which is then used in closing the conditional scalar dissipation rate (CSDR and conditional velocity in a fully consistent manner. These closures are applied to a lifted flame and the findings are compared to previous results obtained using β-PDF-based closures over a range of coflow temperatures (Tc. The PMF results are in line with those of the β-PDF and compare well to measurements. The transport budgets in mixture fraction and physical spaces and the radical history ahead of the stabilisation height indicate that the stabilisation mechanism is susceptible to Tc. As in the previous β-PDF calculations, autoignition around the “most reactive” mixture fraction remains the controlling mechanism for sufficiently high Tc. Departure from the β-PDF predictions is observed when Tc is decreased as PMF predicts stabilisation by means of premixed flame propagation. This conclusion is based on the observation that lean mixtures are heated by downstream burning mixtures in a preheat zone developing ahead of the stabilization height. The spurious sources, which stem from inconsistent CSDR modelling, are further investigated. The findings reveal that their effect is small but nonnegligible, most notably within the flame zone.
Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction
Chen, J.-Y.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef
2012-01-01
Roč. 187, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 105-117 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulence * synthetic jet * transition * velocity spectra Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0924424712005031
Gritti, Fabrice; Fogwill, Michael
2017-06-09
The potential advantage of turbulent supercritical fluid chromatography (TSFC) in open tubular columns (OTC) was evaluated on both theoretical and practical viewpoints. First, the dispersion model derived by Golay in 1958 and recently extended from laminar to turbulent flow regime is used for the predictions of the speed-resolution performance in TSFC. The average dispersion coefficient of matter in the turbulent flow regime was taken from the available experimental data over a range of Reynolds number from 2000 to 6000. Kinetic plots are built at constant pressure drop (ΔP=4500psi) and Schmidt number (Sc=15) for four inner diameters (10, 30, 100, and 300μm) of the OTC and for three retention factors (0, 1, and 10). Accordingly, in turbulent flow regime, for a Reynolds number of 4000 and a retention factor of 1 (the stationary film thickness is assumed to be negligible with respect to the OTC diameter), the theory projects that a 300μm i.d. OTC has the same speed-resolution power (200,000 theoretical plates; 2.4min hold-up time) as that of a 10μm i.d. OTC operated in laminar flow regime. Secondly, the experimental plate heights of n-butylbenzene are measured in laminar and turbulent flow regimes for a 180μm×4.8m fused silica capillary column using pure carbon dioxide as the mobile phase. The back pressure regulator was set at 1500psi, the temperature was uniform at 297K, and the flow rate was increased step-wise from 0.50 to 3.60mL/min so that the experimental Reynolds number increases from 700 to 5400. The experiments are in good agreement with the plate heights projected in TSFC at high flow rates and with those expected at low flow rates in a laminar flow regime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schertzer, D.; Falgarone, E.
1 Facts about the Workshop This workshop was convened on November 13-15 1995 by E. Falgarone and D. Schertzer within the framework of the Groupe de Recherche Mecanique des Fluides Geophysiques et Astrophysiques (GdR MFGA, Research Group of Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Mechanics) of Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, (French) National Center for Scientific Research). This Research Group is chaired by A. Babiano and the meeting was held at Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, by courtesy of its Director E. Guyon. More than sixty attendees participated to this workshop, they came from a large number of institutions and countries from Europe, Canada and USA. There were twenty-five oral presentations as well as a dozen posters. A copy of the corresponding book of abstracts can be requested to the conveners. The theme of this meeting is somewhat related to the series of Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics conferences (NVAG1, Montreal, Aug. 1986; NVAG2, Paris, June 1988; NVAG3, Cargese (Corsica), September, 1993), as well as seven consecutive annual sessions at EGS general assemblies and two consecutive spring AGU meeting sessions devoted to similar topics. One may note that NVAG3 was a joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first topical conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. The corresponding proceedings were published in a special NPG issue (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 1, 2/3, 1994). In comparison with these previous meetings, MFGA-IDT2 is at the same time specialized to fluid turbulence and its intermittency, and an extension to the fields of astrophysics. Let us add that Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics was readily chosen as the appropriate journal for publication of these proceedings since this journal was founded in order to develop interdisciplinary fundamental research and corresponding innovative nonlinear methodologies in Geophysics. It had an
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Schertzer
1996-01-01
Full Text Available 1 Facts about the Workshop This workshop was convened on November 13-15 1995 by E. Falgarone and D. Schertzer within the framework of the Groupe de Recherche Mecanique des Fluides Geophysiques et Astrophysiques (GdR MFGA, Research Group of Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Mechanics of Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, (French National Center for Scientific Research. This Research Group is chaired by A. Babiano and the meeting was held at Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, by courtesy of its Director E. Guyon. More than sixty attendees participated to this workshop, they came from a large number of institutions and countries from Europe, Canada and USA. There were twenty-five oral presentations as well as a dozen posters. A copy of the corresponding book of abstracts can be requested to the conveners. The theme of this meeting is somewhat related to the series of Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics conferences (NVAG1, Montreal, Aug. 1986; NVAG2, Paris, June 1988; NVAG3, Cargese (Corsica, September, 1993, as well as seven consecutive annual sessions at EGS general assemblies and two consecutive spring AGU meeting sessions devoted to similar topics. One may note that NVAG3 was a joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first topical conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. The corresponding proceedings were published in a special NPG issue (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 1, 2/3, 1994. In comparison with these previous meetings, MFGA-IDT2 is at the same time specialized to fluid turbulence and its intermittency, and an extension to the fields of astrophysics. Let us add that Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics was readily chosen as the appropriate journal for publication of these proceedings since this journal was founded in order to develop interdisciplinary fundamental research and corresponding innovative nonlinear methodologies in Geophysics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iran Eduardo Lima Neto
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Jatos bifásicos do tipo gás-líquido são bastante usados nas engenharias sanitária e ambiental para fins de aeração artificial e mistura turbulenta. O presente trabalho investiga a turbulência gerada por meio desses jatos em um tanque de água, utilizando velocimetria por imagem de partículas. As condições experimentais incluíram jatos bifásicos com frações volumétricas de ar de até 70% e números de Reynolds variando entre 10.600 e 17.700. Os resultados dos ensaios indicaram que a fração volumétrica de ar afeta consideravelmente as propriedades turbulentas da fase líquida, enquanto o número de Reynolds apresenta efeito secundário. Correlações adimensionais foram então obtidas para expressar a energia cinética turbulenta e a taxa de dissipação de energia em função desses dois parâmetros. Finalmente, são apresentadas possíveis aplicações dos resultados deste trabalho.Two-phase gas-liquid jets are widely used in the sanitary and environmental engineering field for artificial aeration and turbulent mixing. The present work investigates the turbulence generated by these jets in a water tank, using particle image velocimetry. The experimental conditions included two-phase jets with gas volume fractions of up to 70% and Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,600 to 17,700. The results indicated that the gas volume fraction affects significantly the turbulent properties of the liquid phase, while the Reynolds number presents a secondary effect. Dimensionless correlations were then obtained to express the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate as a function of these two parameters. Finally, possible applications of the results obtained in this work are presented.
Numerical Coupling and Simulation of Point-Mass System with the Turbulent Fluid Flow
Gao, Zheng
A computational framework that combines the Eulerian description of the turbulence field with a Lagrangian point-mass ensemble is proposed in this dissertation. Depending on the Reynolds number, the turbulence field is simulated using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or eddy viscosity model. In the meanwhile, the particle system, such as spring-mass system and cloud droplets, are modeled using the ordinary differential system, which is stiff and hence poses a challenge to the stability of the entire system. This computational framework is applied to the numerical study of parachute deceleration and cloud microphysics. These two distinct problems can be uniformly modeled with Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) and Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), and numerically solved in the same framework. For the parachute simulation, a novel porosity model is proposed to simulate the porous effects of the parachute canopy. This model is easy to implement with the projection method and is able to reproduce Darcy's law observed in the experiment. Moreover, the impacts of using different versions of k-epsilon turbulence model in the parachute simulation have been investigated and conclude that the standard and Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) model may overestimate the turbulence effects when Reynolds number is small while the Realizable model has a consistent performance with both large and small Reynolds number. For another application, cloud microphysics, the cloud entrainment-mixing problem is studied in the same numerical framework. Three sets of DNS are carried out with both decaying and forced turbulence. The numerical result suggests a new way parameterize the cloud mixing degree using the dynamical measures. The numerical experiments also verify the negative relationship between the droplets number concentration and the vorticity field. The results imply that the gravity has fewer impacts on the forced turbulence than the decaying turbulence. In summary, the
Bogey , Christophe; Marsden , Olivier; Bailly , Christophe
2012-01-01
International audience; Five isothermal round jets at Mach number M = 0.9 and Reynolds number ReD=10(5) originating from a pipe nozzle are computed by large-eddy simulations to investigate the effects of initial turbulence on flow development and noise generation. In the pipe, the boundary layers are untripped in the first case and tripped numerically in the four others in order to obtain, at the exit, mean velocity profiles similar to a Blasius laminar profile of momentum thickness equal to ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huggins, E.R.
1994-01-01
Expressing hydrodynamics in terms of the flow of vorticity, using the vortex current tensor, helps unify the picture of turbulent channel flow for viscous fluids and for superfluids. In both, eddy viscosity plays a major role in energy dissipation, and in both there is a similar cross stream flow of vorticity, which in the case of superfluids leads to the Josephson frequency. The vortex current tensor, which was introduced in an earlier paper to derive an exact three dimensional Magnus effect formula, turns out to be the classical hydrodynamic limit of the vortex current that is the source for a classical Goldstone-boson field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, Georges E-mail: lepalec@unimeca.univ-mrs.fr; Bournot, Philippe
2003-07-01
In this work, we intend to solve the equations governing two laminar isothermal or non-isothermal coaxial plane jets with variable density in an ambient fluid at rest in order to study the initial conditions influence (i.e. the nozzles ejection conditions) on the jet characteristic parameters. A finite difference method is developed to solve the dimensionless Navier-Stokes and energy equations resulting from some assumptions. The discussion about the results relates primarily to the concentration core length according to the nozzles thicknesses ratios. The influences of the gas velocity and temperature resulting from the external nozzle are also examined. This made it possible to deduce correlations of practical use between these parameters in order to apply them in engineering processes.
Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II; Fell, Jared S.; Webb, Sandy R.; Cagle, C. Mark
2016-01-01
The application of a sweeping jet actuator to a circulation control system was initiated by a risk reduction series of experiments to optimize the authority of a single sweeping jet actuator. The sweeping jet design was integrated into the existing Fundamental Aerodynamic Subsonic Transonic- Modular Active Control (FAST-MAC) model by replacing the steady blowing system with an array of thirty-nine sweeping jet cartridges. A constant slot height to wing chord ratio was similar to the steady blowing configuration resulting in each actuator having a unique in size for the sweeping jet configuration. While this paper will describe the scaling and optimization of the actuators for future high Reynolds number applications, the major focus of this effort was to target the transonic flight regime by increasing the amplitude authority of the actuator. This was accomplished by modifying the diffuser of the sweeping jet actuator, and this paper highlights twelve different diffuser designs. The experimental portion of this work was completed in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility.
Mansour, Morkous S.
2015-04-29
A double-slit curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner utilizing a Coanda effect by supplying fuel and air as annular-inward jets over a curved surface was employed to investigate the stabilization characteristics and structure of propane/air turbulent non-premixed flames with varying global equivalence ratio and Reynolds number. Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH radicals were conducted. The burner showed a potential of stable and non-sooting operation for relatively large fuel loading and overall rich conditions. Mixing characteristics in cold flow were first examined using an acetone fluorescence technique, indicating substantial transport between the fuel and air by exhibiting appreciable premixing conditions. PIV measurements revealed that the flow field consisted of a wall-jet region leading to a recirculation zone through flow separation, an interaction jet region resulting from the collision of annular-inward jets, followed by a merged-jet region. The flames were stabilized in the recirculation zone and, in extreme cases, only a small flame seed remained in the recirculation zone. Together with the collision of the slit jets in the interaction jet region, the velocity gradients in the shear layers at the boundaries of the annular jets generate the turbulence. Turbulent mean and rms velocities were influenced by the presence of the flame, particularly in the recirculation zone. Flames with a high equivalence ratio were found to be more resistant to local extinction and exhibited a more corrugated and folded nature, particularly at high Reynolds numbers. For flames with a low equivalence ratio, local quenching and re-ignition processes maintained flames in the merged jet region, revealing a strong intermittency, which was substantiated by the increased principal strain rates for these flames. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Wu, Xuetao; Yang, Lingzhi; Dong, Kai; Cheng, Ting; Tang, Tianping
2018-06-01
As an efficient oxygen supplying technology, coherent jets are widely applied in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking processes to strengthen chemical energy input, speed up smelting rhythm, and promote the uniformity of molten bath temperature and compositions. Recently, the coherent jet with CO2 and O2 mixed injection (COMI) was proposed and demonstrated great application potentiality in reducing the dust production in EAF steelmaking. In the present study, based on the eddy dissipation concept model, a computational fluid dynamics model of coherent jets with COMI was built with the overall and detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms (GRI-Mech 3.0). Compared with one-step combustion reaction, GRI-Mech 3.0 consists of 325 elementary reactions with 53 components and can predict more accurate results. The numerical simulation results were validated by the combustion experiment data. The jet behavior and the fluid flow characteristics of coherent jets with COMI under 298 K and 1700 K (25 °C and 1427 °C) were studied and the results showed that for coherent jets with COMI, the chemical effect of CO2 significantly weakened the shrouding combustion reactions of CH4 and the relative importance of the chemical effect of CO2 increases with CO2 concentration increasing. The potential core length of coherent jet decreases with the volume fraction of CO2 increasing. Moreover, it also can be found that the potential core length of coherent jets was prolonged with higher ambient temperature.
Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Wu, Xuetao; Yang, Lingzhi; Dong, Kai; Cheng, Ting; Tang, Tianping
2018-03-01
As an efficient oxygen supplying technology, coherent jets are widely applied in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking processes to strengthen chemical energy input, speed up smelting rhythm, and promote the uniformity of molten bath temperature and compositions. Recently, the coherent jet with CO2 and O2 mixed injection (COMI) was proposed and demonstrated great application potentiality in reducing the dust production in EAF steelmaking. In the present study, based on the eddy dissipation concept model, a computational fluid dynamics model of coherent jets with COMI was built with the overall and detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms (GRI-Mech 3.0). Compared with one-step combustion reaction, GRI-Mech 3.0 consists of 325 elementary reactions with 53 components and can predict more accurate results. The numerical simulation results were validated by the combustion experiment data. The jet behavior and the fluid flow characteristics of coherent jets with COMI under 298 K and 1700 K (25 °C and 1427 °C) were studied and the results showed that for coherent jets with COMI, the chemical effect of CO2 significantly weakened the shrouding combustion reactions of CH4 and the relative importance of the chemical effect of CO2 increases with CO2 concentration increasing. The potential core length of coherent jet decreases with the volume fraction of CO2 increasing. Moreover, it also can be found that the potential core length of coherent jets was prolonged with higher ambient temperature.
Kinetic equation of Lagrange particles and turbulence of an incompressible fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gordienko, S.N.
1999-01-01
Closed equation for the two-point function of the velocity and pressure gradient distribution is obtained. The spectral properties of the turbulent flow are studied on the basis of the analysis of scaling properties of the above equation and the problem on the role of the vorticity distribution in a turbulent flow alternation was considered. It is shown, that alternation is connected with boundary conditions. The geometric picture of the alternation is found. It is established, that distribution of the vorticity and correspondingly the role of alternation in the currents with spirality and without spirality are completely different
1993-04-14
flame length L simultaneously with h, and measuring the visible radiation I simultaneously with h. L(t) was found to be nearly uncorrelated with h(t...variation of 7i/2 /76 with ýh. These experiments included measuring the flame length L simultaneously with h, and measuring the visible radiation I...Measurements of Liftoff Height and Flame Length ... 66 4.5 Simultaneous Measurements of Liftoff Height and Radiation ....... 71 4.6 D scussion
Turbulent mixing of a critical fluid: The non-perturbative renormalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Hnatič
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Non-perturbative Renormalization Group (NPRG technique is applied to a stochastical model of a non-conserved scalar order parameter near its critical point, subject to turbulent advection. The compressible advecting flow is modeled by a random Gaussian velocity field with zero mean and correlation function 〈υjυi〉∼(Pji⊥+αPji∥/kd+ζ. Depending on the relations between the parameters ζ, α and the space dimensionality d, the model reveals several types of scaling regimes. Some of them are well known (model A of equilibrium critical dynamics and linear passive scalar field advected by a random turbulent flow, but there is a new nonequilibrium regime (universality class associated with new nontrivial fixed points of the renormalization group equations. We have obtained the phase diagram (d, ζ of possible scaling regimes in the system. The physical point d=3, ζ=4/3 corresponding to three-dimensional fully developed Kolmogorov's turbulence, where critical fluctuations are irrelevant, is stable for α≲2.26. Otherwise, in the case of “strong compressibility” α≳2.26, the critical fluctuations of the order parameter become relevant for three-dimensional turbulence. Estimations of critical exponents for each scaling regime are presented.
Numerical investigation of turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer in complex ducts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rokni, M.
1998-01-01
The need for a reliable and reasonable accurate turbulence model without specific convergence problem for calculating duct flows in industrial applications has become more evident. In this study a general computational method has been developed for calculating turbulent quantities in any arbitrary three dimensional duct. Four different turbulence models for predicting the turbulent Reynolds stresses namely; standard k-{epsilon} model, the non-linear-k-{epsilon} model of Speziale, an Explicit Algebraic Stress Model (EASM) and a full Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) are compared with each other. The advantages, disadvantages and accuracy of these models are discussed. The turbulent heat fluxes are modeled by the SED concept, the GGDH and the WET methods. The advantages of GGDH and WET compared to SED are discussed and the limitations of these models are clarified. The two-equation model of temperature invariance and its dissipation rate for calculating turbulent heat fluxes are also discussed. The low Reynolds number version of all the models are considered except for the RSM. At high Reynolds numbers the wall functions for both the temperature field and the flow field are applied. It has been shown that the standard k-{epsilon} model with the curvilinear transformation provides false secondary motions in general non-orthogonal ducts and can not be used for predicting the turbulent secondary motions in ducts. The numerical method is based on the finite volume technique with non-staggered grid arrangement. The SIMPLEC algorithm is used for pressure-velocity coupling. A modified SIP and TDMA solving methods are implemented for solving the equations. The van Leer, QUICK and hybrid schemes are applied for treating the convective terms. However, in order to achieve stability in the k and {epsilon} equations, the hybrid scheme is used for the convective terms in these equations. Periodic boundary conditions are imposed in the main flow direction for decreasing the number of
Deformation of current-carrying jets by nonviscous electrically conducting fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozova, V.I.
1986-01-01
The change in the form of the transverse cross section of the jet under the action of the current flowing along it is investigated. The reults of computations for solitary current carrying jets of square and rectangular cross sections, and for systems of six and twelve azimuthally periodic jets with currents alternating in direction, are shown in figures. A solitary jet with square transverse cross section at the initial instant executes a periodic motion involving transition from square cross section, through circular, back to square rotated by 45 0 with respect to the initial section, and later going through circular cross section and returning to the initial position is shown in a figure. Other figures show similar deformations occuring with a solitary rectangular cross section, and deformations of the systems of jets which are accompanied by their radial separation. The authors note that the present formulation uses only geometric criteria of similarity; therefore the dependences of the deformations on time, presented in figures, are universal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandesris, M
2006-12-15
This work deals with the numerical simulation of turbulent flows in the whole nuclear reactor core, using multi-scale approaches. First, a macroscopic turbulence model is built, based on a porous media approach, to describe the flow in the fuel assemblies part of the nuclear core. Then, we study the jump conditions that have to be applied at a free fluid/porous interface. A thorough analytical study is carried out for laminar flows. This study allows to answer some fundamental questions about the physical meaning of the jump conditions, the values of the jump parameters and the location of the interface. Using these results, jump conditions for turbulent flows are proposed. The model is then applied to the simulation of a turbulent flow in a simplified model of a reactor core. (author)
Turbulence Generation in Combustion.
1987-07-22
flame length . This work is summarized in this section. I1.1 Model for Turbulent Burning Velocity For a range of turbulence conditions including...Variable density effects have been added in an approximation, and an expression for the length of jet flames has been developed. The flame length expression...of jet mixing and jet flame length data using fractals, College of Engineering, Energy Report E-86-02, Comell University, Ithaca, NY, 1986. Results
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the design of a water-jet-drive system
Garcia, Roberto
1994-01-01
NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has an ongoing effort to transfer to industry the technologies developed at MSFC for rocket propulsion systems. The Technology Utilization (TU) Office at MSFC promotes these efforts and accepts requests for assistance from industry. One such solicitation involves a request from North American Marine Jet, Inc. (NAMJ) for assistance in the design of a water-jet-drive system to fill a gap in NAMJ's product line. NAMJ provided MSFC with a baseline axial flow impeller design as well as the relevant working parameters (rpm, flow rate, etc.). This baseline design was analyzed using CFD, and significant deficiencies identified. Four additional analyses were performed involving MSFC changes to the geometric and operational parameters of the baseline case. Subsequently, the impeller was redesigned by NAMJ and analyzed by MSFC. This new configuration performs significantly better than the baseline design. Similar cooperative activities are planned for the design of the jet-drive inlet.
A new method for fluid input into a hybrid synthetic jet actuator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kordík J.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A new principle of flow rectification for hybrid synthetic jet actuators is introduced in this paper. As is well known, the flow rectification can be best accomplished by means of fluidic diodes. Novelty of the present study are fluidic diodes with two mutually opposed nozzles. Interaction between the periodic jet flows from the nozzles causes a difference between the blowing and suction strokes, resulting in a particularly efficient rectification effect. The distance between the nozzle exits as well as the oscillation frequency were the parameters, which were varied during hot-wire measurements. The combination of those parameters achieving the highest volumetric effciency was identified.
Jeffers, Nicholas; Stafford, Jason; Conway, Ciaran; Punch, Jeff; Walsh, Edmond
2016-02-01
Low profile impinging jets provide a means to achieve high heat transfer coefficients while occupying a small quantity of space. Consequently, they are found in many engineering applications such as electronics cooling, annealing of metals, food processing, and others. This paper investigates the influence of the stagnation zone fluid dynamics on the nozzle exit flow condition of a low profile, submerged, and confined impinging water jet. The jet was geometrically constrained to a round, 16-mm diameter, square-edged nozzle at a jet exit to target surface spacing ( H/ D) that varied between 0.25 choice of inlet boundary conditions in numerical models, and it was found that it is necessary to model a jet tube length {{ L}{/}{ D}} > 0.5—where D is the inner diameter of the jet—in order to minimise modelling uncertainty.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharjee, P K; McDonnell, A G; Prabhakar, R; Yeo, L Y; Friend, J, E-mail: james.friend@monash.edu.au [MicroNanophysics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia); Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia)
2011-02-15
Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity ({approx}<10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities-water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharjee, P K; McDonnell, A G; Prabhakar, R; Yeo, L Y; Friend, J
2011-01-01
Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity (∼<10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities-water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.
Lu, Minhua; Huang, Shuai; Yang, Xianglong; Yang, Lei; Mao, Rui
2017-01-01
Fluid-jet-based indentation is used as a noncontact excitation technique by systems measuring the mechanical properties of soft tissues. However, the application of these devices has been hindered by the lack of theoretical solutions. This study developed a mathematical model for testing the indentation induced by a fluid jet and determined a semianalytical solution. The soft tissue was modeled as an elastic layer bonded to a rigid base. The pressure of the fluid jet impinging on the soft tissue was assumed to have a power-form function. The semianalytical solution was verified in detail using finite-element modeling, with excellent agreement being achieved. The effects of several parameters on the solution behaviors are reported, and a method for applying the solution to determine the mechanical properties of soft tissues is suggested.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.; Jenko, F.; Peeters, A.; Teo, A.C-Y.
2001-01-01
(1) Computations of turbulence from the electromagnetic gyrofluid model are performed in a flux surface geometry representing the actual MHD equilibrium of the ASDEX Upgrade edge flux surfaces. The transition to ideal ballooning seen in simple geometries as the plasma beta rises is suppressed, leaving the transport at quantitatively realistic levels. Computations for core parameters at half-radius geometry show significant contribution due to the finite beta electron dynamics, possibly removing the standard ITG threshold. (2) Strong inward vorticity transport in edge turbulence, resulting from ion diamagnetic flows, may lead to a build up of mean ExB vorticity fast enough to cause an H-mode transition. (3) Friction of mean ion flows against neutrals involves both toroidal and poloidal flow components, leading to a finite radial current due to a given ExB profile even with zero poloidal rotation. (author)
Modelling turbulent fluid flows in nuclear and fossil-fired power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viollet, P.L.
1995-06-01
The turbulent flows encountered in nuclear reactor thermal hydraulic studies or fossil-fired plant thermo-aerodynamic analyses feature widely varying characteristics, frequently entailing heat transfers and two-phase flows so that modelling these phenomena tends more and more to involve coupling between several branches of engineering. Multi-scale geometries are often encountered, with complex wall shapes, such as a PWR vessel, a reactor coolant pump impeller or a circulating fluidized bed combustion chamber. When it comes to validating physical models of these flows, the analytical process highlights the main descriptive parameters of local flow conditions: tensor characterizing the turbulence anisotropy, characteristic time scales for turbulent flow particle dynamics. Cooperative procedures implemented between national or international working parties can accelerate validation by sharing and exchanging results obtained by the various organizations involved. With this principle accepted, we still have to validate the products themselves, i.e. the software used for the studies. In this context, the ESTET, ASTRID and N3S codes have been subjected to a battery of test cases covering their respective fields of application. These test cases are re-run for each new version, so that the sets of test cases systematically benefit from the gradually upgraded functionalities of the codes. (author). refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs
Wavepacket models for supersonic jet noise
Sinha, Aniruddha; Rodríguez, Daniel; Brès, Guillaume A.; Colonius, Tim
2014-01-01
Gudmundsson and Colonius (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 689, 2011, pp. 97–128) have recently shown that the average evolution of low-frequency, low-azimuthal modal large-scale structures in the near field of subsonic jets are remarkably well predicted as linear instability waves of the turbulent mean flow using parabolized stability equations. In this work, we extend this modelling technique to an isothermal and a moderately heated Mach 1.5 jet for which the mean flow fields are obtained from a high-f...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohseni, Mahdi; Bazargan, Majid
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The entropy generation in supercritical fluid flows has been numerically investigated. • The mechanisms of entropy generation are different near and away from the walls. • In the near wall region, the energy dissipation is the deciding parameter. • Away from the wall, the heat transfer is the effective factor in entropy generation. • The bulk Be number is greater in the liquid-like region than in vapor-like region. - Abstract: In this study, a two dimensional CFD code has been developed to investigate entropy generation in turbulent mixed convection heat transfer flow of supercritical fluids. Since the fluid properties vary significantly under supercritical conditions, the changes of entropy generation are large. The contribution of each of the mechanisms of entropy production (heat transfer and energy dissipation) is compared in different regions of the flow. The results show that the mechanisms of entropy generation act differently in the near wall region within the viscous sub-layer and in the region away from the wall. The effects of the wall heat flux on the entropy generation are also investigated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Chen-Ru; Zhang, Zhen [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Centre, Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, Pei-Xue, E-mail: jiangpx@tsinghua.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of CO_2 Utilization and Reduction Technology/Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bo, Han-Liang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Centre, Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Understanding of the mechanism of buoyancy effect on supercritical heat transfer. • Turbulence related parameters in upward and downward flows were compared. • Turbulent Prandtl number affected the prediction insignificantly. • Buoyancy production was insignificant compared with shear production. • Damping function had the greatest effect and is a priority for further modification. - Abstract: Heat transfer to supercritical pressure fluids was modeled for normal and buoyancy affected conditions using several low Reynolds number k-ε models, including the Launder and Sharma, Myong and Kasagi, and Abe, Kondoh and Nagano, with the predictions compared with experimental data. All three turbulence models accurately predicted the cases without heat transfer deterioration, but failed to accurately predict the cases with heat transfer deterioration although the general trends were captured, indicating that further improvements and modifications are needed for the low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence models to better predict buoyancy deteriorated heat transfer. Further investigations studied the influence of various aspects of the low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence models, including the turbulent Prandtl number, the buoyancy production of turbulent kinetic energy, and the damping function to provide guidelines for model development to more precisely predict buoyancy affected heat transfer. The results show that the turbulent Prandtl number and the buoyancy production of turbulent kinetic energy have little influence on the predictions for cases in this study, while new damping functions with carefully selected control parameters are needed in the low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence models to correctly predict the buoyancy effect for heat transfer simulations in various applications such as supercritical pressure steam generators (SPSGs) in the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR) and the supercritical pressure water reactor (SCWR).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Chen-Ru; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Pei-Xue; Bo, Han-Liang
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Understanding of the mechanism of buoyancy effect on supercritical heat transfer. • Turbulence related parameters in upward and downward flows were compared. • Turbulent Prandtl number affected the prediction insignificantly. • Buoyancy production was insignificant compared with shear production. • Damping function had the greatest effect and is a priority for further modification. - Abstract: Heat transfer to supercritical pressure fluids was modeled for normal and buoyancy affected conditions using several low Reynolds number k-ε models, including the Launder and Sharma, Myong and Kasagi, and Abe, Kondoh and Nagano, with the predictions compared with experimental data. All three turbulence models accurately predicted the cases without heat transfer deterioration, but failed to accurately predict the cases with heat transfer deterioration although the general trends were captured, indicating that further improvements and modifications are needed for the low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence models to better predict buoyancy deteriorated heat transfer. Further investigations studied the influence of various aspects of the low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence models, including the turbulent Prandtl number, the buoyancy production of turbulent kinetic energy, and the damping function to provide guidelines for model development to more precisely predict buoyancy affected heat transfer. The results show that the turbulent Prandtl number and the buoyancy production of turbulent kinetic energy have little influence on the predictions for cases in this study, while new damping functions with carefully selected control parameters are needed in the low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence models to correctly predict the buoyancy effect for heat transfer simulations in various applications such as supercritical pressure steam generators (SPSGs) in the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR) and the supercritical pressure water reactor (SCWR).
A model of the fluid temperature field in a turbulent flow parallel to heated tube bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho Tofani, P. de.
1986-01-01
Basic understanding of thermal-hydraulic phenomena is essential to achieving reactor fuel assembly performance analysis. In this paper, a dimensionless parameter - a normalized fluid temperature - is defined and applied to fluid temperature measurements at particular positions at the exit plane of a bank of nine heated tubes, under different transverse heat flux shapes. This parameter presents an asymptotic trend to equilibrium values, which depend upon considered positions and flux shapes; when increasing the bulk Reynolds Number. Proposed correlations underlie the present approach to predict the fluid temperature field within the tube bundle. (Author) [pt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liou Tong-Miin
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The local turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer in a rotating two-pass square duct with 19 pairs of in-line 90 ∘ ribs have been investigated computationally. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation (RANS with a two-layer k − ϵ turbulence model was solved. The in-line 90 ∘ ribs were arranged on the leading and trailing walls with rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio and pitch-to-height ratio of 0.136 and 10, respectively. The Reynolds number, based on duct hydraulic diameter and bulk mean velocity, was fixed at 1.0 × 10 4 whereas the rotational number varied from 0 to 0.2 . Results are validated with previous measured velocity field and heat transfer coefficient distributions. The validation shows that the effect of rotation on the passage-averaged Nusselt number ratio can be predicted reasonably well; nevertheless, the transverse mean velocity and, in turn, the distribution of regional-averaged Nusselt number ratio are markedly underpredicted in the regions toward which the Coriolis force is directed. Further CFD studies are needed.
Dodd, Michael; Ferrante, Antonino
2017-11-01
Our objective is to perform DNS of finite-size droplets that are evaporating in isotropic turbulence. This requires fully resolving the process of momentum, heat, and mass transfer between the droplets and surrounding gas. We developed a combined volume-of-fluid (VOF) method and low-Mach-number approach to simulate this flow. The two main novelties of the method are: (i) the VOF algorithm captures the motion of the liquid gas interface in the presence of mass transfer due to evaporation and condensation without requiring a projection step for the liquid velocity, and (ii) the low-Mach-number approach allows for local volume changes caused by phase change while the total volume of the liquid-gas system is constant. The method is verified against an analytical solution for a Stefan flow problem, and the D2 law is verified for a single droplet in quiescent gas. We also demonstrate the schemes robustness when performing DNS of an evaporating droplet in forced isotropic turbulence.
Shuja, S. Z.; Yilbas, B. S.
2013-07-01
Jet impingement onto a two-layer structured hole in relation to laser drilling is investigated. The hole consists of a coating layer and a base material. The variations in the Nusselt number and the skin friction are predicted for various coating materials. The Reynolds stress turbulent model is incorporated to account for the turbulence effect of the jet flow and nitrogen is used as the working fluid. The study is extended to include two jet velocities emanating from the conical nozzle. It is found that coating material has significant effect on the Nusselt number variation along the hole wall. In addition, the skin friction varies considerably along the coating thickness in thehole.
Interfacial deflection and jetting of a paramagnetic particle-laden fluid: theory and experiment
Tsai, Scott S. H.
2013-01-01
We describe the results of experiments and mathematical analysis of the deformation of a free surface by an aggregate of magnetic particles. The system we study is differentiated from ferrofluid systems because it contains regions rich with magnetic material as well as regions of negligible magnetic content. In our experiments, the magnetic force from a spherical permanent magnet collects magnetic particles to a liquid-air interface, and deforms the free surface to form a hump. The hump is composed of magnetic and non-magnetic regions due to the particle collection. When the magnet distance falls below a threshold value, we observe the transition of the hump to a jet. The mathematical model we develop, which consists of a numerical solution and an asymptotic approximation, captures the shape of the liquid-air interface during the deformation stage and a scaling prediction for the critical magnet distance for the hump to become a jet. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koechlin, F.; Olivain, J.; Gresillon, D.; Truc, A.
1981-03-01
In the first part, we make a rapid review of what can be expected as low frequency turbulence in J.E.T. This is to define the parameters of the density fluctuations which can be expected. A method to deduce the anomalous transport is described. In the second part, the physical problems of measuring these parameters by microwave or far-infrared scattering are outlined. In the third part, a preliminary study of a microwave scattering experiment at lambda approximately 1.3 mm is made. In the fourth part, a F.I.R. laser experiment at 10.6 μm is also proposed to perform the same measurements. In this last case, an estimation of the thermal nature of the plasma emission could be made, in order to eventually extend the diagnostic to the ion temperature measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tatsumi, K; Takeda, Y; Nakabe, K; Suga, K
2011-01-01
Flow velocity measurement and visualization using particle image velocimetry and fluorescent dye were carried out for a viscoelastic fluid flow in a serpentine microchannel for the purpose to quantitatively evaluate the unsteady flow characteristics that is observed even under very low Reynolds number regime due to the combined effect of the viscoelastic fluid properties and the channel shape. Sucrose water solution (Newtonian fluid) and the polyacrylamide-sucrose water solution (viscoelastic fluid) were used as working fluids. The mixing performance markedly increased when the Reynolds number exceeded a certain value in the polyacrylamide solution case. The single-point, cross-sectional and two-dimensional velocity distributions showed that low frequency fluctuation was produced in the polyacrylamide solution case. Particularly large fluctuation in the channel spanwise direction was observed in the upstream area of the serpentine channel. On the other hand, the amplitude of the fluctuation decreased in the downstream region. The fluctuation in the upstream region is believed to be generated by the flow instability at the curved part of the channel, while the fluctuations in the downstream area were attributed to the local instability and the vortices provided from the upstream region.
In situ acceleration in extragalactic radio jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bicknell, G.V.; Melrose, D.B.
1982-01-01
We have examined the energy dissipated by large-scale turbulence in an extragalactic jet. The turbulence is driven by a shear instability which does not disrupt the jet. Fluid theory should be used to treat the evolution of the turbulence, and this allows us to estimate the rate of dissipation without detailed knowledge of the dissipation process. Dissipation occurs due to Fermi acceleration at a scale length approx.10 -3 R and that resonant acceleration plays no role. The Alfvenic component in the turbulent spectrum is dissipated by first being converted into magneto-acoustic waves. An alternative dissipation process due to formation of weak shocks is shown to be equivalent in some respects to Fermi acceleration. Dissipation in the thermal gas should not exceed that due to Fermi acceleration. The effect of Fermi acceleration, adiabatic losses, and radiative losses on an initial power-law distribution with an upper cutoff is studied. Radio emission extending to at least 100 GHz is shown to be possible, and no spectral index gradients are introduced by the acceleration. The upper cutoff can increase due to the acceleration alone or when the acceleration is balanced by radiative losses. The northern jet in NGC 315 is studied in detail. Using our model for the acceleration, we estimate a jet velocity > or approx. =5000 km s -1 with Mach number not much greater than 1, and a density -4 f -1 cm -3 at the turn-on of the jet at 6 cm, where 0.05 5 yr, and it is predicted that the radius of the jet at the turn-on point should vary with frequency either as ν/sup 2/3/ or as ν/sup 3/2/, or there may be no frequency dependence, contingent upon the details of the acceleration
Donkov, Sava; Stefanov, Ivan Z.
2018-03-01
We have set ourselves the task of obtaining the probability distribution function of the mass density of a self-gravitating isothermal compressible turbulent fluid from its physics. We have done this in the context of a new notion: the molecular clouds ensemble. We have applied a new approach that takes into account the fractal nature of the fluid. Using the medium equations, under the assumption of steady state, we show that the total energy per unit mass is an invariant with respect to the fractal scales. As a next step we obtain a non-linear integral equation for the dimensionless scale Q which is the third root of the integral of the probability distribution function. It is solved approximately up to the leading-order term in the series expansion. We obtain two solutions. They are power-law distributions with different slopes: the first one is -1.5 at low densities, corresponding to an equilibrium between all energies at a given scale, and the second one is -2 at high densities, corresponding to a free fall at small scales.
Numerical simulation of Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 jet initiated fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trent, D.S.; Michener, T.E.
1994-01-01
The episodic Gas Release Events (GREs) that have characterized the behavior of Hanford tank 241-SY-101 for the past several years are thought to result from the entrapment of gases generated in the settled solids, i.e., sludge, layer of the tank. Gases consisting of about 36% hydrogen by volume, which are generated by complicated and poorly understood radiological and chemical processes, are apparently trapped in the settled solids layer until their accumulation initiates a buoyant upset of this layer, abruptly releasing large quantities of gas. Once concept for preventing the gas accumulation is to mobilize the settled materials with jet mixing. It is suggested that continual agitation of the settled solids using a mixer pump would free the gas bubbles so that they could continually escape, thus mitigating the potential for accumulation of flammable concentrations of hydrogen in the tank dome space following a GRE. A pump test is planned to evaluate the effectiveness of the jet mixing mitigation concept. The pump will circulate liquid from the upper layer of the tank, discharging it through two horizontal jets located approximately 2 1/2 ft above the tank floor. To prepare for start-up of this pump test, technical, operation, and safety questions concerning an anticipated gas release were addressed by numerical simulation using the TEMPEST computer code. Simulations of the pump initiated gas release revealed that the amount of gas that could potentially be released to the tank dome space is very sensitive to the initial conditions assumed for the amount and distribution of gas in the sludge layer. Calculations revealed that within the assumptions regarding gas distribution and content, the pump might initiate a rollover--followed by a significant gas release--if the sludge layer contains more than about 13 to 14% gas distributed with constant volume fraction
Monnier, Bruno; Goudarzi, Sepehr A.; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Wark, Candace
2018-02-01
Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry was used to provide a three-dimensional characterization of the flow around a simplified urban model defined by a 5 by 7 array of blocks, forming four parallel streets, perpendicular to the incoming wind direction corresponding to a zero angle of incidence. Channeling of the flow through the array under consideration was observed, and its effect increased as the incoming wind direction, or angle of incidence ( AOI), was changed from 0° to 15°, 30°, and 45°. The flow between blocks can be divided into two regions: a region of low turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) levels close to the leeward side of the upstream block, and a high TKE area close to the downstream block. The centre of the arch vortex is located in the low TKE area, and two regions of large streamwise velocity fluctuation bound the vortex in the spanwise direction. Moreover, a region of large spanwise velocity fluctuation on the downstream block is found between the vortex legs. Our results indicate that the reorientation of the arch vortex at increasing AOI is produced by the displacement of the different TKE regions and their interaction with the shear layers on the sides and top of the upstream and downstream blocks, respectively. There is also a close connection between the turbulent structure between the blocks and the wind gusts. The correlations among gust components were also studied, and it was found that in the near-wall region of the street the correlations between the streamwise and spanwise gusts R_{uv} were dominant for all four AOI cases. At higher wall-normal positions in the array, the R_{uw} correlation decreased with increasing AOI, whereas the R_{uv} coefficient increased as AOI increased, and at {it{AOI}}=45° all three correlations exhibited relatively high values of around 0.4.
Comparison of turbulent particle dispersion models in turbulent shear flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Laín
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This work compares the performance of two Lagrangian turbulent particle dispersion models: the standard model (e.g., that presented in Sommerfeld et al. (1993, in which the fluctuating fluid velocity experienced by the particle is composed of two components, one correlated with the previous time step and a second one randomly sampled from a Wiener process, and the model proposed by Minier and Peirano (2001, which is based on the PDF approach and performs closure at the level of acceleration of the fluid experienced by the particle. Formulation of a Langevin equation model for the increments of fluid velocity seen by the particle allows capturing some underlying physics of particle dispersion in general turbulent flows while keeping the mathematical manipulation of the stochastic model simple, thereby avoiding some pitfalls and simplifying the derivation of macroscopic relations. The performance of both dispersion models is tested in the configurations of grid-generated turbulence (Wells and Stock (1983 experiments, simple shear flow (Hyland et al., 1999 and confined axisymmetric jet flow laden with solids (Hishida and Maeda (1987 experiments.
A new view on the M87 jet origin: Turbulent loading leading to large-scale episodic wiggling
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Britzen, S.; Fendt, C.; Eckart, A.; Karas, Vladimír
2017-01-01
Roč. 601, May (2017), A52/1-A52/17 E-ISSN 1432-0746 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : interferometric techniques * active galaxies * jets Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016
Annual review of fluid mechanics. Volume 15
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Dyke, M.; Wehausen, J.V.; Lumley, J.L.
1983-01-01
A survey of experimental results and analytical techniques for modelling various flows and the behavior of flows around flown-driven machinery is presented. Attention is given to analytical models for wind flows and power extraction by horizontal axis wind turbines. The phenomena occurring in the impact of compressible fluids with a solid body are described, as are the instabilities, pattern formation, and turbulence in flames. Homogeneous turbulence is explored, theories for autorotation by falling bodies are discussed, and attention is devoted to theoretical models for magneto-atmospheric waves and their presence in solar activity. The design characteristics of low Reynolds number airfoils are explored, and numerical and fluid mechanics formulations for integrable, chaotic, and turbulent vortex motion in two-dimensional flows are reviewed. Finally, measurements and models of turbulent wall jets for engineering purposes are examined
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ben-Nun, R.; Sheintuch, M.; Kysela, Bohuš; Konfršt, Jiří; Fořt, I.
2015-01-01
Roč. 61, č. 4 (2015), s. 1413-1426 ISSN 0001-1541 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/2274 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : turbulent jet * mixing * radial impeller * stirred tank * Rushton turbine Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2015
Mantica, Paola
2016-10-01
Heat transport experiments in JET, based on ICRH heat flux scans and temperature modulation, have confirmed the importance of two transport mechanisms that are often neglected in modeling experimental results, but are crucial to reach agreement between theory and experiment and may be significant in ITER. The first mechanism is the stabilizing effect of the total pressure gradient (including fast ions) on ITG driven ion heat transport. Such stabilization is found in non-linear gyro-kinetic electro-magnetic simulations using GENE and GYRO, and is the explanation for the observed loss of ion stiffness in the core of high NBI-power JET plasmas. The effect was recently observed also in JET plasmas with dominant ICRH heating and small rotation, due to ICRH fast ions, which is promising for ITER. Such mechanism dominates over ExB flow shear in the core and needs to be included in quasi-linear models to increase their ability to capture the relevant physics. The second mechanism is the capability of small- scale ETG instabilities to carry a significant fraction of electron heat. A decrease in Te peaking is observed when decreasing Zeff Te/Ti, which cannot be ascribed to TEMs but is in line with ETGs. Non-linear GENE single-scale simulations of ETGs and ITG/TEMs show that the ITG/TEM electron heat flux is not enough to match experiment. TEM stiffness is also much lower than measured. In the ETG single scale simulations the external flow shear is used to saturate the ETG streamers. Multi-scale simulations are ongoing, in which the ion zonal flows are the main saturating mechanism for ETGs. These costly simulations should provide the final answer on the importance of ETG-driven electron heat flux in JET. with JET contributors [F.Romanelli, Proc.25thIAEA FEC]. Supported by EUROfusion Grant 633053.
McNair, James N; Newbold, J Denis
2012-05-07
Most ecological studies of particle transport in streams that focus on fine particulate organic matter or benthic invertebrates use the Exponential Settling Model (ESM) to characterize the longitudinal pattern of particle settling on the bed. The ESM predicts that if particles are released into a stream, the proportion that have not yet settled will decline exponentially with transport time or distance and will be independent of the release elevation above the bed. To date, no credible basis in fluid mechanics has been established for this model, nor has it been rigorously tested against more-mechanistic alternative models. One alternative is the Local Exchange Model (LEM), which is a stochastic advection-diffusion model that includes both longitudinal and vertical spatial dimensions and is based on classical fluid mechanics. The LEM predicts that particle settling will be non-exponential in the near field but will become exponential in the far field, providing a new theoretical justification for far-field exponential settling that is based on plausible fluid mechanics. We review properties of the ESM and LEM and compare these with available empirical evidence. Most evidence supports the prediction of both models that settling will be exponential in the far field but contradicts the ESM's prediction that a single exponential distribution will hold for all transport times and distances. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yousfi, M.; Eichwald, O.; Merbahi, N.; Jomaa, N.
2012-08-01
This work is devoted to fluid modeling based on experimental investigations of a classical setup of a low-temperature plasma jet. The latter is generated at atmospheric pressure using a quartz tube of small diameter crossed by helium gas flow and surrounded by an electrode system powered by a mono-polar high-voltage pulse. The streamer-like behavior of the fast plasma bullets or ionization waves launched in ambient air for every high-voltage pulse, already emphasized in the literature from experimental or analytical considerations or recent preliminary fluid models, is confirmed by a numerical one-moment fluid model for the simulation of the ionization wave dynamics. The dominant interactions between electron and the main ions present in He-air mixtures with their associated basic data are taken into account. The gradual dilution of helium in air outside the tube along the axis is also considered using a gas hydrodynamics model based on the Navier-Stokes equation assuming a laminar flow. Due to the low magnitude of the reduced electric field E/N (not exceeding 15 Td), it is first shown that consideration of the stepwise ionization of helium metastables is required to reach the critical size of the electron avalanches in order to initiate the formation of ionization waves. It is also shown that a gas pre-ionization ahead of the wave front of about 109 cm-3 (coming from Penning ionization without considering the gas photo-ionization) is required for the propagation. Furthermore, the second ionization wave experimentally observed during the falling time of the voltage pulse, between the powered electrode and the tube exit, is correlated with the electric field increase inside the ionized channel in the whole region between the electrode and the tube exit. The propagation velocity and the distance traveled by the front of the ionization wave outside the tube in the downstream side are consistent with the present experimental measurements. In comparison with the
Statistics of the Navier–Stokes-alpha-beta regularization model for fluid turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinz, Denis F; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Fried, Eliot
2014-01-01
We explore one-point and two-point statistics of the Navier–Stokes-αβ regularization model at moderate Reynolds number (Re ≈ 200) in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The results are compared to the limit cases of the Navier–Stokes-α model and the Navier–Stokes-αβ model without subgrid-scale stress, as well as with high-resolution direct numerical simulation. After reviewing spectra of different energy norms of the Navier–Stokes-αβ model, the Navier–Stokes-α model, and Navier–Stokes-αβ model without subgrid-scale stress, we present probability density functions and normalized probability density functions of the filtered and unfiltered velocity increments along with longitudinal velocity structure functions of the regularization models and direct numerical simulation results. We highlight differences in the statistical properties of the unfiltered and filtered velocity fields entering the governing equations of the Navier–Stokes-α and Navier–Stokes-αβ models and discuss the usability of both velocity fields for realistic flow predictions. The influence of the modified viscous term in the Navier–Stokes-αβ model is studied through comparison to the case where the underlying subgrid-scale stress tensor is neglected. Whereas, the filtered velocity field is found to have physically more viable probability density functions and structure functions for the approximation of direct numerical simulation results, the unfiltered velocity field is found to have flatness factors close to direct numerical simulation results. (paper)
CFD Simulation of Heat Transfer and Turbulent Fluid Flow over a Double Forward-Facing Step
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hussein Togun
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Heat transfer and turbulent water flow over a double forward-facing step were investigated numerically. The finite volume method was used to solve the corresponding continuity, momentum, and energy equations using the K-ε model. Three cases, corresponding to three different step heights, were investigated for Reynolds numbers ranging from 30,000 to 100,000 and temperatures ranging from 313 to 343 K. The bottom of the wall was heated, whereas the top was insulated. The results show that the Nusselt number increased with the Reynolds number and step height. The maximum Nusselt number was observed for case 3, with a Reynolds number of 100,000 and temperature of 343 K, occurring at the second step. The behavior of the Nusselt number was similar for all cases at a given Reynolds number and temperature. A recirculation zone was observed before and after the first and second steps in the contour maps of the velocity field. In addition, the results indicate that the coefficient pressure increased with increasing Reynolds number and step height. ANSYS FLUENT 14 (CFD software was employed to run the simulations.
Free stream turbulence and density ratio effects on the interaction region of a jet in a cross flow
Wark, C. E.; Foss, J. F.
1984-01-01
Jets of low temperature air are introduced into the aft sections of gas turbine combustors for the purpose of cooling the high temperature gases and quenching the combustion reactions. Research studies, motivated by this complex flow field, have been executed by introducing a heated jet into the cross stream of a wind tunnel. The investigation by Kamotani and Greber stands as a prime example of such investigations and it serves as the principal reference for the present study. The low disturbance level of the cross stream, in their study and in similar research investigations, is compatible with an interest in identifying the basic features of this flow field. The influence of the prototypes' strongly disturbed cross flow is not, however, made apparent in these prior investigations.
Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow fluid film bearings, phase 2
Sanandres, Luis
1994-01-01
The Phase 2 (1994) Annual Progress Report presents two major report sections describing the thermal analysis of tilting- and flexure-pad hybrid bearings, and the unsteady flow and transient response of a point mass rotor supported on fluid film bearings. A literature review on the subject of two-phase flow in fluid film bearings and part of the proposed work for 1995 are also included. The programs delivered at the end of 1994 are named hydroflext and hydrotran. Both codes are fully compatible with the hydrosealt (1993) program. The new programs retain the same calculating options of hydrosealt plus the added bearing geometries, and unsteady flow and transient forced response. Refer to the hydroflext & hydrotran User's Manual and Tutorial for basic information on the analysis and instructions to run the programs. The Examples Handbook contains the test bearing cases along with comparisons with experimental data or published analytical values. The following major tasks were completed in 1994 (Phase 2): (1) extension of the thermohydrodynamic analysis and development of computer program hydroflext to model various bearing geometries, namely, tilting-pad hydrodynamic journal bearings, flexure-pad cylindrical bearings (hydrostatic and hydrodynamic), and cylindrical pad bearings with a simple elastic matrix (ideal foil bearings); (2) improved thermal model including radial heat transfer through the bearing stator; (3) calculation of the unsteady bulk-flow field in fluid film bearings and the transient response of a point mass rotor supported on bearings; and (4) a literature review on the subject of two-phase flows and homogeneous-mixture flows in thin-film geometries.
Incompressible Turbulent Flow Simulation Using the κ-ɛ Model and Upwind Schemes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. G. Ferreira
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In the computation of turbulent flows via turbulence modeling, the treatment of the convective terms is a key issue. In the present work, we present a numerical technique for simulating two-dimensional incompressible turbulent flows. In particular, the performance of the high Reynolds κ-ɛ model and a new high-order upwind scheme (adaptative QUICKEST by Kaibara et al. (2005 is assessed for 2D confined and free-surface incompressible turbulent flows. The model equations are solved with the fractional-step projection method in primitive variables. Solutions are obtained by using an adaptation of the front tracking GENSMAC (Tomé and McKee (1994 methodology for calculating fluid flows at high Reynolds numbers. The calculations are performed by using the 2D version of the Freeflow simulation system (Castello et al. (2000. A specific way of implementing wall functions is also tested and assessed. The numerical procedure is tested by solving three fluid flow problems, namely, turbulent flow over a backward-facing step, turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate under zero-pressure gradients, and a turbulent free jet impinging onto a flat surface. The numerical method is then applied to solve the flow of a horizontal jet penetrating a quiescent fluid from an entry port beneath the free surface.
A LIF-PIV investigation of turbulence induced by sprays
van der Voort, Dennis; Dam, Nico; van de Water, Willem; Clercx, Herman
2017-11-01
During the breakup of a high-speed liquid jet, it drags along and mixes the air surrounding it, creating turbulence. This turbulence can, in turn, influence the dispersion of the droplets in the resulting spray. Very little is known about the small-scale characteristics of the ambient turbulent flow. This work investigated spray-induced turbulence using (gas-phase) laser-induced fluorescent tracer particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV), which suppresses the strong light scattering of jet and droplets on the images. The results for both a heptane (h) and water (w) spray (135 m/s and 125 m/s respectively) show that the heptane spray generates stronger turbulence due to the difference in breakup between the two fluids. Using a large-eddy estimation, carefully compensating for the finite size of the PIV windows, the dissipation rate ɛ and the small-scale turbulence characteristics are estimated as ɛh = 190 +/-25 m2s-3, ɛw = 120 +/-30 m2s-3, Reλ,h = 380 +/-40, Reλ,w = 290 +/-40, ηh = 65 +/-3 μm, and ηw = 75 +/-5 μm. We will discuss the influence of the turbulent fluctuations in the surrounding air on the dispersion of droplets. This work is part of the research programme of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugiharto, S.; Kurniadi, R.; Abidin, Z.; Stegowski, Z.; Furman, L.
2013-01-01
Multiphase flow modeling presents great challenges due to its extreme importance in various industrial and environmental applications. In the present study, prediction of separation length of multiphase flow is examined experimentally by injection of two kinds of iodine-based radiotracer solutions into a hydrocarbon transport pipeline (HCT) having an inner diameter of 24 in (60,96 m). The main components of fluids in the pipeline are water 95%, crude oil 3% and gas 2%. A radiotracing experiment was carried out at the segment of pipe which is located far from branch points with assumptions that stratified flows in such segment were achieved. Two radiation detectors located at 80 and 100 m from injection point were used to generate residence time distribution (RTD) curve resulting from injection of radiotracer solutions. Multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using Eulerian-Eulerian control volume and commercial CFD package Fluent 6.2 were employed to simulate separation length of multiphase flow. The results of study shows that the flow velocity of water is higher than the flow rate of crude oil in water-dominated system despite the higher density of water than the density of the crude oil. The separation length in multiphase flow predicted by Fluent mixture model is approximately 20 m, measured from injection point. This result confirms that the placement of the first radiation detector at the distance 80 m from the injection point was correct. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Sugiharto1
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Multiphase flow modeling presents great challenges due to its extreme importance in various industrial and environmental applications. In the present study, prediction of separation length of multiphase flow is examined experimentally by injection of two kinds of iodine-based radiotracer solutions into a hydrocarbon transport pipeline (HCT having an inner diameter of 24 in (60,96 m. The main components of fluids in the pipeline are water 95%, crude oil 3% and gas 2%. A radiotracing experiment was carried out at the segment of pipe which is located far from branch points with assumptions that stratified flows in such segment were achieved. Two radiation detectors located at 80 and 100 m from injection point were used to generate residence time distribution (RTD curve resulting from injection of radiotracer solutions. Multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations using Eulerian-Eulerian control volume and commercial CFD package Fluent 6.2 were employed to simulate separation length of multiphase flow. The results of study shows that the flow velocity of water is higher than the flow rate of crude oil in water-dominated system despite the higher density of water than the density of the crude oil. The separation length in multiphase flow predicted by Fluent mixture model is approximately 20 m, measured from injection point. This result confirms that the placement of the first radiation detector at the distance 80 m from the injection point was correct
Cfd modeling of a synthetic jet actuator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dghim, Marouane; Ben Chiekh, Maher; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi
2009-01-01
Synthetic jet actuators show good promise as an enabling technology for innovative boundary layer flow control applied to external surfaces, like airplane wings, and to internal flows, like those occurring in a curved engine inlet. The appealing characteristics of a synthetic jet are zero-net-mass flux operation and an efficient control effect that takes advantages of unsteady fluid phenomena. The formation of a synthetic jet in a quiescent external air flow is only beginning to be understood and a rational understanding of these devices is necessary before they can be applied to the control of flows outside of the laboratory. The synthetic jet flow generated by a planar orifice is investigated here using computational approach. Computations of the 2D synthetic jet are performed with unsteady RANS modeled with the Realizable κ - ε turbulence model available in FLUENT environment. In this present work, the ability of the first order turbulence model, employed in our computations, to model the formation of the counter-rotating-vortex pair (CVP) that appears in the flow-field was investigated. Computational results were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The effectiveness of such control actuator was tested on separated boundary layer. Preliminary investigation were presented and discussed
Calculation of fluid circulation patterns in the vicinity of submerged jets using ORSMAC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, J.E.; Cross, K.E.
1983-12-01
As the world demand for electricity is met by large coal- or nuclear-fueled central generating stations, the effluent streams from these plants will have an increasingly important impact on the local environment. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has a responsibility to assess the impact of proposed and operating Nuclear power plants. To support this NRC mission, a numerical algorithm and associated computer program have been developed to predict the temperatures occurring in the immediate vicinity (the near field) of a hot water discharge from a power plant. The algorithm is a natural extension of the classic Marker-and-Cell (MAC) technique developed by F. H. Harlow at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. ORSMAC (Oak Ridge Simplified Marker and Cell), adds the logic for simple turbulence modeling, energy conservation and buoyancy effects to the MAC model. Modern numerical techniques have been used wherever practical. In this report, the MAC and SMAC (Simplified MAC) algorithms are reviewed, and the ORSMAC algorithm is described. The finite difference analogs are given and discussed. Solutions for several sample problems are presented which illustrate the features of the ORSMAC algorithm. A complete FORTRAN listing is included with input and sample output. ReCommendations for further testing are included
von Kameke, A; Huhn, F; Fernández-García, G; Muñuzuri, A P; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V
2011-08-12
We report the experimental observation of Richardson dispersion and a double cascade in a thin horizontal fluid flow induced by Faraday waves. The energy spectra and the mean spectral energy flux obtained from particle image velocimetry data suggest an inverse energy cascade with Kolmogorov type scaling E(k) ∝ k(γ), γ ≈ -5/3 and an E(k) ∝ k(γ), γ ≈ -3 enstrophy cascade. Particle transport is studied analyzing absolute and relative dispersion as well as the finite size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) via the direct tracking of real particles and numerical advection of virtual particles. Richardson dispersion with ∝ t(3) is observed and is also reflected in the slopes of the FSLE (Λ ∝ ΔR(-2/3)) for virtual and real particles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghui Xie
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Air turbines are widely used to convert kinetic energy into power output in power engineering. The unsteady performance of air turbines with partial admission not only influences the aerodynamic performance and thermodynamic efficiency of turbine but also generates strong excitation force on blades to impair the turbine safely operating. Based on three-dimensional viscous compressible Navier-stokes equations, the present study employs RNG (Renormalization group k-ε turbulence model with finite volume discretization on air turbine with partial admission. Numerical models of four different admission rates with full annulus are built and analyzed via CFD (computational fluid dynamics modeling unsteady flows. Results indicate that the unsteady time-averaged isentropic efficiency is lower than the steady isentropic efficiency, and this difference rises as unsteady isentropic efficiency fluctuates stronger when the admission rate is reduced. The rotor axial and tangential forces with time are provided for all four admission rates. The low frequency excitation forces generated by partial admission are extraordinarily higher than the high frequency excitation forces by stator wakes.
Jet-Like Flow and Thrust From a Flexible Flapping Foil in Stationary Fluid
2009-12-29
considered as a movable hinge point which travels over the flap region resulting in differential flap portions, pulling and pushing the fluid about this 15...Fliegenflugel und Hypothesen uber zugeordnete instationare Stromungseffekte,” J. Comp. Physiol., vol. 133, pp. 351–355, 1979. [24] Rayner, J. M. V., “A vortex...ring by giving an impulse to a circular disk and then dissolving it away,” J. App. Phys., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 104, 1953. 17 [28] Wagner H., “ Uber die
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawahara, Akimaro; Sadatomi, Michio; Sato, Yoshifusa; Saito, Hidetoshi.
1995-01-01
To provide data necessary for modeling turbulent mixing between subchannels in a nuclear fuel rod bundle, three experiments were made in series for equilibrium two-phase flows, in which net mass exchange does not occur between subchannels for each phase. The first one was the measurement of turbulent mixing rates of both gas and liquid phases by a tracer technique, using air and water as the working fluids. Three kinds of vertical test channels consisting of two subchannels were used. The data have shown that the turbulent mixing rate of each phase in a two-phase flow is strongly dependent on flow regime. So, to see the relation between turbulent mixing and two-phase flow configuration in the subchannels, the second experiment, flow visualization, was made. It was observed in slug and churn flows that a lateral inter-subchannel liquid flow of a large scale is caused by the successive axial transit of large gas bubbles in each subchannel, and the turbulent mixing for the liquid phase is dominated by this lateral flow. To investigate a driving force of such large scale lateral flow, the third experiment, the measurement of an instantaneous pressure differential between the subchannels, was made. The result showed that there is a close relationship between the liquid phase mixing rate and the magnitude of the pressure differential fluctuation. (author)
Flow structure of conical distributed multiple gas jets injected into a water chamber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Jiajun; Yu, Yonggang [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)
2017-04-15
Based on an underwater gun firing project, a mock bullet with several holes on the head was designed and experimented to observe the combustion gas injected into a cylindrical water chamber through this mock bullet. The combustion gas jets contain one vertical central jet and 4 to 8 slant lateral jets. A high speed camera system was used to record the expansion of gas jets in the experimental study. In numerical simulations, the Euler two-fluid model and volume of fluid method were adopted to describe the gas-liquid flow. The results show the backflow zone in lateral jet is the main factor influencing the gas-liquid turbulent mixing in downstream. On cross sections, the gas volume fraction increased with time but the growth rate decreased. With a change of nozzle structure, the gas fraction was more affected than the shock structure.
Direct numerical simulation of free and forced square jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gohil, Trushar B.; Saha, Arun K.; Muralidhar, K.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Free square jet at Re = 500–2000 is studied using DNS. • Forced square jet at Re = 1000 subjected to varicose perturbation is also investigated at various forcing frequencies. • Vortex interactions within the jet and jet spreading are affected both for free and forced jets. • Perturbation at higher frequency shows axis-switching. - Abstract: Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of incompressible, spatially developing square jets in the Reynolds number range of 500–2000 is reported. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier–Stokes equations are solved using high order spatial and temporal discretization. The objective of the present work is to understand the evolution of free and forced square jets by examining the formation of large-scale structures. Coherent structures and related interactions of free jets suggest control strategies that can be used to achieve enhanced spreading and mixing of the jet with the surrounding fluid. The critical Reynolds number for the onset on unsteadiness in an unperturbed free square jet is found to be 875–900 while it reduces to the range 500–525 in the presence of small-scale perturbations. Disturbances applied at the flow inlet cause saturation of KH-instability and early transition to turbulence. Forced jet calculations have been carried out using varicose perturbation with amplitude of 15%, while frequency is independently varied. Simulations show that the initial development of the square jet is influenced by the four corners leading to the appearance hairpin structures along with the formation of vortex rings. Farther downstream, adjacent vortices strongly interact leading to their rapid breakup. Excitation frequencies in the range 0.4–0.6 cause axis-switching of the jet cross-section. Results show that square jets achieve greater spreading but are less controllable in comparison to the circular ones
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Turbulence generation through intense kinetic energy sources
Maqui, Agustin F.; Donzis, Diego A.
2016-06-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to systematically study the development and establishment of turbulence when the flow is initialized with concentrated regions of intense kinetic energy. This resembles both active and passive grids which have been extensively used to generate and study turbulence in laboratories at different Reynolds numbers and with different characteristics, such as the degree of isotropy and homogeneity. A large DNS database was generated covering a wide range of initial conditions with a focus on perturbations with some directional preference, a condition found in active jet grids and passive grids passed through a contraction as well as a new type of active grid inspired by the experimental use of lasers to photo-excite the molecules that comprise the fluid. The DNS database is used to assert under what conditions the flow becomes turbulent and if so, the time required for this to occur. We identify a natural time scale of the problem which indicates the onset of turbulence and a single Reynolds number based exclusively on initial conditions which controls the evolution of the flow. It is found that a minimum Reynolds number is needed for the flow to evolve towards fully developed turbulence. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, velocity as well as spectral dynamics and anisotropy measures is presented to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezato, Koichiro; Shimizu, Akihiko; Kunugi, Tomoaki.
1995-01-01
Numerical simulations are presented on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of an impinging round jet of argon plasma with atmospheric pressure. The target slab with finite thickness upon which plasma jet impinges is assumed to be as SiC which is a candidate material for plasma facing material of fusion reactor. The plasma jet is treated by use of a magnetohydrodynamics model that takes its two-temperature non-equilibrium state into account. The rear side of the target slab is assumed to be cooled by a gas-solid suspension impinging round jet. The result shows that the plasma is in non-equilibrium state in which the electron temperature is higher than the heavy particle in the outer region of plasma jet core and that the heat flux to the target slab is over 8 MW/m 2 in the region of the plasma jet core contacts. (author)
Combined aerodynamic and electrostatic atomization of dielectric liquid jets
Kourmatzis, Agissilaos; Ergene, Egemen L.; Shrimpton, John S.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C.; Mashayek, Farzad; Huo, Ming
2012-07-01
The electrical and atomization performance of a plane-plane charge injection atomizer using a dielectric liquid, and operating at pump pressures ranging from 15 to 35 bar corresponding to injection velocities of up to 50 m/s, is explored via low current electrical measurements, spray imaging and phase Doppler anemometry. The work is aimed at understanding the contribution of electrostatic charging relevant to typical higher pressure fuel injection systems such as those employed in the aeronautical, automotive and marine sectors. Results show that mean-specific charge increases with injection velocity significantly. The effect of electrostatic charge is advantageous at the 15-35 bar range, and an arithmetic mean diameter D 10 as low as 0.2 d is achievable in the spray core and lower still in the periphery where d is the orifice diameter. Using the data available from this higher pressure system and from previous high Reynolds number systems (Shrimpton and Yule Exp Fluids 26:460-469, 1999), the promotion of primary atomization has been analysed by examining the effect that charge has on liquid jet surface and liquid jet bulk instability. The results suggest that for the low charge density Q v ~ 2 C/m3 cases under consideration here, a significant increase in primary atomization is observed due to a combination of electrical and aerodynamic forces acting on the jet surface, attributed to the significantly higher jet Weber number ( We j) when compared to low injection pressure cases. Analysis of Sauter mean diameter results shows that for jets with elevated specific charge density of the order Q v ~ 6 C/m3, the jet creates droplets that a conventional turbulent jet would, but with a significantly lower power requirement. This suggests that `turbulent' primary atomization, the turbulence being induced by electrical forces, may be achieved under injection pressures that would produce laminar jets.
Test for Jet Flow Induced by Steam Jet Condensation Using the GIRLS Facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yeon Sik; Yoon, Y. J.; Song, C. H.
2007-03-01
To investigate the characteristics of the turbulent jet induced by steam jet condensation in a water tank through a single-hole sparger an experimental investigation was performed using the GIRLS facility. The experiments were conducted with respect to two cases, e.g. horizontal and vertical upward injections. For the measurements, pitot tube and thermocouples were used for turbulent flow velocity and temperatures, respectively. Overall flow shapes of the turbulent jet by the steam jet condensation are similar to those of axially symmetric turbulent jet flows. The angular coefficients of turbulent rays are quantitatively comparable between the traditional turbulent jet flows and the turbulent jet flows induced by the steam jet condensation in this work. Although the turbulent flows were induced by the horizontally injected steam jet condensation, general theory of turbulent jets was found to be applicable to the turbulent flows of this work. But for the vertically upward injection case, experimental data were quite deviated from the theoretical ones, which is considered due to the buoyancy effect
An experimental study of the fluid mechanics associated with porous walls
Ramachandran, N.; Heaman, J.; Smith, A.
1992-01-01
The fluid mechanics of air exiting from a porous material is investigated. The experiments are filter rating dependent, as porous walls with filter ratings differing by about three orders of magnitude are studied. The flow behavior is investigated for its spatial and temporal stability. The results from the investigation are related to jet behavior in at least one of the following categories: (1) jet coalescence effects with increasing flow rate; (2) jet field decay with increasing distance from the porous wall; (3) jet field temporal turbulence characteristics; and (4) single jet turbulence characteristics. The measurements show that coalescence effects cause jet development, and this development stage can be traced by measuring the pseudoturbulence (spatial velocity variations) at any flow rate. The pseudoturbulence variation with increasing mass flow reveals an initial increasing trend followed by a leveling trend, both of which are directly proportional to the filter rating. A critical velocity begins this leveling trend and represents the onset of fully developed jetting action in the flow field. A correlation is developed to predict the onset of fully developed jets in the flow emerging from a porous wall. The data further show that the fully developed jet dimensions are independent of the filter rating, thus providing a length scale for this type of flow field (1 mm). Individual jet characteristics provide another unifying trend with similar velocity decay behavior with distance; however, the respective turbulence magnitudes show vast differences between jets from the same sample. Measurements of the flow decay with distance from the porous wall show that the higher spatial frequency components of the jet field dissipate faster than the lower frequency components. Flow turbulence intensity measurements show an out of phase behavior with the velocity field and are generally found to increase as the distance from the wall is increased.
The NASA Subsonic Jet Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Dataset
Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.
2011-01-01
Many tasks in fluids engineering require prediction of turbulence of jet flows. The present document documents the single-point statistics of velocity, mean and variance, of cold and hot jet flows. The jet velocities ranged from 0.5 to 1.4 times the ambient speed of sound, and temperatures ranged from unheated to static temperature ratio 2.7. Further, the report assesses the accuracies of the data, e.g., establish uncertainties for the data. This paper covers the following five tasks: (1) Document acquisition and processing procedures used to create the particle image velocimetry (PIV) datasets. (2) Compare PIV data with hotwire and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) data published in the open literature. (3) Compare different datasets acquired at the same flow conditions in multiple tests to establish uncertainties. (4) Create a consensus dataset for a range of hot jet flows, including uncertainty bands. (5) Analyze this consensus dataset for self-consistency and compare jet characteristics to those of the open literature. The final objective was fulfilled by using the potential core length and the spread rate of the half-velocity radius to collapse of the mean and turbulent velocity fields over the first 20 jet diameters.
Direct numerical simulation of a low momentum round jet in channel crossflow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Zhao, E-mail: zhao.wu@manchester.ac.uk; Laurence, Dominique; Afgan, Imran
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Detailed flow physics of jet in crossflow with low velocity ratio, R, is analysed. • The horseshoe vortex comes from the reversed jet fluid, different from high R JICF. • CVP comes from the stretching and reorientation of the injection-flow vorticity. • Recirculation is seen at the downstream low-pressure region. • The shear layer vortices are from shed crossflow boundary layer vortices. - Abstract: Results of a direct numerical simulation of a jet in crossflow with passive scalar mixing are presented. The laminar jet issues from a circular exit into the channel crossflow with a low jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 1/6. The governing equations are solved by Incompact3d, an open-source code combining the high-order compact scheme and Poisson spectral solver. An internal recycling approach is used to generate the fully turbulent channel flow profile. Four main flow structures are identified: 1) a large recirculation seen immediately downstream of the jet-exit; 2) a contour-rotating vortex pair formed from the stretching and reorientation of the injection-flow vorticity; 3) a horseshoe vortex generated as a result of the stretching of the vorticity at the jet-exit windward side; 4) shear layer vortices coming from the lifted and shed crossflow boundary layer vorticity. Passive scalar profiles show the mixing are strong in the shear layer where the crossflow fluid encounters the jet fluid. The database is made available online for public access.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Truckenbrodt, E.
1980-01-01
The second volume contains the chapter 4 to 6. Whereas chapter 1 deals with the introduction into the mechanics of fluids and chapter 2 with the fundamental laws of fluid and thermal fluid dynamics, in chapter 3 elementary flow phenomena in fluids with constant density are treated. Chapter 4 directly continues chapter 3 and describes elementary flow phenomena in fluids with varying density. Fluid statics again is treated as a special case. If compared with the first edition the treatment of unsteady laminar flow and of pipe flow for a fluid with varying density were subject to a substantial extension. In chapter 5 rotation-free and rotating potential flows are presented together. By this means it is achieved to explain the behaviour of the multidimensional fictionless flow in closed form. A subchapter describes some related problems of potential theory like the flow along a free streamline and seepage flow through a porous medium. The boundary layer flows in chapter 6 are concerned with the flow and temperature boundary layer in laminar and turbulent flows at a fired wall. In it differential and integral methods are applied of subchapter reports on boundary layer flows without a fixed boundary, occurring e.g. in an open jet and in a wake flow. The problems of intermittence and of the Coanda effect are briefly mentioned. (orig./MH)
Plasma turbulence calculations on supercomputers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Dominguez, N.; Drake, J.B.; Garcia, L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Sidikman, K.
1991-01-01
Although the single-particle picture of magnetic confinement is helpful in understanding some basic physics of plasma confinement, it does not give a full description. Collective effects dominate plasma behavior. Any analysis of plasma confinement requires a self-consistent treatment of the particles and fields. The general picture is further complicated because the plasma, in general, is turbulent. The study of fluid turbulence is a rather complex field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples field by itself. In addition to the difficulties of classical fluid turbulence, plasma turbulence studies face the problems caused by the induced magnetic turbulence, which couples back to the fluid. Since the fluid is not a perfect conductor, this turbulence can lead to changes in the topology of the magnetic field structure, causing the magnetic field lines to wander radially. Because the plasma fluid flows along field lines, they carry the particles with them, and this enhances the losses caused by collisions. The changes in topology are critical for the plasma confinement. The study of plasma turbulence and the concomitant transport is a challenging problem. Because of the importance of solving the plasma turbulence problem for controlled thermonuclear research, the high complexity of the problem, and the necessity of attacking the problem with supercomputers, the study of plasma turbulence in magnetic confinement devices is a Grand Challenge problem
1992-01-01
Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, fluid mechanics including fluid dynamics, acoustics, and combustion, aerodynamics, and computer science during the period 1 Apr. 1992 - 30 Sep. 1992 is summarized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedov, A.A.; Gagin, V.L.
1995-01-01
For the temperature fields in rod clads of experimental assemblies a good agreement have been got with use of prior calculations by subchannel code COBRA-IV-I, from results of which an additional information about δt/δX 3 distribution was taken. The method of definition the local fields of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, temperature and eddy diffusivities for one-phase axial stabilized fluids in arbitrary formed rod bundle assemblies with invariable upward geometry was developed. According to this model the AGURA code was worked out to calculate local thermal hydraulic problems in combination with temperature fields in fuel rods and constructive elements of fuel assemblies. The method does not use any prior geometric scales and is based only on invariant local flow parameters: turbulent kinetic energy, velocity field deformation tensor and specific work of inner friction. Verification of this method by available experimental data showed a good agreement of calculation data and findings of velocity and t.k.e. fields, when the secondary flows have not a substantial influence to a balance of axial momentum and turbulent kinetic energy. (author)
Significance of shock structure on supersonic jet mixing noise of axisymmetric nozzles
Kim, Chan M.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Khavaran, Abbas
1994-09-01
One of the key technical elements in NASA's high speed research program is reducing the noise level to meet the federal noise regulation. The dominant noise source is associated with the supersonic jet discharged from the engine exhaust system. Whereas the turbulence mixing is largely responsible for the generation of the jet noise, a broadband shock-associated noise is also generated when the nozzle operates at conditions other than its design. For both mixing and shock noise components, because the source of the noise is embedded in the jet plume, one can expect that jet noise can be predicted from the jet flowfield computation. Mani et al. developed a unified aerodynamic/acoustic prediction scheme by applying an extension of Reichardt's aerodynamic model to compute turbulent shear stresses which are utilized in estimating the strength of the noise source. Although this method produces a fast and practical estimate of the jet noise, a modification by Khavaran et al. has led to an improvement in aerodynamic solution. The most notable feature in this work is that Reichardt's model is replaced with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The major advantage of this work is that the essential, noise-related flow quantities such as turbulence intensity and shock strength can be better predicted. The predictions were limited to a shock-free design condition and the effect of shock structure on the jet mixing noise was not addressed. The present work is aimed at investigating this issue. Under imperfectly expanded conditions the existence of the shock cell structure and its interaction with the convecting turbulence structure may not only generate a broadband shock-associated noise but also change the turbulence structure, and thus the strength of the mixing noise source. Failure in capturing shock structures properly could lead to incorrect aeroacoustic predictions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Ju Yeop; In, Wang Kee; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)
2000-02-01
The development of orthogonal 2-dimensional numerical code is made. The present code contains 9 kinds of turbulence models that are widely used. They include a standard k-{epsilon} model and 8 kinds of low Reynolds number ones. They also include 6 kinds of numerical schemes including 5 kinds of low order schemes and 1 kind of high order scheme such as QUICK. To verify the present numerical code, pipe flow, channel flow and expansion pipe flow are solved by this code with various options of turbulence models and numerical schemes and the calculated outputs are compared to experimental data. Furthermore, the discretization error that originates from the use of standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model with wall function is much more diminished by introducing a new grid system than a conventional one in the present code. 23 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)
Yao, Yuan; Capecelatro, Jesse
2018-03-01
We present a numerical study on inertial electrically charged particles suspended in a turbulent carrier phase. Fluid-particle interactions are accounted for in an Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) framework and coupled to a Fourier-based Ewald summation method, referred to as the particle-particle-particle-mesh (P3M ) method, to accurately capture short- and long-range electrostatic forces in a tractable manner. The EL P3M method is used to assess the competition between drag and Coulomb forces for a range of Stokes numbers and charge densities. Simulations of like- and oppositely charged particles suspended in a two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex and three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence are reported. It is found that even in dilute suspensions, the short-range electric potential plays an important role in flows that admit preferential concentration. Suspensions of oppositely charged particles are observed to agglomerate in the form of chains and rings. Comparisons between the particle-mesh method typically employed in fluid-particle calculations and P3M are reported, in addition to one-point and two-point statistics to quantify the level of clustering as a function of Reynolds number, Stokes number, and nondimensional electric settling velocity.
2015-06-23
crackle is correlated to signals with intermittent periods of steepened shock-like waves followed by weaker, longer, rounded rarefaction regions, but to...turbulence is concentrated in a weakly curved (for a typical round jet) shear layer between the high-speed potential core flow and the surrounding co-flow...decreases into the acoustic field. The effect of varying dc between −0.1 and −0.003δm(t)/∆U causes the Nδm/Lx curves to shift downward as fewer waves
Fu, X.; Li, H.; Guo, F.; Li, X.; Roytershteyn, V.
2017-12-01
The solar wind is a turbulent magnetized plasma extending from the upper atmosphere of the sun to the edge of the heliosphere. It carries charged particles and magnetic fields originated from the Sun, which have great impact on the geomagnetic environment and human activities in space. In such a magnetized plasma, Alfven waves play a crucial role in carrying energy from the surface of the Sun, injecting into the solar wind and establishing power-law spectra through turbulent energy cascades. On the other hand, in compressible plasmas large amplitude Alfven waves are subject to a parametric decay instability (PDI) which converts an Alfven wave to another counter-propagating Alfven wave and an ion acoustic wave (slow mode). The counter-propagating Alfven wave provides an important ingredient for turbulent cascade, and the slow-mode wave provides a channel for solar wind heating in a spatial scale much larger than ion kinetic scales. Growth and saturation of PDI in quiet plasma have been intensively studied using linear theory and nonlinear simulations in the past. Here using 3D hybrid simulations, we show that PDI is still effective in turbulent low-beta plasmas, generating slow modes and causing ion heating. Selected events in WIND data are analyzed to identify slow modes in the solar wind and the role of PDI, and compared with our simulation results. We also investigate the validity of linear Vlasov theory regarding PDI growth and slow mode damping in turbulent plasmas. Since PDI favors low plasma beta, we expect to see more evidence of PDI in the solar wind close to the Sun, especially from the upcoming NASA's Parker Solar Probe mission which will provide unprecedented wave and plasma data as close as 8.5 solar radii from the Sun.
Jet Noise Reduction by Microjets - A Parametric Study
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.
2010-01-01
The effect of injecting tiny secondary jets (microjets ) on the radiated noise from a subsonic primary jet is studied experimentally. The microjets are injected on to the primary jet near the nozzle exit with variable port geometry, working fluid and driving pressure. A clear noise reduction is observed that improves with increasing jet pressure. It is found that smaller diameter ports with higher driving pressure, but involving less thrust and mass fraction, can produce better noise reduction. A collection of data from the present as well as past experiments is examined in an attempt to correlate the noise reduction with the operating parameters. The results indicate that turbulent mixing noise reduction, as monitored by OASPL at a shallow angle, correlates with the ratio of jet to primary jet driving pressures normalized by the ratio of corresponding diameters (p d /pjD). With gaseous injection, the spectral amplitudes decrease at lower frequencies while an increase is noted at higher frequencies. It is apparent that this amplitude crossover is at least partly due to shock-associated noise from the underexpanded jets themselves. Such crossover is not seen with water injection since the flow in that case is incompressible and there is no shock-associated noise. Centerline velocity data show that larger noise reduction is accompanied by faster jet decay as well as significant reduction in turbulence intensities. While a physical understanding of the dependence of noise reduction on p d /pjD remains unclear, given this correlation, an analysis explains the observed dependence of the effect on various other parameters.
Statistics of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface in a spatially developing mixing layer
Attili, Antonio
2014-06-02
The thin interface separating the inner turbulent region from the outer irrotational fluid is analysed in a direct numerical simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer. A vorticity threshold is defined to detect the interface separating the turbulent from the non-turbulent regions of the flow, and to calculate statistics conditioned on the distance from this interface. The conditional statistics for velocity are in remarkable agreement with the results for other free shear flows available in the literature, such as turbulent jets and wakes. In addition, an analysis of the passive scalar field in the vicinity of the interface is presented. It is shown that the scalar has a jump at the interface, even stronger than that observed for velocity. The strong jump for the scalar has been observed before in the case of high Schmidt number (Sc). In the present study, such a strong jump is observed for a scalar with Sc ≈ 1. Conditional statistics of kinetic energy and scalar dissipation are presented. While the kinetic energy dissipation has its maximum far from the interface, the scalar dissipation is characterised by a strong peak very close to the interface. Finally, it is shown that the geometric features of the interfaces correlate with relatively large scale structures as visualised by low-pressure isosurfaces. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Statistics of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface in a spatially evolving mixing layer
Cristancho, Juan
2012-12-01
The thin interface separating the inner turbulent region from the outer irrotational fluid is analyzed in a direct numerical simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer. A vorticity threshold is defined to detect the interface separating the turbulent from the non-turbulent regions of the flow, and to calculate statistics conditioned on the distance from this interface. Velocity and passive scalar statistics are computed and compared to the results of studies addressing other shear flows, such as turbulent jets and wakes. The conditional statistics for velocity are in remarkable agreement with the results for other types of free shear flow available in the literature. In addition, a detailed analysis of the passive scalar field (with Sc 1) in the vicinity of the interface is presented. The scalar has a jump at the interface, even stronger than that observed for velocity. The strong jump for the scalar has been observed before in the case of high Schmidt number, but it is a new result for Schmidt number of order one. Finally, the dissipation for the kinetic energy and the scalar are presented. While the kinetic energy dissipation has its maximum far from the interface, the scalar dissipation is characterized by a strong peak very close to the interface.
Homogeneous turbulence dynamics
Sagaut, Pierre
2018-01-01
This book provides state-of-the-art results and theories in homogeneous turbulence, including anisotropy and compressibility effects with extension to quantum turbulence, magneto-hydodynamic turbulence and turbulence in non-newtonian fluids. Each chapter is devoted to a given type of interaction (strain, rotation, shear, etc.), and presents and compares experimental data, numerical results, analysis of the Reynolds stress budget equations and advanced multipoint spectral theories. The role of both linear and non-linear mechanisms is emphasized. The link between the statistical properties and the dynamics of coherent structures is also addressed. Despite its restriction to homogeneous turbulence, the book is of interest to all people working in turbulence, since the basic physical mechanisms which are present in all turbulent flows are explained. The reader will find a unified presentation of the results and a clear presentation of existing controversies. Special attention is given to bridge the results obta...
Nagendra Prakash, Vivek
2013-01-01
This thesis deals with the broad topic of particles in turbulence, which has applications in a diverse number of fields. A vast majority of fluid flows found in nature and in the industry are turbulent and contain dispersed elements. In this thesis, I have focused on light particles (air bubbles in
Effect of guide wall on jet impingement cooling in blade leading edge channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Qing-Yang; Chung, Heeyoon; Choi, Seok Min; Cho, Hyung Hee
2016-01-01
The characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer, which are affected by the guide wall in a jet impinged leading edge channel, have been investigated numerically using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis via the shear stress transport turbulence model and gamma theta transitional turbulence model. A constant wall heat flux condition has been applied to the leading edge surface. The jet-to-surface distance is constant, which is three times that of the jet diameter. The arrangement of the guide wall near the jet hole is set as a variable. Results presented in this study include the Nusselt number contour, velocity vector, streamline with velocity, and local Nusselt number distribution along the central line on the leading edge surface. The average Nusselt number and average pressure loss between jet nozzle and channel exit are calculated to assess the thermal performance. The application of the guide wall is aimed at improving heat transfer uniformity on the leading edge surface. Results indicated that the streamwise guide wall ensures the vertical jet impingement flow intensity and prevents the flow after impingement to reflux into jet flow. Thus, a combined rectangular guide wall benefits the average heat transfer, thermal performance and heat transfer distribution uniformity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. V. Levina
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The work is concerned with the results of theoretical and laboratory modelling the processes of the large-scale structure generation under turbulent convection in the rotating-plane horizontal layer of an incompressible fluid with unstable stratification. The theoretical model describes three alternative ways of creating unstable stratification: a layer heating from below, a volumetric heating of a fluid with internal heat sources and combination of both factors. The analysis of the model equations show that under conditions of high intensity of the small-scale convection and low level of heat loss through the horizontal layer boundaries a long wave instability may arise. The condition for the existence of an instability and criterion identifying the threshold of its initiation have been determined. The principle of action of the discovered instability mechanism has been described. Theoretical predictions have been verified by a series of experiments on a laboratory model. The horizontal dimensions of the experimentally-obtained long-lived vortices are 4÷6 times larger than the thickness of the fluid layer. This work presents a description of the laboratory setup and experimental procedure. From the geophysical viewpoint the examined mechanism of the long wave instability is supposed to be adequate to allow a description of the initial step in the evolution of such large-scale vortices as tropical cyclones - a transition form the small-scale cumulus clo