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Sample records for tunicamycin preserves intercellular

  1. Preparation of tritiated tunicamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunnicutt, R.E.; Keenan, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A relatively simple and inexpensive procedure was devised for the radiolabeling of the glycoprotein biosynthesis inhibitor, tunicamycin. The procedure is based on hydrogen exchange in alkaline solutions of tritiated water. It was noted that the antibiotic was much more alkali labile than model compounds such as uridine. The alkali stability of the inhibitor was studied to determine conditions for optimum labeling and yield. The effects of alkaline incubation on the inhibitory properties of the antibiotic were also investigated and it was found that the breakdown products are not effective inhibitors of the reaction that transfers N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate to dolichyl phosphate. The isolated radioactive tunicamycin homologs, however, retained all their inhibitory action. Incubation of tunicamycin in the presence of deuterated water and mass spectral analysis showed that under the conditions used for the tritiation of tunicamycin the major product exchanged six hydrogen atoms. The position of the tritium atoms in labeled tunicamycin was not determined. The radioactive label in these compounds was shown to be stable under physiological conditions and should be useful for investigations involving the action of these antibiotics

  2. Evaluation of OCT on retinopathy induced by tunicamycin in rats

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    Bo-Yi Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the morphological and functional changes of retinas induced by treatment of tunicamycin with optical coherence tomography(OCTin rats. METHODS:Totally 60 SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups(20 in each group, 0.5mg/kg(in low dose group, 1.5mg/kg(in high dose grouptunicamycin were injected into vitreous cavity and saline(9g/L NaClwere injected in the same dose as a control group. Changes of retinas were observed by OCT on the 1,7 and 14d after treatment of tunicamycin. Then the rats were sacrificed, retinas were taken out and embedded by the paraffin, tissue sections and the HE staining were performed. RESULTS:OCT results suggested that tunicamycin played damage effects on retinal morphology and structure which appeared a time- and dose- dependent. Fundus photography results suggested that 2wk after tunicamycin treatments, with the gradually changing of tunicamycin concentration, peripheral retinal and macular region became pale color gradually, edema occurred in optic disk, retinal vessels appeared thinner in the high dose group, optic nerve came out atrophy. Fluorescein angiography confirmed that tunicamycin injection in vitreous cavity 2wk later, retinal vessels injury occurred, resulted in leaking of intravascular contrast agent from peripheral to the central part of the retinas. Electrophysiological data showed that retinal electrogram occurred disorder induced by tunicamycin, such as the amplitude of a wave, b wave decreased gradually, even closed to zero, which was very different from control significantly(PCONCLUSION: Clinical retinal diseases could be simulated by retinal damage animal model induced by tunicamycin treatment. OCT detection offered real-time images of the retinal cross-section, which provided a helpful non-invasive method for detecting and evaluating the retinal damages.

  3. Tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response in the developing mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin; Ke, Zun-Ji; Comer, Ashley L.; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal days (PDs) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1–CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. - Highlights: • Tunicamycin caused a development-dependent UPR in the mouse brain. • Immature brain was more susceptible to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. • Tunicamycin caused more neuronal death in immature brain than mature brain. • Tunicamycin-induced neuronal death is region-specific

  4. Tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response in the developing mouse brain

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    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-Ji [Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cailun Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Comer, Ashley L.; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A. [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia, E-mail: jialuo888@uky.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal days (PDs) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1–CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. - Highlights: • Tunicamycin caused a development-dependent UPR in the mouse brain. • Immature brain was more susceptible to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. • Tunicamycin caused more neuronal death in immature brain than mature brain. • Tunicamycin-induced neuronal death is region-specific.

  5. ER stress inducer tunicamycin suppresses the self-renewal of glioma-initiating cell partly through inhibiting Sox2 translation.

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    Xing, Yang; Ge, Yuqing; Liu, Chanjuan; Zhang, Xiaobiao; Jiang, Jianhai; Wei, Yuanyan

    2016-06-14

    Glioma-initiating cells possess tumor-initiating potential and are relatively resistant to conventional chemotherapy and irradiation. Therefore, their elimination is an essential factor for the development of efficient therapy. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer tunicamycin inhibits glioma-initiating cell self-renewal as determined by neurosphere formation assay. Moreover, tunicamycin decreases the efficiency of glioma-initiating cell to initiate tumor formation. Although tunicamycin induces glioma-initiating cell apoptosis, apoptosis inhibitor z-VAD-fmk only partly abrogates the reduction in glioma-initiating cell self-renewal induced by tunicamycin. Indeed, tunicamycin reduces the expression of self-renewal regulator Sox2 at translation level. Overexpression of Sox2 obviously abrogates the reduction in glioma-initiating cell self-renewal induced by tunicamycin. Taken together, tunicamycin suppresses the self-renewal and tumorigenic potential of glioma-initiating cell partly through reducing Sox2 translation. This finding provides a cue to potential effective treatment of glioblastoma through controlling stem cells.

  6. Intercellular bridges in vertebrate gastrulation.

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    Luca Caneparo

    Full Text Available The developing zebrafish embryo has been the subject of many studies of regional patterning, stereotypical cell movements and changes in cell shape. To better study the morphological features of cells during gastrulation, we generated mosaic embryos expressing membrane attached Dendra2 to highlight cellular boundaries. We find that intercellular bridges join a significant fraction of epiblast cells in the zebrafish embryo, reaching several cell diameters in length and spanning across different regions of the developing embryos. These intercellular bridges are distinct from the cellular protrusions previously reported as extending from hypoblast cells (1-2 cellular diameters in length or epiblast cells (which were shorter. Most of the intercellular bridges were formed at pre-gastrula stages by the daughters of a dividing cell maintaining a membrane tether as they move apart after mitosis. These intercellular bridges persist during gastrulation and can mediate the transfer of proteins between distant cells. These findings reveal a surprising feature of the cellular landscape in zebrafish embryos and open new possibilities for cell-cell communication during gastrulation, with implications for modeling, cellular mechanics, and morphogenetic signaling.

  7. Thermotolerance and protein glycosylation: Inhibition studies with sodium fluoride, azauridine and tunicamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursey, D.L.; Henle, K.J.; Nagle, W.A.; Moss, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The glycosylation hypothesis predicts increased incorporation of monosaccharides into 0-linked glycoproteins during thermotolerance development and inhibition of thermotolerance when this process is blocked. Specific inhibitors of 0-linked glycosylation are not available. The authors examined the effect of non-specific inhibition of glycosylation on thermotolerance development by: 1. restriction of both exogenous sugars and endogeneous sugar synthesis with NaF to block glycolysis while providing L-glutamine as a substrate for ATP synthesis in the TCA cycle; or 2. inhibition of UDP-sugar synthesis using azauridine and tunicamycin. Inhibitors were added to cell cultures after heat conditioning (10 min, 45 0 ) and removed after 6 hr prior to 45 0 -test heating. Sugar deprivation was achieved with 10mM NaF in glucose-free EBSS, supplemented with 2mM L-glutamine. Synthesis of UDP-sugars was inhibited with 1mM azauridine + 1μg/ml tunicamycin. Thermotolerance development was inhibited 87% by NaF/glutamine and 47% by azauridine/tunicamycin. For example, the D/sub o/ of the thermotolerant cells was 42.5 min (control D/sub o/ = 3 min), but only 5.5 min with inhibition by the NaF solution. These results support the absolute requirement of sugar precursors for thermotolerance development as predicted by the glycosylation hypothesis

  8. Intercellular signalling in Stigmatella aurantiaca.

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    Plaga, W; Ulrich, S H

    1999-12-01

    The myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca is a prokaryotic model used to study intercellular signalling and the genetic determination of morphogenesis. Signalling factors and genes required for the generation of the elaborate multicellular fruiting body are to be identified. Recently, the structure of stigmolone, which is the pheromone necessary for fruiting body formation, was elucidated, and genes involved in development were characterised. Progress has also been made in the genetic accessibility of S. aurantiaca.

  9. Apparent inhibition of β-fructosidase secretion by tunicamycin may be explained by breakdown of the unglycosylated protein during secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faye, L.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells synthesize and secrete β-fructosidase, a glycoprotein with asparagine-linked glycans. Treatment of the cells with tunicamycin completely inhibits the apparent secretion of β-fructosidase as measured by the accumulation of the 35 S-labelled protein in the cell wall or the culture medium. In the past, such a result has been interpreted as an inhibition of secretion by tunicamycin, but we suggest another explanation based on the following results. In the presence of tunicamycin, unglycosylated β-fructosidase is synthesized and is associated with an endoplasmic-reticulum-rich microsomal fraction. Pulse-chase experiments show that the unglycosylated β-fructosidase does not remain in the cells and appears to be secreted in the same way as glycosylated β-fructosidase; however, no radioactive, unglycosylated β-fructosidase accumulates extracellularly (cell wall or medium). Protoplasts obtained from carrot cells secrete β-fructosidase protein and activity, and treatment of the protoplasts with tunicamycin results in the synthesis of unglycosylated β-fructosidase. In the presence of tunicamycin, there is no accumulation of β-fructosidase activity or unglycosylated β-fructosidase polypeptide in the protoplast incubation medium. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the glycans of β-fructosidase are necessary for its stability, and that in these suspension-cultured cells, the unglycosylated enzyme is degraded during the last stage(s) of secretion, or immediately after its arrival in the wall

  10. GlcNAc-1-P-transferase–tunicamycin complex structure reveals basis for inhibition of N-glycosylation

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    Yoo, Jiho; Mashalidis, Ellene H.; Kuk, Alvin C. Y.; Yamamoto, Kazuki; Kaeser, Benjamin; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2018-02-19

    N-linked glycosylation is a predominant post-translational modification of protein in eukaryotes, and its dysregulation is the etiology of several human disorders. The enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase (GlcNAc-1-P-transferase or GPT) catalyzes the first and committed step of N-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and it is the target of the natural product tunicamycin. Tunicamycin has potent antibacterial activity, inhibiting the bacterial cell wall synthesis enzyme MraY, but its usefulness as an antibiotic is limited by off-target inhibition of human GPT. Our understanding of how tunicamycin inhibits N-linked glycosylation and efforts to selectively target MraY are hampered by a lack of structural information. Here we present crystal structures of human GPT in complex with tunicamycin. In conclusion, structural and functional analyses reveal the difference between GPT and MraY in their mechanisms of inhibition by tunicamycin. We demonstrate that this difference could be exploited to design MraY-specific inhibitors as potential antibiotics.

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Verrucarin A on Tunicamycin-Induced ER Stress in FaO Rat Liver Cells

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    Eun Young Bae

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is linked with development and maintenance of cancer, and serves as a therapeutic target for treatment of cancer. Verrucarin A, isolated from the broth of Fusarium sp. F060190, showed potential inhibitory activity on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in FaO rat liver cells. In addition, the compound decreased tunicamycin-induced GRP78 promoter activity in a dose dependent manner without inducing significant inhibition of luciferase activity and cell growth for 6 and 12 h. Moreover, the compound decreased the expression of GRP78, CHOP, XBP-1, and suppressed XBP-1, and reduced phosphorylation of IRE1α in FaO rat liver cells. This evidence suggests for the first time that verrucarin A inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress in FaO rat liver cells.

  12. Whole genome sequence of two Rathayibacter toxicus strains reveals a tunicamycin biosynthetic cluster similar to Streptomyces chartreusis

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    Rathayibacter toxicus is a forage grass associated Gram-positive bacterium of major concern to food safety and agriculture. The species is listed by USDA-APHIS as a plant pathogen select agent due to the fact that it produces a tunicamycin-like toxin that is lethal to livestock. The complete genomes...

  13. Genome Mining of the Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. DUT11 and Discovery of Tunicamycins as Anti-complement Agents

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    Xiao-Na Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine actinobacteria are potential producers of various secondary metabolites with diverse bioactivities. Among various bioactive compounds, anti-complement agents have received great interest for drug discovery to treat numerous diseases caused by inappropriate activation of the human complement system. However, marine streptomycetes producing anti-complement agents are still poorly explored. In this study, a marine-derived strain Streptomyces sp. DUT11 showing superior anti-complement activity was focused, and its genome sequence was analyzed. Gene clusters showing high similarities to that of tunicamycin and nonactin were identified, and their corresponding metabolites were also detected. Subsequently, tunicamycin I, V, and VII were isolated from Streptomyces sp. DUT11. Anti-complement assay showed that tunicamycin I, V, VII inhibited complement activation through the classic pathway, whereas no anti-complement activity of nonactin was detected. This is the first time that tunicamycins are reported to have such activity. In addition, genome analysis indicates that Streptomyces sp. DUT11 has the potential to produce novel lassopeptides and lantibiotics. These results suggest that marine Streptomyces are rich sources of anti-complement agents for drug discovery.

  14. Tunicamycin promotes apoptosis in leukemia cells through ROS generation and downregulation of survivin expression.

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    Lim, Eun Jin; Heo, Jeonghoon; Kim, Young-Ho

    2015-08-01

    Tunicamycin (TN), one of the endoplasmic reticulum stress inducers, has been reported to inhibit tumor cell growth and exhibit anticarcinogenic activity. However, the mechanism by which TN initiates apoptosis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of TN on the apoptotic pathway in U937 cells. We show that TN induces apoptosis in association with caspase-3 activation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and downregulation of survivin expression. P38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and the generation of ROS signaling pathway play crucial roles in TN-induced apoptosis in U937 cells. We hypothesized that TN-induced activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway is responsible for cell death. To test this hypothesis, we selectively inhibited MAPK during treatment with TN. Our data demonstrated that inhibitor of p38 (SB), but not ERK (PD) or JNK (SP), partially maintained apoptosis during treatment with TN. Pre-treatment with NAC and GSH markedly prevented cell death, suggesting a role for ROS in this process. Ectopic expression of survivin in U937 cells attenuated TN-induced apoptosis by suppression of caspase-3 cleavage, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release in U937 cells. Taken together, our results show that TN modulates multiple components of the apoptotic response of human leukemia cells and raise the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy for hematological malignancies.

  15. The Batten disease gene CLN3 confers resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin

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    Wu, Dan, E-mail: danw@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Jing; Wu, Baiyan [Department of Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Tu, Bo; Zhu, Weiguo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Luo, Jianyuan, E-mail: jluo@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Medical and Research Technology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore 21201 (United States)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • The work reveals a protective properties of CLN3 towards TM-induced apoptosis. • CLN3 regulates expression of the GRP78 and the CHOP in response to the ER stress. • CLN3 plays a specific role in the ERS response. - Abstract: Mutations in CLN3 gene cause juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or Batten disease), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin within lysosomes. The function of the CLN3 protein remains unclear and is presumed to be related to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To investigate the function of CLN3 in the ER stress signaling pathway, we measured proliferation and apoptosis in cells transfected with normal and mutant CLN3 after treatment with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM). We found that overexpression of CLN3 was sufficient in conferring increased resistance to ER stress. Wild-type CLN3 protected cells from TM-induced apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. Overexpression of wild-type CLN3 enhanced expression of the ER chaperone protein, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and reduced expression of the proapoptotic protein CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). In contrast, overexpression of mutant CLN3 or siRNA knockdown of CLN3 produced the opposite effect. Together, our data suggest that the lack of CLN3 function in cells leads to a failure of management in the response to ER stress and this may be the key deficit in JNCL that causes neuronal degeneration.

  16. 4-Phenylbutyrate inhibits tunicamycin-induced acute kidney injury via CHOP/GADD153 repression.

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    Rachel E Carlisle

    Full Text Available Different forms of acute kidney injury (AKI have been associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress; these include AKI caused by acetaminophen, antibiotics, cisplatin, and radiocontrast. Tunicamycin (TM is a nucleoside antibiotic known to induce ER stress and is a commonly used inducer of AKI. 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA is an FDA approved substance used in children who suffer from urea cycle disorders. 4-PBA acts as an ER stress inhibitor by aiding in protein folding at the molecular level and preventing misfolded protein aggregation. The main objective of this study was to determine if 4-PBA could protect from AKI induced by ER stress, as typified by the TM-model, and what mechanism(s of 4-PBA's action were responsible for protection. C57BL/6 mice were treated with saline, TM or TM plus 4-PBA. 4-PBA partially protected the anatomic segment most susceptible to damage, the outer medullary stripe, from TM-induced AKI. In vitro work showed that 4-PBA protected human proximal tubular cells from apoptosis and TM-induced CHOP expression, an ER stress inducible proapoptotic gene. Further, immunofluorescent staining in the animal model found similar protection by 4-PBA from CHOP nuclear translocation in the tubular epithelium of the medulla. This was accompanied by a reduction in apoptosis and GRP78 expression. CHOP(-/- mice were protected from TM-induced AKI. The protective effects of 4-PBA extended to the ultrastructural integrity of proximal tubule cells in the outer medulla. When taken together, these results indicate that 4-PBA acts as an ER stress inhibitor, to partially protect the kidney from TM-induced AKI through the repression of ER stress-induced CHOP expression.

  17. The Batten disease gene CLN3 confers resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dan; Liu, Jing; Wu, Baiyan; Tu, Bo; Zhu, Weiguo; Luo, Jianyuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The work reveals a protective properties of CLN3 towards TM-induced apoptosis. • CLN3 regulates expression of the GRP78 and the CHOP in response to the ER stress. • CLN3 plays a specific role in the ERS response. - Abstract: Mutations in CLN3 gene cause juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or Batten disease), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin within lysosomes. The function of the CLN3 protein remains unclear and is presumed to be related to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To investigate the function of CLN3 in the ER stress signaling pathway, we measured proliferation and apoptosis in cells transfected with normal and mutant CLN3 after treatment with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM). We found that overexpression of CLN3 was sufficient in conferring increased resistance to ER stress. Wild-type CLN3 protected cells from TM-induced apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. Overexpression of wild-type CLN3 enhanced expression of the ER chaperone protein, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and reduced expression of the proapoptotic protein CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). In contrast, overexpression of mutant CLN3 or siRNA knockdown of CLN3 produced the opposite effect. Together, our data suggest that the lack of CLN3 function in cells leads to a failure of management in the response to ER stress and this may be the key deficit in JNCL that causes neuronal degeneration

  18. Proteins Play Important Role in Intercellular Adhesion Affecting on Fruit Textural Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahadur Adhikari, Khem; Shomer, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA strength......Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA...... strengthening was exempli ed in Medjoul date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit, as a model. Fruit mesocarp sensitively responded to culture environment which was assayed in vitro at pH 3.5( pKa) in presence of organic acid molecules. The max penetration force, as a measure of ICA strength, of p...

  19. Development of schizogenous intercellular spaces in plants

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    Kimitsune eIshizaki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas exchange is essential for multicellular organisms. In contrast to the circulatory systems of animals, land plants have tissues with intercellular spaces (ICSs, called aerenchyma, that are critical for efficient gas exchange. Plants form ICSs by two different mechanisms: schizogeny, where localized cell separation creates spaces; and lysogeny, where cells die to create intercellular spaces. In schizogenous ICS formation, specific molecular mechanisms regulate the sites of cell separation and coordinate extensive reorganization of cell walls. Emerging evidence suggests the involvement of extracellular signaling, mediated by peptide ligands and leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, in the regulation of cell wall remodeling during cell separation. Recent work on the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has demonstrated a critical role for a plasma membrane-associated plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase in ICS formation. In this review, I discuss the mechanism of schizogenous ICS formation, focusing on the potential role of extracellular signaling in the regulation of cell separation.

  20. Glucosamine metabolism of herpes simplex virus infected cells. Inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin and 2-deoxy-D-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, S.; Lycke, E.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of glucosamine-containing cell surface glycoproteins of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infected BMK cells was studied. Tunicamycin (TM) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DG) were used as inhibitors. With both inhibitors the multiplication of HSV was inhibited. DG markedly reduced cellular uptake of radioactively labelled glucosamine while TM interfered with the processing of glucosamine into TCA-insoluble material. Gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50 gel of cell surface material released by trypsin and further prepared by digestion with pronase indicated that TM and DG reduced the apparent high molecular weights of virus induced surface glycoproteins. In presence of DG the accumulation of a class of glucosamine-containing heterosaccharides (MW less than 3000) not present on DG-free HSV infected cells was observed. IN TM treated cells virtually all surface heterosaccharides with molecular weights exceeding 3000 and containing glucosamine disappeared. Moreover, a component compatible with a lipid-linked oligosaccharide present in DG treated cells was not observed in HSV infected TM treated cells. The results exemplifies some different steps in glucosamine metabolism of virus-induced cell surface glycoproteins differently affected by tunicamycin and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. (author)

  1. Inter-cellular transport of ran GTPase.

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    Deepak Khuperkar

    Full Text Available Ran, a member of the Ras-GTPase superfamily, has a well-established role in regulating the transport of macromolecules across the nuclear envelope (NE. Ran has also been implicated in mitosis, cell cycle progression, and NE formation. Over-expression of Ran is associated with various cancers, although the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unclear. Serendipitously, we found that Ran possesses the ability to move from cell-to-cell when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Moreover, we show that the inter-cellular transport of Ran is GTP-dependent. Importantly, Ran displays a similar distribution pattern in the recipient cells as that in the donor cell and co-localizes with the Ran binding protein Nup358 (also called RanBP2. Interestingly, leptomycin B, an inhibitor of CRM1-mediated export, or siRNA mediated depletion of CRM1, significantly impaired the inter-cellular transport of Ran, suggesting a function for CRM1 in this process. These novel findings indicate a possible role for Ran beyond nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, with potential implications in inter-cellular communication and cancers.

  2. Genome sequences of three tunicamycin-producing Streptomyces strains; S. chartreusis NRRL 12338, S. chartreusis NRRL 3882, and S. lysosuperificus ATCC 31396

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. chartreusis strains NRRL 12338 and NRRL 3882, S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585, and S. lysosuperificus ATCC 31396, are known producers of tunicamycins, and also of charteusins, clavulinate, cephalosporins, holomycins, and calcimycin. Here we announce the sequencing of the S. lysosuperificus and the two...

  3. Intercellular protein-protein interactions at synapses.

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    Yang, Xiaofei; Hou, Dongmei; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Chemical synapses are asymmetric intercellular junctions through which neurons send nerve impulses to communicate with other neurons or excitable cells. The appropriate formation of synapses, both spatially and temporally, is essential for brain function and depends on the intercellular protein-protein interactions of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) at synaptic clefts. The CAM proteins link pre- and post-synaptic sites, and play essential roles in promoting synapse formation and maturation, maintaining synapse number and type, accumulating neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels, controlling neuronal differentiation, and even regulating synaptic plasticity directly. Alteration of the interactions of CAMs leads to structural and functional impairments, which results in many neurological disorders, such as autism, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the functions of CAMs during development and in the mature neural system, as well as in the pathogenesis of some neurological disorders. Here, we review the function of the major classes of CAMs, and how dysfunction of CAMs relates to several neurological disorders.

  4. Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Yeun; Yoon, Sei Mee; Choi, Eun Ju; Lee, Jinu

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is an antifungal agent that selectively inhibits fungal sterol synthesis by blocking squalene epoxidase. We evaluated the effect of terbinafine on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and I-YFP GJIC assays revealed that terbinafine inhibits GJIC in a reversible and dose-dependent manner in FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. Treatment with terbinafine did not affect Cx43 phosphorylation status or intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, well-known action mechanisms of various GJIC blockers. While a structurally related chemical, naftifine, attenuated GJIC, epigallocatechin gallate, another potent squalene epoxidase inhibitor with a different structure, did not. These results suggest that terbinafine inhibits GJIC with a so far unknown mechanism of action. - Highlights: • In vitro pharmacological studies were performed on FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. • Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication in both cell lines. • The inhibitory effect of terbinafine is reversible and dose-dependent. • Treatment of terbinafine does not alter Cx43 phosphorylation or cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration. • Inhibition of squalene epoxidase is not involved in this new effect of terbinafine.

  5. Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Yeun, E-mail: whitewndus@naver.com [College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21983 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sei Mee, E-mail: sei_mee@naver.com [College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21983 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Integrated OMICS for Biomedical Sciences, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Ju, E-mail: yureas@naver.com [College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21983 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jinu, E-mail: jinulee@yonsei.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21983 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Terbinafine is an antifungal agent that selectively inhibits fungal sterol synthesis by blocking squalene epoxidase. We evaluated the effect of terbinafine on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and I-YFP GJIC assays revealed that terbinafine inhibits GJIC in a reversible and dose-dependent manner in FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. Treatment with terbinafine did not affect Cx43 phosphorylation status or intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, well-known action mechanisms of various GJIC blockers. While a structurally related chemical, naftifine, attenuated GJIC, epigallocatechin gallate, another potent squalene epoxidase inhibitor with a different structure, did not. These results suggest that terbinafine inhibits GJIC with a so far unknown mechanism of action. - Highlights: • In vitro pharmacological studies were performed on FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. • Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication in both cell lines. • The inhibitory effect of terbinafine is reversible and dose-dependent. • Treatment of terbinafine does not alter Cx43 phosphorylation or cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration. • Inhibition of squalene epoxidase is not involved in this new effect of terbinafine.

  6. Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahue, Henry

    2001-01-01

    .... We found that: 1) expressing the metastasis suppressing gene BRMS1 in diverse cancer cell lines, including breast and melanoma, restores homotypic gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC); 2...

  7. Intercellular Ca2+ Waves: Mechanisms and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular calcium (Ca2+) waves (ICWs) represent the propagation of increases in intracellular Ca2+ through a syncytium of cells and appear to be a fundamental mechanism for coordinating multicellular responses. ICWs occur in a wide diversity of cells and have been extensively studied in vitro. More recent studies focus on ICWs in vivo. ICWs are triggered by a variety of stimuli and involve the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. The propagation of ICWs predominately involves cell communication with internal messengers moving via gap junctions or extracellular messengers mediating paracrine signaling. ICWs appear to be important in both normal physiology as well as pathophysiological processes in a variety of organs and tissues including brain, liver, retina, cochlea, and vascular tissue. We review here the mechanisms of initiation and propagation of ICWs, the key intra- and extracellular messengers (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ATP) mediating ICWs, and the proposed physiological functions of ICWs. PMID:22811430

  8. Terbinafine inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Yeun; Yoon, Sei Mee; Choi, Eun Ju; Lee, Jinu

    2016-09-15

    Terbinafine is an antifungal agent that selectively inhibits fungal sterol synthesis by blocking squalene epoxidase. We evaluated the effect of terbinafine on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and I-YFP GJIC assays revealed that terbinafine inhibits GJIC in a reversible and dose-dependent manner in FRT-Cx43 and LN215 cells. Treatment with terbinafine did not affect Cx43 phosphorylation status or intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, well-known action mechanisms of various GJIC blockers. While a structurally related chemical, naftifine, attenuated GJIC, epigallocatechin gallate, another potent squalene epoxidase inhibitor with a different structure, did not. These results suggest that terbinafine inhibits GJIC with a so far unknown mechanism of action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of tunicamycin, mannosamine, and other inhibitors of glycoprotein processing on skeletal alkaline phosphatase in human osteoblast-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, J R; Magnusson, P

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP) is a glycoprotein- approximately 20% carbohydrate by weight, with five presumptive sites for N-linked glycosylation, as well as a carboxy-terminal site for attachment of the glycolipid structure (glycosylphosphatidylinositol, GPI), which anchors sALP to the outer surface of osteoblasts. The current studies were intended to characterize the effects of inhibiting glycosylation and glycosyl-processing on the synthesis, plasma membrane attachment, cellular-extracellular distribution, and reaction kinetics of sALP in human osteosarcoma (SaOS-2) cells. sALP synthesis, glycosylation, and GPI-anchor attachment were assessed as total protein synthesis/immunospecific sALP synthesis, sialic acid content (i.e., wheat germ agglutinin precipitation), and insolubility (i.e., temperature-dependent phase-separation), respectively. sALP reaction kinetics were characterized by analysis of dose-dependent initial velocity data, with a phosphoryl substrate. The results of these studies revealed that the inhibition of either N-linked glycosylation or oligosaccharide synthesis for GPI-anchor addition could affect the synthesis and the distribution of sALP, but not the kinetics of the phosphatase reaction. Tunicamycin-which blocks N-linked glycosylation by inhibiting core oligosaccharide synthesis-decreased cell layer protein and the total amount of sALP in the cells, while increasing the relative level of sALP in the cell-conditioned culture medium (CM, i.e., the amount of sALP released). These effects were attributed to dose- and time-dependent decreases in sALP synthesis and N-linked glycosylation, and an increase in apoptotic cell death (P sALP specific activity, in the cells and in the CM; and (3) increases in the percentages of both anchorless and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-soluble sALP in the medium, but not in the cells (P sALP to the outside of the plasma membrane surface. Neither mannosammine nor tunicamycin had any effect on the reaction

  10. Mobile Transcripts and Intercellular Communication in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saplaoura, E; Kragler, F

    2016-01-01

    Phloem serves as a highway for mobile signals in plants. Apart from sugars and hormones, proteins and RNAs are transported via the phloem and contribute to the intercellular communication coordinating growth and development. Different classes of RNAs have been found mobile and in the phloem exudate such as viral RNAs, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs, transfer RNAs, and messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Their transport is considered to be mediated via ribonucleoprotein complexes formed between phloem RNA-binding proteins and mobile RNA molecules. Recent advances in the analysis of the mobile transcriptome indicate that thousands of transcripts move along the plant axis. Although potential RNA mobility motifs were identified, research is still in progress on the factors triggering siRNA and mRNA mobility. In this review, we discuss the approaches used to identify putative mobile mRNAs, the transport mechanism, and the significance of mRNA trafficking. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of tunicamycin, sialidase, and cholera toxin on gangliosides and T-lymphocyte responses to interleukin 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmes, O.J.; Bailey, J.M.; Merritt, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have shown that gangliosides inhibit interleukin 2 (IL 2)-dependent proliferation of murine T cells. Tunicamycin (TM), sialidase, and cholera toxin-β subunit (β-CT) are known modulators of cell surface glycoconjugates. To test the possible role of endogenous gangliosides in T cell responses to IL-2, the effect of these agents on ganglioside expression and cell proliferation was studied. Gangliosides were labelled for 24 hrs with 3 H-glucosamine/galactose in the presence of IL-2 and purified sialidase, TM or β-CT. Gangliosides were isolated and the species separated by TLC. Alternatively, proliferation was assayed by 3 H-thymidine uptake after 48 hrs culture. TM treatment at a concentration (10 μg/ml) that completely inhibited proliferation resulted in a 86% reduction of incorporation of saccharide precursors into gangliosides compared to a 50% reduction into proteins. Sialidase treatment (0.1 IU/ml) resulted in a 70% inhibition of proliferation and 30% reduction of radiolabel into gangliosides, of which 3 species were specifically reduced. β-CT, which binds to GM 1 and to a lesser extent GD/sub 1a/, caused a 50% reduction in proliferation response at 35 units/ml. The results support the hypothesis that gangliosides are involved in IL-2-dependent proliferation

  12. Intra- and Intercellular Quality Control Mechanisms of Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimitsu Kiriyama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria function to generate ATP and also play important roles in cellular homeostasis, signaling, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. The loss of mitochondrial function results in cell death and various types of diseases. Therefore, quality control of mitochondria via intra- and intercellular pathways is crucial. Intracellular quality control consists of biogenesis, fusion and fission, and degradation of mitochondria in the cell, whereas intercellular quality control involves tunneling nanotubes and extracellular vesicles. In this review, we outline the current knowledge on the intra- and intercellular quality control mechanisms of mitochondria.

  13. Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and spermatogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the seminiferous epithelial cycle, restructuring takes places at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface to accommodate spermatogonia/spermatogonial stem cell renewal via mitosis, cell cycle progression and meiosis, spermiogenesis and spermiation since developing germ cells, in particular spermatids, move ‘up and down’ the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, preleptotene spermatocytes differentiated from type B spermatogonia residing at the basal compartment must traverse the blood–testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment to prepare for meiosis at Stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, a process also accompanied by the release of sperm at spermiation. These cellular events that take place at the opposite ends of the epithelium are co-ordinated by a functional axis designated the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES)—BTB—basement membrane. However, the regulatory molecules that co-ordinate cellular events in this axis are not known. METHODS Literature was searched at http://www.pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and the regulation of this axis. RESULTS Members of the ICAM family, namely ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, and the biologically active soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) are the likely regulatory molecules that co-ordinate these events. sICAM-1 and ICAM-1 have antagonistic effects on the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier, involved in Sertoli cell BTB restructuring, whereas ICAM-2 is restricted to the apical ES, regulating spermatid adhesion during the epithelial cycle. Studies in other epithelia/endothelia on the role of the ICAM family in regulating cell movement are discussed and this information has been evaluated and integrated into studies of these proteins in the testis to create a hypothetical model, depicting how ICAMs regulate junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis. CONCLUSIONS ICAMs are crucial

  14. Gap junction mediated intercellular metabolite transfer in the cochlea is compromised in connexin30 null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chang

    Full Text Available Connexin26 (Cx26 and connexin30 (Cx30 are two major protein subunits that co-assemble to form gap junctions (GJs in the cochlea. Mutations in either one of them are the major cause of non-syndromic prelingual deafness in humans. Because the mechanisms of cochlear pathogenesis caused by Cx mutations are unclear, we investigated effects of Cx30 null mutation on GJ-mediated ionic and metabolic coupling in the cochlea of mice. A novel flattened cochlear preparation was used to directly assess intercellular coupling in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea. Double-electrode patch clamp recordings revealed that the absence of Cx30 did not significantly change GJ conductance among the cochlear supporting cells. The preserved electrical coupling is consistent with immunolabeling data showing extensive Cx26 GJs in the cochlea of the mutant mice. In contrast, dye diffusion assays showed that the rate and extent of intercellular transfer of multiple fluorescent dyes (including a non-metabolizable D-glucose analogue, 2-NBDG among cochlear supporting cells were severely reduced in Cx30 null mice. Since the sensory epithelium in the cochlea is an avascular organ, GJ-facilitated intercellular transfer of nutrient and signaling molecules may play essential roles in cellular homeostasis. To test this possibility, NBDG was used as a tracer to study the contribution of GJs in transporting glucose into the cochlear sensory epithelium when delivered systemically. NBDG uptake in cochlear supporting cells was significantly reduced in Cx30 null mice. The decrease was also observed with GJ blockers or glucose competition, supporting the specificity of our tests. These data indicate that GJs facilitate efficient uptake of glucose in the supporting cells. This study provides the first direct experimental evidence showing that the transfer of metabolically-important molecules in cochlear supporting cells is dependent on the normal function of GJs, thereby suggesting a

  15. Short-range intercellular calcium signaling in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2005-01-01

    into biological effects in bone. Intercellular calcium waves are increases in intracellular calcium concentration in single cells, subsequently propagating to adjacent cells, and can be a possible mechanism for the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption. The aim of the present studies was to investigate...... whether bone cells are capable of communicating via intercellular calcium signals, and determine by which mechanisms the cells propagate the signals. First, we found that osteoblastic cells can propagate intercellular calcium transients upon mechanical stimulation, and that there are two principally...... different mechanisms for this propagation. One mechanism involves the secretion of a nucleotide, possibly ATP, acting in an autocrine action to purinergic P2Y2 receptors on the neighboring cells, leading to intracellular IP3 generation and subsequent release of calcium from intracellular stores. The other...

  16. Short-range intercellular calcium signaling in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R

    2005-01-01

    The regulation of bone turnover is a complex and finely tuned process. Many factors regulate bone remodeling, including hormones, growth factors, cytokines etc. However, little is known about the signals coupling bone formation to bone resorption, and how mechanical forces are translated...... into biological effects in bone. Intercellular calcium waves are increases in intracellular calcium concentration in single cells, subsequently propagating to adjacent cells, and can be a possible mechanism for the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption. The aim of the present studies was to investigate...... whether bone cells are capable of communicating via intercellular calcium signals, and determine by which mechanisms the cells propagate the signals. First, we found that osteoblastic cells can propagate intercellular calcium transients upon mechanical stimulation, and that there are two principally...

  17. Modelling of intercellular synchronization in the Drosophila circadian clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Wei, Wang; Ai-Min, Chen; Jia-Jun, Zhang; Zhan-Jiang, Yuan; Tian-Shou, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    In circadian rhythm generation, intercellular signaling factors are shown to play a crucial role in both sustaining intrinsic cellular rhythmicity and acquiring collective behaviours across a population of circadian neurons. However, the physical mechanism behind their role remains to be fully understood. In this paper, we propose an indirectly coupled multicellular model for the synchronization of Drosophila circadian oscillators combining both intracellular and intercellular dynamics. By simulating different experimental conditions, we find that such an indirect coupling way can synchronize both heterogeneous self-sustained circadian neurons and heterogeneous mutational damped circadian neurons. Moreover, they can also be entrained to ambient light-dark (LD) cycles depending on intercellular signaling. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade attenuates inflammatory response and improves microvascular perfusion in rat pancreas grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Gerhard; Eichhorn, Martin; Waldner, Helmut; Winter, Hauke; Kleespies, Axel; Massberg, Steffen

    2012-10-01

    After pancreas transplantation (PTx), early capillary malperfusion and leukocyte recruitment indicate the manifestation of severe ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Oscillatory blood-flow redistribution (intermittent capillary perfusion, IP), leading to an overall decrease in erythrocyte flux, precedes complete microvascular perfusion failure with persistent blood flow cessation. We addressed the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) for leukocyte-endothelial interactions (LEIs) after PTx and evaluated the contribution of IP and malperfusion. Pancreas transplantation was performed in rats after 18-hour preservation, receiving either isotype-matched IgG or monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibodies (10 mg/kg intravenously) once before reperfusion. Leukocyte-endothelial interaction, IP, erythrocyte flux, and functional capillary density, respectively, were examined in vivo during 2-hour reperfusion. Nontransplanted animals served as controls. Tissue samples were analyzed by histomorphometry. In grafts of IgG-treated animals, IP was encountered already at an early stage after reperfusion and steadily increased over 2 hours, whereas erythrocyte flux declined continuously. In contrast, inhibition of ICAM-1 significantly improved erythrocyte flux and delayed IP appearance by 2 hours. Further, anti-ICAM-1 significantly reduced LEI and leukocyte tissue infiltration when compared to IgG; edema development was less pronounced in response to anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 blockade significantly attenuates IRI via immediate reduction of LEI and concomitant improvement of capillary perfusion patterns, emphasizing its central role during IRI in PTx.

  19. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  20. Phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate regulates intercellular coupling in cardiac myocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofgaard, Johannes P; Banach, Kathrin; Mollerup, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    that agonist-induced changes in PIP(2) can result in a reduction of the functional coupling of cardiomyocytes and, consequently, in changes in conduction velocity. Intercellular coupling was measured by Lucifer Yellow dye transfer in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Conduction velocity was measured...

  1. Levels Of Serum Intercellular And Vascular Adhesion Molecules In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the possible significant role of soluble intercellular and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1), sE-selectin and interluekin-1β in development nephropathy in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). This study included 60 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) ...

  2. Gibberellic Acid-Induced Aleurone Layers Responding to Heat Shock or Tunicamycin Provide Insight into the N-Glycoproteome, Protein Secretion, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Dedvisitsakul, Plaipol; Hägglund, Per

    2014-01-01

    respond to gibberellic acid by secreting an array of proteins and provide a unique system for the analysis of plant protein secretion. Perturbation of protein secretion in gibberellic acid-induced aleurone layers by two independent mechanisms, heat shock and tunicamycin treatment, demonstrated overlapping...... and secretion, such as calreticulin, protein disulfide isomerase, proteasome subunits, and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. Sixteen heat shock proteins in 29 spots showed diverse responses to the treatments, with only a minority increasing in response to heat shock. The majority, all of which were small heat...... shock proteins, decreased in heat-shocked aleurone layers. Additionally, glycopeptide enrichment and N-glycosylation analysis identified 73 glycosylation sites in 65 aleurone layer proteins, with 53 of the glycoproteins found in extracellular fractions and 36 found in intracellular fractions...

  3. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  4. Multicellular models of intercellular synchronization in circadian neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock generates 24 h rhythms that drive physiological and behavioral processes in a diverse range of organisms including microbes, plants, insects, and mammals. Recent experimental advances have produced improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in circadian rhythm generation at the single cell level. However, the intercellular mechanisms that allow large populations of coupled pacemaker cells to synchronize and coordinate their rhythms remain poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in dynamic modeling of the circadian clock with a focus on multicellular models required to describe cell population synchronization. Mammalian systems are emphasized to illustrate the highly heterogeneous structure and rich dynamical behavior of multicellular circadian systems. Available multicellular models are characterized with respect to their single cell descriptions, intercellular coupling mechanisms, and network topologies. Examples drawn from our own research are used to demonstrate the advantages associated with integrating detailed single cell models within realistic multicellular networks for prediction of mammalian system dynamics. Mathematical modeling is shown to represent a powerful tool for understanding the intracellular and intercellular mechanisms utilized to robustly synchronize large populations of highly heterogeneous and sparsely coupled single cell oscillators. The article concludes with some possible directions for future research

  5. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  6. Urine Preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  7. Emittance preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V; Arduini, G; Goddard, B; Holzer, B J; Jowett, J M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, T; Roncarolo, F; Schaumann, M; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Emittance measurements during the LHC proton run 2011 indicated a blow-up of 20 % to 30 % from LHC injection to collisions. This presentation will show the emittance preservation throughout the different parts of the LHC cycle and discuss the current limitations on emittance determination. An overview of emittance preservation through the injector complex as function of bunch intensity will also be given. Possible sources for the observed blow-up and required tests in 2012 will be presented. Possible improvements of emittance diagnostics and analysis tools for 2012 will be shown.

  8. Intercellular Communication in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Properties of Tunneling Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin William Ady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a particularly aggressive and locally invasive malignancy with a poor prognosis despite advances in understanding of cancer cell biology and development of new therapies. At the cellular level, cultured mesothelioma cells present a mesenchymal appearance and a strong capacity for local cellular invasion. One important but underexplored area of mesothelioma cell biology is intercellular communication. Our group has previously characterized in multiple histological subtypes of mesothelioma a unique cellular protrusion known as tunneling nanotubes (TnTs. TnTs are long, actin filament-based, narrow cytoplasmic extensions that are non-adherent when cultured in vitro and are capable of shuttling cellular cargo between connected cells. Our prior work confirmed the presence of nanotube structures in tumors resected from patients with human mesothelioma. In our current study, we quantified the number of TnTs/cell among various mesothelioma subtypes and normal mesothelial cells using confocal microscopic techniques. We also examined TnT length among adherent cells and cells in suspension. We further examined potential approaches to the in vivo study of TnTs in animal models of cancer. We have developed novel approaches to study TnTs in aggressive solid tumor malignancies and define fundamental characteristics of TnTs in malignant mesothelioma. There is mounting evidence that TnTs play an important role in intercellular communication in mesothelioma and thus merit further investigation of their role in vivo.

  9. Identification and characterization of RBM44 as a novel intercellular bridge protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuko Iwamori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular bridges are evolutionarily conserved structures that connect differentiating germ cells. We previously reported the identification of TEX14 as the first essential intercellular bridge protein, the demonstration that intercellular bridges are required for male fertility, and the finding that intercellular bridges utilize components of the cytokinesis machinery to form. Herein, we report the identification of RNA binding motif protein 44 (RBM44 as a novel germ cell intercellular bridge protein. RBM44 was identified by proteomic analysis after intercellular bridge enrichment using TEX14 as a marker protein. RBM44 is highly conserved between mouse and human and contains an RNA recognition motif of unknown function. RBM44 mRNA is enriched in testis, and immunofluorescence confirms that RBM44 is an intercellular bridge component. However, RBM44 only partially localizes to TEX14-positive intercellular bridges. RBM44 is expressed most highly in pachytene and secondary spermatocytes, but disappears abruptly in spermatids. We discovered that RBM44 interacts with itself and TEX14 using yeast two-hybrid, mammalian two-hybrid, and immunoprecipitation. To define the in vivo function of RBM44, we generated a targeted deletion of Rbm44 in mice. Rbm44 null male mice produce somewhat increased sperm, and show enhanced fertility of unknown etiology. Thus, although RBM44 localizes to intercellular bridges during meiosis, RBM44 is not required for fertility in contrast to TEX14.

  10. Xenobiotic Modulation of Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruch, Randall

    1999-01-01

    .... These agents also inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). This inhibition may contribute to the enhancement of breast epithelial growth and breast cancer formation by xenobiotics...

  11. Na,K-pump modulates intercellular communication in vascular wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Nilsson, Holger; Aalkjær, Christian

      Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na,K-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regulated through an interaction between the Na,K-pump and the Na...... were used as a model for electrical coupling of SMCs by measuring membrane capacitance (Cm). SMCs were uncoupled (evaluated by inhibition of vasomotion and desynchronization of calcium transients in vascular wall, or by reduction to half of Cm measured in paired A7r5 cells) when the Na,K-pump...... was inhibited either by a low concentration of ouabain or by ATP depletion. Uncoupling with ouabain was associated with a localized increase of intracellular calcium in discrete sites near the plasma membrane. Reduction of Na,K-pump activity by removal of extracellular potassium also uncoupled cells, but only...

  12. Inhibition of intercellular communication by airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussen, G.A.H. (Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Toxicology)

    1991-04-01

    To investigate the inhibition of gap junction mediated intercellular communication (IC) by extracts of airborne particulate matter (APM), V79 cells were incubated with extracts of APM and subsequently microinjected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow, after which the number of fluorescent (= communicating) cells was determined. To compare inhibitory effects on IC with mutagenicity, APM was also tested in the Salmonella microsome assay. Six different extracts were tested, two outdoor extracts representing a heavily polluted and a relatively clean sample, and four indoor extracts, taken either in livingrooms with or without wood combustion in an open fire place, or in a room with or without cigarette smoking. Non-cytotoxic doses of outdoor and indoor APM inhibited IC in V79 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Mutagenicity data and IC data were correlated. These results suggest that APM has tumor promoter activity in addition to mutagenic activity. (orig.).

  13. Na,K-pump modulates intercellular communication in vascular wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir

    were used as a model for electrical coupling of SMCs by measuring membrane capacitance (Cm). SMCs were uncoupled (evaluated by inhibition of vasomotion and desynchronization of calcium transients in vascular wall, or by reduction to half of Cm measured in paired A7r5 cells) when the Na......  Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na,K-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regulated through an interaction between the Na,K-pump and the Na......,Ca-exchanger leading to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in discrete areas near the plasma membrane. The intracellular calcium concentration in individual SMCs was imaged in cultured rat aortic SMCs (A7r5) and simultaneously with isometric force in rat mesenteric small arteries. Paired A7r5 cells...

  14. Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by tumor promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms by which tumor promoters enhance neoplasia are poorly understood. One effect common to most tumor promoters is their ability to inhibit the cell-to-cell exchange of small molecules and ions through gap junctions, i.e., gap junctional intercellular communication (IC). IC maybe necessary for normal growth control and the loss of IC may predispose cells to enhanced growth. In the present studies, the effects of liver tumor promoters and other agents on IC between rodent hepatocytes in primary culture has been studied. IC was detected between hepatocytes: (1) autoradiographically following the passage and incorporation of [5- 3 H]uridine nucleotides from pre-labeled donor hepatocytes to non-labeled, adjacent recipient hepatocytes and (2) by fluorescence microscopy after microinjection of fluorescent Lucifer Yellow CH dye into hepatocytes and visualizing dye spread into adjacent hepatocytes

  15. On the involvement of host proteins in Cowpea mosaic virus intercellular spread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, den P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract of thesis Paulus den Hollander entitled “On the involvement of host proteins in Cowpea mosaic virus intercellular spread”.

    Defence: 18th of November 13.30 h

    Abstract

    Intercellular spread of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) occurs via movement

  16. Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, S.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins In this thesis, I studied the intra- and intercellular transport of lipidic molecules, in particular glycosphingolipids and lipid-modified proteins. The first part focuses on the intracellular transport of

  17. Compression induced intercellular shaping for some geometric cellular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonai Gimenez Calbo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The wall perimeter fraction, which contact neighboring cells, was named compression ratio (alpha. A zero compression ratio indicates maximum intercellular (air volume (vG, v/v and neglectable contact among cells, while alpha=1 indicates complete adherence between neighboring cells and no vG in the lattice. The maximum intercellular air volume (beta, v/v, when alpha=0, was 0.593 for triangular, 0.2146 for square and 0,0931 for hexagonal lattices. The equation alpha=1- (vG/beta½ was derived to relate alpha, beta and vG in the studied lattices. The relation (P S=p/alpha between cell turgor (P S and the tissue aggregating pressure (p, defined as the compression to keep in place a layer of cells, was demonstrated using the compression ratio concept. Intercellular deformations of Ipomea batatas L. roots obtained with pressure chamber were used to test alpha, vG, p and P S as a function of compression. Volumetric and transversal elastic extensibilities and the lamella media tearing forces were obtained and alpha constancy was considered as a criteria of cellular shape stability.A fração do perímetro da parede celular em contato com células vizinha foi denominada razão de compressão (alfa. Razão de compressão zero indica volume intercelular (vG, v/v máximo e contato neglível entre as células, enquanto alfa=1 ocorre quando há completa aderência com as células vizinhas (vG=0. O volume (gasoso intercelular máximo (beta, v/v, quando alfa=0, foi 0,593, 0,2146 e 0,0931 para látices triangulares, quadradas e hexagonais. A equação derivada para relacionar alfa, beta and vG nas látices estudadas foi alfa=1- (vG/beta½. A razão de compressão foi em seguida empregada para estabelecer a relação P S=p/alfa entre a pressão de turgescência (P S e a pressão de agregação (p, definida com a compressão para manter uma camada de células no seu lugar. As deformações intercelulares de batata-doce obtidas com procedimentos de c

  18. Plasmodesmata: channels for intercellular signaling during plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilem, Iris; Yadav, Shri Ram; Helariutta, Ykä

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved strategies for short- and long-distance communication to coordinate plant development and to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular nanochannels that provide an effective pathway for both selective and nonselective movement of various molecules that function in diverse biological processes. Numerous non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAP) and small RNAs have been identified that have crucial roles in cell fate determination and organ patterning during development. Both the density and aperture size of PD are developmentally regulated, allowing formation of spatial symplastic domains for establishment of tissue-specific developmental programs. The PD size exclusion limit (SEL) is controlled by reversible deposition of callose, as well as by some PD-associated proteins. Although a large number of PD-associated proteins have been identified, many of their functions remain unknown. Despite the fact that PD are primarily membranous structures, surprisingly very little is known about their lipid composition. Thus, future studies in PD biology will provide deeper insights into the high-resolution structure and tightly regulated functions of PD and the evolution of PD-mediated cell-to-cell communication in plants.

  19. Quantification of gap junctional intercellular communication based on digital image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofgaard, Johannes P; Mollerup, Sarah; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Intercellular communication via gap junction channels can be quantified by several methods based on diffusion of fluorescent dyes or metabolites. Given the variation in intercellular coupling of cells, even under untreated control conditions, it is of essence to quantify the coupling between...... and in cells receiving dye by intercellular diffusion. The analysis performed is semiautomatic, and comparison with traditional cell counting shows that this method reliably determines the effect of uncoupling by several interventions. This new method of analysis yields a rapid and objective quantification...

  20. 7-Ketocholesterol modulates intercellular communication through gap-junction in bovine lens epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Paulo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Connexin43 (Cx43 is an integral membrane protein that forms intercellular channels called gap junctions. Intercellular communication in the eye lens relies on an extensive network of gap junctions essential for the maintenance of lens transparency. The association of Cx43 with cholesterol enriched lipid raft domains was recently demonstrated. The objective of this study is to assess if products of cholesterol oxidation (oxysterols affect gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC. Results Primary cultures of lens epithelial cells (LEC were incubated with 7-ketocholesterol (7-Keto, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH or cholesterol and the subcellular distribution of Cx43 was evaluated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The levels of Cx43 present in gap junction plaques were assessed by its insolubility in Triton X-100 and quantified by western blotting. The stability of Cx43 at the plasma membrane following incubation with oxysterols was evaluated by biotinylation of cell surface proteins. Gap junction intercellular communication was evaluated by transfer of the dye Lucifer yellow. The results obtained showed that 7-keto induces an accumulation of Cx43 at the plasma membrane and an increase in intercellular communication through gap junction. However, incubation with cholesterol or 25-OH did not lead to significant alterations on subcellular distribution of Cx43 nor in intercellular communication. Data further suggests that increased intercellular communication results from increased stability of Cx43 at the plasma membrane, presumably forming functional gap-junctions, as suggested by decreased solubility of Cx43 in 1% Triton X-100. The increased stability of Cx43 at the plasma membrane seems to be specific and not related to disruption of endocytic pathway, as demonstrated by dextran uptake. Conclusions Results demonstrate, for the first time, that 7-keto induces an increase in gap junction intercellular communication

  1. Low dose gamma irradiation enhances defined signaling components of intercellular reactive oxygen-mediated apoptosis induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G

    2011-01-01

    Transformed cells are selectively removed by intercellular ROS-mediated induction of apoptosis. Signaling is based on the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite pathway (major pathways) and the nitryl chloride and the metal-catalyzed Haber-Weiss pathway (minor pathways). During tumor progression, resistance against intercellular induction of apoptosis is acquired through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Low dose radiation of nontransformed cells has been shown to enhance intercellular induction of apoptosis. The present study was performed to define the signaling components which are modulated by low dose gamma irradiation. Low dose radiation induced the release of peroxidase from nontransformed, transformed and tumor cells. Extracellular superoxide anion generation was strongly enhanced in the case of transformed cells and tumor cells, but not in nontransformed cells. Enhancement of peroxidase release and superoxide anion generation either increased intercellular induction of apoptosis of transformed cells, or caused a partial protection under specific signaling conditions. In tumor cells, low dose radiation enhanced the production of major signaling components, but this had no effect on apoptosis induction, due to the strong resistance mechanism of tumor cells. Our data specify the nature of low dose radiation-induced effects on specific signaling components of intercellular induction of apoptosis at defined stages of multistep carcinogenesis.

  2. Cavitation of intercellular spaces is critical to establishment of hydraulic properties of compression wood of Chamaecyparis obtusa seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaba, Satoshi; Hirai, Asami; Kudo, Kayo; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Kitin, Peter; Funada, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    When the orientation of the stems of conifers departs from the vertical as a result of environmental influences, conifers form compression wood that results in restoration of verticality. It is well known that intercellular spaces are formed between tracheids in compression wood, but the function of these spaces remains to be clarified. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of these spaces in artificially induced compression wood in Chamaecyparis obtusa seedlings. We monitored the presence or absence of liquid in the intercellular spaces of differentiating xylem by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we analysed the relationship between intercellular spaces and the hydraulic properties of the compression wood. Initially, we detected small intercellular spaces with liquid in regions in which the profiles of tracheids were not rounded in transverse surfaces, indicating that the intercellular spaces had originally contained no gases. In the regions where tracheids had formed secondary walls, we found that some intercellular spaces had lost their liquid. Cavitation of intercellular spaces would affect hydraulic conductivity as a consequence of the induction of cavitation in neighbouring tracheids. Our observations suggest that cavitation of intercellular spaces is the critical event that affects not only the functions of intercellular spaces but also the hydraulic properties of compression wood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymier, P A; Swinteck, N; Runge, K; Deymier-Black, A; Hoying, J B

    2015-01-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  4. [Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication protects astrocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xu-Hui; Gu, Yu-Chen; Jiao, Hao; Yu, Li; Dong, Shu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of inhibiting gap junctional intercellular communication on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in astrocytes. Primary cultured cerebral cortical astrocytes of neonate rats were divided into normal control group, hypoxia reoxygenation injury group and 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid and oleamide (gap junctional intercellular channel inhibitors) group. The gap junction intercellular communication was determined by Parachute assay. The viability of astrocyes was detected by MTT assay. The apoptosis of astrocytes were detected with annexin V/PI and Hoechst 33258 staining. Compared with the normal control group, the gap junctional function of astrocytes was increased significantly in ischemia/reperfusion group (Pastrocytes decreased significantly (Pastrocytes in18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid and oleamide group decreased significantly (Pastrocytes increased significantly (Pastrocytes.

  5. Is there a relationship between hypoxia, contact resistance, and intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dertinger, H.; Guichard, M.; Malaise, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    This investigation addresses the shape of radiation survival curves of cells cultures as multicell spheroids. It is shown that spheroids of cells capable of intercellular communication by gap-junctions display survival curves lacking a radioresistant fraction of hypoxic cells. Compared to the corresponding monolayers, these spheriod survival curves exhibit a uniform increase in radioresistance due to the ''contact effect''. In contrast, biphasic survival curves indicative of hypoxic cells are obtained with non-communicating spheroids, however, without indication of a contact effect. Evidence is presented that this relationship between intercellular communication, hypoxia, and contact effect may possibly also hold for survival curves of solid tumors. (orig.)

  6. Coronary Heart Disease Alters Intercellular Communication by Modifying Microparticle-Mediated MicroRNA Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Nnenna A.; Eapen, Danny; Manocha, Pankaj; Kassem, Hatem Al; Lassegue, Bernard; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Quyyumi, Arshed; Searles, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is characterized by abnormal intercellular communication and circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are likely involved in this process. Here, we show that CHD was associated with changes in the transport of circulating miRNA, particularly decreased miRNA enrichment in microparticles (MPs). Additionally, MPs from CHD patients were less efficient at transferring miRNA to cultured HUVECs, which correlated with their diminished capacity to bind developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1). In summary, CHD was associated with distinct changes in circulating miRNA transport and these changes may contribute to the abnormal intercellular communication that underlies CHD initiation and progression. PMID:24042051

  7. In vivo relevance of intercellular calcium signaling in Drosophila wing development

    OpenAIRE

    Brodskiy, Pavel; Brito-Robinson, Teresa; Levis, Megan; Narciso, Cody; Jangula, Jamison; Huizar, Francisco; Wu, Qinfeng; Zartman, Jeremiah

    2017-01-01

    Recently, organ-scale intercellular Ca2+ transients (ICTs) were reported in the Drosophila wing disc. However, the functional in vivo significance of ICTs remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the in vivo relevance of intercellular Ca2+ signaling and its impact on wing development. We report that Ca2+ signaling in vivo decreases as wing discs mature. Ca2+ signaling ex vivo responds to fly extract in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests ICTs occur in vivo due to chemical stimulus that...

  8. The association between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate and peritoneal injury in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yusuke; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshizawa, Hiromichi; Imai, Reika; Imai, Toshimi; Hirahara, Ichiro; Akimoto, Tetsu; Ookawara, Susumu; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke

    2017-11-01

    Chronic inflammation of the peritoneum causes peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and its circulating form, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, play pivotal roles in inflammation. However, their role in peritoneal injury is unclear. We measured changes in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in the peritoneum of a peritoneal injury model in rats. The associations between soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate and the solute transport rate (D/P-Cr and D/D0-glucose) determined by the peritoneal equilibration test, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels in drained dialysate were investigated in 94 peritoneal drained dialysate samples. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in the peritoneum of rats with peritoneal injury. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate were significantly positively correlated with D/P-Cr (r = .51, p molecule-1expression is increased in the peritoneum of a peritoneal injury model in the rat, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in drained dialysate are associated with peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis. These results suggest that soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 could be a novel biomarker of peritoneal injury in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

  9. Effect of retinol and cigarette-smoke and condensate on dye-coupled intercellular communication between hamster tracheal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Haan, L.H.J.de; Hendriksen, E.G.J.; Koeman, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The dye-coupled intercellular communication across gap junctions in primary hamster tracheal epithelial cells has been studied in serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In the absence of vitamin A, non-cytotoxic concentrations of cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) inhibited intercellular

  10. Extracellular ultrathin fibers sensitive to intracellular reactive oxygen species: Formation of intercellular membrane bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Se-Hui; Park, Jin-Young; Joo, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo, E-mail: ksha@kangwon.ac.kr

    2011-07-15

    Membrane bridges are key cellular structures involved in intercellular communication; however, dynamics for their formation are not well understood. We demonstrated the formation and regulation of novel extracellular ultrathin fibers in NIH3T3 cells using confocal and atomic force microscopy. At adjacent regions of neighboring cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and glucose oxidase induced ultrathin fiber formation, which was prevented by Trolox, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. The height of ROS-sensitive ultrathin fibers ranged from 2 to 4 nm. PMA-induced formation of ultrathin fibers was inhibited by cytochalasin D, but not by Taxol or colchicine, indicating that ultrathin fibers mainly comprise microfilaments. PMA-induced ultrathin fibers underwent dynamic structural changes, resulting in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Thus, these fibers are formed by a mechanism(s) involving ROS and involved in formation of intercellular membrane bridges. Furthermore, ultrastructural imaging of ultrathin fibers may contribute to understanding the diverse mechanisms of cell-to-cell communication and the intercellular transfer of biomolecules, including proteins and cell organelles.

  11. Chemopreventive agents attenuate rapid inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication induced by environmental toxicants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, J. E.; Upham, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2016), s. 827-837 ISSN 0163-5581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12034 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gap junctional intercellular communication * chemopreventive agents * environmental toxicants Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  12. Methoxychlor and vinclozolin induce rapid changes in intercellular and intracellular signaling in liver progenitor cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babica, Pavel; Zurabian, R.; Kumar, E. R.; Chopra, R.; Mianecki, M. J.; Park, J.-S.; Jaša, Libor; Trosko, J. E.; Upham, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 153, č. 1 (2016), s. 174-185 ISSN 1096-6080 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12034 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : endocrine disrupters * gap junctional intercellular communication * resveratrol Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.081, year: 2016

  13. The effect of water saturation deficit on the volume of intercellular space in laeves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume of intercellular spaces in leaves at various stages of water saturation was determined by method of Czerski (1964, 1968. The investigation were performed with the following plant species: Vicia faba L., Nicotiana tabacum L. var. rustica, Solarium tuberosum L. var. Flisak, Helichrysum bracteatum Wild., Bmssica napus L. var. oleifera, Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera.

  14. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Levels in Experimental Brain Injury and the Effects of Alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Senol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The mechanisms, responsible for the secondary injuries occuring after acute injury of the brain are; release of nitrous oxide which is an inflammatory mediator, abnormal formation of free oxygen radicals and excessive stimulation of excitatory aminoacids. In this study, it is aimed to investigate changes in intercellular adhesion molecule levels in the brain, that occur subsequent to blunt head trauma, and after administration of an antioxidant agent, vitamin E. Material and Method: In this study, rats were divided into 4 groups. In group A; rats had only skin incision, group B; rats were traumatized after the skin incision, group C; isotonic (30mg/kg was given intraperitoneally after 30 minutes of the trauma, group D; alpha-tocopherol (30mg/kg was given intraperitoneally, after 30 minutes of the trauma. All the rats in these groups were sacrified after 24 hours. Biparietal and bifrontal lobs were taken about 3x5x1mm tickness and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: As the result of the statistical analysis, it is detected that although there is an increase in intercellular adhesion molecule levels in brain parenchyma after trauma, it is statistically unsignificant. However, as the traumatized group and the group given alpha-tocopherol after trauma was compared, a statistically significant decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in the alpha-tocopherol given group was seen. Discussion: Alpha-tocopherol, an antioxidant agent, causes decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule levels, by decreasing inflammation.

  15. INHIBITION OF GAP JUNCTIONAL INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION BY PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN RAT LIVER AND DOLPHIN KIDNEY EPITHELIAL CELL LINES IN VITRO AND SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication (GJIC) is the major pathway of intercellular signal transduction, and is, thus, important for normal cell growth and function. Recent studies have revealed a global distribution of some perfluorinated organic compounds e...

  16. Expression of a defence-related intercellular barley peroxidase in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Brandt, J.; Bojsen, K.

    1997-01-01

    genetically, phenotypically and biochemically. The T-DNA was steadily inherited through three generations. The barley peroxidase is expressed and sorted to the intercellular space in the transgenic tobacco plants. The peroxidase can be extracted from the intercellular space in two molecular forms from both...... barley and transgenic tobacco. The tobacco expressed forms are indistinguishable from the barley expressed forms as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (pI 8.5) and Western-blotting. Staining for N-glycosylation showed that one form only was glycosylated. The N-terminus of purified Prx8 from...... transgenic tobacco was blocked by pyroglutamate, after the removal of which, N-terminal sequencing verified the transit signal-peptide cleavage site deduced from the cDNA sequence. Phenotype comparisons show that the constitutive expression of Prx8 lead to growth retardation. However, an infection assay...

  17. Intrinsically disordered proteins aggregate at fungal cell-to-cell channels and regulate intercellular connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Julian; Koh, Chuan Hock; Tjota, Monika; Pieuchot, Laurent; Raman, Vignesh; Chandrababu, Karthik Balakrishna; Yang, Daiwen; Wong, Limsoon; Jedd, Gregory

    2012-09-25

    Like animals and plants, multicellular fungi possess cell-to-cell channels (septal pores) that allow intercellular communication and transport. Here, using a combination of MS of Woronin body-associated proteins and a bioinformatics approach that identifies related proteins based on composition and character, we identify 17 septal pore-associated (SPA) proteins that localize to the septal pore in rings and pore-centered foci. SPA proteins are not homologous at the primary sequence level but share overall physical properties with intrinsically disordered proteins. Some SPA proteins form aggregates at the septal pore, and in vitro assembly assays suggest aggregation through a nonamyloidal mechanism involving mainly α-helical and disordered structures. SPA loss-of-function phenotypes include excessive septation, septal pore degeneration, and uncontrolled Woronin body activation. Together, our data identify the septal pore as a complex subcellular compartment and focal point for the assembly of unstructured proteins controlling diverse aspects of intercellular connectivity.

  18. 1,4-Naphthoquinones: From Oxidative Damage to Cellular and Inter-Cellular Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars-Oliver Klotz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones may cause oxidative stress in exposed cells and, therefore, affect redox signaling. Here, contributions of redox cycling and alkylating properties of quinones (both natural and synthetic, such as plumbagin, juglone, lawsone, menadione, methoxy-naphthoquinones, and others to cellular and inter-cellular signaling processes are discussed: (i naphthoquinone-induced Nrf2-dependent modulation of gene expression and its potentially beneficial outcome; (ii the modulation of receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor by naphthoquinones, resulting in altered gap junctional intercellular communication. Generation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of redox signaling are properties of naphthoquinones that render them interesting leads for the development of novel compounds of potential use in various therapeutic settings.

  19. Detection of cancerous kidney tissue areas by means of infrared spectroscopy of intercellular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urboniene, V.; Jankevicius, F.; Zelvys, A.; Steiner, G.; Sablinskas, V.

    2014-03-01

    In this work the infrared absorption spectra of intercellular fluid of normal and tumor kidney tissue were recorded and analyzed. The samples were prepared by stamping freshly resected tissue onto a CaF2 substrate. FT-IR spectra obtained from intracellular fluid of tumor tissue exhibit stronger absorption bands in the spectral region from 1000-1200 cm-1 and around 1750 cm-1 than those obtained from normal tissue. It is likely the spectra of extracellular matrix of kidney tumor tissue with large increases in the intensities of these bands represent a higher concentration of fatty acids and glycerol. Amide I and amide II bands are stronger in spectra of normal tissue indicating a higher level of proteins. The results demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy of intercellular fluids is a novel approach for a quick diagnosis during surgical resection, which can improve the therapy of kidney tumors.

  20. Tunneling nanotubes spread fibrillar α-synuclein by intercellular trafficking of lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abounit, Saïda; Bousset, Luc; Loria, Frida; Zhu, Seng; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Pieri, Laura; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Melki, Ronald; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-10-04

    Synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease are characterized by the pathological deposition of misfolded α-synuclein aggregates into inclusions throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. Mounting evidence suggests that intercellular propagation of α-synuclein aggregates may contribute to the neuropathology; however, the mechanism by which spread occurs is not fully understood. By using quantitative fluorescence microscopy with co-cultured neurons, here we show that α-synuclein fibrils efficiently transfer from donor to acceptor cells through tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) inside lysosomal vesicles. Following transfer through TNTs, α-synuclein fibrils are able to seed soluble α-synuclein aggregation in the cytosol of acceptor cells. We propose that donor cells overloaded with α-synuclein aggregates in lysosomes dispose of this material by hijacking TNT-mediated intercellular trafficking. Our findings thus reveal a possible novel role of TNTs and lysosomes in the progression of synucleinopathies. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Markedly diminished epidermal keratinocyte expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in Sezary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickoloff, B.J.; Griffiths, E.M.; Baadsgaard, O.; Voorhees, J.J.; Hanson, C.A.; Cooper, K.D. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1989-04-21

    In mucosis fungoides the malignant T cells express lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, which allows them to bind to epidermal keratinocytes expressing the gamma interferon-inducible intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In this report, a patient with leukemic-stage mucosis fungoides (Sezary syndrome) had widespread erythematous dermal infiltrates containing malignant T cells, but without any epidermotropism. The authors discovered that the T cells expressed normal amounts of functional lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, but the keratinocytes did not express significant levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which was probably due to the inability of the malignant T cells to produce gamma interferon. These results support the concept that the inability of malignant T cells to enter the epidermis may contribute to emergence of more clinically aggressive T-cell clones that are no longer confined to the skin, but infiltrate the blood, lymph nodes, and viscera, as is seen in Sezary syndrome.

  2. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  3. Intercellular Uptake of Technetium-99m Pertechnetate by Different Types of Cell Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safri Zainal Abidin; Raizulnasuha Abdul Rashid; Muhammad Afiq Khairil Anuar; Wan Nordiana A Abd Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the technetium-99m pertechnetate ( 99m TcO 4 ) intercellular uptake by different types of cell lines. HeLa, human fetal osteoblast (hFOB), glial and glioma cell lines grown in 6-wells culture plates were incubated with 99m TcO 4 of activity of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 μCi for 30 minutes at 37 degree Celsius and 5 % CO 2 humidified atmosphere. After incubation, the cells were washed 3 times with phosphate buffer saline to remove the extracellular traces of 99m TcO 4 . Measurement of the intercellular 99m TcO 4 into the cells was calculated. The intercellular uptake of 99m TcO 4 was found to be inversely correlate to the radioactivity. HHeLa cell shows the highest uptake followed by hFOB, glial and glioma cell lines. Comparison of uptake between normal and cancer cells present indistinguishable results. The findings of this study suggest that the intercellular uptake of 99m TcO 4 is highly dependent on the type of cells despite no significant different of uptake was found between normal and cancer cell lines. The level of radioactivity is also an important determinant factor that influence the uptake of 99m TcO 4 into the cell. The study will be the first precedent toward understanding the cellular characteristics and pharmacokinetic of non-invasive imaging tracer for future molecular imaging and therapy. (author)

  4. Serum deprivation induces glucose response and intercellular coupling in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Shapira, Yuval; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Oron, Yoram

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the previously described differentiating islet-like aggregates of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (PANC-1) develop glucose response and exhibit intercellular communication. Fura 2-loaded PANC-1 cells in serum-free medium were assayed for changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca]i) induced by depolarization, tolbutamide inhibition of K(ATP) channels, or glucose. Dye transfer, assayed by confocal microscopy or by FACS, was used to detect intercellular communication. Changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes of interest were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Proliferation was assayed by the MTT method. Serum-deprived PANC-1 cell aggregates developed [Ca]i response to KCl, tolbutamide, or glucose. These responses were accompanied by 5-fold increase in glucokinase mRNA level and, to a lesser extent, of mRNAs for K(ATP) and L-type calcium channels, as well as increase in mRNA levels of glucagon and somatostatin. Trypsin, a proteinase-activated receptor 2 agonist previously shown to enhance aggregation, modestly improved [Ca]i response to glucose. Glucose-induced coordinated [Ca]i oscillations and dye transfer demonstrated the emergence of intercellular communication. These findings suggest that PANC-1 cells, a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, can be induced to express a differentiated phenotype in which cells exhibit response to glucose and form a functional syncytium similar to those observed in pancreatic islets.

  5. Optimal cellular mobility for synchronization arising from the gradual recovery of intercellular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriu, Koichiro; Ares, Saúl; Oates, Andrew C; Morelli, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    Cell movement and intercellular signaling occur simultaneously during the development of tissues, but little is known about how movement affects signaling. Previous theoretical studies have shown that faster moving cells favor synchronization across a population of locally coupled genetic oscillators. An important assumption in these studies is that cells can immediately interact with their new neighbors after arriving at a new location. However, intercellular interactions in cellular systems may need some time to become fully established. How movement affects synchronization in this situation has not been examined. Here, we develop a coupled phase oscillator model in which we consider cell movement and the gradual recovery of intercellular coupling experienced by a cell after movement, characterized by a moving rate and a coupling recovery rate, respectively. We find (1) an optimal moving rate for synchronization and (2) a critical moving rate above which achieving synchronization is not possible. These results indicate that the extent to which movement enhances synchrony is limited by a gradual recovery of coupling. These findings suggest that the ratio of time scales of movement and signaling recovery is critical for information transfer between moving cells. (paper)

  6. Intercellular signaling pathways active during intervertebral disc growth, differentiation, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahia, Chitra Lekha; Mahoney, Eric J; Durrani, Atiq A; Wylie, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Intervertebral discs at different postnatal ages were assessed for active intercellular signaling pathways. To generate a spatial and temporal map of the signaling pathways active in the postnatal intervertebral disc (IVD). The postnatal IVD is a complex structure, consisting of 3 histologically distinct components, the nucleus pulposus, fibrous anulus fibrosus, and endplate. These differentiate and grow during the first 9 weeks of age in the mouse. Identification of the major signaling pathways active during and after the growth and differentiation period will allow functional analysis using mouse genetics and identify targets for therapy for individual components of the disc. Antibodies specific for individual cell signaling pathways were used on cryostat sections of IVD at different postnatal ages to identify which components of the IVD were responding to major classes of intercellular signal, including sonic hedgehog, Wnt, TGFbeta, FGF, and BMPs. We present a spatial/temporal map of these signaling pathways during growth, differentiation, and aging of the disc. During growth and differentiation of the disc, its different components respond at different times to different intercellular signaling ligands. Most of these are dramatically downregulated at the end of disc growth.

  7. A transwell assay that excludes exosomes for assessment of tunneling nanotube-mediated intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayanithy, Venugopal; O'Hare, Patrick; Wong, Phillip; Zhao, Xianda; Steer, Clifford J; Subramanian, Subbaya; Lou, Emil

    2017-11-13

    Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are naturally-occurring filamentous actin-based membranous extensions that form across a wide spectrum of mammalian cell types to facilitate long-range intercellular communication. Valid assays are needed to accurately assess the downstream effects of TNT-mediated transfer of cellular signals in vitro. We recently reported a modified transwell assay system designed to test the effects of intercellular transfer of a therapeutic oncolytic virus, and viral-activated drugs, between cells via TNTs. The objective of the current study was to demonstrate validation of this in vitro approach as a new method for effectively excluding diffusible forms of long- and close-range intercellular transfer of intracytoplasmic cargo, including exosomes/microvesicles and gap junctions in order to isolate TNT-selective cell communication. We designed several steps to effectively reduce or eliminate diffusion and long-range transfer via these extracellular vesicles, and used Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis to quantify exosomes following implementation of these steps. The experimental approach outlined here effectively reduced exosome trafficking by >95%; further use of heparin to block exosome uptake by putative recipient cells further impeded transfer of these extracellular vesicles. This validated assay incorporates several steps that can be taken to quantifiably control for extracellular vesicles in order to perform studies focused on TNT-selective communication.

  8. Intercellular communication via gap junctions affected by mechanical load in the bovine annulus fibrosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Jane; Duncan, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    Cells in the intervertebral disc, as in other connective tissues including tendon, ligament and bone, form interconnected cellular networks that are linked via functional gap junctions. These cellular networks may be necessary to affect a coordinated response to mechanical and environmental stimuli. Using confocal microscopy with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching methods, we explored the in situ strain environment of the outer annulus of an intact bovine disc and the effect of high-level flexion on gap junction signalling. The in situ strain environment in the extracellular matrix of the outer annulus under high flexion load was observed to be non-uniform with the extensive cellular processes remaining crimped sometimes at flexion angles greater than 25°. A significant transient disruption of intercellular communication via functional gap junctions was measured after 10 and 20 min under high flexion load. This study illustrates that in healthy annulus fibrosus tissue, high mechanical loads can impede the functioning of the gap junctions. Future studies will explore more complex loading conditions to determine whether losses in intercellular communication can be permanent and whether gap junctions in aged and degenerated tissues become more susceptible to load. The current research suggests that cellular structures such as gap junctions and intercellular networks, as well as other cell-cell and cell-matrix interconnections, need to be considered in computational models in order to fully understand how macroscale mechanical signals are transmitted across scales to the microscale and ultimately into a cellular biosynthetic response in collagenous tissues.

  9. The intercellular synchronization of Ca2+ oscillations evaluates Cx36-dependent coupling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Bavamian

    Full Text Available Connexin36 (Cx36 plays an important role in insulin secretion by controlling the intercellular synchronization of Ca(2+ transients induced during stimulation. The lack of drugs acting on Cx36 channels is a major limitation in further unraveling the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. To screen for such drugs, we have developed an assay allowing for a semi-automatic, fluorimetric quantification of Ca(2+ transients in large populations of MIN6 cells. Here, we show that (1 compared to control cells, MIN6 cells with reduced Cx36 expression or function showed decreased synchrony of glucose-induced Ca(2+ oscillations; (2 glibenclamide, a sulphonylurea which promotes Cx36 junctions and coupling, increased the number of synchronous MIN6 cells, whereas quinine, an antimalarial drug which inhibits Cx36-dependent coupling, decreased this proportion; (3 several drugs were identified that altered the intercellular Ca(2+ synchronization, cell coupling and distribution of Cx36; (4 some of them also affected insulin content. The data indicate that the intercellular synchronization of Ca(2+ oscillations provides a reliable and non-invasive measurement of Cx36-dependent coupling, which is useful to identify novel drugs affecting the function of β-cells, neurons, and neuron-related cells that express Cx36.

  10. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  11. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of tumour promoters modifies the inhibition of intercellular communication: a modified assay for tumour promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Ole; Wallin, H.; Doehmer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The role of metabolism of tumour promoters on the inhibition of intercellular communication was investigated in a modified V79 metabolic cooperation system. V79 cells, which stably express different rat cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 or CYP2B1), were used in the metabolic cooperation assay...... B1 and 4-nitrobiphenyl, did not inhibit metabolic cooperation in either V79 cells expressing or cells not expressing cytochrome P450. We conclude that cytochrome P450-associated metabolism plays an important role in the inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication of some tumour...... promoters. The modified metabolic cooperation assay presented here is valuable for detecting some inhibitory chemicals which have been 'false negative' in previous assays for gap junctional intercellular communication. The assay also discloses that cytochrome P450 metabolism alters intercellular...

  12. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  13. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  14. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  15. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  16. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  17. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the relation between general society and preservation, the content and the structure of preservation activities, and the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the preventive preservation are described. The optimization of the preventive preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  18. Regulation Involved in Colonization of Intercellular Spaces of Host Plants in Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Hikichi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum invading plant roots first colonizes the intercellular spaces of the root, and eventually enters xylem vessels, where it replicates at high levels leading to wilting symptoms. After invasion into intercellular spaces, R. solanacearum strain OE1-1 attaches to host cells and expression of the hrp genes encoding components of the type III secretion system (T3SS. OE1-1 then constructs T3SS and secrets effectors into host cells, inducing expression of the host gene encoding phosphatidic acid phosphatase. This leads to suppressing plant innate immunity. Then, OE1-1 grows on host cells, inducing quorum sensing (QS. The QS contributes to regulation of OE1-1 colonization of intercellular spaces including mushroom-type biofilm formation on host cells, leading to its virulence. R. solanacearum strains AW1 and K60 produce methyl 3-hydroxypalmitate (3-OH PAME as a QS signal. The methyltransferase PhcB synthesizes 3-OH PAME. When 3-OH PAME reaches a threshold level, it increases the ability of the histidine kinase PhcS to phosphorylate the response regulator PhcR. This results in elevated levels of functional PhcA, the global virulence regulator. On the other hand, strains OE1-1 and GMI1000 produce methyl 3-hydroxymyristate (3-OH MAME as a QS signal. Among R. solanacearum strains, the deduced PhcB and PhcS amino acid sequences are related to the production of QS signals. R. solanacearum produces aryl-furanone secondary metabolites, ralfuranones, which are extracellularly secreted and required for its virulence, dependent on the QS. Interestingly, ralfuranones affect the QS feedback loop. Taken together, integrated signaling via ralfuranones influences the QS, contributing to pathogen virulence.

  19. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  20. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  1. Radiation preservation of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasito.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  2. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  3. Indiana Pavement Preservation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Ghim Ping (Raymond); Nantung, Tommy E.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2010-01-01

    State highway agencies are facing immense pressure to maintain roads at acceptable levels amidst the challenging financial and economic situations. In recent years, pavement preservation has been sought as a potential alternative for managing the pavement assets, believing that it would provide a cost-effective solution in maintaining infrastructural conditions and meeting user expectations. This study explores the potential of pavement preservation concepts in managing the agency‘s pavement ...

  4. Crystal structure of the Haemophilus influenzae Hap adhesin reveals an intercellular oligomerization mechanism for bacterial aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guoyu; Spahich, Nicole; Kenjale, Roma; Waksman, Gabriel; St Geme, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are complex microbial communities that are common in nature and are being recognized increasingly as an important determinant of bacterial virulence. However, the structural determinants of bacterial aggregation and eventual biofilm formation have been poorly defined. In Gram-negative bacteria, a major subgroup of extracellular proteins called self-associating autotransporters (SAATs) can mediate cell–cell adhesion and facilitate biofilm formation. In this study, we used the Haemophilus influenzae Hap autotransporter as a prototype SAAT to understand how bacteria associate with each other. The crystal structure of the H. influenzae HapS passenger domain (harbouring the SAAT domain) was determined to 2.2 Å by X-ray crystallography, revealing an unprecedented intercellular oligomerization mechanism for cell–cell interaction. The C-terminal SAAT domain folds into a triangular-prism-like structure that can mediate Hap–Hap dimerization and higher degrees of multimerization through its F1–F2 edge and F2 face. The intercellular multimerization can give rise to massive buried surfaces that are required for overcoming the repulsive force between cells, leading to bacterial cell–cell interaction and formation of complex microcolonies. PMID:21841773

  5. Intercellular distribution of mutations induced in oopcytes of Drosophila melanogaster by chemical and physical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, H.

    1979-01-01

    When females of Drosophila melanogaster are treated with chemical or physical mutagens, not only in one but also in both of the two homologous X chromosomes of a given oocyte, a recessive sex-linked lethal mutation may be induced. A method is described that discriminates between such single and double mutations. A theory is developed to show how a comparison betweeen the expected and the observer frequency of double mutations yields an indication of the intercellular distribution (random or nonrandom) of recessive lethal mutations induced by mutagenic agents in oocytes and, consequently, of the distribution (homogenous or nonhomogeneous) of those agents. Three agents were tested: FUdR (12.5, 50.0 and 81.0 μg/ml), mitomycin C (130.0 μg/ml) and x rays (2000 R, 150 kV). After FUdR feeding, no increase in the mutation frequency usually observed in D. melanogaster without mutagenic treatment was obtained (u = 0.13%, namely three single mutations among 2332 chromosomes tested). After mitomycin C feeding 104 single and three double mutations were obtained. All of the 50 mutations observed after x irradiation were single mutations. The results obtained in the mitomycin C and radiation experiments favor the assumption of a random intercellular distribution of recessive lethal mutations induced by these two agents in oocytes of D. melanogaster. Reasons are discussed why for other types of mutagenic agents nonrandom distributions may be observed with our technique

  6. CHANGES OF INTERCELLULAR COOPERATION IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN TREATED PATIENTS WITH CARDIOLOGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Korichkina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study changes of intercellular cooperation in peripheral blood induced by treatment in patients with arterial hypertension (HT, ischemic heart disease (IHD and chronic heart failure (CHF.Material and methods. 610 patients were involved into the study, including 250 patients with HT of stages I-III (50 untreated patients, 150 patients with IHD and 210 patients with CHF of stages I-III. All patients were treated except 50 hypertensive ones. 80 healthy patients (40 men, 40 women were included into control group. Blood smears of patients were evaluated (Romanovsky's stain. A number of leukocyte, autorosettes and autorosettes with erythrocyte lysis was calculated. The cellular association consisting of a neutrophil, monocyte or eosinocyte with 3 or more erythrocytes skintight to their surface defined as autorosettes. Erythrocytes number and hemoglobin level determined in peripheral blood.Results. Single autorosettes in peripheral blood were observed in patients of control group and in untreated patients with HT. Treated patients with HT, IHD and CHF had increased number of autorossets and autorosettes with erythrocytes lysis. This phenomenon resulted in reduction of erythrocytes number and hemoglobin level in peripheral blood.Conclusion. Treated patients with cardiologic diseases had changes in intercellular cooperation. It should be considered at intensive and long term therapy.

  7. Connexin 26-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication suppresses paracellular permeability of human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Hidekazu; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Hoshimoto, Aihiro; Hirano, Noriaki; Saito, Yasushi; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    In some cell types, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is associated with tight junctions. The present study was performed to determine the roles of GJIC in regulation of the barrier function of tight junctions. Caco-2 human colonic cells were used as a monolayer model, and barrier function was monitored by measuring mannitol permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The monolayers were chemically disrupted by treatment with oleic acid and taurocholic acid. Western blotting analyses were performed to evaluate the protein levels of connexins, which are components of gap junctional intercellular channels. Cx26 expression was detected in preconfluent Caco-2 cells, and its level increased gradually after the monolayer reached confluency. These results prompted us to examine whether overexpression of Cx26 affects barrier function. Monolayers of Caco-2 cells stably expressing Cx26 showed significantly lower mannitol permeability and higher TER than mock transfectants when the monolayers were chemically disrupted. The levels of claudin-4, an important component of tight junctions, were significantly increased in the stable Cx26 transfectant. These results suggest that Cx26-mediated GJIC may play a crucial role in enhancing the barrier function of Caco-2 cell monolayers

  8. Phloroglucinol functions as an intracellular and intercellular chemical messenger influencing gene expression in Pseudomonas protegens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Jennifer C; Buchanan, Alex; Vining, Oliver; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Chang, Jeff H; McPhail, Kerry L; Loper, Joyce E

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria can be both highly communicative and highly competitive in natural habitats and antibiotics are thought to play a role in both of these processes. The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 produces a spectrum of antibiotics, two of which, pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), function in intracellular and intercellular communication, both as autoinducers of their own production. Here, we demonstrate that phloroglucinol, an intermediate in DAPG biosynthesis, can serve as an intercellular signal influencing the expression of pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes, the production of pyoluteorin, and inhibition of Pythium ultimum, a phytopathogenic oomycete sensitive to pyoluteorin. Through analysis of RNAseq data sets, we show that phloroglucinol had broad effects on the transcriptome of Pf-5, significantly altering the transcription of more than two hundred genes. The effects of nanomolar versus micromolar concentrations of phloroglucinol differed both quantitatively and qualitatively, influencing the expression of distinct sets of genes or having opposite effects on transcript abundance of certain genes. Therefore, our results support the concept of hormesis, a phenomenon associated with signalling molecules that elicit distinct responses at different concentrations. Phloroglucinol is the first example of an intermediate of antibiotic biosynthesis that functions as a chemical messenger influencing gene expression in P. protegens. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Intercellular signaling pathways active during and after growth and differentiation of the lumbar vertebral growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahia, Chitra Lekha; Mahoney, Eric J; Durrani, Atiq A; Wylie, Christopher

    2011-06-15

    Vertebral growth plates at different postnatal ages were assessed for active intercellular signaling pathways. To generate a spatial and temporal map of the major signaling pathways active in the postnatal mouse lumbar vertebral growth plate. The growth of all long bones is known to occur by cartilaginous growth plates. The growth plate is composed of layers of chondrocyets that actively proliferate, differentiate, die and, are replaced by bone. The role of major cell signaling pathways has been suggested for regulation of the fetal long bones. But not much is known about the molecular or cellular signals that control the postnatal vertebral growth plate and hence postnatal vertebral bone growth. Understanding such molecular mechanisms will help design therapeutic treatments for vertebral growth disorders such as scoliosis. Antibodies against activated downstream intermediates were used to identify cells in the growth plate responding to BMP, TGFβ, and FGF in cryosections of lumbar vertebrae from different postnatal age mice to identify the zones that were responding to these signals. Reporter mice were used to identify the chondrocytes responding to hedgehog (Ihh), and Wnt signaling. We present a spatial/temporal map of these signaling pathways during growth, and differentiation of the mouse lumbar vertebral growth plate. During growth and differentiation of the vertebral growth plate, its different components respond at different times to different intercellular signaling ligands. Response to most of these signals is dramatically downregulated at the end of vertebral growth.

  10. Methylmercury inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication in primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Minoru; Sumi, Yawara [Department of Chemistry, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasagi (Japan); Kujiraoka, Toru [Department of Physiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasagi (Japan); Hara, Masayuki [Department of Anatomy, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasagi (Japan); Nakazawa, Hirokazu [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Meisei University (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) causes renal injury in addition to central and peripheral neuropathy. To clarify the mechanism of nephrotoxicity by MeHg, we investigated the effect of this compound on intercellular communication through gap junction channels in primary cultures of rat renal proximal tubular cells. Twenty minutes after exposure to 30 {mu}M MeHg, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), which was assessed by dye coupling, was markedly inhibited before appearance of cytotoxicity. When the medium containing MeHg was exchanged with MeHg-free medium, dye coupling recovered abruptly. However, the dye-coupling was abolished again 30 min after replacement with control medium, and the cells were damaged. Intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, which modulates the function of gap junctions, significantly increased following exposure of the cells to 30 {mu}M MeHg and returned to control level following replacement with MeHg-free medium. These results suggest that the inhibiting effect of MeHg on GJIC is related to the change in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, and may be involved in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. (orig.) With 5 figs., 23 refs.

  11. Exploring the role of lipids in intercellular conduits: breakthroughs in the pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise eDelage

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for more than a century that most of the plant cells are connected to their neighbors through membranous pores perforating the cell wall, namely plasmodesmata (PDs. The recent discovery of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs, thin membrane bridges established between distant mammalian cells, suggests that intercellular communication mediated through cytoplasmic continuity could be a conserved feature of eukaryotic organisms. Although TNTs differ from PDs in their formation and architecture, both are characterized by a continuity of the plasma membrane between two cells, delimiting a nanotubular channel supported by actin-based cytoskeleton. Due to this unusual membrane organization, lipids are likely to play critical roles in the formation and stability of intercellular conduits like TNTs and PDs, but also in regulating the transfer through these structures. While it is crucial for a better understanding of those fascinating communication highways, the study of TNT lipid composition and dynamics turned out to be extremely challenging. The present review aims to give an overview of the recent findings in this context. We will also discuss some of the promising imaging approaches, which might be the key for future breakthroughs in the field and could also benefit the research on PDs.

  12. Cell walls as a stage for intercellular communication regulating shoot meristem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki eTameshige

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground organs of plants are ultimately derived/generated from the shoot apical meristem (SAM, which is the proliferative tissue located at the apex of the stem. The SAM contains a population of stem cells that provide new cells for organ/tissue formation. The SAM is composed of distinct cell layers and zones with different properties. Primordia of lateral organs develop at the periphery of the SAM. The shoot apex is a dynamic and complex tissue, and as such intercellular communications among cells, layers and zones play significant roles in the coordination of cell proliferation, growth and differentiation to achieve elaborate morphogenesis. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of a number of singling molecules acting in the cell wall space for the intercellular communication, including classic phytohormones and secretory peptides. Moreover, accumulating evidences reveal that cell wall properties and their modifying enzymes modulate hormone actions. In this review, we overview how behaviors of singling molecules and changes of cell wall properties are integrated for the shoot meristem regulation.

  13. Electrotonic potentials in Aloe vera L.: Effects of intercellular and external electrodes arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Scott, Jessenia M; Jackson, Mariah M Z; Greeman, Esther A; Greenidge, Ariane S; Cohen, Devin O; Volkova, Maia I; Shtessel, Yuri B

    2017-02-01

    Electrostimulation of plants can induce plant movements, activation of ion channels, ion transport, gene expression, enzymatic systems activation, electrical signaling, plant-cell damage, enhanced wound healing, and influence plant growth. Here we found that electrical networks in plant tissues have electrical differentiators. The amplitude of electrical responses decreases along a leaf and increases by decreasing the distance between polarizing Pt-electrodes. Intercellular Ag/AgCl electrodes inserted in a leaf and extracellular Ag/AgCl electrodes attached to the leaf surface were used to detect the electrotonic potential propagation along a leaf of Aloe vera. There is a difference in duration and amplitude of electrical potentials measured by electrodes inserted in a leaf and those attached to a leaf's surface. If the external reference electrode is located in the soil near the root, it changes the amplitude and duration of electrotonic potentials due to existence of additional resistance, capacitance, ion channels and ion pumps in the root. The information gained from this study can be used to elucidate extracellular and intercellular communication in the form of electrical signals within plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  15. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...

  16. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the ex post facto preservation and the content to be possessed in 'preservation engineering' are described. The optimization of the ex post facto preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  17. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David

    2011-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  18. The status of intercellular junctions in established lens epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Alpana; Craig, Jamie E; Sharma, Shiwani

    2012-01-01

    Cataract is the major cause of vision-related disability worldwide. Mutations in the crystallin genes are the most common known cause of inherited congenital cataract. Mutations in the genes associated with intercellular contacts, such as Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) and Ephrin type A receptor-2 (EPHA2), are other recognized causes of congenital cataract. The EPHA2 gene has been also associated with age-related cataract, suggesting that intercellular junctions are important in not only lens development, but also in maintaining lens transparency. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression and localization of the key cell junction and cytoskeletal proteins, and of NHS and EPHA2, in established lens epithelial cell lines to determine their suitability as model epithelial systems for the functional investigation of genes involved in intercellular contacts and implicated in cataract. The expression and subcellular localization of occludin and zona occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), which are associated with tight junctions; E-cadherin, which is associated with adherence junctions; and the cytoskeletal actin were analyzed in monolayers of a human lens epithelial cell line (SRA 01/04) and a mouse lens epithelial cell line (αTN4). In addition, the expression and subcellular localization of the NHS and EPHA2 proteins were analyzed in these cell lines. Protein or mRNA expression was respectively determined by western blotting or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and localization was determined by immunofluorescence labeling. Human SRA 01/04 and mouse αTN4 lens epithelial cells expressed either the proteins of interest or their encoding mRNA. Occludin, ZO-1, and NHS proteins localized to the cellular periphery, whereas E-cadherin, actin, and EPHA2 localized in the cytoplasm in these cell lines. The human SRA 01/04 and mouse αTN4 lens epithelial cells express the key junctional proteins. The localization patterns of these proteins suggest that

  19. Inhibition of gap junctional Intercellular communication in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells by triphenyltin chloride through MAPK and PI3-kinase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Ming-Che

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organotin compounds (OTCs have been widely used as stabilizers in the production of plastic, agricultural pesticides, antifoulant plaints and wood preservation. The toxicity of triphenyltin (TPT compounds was known for their embryotoxic, neurotoxic, genotoxic and immunotoxic effects in mammals. The carcinogenicity of TPT was not well understood and few studies had discussed the effects of OTCs on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC of cells. Method In the present study, the effects of triphenyltin chloride (TPTC on GJIC in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells were evaluated, using the scrape-loading dye transfer technique. Results TPTC inhibited GJIC after a 30-min exposure in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Pre-incubation of cells with the protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor did not modify the response, but the specific MEK 1 inhibitor PD98059 and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 decreased substantially the inhibition of GJIC by TPTC. After WB-F344 cells were exposed to TPTC, phosphorylation of Cx43 increased as seen in Western blot analysis. Conclusions These results show that TPTC inhibits GJIC in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells by altering the Cx43 protein expression through both MAPK and PI3-kinase pathways.

  20. Integral-preserving integrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D I; Quispel, G R W

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations having a first integral may be solved numerically using one of several methods, with the integral preserved to machine accuracy. One such method is the discrete gradient method. It is shown here that the order of the method can be bootstrapped repeatedly to higher orders of accuracy. The method is illustrated using the Henon-Heiles system. (letter to the editor)

  1. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  2. Preserving food with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C

    1978-01-01

    Food irradiation is becoming an increasingly more important method of food preservataion. The irradiation process and its advangages are briefly described, and its use in the preservation of poultry and various kinds of fruits is discussed. Fruit export is hampered by restrictions due to infestation. Radiation disinfestation will therefore be of great advantage and may lead to a growth in export markets

  3. Preserve America News

    Science.gov (United States)

    phone number. Whether or not you're able to let us know ahead of time, however, we hope you can join us Amache Preservation Society in Colorado and the Friends of Mount Hope Cemetery in New York. This brings Places: Breathing New Life into Our Communities." Read about this informative session. National

  4. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    . This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  5. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  6. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  7. Preserving the Seminar Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, David; Evans, Jocelyn; Levy, Meyer

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a new approach to online graduate education. With hopes of recruiting a larger cohort in order to preserve a graduate program struggling with low enrollment, we began offering a limited number of seats to students who would attend class in real time but from remote locations, using a videoconferencing platform. Unlike…

  8. DNA preservation in silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yawen; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Gong, He; Liu, Meng; Guo, Shaozhe; Li, Gang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2017-06-27

    The structure of DNA is susceptible to alterations at high temperature and on changing pH, irradiation and exposure to DNase. Options to protect and preserve DNA during storage are important for applications in genetic diagnosis, identity authentication, drug development and bioresearch. In the present study, the stability of total DNA purified from human dermal fibroblast cells, as well as that of plasmid DNA, was studied in silk protein materials. The DNA/silk mixtures were stabilized on filter paper (silk/DNA + filter) or filter paper pre-coated with silk and treated with methanol (silk/DNA + PT-filter) as a route to practical utility. After air-drying and water extraction, 50-70% of the DNA and silk could be retrieved and showed a single band on electrophoretic gels. 6% silk/DNA + PT-filter samples provided improved stability in comparison with 3% silk/DNA + filter samples and DNA + filter samples for DNA preservation, with ∼40% of the band intensity remaining at 37 °C after 40 days and ∼10% after exposure to UV light for 10 hours. Quantitative analysis using the PicoGreen assay confirmed the results. The use of Tris/borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer enhanced the preservation and/or extraction of the DNA. The DNA extracted after storage maintained integrity and function based on serving as a functional template for PCR amplification of the gene for zinc finger protein 750 (ZNF750) and for transgene expression of red fluorescence protein (dsRed) in HEK293 cells. The high molecular weight and high content of a crystalline beta-sheet structure formed on the coated surfaces likely accounted for the preservation effects observed for the silk/DNA + PT-filter samples. Although similar preservation effects were also obtained for lyophilized silk/DNA samples, the rapid and simple processing available with the silk-DNA-filter membrane system makes it appealing for future applications.

  9. Evolution of altruism in spatial prisoner's dilemma: Intra- and inter-cellular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Hiroki; Uehara, Takashi; Sakata, Tomoyuki; Naito, Hiromi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Iterated prisoner's dilemma game is carried out on lattice with “colony” structure. Each cell is regarded as a colony which contains plural players with an identical strategy. Both intra- and inter-cellular interactions are assumed. In the former a player plays with all other players in the same colony, while in the latter he plays with one player each from adjacent colonies. Spatial patterns among four typical strategies exhibit various dynamics and winners. Both theory and simulation reveal that All Cooperation (AC) wins, when the members of colony or the intensity of noise increases. This result explains the evolution of altruism in animal societies, even though errors easily occur in animal communications.

  10. ATP- and gap junction-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, N R; Geist, S T; Civitelli, R

    1997-01-01

    mechanically induced calcium waves in two rat osteosarcoma cell lines that differ in the gap junction proteins they express, in their ability to pass microinjected dye from cell to cell, and in their expression of P2Y2 (P2U) purinergic receptors. ROS 17/2.8 cells, which express the gap junction protein......Many cells coordinate their activities by transmitting rises in intracellular calcium from cell to cell. In nonexcitable cells, there are currently two models for intercellular calcium wave propagation, both of which involve release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3)- sensitive intracellular calcium...... stores. In one model, IP3 traverses gap junctions and initiates the release of intracellular calcium stores in neighboring cells. Alternatively, calcium waves may be mediated not by gap junctional communication, but rather by autocrine activity of secreted ATP on P2 purinergic receptors. We studied...

  11. Signaling through intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in a B cell lymphoma line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, J; Owens, T

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) (CD54) is an adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The interaction between ICAM-1 on B lymphocytes and leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 on T cells plays a major role in several aspects of the immune response, including T-dependent B...... cell activation. While it was originally believed that ICAM-1 played a purely adhesive role, recent evidence suggests that it can itself transduce biochemical signals. We demonstrate that cross-linking of ICAM-1 results in the up-regulation of class II major histocompatibility complex, and we...... investigate the biochemical mechanism for the signaling role of ICAM-1. We show that cross-linking of ICAM-1 on the B lymphoma line A20 induces an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins, including the Src family kinase p53/p56(lyn). In vitro kinase assays showed that Lyn kinase...

  12. Fisetin Protects PC12 Cells from Tunicamycin-Mediated Cell Death via Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging and Modulation of Nrf2-Driven Gene Expression, SIRT1 and MAPK Signaling in PC12 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jui-Hung; Wu, Pei-Shan; Chen, Shu-Fen; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2017-04-17

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a dietary flavonol and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. However, high concentration of fisetin is reported to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cause cytotoxicity in cancer cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytoprotective effects of low concentration of fisetin against tunicamycin (Tm)-mediated cytotoxicity in neuronal-like catecholaminergic PC12 cells. Cell viability was assayed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and apoptotic and autophagic markers were analyzed by Western blot. Gene expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) and Phase II enzymes was further investigated using RT-Q-PCR or Western blotting. Intracellular ROS level was measured using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H₂DCFDA) by a fluorometer. The effects of fisetin on mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1) signaling pathways were examined using Western blotting and specific inhibitors. Fisetin (<20 µM) restored cell viability and repressed apoptosis, autophagy and ROS production in Tm-treated cells. Fisetin attenuated Tm-mediated expression of ER stress genes, such as glucose-regulated proteins 78 (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP also known as GADD153) and Tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3), but induced the expression of nuclear E2 related factor (Nrf)2-targeted heme oxygenase (HO)-1, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT/SLC7A11), in both the presence and absence of Tm. Moreover, fisetin enhanced phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), JNK (c-JUN NH₂-terminal protein kinase), and p38 MAPK. Addition of JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly antagonized its cytoprotective activity and modulatory effects on UPR. Fisetin also restored Tm-inhibited SIRT1 expression and addition of sirtinol (SIRT1 activation inhibitor

  13. Detection of the intercellular adhesion gene cluster (ica in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namvar, Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] is a major hospital and community pathogen having the aptitude to cause a wide variety of infections in men. The ability of microorganisms to produce biofilm facilitates them to withstand the host immune response and is recognized as one factor contributing to chronic or persistent infections. It was demonstrated that the -encoded genes lead to the biosynthesis of polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA molecules, and may be involved in the accumulation phase of biofilm formation. Different studies have shown the decisive role of the gene as virulence factors in staphylococcal infections. This study was carried out to demonstrate the relationship between gene and production of slime layer in strains. Sixty strains were isolated from patients. The isolates were identified morphologically and biochemically following standard laboratory methods. After identification, the staphylococcal isolates were maintained in trypticase soy broth (TSB, to which 15% glycerol was added, and stored at –20°C. Slime formation and biofilm assay was monitored. A PCR assay was developed to identify the presence of (intercellular adhesion gene gene in all isolates. Thirty-nine slime producing colonies with CRA plates (65% formed black colors, the remaining 21 isolates were pink (35%. In the quantitative biofilm assay 35 (58% produced biofilm while 25 (42% isolates did not exhibit this property. All isolates were positive for detection of gene by PCR method. The interaction of and in the investigated isolates may be important in slime layer formation and biofilm phenomena.We propose PCR detection of the gene locus as a rapid and effective method to be used for discrimination between potentially virulent and nonvirulent isolates, with implications for therapeutic and preventive measures pertainin to the management of colonized indwelling catheters.

  14. Proteomic analysis of exosomes from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell identifies intercellular transfer of angiogenic proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Yuk-kit

    2015-04-01

    Exosomes, a group of secreted extracellular nanovesicles containing genetic materials and signaling molecules, play a critical role in intercellular communication. During tumorigenesis, exosomes have been demonstrated to promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis while their biological functions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of NPC-derived exosomes on angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from the NPC C666-1 cells and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69 and NP460) were isolated using ultracentrifugation. The molecular profile and biophysical characteristics of exosomes were verified by Western blotting, sucrose density gradient, and electron microscopy. We showed that the C666-1 exosomes (10 and 20 μg/ml) could significantly increase the tubulogenesis, migration and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in C666-1 exosomes. Among the 640 identified proteins, 51 and 89 proteins were considered as up- and down-regulated (≥ 1.5-fold variations) in C666-1 exosomes compared to the normal counterparts, respectively. As expected, pro-angiogenic proteins including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD44 variant isoform 5 (CD44v5) are among the up-regulated proteins, whereas angio-suppressive protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) was down-regulated in C666-1 exosomes. Further confocal microscopic study and Western blotting clearly demonstrated that the alteration of ICAM-1, and TSP-1 expressions in recipient HUVECs are due to internalization of exosomes. Taken together, these data strongly indicated the critical roles of identified angiogenic proteins in the involvement of exosomes-induced angiogenesis, which could potentially be developed as therapeutic targets in future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Intercellular contact: its influence on the Dsub(q) of mammalian cell survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, R.E.; Sutherland, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Cell survival in tissues exposed to a given dose of ionizing radiation is usually greater than that of similar cells grown individually in vitro, despite the fact that the radiosensitivities (D 0 ) are virtually identical under the two conditions. An analogous increase in cell survival is observed when Chinese hamster V79-171 cells are grown in suspension culture and irradiated as multicell spheroids. Unfortunately, the information gained from the survival curves so obtained is limited by the inhomogeneity of the cell population with respect to both degree of contact and cell cycle position. The latter can be studied using synchronized small spheroids. The ratio of Dsub(q) of spheroid cells to Dsub(q) of single cells increased as the cells progressed through the cell cycle, from a minimum of 1.3 for G 1 phase cells to a maximum of 2.2 for late S-phase cells. The enhanced survival, or 'contact effect', developed slowly as the spheroids grew, after an initial latent period of about one generation cycle of the cells. A second effect of intercellular contact on mammalian cell survival has also been observed. When cells are assayed under conditions in which intercellular contact is maintained, the net cellular survival is increased further. This effect is different from the usual repair of potentially lethal damage, in that it occurs much more slowly and results in modification of the survival-curve shoulder. Not all cell types tested have shown enhanced survival when grown as spheroids. Several MNNG-induced mutants of the Chinese hamster V79-171 line have been isolated and sublines which do and do not show the contact effect are now available. These may permit study of the mechanism(s) of contact effects. (author)

  16. In vitro early changes in intercellular junctions by treatment with a chemical carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, T; Kohno, Y; Matsui, Y; Yoshiki, S

    1986-06-01

    To examine early intercellular junction changes caused by treatment with 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA), rat lingual epithelium was cultivated in isolation and observed by electrophysiological, freeze-fracture and whole-mount electron microscopy. Electrophysiological measurements showed a transient decrease in membrane potential of -10.2 mV 6 h after the treatment. It returned to almost the same level as that of the control group 1 day later. Six hours after treatment, input resistance decreased rapidly to 5.3 M omega but increased to 18.0 M omega 12 h after treatment. Transient reduction of input resistance and membrane potential occurred prior to the decrease in the coupling ratio 6 h after treatment with DMBA. In freeze-fracture replicas, the number of gap junctions decreased by approximately 45% of the control value 6 h after treatment with DMBA. At 12 h and thereafter, the number and area of gap junctions subsequently decreased by 60-80% of the control value. Alterations in the number and area of desmosomes were similar to those of the gap junctions. The formation of epithelial cytoskeletons, partially devoid of the 2-4 and 5-8 nm filaments was also observed. A decrease in the density of filament networks beneath the plasma membranes was especially apparent. Treatment with a carcinogen brought about morphological cellular changes as early as 6 h after treatment, and such early changes might trigger metabolic cellular abnormalities. Affected cells appear to move away from normal cells in a process of repeated destruction and revision of intercellular junctions, and cytoskeletons.

  17. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 compromise the sinonasal epithelial barrier and perturb intercellular junction protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah K; Laury, Adrienne M; Katz, Elizabeth H; Den Beste, Kyle A; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-05-01

    Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a "leaky" epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins, thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n = 6) and 68.6% (n = 8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n = 9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n = 9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n = 9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n = 9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  18. IL-4 and IL-13 Compromise the Sinonasal Epithelial Barrier and Perturb Intercellular Junction Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah K.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Katz, Elizabeth H.; Den Beste, Kyle A.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a “leaky” epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Methods Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. Results IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n=6) and 68.6% (n=8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein JAM-A expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or ZO-1 with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Conclusion Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. PMID:24510479

  19. Methoxychlor and Vinclozolin Induce Rapid Changes in Intercellular and Intracellular Signaling in Liver Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babica, Pavel; Zurabian, Rimma; Kumar, Esha R; Chopra, Rajus; Mianecki, Maxwell J; Park, Joon-Suk; Jaša, Libor; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2016-09-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) and vinclozolin (VIN) are well-recognized endocrine disrupting chemicals known to alter epigenetic regulations and transgenerational inheritance; however, non-endocrine disruption endpoints are also important. Thus, we determined the effects of MXC and VIN on the dysregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. Both chemicals induced a rapid dysregulation of GJIC at non-cytotoxic doses, with 30 min EC50 values for GJIC inhibition being 10 µM for MXC and 126 µM for VIN. MXC inhibited GJIC for at least 24 h, while VIN effects were transient and GJIC recovered after 4 h. VIN induced rapid hyperphosphorylation and internalization of gap junction protein connexin43, and both chemicals also activated MAPK ERK1/2 and p38. Effects on GJIC were not prevented by MEK1/2 inhibitor, but by an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), resveratrol, and in the case of VIN, also, by a p38 inhibitor. Estrogen (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) modulators (estradiol, ICI 182,780, HPTE, testosterone, flutamide, VIN M2) did not attenuate MXC or VIN effects on GJIC. Our data also indicate that the effects were elicited by the parental compounds of MXC and VIN. Our study provides new evidence that MXC and VIN dysregulate GJIC via mechanisms involving rapid activation of PC-PLC occurring independently of ER- or AR-dependent genomic signaling. Such alterations of rapid intercellular and intracellular signaling events involved in regulations of gene expression, tissue development, function and homeostasis, could also contribute to transgenerational epigenetic effects of endocrine disruptors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Regulation of intercellular tight junctions by zonula occludens toxin and its eukaryotic analogue zonulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, A

    2000-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents the largest interface between the external environment and the internal host milieu and constitutes the major barrier through which molecules can either be absorbed or secreted. There is now substantial evidence that tight junctions (tj) play a major role in regulating epithelial permeability by influencing paracellular flow of fluid and solutes. Tj are one of the hallmarks of absorptive and secretory epithelia. Evidence now exists that tj are dynamic rather than static structures and readily adapt to a variety of developmental, physiological, and pathological circumstances. These adaptive mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Activation of PKC either by Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) or by phorbol esters increases paracellular permeability. Alteration of epithelial tj is a recently described property for infectious agents. Clostridium difficile toxin A and B and influenza and vesicular stomatitis viruses have been shown to loosen tj in tissue culture monolayers. Unlike what occurs after the Zot stimulus, these changes appear to be irreversible and are associated with destruction of the tj complex. On the basis of this observation, we postulated that Zot may mimic the effect of a functionally and immunologically related endogenous modulator of epithelial tj. We were able to identify an intestinal Zot analogue, which we named zonulin. It is conceivable that the zonulins participate in the physiological regulation of intercellular tj not only in the small intestine, but also throughout a wide range of extraintestinal epithelia as well as the ubiquitous vascular endothelium, including the blood-brain barrier. Disregulation of this hypothetical zonulin model may contribute to disease states that involve disordered intercellular communication, including developmental and intestinal disorders, tissue inflammation, malignant transformation, and metastasis.

  1. Proteomic analysis of exosomes from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell identifies intercellular transfer of angiogenic proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Yuk-kit; Zhang, Huoming; Liu, Pei; Tsao, George Sai-wah; Li Lung, Maria; Mak, Nai-ki; Ngok-shun Wong, Ricky; Ying-kit Yue, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes, a group of secreted extracellular nanovesicles containing genetic materials and signaling molecules, play a critical role in intercellular communication. During tumorigenesis, exosomes have been demonstrated to promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis while their biological functions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of NPC-derived exosomes on angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from the NPC C666-1 cells and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69 and NP460) were isolated using ultracentrifugation. The molecular profile and biophysical characteristics of exosomes were verified by Western blotting, sucrose density gradient, and electron microscopy. We showed that the C666-1 exosomes (10 and 20 μg/ml) could significantly increase the tubulogenesis, migration and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in C666-1 exosomes. Among the 640 identified proteins, 51 and 89 proteins were considered as up- and down-regulated (≥ 1.5-fold variations) in C666-1 exosomes compared to the normal counterparts, respectively. As expected, pro-angiogenic proteins including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD44 variant isoform 5 (CD44v5) are among the up-regulated proteins, whereas angio-suppressive protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) was down-regulated in C666-1 exosomes. Further confocal microscopic study and Western blotting clearly demonstrated that the alteration of ICAM-1, and TSP-1 expressions in recipient HUVECs are due to internalization of exosomes. Taken together, these data strongly indicated the critical roles of identified angiogenic proteins in the involvement of exosomes-induced angiogenesis, which could potentially be developed as therapeutic targets in future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Transformed hairy roots of Discaria trinervis: a valuable tool for studying actinorhizal symbiosis in the context of intercellular infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Leandro; Vayssières, Alice; Franche, Claudine; Bogusz, Didier; Wall, Luis; Svistoonoff, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    Among infection mechanisms leading to root nodule symbiosis, the intercellular infection pathway is probably the most ancestral but also one of the least characterized. Intercellular infection has been described in Discaria trinervis, an actinorhizal plant belonging to the Rosales order. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying intercellular infection with Frankia bacteria, we set up an efficient genetic transformation protocol for D. trinervis based on Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We showed that composite plants with transgenic roots expressing green fluorescent protein can be specifically and efficiently nodulated by Frankia strain BCU110501. Nitrogen fixation rates and feedback inhibition of nodule formation by nitrogen were similar in control and composite plants. In order to challenge the transformation system, the MtEnod11 promoter, a gene from Medicago truncatula widely used as a marker for early infection-related symbiotic events in model legumes, was introduced in D. trinervis. MtEnod11::GUS expression was related to infection zones in root cortex and in the parenchyma of the developing nodule. The ability to study intercellular infection with molecular tools opens new avenues for understanding the evolution of the infection process in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses.

  3. Intercellular deposits of basement membrane material in active human pituitary adenomas detected by immunostaining for laminin and electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1986-01-01

    and one patient with Cushing's syndrome). Concurrently, at the ultrastructural level, bunches of basement membrane-like material intermingled between the adenoma cells were demonstrated in seven of these ten active adenomas. Furthermore, secretory granules were entrapped occasionally in this intercellular...

  4. Intercellular communication and cell proliferation in precision-cut rat liver slices : effect of medium composition and DDT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, I.A.M.; Tajima, O.; Groten, J.P.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and cell proliferation were studied in control and 1,1'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2,-trichloroethane (DDT) treated precision-cut liver slices of rat by evaluating connexin 32 (Cx32) expression and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. In

  5. Radial distribution of dilated intercellular spaces of the esophageal squamous epithelium in patients with reflux disease exhibiting discrete endoscopic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieth, M; Fiocca, R; Haringsma, J; Delarive, J; Wiesel, PH; Tam, W; Tytgat, GNJ; Dent, J; Edebo, A; Lundell, L; Stolte, M

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Dilatation of intercellular spaces of the esophageal squamous epithelium has been suggested as a marker of early acid reflux-induced damage. This change is a potentially useful addition to histomorphological changes that represent so called minimal endoscopic lesions. We have assessed

  6. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztasiran, I.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H 3 0+ and H 2 O 2 . Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  7. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

  8. How to preserve foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.; Vadassova, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gamma and fast electron radiations for food preservation is described. Examples are given of the application of ionizing radiation for retarding potato germination, onion growth, and fruit ripening, for limiting the action of microorganisms, and removing salmonella from meat products. The method has remarkable prospects although it may not be considered to be a general-purpose method. Geographic and economic conditions should always be taken into consideration. (J.P.)

  9. Preservation and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the application of gamma radiation to preservation of cultural objects for disinsectization, disinfection and strengthening of materials such as wood or stone by impregnation with a liquid resin and in situ polymerization. As heavy equipment is required two facilities are specialized a 1000 T Bq cobalt 60 source at Grenoble (France) and 100 T Bq one at Rostoky (Czechoslovakia). Examples of treated objects are given [fr

  10. Beneficial bread without preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Zapryana; Denkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    Besides their inherent nutritional value functional foods contain substances that have beneficial impact on the functioning of organs and systems in the human body and reduce the risk of disease. Bread and bakery goods are basic foods in the diet of contemporary people. Preservatives are added to the composition of foods in order to ensure their microbiological safety, but these substances affect directly the balance of microflora in the tract. A great problem is mold and bacterial spoilage (...

  11. Fertility preservation 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  12. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  13. Training development for pavement preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement : preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some ca...

  14. ACHP | Tribal Historic Preservation Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    preservation of significant historic properties. Those functions include identifying and maintaining Working with Section 106 Federal, State, & Tribal Programs Training & Education Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Historic Preservation Programs & Officers arrow THPOs

  15. Preservative treatments for building components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow

    2007-01-01

    The wood species most commonly used in construction have little natural durability Thus, they are treated with preservatives when used in conditions that favor biodeterioration. The type of preservative used varies with the type of wood product, exposure condition, and specific agent of deterioration. This paper discusses the characteristics of several preservative...

  16. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  17. Fertility Preservation in Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennia Michaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children that undergo treatment for cancer are at risk of suffering from subfertility or hormonal dysfunction due to the detrimental effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents on the gonads. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue prior to treatment offers the possibility of restoring gonadal function after resumption of therapy. Effective counseling and management of pediatric patients is crucial for preserving their future reproductive potential. The purpose of this article is to review recent literature and to revise recommendations we made in a 2007 article. Pediatric hemato-oncology, reproductive endocrinology, surgery, anesthesia and bioethics perspectives are discussed and integrated to propose guidelines for offering ovarian cryopreservation to premenarcheal girls with cancer.

  18. Radiation preservation of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, A.; Tasnim, A.; Khan, M.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation for preservation of red hot pepper has been explained in report, as it can kill the harmful organisms without altering the organolpetic properties. The sample were dried and reduced to pass through 20 mesh. The samples were irradiated at different dose levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and results have been shown after different time intervals. Radiation and packaging treatments resulted normaly no effect on the color of dry fruits. (A.B)

  19. Preserving Transactional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Day Thomson

    2017-01-01

    This paper is an adaptation of a longer report commissioned by the UK Data Service. The longer report contributes to on-going support for the Big Data Network – a programme funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The longer report can be found at doi:10.7207/twr16-02. This paper discusses requirements for preserving transactional data and the accompanying challenges facing the companies and institutions who aim to re-use these data for analysis or research. It present...

  20. Intercellular signal communication among odontoblasts and trigeminal ganglion neurons via glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, A; Sato, M; Kimura, M; Katakura, A; Tazaki, M; Shibukawa, Y

    2016-11-01

    Various stimuli to the exposed surface of dentin induce changes in the hydrodynamic force inside the dentinal tubules resulting in dentinal pain. Recent evidences indicate that mechano-sensor channels, such as the transient receptor potential channels, in odontoblasts receive these hydrodynamic forces and trigger the release of ATP to the pulpal neurons, to generate dentinal pain. A recent study, however, has shown that odontoblasts also express glutamate receptors (GluRs). This implies that cells in the dental pulp tissue have the ability to release glutamate, which acts as a functional intercellular mediator to establish inter-odontoblast and odontoblast-trigeminal ganglion (TG) neuron signal communication. To investigate the intercellular signal communication, we applied mechanical stimulation to odontoblasts and measured the intracellular free Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ). During mechanical stimulation in the presence of extracellular Ca 2+ , we observed a transient [Ca 2+ ] i increase not only in single stimulated odontoblasts, but also in adjacent odontoblasts. We could not observe these responses in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . [Ca 2+ ] i increases in the neighboring odontoblasts during mechanical stimulation of single odontoblasts were inhibited by antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) as well as glutamate-permeable anion channels. In the odontoblast-TG neuron coculture, we observed an increase in [Ca 2+ ] i in the stimulated odontoblasts and TG neurons, in response to direct mechanical stimulation of single odontoblasts. These [Ca 2+ ] i increases in the neighboring TG neurons were inhibited by antagonists for mGluRs. The [Ca 2+ ] i increases in the stimulated odontoblasts were also inhibited by mGluRs antagonists. We further confirmed that the odontoblasts express group I, II, and III mGluRs. However, we could not record any currents evoked from odontoblasts near the mechanically stimulated odontoblast, with or without

  1. Mutual preservation of entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitia, Andrzej; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Wong, Chee Wei

    2012-01-01

    We study a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings (JC) model where two entangled pairs of two-level atoms interact indirectly. We show that there exist initial states of the qubit system so that two entangled pairs are available at all times. In particular, the minimum entanglement in the pairs as a function of the initial state is studied. Finally, we extend our findings to a model consisting of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. We use a non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to obtain the steady-state density matrix for the qubits. We show that the multi-mode model also displays dynamical preservation of entanglement. -- Highlights: ► Entanglement dynamics is studied in a generalized double Jaynes–Cummings model. ► We show that for certain initial states, the atoms remain entangled at all times. ► We extend the results to the case of multi-mode atom–cavity interactions. ► The model suggest that indirect interaction may help to preserve entanglement.

  2. A human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody against intercellular adhesion molecule-1 for tumor radioimmunoimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Miyuki; Hinoda, Yuji; Sasaki, Shigeru; Tsujisaki, Masayuki; Imai, Kohzoh; Oriuchi, Noboru; Endo, Keigo.

    1996-01-01

    A mouse-human chimeric antibody for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was established by using heavy chain loss mouse mutant hybridoma and human immunoglobulin expression vector. The HA58 hybridoma secreted anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) (IgG1,κ). The gene of the mouse variable region of heavy chain was amplified and cloned by the polymerase chain reaction technique directly from the HA58 hybridoma RNA. The variable region of heavy chain was joined with an expression vector which contains human γ1 constant gene. The expression vector was transfected into heavy chain loss mutant cells HA58-7, which produced only murine immunoglobulin light chains. The resultant chimeric MoAb HA58, chHA58, retained full-binding reactivity to ICAM-1 compared with murine HA58 parental antibody. The chimeric MoAb chHA58 showed little antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxic activity against cultured tumor cells. Biodistribution studies with 99m Tc-labeled chHA58 in nude mice bearing human gastric carcinoma JRST cells, demonstrated that the tumor-blood ratio was 1.55 at 18 h after injection, when the tumors were clearly visible in gamma scintigraphy. These data suggest that chHA58 may be of practical use for radioimmunoimaging of a wide variety of tumors. (author)

  3. Proteomic insights into intra- and intercellular plant-bacteria symbiotic association during root nodule formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin eSalavati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, there have been a large number of studies done on the all aspects of legumes and bacteria which participate in nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. The analysis of legume-bacteria interaction is not just a matter of numerical complexity in terms of variants of gene products that can arise from a single gene. Bacteria regulate their quorum-sensing genes to enhance their ability to induce conjugation of plasmids and symbiotic islands, and various protein secretion mechanisms; that can stimulate a collection of chain reactions including species-specific combinations of plant-secretion isoflavonoids, complicated calcium signaling pathways and autoregulation of nodulation mechanisms. Quorum-sensing systems are introduced by the intra- and intercellular organization of gene products lead to protein–protein interactions or targeting of proteins to specific cellular structures. In this study, an attempt has been made to review significant contributions related to nodule formation and development and their impacts on cell proteome for better understanding of plant-bacterium interaction mechanism at protein level. This review would not only provide new insights into the plant-bacteria symbiosis response mechanisms but would also highlights the importance of studying changes in protein abundance inside and outside of cells in response to symbiosis. Furthermore, the application to agriculture programe of plant-bacteria interaction will be discussed.

  4. Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzam, Edouard I

    2013-01-16

    The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

  5. Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D relocates nectin-1 from intercellular contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Arjun K; Rothlauf, Paul W; Krummenacher, Claude

    2016-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) uses the cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 as a receptor to enter neurons and epithelial cells. The viral glycoprotein D (gD) is used as a non-canonical ligand for nectin-1. The gD binding site on nectin-1 overlaps with a functional adhesive site involved in nectin-nectin homophilic trans-interaction. Consequently, when nectin-1 is engaged with a cellular ligand at cell junctions, the gD binding site is occupied. Here we report that HSV gD is able to disrupt intercellular homophilic trans-interaction of nectin-1 and induce a rapid redistribution of nectin-1 from cell junctions. This movement does not require the receptor's interaction with the actin-binding adaptor afadin. Interaction of nectin-1 with afadin is also dispensable for virion surfing along nectin-1-rich filopodia. Cells seeded on gD-coated surfaces also fail to accumulate nectin-1 at cell contact. These data indicate that HSV gD affects nectin-1 locally through direct interaction and more globally through signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1 with Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvest F Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and diabetic nephropathy are complex diseases affected by genetic and environmental factors. Identification of the susceptibility genes and investigation of their roles may provide useful information for better understanding of the pathogenesis and for developing novel therapeutic approaches. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1 is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and leukocytes in the immune system. The ICAM1 gene is located on chromosome 19p13 within the linkage region of diabetes. In the recent years, accumulating reports have implicated that genetic polymorphisms in the ICAM1 gene are associated with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Serum ICAM1 levels in diabetes patients and the icam1 gene expression in kidney tissues of diabetic animals are increased compared to the controls. Therefore, ICAM1 may play a role in the development of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. In this review, we present genomic structure, variation and regulation of the ICAM1 gene, summarized genetic and biological studies of this gene in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy and discussed about the potential application using ICAM1 as a biomarker and target for prediction and treatment of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piraino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778 has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa. The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed.

  8. Interaction between Na+/K+-pump and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger modulates intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchkov, Vladimir V; Gustafsson, Helena; Rahman, Awahan; Briggs Boedtkjer, Donna M; Gorintin, Sarah; Hansen, Anne Kirstine; Bouzinova, Elena V; Praetorius, Helle A; Aalkjaer, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-04-13

    Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated through an interaction between the Na(+)/K(+)-pump and the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger leading to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in discrete areas near the plasma membrane. [Ca(2+)](i) in smooth muscle cells was imaged in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell pairs (A7r5) and in rat mesenteric small artery segments simultaneously with force. In A7r5 coupling between cells was estimated by measuring membrane capacitance. Smooth muscle cells were uncoupled when the Na(+)/K(+)-pump was inhibited either by a low concentration of ouabain, which also caused a localized increase of [Ca(2+)](i) near the membrane, or by ATP depletion. Reduction of Na(+)/K(+)-pump activity by removal of extracellular potassium ([K(+)](o)) also uncoupled cells, but only after inhibition of K(ATP) channels. Inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchange activity by SEA0400 or by a reduction of the equilibrium potential (making it more negative) also uncoupled the cells. Depletion of intracellular Na(+) and clamping of [Ca(2+)](i) at low concentrations prevented the uncoupling. The experiments suggest that the Na(+)/K(+)-pump may affect gap junction conductivity via localized changes in [Ca(2+)](i) through modulation of Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activity.

  9. Effect of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in radiation otitis media murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengzi; Cheng Qingfang; Lu Shenbin; Liu Jianping; Wang Shuyi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the dose- and time-dependent changes in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression and the role of this molecule as a mediator of middle ear inflammation induced by radiation. Methods: Radiation-induced otitis media animal models were established by using guinea pigs after 60 Co irradiation with 3 Gy/fraction per day, 5 times per week to a total dose of 15, 30, 45 Gy. The expression of ICAM-1 was studied by SP immunohistochemistry with the relation between radiation dose and infiltration of leukocytes investigated. Results: ICAM-1 was not expressed in the normal epithelium of the middle ear mucosa. Mucosal epithelium strongly expressed ICAM-1 after having been administered with 45 Gy of irradiation showing a significant correlation between the expression of ICAM-1 and the infiltration of leukocytes. Conclusions: Irradiation increases the expression of ICAM-1 in the middle ear mucosa. ICAM-1 may be related to the inflammation in the middle ear after irradiation

  10. Shaping intercellular channels of plasmodesmata: the structure-to-function missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, William J; Grison, Magali S; Bayer, Emmanuelle M

    2017-12-18

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are a hallmark of the plant kingdom and a cornerstone of plant biology and physiology, forming the conduits for the cell-to-cell transfer of proteins, RNA and various metabolites, including hormones. They connect the cytosols and endomembranes of cells, which allows enhanced cell-to-cell communication and synchronization. Because of their unique position as intercellular gateways, they are at the frontline of plant defence and signalling and constitute the battleground for virus replication and spreading. The membranous organization of PD is remarkable, where a tightly furled strand of endoplasmic reticulum comes into close apposition with the plasma membrane, the two connected by spoke-like elements. The role of these structural features is, to date, still not completely understood. Recent data on PD seem to point in an unexpected direction, establishing a close parallel between PD and membrane contact sites and defining plasmodesmal membranes as microdomains. However, the implications of this new viewpoint are not fully understood. Aided by available phylogenetic data, this review attempts to reassess the function of the different elements comprising the PD and the relevance of membrane lipid composition and biophysics in defining specialized microdomains of PD, critical for their function. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Mechanical Entrapment Is Insufficient and Intercellular Adhesion Is Essential for Metastatic Cell Arrest in Distant Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Glinskii

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we challenge a common perception that tumor embolism is a size-limited event of mechanical arrest, occurring in the first capillary bed encountered by blood-borne metastatic cells. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical entrapment alone, in the absence of tumor cell adhesion to blood vessel walls, is not sufficient for metastatic cell arrest in target organ microvasculature. The in vivo metastatic deposit formation assay was used to assess the number and location of fluorescently labeled tumor cells lodged in selected organs and tissues following intravenous inoculation. We report that a significant fraction of breast and prostate cancer cells escapes arrest in a lung capillary bed and lodges successfully in other organs and tissues. Monoclonal antibodies and carbohydrate-based compounds (anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen antibody, anti-galectin-3 antibody, modified citrus pectin, and lactulosyl-L-leucine, targeting specifically β-galactoside-mediated tumor-endothelial cell adhesive interactions, inhibited by >90% the in vivo formation of breast and prostate carcinoma metastatic deposits in mouse lung and bones. Our results indicate that metastatic cell arrest in target organ microvessels is not a consequence of mechanical trapping, but is supported predominantly by intercellular adhesive interactions mediated by cancer-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich glycoantigen and β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-3. Efficient blocking of β-galactoside-mediated adhesion precludes malignant cell lodging in target organs.

  12. Intercellular Resistance to BRAF Inhibition Can Be Mediated by Extracellular Vesicle–Associated PDGFRβ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Vella

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of BRAF mutant melanoma with kinase inhibitors has been associated with rapid tumor regression; however, this clinical benefit is short-lived, and most patients relapse. A number of studies suggest that the extracellular environment promotes BRAF inhibitor resistance and tumor progression. Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are functional mediators in the extracellular environment. They are small vesicles known to carry a concentrated group of functional cargo and serve as intercellular communicators not only locally but also systemically. Increasingly, it is reported that extracellular vesicles facilitate the development of drug resistance in cancer; however, their role in BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma is unclear. Here we investigated if extracellular vesicles from BRAF inhibitor–resistant melanoma could influence drug sensitivity in recipient melanoma cells. We demonstrate that the resistance driver, PDGFRβ, can be transferred to recipient melanoma cells via extracellular vesicles, resulting in a dose-dependent activation of PI3K/AKT signaling and escape from MAPK pathway BRAF inhibition. These data suggest that the BRAF inhibitor–sensitive phenotype of metastatic melanoma can be altered by delivery of PDGFRβ by extracellular vesicles derived from neighboring drug-resistant melanoma cells.

  13. Transient suppression of gap junctional intercellular communication after exposure to 100-nanosecond pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Anna; Schmidt, Anke; Labohá, Petra; Babica, Pavel; Kolb, Juergen F

    2016-12-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is an important mechanism that is involved and affected in many diseases and injuries. So far, the effect of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) on the communication between cells was not investigated. An in vitro approach is presented with rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells grown and exposed in a monolayer. In order to observe sub-lethal effects, cells were exposed to pulsed electric fields with a duration of 100ns and amplitudes between 10 and 20kV/cm. GJIC strongly decreased within 15min after treatment but recovered within 24h. Gene expression of Cx43 was significantly decreased and associated with a reduced total amount of Cx43 protein. In addition, MAP kinases p38 and Erk1/2, involved in Cx43 phosphorylation, were activated and Cx43 became hyperphosphorylated. Immunofluorescent staining of Cx43 displayed the disassembly of gap junctions. Further, a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton was observed whereas tight junction protein ZO-1 was not significantly affected. All effects were field- and time-dependent and most pronounced within 30 to 60min after treatment. A better understanding of a possible manipulation of GJIC by nsPEFs might eventually offer a possibility to develop and improve treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of lead intoxication on intercellular junctions and biochemical alterations of the renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Moreno, L G; Quintanar-Escorza, M A; González, S; Mondragón, R; Cerbón-Solorzáno, J; Valdés, J; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2009-10-01

    Lead intoxication is a worldwide health problem which frequently affects the kidney. In this work, we studied the effects of chronic lead intoxication (500 ppm of Pb in drinking water during seven months) on the structure, function and biochemical properties of rat proximal tubule cells. Lead-exposed animals showed increased lead concentration in kidney, reduction of calcium and amino acids uptake, oxidative damage and glucosuria, proteinuria, hematuria and reduced urinary pH. These biochemical and physiological alterations were related to striking morphological modifications in the structure of tubule epithelial cells and in the morphology of their mitochondria, nuclei, lysosomes, basal and apical membranes. Interestingly, in addition to the nuclei, inclusion bodies were found in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria. The epithelial cell structure modifications included an early loss of the apical microvillae, followed by a decrement of the luminal space and the respective apposition and proximity of apical membranes, resulting in the formation of atypical intercellular contacts and adhesion structures. Similar but less marked alterations were observed in subacute lead intoxication as well. Our work contributes in the understanding of the physiopathology of lead intoxication on the structure of renal tubular epithelial cell-cell contacts in vivo.

  15. Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Radiation-Induced Brain Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.-L.; Tu Ba; Li Yuqing; Wong, C. Shun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of brain injury after irradiation (IR). Methods and Materials: We assessed the expression of ICAM-1 in mouse brain after cranial IR and determined the histopathologic and behavioral changes in mice that were either wildtype (+/+) or knockout (-/-) of the ICAM-1 gene after IR. Results: There was an early dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression after IR. Increased ICAM-1 immunoreactivity was observed in endothelia and glia of ICAM-1+/+ mice up to 8 months after IR. ICAM-1-/- mice showed no expression. ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar vascular abnormalities at 2 months after 10-17 Gy, and there was evidence for demyelination and inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis at 8 months after 10 Gy. After 10 Gy, irradiated ICAM-1+/+ and ICAM-1-/- mice showed similar behavioral changes at 2-6 months in open field, light-dark chamber, and T-maze compared with age-matched genotype controls. Conclusion: There is early and late upregulation of ICAM-1 in the vasculature and glia of mouse brain after IR. ICAM-1, however, does not have a causative role in the histopathologic injury and behavioral dysfunction after moderate single doses of cranial IR.

  16. Rapid construction of mechanically- confined multi- cellular structures using dendrimeric intercellular linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xuejun; Li, Qiushi; Yi Lui, Lena Wai; Zheng, Baixue; Kang, Chiang Huen; Nugraha, Bramasta; Yue, Zhilian; Jia, Rui Rui; Fu, Hong Xia; Choudhury, Deepak; Arooz, Talha; Yan, Jie; Lim, Chwee Teck; Shen, Shali; Hong Tan, Choon; Yu, Hanry

    2010-10-01

    Tissue constructs that mimic the in vivo cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are especially useful for applications involving the cell- dense and matrix- poor internal organs. Rapid and precise arrangement of cells into functional tissue constructs remains a challenge in tissue engineering. We demonstrate rapid assembly of C3A cells into multi- cell structures using a dendrimeric intercellular linker. The linker is composed of oleyl- polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives conjugated to a 16 arms- polypropylenimine hexadecaamine (DAB) dendrimer. The positively charged multivalent dendrimer concentrates the linker onto the negatively charged cell surface to facilitate efficient insertion of the hydrophobic oleyl groups into the cellular membrane. Bringing linker- treated cells into close proximity to each other via mechanical means such as centrifugation and micromanipulation enables their rapid assembly into multi- cellular structures within minutes. The cells exhibit high levels of viability, proliferation, three- dimensional (3D) cell morphology and other functions in the constructs. We constructed defined multi- cellular structures such as rings, sheets or branching rods that can serve as potential tissue building blocks to be further assembled into complex 3D tissue constructs for biomedical applications. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways mediating ionizing radiation-induced bystander effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Hara, Takamitsu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    A rapidly growing body of experimental evidence indicates that ionizing radiation induces biological effects in non-irradiated bystander cells that have received signals from adjacent or distant irradiated cells. This phenomenon, which has been termed the ionizing radiation-induced bystander effect, challenges the long-standing paradigm that radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is a prerequisite to elicit genetic damage or a biological response. Bystander effects have been observed in a number of experimental systems, and cells whose nucleus or cytoplasm is irradiated exert bystander responses. Bystander cells manifest a multitude of biological consequences, such as genetic and epigenetic changes, alterations in gene expression, activation of signal transduction pathways, and delayed effects in their progeny. Several mediating mechanisms have been proposed. These involve gap junction-mediated intercellular communication, secreted soluble factors, oxidative metabolism, plasma membrane-bound lipid rafts, and calcium fluxes. This paper reviews briefly the current knowledge of the bystander effect with a focus on proposed mechanisms. The potential benefit of bystander effects to cancer radiotherapy will also be discussed. (author)

  18. Chlorpromazine reduces the intercellular communication via gap junctions in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, Juan A.; Palacios-Prado, Nicolas; Saez, Juan C.

    2006-01-01

    In the work presented herein, we evaluated the effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on gap junctions expressed by two mammalian cell types; Gn-11 cells (cell line derived from mouse LHRH neurons) and rat cortical astrocytes maintained in culture. We also attempted to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of CPZ effects on gap junctions. CPZ, in concentrations comparable with doses used to treat human diseases, was found to reduce the intercellular communication via gap junctions as evaluated with measurements of dye coupling (Lucifer yellow). In both cell types, maximal inhibition of functional gap junctions was reached within about 1 h of treatment with CPZ, an recovery was almost complete at about 5 h after CPZ wash out. In both cell types, CPZ treatment increased the phosphorylation state of connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein subunit. Moreover, CPZ reduced the reactivity of Cx43 (immunofluorescence) at cell interfaces and concomitantly increased its reactivity in intracellular vesicles, suggesting an increased retrieval from and/or reduced insertion into the plasma membrane. CPZ also caused cellular retraction reducing cell-cell contacts in a reversible manner. The reduction in contact area might destabilize existing gap junctions and abrogate formation of new ones. Moreover, the CPZ-induced reduction in gap junctional communication may depend on the connexins (Cxs) forming the junctions. If Cx43 were the only connexin expressed, MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of this connexin would induce closure of gap junction channels

  19. Loss of intercellular adhesion leads to differential accumulation of hypericin in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, S. Sasidharan; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Chin, William W. L.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Olivo, Malini C. D.

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) exploits the photoactive nature of certain compounds, namely photosensitizers, in order to enhance the visual demarcation between normal and neoplastic tissue. Hypericin is one such potent photosensitizer that preferentially accumulate in neoplastic tissue, and fluoresce in the visible spectrum when illuminated with light of an appropriate wavelength. In our study, we investigated the role of E-cadherin in the selective permeation of hypericin in bladder cancer tissues. Clinical studies were done on a series of 43 histologically graded bladder cancer biopsy specimens, obtained from 28 patients who received intravesical instillations with 8μM hypericin solution for at least 2 hours. Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the expression of E-cadherin, in the cryosectioned tissues. Hypericin uptake was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining showed a clear expression of E-cadherin along the urothelial lining of the normal and pre-malignant tissues. Partial expression of these cell adhesion molecules were still observed in malignant tissues, however there was a loss of expression to variable extends along the urothelium. Thus, loss of intercellular adhesion can be associated with enhanced hypericin permeation through paracellular diffusion.

  20. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 augments myoblast adhesion and fusion through homophilic trans-interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, Francis X; Martin, Ryan A; Springer, Evan M; Leffler, Maxwell S; Woelmer, Bryce R; Recker, Isaac J; Leaman, Douglas W

    2017-07-11

    The overall objective of the study was to identify mechanisms through which intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) augments the adhesive and fusogenic properties of myogenic cells. Hypotheses were tested using cultured myoblasts and fibroblasts, which do not constitutively express ICAM-1, and myoblasts and fibroblasts forced to express full length ICAM-1 or a truncated form lacking the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. ICAM-1 mediated myoblast adhesion and fusion were quantified using novel assays and cell mixing experiments. We report that ICAM-1 augments myoblast adhesion to myoblasts and myotubes through homophilic trans-interactions. Such adhesive interactions enhanced levels of active Rac in adherent and fusing myoblasts, as well as triggered lamellipodia, spreading, and fusion of myoblasts through the signaling function of the cytoplasmic domain of ICAM-1. Rac inhibition negated ICAM-1 mediated lamellipodia, spreading, and fusion of myoblasts. The fusogenic property of ICAM-1-ICAM-1 interactions was restricted to myogenic cells, as forced expression of ICAM-1 by fibroblasts did not augment their fusion to ICAM-1+ myoblasts/myotubes. We conclude that ICAM-1 augments myoblast adhesion and fusion through its ability to self-associate and initiate Rac-mediated remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton.

  1. Preserving reptiles for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  2. Activation of L-type calcium channels is required for gap junction-mediated intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of mechanically induced intercellular calcium waves (ICW) among osteoblastic cells occurs both by activation of P2Y (purinergic) receptors by extracellular nucleotides, resulting in "fast" ICW, and by gap junctional communication in cells that express connexin43 (Cx43), resulting...... in "slow" ICW. Human osteoblastic cells transmit intercellular calcium signals by both of these mechanisms. In the current studies we have examined the mechanism of slow gap junction-dependent ICW in osteoblastic cells. In ROS rat osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW were inhibited by removal...... of extracellular calcium, plasma membrane depolarization by high extracellular potassium, and the L-type voltage-operated calcium channel inhibitor, nifedipine. In contrast, all these treatments enhanced the spread of P2 receptor-mediated ICW in UMR rat osteoblastic cells. Using UMR cells transfected to express Cx...

  3. Drosophila wing imaginal discs respond to mechanical injury via slow InsP3R-mediated intercellular calcium waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Simon; Basler, Konrad

    2016-08-01

    Calcium signalling is a highly versatile cellular communication system that modulates basic functions such as cell contractility, essential steps of animal development such as fertilization and higher-order processes such as memory. We probed the function of calcium signalling in Drosophila wing imaginal discs through a combination of ex vivo and in vivo imaging and genetic analysis. Here we discover that wing discs display slow, long-range intercellular calcium waves (ICWs) when mechanically stressed in vivo or cultured ex vivo. These slow imaginal disc intercellular calcium waves (SIDICs) are mediated by the inositol-3-phosphate receptor, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pump SERCA and the key gap junction component Inx2. The knockdown of genes required for SIDIC formation and propagation negatively affects wing disc recovery after mechanical injury. Our results reveal a role for ICWs in wing disc homoeostasis and highlight the utility of the wing disc as a model for calcium signalling studies.

  4. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  5. Laminin-332 alters connexin profile, dye coupling and intercellular Ca2+ waves in ciliated tracheal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Colin E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal epithelial cells are anchored to a dynamic basement membrane that contains a variety of extracellular matrix proteins including collagens and laminins. During development, wound repair and disease of the airway epithelium, significant changes in extracellular matrix proteins may directly affect cell migration, differentiation and events mediated by intercellular communication. We hypothesized that alterations in cell matrix, specifically type I collagen and laminin α3β3γ2 (LM-332 proteins within the matrix, directly affect intercellular communication in ciliated rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (RTEC. Methods Functional coupling of RTEC was monitored by microinjection of the negatively charged fluorescent dyes, Lucifer Yellow and Alexa 350, into ciliated RTEC grown on either a LM-332/collagen or collagen matrix. Coupling of physiologically significant molecules was evaluated by the mechanism and extent of propagated intercellular Ca2+ waves. Expression of connexin (Cx mRNA and proteins were assayed by reverse transcriptase – polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Results When compared to RTEC grown on collagen alone, RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen displayed a significant increase in dye transfer. Although mechanical stimulation of RTEC grown on either LM-332/collagen or collagen alone resulted in intercellular Ca2+ waves, the mechanism of transfer was dependent on matrix: RTEC grown on LM-332/collagen propagated Ca2+waves via extracellular purinergic signaling whereas RTEC grown on collagen used gap junctions. Comparison of RTEC grown on collagen or LM-332/collagen matrices revealed a reorganization of Cx26, Cx43 and Cx46 proteins. Conclusion Alterations in airway basement membrane proteins such as LM-332 can induce connexin reorganizations and result in altered cellular communication mechanisms that could contribute to airway tissue function.

  6. Intercellular K⁺ accumulation depolarizes Type I vestibular hair cells and their associated afferent nerve calyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D; Zampini, V; Tavazzani, E; Magistretti, J; Russo, G; Prigioni, I; Masetto, S

    2012-12-27

    Mammalian vestibular organs contain two types of sensory receptors, named Type I and Type II hair cells. While Type II hair cells are contacted by several small afferent nerve terminals, the basolateral surface of Type I hair cells is almost entirely enveloped by a single large afferent nerve terminal, called calyx. Moreover Type I, but not Type II hair cells, express a low-voltage-activated outward K(+) current, I(K,L), which is responsible for their much lower input resistance (Rm) at rest as compared to Type II hair cells. The functional meaning of I(K,L) and associated calyx is still enigmatic. By combining the patch-clamp whole-cell technique with the mouse whole crista preparation, we have recorded the current- and voltage responses of in situ hair cells. Outward K(+) current activation resulted in K(+) accumulation around Type I hair cells, since it induced a rightward shift of the K(+) reversal potential the magnitude of which depended on the amplitude and duration of K(+) current flow. Since this phenomenon was never observed for Type II hair cells, we ascribed it to the presence of a residual calyx limiting K(+) efflux from the synaptic cleft. Intercellular K(+) accumulation added a slow (τ>100ms) depolarizing component to the cell voltage response. In a few cases we were able to record from the calyx and found evidence for intercellular K(+) accumulation as well. The resulting depolarization could trigger a discharge of action potentials in the afferent nerve fiber. Present results support a model where pre- and postsynaptic depolarization produced by intercellular K(+) accumulation cooperates with neurotransmitter exocytosis in sustaining afferent transmission arising from Type I hair cells. While vesicular transmission together with the low Rm of Type I hair cells appears best suited for signaling fast head movements, depolarization produced by intercellular K(+) accumulation could enhance signal transmission during slow head movements. Copyright

  7. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  9. Destruction of the hepatocyte junction by intercellular invasion of Leptospira causes jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Satoshi; Saito, Mitsumasa; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Weil's disease, the most severe form of leptospirosis, is characterized by jaundice, haemorrhage and renal failure. The mechanisms of jaundice caused by pathogenic Leptospira remain unclear. We therefore aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by integrating histopathological changes with serum biochemical abnormalities during the development of jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease. In this work, we obtained three-dimensional images of infected hamster livers using scanning electron microscope together with freeze-cracking and cross-cutting methods for sample preparation. The images displayed the corkscrew-shaped bacteria, which infiltrated the Disse's space, migrated between hepatocytes, detached the intercellular junctions and disrupted the bile canaliculi. Destruction of bile canaliculi coincided with the elevation of conjugated bilirubin, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels in serum, whereas serum alanine transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels increased slightly, but not significantly. We also found in ex vivo experiments that pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic leptospires, tend to adhere to the perijunctional region of hepatocyte couplets isolated from hamsters and initiate invasion of the intercellular junction within 1 h after co-incubation. Our results suggest that pathogenic leptospires invade the intercellular junctions of host hepatocytes, and this invasion contributes in the disruption of the junction. Subsequently, bile leaks from bile canaliculi and jaundice occurs immediately. Our findings revealed not only a novel pathogenicity of leptospires, but also a novel mechanism of jaundice induced by bacterial infection. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2014 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  10. Robust synchronization analysis in nonlinear stochastic cellular networks with time-varying delays, intracellular perturbations and intercellular noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Wei; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2011-08-01

    Naturally, a cellular network consisted of a large amount of interacting cells is complex. These cells have to be synchronized in order to emerge their phenomena for some biological purposes. However, the inherently stochastic intra and intercellular interactions are noisy and delayed from biochemical processes. In this study, a robust synchronization scheme is proposed for a nonlinear stochastic time-delay coupled cellular network (TdCCN) in spite of the time-varying process delay and intracellular parameter perturbations. Furthermore, a nonlinear stochastic noise filtering ability is also investigated for this synchronized TdCCN against stochastic intercellular and environmental disturbances. Since it is very difficult to solve a robust synchronization problem with the Hamilton-Jacobi inequality (HJI) matrix, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) is employed to solve this problem via the help of a global linearization method. Through this robust synchronization analysis, we can gain a more systemic insight into not only the robust synchronizability but also the noise filtering ability of TdCCN under time-varying process delays, intracellular perturbations and intercellular disturbances. The measures of robustness and noise filtering ability of a synchronized TdCCN have potential application to the designs of neuron transmitters, on-time mass production of biochemical molecules, and synthetic biology. Finally, a benchmark of robust synchronization design in Escherichia coli repressilators is given to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tunneling Nanotubes and Gap Junctions–Their Role in Long-Range Intercellular Communication during Development, Health, and Disease Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ariazi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell communication is essential for the organization, coordination, and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors (including growth factors, neurotransmitters, and cytokines/chemokines, gap junctions, exosomes and recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs. It is unknown whether a combination of these communication mechanisms such as TNTs and gap junctions may be important, but further research is required. TNTs are long cytoplasmic bridges that enable long-range, directed communication between connected cells. The proposed functions of TNTs are diverse and not well understood but have been shown to include the cell-to-cell transfer of vesicles, organelles, electrical stimuli and small molecules. However, the exact role of TNTs and gap junctions for intercellular communication and their impact on disease is still uncertain and thus, the subject of much debate. The combined data from numerous laboratories indicate that some TNT mediate a long-range gap junctional communication to coordinate metabolism and signaling, in relation to infectious, genetic, metabolic, cancer, and age-related diseases. This review aims to describe the current knowledge, challenges and future perspectives to characterize and explore this new intercellular communication system and to design TNT-based therapeutic strategies.

  12. Preserving Employee Privacy in Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    The proposed "Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act" states that the collection of information about the manifested disease or disorder of a family member shall not be considered an unlawful acquisition of genetic information. The bill recognizes employee privacy protections that are already in place and includes specific language relating to nondiscrimination based on illness. Why did legislation expressly intending to "preserve wellness programs" generate such antipathy about wellness among journalists? This article argues that those who are committed to preserving employee wellness must be equally committed to preserving employee privacy. Related to this, we should better parse between discussions and rules about commonplace health screenings versus much less common genetic testing.

  13. Meeting report - Intercellular interactions in context: towards a mechanistic understanding of cells in organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, David; Johnson, Aaron

    2017-07-01

    The Company of Biologists held the workshop 'Intercellular interactions in context: towards a mechanistic understanding of cells in organs' at historic Wiston House in West Sussex, UK, 5-8 February 2017. The meeting brought together around 30 scientists from disparate backgrounds - yet with a common interest of how tissue morphogenesis occurs and its dysregulation leads to pathologies - to intensively discuss their latest research, the current state of the field, as well as any challenges for the future. This report summarises the concepts and challenges that arose as key questions for the fields of cell, cancer and developmental biology. By design of the organizers - Andrew Ewald (John Hopkins University, MA), John Wallingford (University of Texas at Austin, TX) and Peter Friedl (Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands) - the attendee makeup was cross-sectional: both in terms of career stage and scientific background. This intermingling was mirrored in the workshop format; all participants - irrespective of career stage - were given equal speaking and question time, and all early-career researchers also chaired a session, which promoted an atmosphere for discussions that were open, egalitarian and supportive. This was particularly evident in the scheduled 'out-of-the-box' sessions, which provided an avenue for participants to raise ideas and concepts or to discuss specific problems they wanted feedback or clarification on. In the following, rather than act as court reporters and convey chronological accounting of presentations, we present the questions that arose from the workshop and should be posed to the field at large, by discussing the presentations as they relate to these concepts. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. TC-PTP directly interacts with connexin43 to regulate gap junction intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanjun; Spagnol, Gaelle; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein kinases have long been reported to regulate connexins; however, little is known about the involvement of phosphatases in the modulation of intercellular communication through gap junctions and the subsequent downstream effects on cellular processes. Here, we identify an interaction between the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP, officially known as PTPN2) and the carboxyl terminus of connexin43 (Cx43, officially known as GJA1). Two cell lines, normal rat kidney (NRK) cells endogenously expressing Cx43 and an NRK-derived cell line expressing v-Src with temperature-sensitive activity, were used to demonstrate that EGF and v-Src stimulation, respectively, induced TC-PTP to colocalize with Cx43 at the plasma membrane. Cell biology experiments using phospho-specific antibodies and biophysical assays demonstrated that the interaction is direct and that TC-PTP dephosphorylates Cx43 residues Y247 and Y265, but does not affect v-Src. Transfection of TC-PTP also indirectly led to the dephosphorylation of Cx43 S368, by inactivating PKCα and PKCδ, with no effect on the phosphorylation of S279 and S282 (MAPK-dependent phosphorylation sites). Dephosphorylation maintained Cx43 gap junctions at the plaque and partially reversed the channel closure caused by v-Src-mediated phosphorylation of Cx43. Understanding dephosphorylation, along with the well-documented roles of Cx43 phosphorylation, might eventually lead to methods to modulate the regulation of gap junction channels, with potential benefits for human health. PMID:24849651

  15. Effect of spironolactone on renal and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in Type 2 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Suwan; Li Sumei; Zhai Fei; Zhang Li; Zhang Rong; Ru Yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influence of spironolactone on the serum and urine intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) level, and the change of renal structure and function of type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: 30 healthy male SD rats were chosen 10 of them were randomly selected as normal controls (group NC) n=10; Then these rats were randomly divided into type 2 diabetes group (group DM) n=10 and type 2 diabetes + spironolactone treated group (group SPI) n=10. After 8 weeks, the levels of blood glucose, serum lipids, urine biochemical, renal pathological changes were examined; while the serum and urine ICAM-1 levels changes were also detected. Results: 1. Compared with group NC, the levels of fBG and HbA1c were significantly increased in group DM and group SPI (P 0.05). 2. After 8 weeks,the levels of ACR, URBP, UICAM-1, SICAM-1 and kidney/body weight ratio in group DM and group SPI were higher than group NC (P<0.05); the five indexes were significantly lower in group SPI compared with group DM (P<0.05). In addition, UICAM-1 excretion rate and SICAM-1 level showed positive correlations with ACR, URBP excretion rate and kidney/body weight ratio (P<0.01). 3. Pathology showed that the extent of glomerular lesions in rats in group SPI apparently reduced, ICAM-1 expression was decreased compared with that in group DM (P<0.01). Conclusion: Spironolactone can definitely protect type 2 diabetic kidney,and this protective effect was independent on the hypoglycemic effect. The mechanisms might be associated with its inhibition effect on ICAM-1 expression and its excretion. (authors)

  16. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  17. Intercellular signaling via cyclic GMP diffusion through gap junctions restarts meiosis in mouse ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaibar, Leia C; Egbert, Jeremy R; Norris, Rachael P; Lampe, Paul D; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Thunemann, Martin; Wen, Lai; Feil, Robert; Jaffe, Laurinda A

    2015-04-28

    Meiosis in mammalian oocytes is paused until luteinizing hormone (LH) activates receptors in the mural granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle. Prior work has established the central role of cyclic GMP (cGMP) from the granulosa cells in maintaining meiotic arrest, but it is not clear how binding of LH to receptors that are located up to 10 cell layers away from the oocyte lowers oocyte cGMP and restarts meiosis. Here, by visualizing intercellular trafficking of cGMP in real-time in live follicles from mice expressing a FRET sensor, we show that diffusion of cGMP through gap junctions is responsible not only for maintaining meiotic arrest, but also for rapid transmission of the signal that reinitiates meiosis from the follicle surface to the oocyte. Before LH exposure, the cGMP concentration throughout the follicle is at a uniformly high level of ∼2-4 μM. Then, within 1 min of LH application, cGMP begins to decrease in the peripheral granulosa cells. As a consequence, cGMP from the oocyte diffuses into the sink provided by the large granulosa cell volume, such that by 20 min the cGMP concentration in the follicle is uniformly low, ∼100 nM. The decrease in cGMP in the oocyte relieves the inhibition of the meiotic cell cycle. This direct demonstration that a physiological signal initiated by a stimulus in one region of an intact tissue can travel across many layers of cells via cyclic nucleotide diffusion through gap junctions could provide a general mechanism for diverse cellular processes.

  18. Regulation of germ cell development by intercellular signaling in the mammalian ovarian follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Hugh J

    2018-01-01

    Prior to ovulation, the mammalian oocyte undergoes a process of differentiation within the ovarian follicle that confers on it the ability to give rise to an embryo. Differentiation comprises two phases-growth, during which the oocyte increases more than 100-fold in volume as it accumulates macromolecules and organelles that will sustain early embryogenesis; and meiotic maturation, during which the oocyte executes the first meiotic division and prepares for the second division. Entry of an oocyte into the growth phase appears to be triggered when the adjacent granulosa cells produce specific growth factors. As the oocyte grows, it elaborates a thick extracellular coat termed the zona pellucida. Nonetheless, cytoplasmic extensions of the adjacent granulosa cells, termed transzonal projections (TZPs), enable them to maintain contact-dependent communication with the oocyte. Through gap junctions located where the TZP tips meet the oocyte membrane, they provide the oocyte with products that sustain its metabolic activity and signals that regulate its differentiation. Conversely, the oocyte secretes diffusible growth factors that regulate proliferation and differentiation of the granulosa cells. Gap junction-permeable products of the granulosa cells prevent precocious initiation of meiotic maturation, and the gap junctions also enable oocyte maturation to begin in response to hormonal signals received by the granulosa cells. Development of the oocyte or the somatic compartment may also be regulated by extracellular vesicles newly identified in follicular fluid and at TZP tips, which could mediate intercellular transfer of macromolecules. Oocyte differentiation thus depends on continuous signaling interactions with the somatic cells of the follicle. WIREs Dev Biol 2018, 7:e294. doi: 10.1002/wdev.294 This article is categorized under: Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Cellular Differentiation Signaling Pathways > Cell Fate Signaling Early Embryonic

  19. Endothelial targeting of high-affinity multivalent polymer nanocarriers directed to intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Silvia; Dziubla, Thomas; Qiu, Weining; Leferovich, John; Cui, Xiumin; Berk, Erik; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2006-06-01

    Targeting of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to endothelial cells (ECs) provides an avenue to improve treatment of many maladies. For example, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a constitutive endothelial cell adhesion molecule up-regulated in many diseases, is a good determinant for endothelial targeting of therapeutic enzymes and polymer nanocarriers (PNCs) conjugated with anti-ICAM (anti-ICAM/PNCs). However, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that control targeting of anti-ICAM/PNCs to ECs (e.g., anti-ICAM affinity and PNC valency and flow) have not been defined. In this study we tested in vitro and in vivo parameters of targeting to ECs of anti-ICAM/PNCs consisting of either prototype polystyrene or biodegradable poly(lactic-coglycolic) acid polymers (approximately 200 nm diameter spheres carrying approximately 200 anti-ICAM molecules). Anti-ICAM/PNCs, but not control IgG/PNCs 1) rapidly (t1/2 approximately 5 min) and specifically bound to tumor necrosis factor-activated ECs in a dose-dependent manner (Bmax approximately 350 PNC/cell) at both static and physiological shear stress conditions and 2) bound to ECs and accumulated in the pulmonary vasculature after i.v. injection in mice. Anti-ICAM/PNCs displayed markedly higher EC affinity versus naked anti-ICAM (Kd approximately 80 pM versus approximately 8 nM) in cell culture and, probably because of this factor, higher value (185.3 +/- 24.2 versus 50.5 +/- 1.5% injected dose/g) and selectivity (lung/blood ratio 81.0 +/- 10.9 versus 2.1 +/- 0.02, in part due to faster blood clearance) of pulmonary targeting. These results 1) show that reformatting monomolecular anti-ICAM into high-affinity multivalent PNCs boosts their vascular immuno-targeting, which withstands physiological hydrodynamics and 2) support potential anti-ICAM/PNCs utility for medical applications.

  20. Refractory heartburn: comparison of intercellular space diameter in documented GERD vs. functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Marcelo F; Craft, Brandon M; Sharma, Neeraj; Freeman, Janice; Hazen-Martin, Debra

    2011-05-01

    Refractory heartburn despite acid suppression may be explained by ongoing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or functional heartburn (FH), i.e., symptoms without evidence of GERD. Impedance-pH monitoring (impedance-pH) detects acid and nonacid reflux and is useful for evaluating acid-suppressed, refractory patients. Intercellular space diameter (ISD) of esophageal epithelium measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a marker of epithelial damage present in both erosive and nonerosive reflux disease. ISD has not been used to study refractory heartburn or FH. Our aim was to compare ISD in healthy controls and refractory heartburn patients with GERD and FH. In refractory heartburn patients (heartburn more than twice/week for at least 2 months despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) b.i.d.), erosive esophagitis and/or abnormal impedance-pH (increased acid exposure or positive symptom index) defined GERD; normal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)/impedance-pH defined FH. Asymptomatic, healthy controls had normal EGD and pH-metry. Mean ISD in each subject, determined by blinded TEM of esophageal biopsies, was the average of 100 measurements (10 measurements in each of 10 micrographs). In all, 11 healthy controls, 11 FH, and 15 GERD patients were studied. Mean ISD was significantly higher in GERD compared with controls (0.87 vs. 0.32 μm, P=0.003) and FH (0.87 vs. 0.42 μm, P=0.012). Mean ISD was similar in FH and controls (0.42 vs. 0.32 μm, P=0.1). The proportion of patients with abnormal ISD was significantly higher for GERD compared with FH (60 vs. 9%, P=0.014). ISD is increased in refractory heartburn patients with GERD but not those with FH. Our findings suggest that measurement of ISD by TEM might be a useful tool to distinguish GERD from FH in patients with refractory heartburn.

  1. High plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 are associated with cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adukpo, Selorme; Kusi, Kwadwo A; Ofori, Michael F; Tetteh, John K A; Amoako-Sakyi, Daniel; Goka, Bamenla Q; Adjei, George O; Edoh, Dominic A; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Gyan, Ben A; Dodoo, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is responsible for most of the malaria-related deaths in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Although, not well understood, the pathogenesis of CM involves parasite and host factors which contribute to parasite sequestration through cytoadherence to the vascular endothelium. Cytoadherence to brain microvasculature is believed to involve host endothelial receptor, CD54 or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, while other receptors such as CD36 are generally involved in cytoadherence of parasites in other organs. We therefore investigated the contributions of host ICAM-1 expression and levels of antibodies against ICAM-1 binding variant surface antigen (VSA) on parasites to the development of CM. Paediatric malaria patients, 0.5 to 13 years were recruited and grouped into CM and uncomplicated malaria (UM) patients, based on well defined criteria. Standardized ELISA protocol was used to measure soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels from acute plasma samples. Levels of IgG to CD36- or ICAM-1-binding VSA were measured by flow cytometry during acute and convalescent states. Wilcoxon sign rank-test analysis to compare groups revealed association between sICAM-1 levels and CM (p0.05). Median levels of antibodies to CD36-binding VSAs were also comparable between acute and convalescent samples within any patient group. Median levels of antibodies to ICAM-1-binding VSAs were however significantly lower at admission time than during recovery in both groups. High levels of sICAM-1 were associated with CM, and the sICAM-1 levels may reflect expression levels of the membrane bound form. Anti-VSA antibody levels to ICAM-binding parasites was more strongly associated with both UM and CM than antibodies to CD36 binding parasites. Thus, increasing host sICAM-1 levels were associated with CM whilst antibodies to parasite expressing non-ICAM-1-binding VSAs were not.

  2. High plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 are associated with cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selorme Adukpo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is responsible for most of the malaria-related deaths in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Although, not well understood, the pathogenesis of CM involves parasite and host factors which contribute to parasite sequestration through cytoadherence to the vascular endothelium. Cytoadherence to brain microvasculature is believed to involve host endothelial receptor, CD54 or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, while other receptors such as CD36 are generally involved in cytoadherence of parasites in other organs. We therefore investigated the contributions of host ICAM-1 expression and levels of antibodies against ICAM-1 binding variant surface antigen (VSA on parasites to the development of CM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paediatric malaria patients, 0.5 to 13 years were recruited and grouped into CM and uncomplicated malaria (UM patients, based on well defined criteria. Standardized ELISA protocol was used to measure soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1 levels from acute plasma samples. Levels of IgG to CD36- or ICAM-1-binding VSA were measured by flow cytometry during acute and convalescent states. Wilcoxon sign rank-test analysis to compare groups revealed association between sICAM-1 levels and CM (p0.05. Median levels of antibodies to CD36-binding VSAs were also comparable between acute and convalescent samples within any patient group. Median levels of antibodies to ICAM-1-binding VSAs were however significantly lower at admission time than during recovery in both groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High levels of sICAM-1 were associated with CM, and the sICAM-1 levels may reflect expression levels of the membrane bound form. Anti-VSA antibody levels to ICAM-binding parasites was more strongly associated with both UM and CM than antibodies to CD36 binding parasites. Thus, increasing host sICAM-1 levels were associated with CM whilst antibodies to parasite expressing non-ICAM-1-binding VSAs were not.

  3. Estrogenic compounds inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse Leydig TM3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Yumiko; Fukata, Hideki; Mori, Chisato

    2006-01-01

    Some estrogenic compounds are reported to cause testicular disorders in humans and/or experimental animals by direct action on Leydig cells. In carcinogenesis and normal development, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis. In this study, we examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen), 17β-estradiol (E 2 , a natural estrogen), and genistein (GEN, a phytoestrogen) on GJIC between mouse Leydig TM3 cells using Lucifer yellow microinjection. The three compounds tested produced GJIC inhibition in the TM3 cells after 24 h. Gradually, 10 μM DES began to inhibit GJIC for 24 h and this effect was observed until 72 h. On the other hand, both 20 μM E 2 and 25 μM GEN rapidly inhibited GJIC in 6 h and 2 h, respectively. The effects continued until 24 h, but weakened by 72 h. Furthermore, a combined effect at μM level between DES and E 2 on GJIC inhibition was observed, but not between GEN and E 2 . DES and E 2 showed GJIC inhibition at low dose levels (nearly physiological estrogen levels) after 72 h, but GEN did not. DES-induced GJIC inhibition at 10 pM and 10 μM was completely counteracted by ICI 182,780 (ICl), an estrogen receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the inhibitory effects on GJIC with E 2 (10 pM and 20 μM) and GEN (25 μM) were partially blocked by ICI or calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, and were completely blocked by the combination of ICI and calphostin C. These results demonstrate that DES inhibits GJIC between Leydig cells via the estrogen receptor (ER), and that E 2 and GEN inhibit GJIC via ER and PKC. These estrogenic compounds may have different individual nongenotoxic mechanism including PKC pathway on testicular carcinogenesis or development

  4. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T. [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pierre, Philippe [Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy U2M, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille (France); INSERM U631, Institut National de la Santé et Recherche Médicale, Marseille (France); CNRS UMR6102, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille (France); Chadee, Deborah N. [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Pizza, Francis X., E-mail: Francis.Pizza@utoledo.edu [Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  5. Urinary Exosomes: The Potential for Biomarker Utility, Intercellular Signaling and Therapeutics in Urological Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Carrie A; Blackwell, Robert H; Foreman, Kimberly E; Kuo, Paul C; Flanigan, Robert C; Gupta, Gopal N

    2016-05-01

    Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that contain proteins, mRNA and miRNA with the potential to alter signaling pathways in recipient cells. While exosome research has flourished, few publications have specifically considered the role of genitourinary cancer shed exosomes in urine, their implication in disease progression and their usefulness as noninvasive biomarkers. In this review we examined the current literature on the role of exosomes in intercellular communication and as biomarkers, and their potential as delivery vehicles for therapeutic applications in bladder, prostate and renal cancer. We searched PubMed® and Google® with the key words prostate cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, exosomes, microvesicles and urine. Relevant articles, including original research studies and reviews, were selected based on contents. A review of this literature was generated. Cancer exosomes can be isolated from urine using various techniques. Cancer cells have been found to secrete more exosomes than normal cells. These exosomes have a role in cellular communication by interacting with and depositing their cargo in target cells. Bladder, prostate and renal cancer exosomes have been shown to enhance migration, invasion and angiogenesis. These exosomes have also been shown to increase proliferation, confer drug resistance and promote immune evasion. Urinary exosomes can be isolated from bladder, kidney and prostate cancer. They serve as a potential reservoir for biomarker identification. Exosomes also have potential for therapeutics as siRNA or pharmacological agents can be loaded into exosomes. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteome-metabolome profiling of ovarian cancer ascites reveals novel components involved in intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shender, Victoria O; Pavlyukov, Marat S; Ziganshin, Rustam H; Arapidi, Georgij P; Kovalchuk, Sergey I; Anikanov, Nikolay A; Altukhov, Ilya A; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Butenko, Ivan O; Shavarda, Alexey L; Khomyakova, Elena B; Evtushenko, Evgeniy; Ashrafyan, Lev A; Antonova, Irina B; Kuznetcov, Igor N; Gorbachev, Alexey Yu; Shakhparonov, Mikhail I; Govorun, Vadim M

    2014-12-01

    Ovarian cancer ascites is a native medium for cancer cells that allows investigation of their secretome in a natural environment. This medium is of interest as a promising source of potential biomarkers, and also as a medium for cell-cell communication. The aim of this study was to elucidate specific features of the malignant ascites metabolome and proteome. In order to omit components of the systemic response to ascites formation, we compared malignant ascites with cirrhosis ascites. Metabolome analysis revealed 41 components that differed significantly between malignant and cirrhosis ascites. Most of the identified cancer-specific metabolites are known to be important signaling molecules. Proteomic analysis identified 2096 and 1855 proteins in the ovarian cancer and cirrhosis ascites, respectively; 424 proteins were specific for the malignant ascites. Functional analysis of the proteome demonstrated that the major differences between cirrhosis and malignant ascites were observed for the cluster of spliceosomal proteins. Additionally, we demonstrate that several splicing RNAs were exclusively detected in malignant ascites, where they probably existed within protein complexes. This result was confirmed in vitro using an ovarian cancer cell line. Identification of spliceosomal proteins and RNAs in an extracellular medium is of particular interest; the finding suggests that they might play a role in the communication between cancer cells. In addition, malignant ascites contains a high number of exosomes that are known to play an important role in signal transduction. Thus our study reveals the specific features of malignant ascites that are associated with its function as a medium of intercellular communication. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Pannexin 1 channels play essential roles in urothelial mechanotransduction and intercellular signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Negoro

    Full Text Available Urothelial cells respond to bladder distension with ATP release, and ATP signaling within the bladder and from the bladder to the CNS is essential for proper bladder function. In other cell types, pannexin 1 (Panx1 channels provide a pathway for mechanically-induced ATP efflux and for ATP-induced ATP release through interaction with P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs. We report that Panx1 and P2X7R are functionally expressed in the bladder mucosa and in immortalized human urothelial cells (TRT-HU1, and participate in urothelial ATP release and signaling. ATP release from isolated rat bladders induced by distention was reduced by the Panx1 channel blocker mefloquine (MFQ and was blunted in mice lacking Panx1 or P2X7R expression. Hypoosmotic shock induced YoPro dye uptake was inhibited by MFQ and the P2X7R blocker A438079 in TRT-HU1 cells, and was also blunted in primary urothelial cells derived from mice lacking Panx1 or P2X7R expression. Rinsing-induced mechanical stimulation of TRT-HU1 cells triggered ATP release, which was reduced by MFQ and potentiated in low divalent cation solution (LDPBS, a condition known to enhance P2X7R activation. ATP signaling evaluated as intercellular Ca2+ wave radius was significantly larger in LDPBS, reduced by MFQ and by apyrase (ATP scavenger. These findings indicate that Panx1 participates in urothelial mechanotransduction and signaling by providing a direct pathway for mechanically-induced ATP release and by functionally interacting with P2X7Rs.

  8. Assessing the utility of photoswitchable fluorescent proteins for tracking intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Wu

    Full Text Available One way in which cells communicate is through the direct transfer of proteins. In plants, many of these proteins are transcription factors, which are made by one cell type and traffic into another. In order to understand how this movement occurs and its role in development, we would like to track this movement in live, intact plants in real-time. Here we examine the utility of the photoconvertible proteins, Dendra2 and (to a lesser extent EosFP as tags for studying intracellular and intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root. To this end, we made fusions between Dendra2 and six mobile transcription factors. Our results show that Dendra2 is an effective tool for studying protein movement between plant cells. Interestingly, we found that Dendra2 could not simply be swapped into existing constructs that had originally contained GFP. Most of the fusions made in this way failed to produce a fluorescent fusion. In addition we found that the optimal settings for photoconversion of Dendra2 in stably transformed roots were different from what has been published for photoconversion in transient assays in plants or in animal cells. By modifying the confocal setting, we were able to photoconvert Dendra2 in all cell layers in the root. However the efficiency of photoconversion was affected by the position of the cell layer within the root, with more internal tissues requiring more energy. By examining the Dendra2 fusions, we confirmed the mobility of the SHORT-ROOT (SHR and CAPRICE (CPC transcription factors between cells and we further discovered that SHR movement in stele and CPC movement in the epidermis are non-directional.

  9. Efect of intercellular extracts from banana inoculated leaves with Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, on chloroplast electronic transport of Grande naine (AAA cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leiva-Mora

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some foliar pathogens colonize intercellular spaces of damage tissues during infection process, mediated by toxins production and diffusion to kill adjacent healthy cells. Due to the absence of reliable bioassays, the physiologic effects of several phytotoxins are still ignored on cellular membranous systems of the affected cells. In the present work it was extracted the intercellular content from not inoculated and inoculated banana leaves with different Mycosphaerella fijiensis strains. Their effects on chloroplasts of Grande naine cv were evaluated by the absorbance evolution (595 nm of Hill reactive (DCPIP, mixture with 810 ì l of chloroplasts suspension and 99 ì l of the intercellular contents. The electronic exchange on chloroplasts suspension was inhibited by intercellular contents of inoculated leaves. The intercellular contents from leaves inoculated with I1 (high virulence strain had a major inhibiter effect respect to leaves inoculates with G1 strain (low virulence, showing a correspondence between the inhibiter effect of intercellular contents and the affection levels of affected tissues. The procedures used in this work will let to make studies concerned with Mycosphaerella fijiensis-Musa spp interactions and the future breeding programs. Key words: banana breeding, black Sigatoka, host pathogen interaction, physiological bioassays

  10. Nuclear knowledge preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)

  11. User Experience and Heritage Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  12. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  13. Intracellular disposition of chitosan nanoparticles in macrophages: intracellular uptake, exocytosis, and intercellular transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LQ

    2017-08-01

    mechanisms, providing the basis for how CsNPs are recognized by the MPS; such information is crucial to numerous medical applications of CsNPs. Keywords: exocytosis, uptake, intercellular transport, chitosan nanoparticles, macrophages

  14. Food preservation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-15

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  15. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  16. Use of cultured cells with defects of citrulline metabolism in diagnosis and in the study of intercellular communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J S

    1985-01-01

    Citrullinemia and argininosuccinic aciduria are two disorders resulting from defects in two consecutive enzymes of the urea cycle, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase. Fibroblast cell lines were derived from patients with these disorders and the diagnoses, which had been made on the basis of amino acid levels in plasma and urine, were confirmed by demonstrating that the cell lines were unable to incorporate /sup 14/C-citrulline into protein. DNA from the argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient (ASS-) cells was analysed by restriction enzyme digestion and hybridisation to a cDNA probe which had been cloned from human argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA. No defect in the patient's DNA could be demonstrated, indicating that no major deletions in the argininosuccinate synthetase genes were present in this patient. Co-cultures of the ASS- and argininosuccinate lyase-deficient (ASL-) fibroblasts were able to incorporate /sup 14/C-citrulline into protein. Co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells were used as an assay system for measuring intercellular junctional communication. This allowed quantitation of the effects of pH and extra-cellular divalent cations on junctional communication. Tumor promoters such as phorbol esters and organochlorine pesticides have been reported to inhibit intercellular junctional communication in other systems, and this inhibitory activity may be related to the mechanism of tumor promotion. Retinoic acid and other retinoids also inhibited junctional communication, and the inhibitory effects of retinoic acid and TPA were additive. It is concluded that co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells constitute a useful system for providing quantitative measurements of intercellular junctional communication under a wide range of experimental conditions.

  17. Quantitative measurements of intercellular adhesion between a macrophage and cancer cells using a cup-attached AFM chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyonchol; Yamagishi, Ayana; Imaizumi, Miku; Onomura, Yui; Nagasaki, Akira; Miyagi, Yohei; Okada, Tomoko; Nakamura, Chikashi

    2017-07-01

    Intercellular adhesion between a macrophage and cancer cells was quantitatively measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cup-shaped metal hemispheres were fabricated using polystyrene particles as a template, and a cup was attached to the apex of the AFM cantilever. The cup-attached AFM chip (cup-chip) approached a murine macrophage cell (J774.2), the cell was captured on the inner concave of the cup, and picked up by withdrawing the cup-chip from the substrate. The cell-attached chip was advanced towards a murine breast cancer cell (FP10SC2), and intercellular adhesion between the two cells was quantitatively measured. To compare cell adhesion strength, the work required to separate two adhered cells (separation work) was used as a parameter. Separation work was almost 2-fold larger between a J774.2 cell and FP10SC2 cell than between J774.2 cell and three additional different cancer cells (4T1E, MAT-LyLu, and U-2OS), two FP10SC2 cells, or two J774.2 cells. FP10SC2 was established from 4T1E as a highly metastatic cell line, indicates separation work increased as the malignancy of cancer cells became higher. One possible explanation of the strong adhesion of macrophages to cancer cells observed in this study is that the measurement condition mimicked the microenvironment of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in vivo, and J774.2 cells strongly expressed CD204, which is a marker of TAMs. The results of the present study, which were obtained by measuring cell adhesion strength quantitatively, indicate that the fabricated cup-chip is a useful tool for measuring intercellular adhesion easily and quantitatively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The use of cultured cells with defects of citrulline metabolism in diagnosis and in the study of intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.S.

    1985-02-01

    Citrullinemia and argininosuccinic aciduria are two disorders resulting from defects in two consecutive enzymes of the urea cycle, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase. Fibroblast cell lines were derived from patients with these disorders and the diagnoses, which had been made on the basis of amino acid levels in plasma and urine, were confirmed by demonstrating that the cell lines were unable to incorporate 14 C-citrulline into protein. DNA from the argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient (ASS-) cells was analysed by restriction enzyme digestion and hybridisation to a cDNA probe which had been cloned from human argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA. No defect in the patient's DNA could be demonstrated, indicating that no major deletions in the argininosuccinate synthetase genes were present in this patient. Co-cultures of the ASS- and argininosuccinate lyase-deficient (ASL-) fibroblasts were able to incorporate 14 C-citrulline into protein. Co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells were used as an assay system for measuring intercellular junctional communication. This allowed quantitation of the effects of pH and extra-cellular divalent cations on junctional communication. Tumor promoters such as phorbol esters and organochlorine pesticides have been reported to inhibit intercellular junctional communication in other systems, and this inhibitory activity may be related to the mechanism of tumor promotion. Retinoic acid and other retinoids also inhibited junctional communication, and the inhibitory effects of retinoic acid and TPA were additive. It is concluded that co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells constitute a useful system for providing quantitative measurements of intercellular junctional communication under a wide range of experimental conditions

  19. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...

  20. The intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (icam-1) in lung cancer: implications for disease progression and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotteas, Elias A; Boulas, Panagiotis; Gkiozos, Ioannis; Tsagkouli, Sofia; Tsoukalas, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2014-09-01

    The intercellular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a transmembrane molecule and a distinguished member of the Immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins that participates in many important processes, including leukocyte endothelial transmigration, cell signaling, cell-cell interaction, cell polarity and tissue stability. ICAM-1and its soluble part are highly expressed in inflammatory conditions, chronic diseases and a number of malignancies. In the present article we present the implications of ICAM-1 in the progression and prognosis of one of the major global killers of our era: lung cancer. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing the endogenous NO level causes catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis signaling specifically in tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells generate extracellular superoxide anions and are protected against intercellular apoptosis-inducing HOCl- and NO/peroxynitrite signaling through the expression of membrane-associated catalase. This enzyme decomposes H2O2 and thus prevents HOCl synthesis. It efficiently interferes with NO/peroxynitrite signaling through oxidation of NO and decomposition of peroxynitrite. The regulatory potential of catalase at the crosspoint of ROS and RNS chemical biology, as well as its high local concentration on the outside of the cell membrane of tumor cells, establish tight control of intercellular signaling and thus prevent tumor cell apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of catalase or its inactivation by singlet oxygen reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are connected with catalase in multiple and meaningful ways, as (i) NO can be oxidated by compound I of catalase, (ii) NO can reversibly inhibit catalase, (iii) peroxynitrite can be decomposed by catalase and (iv) the interaction between peroxynitrite and H2O2 leads to the generation of singlet oxygen that inactivates catalase. Therefore, modulation of the concentration of free NO through addition of arginine, inhibition of arginase, induction of NOS expression or inhibition of NO dioxygenase triggers an autoamplificatory biochemical cascade that is based on initial formation of singlet oxygen, amplification of superoxide anion/H2O2 and NO generation through singlet oxygen dependent stimulation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8. Finally, singlet oxygen is generated at sufficiently high concentration to inactivate protective catalase and to reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. This regulatory network allows to establish several pathways for synergistic interactions, like the combination of modulators of NO metabolism with enhancers of superoxide anion generation, modulators of NO metabolism that act at different targets and between modulators of

  2. Increasing the endogenous NO level causes catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis signaling specifically in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Tumor cells generate extracellular superoxide anions and are protected against intercellular apoptosis-inducing HOCl- and NO/peroxynitrite signaling through the expression of membrane-associated catalase. This enzyme decomposes H2O2 and thus prevents HOCl synthesis. It efficiently interferes with NO/peroxynitrite signaling through oxidation of NO and decomposition of peroxynitrite. The regulatory potential of catalase at the crosspoint of ROS and RNS chemical biology, as well as its high local concentration on the outside of the cell membrane of tumor cells, establish tight control of intercellular signaling and thus prevent tumor cell apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of catalase or its inactivation by singlet oxygen reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite are connected with catalase in multiple and meaningful ways, as (i) NO can be oxidated by compound I of catalase, (ii) NO can reversibly inhibit catalase, (iii) peroxynitrite can be decomposed by catalase and (iv) the interaction between peroxynitrite and H2O2 leads to the generation of singlet oxygen that inactivates catalase. Therefore, modulation of the concentration of free NO through addition of arginine, inhibition of arginase, induction of NOS expression or inhibition of NO dioxygenase triggers an autoamplificatory biochemical cascade that is based on initial formation of singlet oxygen, amplification of superoxide anion/H2O2 and NO generation through singlet oxygen dependent stimulation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8. Finally, singlet oxygen is generated at sufficiently high concentration to inactivate protective catalase and to reactivate intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. This regulatory network allows to establish several pathways for synergistic interactions, like the combination of modulators of NO metabolism with enhancers of superoxide anion generation, modulators of NO metabolism that act at different targets and between modulators of

  3. Federal Support for Preserve America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi's Heritage Tourism Industry Post Hurricane Katrina also received a $150,000 Preserve America Grant Arkansas Delta, one for music, one for African-American history, and one for agriculture. The project will

  4. Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

  5. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... options further? Fertility Preservation - Where Does It Fit? Options for Fertility Preservation The following diagram gives a brief description of fertility preservation options available to children diagnosed with cancer before and ...

  6. Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Nielsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    History preserving bisimilarity (hp-bisimilarity) and hereditary history preserving bisimilarity (hhp-bisimilarity) are behavioural equivalences taking into account causal relationships between events of concurrent systems. Their prominent feature is being preserved under action refinement...

  7. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ... with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for ...

  8. Stomatal responses to flooding of the intercellular air spaces suggest a vapor-phase signal between the mesophyll and the guard cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Erik; Mott, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Flooding the intercellular air spaces of leaves with water was shown to cause rapid closure of stomata in Tradescantia pallida, Lactuca serriola, Helianthus annuus, and Oenothera caespitosa. The response occurred when water was injected into the intercellular spaces, vacuum infiltrated into the intercellular spaces, or forced into the intercellular spaces by pressurizing the xylem. Injecting 50 mm KCl or silicone oil into the intercellular spaces also caused stomata to close, but the response was slower than with distilled water. Epidermis-mesophyll grafts for T. pallida were created by placing the epidermis of one leaf onto the exposed mesophyll of another leaf. Stomata in these grafts opened under light but closed rapidly when water was allowed to wick between epidermis and the mesophyll. When epidermis-mesophyll grafts were constructed with a thin hydrophobic filter between the mesophyll and epidermis stomata responded normally to light and CO(2). These data, when taken together, suggest that the effect of water on stomata is caused partly by dilution of K(+) in the guard cell and partly by the existence of a vapor-phase signal that originates in the mesophyll and causes stomata to open in the light.

  9. Stomatal Responses to Flooding of the Intercellular Air Spaces Suggest a Vapor-Phase Signal Between the Mesophyll and the Guard Cells1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Erik; Mott, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    Flooding the intercellular air spaces of leaves with water was shown to cause rapid closure of stomata in Tradescantia pallida, Lactuca serriola, Helianthus annuus, and Oenothera caespitosa. The response occurred when water was injected into the intercellular spaces, vacuum infiltrated into the intercellular spaces, or forced into the intercellular spaces by pressurizing the xylem. Injecting 50 mm KCl or silicone oil into the intercellular spaces also caused stomata to close, but the response was slower than with distilled water. Epidermis-mesophyll grafts for T. pallida were created by placing the epidermis of one leaf onto the exposed mesophyll of another leaf. Stomata in these grafts opened under light but closed rapidly when water was allowed to wick between epidermis and the mesophyll. When epidermis-mesophyll grafts were constructed with a thin hydrophobic filter between the mesophyll and epidermis stomata responded normally to light and CO2. These data, when taken together, suggest that the effect of water on stomata is caused partly by dilution of K+ in the guard cell and partly by the existence of a vapor-phase signal that originates in the mesophyll and causes stomata to open in the light. PMID:20472750

  10. Inhibition of luminescence and virulence in the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) pathogen Vibrio harveyi by intercellular signal antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manefield, M; Harris, L; Rice, S A; de Nys, R; Kjelleberg, S

    2000-05-01

    Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated. In this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone antagonist produced by the marine alga Delisea pulchra on luminescence and toxin production in a virulent strain of V. harveyi were analyzed. Luminescence and toxin production were both inhibited by the signal antagonist at concentrations that had no impact on growth. Toxin production was found to be prematurely induced in V. harveyi cultures incubated in a 10% conditioned medium. Additionally, a significant reduction in the toxicity of concentrated supernatant extracts from V. harveyi cultures incubated in the presence of the signal antagonist, as measured by in vivo toxicity assays in mice and prawns, was observed. These results suggest that intercellular signaling antagonists have potential utility in the control of V. harveyi prawn infections.

  11. Inhibition of Luminescence and Virulence in the Black Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon) Pathogen Vibrio harveyi by Intercellular Signal Antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manefield, Michael; Harris, Lachlan; Rice, Scott A.; de Nys, Rocky; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Expression of luminescence in the Penaeus monodon pathogen Vibrio harveyi is regulated by an intercellular quorum sensing mechanism involving the synthesis and detection of two signaling molecules, one of which is N-hydroxy butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and the other of which is uncharacterized. Indirect evidence has suggested that virulence, associated with a toxic extracellular protein, and luminescence in V. harveyi are coregulated. In this study the effects of an acylated homoserine lactone antagonist produced by the marine alga Delisea pulchra on luminescence and toxin production in a virulent strain of V. harveyi were analyzed. Luminescence and toxin production were both inhibited by the signal antagonist at concentrations that had no impact on growth. Toxin production was found to be prematurely induced in V. harveyi cultures incubated in a 10% conditioned medium. Additionally, a significant reduction in the toxicity of concentrated supernatant extracts from V. harveyi cultures incubated in the presence of the signal antagonist, as measured by in vivo toxicity assays in mice and prawns, was observed. These results suggest that intercellular signaling antagonists have potential utility in the control of V. harveyi prawn infections. PMID:10788385

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for ...

  13. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult ...

  14. Time- and temperature-dependent autolysis of urinary bladder epithelium during ex vivo preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Andreja; Veranič, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Morphological and functional preservation of urinary bladder epithelium-urothelium after extirpation from an organism enables physiological studies of that tissue and provides the basis for successful organ transplantations. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal temperature for maintaining urothelium in ex vivo conditions. Mouse urinary bladders were kept at the three temperatures usually used for maintaining tissue during transportation: at the temperature of melting ice (1°C), at room temperature (22-24°C), and at the body temperature of most mammals (37°C). Autolytic structural changes were followed with electron microscopy, while destruction of cytoskeleton and intercellular junctions was observed by immunolabeling. The first ultrastructural changes, swelling of mitochondria and necrosis of individual cells, became evident 30 min after extirpation if the tissue was kept at 1°C. After 60 and 120 min in ex vivo conditions, the most severe changes with increasing plasma membrane ruptures were detected at 1°C, while at room temperature only mild changes were detected. At 37°C, the extent of ultrastructural changes was between those of the other two experimental temperatures. Autolytic destruction of cytoskeleton and intercellular junctions was not observed before 2 h after extirpation. After 4 h, severe degradation of cytokeratin 20 and microtubules were found at 1°C and 37°C, while being almost undisturbed at room temperature. On the other hand, the reduction of desmoplakin and ZO-1 labeling was more evident at 37°C than at 1°C and room temperature. These findings provide evidence that room temperature is most appropriate for short ex vivo preservation of urothelial tissue.

  15. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preservation theorems on finite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, M.

    1994-09-01

    This paper concerns classical Preservation results applied to finite structures. We consider binary relations for which a strong form of preservation theorem (called strong interpolation) exists in the usual case. This includes most classical cases: embeddings, extensions, homomorphisms into and onto, sandwiches, etc. We establish necessary and sufficient syntactic conditions for the preservation theorems for sentences and for theories to hold in the restricted context of finite structures. We deduce that for all relations above, the restricted theorem for theories hold provided the language is finite. For the sentences the restricted version fails in most cases; in fact the ''homomorphism into'' case seems to be the only possible one, but the efforts to show that have failed. We hope our results may help to solve this frustrating problem; in the meantime, they are used to put a lower bound on the level of complexity of potential counterexamples. (author). 8 refs

  17. Blogs as Objects of Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanyan, Karen; Gkotsis, George; Kalb, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    challenge for the digital preservation community. While the methodological frameworks for selecting these properties provide a good foundation, a continued discussion is necessary for further clarifying and improving the available methods. This paper advances earlier work by building on the exist......challenge for the digital preservation community. While the methodological frameworks for selecting these properties provide a good foundation, a continued discussion is necessary for further clarifying and improving the available methods. This paper advances earlier work by building...... analysis) and, subsequently, improve the final reformulation of the properties. To demonstrate the applicability of the modified framework, the paper presents a use case of a blog preservation initiative that is informed by stakeholder interviews and evaluation of structural and technological foundations...

  18. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norberg, E.

    1996-01-01

    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed

  19. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Nyanga, Loveness K.; Nout, Martinus J. R.; Smid, Eddy J.; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cak...

  20. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2001-01-01

    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  1. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed.

  2. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 910.32... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.32 Historic preservation... Preservation Plan of the Corporation, are specified for preservation, shall be acomplished (a) in accordance...

  3. ACHP | Summary of the Preserve America Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiative Preserve America: Explore and Enjoy Our Heritage (logo) Summary of the Preserve America Initiative Preserve America is a White House initiative that encourages and supports community efforts to preserve and enjoy our priceless cultural and natural heritage. The goals of the initiative include a greater shared

  4. Comparison of Tissue Preservation using Formalin and Ethanol as Preservative Formula

    OpenAIRE

    See Woan Shian; Arifin Soenggono; Sawkar Vijay Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tissue preservation can be performed through embalming, by providing the chemical embalming fluid to the human remains. Formalin’s preservative formula is the foundation for modern methods of embalming. Unfortunately, this preservative formula has several disadvantages. While Ethanol’s preservative formula is a considerable agent to replace formalin’s preservative formula. The aim of this study was to compare the tissue preservation using formalin and ethanol as preservative formu...

  5. Local quantum channels preserving classical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhihua; Cao Huaixin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss local quantum channels that preserve classical correlations. First, we give two equivalent characterizations of classical correlated states. Then we obtain the relationships among classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels, commutativity-preserving local quantum channels and commutativity-preserving quantum channels on each subsystem. Furthermore, for a two-qubit system, we show the general form of classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels. (paper)

  6. The predominant mechanism of intercellular calcium wave propagation changes during long-term culture of human osteoblast-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Zanne; Hiken, Jeffrey F; Steinberg, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    cells still responded to addition of ATP, but P2Y desensitization did not inhibit ICW propagation. Our data indicate that the relative role of P2Y-mediated and gap junction-mediated ICW changes during osteoblast differentiation in vitro. In less differentiated cells, P2Y-mediated ICW predominate......Intercellular calcium waves (ICW) are calcium transients that spread from cell to cell in response to different stimuli. We previously demonstrated that human osteoblast-like cells in culture propagate ICW in response to mechanical stimulation by two mechanisms. One mechanism involves autocrine...... activation of P2Y receptors, and the other requires gap junctional communication. In the current work we ask whether long-term culture of osteoblast-like cells affects the propagation of ICW by these two mechanisms. Human osteoblast-like cells were isolated from bone marrow. Mechanically induced ICW were...

  7. In vitro and in situ intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression by endothelial cells lining a polyester fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémy, M; Valli, N; Brethes, D; Labrugère, C; Porté-Durrieu, M C; Dobrova, N B; Novikova, S P; Gorodkov, A J; Bordenave, L

    1999-02-01

    In order to improve long-term patency of vascular grafts, the promising concept of endothelial cell seeding is actually under investigation. Our laboratory tested a polyester coated with albumin and chitosan which permits a rapid colonization by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and it seems relevant to test in vitro the expression of adhesive molecules expressed by cells with regard to the inflammatory process. We studied intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and focused our work on the determination of ICAM-1 sites expressed per adherent cell lining the biomaterial, thus in situ, in comparison to control HUVEC on plastic wells: the results obtained by binding experiments were correlated to flow cytometry analyses and showed that the polyester does not induce a proinflammatory state and that HUVEC covering the structure are able to respond to a stimulus.

  8. A revolution in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

  9. Hardcore Heritage: imagination for preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, E.; Rietveld, R.

    2017-01-01

    Should the practice of the historic preservation of built and landscape heritage necessarily be based on conservation? Monuments, listed buildings, landscapes, and other forms of built heritage, are typically regarded as immutable and untouchable—objects to be “conserved”—and as a result tend to

  10. 2007 Preserve America Presidential Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    aviation history museum that emphasizes people and culture as well as technology and events. With a the Private Preservation category, the two winners are: The History Channel, Save Our History Save Our History were Abbe Raven, president and CEO, A&E Television Networks; and Nancy Dubuc

  11. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts

  12. Beyond the Scope of Preservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikke, Stenbro,; Riesto, Svava

    2014-01-01

    Why are some parts of the built environment protected as national heritage and others not? Listing is the most restrictive tool of Norwegian and Danish preservation in the built environment and creates a specific version of the past told through buildings and sites. The heritage authorities in both...

  13. Participation of intercellular communication and intracellular signal transduction in the radio-adaptive response of human fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Hoshi, Yuko; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Watanabe, Masami

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the radio-adaptive response of normal cells to low-dose radiation, we irradiated human embryonic cells with low-dose X-rays and examined the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-irradiation. When the cells were irradiated by 200 cGy, the growth ratio of the viable cells five days after the irradiation decreased to 37% of that of the cells which received no X-irradiation. When the cells received a conditioning irradiation of 10 to 20 cGy four hours before the irradiation of 200 cGy, the growth ratio increased significantly to 45-53%, and a peak was reached at a conditioning dose of 13 cGy. Cells blocked off intercellular communication either in Ca 2+ ion-free medium or in TPA added medium during the conditioning irradiation of 13 cGy did not show the improvement of growth ratio. Addition of H-7, as an inhibitor of PKC, to the medium during the conditioning irradiation inhibited the induction of the radio-adaptive response. However, addition of either inhibitor of A kinase, H-89, or inhibitor of G kinase, H-8, failed to inhibit the induction of the radio-adaptive response. These results suggest that: (1) normal cells show an adaptive response to low-dose radiation, (2) intercellular communication may play a role in radio-adaptive responses, (3) the transduction of the signal induced in cells by low-dose X-irradiation via protein kinase C was involved in radio-adaptive responses, not via A kinase nor G kinase. (author)

  14. Modulatory effects of cAMP and PKC activation on gap junctional intercellular communication among thymic epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves-dos-Santos Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of the signaling molecules, cyclic AMP (cAMP and protein-kinase C (PKC, on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC between thymic epithelial cells (TEC. Results Treatment with 8-Br-cAMP, a cAMP analog; or forskolin, which stimulates cAMP production, resulted in an increase in dye transfer between adjacent TEC, inducing a three-fold enhancement in the mean fluorescence of coupled cells, ascertained by flow cytometry after calcein transfer. These treatments also increased Cx43 mRNA expression, and stimulated Cx43 protein accumulation in regions of intercellular contacts. VIP, adenosine, and epinephrine which may also signal through cyclic nucleotides were tested. The first two molecules did not mimic the effects of 8-Br-cAMP, however epinephrine was able to increase GJIC suggesting that this molecule functions as an endogenous inter-TEC GJIC modulators. Stimulation of PKC by phorbol-myristate-acetate inhibited inter-TEC GJIC. Importantly, both the enhancing and the decreasing effects, respectively induced by cAMP and PKC, were observed in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, experiments using mouse thymocyte/TEC heterocellular co-cultures suggested that the presence of thymocytes does not affect the degree of inter-TEC GJIC. Conclusions Overall, our data indicate that cAMP and PKC intracellular pathways are involved in the homeostatic control of the gap junction-mediated communication in the thymic epithelium, exerting respectively a positive and negative role upon cell coupling. This control is phylogenetically conserved in the thymus, since it was seen in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, our work provides new clues for a better understanding of how the thymic epithelial network can work as a physiological syncytium.

  15. Distinct moieties underlie biphasic H+ gating of connexin43 channels, producing a pH optimum for intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciarena, Carolina D.; Malik, Akif; Swietach, Pawel; Moreno, Alonso P.; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D.

    2018-01-01

    Most mammalian cells can intercommunicate via connexin-assembled, gap-junctional channels. To regulate signal transmission, connexin (Cx) channel permeability must respond dynamically to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli. One key stimulus is intracellular pH (pHi), which is modulated by a tissue’s metabolic and perfusion status. Our understanding of the molecular mechanism of H+ gating of Cx43 channels—the major isoform in the heart and brain—is incomplete. To interrogate the effects of acidic and alkaline pHi on Cx43 channels, we combined voltage-clamp electrophysiology with pHi imaging and photolytic H+ uncaging, performed over a range of pHi values. We demonstrate that Cx43 channels expressed in HeLa or N2a cell pairs are gated biphasically by pHi via a process that consists of activation by H+ ions at alkaline pHi and inhibition at more acidic pHi. For Cx43 channel–mediated solute/ion transmission, the ensemble of these effects produces a pHi optimum, near resting pHi. By using Cx43 mutants, we demonstrate that alkaline gating involves cysteine residues of the C terminus and is independent of motifs previously implicated in acidic gating. Thus, we present a molecular mechanism by which cytoplasmic acid–base chemistry fine tunes intercellular communication and establishes conditions for the optimal transmission of solutes and signals in tissues, such as the heart and brain.—Garciarena, C. D., Malik, A., Swietach, P., Moreno, A. P., Vaughan-Jones, R. D. Distinct moieties underlie biphasic H+ gating of connexin43 channels, producing a pH optimum for intercellular communication. PMID:29183963

  16. Studies of Bystander Effect and Intercellular Communication in Human Epithelial Cell Cultures Irradiated with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romppanen, E.; Trott, K. R.; Musatonen, R.; Leszcznski, D.; Belyakov, O.

    2004-01-01

    The bystander effect is a phenomenon whereby biological consequences of irradiation are expressed in nonexposed cells in the vicinity of exposed cells. Two main pathways have been proposed to mediate the bystander effect: Gap Junction Intercellular Communication (GJIC) and medium borne soluble factors dependent mechanisms. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative contributions of gap junction intercellular communication and of soluble extracellular factors on the bystander effects of low dose X-ray irradiation. HaCaT human epithelial cell monolayers were exposed to X-ray using specially constructed shield, which cover 95% or 56% or 0% of the cells from the radiation. To evaluate whether the GJIC is involved in transmission of the bystander signal from irradiated to nonirradiated cells, irradiations were performed in presence or absence of GJIC inhibitor lindane. The cytochalasin B block technique was used to quantify fractions of micronucleated cells 48 hours after the irradiation. Our results suggest that more micronucleated cells are induced in partially shielded monolayers than expected according to back extrapolation of the data from open field irradiation. Treatment with lindane considerably reduced amount of the bystander damage. We demonstrated that fraction of micronucleated cells after X-rays irradiation of 5% of cells with 1 Gy was 0.07±0.08 (without lindane) and 0.05±0.004 (in presence of lindane). Irradiation of 100% of cells with the same dose resulted in 0.023±0.04 /without lindane) and 0.013±0.02 (in presence of lindane) fractions of micronucleated cells. Comparison with open field data showed that the fraction of micronucleated cells after irradiation of 5% of the cell culture was 5-10 times greater than the estimated fraction assuming no bystander effect. Irradiation of 44% of cells ded not demonstrate a pronounced bystander effect. (Author) 20 refs

  17. Indomethacin induced gastropathy in CD18, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, or P-selectin deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morise, Z; Granger, D; Fuseler, J; Anderson, D; Grisham, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions are thought to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastropathy.
AIMS—To optimise a mouse model of NSAID induced gastropathy and to evaluate the importance of adhesion molecules using adhesion molecule deficient mice.
METHODS—Gastropathy was induced in C57BL/6 mice or their adhesion molecule deficient counterparts via oral administration of indomethacin (20 mg/kg). Lesion scores, mucosal permeability, and histopathology were used to assess gastric mucosal injury.
RESULTS—Intragastric administration of indomethacin induced linear haemorrhagic mucosal lesions, primarily in the corpus of the stomach that were first observed at six hours. These lesions continued to develop over the next six hours with maximal lesion scores and mucosal permeabilities at 12 hours. When indomethacin was administered to mice deficient in CD18, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), or P-selectin, there were significant decreases in lesion scores compared with their C57BL/6 controls. In addition, mucosal permeabilities were found to be significantly lower in CD18 or ICAM-1 deficient mice observed at 12 hours.
CONCLUSION—Certain leucocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules are important determinants for full expression of indomethacin induced gastropathy. It is proposed that this modification of the mouse model may be useful for the investigation of other pathophysiological mechanisms of NSAID induced gastropathy.


Keywords: indomethacin; gastropathy; cyclooxygenase; intercellular adhesion molecule; VCAM; vascular cell adhesion molecule; P-selectin PMID:10486359

  18. Gap junction intercellular communication mediated by connexin43 in astrocytes is essential for their resistance to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hoa T; Sin, Wun Chey; Lozinsky, Shannon; Bechberger, John; Vega, José Luis; Guo, Xu Qiu; Sáez, Juan C; Naus, Christian C

    2014-01-17

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with various neurological disorders including aging, neurodegenerative diseases, as well as traumatic and ischemic insults. Astrocytes have an important role in the anti-oxidative defense in the brain. The gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) forms intercellular channels as well as hemichannels in astrocytes. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of Cx43 to astrocytic death induced by the ROS hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the mechanism by which Cx43 exerts its effects. Lack of Cx43 expression or blockage of Cx43 channels resulted in increased ROS-induced astrocytic death, supporting a cell protective effect of functional Cx43 channels. H2O2 transiently increased hemichannel activity, but reduced gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). GJIC in wild-type astrocytes recovered after 7 h, but was absent in Cx43 knock-out astrocytes. Blockage of Cx43 hemichannels incompletely inhibited H2O2-induced hemichannel activity, indicating the presence of other hemichannel proteins. Panx1, which is predicted to be a major hemichannel contributor in astrocytes, did not appear to have any cell protective effect from H2O2 insults. Our data suggest that GJIC is important for Cx43-mediated ROS resistance. In contrast to hypoxia/reoxygenation, H2O2 treatment decreased the ratio of the hypophosphorylated isoform to total Cx43 level. Cx43 has been reported to promote astrocytic death induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. We therefore speculate the increase in Cx43 dephosphorylation may account for the facilitation of astrocytic death. Our findings suggest that the role of Cx43 in response to cellular stress is dependent on the activation of signaling pathways leading to alteration of Cx43 phosphorylation states.

  19. Intercellular odontoblast communication via ATP mediated by pannexin-1 channel and phospholipase C-coupled receptor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eSato

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP released via pannexin-1 channels, in response to the activation of mechanosensitive-TRP channels during odontoblast mechanical stimulation, mediates intercellular communication among odontoblasts in dental pulp slice preparation dissected form rat incisor. Recently, odontoblast cell lines, such as mouse odontoblast lineage cells, have been widely used to investigate physiological/pathological cellular functions. To clarify whether the odontoblast cell lines also communicate with each other by diffusible chemical substance(s, we investigated the chemical intercellular communication among cells from mouse odontoblast cell lines following mechanical stimulation. A single cell was stimulated using a glass pipette filled with standard extracellular solution. We measured intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i by fura-2 in stimulated cells, as well as in cells located nearby. Direct mechanical stimulation to a single odontoblast increased [Ca2+]i, which showed sensitivity to capsazepine. In addition, we observed increases in [Ca2+]i not only in the mechanically stimulated odontoblast, but also in nearby odontoblasts. We could observe mechanical stimulation-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in a stimulated human embryo kidney (HEK 293 cell, but not in nearby HEK293 cells. The increase in [Ca2+]i in nearby odontoblasts, but not in the stimulated odontoblast, was inhibited by adenosine triphosphate (ATP release channel (pannexin-1 inhibitor in a concentration- and spatial-dependent manner. Moreover, in the presence of phospholipase C (PLC inhibitor, the increase in [Ca2+]i in nearby odontoblasts, following mechanical stimulation of a single odontoblast, was abolished. We could record some inward currents evoked from odontoblasts near the stimulated odontoblast, but the currents were observed in only 4.8% of the recorded odontoblasts. The results of this study showed that ATP is released via pannexin-1, from a mechanically stimulated

  20. Investigation of intercellular salicylic acid accumulation during compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-pseudomonas syringae interactions using a fast neutron-generated mutant allele of EDS5 identified by genetic mapping and whole-genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie L Carviel

    Full Text Available A whole-genome sequencing technique developed to identify fast neutron-induced deletion mutations revealed that iap1-1 is a new allele of EDS5 (eds5-5. RPS2-AvrRpt2-initiated effector-triggered immunity (ETI was compromised in iap1-1/eds5-5 with respect to in planta bacterial levels and the hypersensitive response, while intra- and intercellular free salicylic acid (SA accumulation was greatly reduced, suggesting that SA contributes as both an intracellular signaling molecule and an antimicrobial agent in the intercellular space during ETI. During the compatible interaction between wild-type Col-0 and virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst, little intercellular free SA accumulated, which led to the hypothesis that Pst suppresses intercellular SA accumulation. When Col-0 was inoculated with a coronatine-deficient strain of Pst, high levels of intercellular SA accumulation were observed, suggesting that Pst suppresses intercellular SA accumulation using its phytotoxin coronatine. This work suggests that accumulation of SA in the intercellular space is an important component of basal/PAMP-triggered immunity as well as ETI to pathogens that colonize the intercellular space.

  1. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  2. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on superoxide production and plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and antibodies to oxidized LDL in chronic smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, van L.J.; Waart, de F.; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M.; Heijst, P.; Graaf, de J.; Demacker, P.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidants have been postulated to exert beneficial effects in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is associated with raised plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). It is not known whether antioxidants

  3. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and flow-mediated dilatation are related to the estimated risk of coronary heart disease independently from each other

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, D.R.; Broekmans, W.M.R.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Poppel, G. van; Bots, M.L.; Kluft, C.; Princen, J.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) are measures of distinct functions of the endothelium, reflecting nitric oxide (NO)-mediated and pro-inflammatory status, respectively. The comparative value of the two measures

  4. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C

    2011-01-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives...... of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C....... albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well...

  5. Orbital preservation in a maxillectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishikawa, Hitomi; Kumagai, Masahiko; Dosaka, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Toru; Atago, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Masamichi [Sapporo National Hospital (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the past 9 years, 38 patients of the maxillary cancer were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. Sixteen patients showed the orbital involvement as confirmed by a CT scan and/or MRI. An orbital excenteration was necessary in 6 patients, due mainly to deep intraorbital invasion, while in 10, the orbital contents were preserved despite the involvement of the orbital capsule. The local rate of the orbital region in the latter patients evaluated at 48 months after the initial surgery was 44%. For the treatment of the recurrence at the orbital capsule. The application of gold grain (Au{sup 198}) thus appeared to be a useful tool for further preserving the eye. (author)

  6. Orbital preservation in a maxillectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishikawa, Hitomi; Kumagai, Masahiko; Dosaka, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Toru; Atago, Yoshihiro; Nishio, Masamichi

    1999-01-01

    In the past 9 years, 38 patients of the maxillary cancer were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. Sixteen patients showed the orbital involvement as confirmed by a CT scan and/or MRI. An orbital excenteration was necessary in 6 patients, due mainly to deep intraorbital invasion, while in 10, the orbital contents were preserved despite the involvement of the orbital capsule. The local rate of the orbital region in the latter patients evaluated at 48 months after the initial surgery was 44%. For the treatment of the recurrence at the orbital capsule. The application of gold grain (Au 198 ) thus appeared to be a useful tool for further preserving the eye. (author)

  7. INCORRECT PRESERVATION OF AMPUTATED DIGITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Ahčan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. A decision to replant is critically dependent on the condition of the amputated digit and the way it was preserved during transport. The most common error is exposing the amputated digit to very low temperatures. Preservation directly on ice, on cooling devices in portable refrigerators, or on top of packets of frozen meat often result in a frozen and therefore unusable body digit.Methods. An inquiry questionnaire on correct methods of preservation of amputated digits was conducted on a sample of 30 lay persons, 30 medical students, and 15 physicians.Three simulations of most frequently used methods of preservation of amputated digit were conducted (the correct method; directly on ice; on cooling devices of portable refrigerators. Environment temperature of the (simulated amputated digits stored was measured.In a retrospective study, hospital records of patients treated at the Clinical department of plastic surgery and burns in Ljubljana between 1998 and 2002 were examined. We determined the number of replantations performed, gender of the patients, their age, the mechanism of the injury, the success rate of the replantation, and the duration of hospitalisation. In five case described in detail, we present an inadequate treatment of the amputated digits.Results. The results of the questionnaire survey show that no less than 86.7% of lay person respondents would have treated the injuries in an incorrect way; same holds for 43.4% students of medicine, and 33.3% of practicing physicians.The temperature of the simulated amputated digit remained above 5°C throughout the simulated correct treatment. When preserved directly on ice on or coolant bodies, the temperature dropped below the freezing point and never climbed above 0°C throughout the duration of the simulation (150 minutes.Between years 1998 and 2002, Clinical department of plastic surgery and burns at the University clinical centre Ljubljana admitted 124 injured persons with

  8. Nuclear Knowledge Preservation in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2006-01-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna, Austria) was founded in 1957 as an autonomous intergovernmental organization, it was authorized for exchange of technical and scientific information on peaceful uses of atomic energy. 35 years ago the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) was established from IAEA as an international bibliographic database in the nuclear field and in nuclear related areas. INIS as an instrument for a comprehensive and systematic dissemination of all information and knowledge becomes a big technological and science information system with 134 Members (114 countries and 20 international organizations). In INIS Membership Arrangements all Members are responsible for the collection, selection, description of information and providing the Agency with the full text of each item of non-conventional literature. Participation of each Member is important because decentralized information management is an operational philosophy of INIS. During all these years status of nuclear power changed significantly in the world. Some developing countries started to develop nuclear power programme and some developed countries showed tendency to decrease use of nuclear power. Anyway, expert knowledge accumulated over decades and the achievements in the field of nuclear science and technology have to be preserved and later transferred to future generations. It became obvious that the INIS is practically a pioneer in the area of nuclear knowledge preservation with well defined goals of knowledge preservation: selection of the most valuable information to convey to the future, ensuring that it remains accessible, readable and understandable and management of technological change. Main components of knowledge preservation are: selection of information for preservation including evaluation and prioritisation by value, use and risk, information capture (purchasing, copy, digitise, web links), describing, classifying, store and access

  9. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  10. Preservation of food and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Tomomichi

    1975-01-01

    In the application of radiation to preservation of food, there are some methods; sterilization, elimination of noxious insects, prevention of germination and control of maturation. The former two utilize the lethal effect of radiation to the living things and the latter two utilize the injurious effect on the metabolism of the living things. At present, irradiation to potato is most widely permitted for the purpose of prevention of germination, and the irradiation with 15 Krad (maximum) is allowed to preserve potato for 8 months in Japan. In the other hand, a large quantity of doses, such as 4.5 to 5.6 Mrad, is necessary to sterilize completely for industrial use, degeneration of food component and high cost come into question. In addition, food is directly taken into the mouth of human being, therefore, wholesomeness, legal permission and determination of dose must be examined. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  11. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  12. Technical Information/Website Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    PintoRey, Christian R.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviews the work of the author in NASA's Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) internship. The intern worked on the Space Shuttles hydraulic systems (i.e., Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) and Hydraulic Pump Units (HPU's)), and website preservation of the hydraulic technology captured in websites relating to the coming.the Space Shuttle Retirement. Several figures and pictures show an overview of the orbiter's hydraulic systems

  13. New method of preserving food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrard, G. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights)

    1983-07-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood.

  14. New method of preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrard, G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood

  15. ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, AMM; Novello, D; Mendes, GMD; Cristianini, M

    2009-01-01

    ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily app...

  16. The ZEUS data preservation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malka, Janusz; Wichmann, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    A project to allow long term access and physics analysis of ZEUS data (ZEUS data preservation) has been established in collaboration with the DESY-IT group. In the ZEUS approach the analysis model is based on the Common Ntuple project, under development since 2006. The real data and all presently available Monte Carlo samples are being preserved in a flat ROOT ntuple format. There is ongoing work to provide the ability to simulate new, additional Monte Carlo samples also in the future. The validation framework of such a scheme using virtualisation techniques is being explored. The goal is to validate the frozen ZEUS software against future changes in hardware and operating system. A cooperation between ZEUS, DESY-IT and the library was established for document digitisation and long-term preservation of collaboration web pages. Part of the ZEUS internal documentation has already been stored within the HEP documentation system INSPIRE. Existing digital documentation, needed to perform physics analysis also in the future, is being centralised and completed.

  17. Phase-preserved optical elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-03-25

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, 2010]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping.

  18. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation is important. These key points can help start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment may ... several resources listed on the reverse that can help you locate a fertility preservation specialist to discuss ...

  19. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation center closest to you Visit the Pediatric Oncofertility Research Foundation Visit the Patient Navigator Website ... Ginsberg JP. New advances in fertility preservation for pediatric cancer patients. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010;23:9- ...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and ... Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents. Cancer ...

  1. 76 FR 60754 - Preserving the Open Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ...-201] Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule..., 2011, a document establishing rules to preserve the open Internet. Inadvertently the wrong paragraph... alleging violations of the open Internet rules. Federal Communications Commission. Matt Warner, Attorney...

  2. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future ... Can you refer us to a fertility preservation specialist to discuss my child’s options further? Fertility Preservation - ...

  3. A Holistic Approach to Bit Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld Maj-Britt Olmütz

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents three main results for a holistic approach to bit preservation, where the ultimate goal is to find the optimal bit preservation strategy for specific digital material that must be digitally preserved. Digital material consists of sequences of bits, where a bit is a binary digit...... which can have the value 0 or 1. Bit preservation must ensure that the bits remain intact and readable in the future, but bit preservation is not concerned with how bits can be interpreted as e.g. an image. A holistic approach to bit preservation includes aspects that influence the final choice of a bit...... a holistic approach and include aspects of digital representation, confidentiality, availability, bit safety and costs when defining requirements for the bit preservation. Analysis of such requirements and choice of the final bit preservation solution can be supported by the three main results presented...

  4. Prolonged platelet preservation by transient metabolic suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badlou, Bahram Alamdary

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Different clinical studies have shown that transfusion of stored platelets results in better haemostasis in patients with thrombocytopenia with and without a platelet function defect. Objectives: Current preservation procedures aim to optimally preserve the metabolic status of

  5. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... JP, Kolon TF. Fertility Preservation in Children and Adolescents With Cancer . Urology. 2016;91:190-6. Loren ... 10. Nieman CL, et al. Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood ...

  6. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be fertility preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner ... there are options for preserving fertility in your child diagnosed with cancer. You may be focused on ...

  7. Preservation management for libraries, archives and museums

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, G E

    2006-01-01

    Memory institutions such as libraries, archives, galleries and museums all share pressing concerns about preserving heritage. This book charts the diversity of preservation management in the contemporary information landscape, and offers guidance on preservation methods for the sustainability of collections from a range of international experts.

  8. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators

  9. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open ... Diagnosed with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation ...

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ... with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for ...

  11. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property to... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way...

  12. 76 FR 74721 - Preserving the Open Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ...; Report No. 2936] Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... for broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. DATES: Oppositions to... applicability. Subject: In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, Broadband Industry Practices, published...

  13. Comprehensive preserving technique for Chinese chestnut storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuntang; Yang Baoan; Zhang Jianwei; Li Qiufang

    2003-01-01

    Chinese chestnut can be preserved for a long time by using a comprehensive preserving technique, which consists of casing, irradiating, treating with preserving agent and controlling environment conditions. The shelftime of the treated chestnuts reaches 11 months keeping no insects, no germination and good quality for eating with the good fruit ratio of 97.5% and water losing ratio of 3.8%

  14. A holistic approach to bit preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which ...

  15. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  16. Polarization preservation in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The successful operation of a high energy polarized beam at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) with the concommitant development of depolarizing resonance correction techniques has led to the present project of commissioning such a beam at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A description of the project was presented at the 1981 National Accelerator Conference. I would like to now present a more detailed description of how we plan to preserve the polarization during acceleration, and to present our game plan for tuning through some 50 resonances and reaching our goal of a 26 GeV polarized proton beam with greater than 60% polarization

  17. Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqi; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Aeron, Shuchin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding (TTNPE) to embed multi-dimensional tensor data into low dimensional tensor subspace. Novel approaches to solve the optimization problem in TTNPE are proposed. For this embedding, we evaluate novel trade-off gain among classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction (storage) for supervised learning. It is shown that compared to the state-of-the-arts tensor embedding methods, TTNPE achieves superior trade-off in classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction in MNIST handwritten digits and Weizmann face datasets.

  18. Heavy-ion-induced bystander killing of human lung cancer cells. Role of gap junctional intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Kosaku; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Nakano, Takashi; Funayama, Tomoo; Kakizaki, Takehiko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanisms of cell death induced by heavy-ion irradiation focusing on the bystander effect in human lung cancer A549 cells. In microbeam irradiation, each of 1, 5, and 25 cells under confluent cell conditions was irradiated with 1, 5, or 10 particles of carbon ions (220 MeV), and then the surviving fraction of the population was measured by a clonogenic assay in order to investigate the bystander effect of heavy-ions. In this experiment, the limited number of cells (0.0001-0.002%, 5-25 cells) under confluent cell conditions irradiated with 5 or 10 carbon ions resulted in an exaggerated 8-14% increase in cell death by clonogenic assay. However, these overshooting responses were not observed under exponentially growing cell conditions. Furthermore, these responses were inhibited in cells treated with an inhibitor of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), whereas they were markedly enhanced by the addition of a stimulator of GJIC. The present results suggest that bystander cell killing by heavy-ions was induced mainly by direct cell-to-cell communication, such as GJIC, which might play important roles in bystander responses. (author)

  19. A mutual support mechanism through intercellular movement of CAPRICE and GLABRA3 can pattern the Arabidopsis root epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Saint Savage

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The patterning of the Arabidopsis root epidermis depends on a genetic regulatory network that operates both within and between cells. Genetic studies have identified a number of key components of this network, but a clear picture of the functional logic of the network is lacking. Here, we integrate existing genetic and biochemical data in a mathematical model that allows us to explore both the sufficiency of known network interactions and the extent to which additional assumptions about the model can account for wild-type and mutant data. Our model shows that an existing hypothesis concerning the autoregulation of WEREWOLF does not account fully for the expression patterns of components of the network. We confirm the lack of WEREWOLF autoregulation experimentally in transgenic plants. Rather, our modelling suggests that patterning depends on the movement of the CAPRICE and GLABRA3 transcriptional regulators between epidermal cells. Our combined modelling and experimental studies show that WEREWOLF autoregulation does not contribute to the initial patterning of epidermal cell fates in the Arabidopsis seedling root. In contrast to a patterning mechanism relying on local activation, we propose a mechanism based on lateral inhibition with feedback. The active intercellular movements of proteins that are central to our model underlie a mechanism for pattern formation in planar groups of cells that is centred on the mutual support of two cell fates rather than on local activation and lateral inhibition.

  20. A Wnt5 Activity Asymmetry and Intercellular Signaling via PCP Proteins Polarize Node Cells for Left-Right Symmetry Breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Katsura; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Ajima, Rieko; Takaoka, Katsuyoshi; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Ikawa, Yayoi; Nishimura, Hiromi; McMahon, Andrew P; Willert, Karl; Okada, Yasushi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Shi, Dongbo; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Igarashi, Yasunobu; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Shimono, Akihiko; Shiratori, Hidetaka; Hamada, Hiroshi

    2017-03-13

    Polarization of node cells along the anterior-posterior axis of mouse embryos is responsible for left-right symmetry breaking. How node cells become polarized has remained unknown, however. Wnt5a and Wnt5b are expressed posteriorly relative to the node, whereas genes for Sfrp inhibitors of Wnt signaling are expressed anteriorly. Here we show that polarization of node cells is impaired in Wnt5a -/- Wnt5b -/- and Sfrp mutant embryos, and also in the presence of a uniform distribution of Wnt5a or Sfrp1, suggesting that Wnt5 and Sfrp proteins act as instructive signals in this process. The absence of planar cell polarity (PCP) core proteins Prickle1 and Prickle2 in individual cells or local forced expression of Wnt5a perturbed polarization of neighboring wild-type cells. Our results suggest that opposing gradients of Wnt5a and Wnt5b and of their Sfrp inhibitors, together with intercellular signaling via PCP proteins, polarize node cells along the anterior-posterior axis for breaking of left-right symmetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The B[a]P-increased intercellular communication via translocation of connexin-43 into gap junctions reduces apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekpli, X.; Rivedal, E.; Gorria, M.; Landvik, N.E.; Rissel, M.; Dimanche-Boitrel, M.-T.; Baffet, G.; Holme, J.A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.

    2010-01-01

    Gap junctions are channels in plasma membrane composed of proteins called connexins. These channels are organized in special domains between cells, and provide for direct gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), allowing diffusion of signalling molecules < 1 kD. GJIC regulates cell homeostasis and notably the balance between proliferation, cell cycle arrest, cell survival and apoptosis. Here, we have investigated benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) effects on GJIC and on the subcellular localization of the major protein of gap junction: connexin-43 (Cx43). Our results showed that B[a]P increased GJIC between mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells via translocation of Cx43 from Golgi apparatus and lipid rafts into gap junction plaques. Interestingly, inhibition of GJIC by chlordane or small interference RNA directed against Cx43 enhanced B[a]P-induced apoptosis in Hepa1c1c7 cells. The increased apoptosis caused by inhibition of GJIC appeared to be mediated by ERK/MAPK pathway. It is suggested that B[a]P could induce transfer of cell survival signal or dilute cell death signal via regulation of ERK/MAPK through GJIC.

  2. cGAS-Mediated Innate Immunity Spreads Intercellularly through HIV-1 Env-Induced Membrane Fusion Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuting; Ducroux, Aurélie; Ponnurangam, Aparna; Vieyres, Gabrielle; Franz, Sergej; Müsken, Mathias; Zillinger, Thomas; Malassa, Angelina; Ewald, Ellen; Hornung, Veit; Barchet, Winfried; Häussler, Susanne; Pietschmann, Thomas; Goffinet, Christine

    2016-10-12

    Upon sensing cytoplasmic retroviral DNA in infected cells, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) produces the cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP, which activates STING to trigger a type I interferon (IFN) response. We find that membrane fusion-inducing contact between donor cells expressing the HIV envelope (Env) and primary macrophages endogenously expressing the HIV receptor CD4 and coreceptor enable intercellular transfer of cGAMP. This cGAMP exchange results in STING-dependent antiviral IFN responses in target macrophages and protection from HIV infection. Furthermore, under conditions allowing cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1, infected primary T cells, but not cell-free virions, deliver cGAMP to autologous macrophages through HIV-1 Env and CD4/coreceptor-mediated membrane fusion sites and induce a STING-dependent, but cGAS-independent, IFN response in target cells. Collectively, these findings identify an infection-specific mode of horizontal transfer of cGAMP between primary immune cells that may boost antiviral responses, particularly in infected tissues in which cell-to-cell transmission of virions exceeds cell-free infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of anisodamine on the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in experimental infusion phlebitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Xiang; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Qiu-Shi; Pan, Xue; Zhao, Qing-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Infusion phlebitis is the most common side effect of clinical intravenous drug therapy and several clinical studies have demonstrated that anisodamine can effectively prevent the occurrence of infusion phlebitis. This study was designed to investigate effects of anisodamine on the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in a rabbit model of infusion phlebitis and to analyze the mechanisms of anisodamine effect on the prevention and treatment of experimental infusion phlebitis. Twenty-four specific pathogen-free male Japanese white rabbits were randomly assigned to the control group, the model group, the magnesium sulfate group and the anisodamine group. The rabbit model of infusion phlebitis, induced by intravenous administration, was established and expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1 were determined and contrasted with the control group treated with normal saline. We evaluated expression by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting assay. Pathohistological changes of the model group were observed, such as loss of venous endothelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration, edema and thrombus. The magnesium sulfate group and the anisodamine group showed significant protective effects on vascular congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, proliferation, swelling of endothelium and perivascular hemorrhage. The model group showed the highest expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1 of the four groups (P 0.05). Anisodamine alleviates inflammatory damage by significantly reducing the expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1, and shows significant protective effects in an animal model of infusion phlebitis.

  4. Delivery of acid sphingomyelinase in normal and niemann-pick disease mice using intercellular adhesion molecule-1-targeted polymer nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnacho, Carmen; Dhami, Rajwinder; Simone, Eric; Dziubla, Thomas; Leferovich, John; Schuchman, Edward H; Muzykantov, Vladimir; Muro, Silvia

    2008-05-01

    Type B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a multiorgan system disorder caused by a genetic deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), for which lung is an important and challenging therapeutic target. In this study, we designed and evaluated new delivery vehicles for enzyme replacement therapy of type B NPD, consisting of polystyrene and poly(lactic-coglycolic) acid polymer nanocarriers targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, an endothelial surface protein up-regulated in many pathologies, including type B NPD. Real-time vascular imaging using intravital microscopy and postmortem imaging of mouse organs showed rapid, uniform, and efficient binding of fluorescently labeled ICAM-1-targeted ASM nanocarriers (anti-ICAM/ASM nanocarriers) to endothelium after i.v. injection in mice. Fluorescence microscopy of lung alveoli actin, tissue histology, and 125I-albumin blood-to-lung transport showed that anti-ICAM nanocarriers cause neither detectable lung injury, nor abnormal vascular permeability in animals. Radioisotope tracing showed rapid disappearance from the circulation and enhanced accumulation of anti-ICAM/125I-ASM nanocarriers over the nontargeted naked enzyme in kidney, heart, liver, spleen, and primarily lung, both in wild-type and ASM knockout mice. These data demonstrate that ICAM-1-targeted nanocarriers may enhance enzyme replacement therapy for type B NPD and perhaps other lysosomal storage disorders.

  5. Mobility of the native Bacillus subtilis conjugative plasmid pLS20 is regulated by intercellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Praveen K; Ramachandran, Gayetri; Ramos-Ruiz, Ricardo; Peiró-Pastor, Ramón; Abia, David; Wu, Ling J; Meijer, Wilfried J J

    2013-10-01

    Horizontal gene transfer mediated by plasmid conjugation plays a significant role in the evolution of bacterial species, as well as in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants. Characterization of their regulation is important for gaining insights into these features. Relatively little is known about how conjugation of Gram-positive plasmids is regulated. We have characterized conjugation of the native Bacillus subtilis plasmid pLS20. Contrary to the enterococcal plasmids, conjugation of pLS20 is not activated by recipient-produced pheromones but by pLS20-encoded proteins that regulate expression of the conjugation genes. We show that conjugation is kept in the default "OFF" state and identified the master repressor responsible for this. Activation of the conjugation genes requires relief of repression, which is mediated by an anti-repressor that belongs to the Rap family of proteins. Using both RNA sequencing methodology and genetic approaches, we have determined the regulatory effects of the repressor and anti-repressor on expression of the pLS20 genes. We also show that the activity of the anti-repressor is in turn regulated by an intercellular signaling peptide. Ultimately, this peptide dictates the timing of conjugation. The implications of this regulatory mechanism and comparison with other mobile systems are discussed.

  6. Intercellular Communication between Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Induces Local Osteoclast Differentiation: a Mechanism Underlying Cholesteatoma-Induced Bone Destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yoriko; Nishikawa, Keizo; Imai, Ryusuke; Furuya, Masayuki; Uenaka, Maki; Ohta, Yumi; Morihana, Tetsuo; Itoi-Ochi, Saori; Penninger, Josef M; Katayama, Ichiro; Inohara, Hidenori; Ishii, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by a balance in activity between bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Shifting the balance toward bone resorption causes osteolytic bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Osteoclast differentiation is regulated by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), which, under some pathological conditions, is produced by T and B lymphocytes and synoviocytes. However, the mechanism underlying bone destruction in other diseases is little understood. Bone destruction caused by cholesteatoma, an epidermal cyst in the middle ear resulting from hyperproliferation of keratinizing squamous epithelium, can lead to lethal complications. In this study, we succeeded in generating a model for cholesteatoma, epidermal cyst-like tissue, which has the potential for inducing osteoclastogenesis in mice. Furthermore, an in vitro coculture system composed of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and osteoclast precursors was used to demonstrate that keratinocytes stimulate osteoclast differentiation through the induction of RANKL in fibroblasts. Thus, this study demonstrates that intercellular communication between keratinocytes and fibroblasts is involved in the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, which may provide the molecular basis of a new therapeutic strategy for cholesteatoma-induced bone destruction. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in UVA-irradiated human skin cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treina, G.; Scaletta, C.; Frenk, E.; Applegate, L.A.; Fourtanier, A.; Seite, S.

    1996-01-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation represents an important oxidative stress to human skin and certain forms of oxidative stress have been shown to modulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. ICAM-1 has been shown to play an important part in many immune reactions and the perturbations of this molecule by ultraviolet radiation could have implications in many inflammatory responses. An enhancement immunohistochemical method with avidin/biotin was used for analysing the early effects of UVA radiation on human cell cultures and human skin (340-400 nm). Both in vitro and in vivo data show that ICAM-1 staining in epidermal keratinocytes, which was expressed constitutively, decreased in a UVA dose-dependent manner. The decrease was most noted at 3-6 h following UVA radiation with some ICAM-1 staining returning by 48 h post-UVA. ICAM-1 positive staining in the dermis was specific for vascular structures and was increased 24 h after UVA radiation. Cultured dermal fibroblasts exhibited ICAM-1 staining which increased slightly within 6-48 h post-UVA radiation. As epidermal ICAM-1 expression is depleted following UVA radiation and dermal expression increases due to an increase in the vascular structures, ICAM-1 provides a valuable marker following UVA radiation in human skin that can be readily measured in situ. (author)

  8. Domino-Like Intercellular Delivery of Undecylenic Acid-Conjugated Porous Silicon Nanoparticles for Deep Tumor Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tuying; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Li, Fuying; Yang, Hao; Gan, Lu; Yang, Xiangliang

    2016-10-05

    Improving the intratumoral distribution of anticancer agents remains the critical challenge for developing efficient cancer chemotherapy. Luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (PSiNPs) have attracted considerable attention in the biomedical field especially in drug delivery. Here, we described the lysosomal exocytosis-mediated domino-like intercellular delivery of undecylenic acid-conjugated PSiNPs (UA-PSiNPs) for deep tumor penetration. UA-PSiNPs with significantly improved stability in physiological conditions were internalized into tumor cells by macropinocytosis-, caveolae-, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis and mainly colocalized with Golgi apparatus and lysosomes. Substantial evidence showed that UA-PSiNPs was excreted from cells via lysosomal exocytosis after cellular uptake. The exocytosed UA-PSiNPs induced a domino-like infection of adjacent cancer cells and allowed encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) to deeply penetrate into both three-dimensional tumor spheroids and in vivo tumors. In addition, DOX-loaded UA-PSiNPs exhibited strong antitumor activity and few side effects in vivo. This study demonstrated that UA-PSiNPs as a drug carrier might be applied for deep tumor penetration, offering a new insight into the design of more efficient delivery systems of anticancer drugs.

  9. Remodelling of cellular excitation (reaction) and intercellular coupling (diffusion) by chronic atrial fibrillation represented by a reaction-diffusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Henggui; Garratt, Clifford J.; Kharche, Sanjay; Holden, Arun V.

    2009-06-01

    Human atrial tissue is an excitable system, in which myocytes are excitable elements, and cell-to-cell electrotonic interactions are via diffusive interactions of cell membrane potentials. We developed a family of excitable system models for human atrium at cellular, tissue and anatomical levels for both normal and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) conditions. The effects of AF-induced remodelling of cell membrane ionic channels (reaction kinetics) and intercellular gap junctional coupling (diffusion) on atrial excitability, conduction of excitation waves and dynamics of re-entrant excitation waves are quantified. Both ionic channel and gap junctional coupling remodelling have rate dependent effects on atrial propagation. Membrane channel conductance remodelling allows the propagation of activity at higher rates than those sustained in normal tissue or in tissue with gap junctional remodelling alone. Membrane channel conductance remodelling is essential for the propagation of activity at rates higher than 300/min as seen in AF. Spatially heterogeneous gap junction coupling remodelling increased the risk of conduction block, an essential factor for the genesis of re-entry. In 2D and 3D anatomical models, the dynamical behaviours of re-entrant excitation waves are also altered by membrane channel modelling. This study provides insights to understand the pro-arrhythmic effects of AF-induced reaction and diffusion remodelling in atrial tissue.

  10. A percolation-like model for simulating inter-cellular diffusion in the context of bystander signalling in tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulton, C.R.; Fleming, A.J.; Ebert, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Despite ongoing active research, the role of the radiation bystander effect in modifying local tissue response to an ionising radiation dose remains unclear. The present study aims to provide new insight by simulating the diffusion-mediated inter-cellular communication processes in 2D and 3D cell-like structures to calculate likely signal ranges in the diffusion limited case. Random walks of individual signalling molecules were tracked between cells with inclusion of molecule-receptor interactions. The resulting diffusion anomaly is a function of cell density, signal uptake probability and the spatial arrangement of cells local to the signal origin. Uptake probability effects dominate percolation effects in disordered media. Diffu sion through 2D structures is more conducive to anomalous diffusion than diffusion through 3D structures. Values for time-dependent diffusion constants and permeability are derived for typical simulation parameters. Even at low signal uptake probabilities the communication range is restricted to a mean value of less than 100 foun owing to complete signal uptake by 600 s. This should be considered in light of the potential influence of signal relaying, flo dynamics or vasculature-mediated signalling.

  11. Possible Mechanisms of Mercury Toxicity and Cancer Promotion: Involvement of Gap Junction Intercellular Communications and Inflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Zefferino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of observations indicate that heavy metals are able to alter cellular metabolic pathways through induction of a prooxidative state. Nevertheless, the outcome of heavy metal-mediated effects in the development of human diseases is debated and needs further insights. Cancer is a well-established DNA mutation-linked disease; however, epigenetic events are perhaps more important and harmful than genetic alterations. Unfortunately, we do not have reliable screening methods to assess/validate the epigenetic (promoter effects of a physical or a chemical agent. We propose a mechanism of action whereby mercury acts as a possible promoter carcinogen. In the present contribution, we resume our previous studies on mercury tested at concentrations comparable with its occurrence as environmental pollutant. It is shown that Hg(II elicits a prooxidative state in keratinocytes linked to inhibition of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication and proinflammatory cytokine production. These combined effects may on one hand isolate cells from tissue-specific homeostasis promoting their proliferation and on the other hand tamper the immune system defense/surveillance checkmating the whole organism. Since Hg(II is not a mutagenic/genotoxic compound directly affecting gene expression, in a broader sense, mercury might be an example of an epigenetic tumor promoter or, further expanding this concept, a “metagenetic” effector.

  12. House dust mite induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in EoL-1 human eosinophilic leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Byoung Chul; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2007-10-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is considered to be the most common indoor allergen associated with bronchial asthma. In this study, we investigated whether crude extract of the HDM Dermatophagoides farinae could activate human eosinophilic leukemic cells (EoL-1) to induce upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules. When EoL-1 cells were incubated with D. farinae extract, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) significantly increased on the cell surfaces compared to cells incubated with medium alone. In contrast, surface expression of CD11b and CD49d in EoL-1 cells was not affected by D. farinae extract. In addition, pretreatment of cells with NF-kappaB inhibitor (MG-132) or JNK inhibitor (SP600125) significantly inhibited ICAM-1 expression promoted by HDM extract. However, neither p38 MAP kinase inhibitor nor MEK inhibitor prevented HDM-induced ICAM-1 expression in EoL-1 cells. These results suggest that crude extract of D. farinae induces ICAM-1 expression in EoL-1 cells through signaling pathways involving both NF-kappaB and JNK.

  13. Inflammation-Specific T1 Imaging Using Anti-Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Antibody-Conjugated Gadolinium Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sil Choi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine inflammatory tissue, an initial and common symptom of various types of pathogenesis, we designed inflammation-targeted T1 contrast agents prepared by bioconjugation of gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA with anti-intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 antibody. The anti-ICAM-1 antibody was coupled with DTPA and was then conjugated with Gd. The specific binding of the Gd-DTPA-anti-ICAM-1 antibody complex to the ICAM-1-expressing cells was examined in the cultured endothelial cells where ICAM-1 expression was stimulated. Inflammation-specific T1 imaging was then assessed using a mouse abscess model with the 1.5-Tesla module. The Gd-DTPA-anti-ICAM-1 antibody displayed increased r1, which was two times higher than that of Gd-DTPA and showed predominant binding to cultured endothelial cells, which expressed a high level of ICAM-1. Moreover, the inflammation-specific T1 enhancement was imaged with the Gd-DTPA-anti-ICAM-1 antibody in the mouse acute inflammation model. The Gd-DTPA-anti-ICAM-1 antibody showed significantly increased vascular circulation time, which thereby offered a greater chance for its binding to the target cells. The Gd-DTPA-anti-ICAM-1 antibody displays a potential targeted T1 contrast agent specific to the inflammatory tissue that expresses ICAM-1.

  14. Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin induces IL-8 expression in human astrocytes via a mechanism involving TLR2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2009-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic biofilm-forming pathogen associated with neurosurgical device-related meningitis. Expression of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) on its surface promotes S. epidermidis biofilm formation. Here we investigated the pro-inflammatory properties of PIA against primary and transformed human astrocytes. PIA induced IL-8 expression in a dose- and\\/or time-dependent manner from U373 MG cells and primary normal human astrocytes. This effect was inhibited by depletion of N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosamine polymer from the PIA preparation with Lycopersicon esculentum lectin or sodium meta-periodate. Expression of dominant-negative versions of the TLR2 and TLR4 adaptor proteins MyD88 and Mal in U373 MG cells inhibited PIA-induced IL-8 production. Blocking IL-1 had no effect. PIA failed to induce IL-8 production from HEK293 cells stably expressing TLR4. However, in U373 MG cells which express TLR2, neutralization of TLR2 impaired PIA-induced IL-8 production. In addition to IL-8, PIA also induced expression of other cytokines from U373 MG cells including IL-6 and MCP-1. These data implicate PIA as an important immunogenic component of the S. epidermidis biofilm that can regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production from human astrocytes, in part, via TLR2.

  15. The Prognostic Value of Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Plasma Level in Children With Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A; Abo-Elezz, Ahmed Ahmed Abd ElBasset; Abu-Ela, Khaled Talaat; Suliman, Ghada Abudelmomen; Sultan, Tamer Gomaa Hassan

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) measurement in plasma for the prediction of outcome of acute lung injury (ALI) in children that may allow early recognition of critical cases. The study was performed as a prospective, controlled cohort study involving 40 children with ALI and 30 healthy children. The plasma level of sICAM-1 was measured at days 1 and 3 of development of ALI for the patient group and measured only once for the control group. C-Reactive protein was measured in both groups on day 1 only. There was significant increase in sICAM-1 in the patient group than in the control group ( P = .001*). The mortality rate reached 55% in children with ALI. The ceased group had significantly higher plasma sICAM-1 levels both at days 1 and 3 than the survived group ( P < .001*), and there was positive correlation between plasma sICAM-1 level and both duration of mechanical ventilation and the death rate, but more significant correlation was observed with plasma sICAM-1 levels at day 3 than day 1. Plasma sICAM-1 level served as a good predictor biomarker for both mechanical ventilation duration and the mortality risk in children with ALI.

  16. Detection of cancerous biological tissue areas by means of infrared absorption and SERS spectroscopy of intercellular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicka, M.; Urboniene, V.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Jankevicius, F.; Sablinskas, V.

    2015-08-01

    We present a novel approach to the detection of cancerous kidney tissue areas by measuring vibrational spectra (IR absorption or SERS) of intercellular fluid taken from the tissue. The method is based on spectral analysis of cancerous and normal tissue areas in order to find specific spectral markers. The samples were prepared by sliding the kidney tissue over a substrate - surface of diamond ATR crystal in case of IR absorption or calcium fluoride optical window in case of SERS. For producing the SERS signal the dried fluid film was covered by silver nanoparticle colloidal solution. In order to suppress fluorescence background the measurements were performed in the NIR spectral region with the excitation wavelength of 1064 nm. The most significant spectral differences - spectral markers - were found in the region between 400 and 1800 cm-1, where spectral bands related to various vibrations of fatty acids, glycolipids and carbohydrates are located. Spectral markers in the IR and SERS spectra are different and the methods can complement each other. Both of them have potential to be used directly during surgery. Additionally, IR absorption spectroscopy in ATR mode can be combined with waveguide probe what makes this method usable in vivo.

  17. Modelling the Costs of Preserving Digital Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Information is increasingly being produced in digital form, and some of it must be preserved for the longterm. Digital preservation includes a series of actively managed activities that require on-going funding. To obtain sufficient resources, there is a need for assessing the costs...... and the benefits accrued by preserving the assets. Cost data is also needed for optimizing activities and comparing the costs of different preservation alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyse generic requirements for modelling the cost of preserving digital assets. The analysis was based...

  18. OAIS and Distributed Digital Preservation in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    The aim of the paper is to illustrate how the distributed aspects of digital preservation can be aligned in practice, with the concepts and principles of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. There has been a growing awareness within the digital preservation community...... of the need for cooperation between organizations to address digital preservation requirements. One common example is that replicas of preservation copies of digital objects need to be independently preserved (e.g., stored, managed, monitored, documented) to ensure that at least one correct replica...... will survive for as long as needed. Such independence can be achieved through distributed digital preservation that relies upon specific agreements between participating and contributing organizations. The OAIS Reference Model does not address the challenges of distributed digital preservation in detail...

  19. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  20. Preserving information in neural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincich, Lawrence C; Horton, Jonathan C; Sharpee, Tatyana O

    2009-05-13

    Along most neural pathways, the spike trains transmitted from one neuron to the next are altered. In the process, neurons can either achieve a more efficient stimulus representation, or extract some biologically important stimulus parameter, or succeed at both. We recorded the inputs from single retinal ganglion cells and the outputs from connected lateral geniculate neurons in the macaque to examine how visual signals are relayed from retina to cortex. We found that geniculate neurons re-encoded multiple temporal stimulus features to yield output spikes that carried more information about stimuli than was available in each input spike. The coding transformation of some relay neurons occurred with no decrement in information rate, despite output spike rates that averaged half the input spike rates. This preservation of transmitted information was achieved by the short-term summation of inputs that geniculate neurons require to spike. A reduced model of the retinal and geniculate visual responses, based on two stimulus features and their associated nonlinearities, could account for >85% of the total information available in the spike trains and the preserved information transmission. These results apply to neurons operating on a single time-varying input, suggesting that synaptic temporal integration can alter the temporal receptive field properties to create a more efficient representation of visual signals in the thalamus than the retina.

  1. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  2. Brief concept of hip preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev S. Madan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of the anatomy of the hip joint and biomechanics across it, carry the immense importance to prevent future osteoarthritis of the joint. The aim of this review is to provide the brief concept of the methods to preserve the hip, especially in young adults. Attempts to preserve the hips start with the intense preoperative planning of the corrective procedure. Different parameters regarding the femur and acetabulum in all 3 dimensions need to be assessed. Especially, measurement of the anteversion of the femur and acetabulum is a significant step to avoid osteoarthritis. In addition, the suprapelvic and infrapelvic (spine and lower limb lengths alignment needs to be considered in the planning. Correction of the femoral side of the hip needs the understanding of the blood supply of the proximal femur which carries the risk of avascular necrosis more so with intracapsular osteotomies. Acetabular reorientation, to re-distribute the forces over the weight bearing part, can be carried out with re-directional osteotomy such as periacetabular osteotomy. It needs the understanding of the acetabular anatomy and the force distribution in it. To conclude, correction of both femoral and acetabular side parameters need to be considered in decision making depending on the alterations due to various etiologies causing the hip disorders.

  3. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2011-01-01

    We study the distributed privacy preserving data collection problem: an untrusted data collector (e.g., a medical research institute) wishes to collect data (e.g., medical records) from a group of respondents (e.g., patients). Each respondent owns a multi-attributed record which contains both non-sensitive (e.g., quasi-identifiers) and sensitive information (e.g., a particular disease), and submits it to the data collector. Assuming T is the table formed by all the respondent data records, we say that the data collection process is privacy preserving if it allows the data collector to obtain a k-anonymized or l-diversified version of T without revealing the original records to the adversary. We propose a distributed data collection protocol that outputs an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data collection. Meanwhile, the protocol is designed to leak limited but non-critical information to achieve practicability and efficiency. Experiments show that the utility of the anonymized table derived by our protocol is in par with the utility achieved by traditional anonymization techniques. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Is my network module preserved and reproducible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Langfelder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, one is interested in determining which of the properties of a network module change across conditions. For example, to validate the existence of a module, it is desirable to show that it is reproducible (or preserved in an independent test network. Here we study several types of network preservation statistics that do not require a module assignment in the test network. We distinguish network preservation statistics by the type of the underlying network. Some preservation statistics are defined for a general network (defined by an adjacency matrix while others are only defined for a correlation network (constructed on the basis of pairwise correlations between numeric variables. Our applications show that the correlation structure facilitates the definition of particularly powerful module preservation statistics. We illustrate that evaluating module preservation is in general different from evaluating cluster preservation. We find that it is advantageous to aggregate multiple preservation statistics into summary preservation statistics. We illustrate the use of these methods in six gene co-expression network applications including 1 preservation of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in mouse tissues, 2 comparison of human and chimpanzee brain networks, 3 preservation of selected KEGG pathways between human and chimpanzee brain networks, 4 sex differences in human cortical networks, 5 sex differences in mouse liver networks. While we find no evidence for sex specific modules in human cortical networks, we find that several human cortical modules are less preserved in chimpanzees. In particular, apoptosis genes are differentially co-expressed between humans and chimpanzees. Our simulation studies and applications show that module preservation statistics are useful for studying differences between the modular structure of networks. Data, R software and accompanying tutorials can be downloaded from the following webpage: http

  5. Need of Reactor Dosimetry Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, Krassimira

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear safety requirements and philosophy have changed by the development of new nuclear systems and this imposes special research and development activity. Reactor dosimetry which is applied for determination of neutron field parameters and neutron flux responses in different regions of the reactor system plays an important role in determining of radiation exposure on reactor system elements as reactor vessel, internals, shielding; dose determination for material damage study; for conditioning of irradiation; dose determination for medicine and industry application; induced activity determination for decommissioning purposes. The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. (author)

  6. Correlation-Preserving Photo Collage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingjie; Zhang, Hongjie; Jing, Guangmei; Guo, Yanwen; Chen, Zhonggui; Wang, Wenping

    2017-05-12

    A new method is presented for producing photo collages that preserve content correlation of photos. We use deep learning techniques to find correlation among given photos to facilitate their embedding on the canvas, and develop an efficient combinatorial optimization technique to make correlated photos stay close to each other. To make efficient use of canvas space, our method first extracts salient regions of photos and packs only these salient regions. We allow the salient regions to have arbitrary shapes, therefore yielding informative, yet more compact collages than by other similar collage methods based on salient regions. We present extensive experimental results, user study results, and comparisons against the state-of-the-art methods to show the superiority of our method.

  7. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide context--aware Location--Based Services, real location data of mobile users must be collected and analyzed by spatio--temporal data mining methods. However, the data mining methods need precise location data, while the mobile users want to protect their location privacy....... To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...... data is anonymized in the system using data cloaking and data swapping techniques. Finally, the paper empirically demonstrates that the proposed system is effective and feasible....

  8. Radiations to preserve world heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurel, T.

    2017-01-01

    This article details the use of radiation to preserve the archaeological and artistic heritage. Gamma radiations are used to kill living organisms (insects, fungi and moulds) and to solidify styren-polyester resins that may be injected in wood items to reinforce them. Neutron irradiations are used to reveal the structure of an item and to get information on the materials the item is made of. Both irradiations are non-destructive. Carbon 14 dating is efficient to age items but beyond 50.000 years the method becomes ineffective and other methods like thermoluminescence take over. For instance it is the thermoluminescence method applied on flints found on the Jebel Irhoud site (Morocco) that has allowed to push back the age of the first Homo Sapiens by 100.000 years to reach 300.000 years. (A.C.)

  9. [Chemotherapy and women fertility preservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Tristan; Piver, Pascal; Durand, Lise-Marie; Donadel, Lorène; Pech, Jean-Christophe; Roux, Christophe; Aubard, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Agressive chemotherapy can lead to premature ovarian failure and loss of fertility in women and children. Embryo cryopreservation is an established clinical procedure of fertility preservation but with several limitations. Others options are available. Cryopreservation ovarian cortex tissu have to be suggested in case of high gonadotoxic treatment. It doesn't require puberty and delay in initiation of chemotherapy. The first birth in France after orthotopic graft of ovarian tissu thawed have been recently described with a promising process. Oocyte cryopreservation is available for women without partner but the experience is limited. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy as ovarian protectants seem interesting. Follicular growth and maturation in vitro are still experimental. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  11. Preserving experience through expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, J.B.; Weidman, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems technology, one of the branches in the field of computerized artificial intelligence, has existed for >30 yr but only recently has been made available on commercially standard hardware and software platforms. An expert system can be defined as any method of encoding knowledge by representing that knowledge as a collection of facts or objects. Decisions are made by the expert program by obtaining data about the problem or situation and correlating encoded facts (knowledge) to the data until a conclusion can be reached. Such conclusions can be relayed to the end user as expert advice. Realizing the potential of this technology, General Electric (GE) Nuclear Energy (GENE) has initiated a development program in expert systems applications; this technology offers the potential for packaging, distributing, and preserving nuclear experience in a software form. The paper discusses application fields, effective applications, and knowledge acquisition and knowledge verification

  12. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    with any other entity, including the service provider. Such privacy concerns lead to trust issues between entities, which clearly damages the functioning of the service and even blocks cooperation between entities with similar data sets. To enable joint efforts with private data, we propose a protocol......, or in some cases, information from different databases is pooled to enrich the data so that the merged database can improve the clustering effort. However, in either case, the content of the database may be privacy sensitive and/or commercially valuable such that the owners may not want to share their data...... provider with computations. Experimental results clearly indicate that the work we present is an efficient way of deploying a privacy-preserving clustering algorithm in a distributed manner....

  13. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  14. Temporal trends of preservative allergy in Denmark (1985-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Lundov, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Most cosmetics and industrial products contain preservatives. Preservative allergy is common and, historically, changing contact allergy epidemics caused by preservatives have been observed. In 1997, Alan Dillarstone predicted a stable development of preservative allergy following mandatory...

  15. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterling, Elizabeth; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist β-naphthoflavone (β-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with β-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis

  16. Activated endothelial interleukin-1beta, -6, and -8 concentrations and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression are attenuated by lidocaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lan, Wei

    2012-02-03

    Endothelial cells play a key role in ischemia reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of lidocaine on activated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. HUVECs were pretreated with different concentrations of lidocaine (0 to 0.5 mg\\/mL) for 60 min, thereafter tumor necrosis factor-alpha was added at a concentration of 2.5 ng\\/mL and the cells incubated for 4 h. Supernatants were harvested, and cytokine concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Endothelial ICAM-1 expression was analyzed by using flow cytometry. Differences were assessed using analysis of variance and post hoc unpaired Student\\'s t-test where appropriate. Lidocaine (0.5 mg\\/mL) decreased IL-1beta (1.89 +\\/- 0.11 versus 4.16 +\\/- 1.27 pg\\/mL; P = 0.009), IL-6 (65.5 +\\/- 5.14 versus 162 +\\/- 11.5 pg\\/mL; P < 0.001), and IL-8 (3869 +\\/- 785 versus 14,961 +\\/- 406 pg\\/mL; P < 0.001) concentrations compared with the control. IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations in HUVECs treated with clinically relevant plasma concentrations of lidocaine (0.005 mg\\/mL) were similar to control. ICAM-1 expression on lidocaine-treated (0.05 mg\\/mL) HUVECs was less than on controls (198 +\\/- 52.7 versus 298 +\\/- 50.3; Mean Channel Fluorescence; P < 0.001). Activated endothelial IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations and ICAM-1 expression are attenuated only by lidocaine at concentrations larger than clinically relevant concentrations.

  17. Autophagy and gap junctional intercellular communication inhibition are involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis in rat liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Hui [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China); Zhuo, Liling [College of Life Science, Zaozhuang University, Zaozhuang, Shandong, 277160 (China); Han, Tao; Hu, Di; Yang, Xiaokang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Gu, Jianhong; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China); Liu, Zongping, E-mail: liuzongping@yzu.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China)

    2015-04-17

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to induce hepatotoxicity, yet the underlying mechanism of how this occurs is not fully understood. In this study, Cd-induced apoptosis was demonstrated in rat liver cells (BRL 3A) with apoptotic nuclear morphological changes and a decrease in cell index (CI) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The role of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and autophagy in Cd-induced apoptosis was investigated. Cd significantly induced GJIC inhibition as well as downregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43). The prototypical gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disodium (CBX) exacerbated the Cd-induced decrease in CI. Cd treatment was also found to cause autophagy, with an increase in mRNA expression of autophagy-related genes Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) conversion from cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. The autophagic inducer rapamycin (RAP) prevented the Cd-induced CI decrease, while the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) caused a further reduction in CI. In addition, CBX promoted Cd-induced autophagy, as well as changes in expression of Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1 and LC3. CQ was found to block the Cd-induced decrease in Cx43 and GJIC inhibition, whereas RAP had opposite effect. These results demonstrate that autophagy plays a protective role during Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A cells during 6 h of experiment, while autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition which has a negative effect on cellular fate. - Highlights: • GJIC and autophagy is crucial for biological processes. • Cd exposure causes GJIC inhibition and autophagy increase in BRL 3A cells. • Autophagy protects Cd induced BRL 3A cells apoptosis at an early stage. • Autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition. • GJIC plays an important role in autophagy induced cell death or survival.

  18. The mechanism of lauric acid-modified protein nanocapsules escape from intercellular trafficking vesicles and its implication for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijuan; Liang, Xin; Liu, Gan; Zhou, Yun; Ye, Xinyu; Chen, Xiuli; Miao, Qianwei; Gao, Li; Zhang, Xudong; Mei, Lin

    2018-11-01

    Protein nanocapsules have exhibited promising potential applications in the field of protein drug delivery. A major issue with various promising nano-sized biotherapeutics including protein nanocapsules is that owing to their particle size they are subject to cellular uptake via endocytosis, and become entrapped and then degraded within endolysosomes, which can significantly impair their therapeutic efficacy. In addition, many nano-sized biotherapeutics could be also sequestered by autophagosomes and degraded through the autolysosomal pathway. Thus, a limiting step in achieving an effective protein therapy is to facilitate the endosomal escape and auto-lysosomal escape to ensure cytosolic delivery of the protein drugs. Here, we prepared a protein nanocapsule based on BSA (nBSA) and the BSA nanocapsules modified with a bilayer of lauric acid (LA-nBSA) to investigate the escape effects from the endosome and autophagosome. The size distribution of nBSA and LA-nBSA analyzed using DLS presents a uniform diameter centered at 10 nm and 16 nm. The data also showed that FITC-labeled nBSA and LA-nBSA were taken up by the cells mainly through Arf-6-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated macropinocytosis. In addition, LA-nBSA could efficiently escape from endosomal before the degradation in endo-lysosomes. Autophagy could also sequester the LA-nBSA through p62 autophagosome vesicles. These two types of nanocapsules underwent different intracellular destinies and lauric acid (LA) coating played a vital role in intracellular particle retention. In conclusion, the protein nanocapsules modified with LA could enhance the protein nanocapsules escape from intercellular trafficking vesicles, and protect the protein from degradation by the lysosomes.

  19. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels reflect endothelial dysfunction in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia treated with atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawi, H; Osman, N S; Annuar, R; Khalid, B A K; Yusoff, K

    2003-08-01

    Adhesion molecules and cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of intimal injury in atherosclerosis but their relationship with endothelial function remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of atorvastatin on soluble adhesion molecules, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients with familial (FH) and non-familial hypercholesterolaemia (NFH). A total of 74 patients (27 FH and 47 NFH) were recruited. Fasting lipid profiles, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin, IL-6 and FMD were measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 and 9 months post-atorvastatin treatment (FH--80 mg/day, NFH--10 mg/day). In both groups, compared to baseline, sICAM-1 levels were significantly reduced at 2 weeks, further reduced at 3 months and maintained at 9 months (P<0.0001). The IL-6 levels were significantly reduced at 3 months and 9 months compared to baseline for FH (P<0.005) and NFH (P<0.0001). In both groups, the FMD at 2 weeks was higher than baseline (P<0.005), with progressive improvement up to 9 months. FMD was negatively correlated with sICAM-1 and IL-6. In conclusion, both low and high doses of atorvastatin lead to early progressive improvement in endothelial function in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia. sICAM-1 and IL-6 levels reflect endothelial dysfunction in these patients.

  20. Purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, MCha-Pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Wei, Yunming; Li, Jing; Yang, Xingyong

    2015-03-01

    An antifungal protein, designated MCha-Pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex, an additional gel filtration on HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 30, and finally, HPLC on a SOURCE 5RPC column. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 25733.46Da. Automated Edman degradation was used to determine the N-terminal sequence of MCha-Pr, and the amino acid sequence was identified as V-E-Y-T-I-T-G-N-A-G-N-T-P-G-G. The MCha-Pr protein has some similarity to the pathogenesis-related proteins from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Analysis of the circular dichroism spectra indicated that MCha-Pr predominantly contains α-helix and β-sheet structures. MCha-Pr had inhibitory effects towards a variety of fungal species and the 50% inhibition of fungal growth (IC50) for Alternaria brassicae, Cercospora personata, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor sp., and Rhizoctonia solani are 33 μM, 42 μM, 37 μM, 40 μM, and 48 μM, respectively. In addition, this antifungal protein can inhibit the germination of A. brassicae spores at 12.5 μM. These results suggest that MCha-Pr in bitter gourd leaves plays a protective role against phytopathogens and has a wide antimicrobial spectrum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, Vascular Cellular Adhesion Molecule-1 and Leukocyte Common Antigen in Diabetic Rat Retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ningyan Bai; Shibo Tang; Jing Ma; Yan Luo; Shaofeng Lin

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To understand the expression and distribution of intercellular adhesion molecule- 1(ICAM- 1),vascular cellular adhesion molecule- 1 (VCAM- 1)and CD45 (Leukocyte Common Antigen) in the control nondiabetic and various courses of diabetic rats retina. To explore the role of adhesion molecules (Ams) and the adhesion of leukocytes to vascular endothelial cells via Ams in diabetic retinopathy(DR).Methods: Sixty healthy adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into diabetic groups(induced by Streptozotocin, STZ) and normal control groups. Rats in these two groups were further randomly divided into 3, 7, 14, 30, 90 and 180 days-group,including 5 rats respectively. The immunohistochemical studies of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD45 were carried out in the retinal digest preparations or retinal paraffin sections, and the results were analyzed qualitatively, semi-quantitatively.Results: No positive reaction of VCAM-1 was found, and weak reactions of ICAM-1,CD45 were found in nondiabetic rats retina. The difference of 6 control groups had no statistical significance(P > 0.05). The increased ICAM-1 and CD45 staining pattern were detectable 3 days after diabetes induction, and a few VCAM-1 positive cells were observed in the retinal blood capillaries. The difference of diabetes and control is significant( P < 0.05).Following the course, the expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD45 were increasingly enhanced, reaching a peak at the 14th day.Conclusion: Increased expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and leukocytes adhering and stacking in retinal capillaries are the very early events in DR. Coherence of expression and distribution of the three further accounts for it is the key point for the onset of DR that Ams mediates leukocytes adhesion and endothelial cell injury.

  2. Stat3 is a positive regulator of gap junctional intercellular communication in cultured, human lung carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geletu Mulu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neoplastic transformation of cultured cells by a number of oncogenes such as src suppresses gap junctional, intercellular communication (GJIC; however, the role of Src and its effector Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3 upon GJIC in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC has not been defined. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed high Src activity in NSCLC biopsy samples compared to normal tissues. Here we explored the potential effect of Src and Stat3 upon GJIC, by assessing the levels of tyr418-phosphorylated Src and tyr705-phosphorylated Stat3, respectively, in a panel of NSCLC cell lines. Methods Gap junctional communication was examined by electroporating the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow into cells grown on a transparent electrode, followed by observation of the migration of the dye to the adjacent, non-electroporated cells under fluorescence illumination. Results An inverse relationship between Src activity levels and GJIC was noted; in five lines with high Src activity GJIC was absent, while two lines with extensive GJIC (QU-DB and SK-LuCi6 had low Src levels, similar to a non-transformed, immortalised lung epithelial cell line. Interestingly, examination of the mechanism indicated that Stat3 inhibition in any of the NSCLC lines expressing high endogenous Src activity levels, or in cells where Src was exogenously transduced, did not restore GJIC. On the contrary, Stat3 downregulation in immortalised lung epithelial cells or in the NSCLC lines displaying extensive GJIC actually suppressed junctional permeability. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that although Stat3 is generally growth promoting and in an activated form it can act as an oncogene, it is actually required for gap junctional communication both in nontransformed lung epithelial cells and in certain lung cancer lines that retain extensive GJIC.

  3. Anterograde axonal transport and intercellular transfer of WGA-HRP in trigeminal-innervated sensory receptors of rat incisive papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K Y; Byers, M R

    1985-04-08

    The ultrastructure and identification of WGA-HRP-labeled sensory receptors in the rat incisive papilla (the most anterior part of hard palate) were studied using semiserial thin sections. Various sensory receptors were organized according to three locations: dome region (ventral), chemosensory corpuscle region (medial to orifice of incisive canal), and lateral labium (apposing the incisive canal). In the dome region, the sensory receptors were localized in three sensory zones that were associated with surface ridges (one medial and two lateral). In each of these zones, intraepithelial receptor axons and Merkel receptors occurred in the epithelium, while simple unencapsulated corpuscles, glomerular-Meissner corpuscles, and incisive (encapsulated) corpuscles occurred in the lamina propria. In the chemosensory corpuscle region, chemosensory corpuscles and intraepithelial receptor axons were located in the epithelium, and incisive corpuscles were present in the lamina propria. In the lateral labium, only intraepithelial receptor axons were prominent. In all these sensory receptors, the preterminal axons and axon terminals were labeled with the tracer protein. In addition, some nonneuronal cells closely associated with the axon terminals were selectively labeled, e.g., terminal Schwann cells, lamellar Schwann cells, Merkel cells, corpuscular basal cells and chemosensory cells. Other adjacent cells were not labeled, e.g., unspecialized epithelial cells, capsular cells, corpuscular sustentacular cells, and fibroblasts. In both labeled axons and cells, WGA-HRP was incorporated into vesicles, tubules, and vacuolar organelles. The specific intercellular transfer of tracer protein may indicate trophic interactions between axon terminals and support cells in sensory receptors. The specific organization of multiple sensory receptors in the rat incisive papilla may provide a useful alternative system for studying somatosensory physiology.

  4. Induction of mast cell accumulation by chymase via an enzymatic activity- and intercellular adhesion molecule-1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyun; Wang, Junling; Wang, Ling; Zhan, Mengmeng; Li, Shigang; Fang, Zeman; Xu, Ciyan; Zheng, Yanshan; He, Shaoheng

    2018-02-01

    Chymase is a unique, abundant secretory product of mast cells and a potent chemoattractant for eosinophils, monocytes and neutrophils, but little is known of its influence on mast cell accumulation. A mouse peritoneal inflammation model, cell migration assay and flowcytometry analysis, were used to investigate the role of chymase in recruiting mast cells. Chymase increased, by up to 5.4-fold, mast cell numbers in mouse peritoneum. Inhibitors of chymase, heat-inactivation of the enzyme, sodium cromoglycate and terfenadine, and pretreatment of mice with anti-intercellular adhesion molecule 1, anti-L-selectin, anti-CD11a and anti-CD18 antibodies dramatically diminished the chymase-induced increase in mast cell accumulation. These findings indicate that this effect of chymase is dependent on its enzymatic activity and activation of adhesion molecules. In addition, chymase provoked a significant increase in 5-HT and eotaxin release (up to 1.8- and 2.2-fold, respectively) in mouse peritoneum. Since 5-HT, eotaxin and RANTES can induce marked mast cell accumulation, these indirect mechanisms may also contribute to chymase-induced mast cell accumulation. Moreover, chymase increased the trans-endothelium migration of mast cells in vitro indicating it also acts as a chemoattractant. The finding that mast cells accumulate in response to chymase implies further that chymase is a major pro-inflammatory mediator of mast cells. This effect of chymase, a major product of mast cell granules, suggests a novel self-amplification mechanism for mast cell accumulation in allergic inflammation. Mast cell stabilizers and inhibitors of chymase may have potential as a treatment of allergic disorders. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Towards Building a Blog Preservation Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Kasioumis, Nikos; Kalb, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Social media content and user participation has increased dramatically since the advent of Web 2.0. Blogs have become relevant to every aspect of business and personal life. Nevertheless, we do not have the right tools to aggregate and preserve blog content correctly, as well as to manage blog archives effectively. Given the rising importance of blogs, it is crucial to build systems to facilitate blog preservation, safeguarding an essential part of our heritage that will prove valuable for current and future generations. In this paper, we present our work in progress towards building a novel blog preservation platform featuring robust digital preservation, management and dissemination facilities for blogs. This work is part of the BlogForever project which is aiming to make an impact to the theory and practice of blog preservation by creating guidelines and software that any individual or organization could use to preserve their blogs.

  6. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  7. Conceptual Paper: Digital Preservation Strategies in Archival Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Adila; Bullah Affandy Habee

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the overall overview of concept of preservation regardless if it is preservation of physical records/archives or digital records/archives is discussed. The concept of the preservation discussed includes preventive preservation, restorative preservation, and content preservation. Then the concept of digital preservation. Furthermore, this paper highlighted the strategies and methods used in implementing the preservation of digital records/archives. The issues those are involved ...

  8. Privacy Preservation in Distributed Subgradient Optimization Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Youcheng; Yu, Lean; Wang, Shouyang

    2015-01-01

    Privacy preservation is becoming an increasingly important issue in data mining and machine learning. In this paper, we consider the privacy preserving features of distributed subgradient optimization algorithms. We first show that a well-known distributed subgradient synchronous optimization algorithm, in which all agents make their optimization updates simultaneously at all times, is not privacy preserving in the sense that the malicious agent can learn other agents' subgradients asymptotic...

  9. Knowledge preservation strategies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruna, S.; Bachmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently facing several challenges. An internal threat to the safety and operations of nuclear power plants is the loss of those employees who hold knowledge that is either critical to operations or safety. This report discusses the possibilities to preserve knowledge in nuclear power plants. Dependent on the degree of tacitness two different knowledge preservation strategies can be discerned: personalization and codification. The knowledge preservation activities discussed are valued according to the criteria: cost, immediacy of availability and completeness

  10. ACHP | Sustainability and Historic Preservation Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preservation) Solar Panels Incorporating Solar Panels in a Rehabilitation Project (National Park Service ) Installing Solar Panels on Historic Buildings: A Survey of the Regulatory Environment (Department of Energy

  11. Cosmetic preservative labelling on the Thai market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...

  13. Fertility Preservation for Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diane; Simons, Lisa; Johnson, Emilie K; Lockart, Barbara A; Finlayson, Courtney

    2017-07-01

    To describe fertility preservation (FP) utilization by transgender adolescents within a pediatric gender clinic between July 2013 and July 2016. A retrospective chart review was conducted to abstract demographic and clinical information among adolescents initiating gender-affirming hormones, including patient age at initial FP consultation, birth-assigned sex, race/ethnicity, and outcome of FP consultation. In our sample of 105 transgender adolescents, a total of 13 (seven transgender men and six transgender women) between the age of 14.2 and 20.6 years were seen in formal consultation for FP before initiating hormones. Of these adolescents, four completed sperm cryopreservation and one completed oocyte cryopreservation. Rates of FP utilization among transgender youth were low, which is consistent with a recently published report of FP utilization among transgender youth at another pediatric institution. Identified barriers to FP in our sample included cost, invasiveness of procedures, and desire not to delay medical transition. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preserving Data for Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macduff, M.; Sivaraman, C.

    2017-12-01

    The EERE Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) program established the Data Archive and Portal (DAP) to ensure the long-term preservation and access to A2e research data. The DAP has been operated by PNNL for 2 years with data from more than a dozen projects and 1PB of data and hundreds of datasets expected to be stored this year. The data are a diverse mix of model runs, observational data, and dervived products. While most of the data is public, the DAP has securely stored many proprietary data sets provided by energy producers that are critical to the research goals of the A2e program. The DAP uses Amazon Web Services (AWS) and PNNL resources to provide long-term archival and access to the data with appropriate access controls. As a key element of the DAP, metadata are collected for each dataset to assist with data discovery and usefulness of the data. Further, the DAP has begun a process of standardizing observation data into NetCDF, which allows users to focus on the data instead of parsing the many formats. Creating a central repository that is in tune with the unique needs of the A2e research community is helping active tasks today as well as making many future research efforts possible. In this presentation, we provide an overview the DAP capabilities and benefits to the renewable energy community.

  15. Food preservation by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The process of food preservation by ionising radiation is an alternative, or a complement, to the traditional methods of heating, refrigerating, freezing or using chemical additives. The study and development of this technique has started on the beginning of the fifties but it is based on the radiation killing effect on micro-organisms discovered by the end of last century. Foodstuffs are treated in appropriate plants: isotopic facilities (gamma radiation) and accelerated electron beams produced by machines called accelerators. The FAO and WHO in close cooperation with the IAEA have played an important role on the development of the process and on the increment of the industrial application of food irradiation. Over the world there are about 37 countries trading foods treated by ionising radiation. However, governments have been slow to clear the utilization of this process. The main reason of this attitude is in general due to the fact that the advantages of the technique are not clearly understood. Therefore, the dissemination of the information could on one hand clarify who has to take decisions and on the other hand support the choice of those foods by the consumers. This is the unique way to dynamize the application of this process

  16. Endothelial cell preservation at hypothermic to normothermic conditions using clinical and experimental organ preservation solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Ivo C. J. H.; de Boon, Wadim M. I.; Heger, Michal; van Wijk, Albert C. W. A.; Kroon, Jeffrey; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial barrier function is pivotal for the outcome of organ transplantation. Since hypothermic preservation (gold standard) is associated with cold-induced endothelial damage, endothelial barrier function may benefit from organ preservation at warmer temperatures. We therefore assessed

  17. Anuran artifacts of preservation: 27 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Deichmann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements made on preserved anuran specimens are often used in studies of systematics, ecology and evolution. Here, we examine the effect of preservation on one of the most common measurement of frogs, snout-urostyle length (SUL. Preservation had significanteffects on the SUL of 13 of the 14 species of North American frogs included in this study, with all species decreasing in SUL by 0.31-5.62%. Smaller frog species did not shrink proportionally more or less than larger species. Absolute shrinkage was correlated with SUL and was greater in larger species. Within species, percent shrinkage was not significantly correlated with SUL in 10 species, but significantly greater for larger individuals in 3 species, and decreased with size in 1 species. Absolute shrinkage was statistically greater for larger individuals in 4 species. Our results agree with studies of morphological permutations in fish which show that most preservation-related changes take place within the first few months after initial preservation. We suggest that the potential consequences of using preserved specimens in research must be considered and that future studies continue to examine preservation effects, not only on frogs, but on all preserved specimens used in scientific investigations.

  18. Film sound in preservation and presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanini, S.

    2014-01-01

    What is the nature of film sound? How does it change through time? How can film sound be conceptually defined? To address these issues, this work assumes the perspective of film preservation and presentation practices, describing the preservation of early sound systems, as well as the presentation

  19. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  20. Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices along the camel milk chain in Isiolo district, Kenya. ... Despite the important contribution of camel milk to food security for pastoralists in Kenya, little is known about the postharvest handling, preservation and processing practices. In this study, existing ...

  1. 7 CFR 782.14 - Identity preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity preservation. 782.14 Section 782.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... § 782.14 Identity preservation. (a) The importer and all subsequent buyers of the imported wheat shall...

  2. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Historical preservation. 638.304 Section 638.304 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM... § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register of...

  3. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  4. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

  5. Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; García-Gil, Agustín; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4 °C, normothermia at 37 °C and subnormothermia at 20 °C-25 °C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the “state of the art” and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

  6. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  7. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_Main_Menu ... Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Patient Pocket Guides Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility ...

  8. Knowledge preservation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents examples of knowledge loss in different areas related to attrition, retirements or layoff as well as the consequences of the loss of knowledge. The nature of the so called tacit knowledge and its role as a barrier to knowledge preservation is discussed. Strategies for knowledge preservation in the nuclear industry are presented

  9. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers ... Visit the Oncofertility Consortium Web site Use the online Clinic/Center Finder to find the fertility preservation ...

  10. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  11. Low dose/low fluence ionizing radiation-induced biological effects: The role of intercellular communication and oxidative metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard

    Mechanistic investigations have been considered critical to understanding the health risks of exposure to ionizing radiation. To gain greater insight in the biological effects of exposure to low dose/low fluence space radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) properties, we examined short and long-term biological responses to energetic protons and high charge (Z) and high energy (E) ions (HZE particles) in human cells maintained in culture and in targeted and non-targeted tissues of irradiated rodents. Particular focus of the studies has been on mod-ulation of gene expression, proliferative capacity, induction of DNA damage and perturbations in oxidative metabolism. Exposure to mean doses of 1000 MeV/nucleon iron ions, by which a small to moderate proportion of cells in an exposed population is targeted through the nucleus by an HZE particle, induced stressful effects in the irradiated and non-irradiated cells in the population. Direct intercellular communication via gap-junctions was a primary mediator of the propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to non-irradiated cells. Compromised prolif-erative capacity, elevated level of DNA damage and oxidative stress evaluated by measurements of protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation and activity of metabolic enzymes persisted in the progeny of irradiated and non-irradiated cells. In contrast, progeny of cells exposed to high or low doses from 150-1000 MeV protons retained the ability to form colonies and harbored similar levels of micronuclei, a surrogate form of DNA damage, as control, which correlated with normal reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Importantly, a significant increase in the spontaneous neoplastic transformation frequency was observed in progeny of bystander mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) co-cultured with MEFs irradiated with energetic iron ions but not protons. Of particular significance, stressful effects were detected in non-targeted tissues of rats that received partial

  12. Effects of Chinese yellow wine on nitric oxide synthase and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expressions in rat vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Ji, Zheng; Chi, Jufang; Tang, Weiliang; Zhai, Xiaoya; Meng, Liping; Guo, Hangyuan

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine similarities in the effect of yellow wine as compared to statin and the possibility that yellow wine inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cultured rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs). We isolated VECs, and cultivated and purified Sprague Dawley (SD) rat thoracic aortas in vitro. We selected the optimal wine concentration using clonogenic and MTT assays to measure cell survival. Next, we divided the cells into 9 groups: (1) control, (2) TNF-α, (3) TNF-α + rosuvastatin (10 μmol/L), (4) TNF-α + ethanol 0.5%, (5) TNF-α + yellow wine 0.5%, (6) TNF-α + ethanol 1.0%, (7) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.0%, (8) TNF-α + ethanol 1.5%, and (9) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.5% and they were given the corresponding treatment for 24 h. We determined NO production with nitrate reductase. We then measured eNOS activity, and detected eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein levels by Western blotting. Compared with the TNF-α group, NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression in the rosuvastatin, and yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly increased. Protein expression of iNOS and ICAM-1 in the rosuvastatin, yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly decreased. Compared with the rosuvastatin group, eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein expression in the yellow wine (0.5% -1.5%) groups were significantly different. Treatment with yellow wine increased NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression, which decreases iNOS and ICAM-1 protein expression. We conclude that yellow wine may have similar beneficial effects as rosuvastatin on the cardiovascular system. These effects may be attributed to their anti-atherosclerotic actions.

  13. Phenotype characterization of embryoid body structures generated by a crystal comet effect tail in an intercellular cancer collision scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz JA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F MurilloDepartment of Pathology, Hospital Departmental Villavicencio, Hospital Departmental Granada, Medicine School, University Cooperative of Colombia, Villavicencio, Meta, ColombiaAbstract: Cancer is, by definition, the uncontrolled growth of autonomous cells that eventually destroy adjacent tissues and generate architectural disorder. However, this concept cannot be totally true. In three well documented studies, we have demonstrated that cancer tissues produce order zones that evolve over time and generate embryoid body structures in a space-time interval. The authors decided to revise the macroscopic and microscopic material in well-developed malignant tumors in which embryoid bodies were identified to determine the phenotype characterization that serves as a guideline for easy recognition. The factors responsible for this morphogenesis are physical, bioelectric, and magnetic susceptibilities produced by crystals that act as molecular designers for the topographic gradients that guide the surrounding silhouette and establish tissue head-tail positional identities. The structures are located in amniotic-like cavities and show characteristic somite-like embryologic segmentation. Immunophenotypic study has demonstrated exclusion factor positional identity in relation to enolase-immunopositive expression of embryoid body and human chorionic gonadotropin immunopositivity exclusion factor expression in the surrounding tissues. The significance of these observations is that they can also be predicted by experimental image data collected by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in which two-beam subatomic collision particles in the resulting debris show hyperorder domains similar to those identified by us in intercellular cancer collisions. Our findings suggest that we are dealing with true reverse biologic system information in an activated collective cancer stem cell

  14. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme......This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... requirements for package formats used for long term preserved digital material, and using these requirements as the basis for analysing a range of package formats. The result of the concrete investigation is that the WARC format is the package format best suited for the listed requirements. Fulfilling...

  15. Irradiation's potential for preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The first experimental studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of foods were published over thirty years ago (1, 2) . After a period of high expectations and perhaps exaggerated optimism a series of disappointments occurred in the late '60s .The first company specifically created to operate a food irradiation plant, Newfield Products Inc, ran into financial difficulties and had to close its potato irradiation facility in 1966. The irradiator, designed to process 15,000t of potatoes per month for inhibition of sprouting, was in operation during one season only. In 1968 the US Food an Drug Administration refused approval for radiation-sterilisation of ham and withdrew the approval it had granted in 1963 for irradiated bacon. An International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit juices, created in 1965 at Seibersdorf, Austria, with the collaboration or 9 countries, ended with general disappointment after three years. The first commercial grain irradiator, built in the Turkish harbour town of Iskenderun by the International Atomic Energy Agency with funds from the United Nations Development Program, never received the necessary operating licence from the Turkish Government and had to be dismantled in 1968. The US Atomic Energy Commission terminated its financial support to all research programmes on food irradiation in 1970. For a number of years, little chance seemed to remain that the new process would ever be practically used. However, research and development work was continued in a number of laboratories all over the world, and it appears that the temporary setbacks now have been overcome. Growing quantities of irradiated foods are being marketed in several countries and indications are that irradiated foods will eventually be as generally accepted as are frozen, dried or heatsterilised foods

  16. Preservation of the Rotorua geysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allia, R.G.; Lumb, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the preservation of the Rotorua Geysers the geothermal activity at Rotorua, New Zealand, which has always been noted for its special cultural, tourist, and scientific values. A gradual increase in the drawoff of geothermal fluid through wells since the 1950s raised national concerns in the early 1980s when spring and geyser activity significantly declined. A government-funded monitoring program began in 1982 to establish the rate and cause of the decline in activity, as well as the magnitude of the drawoff. No new wells were permitted within 1.5 km of the geyser area. By late 1985, the monitoring program confirmed that drawdown of the geothermal field was linked to the drawoff by geothermal wells. It recommended that the drawoff could be reduced by 75% by well sharing and efficiency increases. The link between well discharges and the activity of thermal decline was disputed by the Rotorua Geothermal Users Association. By late 1986, the continuing decline in field pressure was considered to be serious, so the Government recommended compulsory closure of wells within 1.5 km of the geysers, and imposed a charging policy for geothermal usage elsewhere in Rotorua. The closures were battled in the High Court, and subsequently there was also considerable local resistance and publicity to the forced entry onto private land by authorities trying to cement up wells. The combination of enforced well closures, and what was considered by some to be punitive charges for geothermal usage, resulted in an 80% reduction in geothermal well discharges by late 1989. Some of hot spring activity has returned, and geyser activity is more intense. Recently, some residents have been concerned that cooled former thermal areas near houses may be heating up again, and that the well closures have also caused a dangerous build up in gas pressure near surface. This claim is presently being investigated

  17. Transfected HEK293 Cells Expressing Functional Recombinant Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) - A Receptor Associated with Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Anja; Joergensen, Louise; Barbati, Zachary R

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system. Human ICAM-1 mediates adhesion and migration of leucocytes, and is implicated in inflammatory pathologies, autoimmune diseases and in many cancer processes....... Additionally, ICAM-1 acts as receptor for pathogens like human rhinovirus and Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. A group of related P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains, the DBLβ, mediates ICAM-1 binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. This ICAM‑1-binding phenotype has...

  18. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) in scleroderma skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Deleuran, Mette; Heickendorff, Lene

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate whether soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) were present in scleroderma skin, and to compare their levels to concentrations measured in plasma and clinical parameters, we examined suction blister fluid and plasma...... from 13 patients with systemic sclerosis and 11 healthy volunteers. Suction blisters and biopsies were from the transition zone between normal skin and scleroderma, and uninvolved abdominal skin. The levels of sICAM-1 and sIL-2R were significantly increased in both plasma and suction blister fluid from...

  19. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd [Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Faculty of Science International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 141, 25710 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  20. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-01-01

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too

  1. Soluble Forms of Intercellular and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules Independently Predict Progression to Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kulkarni

    Full Text Available While the role of type 2 diabetes (T2D in inducing endothelial dysfunction is fairly well-established the etiological role of endothelial dysfunction in the onset of T2D is still a matter of debate. In the light of conflicting evidence in this regard, we conducted a prospective study to determine the association of circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1 and soluble vessel cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1 with incident T2D.Data from this study came from 1,269 Mexican Americans of whom 821 initially T2D-free individuals were longitudinally followed up in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. These individuals were followed for 9752.95 person-years for development of T2D. Prospective association of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 with incident T2D was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling to account for relatedness among study participants. Incremental value of adhesion molecule biomarkers was studied using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification improvement (NRI indexes.Decreasing median values for serum concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were observed in the following groups in this order: individuals with T2D at baseline, individuals who developed T2D during follow-up, individuals with prediabetes at baseline and normal glucose tolerant (NGT individuals who remained T2D-free during follow-up. Top quartiles for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were strongly and significantly associated with homeostatic model of assessment--insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that after correcting for important clinical confounders, high sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations were associated with 2.52 and 1.99 times faster progression to T2D as compared to low concentrations, respectively. Individuals with high concentrations for both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 progressed to T2D 3.42 times faster than those with low values for both

  2. Cornea procurement, preservation and transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson Silva

    1999-01-01

    Our experience on this subject is 40 years and we have seen the developments everywhere during this total period. Cornea procurement has been an unsurmountable problem in a large number of countries, mostly due to social and cultural reasons. The requirements for a simple eye bank to manage the supply for a local hospital are minimal. What is the most important is the donor base. In Sri Lanka nurtured in the traditions of Theravada Buddhism the donor base was easy to prepare. We had no difficulties with Christians and Hindus. For Muslims there are Fatwas in favour of donating eyes. But we always found them to be a reluctant group. But in predominantly Muslim countries, it is imperative that social workers should take up this issue, so those thousands may be helped. In all areas where attempts are made to procure comeas, it is important to have a day-and-night service available at short notice to collect any eyes offered. A trained technician with sterilised instruments to obtain eyes and blood sample must be available at a convenient location preferably in a large hospital. Even in places where the supply is infrequent, it is essential to have the readily-sterilised instruments to proceed to a donor site at short notice. To get eyes, general publicity in mass media alone is not sufficient. Such publicity makes people aware of the need for donor eyes and where a technician/doctor is available. What is more important is to canvass personally after a person has died For this purpose trained social workers may be employed, or the technician can do the motivation, as we do in Sri Lanka. Once eyes are removed, it is essential to pay careful attention to the appearance of the cadaver. It should not (and need not) cause any deformity as such event has a profound negative effect on the campaign. Many different preservation methods have been used over the years. Mc Carey-Kaufmann (MK) medium has been the standard for many years, and gives a life span of 4-5 days. The formula

  3. Summary of the preservation techniques and the evolution of the anammox bacteria characteristics during preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2017-06-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is a promising wastewater treatment method for biological nitrogen removal. A sufficient amount of active anammox sludge as a seed is crucial to the fast establishment and stability of the anammox process. Anammox bacteria is a kind of microorganism which is sensitive to the environmental conditions, e.g., oxygen, temperature. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of the anammox bacteria are 30-40 °C and 6.7-8.3. A proper preservation technique allows fast start-up of the anammox process, overcoming the long doubling time of anammox biomass. The preservation of the anammox sludge is influenced by various factors, e.g., preservation techniques, duration, temperature, substrates, and protective agents. During preservation, the characteristics of the anammox biomass, including the bioactivity, heme c content, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and sludge morphology, change with time. The optimum preservation technique is not invariable and it depends on the purpose of preservation (precedence of bioactivity or quantity), the bacterial community, and other parameters. It is important for the preserved anammox biomass to achieve reactivation so that stable anammox reactors can be established as soon as possible. However, because the preservation process is complicated, the knowledge regarding preservation is far from complete, and much future work will be required to increase the understanding of preservation.

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation and the ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility ... specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be ...

  5. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Not an option if there is a high risk of ovarian metastases. Discuss with your doctor. b ... an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility preservation options for children diagnosed with ...

  6. Novel Fluid Preservation System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve human biological samples, mostly blood and urine, from astronauts collected during flight under ambient conditions,...

  7. Novel Fluid Preservation System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and the ability to ... after chemotherapy in male and female survivors of childhood cancer treated between 1970 and 1999: a report ...

  9. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_ ... Northwestern University © 2015 Northwestern University Contact Northwestern ... Information University Policies Oncofertility Consortium ...

  11. [Valuation and prospect of function preserving gastrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuchang; Yu, Site; Xu, Jia; Zhao, Gang

    2017-10-25

    Preserving gastric function and improving quality of life (QOL) is the tendency of surgery for early gastric cancer. Function preserving gastrectomy (FPG) is applied to modify the extent of surgery and to achieve better quality of life at the premise of radical resection. Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is the most favorable approach of FPG with oncological safety, which can improve nutritional status and QOL via preserving pylorus and vagal nerve. Proximal gastrectomy is widely accepted as FPG for early upper 1/3 gastric cancer. However, the most optimal way of anastomosis is not yet solved. Sentinel node navigation is currently the most accurate approach for intraoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis, which stimulates the development of many kinds of FPG procedures for individual treatment. Nevertheless, more efforts should be made to reduce false negative rate of sentinel node biopsy. Herein we discuss the valuation and prospect of FPG.

  12. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  13. MoDOT pavement preservation research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The following report documents a research project on pavement preservation performed by the Missouri University of Science and : Technology (Missouri S&T) and the University of Missouri-Columbia (UMC) on behalf of the Missouri Department of Transport...

  14. Epimenides: Interoperability Reasoning for Digital Preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargakis, Yannis; Tzitzikas, Yannis; van Horik, M.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Epimenides, a system that implements a novel interoperability dependency reasoning approach for assisting digital preservation activities. A distinctive feature is that it can model also converters and emulators, and the adopted modelling approach enables the automatic reasoning

  15. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertil Steril. 2013; 100:1224-31. Chow EJ, et al. Pregnancy after chemotherapy in male and female ... Cancer . Urology. 2016;91:190-6. Loren AW, et al. Fertility preservation for patients with cancer: American ...

  16. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You ... Discussing fertility preservation is important. These key points can help start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment ...

  17. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health. You may feel uncomfortable discussing issues of reproduction with your child. Ask Your Doctor Discussing fertility ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in patients facing gonadotoxic therapies: a committee opinion. ...

  18. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer ... study approved by an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility preservation options for ...

  19. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen

    2004-01-01

    injection are dependent on the preservative used in the formulation and the concentration of GH. Injection pain may also be related to the buffer substance and injection volume. A liquid formulation of GH, Norditropi SimpleXx, has been developed that dispenses with the need for reconstitution before...... solution. More pain was also reported following large volume injections and following injections with solutions containing high protein concentrations. In summary, optimization of the preservative and buffer content of a liquid GH formulation may reduce injection pain and lead to improved patient...... administration. The formulation uses phenol (3 mg/ml) as a preservative (to protect product from microbial degradation or contamination) and histidine as a buffer. Alternative preservatives used in other GH formulations include m-cresol (9 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (3-9 mg/ml). Buffering agents include citrate...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and the ability to have a ... treatment and your child’s immediate health. You may feel uncomfortable discussing issues of reproduction with your child. ...

  1. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ...

  2. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  3. Newspaper preservation at Botswana's legal repositories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thabakgolom

    Journal of the South African Society of Archivists, Vol. ... The informational value of the newspapers as ... research on newspaper preservation in Africa ..... semantic differential e.g. average, good or bad ..... African Primary Health Care and.

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update . J Clin Oncol. 2013; ... Incorporating fertility preservation into the care of young oncology patients. Cancer. 2010;117:4-10. Download Patient ...

  5. Digitisation for access to preserved documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlis Bremer-Laamanen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the digitisation of our collections is a goal for libraries all over Europe. The choices we make in digitisation and preservation now will have a significant impact on the future. Do we only emphasise access? How do we enable access and preserve our originals in a qualitative and productive way? What will actually be left of our cultural heritage in the next millennium? In this paper I am going to look at promoting access to preserved originals mirrored by the experience at the Helsinki University Library, the National Library of Finland: · Preservation activities as platform for digitisation and OCR · Processing access to collections · The future - looking ahead

  6. Intercellular production of tamavidin 1, a biotin-binding protein from Tamogitake mushroom, confers resistance to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Oka, Naomi; Suzuki, Junko; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yuji

    2012-05-01

    The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, one of the most devastating rice pathogens in the world, shows biotin-dependent growth. We have developed a strategy for creating disease resistance to M. oryzae whereby intercellular production of tamavidin 1, a biotin-binding protein from Pleurotus cornucopiae occurs in transgenic rice plants. The gene that encodes tamavidin 1, fused to the sequence for a secretion signal peptide derived from rice chitinase gene, was connected to the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and the resultant construct was introduced into rice. The tamavidin 1 was accumulated at levels of 0.1-0.2% of total soluble leaf proteins in the transgenic rice and it was localized in the intercellular space of rice leaves. The tamavidin 1 purified from the transgenic rice was active, it bound to biotin and inhibited in vitro growth of M. oryzae by causing biotin deficiency. The transgenic rice plants showed a significant resistance to M. oryzae. This study shows the possibility of a new strategy to engineer disease resistance in higher plants by taking advantage of a pathogen's auxotrophy.

  7. Visualization of glucagon secretion from pancreatic α cells by bioluminescence video microscopy: Identification of secretion sites in the intercellular contact regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokawa, Satoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Inouye, Satoshi; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Ryo; Kanamori, Takao; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide

    2017-01-01

    We have firstly visualized glucagon secretion using a method of video-rate bioluminescence imaging. The fusion protein of proglucagon and Gaussia luciferase (PGCG-GLase) was used as a reporter to detect glucagon secretion and was efficiently expressed in mouse pancreatic α cells (αTC1.6) using a preferred human codon-optimized gene. In the culture medium of the cells expressing PGCG-GLase, luminescence activity determined with a luminometer was increased with low glucose stimulation and KCl-induced depolarization, as observed for glucagon secretion. From immunochemical analyses, PGCG-GLase stably expressed in clonal αTC1.6 cells was correctly processed and released by secretory granules. Luminescence signals of the secreted PGCG-GLase from the stable cells were visualized by video-rate bioluminescence microscopy. The video images showed an increase in glucagon secretion from clustered cells in response to stimulation by KCl. The secretory events were observed frequently at the intercellular contact regions. Thus, the localization and frequency of glucagon secretion might be regulated by cell-cell adhesion. - Highlights: • The fused protein of proglucagon to Gaussia luciferase was used as a reporter. • The fusion protein was highly expressed using a preferred human-codon optimized gene. • Glucagon secretion stimulated by depolarization was determined by luminescence. • Glucagon secretion in α cells was visualized by bioluminescence imaging. • Glucagon secretion sites were localized in the intercellular contact regions.

  8. TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded human wild-type SOD1 can propagate intercellularly in a prion-like fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrishevsky, Edward; Grad, Leslie I; Cashman, Neil R

    2016-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which appears to spread through the neuroaxis in a spatiotemporally restricted manner, is linked to heritable mutations in genes encoding SOD1, TDP-43, FUS, C9ORF72, or can occur sporadically without recognized genetic mutations. Misfolded human wild-type (HuWt) SOD1 has been detected in both familial and sporadic ALS patients, despite mutations in SOD1 accounting for only 2% of total cases. We previously showed that accumulation of pathological TDP-43 or FUS coexist with misfolded HuWtSOD1 in patient motor neurons, and can trigger its misfolding in cultured cells. Here, we used immunocytochemistry and immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that TDP-43 or FUS-induced misfolded HuWtSOD1 can propagate from cell-to-cell via conditioned media, and seed cytotoxic misfolding of endogenous HuWtSOD1 in the recipient cells in a prion-like fashion. Knockdown of SOD1 using siRNA in recipient cells, or incubation of conditioned media with misfolded SOD1-specific antibodies, inhibits intercellular transmission, indicating that HuWtSOD1 is an obligate seed and substrate of propagated misfolding. In this system, intercellular spread of SOD1 misfolding is not accompanied by transmission of TDP-43 or FUS pathology. Our findings argue that pathological TDP-43 and FUS may exert motor neuron pathology in ALS through the initiation of propagated misfolding of SOD1.

  9. Biopolymers for Sample Collection, Protection, and Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    knowledge of sample collection from various matrices is crucial. Recovery and preservation of microorganisms prior to analysis are important...Another method for encapsulating bacteria for use in biodegradation of gasoline involves a complex process using gellan gum (Moslemy et al. 2002). Many...use of acacia gum in preserving microorganisms for extended periods of time without refrigeration (Krumnow et al. 2009; Sorokulova et al. 2008, 2012

  10. Radiation preservation of cultural and museum objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities are summed up of using ionizing radiation for the treatment of museum collections, namely the biocidal effect of radiation on living organisms. An approximate assessment is made of the extent of damage to art and book collections by biological pests. Radiation preservation is compared with conventional methods which are unsatisfactory, because they do not affect deeper layers of materials. Experience is summed up with the use of radiation preservation in the Central Bohemian Museum in Roztoky. (J.C.)

  11. Improving food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Gronert, Alicja; Bikova, Borislava; Salce, Luca; Nogués, Marc; Batistelli, Patryk; Farid, Yomna

    2014-01-01

    The theme and issue of ‘Improving food preservation to reduce food waste’ is associated with all group members participating in this research project. This topic covers multiple processes including purchasing, preserving, preparing and storing food. The industry of fresh fruits and vegetables is an enormous market, which will not disappear any time soon. Food waste is mostly disregarded as fresh fruits and vegetables are mostly inexpensive. All group members believe that this mindset needs to...

  12. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yuan; Han, Tiancheng; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards...

  13. Preservation Benefits Geoscientific Investigations Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, L. A.; Latysh, N.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2005, the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program (NGGDPP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has distributed financial grants to state geological surveys to preserve, archive, and make available valuable geoscientific samples and data to researchers and the public. States have cataloged and preserved materials that include geophysical logs, geotechnical reports, fragile historical documents, maps, geologic samples, and legacy aerial and field-investigation photographs. Approximately 3 million metadata records describing preserved data and artifacts are cataloged in the National Digital Catalog, a component of the USGS ScienceBase data management infrastructure. Providing a centralized domain in the National Digital Catalog for uniformly described records has enabled discovery of important geoscientific assets across the Nation. Scientific investigations continue to be informed by preserved materials and data. Tennessee Geological Survey's preserved collection of historical documents describing coal mining activities in the State was used to identify vulnerable areas overlying abandoned underground coal mines, which caused surface collapses and sinkholes in populated areas. Missouri Geological Survey's preserved collection of legacy field notebooks was used to identify thousands of abandoned mines, many of which have significant soil or groundwater lead contamination and are located in areas that now have residential development. The information enabled the evaluation of risk to human health, environment, and infrastructure and identification of needed remedial actions. Information in the field notebooks also assisted the Missouri Department of Transportation responding to highway collapses and assessing collapse potential in abandoned coal mining lands. Digitization of natural gamma ray logs allowed Minnesota Geological Survey staff to directly access well data in the field, accelerating the ability to address geoscientific questions

  14. Salvage Stories, Preserving Narratives, and Museum Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    Preserved ships and other vessels are associated with a historiography, in Europe at least, which is still marked by parochialism, antiquarianism, and celebratory narrative. Many evidence difficult histories, and they are also extremely expensive to preserve. Yet, they are clearly valued, as nations in Europe invest heavily in them. This survey examines a range of European examples as sites of cultural, political and national identity. An analytical framework foregrounding the role of narrati...

  15. Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

  16. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  17. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references

  18. New methods of museum objects preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justa, P.

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contains 22 papers of which four discuss the use of ionizing radiation in the preservation and restoration of cultural objects, this namely: radiation methods used for the impregnation of wooden cultural objects, a mobile irradiation robot and its uses for the preservation of museum objects, X-ray fluorescence analysis as an auxiliary scientific discipline for restorers, and the use of neutron activation analysis for expertise of paintings. Some 230 participants attended the seminar. (J.B.)

  19. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage for orbital reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linberg, J.V.; Anderson, R.L.; Edwards, J.J.; Panje, W.R.; Bardach, J.

    1980-01-01

    Human costal cartilage is an excellent implant material for orbital and periorbital reconstruction because of its light weight, strength, homogeneous consistency and the ease with which it can be carved. Its use has been limited by the necessity of a separate surgical procedure to obtain the material. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage has been shown to have almost all the autogenous cartilage and is convenient to use. Preserved irradiated homologous cartilage transplants do not elicit rejection reactions, resist infection and rarely undergo absorption

  20. Central structure preservation of the reversal sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    We report serial changes of central structure preservation of the reversal sign in a case of child abuse. The serial CT images show that the relatively spared attenuation at the basal ganglia, thalami, and posterior fossa develops before the occurrence of transtentorial herniation. This finding makes the theory that central preservation of the reversal sign is due to pressure relief after transtentorial herniation less convincible. (orig.)

  1. Planets: Integrated Services for Digital Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Farquhar, Adam; Hockx-Yu, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Planets Project is developing services and technology to address core challenges in digital preservation. This article introduces the motivation for this work, describes the extensible technical architecture and places the Planets approach into the context of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. It also provides a scenario demonstrating Planets’ usefulness in solving real-life digital preservation problems and an overview of the project’s progress to date.

  2. Planets: Integrated Services for Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Farquhar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Planets Project is developing services and technology to address core challenges in digital preservation. This article introduces the motivation for this work, describes the extensible technical architecture and places the Planets approach into the context of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS Reference Model. It also provides a scenario demonstrating Planets’ usefulness in solving real-life digital preservation problems and an overview of the project’s progress to date.

  3. Central structure preservation of the reversal sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    1999-12-01

    We report serial changes of central structure preservation of the reversal sign in a case of child abuse. The serial CT images show that the relatively spared attenuation at the basal ganglia, thalami, and posterior fossa develops before the occurrence of transtentorial herniation. This finding makes the theory that central preservation of the reversal sign is due to pressure relief after transtentorial herniation less convincible. (orig.)

  4. Application of preservatives for residual fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorozpe y Munoz, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    Due to the high costs of the combust oils (fuel oil 6) used in generators of vapor and in other treatments, makes important consider the use of preservatives that improve the operation of the units from the operative point of view and of environmental control. The author enumerates several of the problems of corrosion, of efficiency in the combustion and of thermal efficiency; in a same way it enumerates several useful preservatives, to be used in residual fuel

  5. Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Vanotti, Matias B; Szögi, Ariel A; Gonzalez, Maria Cruz Garcia; Fujii, Takao

    2011-10-01

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (-60°C and in liquid nitrogen (-200°C)) in skim milk media (with and without glycerol), and the reactivation of anammox activity was monitored after a 4-month storage period. Of the different preservation treatments tested, only anammox biomass preserved via freezing in liquid nitrogen followed by lyophilization in skim milk media without glycerol achieved stoichiometric ratios for the anammox reaction similar to the biomass in both the parent bioreactor and in the freshly harvested control treatment. A freezing temperature of -60°C alone, or in conjunction with lyophilization, resulted in the partial recovery of the anammox bacteria, with an equal mixture of anammox and nitrifying bacteria in the reactivated biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful reactivation of anammox biomass preserved via sub-zero freezing and/or lyophilization. The simple preservation protocol developed from this study could be beneficial to accelerate the integration of anammox-based processes into current treatment systems through a highly efficient starting anammox biomass.

  6. Perception of library staff on the preservation and conservation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception of library staff on the preservation and conservation of library resources in the Federal ... Journal Home > Vol 48, No 1-2 (2015) > ... of preservation policy as well as lack of funding to purchase preservation equipment in the library.

  7. preservative activities parkia biglobosa ervative activities of aqueous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    The general idea of preserving food is to incre its shelf life ... volatile oil and resinous matter (David, 197. Development in ... extracts of P. biglobosa as plant based food preservatives with. ,Preservative ..... activity of essential oils obtained from.

  8. Changes in Ocular Surface Characteristics after Switching from Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Latanoprost to Preservative-Free Tafluprost or Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Tafluprost

    OpenAIRE

    Tokuda, Naoto; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Matsuzawa, Akiko; Tsukamoto, Ayaka; Sase, Kana; Sakae, Shinsuke; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of switching from Latanoprost ophthalmic solution containing a preservative to preservative-free Tafluprost ophthalmic solution or Tafluprost containing a preservative on ocular surfaces. Materials and Methods. Forty patients (40 eyes) with glaucoma (mean age: 62.0 ± 10.9 years) using Latanoprost with preservative for six months or longer were assigned either to a Tafluprost-containing-preservative group (20 eyes) or preservativ...

  9. Changes in Ocular Surface Characteristics after Switching from Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Latanoprost to Preservative-Free Tafluprost or Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Tafluprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Tokuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of switching from Latanoprost ophthalmic solution containing a preservative to preservative-free Tafluprost ophthalmic solution or Tafluprost containing a preservative on ocular surfaces. Materials and Methods. Forty patients (40 eyes with glaucoma (mean age: 62.0 ± 10.9 years using Latanoprost with preservative for six months or longer were assigned either to a Tafluprost-containing-preservative group (20 eyes or preservative-free-Tafluprost group (20 eyes. The intraocular pressure, corneal epithelial barrier function (fluorescein uptake concentration with fluorophotometer FL-500, superficial punctate keratopathy (AD classification, and tear film breakup time (TBUT were assessed before switching and at 12 weeks after switching. Results. No significant differences in intraocular pressure were noted after switching in either group. Corneal epithelial barrier function was improved significantly after switching in both the Tafluprost-containing-preservative and the preservative-free-Tafluprost groups. There were no significant differences in AD scores after switching in the Tafluprost-containing-preservative group, but significant improvements were noted in the preservative-free-Tafluprost group. No significant differences in TBUT were noted in the Tafluprost-containing-preservative or preservative-free-Tafluprost groups after switching. Conclusion. After switching from preservative Latanoprost to Tafluprost containing-preservative or preservative-free Tafluprost, corneal epithelial barrier function was improved while the intraocular pressure reduction was retained.

  10. Changes in Ocular Surface Characteristics after Switching from Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Latanoprost to Preservative-Free Tafluprost or Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Tafluprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Naoto; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Matsuzawa, Akiko; Tsukamoto, Ayaka; Sase, Kana; Sakae, Shinsuke; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of switching from Latanoprost ophthalmic solution containing a preservative to preservative-free Tafluprost ophthalmic solution or Tafluprost containing a preservative on ocular surfaces. Forty patients (40 eyes) with glaucoma (mean age: 62.0 ± 10.9 years) using Latanoprost with preservative for six months or longer were assigned either to a Tafluprost-containing-preservative group (20 eyes) or preservative-free-Tafluprost group (20 eyes). The intraocular pressure, corneal epithelial barrier function (fluorescein uptake concentration with fluorophotometer FL-500), superficial punctate keratopathy (AD classification), and tear film breakup time (TBUT) were assessed before switching and at 12 weeks after switching. No significant differences in intraocular pressure were noted after switching in either group. Corneal epithelial barrier function was improved significantly after switching in both the Tafluprost-containing-preservative and the preservative-free-Tafluprost groups. There were no significant differences in AD scores after switching in the Tafluprost-containing-preservative group, but significant improvements were noted in the preservative-free-Tafluprost group. No significant differences in TBUT were noted in the Tafluprost-containing-preservative or preservative-free-Tafluprost groups after switching. After switching from preservative Latanoprost to Tafluprost containing-preservative or preservative-free Tafluprost, corneal epithelial barrier function was improved while the intraocular pressure reduction was retained.

  11. Comparison of contamination rates between preserved and preservative-free fluoroquinolone eyedrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mo Sae; Kim, Hong Kyun; Kim, Joon Mo; Choi, Chul Young

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of preservative-free fluoroquinolone products compared with benzalkonium chloride containing fluoroquinolones using the challenge test provided by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the in-use test. 1. Challenge test: to compare the growth of microorganisms between different fluoroquinolone preparations, four test organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger were chosen among five microorganisms listed by USP 2004. The inoculated products were sampled for microbial survivors at days 7, 14, and 28 following initial inoculation at room temperature. The number of surviving organisms were calculated as a Log10 reduction from the original inocula. 2. In-use test: a total of 100 bottles were collected after instillation of preservative-free fluoroquinolone eyedrops in volunteer patients after 1 week of use. The remaining fluid and tips of the bottles were cultured. Colonies on the plates were counted at the end of the incubation period. All microorganisms were identified by Gram staining and biochemical assays. 1. Challenge test: preservative-free gatifloxacin and levofloxacin demonstrated a lower log reduction against A. niger than preserved fluoroquinolones and preservative-free moxifloxacin at all time points. 2. In-use test: There was no contamination identified on plates inoculated by preservative-free quinolone bottles after 1 week of use in this study. Physicians should be aware of the lower antifungal preservative effectiveness of some preservative-free fluoroquinolone preparations than preserved ones.

  12. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Morgan; Inaba, Kenji; Cheng, Vincent; Bardes, James M; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal pancreas are infrequent. Universally accepted recommendations about the need for routine splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy do not exist. The aims of this study were to compare outcomes after distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy, and to define the appropriate patient population for splenic preservation. All patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy (January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014) were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank. Patients with concomitant splenic injury and those who underwent partial splenectomy were excluded. Demographics, clinical data, procedures, and outcomes were collected. Study groups were defined by surgical procedure: distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy versus spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. Baseline characteristics between groups were compared with univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with logistic and linear regression to examine differences in outcomes. Over the 8-year study period, 2,223 patients underwent distal pancreatectomy. After excluding 1,381 patients with concomitant splenic injury (62%) and 8 (pancreatectomy and splenectomy, those who underwent spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy were younger (p pancreatectomy (p = 0.017). Complications, mortality, and intensive care unit LOS were not significantly different. In young patients after blunt trauma who are not severely injured, a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be considered to allow for conservation of splenic function and a shorter hospital LOS. In all other patients, the surgeon should not hesitate to remove the spleen with the distal pancreas. Therapy, level IV.

  14. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Suhag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.

  15. Machine perfusion preservation of the pig liver using a new preservation solution, polysol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, M.; Doorschodt, B. M.; Dinant, S.; de Graaf, W.; van Gulik, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The current gold standard for donor liver preservation is cold storage in a preservation solution (4 degrees C), such as Celsior or the University of Wisconsin solution (UW). Recent studies have suggested the benefits of machine perfusion (MP) over cold storage. To improve the results

  16. Microbial control and food Preservation: Theory and practice:Principles of food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food preservation is an action or method used to maintain foods at certain desirable properties or quality to obtain maximum benefit. A good method of food preservation is one that slows down or prevents altogether the action of the agents of spoilage without damaging the food. To achieve this, cert...

  17. Towards Smart Storage for Repository Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Hitchcock

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The move to digital is being accompanied by a huge rise in volumes of (born-digital content and data. As a result the curation lifecycle has to be redrawn. Processes such as selection and evaluation for preservation have to be driven by automation. Manual processes will not scale, and the traditional signifiers and selection criteria in older formats, such as print publication, are changing. The paper will examine at a conceptual and practical level how preservation intelligence can be built into software-based digital preservation tools and services on the Web and across the network ‘cloud’ to create ‘smart’ storage for long-term, continuous data monitoring and management. Some early examples will be presented, focussing on storage management and format risk assessment.

  18. Salvage Stories, Preserving Narratives, and Museum Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sawyer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Preserved ships and other vessels are associated with a historiography, in Europe at least, which is still marked by parochialism, antiquarianism, and celebratory narrative. Many evidence difficult histories, and they are also extremely expensive to preserve. Yet, they are clearly valued, as nations in Europe invest heavily in them. This survey examines a range of European examples as sites of cultural, political and national identity. An analytical framework foregrounding the role of narrative and story reveals three aspects to these exhibits: explicit stories connected with specific nations, often reinforcing broader, sometimes implicit, national narratives; and a teleological sequence of loss, recovery and preservation, influenced by nationality, but very similar in form across Europe

  19. BlogForever: Intelligent Blog Preservation

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    A new EU co-funded project, BlogForever, has set its sights on a developing region of the Internet: the blogosphere. With society growing ever more online-oriented, blogs have become rich repositories of cultural, scientific and social information. The BlogForever software platform is designed to manage and distribute this content and preserve it for posterity.   The BlogForever project will gather blog content into a safeguarded, online archive, turning the once temporary into a well-preserved resource. The project is scheduled for completion in 2013, with partners spread across 12 different companies, universities and research organisations, including CERN. While the CERN team is primarily involved in the technical aspect of the project – designing and implementing the repository – it will also contribute to the preservation guidelines that will be used to choose what content will be kept. “Building on the success of Invenio, the digital library software used by th...

  20. Toward privacy-preserving JPEG image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hang; Wang, Jingyue; Wang, Meiqing; Zhong, Shangping

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a privacy-preserving retrieval scheme for JPEG images based on local variance. Three parties are involved in the scheme: the content owner, the server, and the authorized user. The content owner encrypts JPEG images for privacy protection by jointly using permutation cipher and stream cipher, and then, the encrypted versions are uploaded to the server. With an encrypted query image provided by an authorized user, the server may extract blockwise local variances in different directions without knowing the plaintext content. After that, it can calculate the similarity between the encrypted query image and each encrypted database image by a local variance-based feature comparison mechanism. The authorized user with the encryption key can decrypt the returned encrypted images with plaintext content similar to the query image. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only provides effective privacy-preserving retrieval service but also ensures both format compliance and file size preservation for encrypted JPEG images.

  1. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  2. [The health preserving behavior in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bitskii, V Iu; Makeev, N I

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the results of study of health preserving behavior of 310 students of senior classes of high schools of town of Jukovsky of Moskovskaya oblast. The higher level of prevalence of harmful habits among adolescents is revealed. It is emphasized that among girls the prevalence of harmful habits is not at large lower than among boys. The lower level of medical activities of respondents is explained by mistrusting physicians of curative preventive establishments, fear of queues, self-confidence in one's own knowledge and low level of medical awareness. The priority of physical culture and sport in the life of adolescents is reducing. The reorientation of trends in modern fashion to the behavior stereotypes with motional activities restriction occurs. The making of conditions to develop consistent health preserving behavior can become the most important reserve of preservation and enhancement of adolescents' health.

  3. [Preservation of live eggs of Schistosoma japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wei-ming; Xie, Shu-ying; Wang, Qin; Jiang, Wei-sheng; Hu, Ren-mei; Ge, Jun; Zeng, Xiao-jun

    2015-10-01

    To observe the preservation time and activity of miracidium hatching from schistosome eggs preserved in different solutions, so as to obtain the optimal preservation conditions and then provide quality control products for field application. The rectum stool of rabbits infected with Schistosoma japonicum was collected and the coarse fecal residue was removed with a series of sample sieves of 80, 100, 160 and 200 meshes respectively, and then the schistosome eggs were concentrated with the sample sieve of 260 meshes. The concentrated eggs were preserved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 1.2% sodium chloride solution, phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS, PH 7.2), 1.0% sucrose solution, and Mili-Q water, respectively, and then were conserved in a 4 °C refrigerator and 15 °C constant temperature incubator, respectively. The preserved eggs were hatched in different time (7-day interval) , the vitality and quantity of the miracidia were observed, and the hatching rates were calculated. Under the condition of 4 °C, the hatching rates of eggs dropped to 0 in 1.0% sucrose solution and 1.2% sodium chloride solution at the 49th and 126th day, respectively, and the hatching rates of eggs in the 0.9% sodium chloride solution and PBS solution dropped to 10% at the 112th day, and the activity of miracidium was weakened since 140th. In the Mili-Q water, the hatching rate dropped less than 10% at the 196th day and the activity of miracidia was weakened since the 280th day. Under the condition of 15 °C, the hatching rate of eggs in different solutions gradually dropped to 0 from the 49th day to 105th day. The eggs preserved in Mili-Q water at the temperature of 4 °C can be used as the positive reference for hatching tests within 196 days.

  4. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  5. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  6. The antiarrhythmic peptide analog rotigaptide (ZP123) stimulates gap junction intercellular communication in human osteoblasts and prevents decrease in femoral trabecular bone strength in ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne

    2005-01-01

    Gap junctions play an important role in bone development and function, but the lack of pharmacological tools has hampered the gap junction research. The antiarrhythmic peptides stimulate gap junction communication between cardiomyocytes, but effects in noncardiac tissue are unknown. The purpose...... of this study was to examine whether antiarrhythmic peptides, which are small peptides increasing gap junctional conductivity, show specific binding to osteoblasts and investigate the effect of the stable analog rotigaptide (ZP123) on gap junctional intercellular communication in vitro and on bone mass...... and strength in vivo. Cell coupling and calcium signaling were assessed in vitro on human, primary, osteoblastic cells. In vivo effects of rotigaptide on bone strength and density were determined 4 wk after ovariectomy in rats treated with either vehicle, sc injection twice daily (300 nmol per kilogram body...

  7. Renormalization in area-preserving maps

    CERN Document Server

    MacKay, R S

    1993-01-01

    This book is adapted and revised from the author's seminal PhD thesis, in which two forms of asymptotically universal structure were presented and explained for area-preserving maps. Area-preserving maps are the discrete-time analogue of two degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems. How they work and much of their dynamics are described in this book. The asymptotically universal structure is found on small scales in phase-space and long time-scales. The key to understanding it is renormalisation, that is, looking at a system on successively smaller phase-space and longer time scales. Having prese

  8. Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Privacy preservation has become a major issue in many data analysis applications. When a data set is released to other parties for data analysis, privacy-preserving techniques are often required to reduce the possibility of identifying sensitive information about individuals. For example, in medical data, sensitive information can be the fact that a particular patient suffers from HIV. In spatial data, sensitive information can be a specific location of an individual. In web surfing data, the information that a user browses certain websites may be considered sensitive. Consider a dataset conta

  9. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...... on four groups of data: 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with small difference in lung volume; 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with large difference in lung volume; 16 pairs of expiratory and inspiratory CT scans; and 5 pairs of images extracted at end exhale and end...

  11. Recent progress in food preservation by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vas, K [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1977-01-01

    The possible use of ionizing radiations in food preservation is discussed. It has been recognized that treatment of foods with ionizing radiations not only serves the purpose of stabilizing them in their original state, but may also enhance the hygienic properties of certain foodstuffs. Several examples conerning improvements in food quality and preservation by irradiation in different countries have been reported. The economic viewpoint and the possibilities for use of irradiated products in international trade are discussed. The development of international cooperation in sharing of research results and information and sharing of costs of wholesomeness testing have been pointed out.

  12. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM. The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model.

  13. Preserving high-purity 233U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, Alan; Giaquinto, Joe; Canaan, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The MARC X Conference hosted a workshop for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233 U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only small portions of the U.S. holdings of separated 233 U are being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233 U (>97 % pure) still are destined to be disposed, and it is unlikely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein. (author)

  14. Manifold structure preservative for hyperspectral target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    A nonparametric method termed as manifold structure preservative (MSP) is proposed in this paper for hyperspectral target detection. MSP transforms the feature space of data to maximize the separation between target and background signals. Moreover, it minimizes the reconstruction error of targets and preserves the topological structure of data in the projected feature space. MSP does not need to consider any distribution for target and background data. So, it can achieve accurate results in real scenarios due to avoiding unreliable assumptions. The proposed MSP detector is compared to several popular detectors and the experiments on a synthetic data and two real hyperspectral images indicate the superior ability of it in target detection.

  15. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  16. Apposite of pig skin preserved in glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Gonzalez V, C.; Salinas A, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ apposite of pig skin are processed and preserved to low temperature (-80 C), which are sterilized by irradiation and transported to the hospitals in dry ice to avoid its unfreezing. With the purpose of making more simple the manipulation of the apposite it was carried out this work that consisted on developing the processing of the pig skin using glycerol like preservation medium, since this way the irradiation, the storage and transport of the apposite is carried out at refrigeration temperature, that makes its manage more simple. (Author)

  17. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted......-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier...

  18. Recent progress in food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, K.

    1977-01-01

    The possible use of ionizing radiations in food preservation is discussed. It has been recognized that treatment of foods with ionizing radiations not only serves the purpose of stabilizing them in their original state, but may also enhance the hygienic properties of certain foodstuffs. Several examples conerning improvements in food quality and preservation by irradiation in different countries have been reported. The economic viewpoint and the possibilities for use of irradiated products in international trade are discussed. The development of international cooperation in sharing of research results and information and sharing of costs of wholesomeness testing have been pointed out. (G.C.)

  19. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mount, Richard; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gülzow, Volker; Kemp, Yves; Ozerov, Dmitri; Diaconu, Cristinel; South, David; Lobodzinski, Bogdan; Olsson, Jan; Haas, Tobias; Wrona, Krzysztof; Szuba, Janusz; Schnell, Gunar; Sasaki, Takashi; Katayama, Nobu; Hernandez, Fabio; Mele, Salvatore; Holzner, Andre; Hemmer, Frederic; Schroeder, Matthias; Barring, Olof; Brun, Rene; Maggi, Marcello; Igo-Kemenes, Peter; Van Wezel, Jos; Heiss, Andreas; Chen, Gang; Wang, Yifang; Asner, David; Riley, Daniel; Corney, David; Gordon, John

    2009-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group.

  20. Preservation and reactivation of Candidatus Jettenia asiatica and Anammoxoglobus propionicus using different preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Pra, M C; Scussiato, L A; Cantão, M; Ibelli, A M G; Kunz, A

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria have peculiar characteristics that make them difficult to cultivate. The conservation of these microorganisms in culture collections or laboratories requires successful preservation and reactivation techniques. Furthermore, studies have shown that successful reactivation may be preservative dependent. Considering this, the present study aimed to evaluate the preservation and reactivation of anammox consortia enriched from swine manure treatment lagoons, by using different preservative agents at different temperatures: KNO 3 (at 4 °C), glycerol (-20 °C, -80 °C), and skimmed cow milk (-20 °C, -80 °C, -200 °C). After 4 months, the biomass was thawed (except for KNO 3 ), and the reestablishment of anammox activity was evaluated by stoichiometric coefficients. Microbial community transformation during the reactivation process was also studied by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The results showed that the anammox biomass preserved with glycerol or skimmed cow milk at -80 °C recovered activity, while the biomass preserved with other methodologies did not reestablish activity during the studied time (90 days). The bacterial community from the biomass with anammox activity was characterized and showed the presence of Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, Candidatus Jettenia asiatica, and Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus. Preservation with skimmed cow milk at -80 °C favored the selection of Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus, while preservation with glycerol at -80 °C was successful for Candidatus Jettenia asiatica. The present study was effective on anammox sludge preservation and reactivation using low-cost processes for anammox cultures preservation, which is important for biomass transport and deammonification reactor start up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 12 CFR 749.4 - Format for vital records preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Format for vital records preservation. 749.4... RECORDS PRESERVATION PROGRAM AND APPENDICES-RECORD RETENTION GUIDELINES; CATASTROPHIC ACT PREPAREDNESS GUIDELINES § 749.4 Format for vital records preservation. Preserved records may be in any format that can be...

  2. Preservation of Newspapers: Theoretical Approaches and Practical Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenay, Damir; Krtalic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of newspapers is the main topic of this paper. A theoretical overview of newspaper preservation is given, with an emphasis on the importance of a systematic and comprehensive approach. Efficient newspaper preservation implies understanding the meaning of preservation in general, as well as understanding specific approaches,…

  3. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative...

  5. Temporal trends of preservative allergy in Denmark (1985-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Lundov, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Most cosmetics and industrial products contain preservatives. Preservative allergy is common and, historically, changing contact allergy epidemics caused by preservatives have been observed. In 1997, Alan Dillarstone predicted a stable development of preservative allergy following mandatory...... ingredient labelling on cosmetic products....

  6. Proteomic analysis of HIV-1 Nef cellular binding partners reveals a role for exocyst complex proteins in mediating enhancement of intercellular nanotube formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukerji Joya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 Nef protein contributes to pathogenesis via multiple functions that include enhancement of viral replication and infectivity, alteration of intracellular trafficking, and modulation of cellular signaling pathways. Nef stimulates formation of tunneling nanotubes and virological synapses, and is transferred to bystander cells via these intercellular contacts and secreted microvesicles. Nef associates with and activates Pak2, a kinase that regulates T-cell signaling and actin cytoskeleton dynamics, but how Nef promotes nanotube formation is unknown. Results To identify Nef binding partners involved in Pak2-association dependent Nef functions, we employed tandem mass spectrometry analysis of Nef immunocomplexes from Jurkat cells expressing wild-type Nef or Nef mutants defective for the ability to associate with Pak2 (F85L, F89H, H191F and A72P, A75P in NL4-3. We report that wild-type, but not mutant Nef, was associated with 5 components of the exocyst complex (EXOC1, EXOC2, EXOC3, EXOC4, and EXOC6, an octameric complex that tethers vesicles at the plasma membrane, regulates polarized exocytosis, and recruits membranes and proteins required for nanotube formation. Additionally, Pak2 kinase was associated exclusively with wild-type Nef. Association of EXOC1, EXOC2, EXOC3, and EXOC4 with wild-type, but not mutant Nef, was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assays in Jurkat cells. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated depletion of EXOC2 in Jurkat cells abrogated Nef-mediated enhancement of nanotube formation. Using bioinformatic tools, we visualized protein interaction networks that reveal functional linkages between Nef, the exocyst complex, and the cellular endocytic and exocytic trafficking machinery. Conclusions Exocyst complex proteins are likely a key effector of Nef-mediated enhancement of nanotube formation, and possibly microvesicle secretion. Linkages revealed between Nef and the exocyst complex suggest a new paradigm of

  7. Dilated intercellular space diameter as marker of reflux-related mucosal injury in children with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, O; Mancini, V; Thapar, N; Ribolsi, M; Emerenziani, S; de'Angelis, G; Bizzarri, B; Lindley, K J; Cicala, M

    2014-04-01

    The diagnostic corroboration of the relationship between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic cough remains challenging. To compare oesophageal mucosal intercellular space diameter (ISD) in children with GERD, children with gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER)-related cough (GrC) and a control group, and to explore the relationship between baseline impedance levels and dilated ISD in children with GER-related cough. Forty children with GERD, 15 children with GrC and 12 controls prospectively underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with oesophageal biopsies taken 2-3 cm above squamocolumnar junction. ISD were quantified using transmission electron microscopy. Impedance-pH monitoring with evaluation of baseline impedance in the most distal impedance channel was performed in both patient groups. A significant difference in mean ISD values was found between GrC patients (0.9 ± 0.2 μm) and controls (0.5 ± 0.2 μm, P reflux parameter. Finally, there was no correlation between ISD and distal baseline impedance values (r:-0.35; NS). In children with reflux-related cough, dilated intercellular space diameter appears to be an objective and useful marker of oesophageal mucosal injury regardless of acid exposure, and its evaluation should be considered for those patients where the diagnosis is uncertain. In children with reflux-related cough, baseline impedance levels have no role in identifying reflux-induced oesophageal mucosal ultrastructural changes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Direct and indirect inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase by salicylic acid and anthocyanidins reactivates intercellular ROS signaling and allows for synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Salicylic acid and anthocyanidins are known as plant-derived antioxidants, but also can provoke paradoxically seeming prooxidant effects in vitro. These prooxidant effects are connected to the potential of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins to induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells in vitro and to inhibit tumor growth in animal models. Several epidemiological studies have shown that salicylic acid and its prodrug acetylsalicylic acid are tumor-preventive for humans. The mechanism of salicylic acid- and anthocyanidin-dependent antitumor effects has remained enigmatic so far. Extracellular apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen species signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl signaling pathway specifically induces apoptosis in transformed cells. Tumor cells have acquired resistance against intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Here, we show that salicylic acid and anthocyanidins inactivate tumor cell protective catalase and thus reactive apoptosis-inducing intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling of tumor cells and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis Salicylic acid inhibits catalase directly through its potential to transform compound I of catalase into the inactive compound II. In contrast, anthocyanidins provoke a complex mechanism for catalase inactivation that is initiated by anthocyanidin-mediated inhibition of NO dioxygenase. This allows the formation of extracellular singlet oxygen through the reaction between H(2)O(2) and peroxynitrite, amplification through a caspase8-dependent step and subsequent singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of catalase. The combination of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins allows for a remarkable synergistic effect in apoptosis induction. This effect may be potentially useful to elaborate novel therapeutic approaches and crucial for the interpretation of epidemiological results related to the antitumor effects of secondary plant compounds. © The

  9. Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 Facilitates an Intercellular Interaction between CD4⁺ T Cells through IL-1β Autocrine Function in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemiya, Takako; Takeuchi, Chisen; Kawakami, Marumi

    2017-12-19

    Microsomal prostaglandin synthetase-1 (mPGES-1) is an inducible terminal enzyme that produces prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). In our previous study, we investigated the role of mPGES-1 in the inflammation and demyelination observed in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, using mPGES - 1 -deficient ( mPGES-1 -/- ) and wild-type (wt) mice. We found that mPGES-1 facilitated inflammation, demyelination, and paralysis and was induced in vascular endothelial cells and macrophages and microglia around inflammatory foci. Here, we investigated the role of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the intercellular mechanism stimulated by mPGES-1 in EAE spinal cords in the presence of inflammation. We found that the area invaded by CD4-positive (CD4⁺) T cells was extensive, and that PGE₂ receptors EP1-4 were more induced in activated CD4⁺ T cells of wt mice than in those of mPGES - 1 -/- mice. Moreover, IL-1β and IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1r1) were produced by 65% and 48% of CD4⁺ T cells in wt mice and by 44% and 27% of CD4⁺ T cells in mPGES-1 -/- mice. Furthermore, interleukin-17 (IL-17) was released from the activated CD4⁺ T cells. Therefore, mPGES-1 stimulates an intercellular interaction between CD4⁺ T cells by upregulating the autocrine function of IL-1β in activated CD4⁺ T cells, which release IL-17 to facilitate axonal and myelin damage in EAE mice.

  10. Silver nanoparticles increase connexin43-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication in HaCaT cells through activation of reactive oxygen species and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Yu; Han, Limin; Yang, Di

    2018-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in health and consumer products that routinely contact skin. However, the biological effects and possible mechanisms of AgNPs on skin remain unclear. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays a critical role in multicellular organisms to ...

  11. Records Management and Preservation in Government Ministries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is the erroneous notion among records managers in the public sector and the business setting that preservation of records is an activity reserved for the conservator late in the life of the document. In order to find out the care and handling of records in Government ministries and departments, 69 registries were ...

  12. Fertility preservation in young cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Revel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of advances in treatment, almost 80% of children and adolescents who receive a diagnosis of cancer become long-term survivors. The increased survival rate of children and adolescents with cancer has resulted in a major interest in the long-term effects of cancer treatment on the possibility for future fertility. Currently established methods for the preservation of fertility are available only for pubertal males and females. Pubertal male cancer patients should be encouraged to freeze numerous sperm samples even when sperm count and motility are poor. In these cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a powerful technique compared with intrauterine insemination since thawed sperm samples with poor parameters can produce relatively high fertilization rates resulting in normal pregnancies and deliveries. Married pubertal women should be proposed ovulation induction, follicular aspiration, and fertilization with husband sperm. Single women could benefit from vitrification of oocytes. This requires a delay of about 3 weeks in the commencement of chemotherapy to enable follicular growth. Fertility preservation for prepubertal patients is more of a problem. Young girls could be offered cryopreservation of gametes in the gonadal tissue. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue was suggested for fertility preservation for young boys, but this method is totally experimental and not currently offered. Discussing future fertility is part of the consultation of young female and male patients facing potentially gonadotoxic cancer therapy. It is the role of reproductive specialists to create various options in their laboratory to preserve fertility potential of cancer patients.

  13. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  14. Economic growth, ecological economics, and wilderness preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Czech

    2000-01-01

    Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that...

  15. teaching food production and preservation using constructivist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    teaching methods where students are actively involved in thinking and creating ... KEYWORDS: food production, food preservation Biology, 5Es constructivist model, self-reliance ... shelf live. The world's population is growing every day but food production which is the basic ... life matters so as to be self-reliant citizens of this.

  16. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents. Cancer Treat Res. 2007;138:201-217. Redig AJ, Brannigan R, Stryker SJ, et al. Incorporating fertility preservation into the care of young oncology patients. Cancer. 2010;117:4- ...

  17. Dry Preserving the Green Sea Urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, Cheryl D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a project for junior high and senior high school students designed to safely preserve hard-bodied marine invertebrates. Details the materials and procedures used in this technique. Stresses the use of non-toxic solutions and producing a lifelike specimen. (CW)

  18. Normothermic liver preservation : a new paradigm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravikumar, Reena; Leuvenink, Henri; Friend, Peter J.

    Despite increasing donor numbers, waiting lists and pre-transplant mortality continue to grow in many countries. The number of donor organs suitable for liver transplantation is restricted by cold preservation and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Transplantation of marginal donor organs has led to

  19. ACHP | Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrating NEPA and Section 106 (2013) Measuring Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation (2013) Celebrating Enhancing Federal Management of Historic Properties (2004) Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government : Summit II—Report of Proceedings (2003) Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Summit I—Report of

  20. Preserve America - Explore and Enjoy Our Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indianapolis, Indiana. She is the Week Three winner of our National Historic Preservation Month Photo Contest percent federal tax credit for rehabilitation of historic buildings for business or income-producing uses success. Read the report here. Read the Latest Forum Journal Publication on the NHPA 50th Anniversary

  1. Beyond digitization: access and preservation | Gbaje | Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a desk study that examines issues around and beyond digitization within the context of Nigeria. The paper focuses on access and preservation as some of the main objectives of digitization. It indentifies Institutional Repositories (IR) as panacea to achieving these aims. The enabling technologies and ...

  2. Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and transmitters of indegenous values: ecomaternalistic approach. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... It further calls for the retrieval of the said hidden histories of women which would hopefully be a lesson for the contemporary and future women.

  3. Radioactive waste facility as environmental preservation factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show, in a resumed way, the many aspects involved in the selection, licensing and construction of a repository for the safe disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes in Brazil where from we conclude that a repository is for sure an agent of environmental preservation. (author)

  4. Knowledge preservation for the future - Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen-Schrire, Monica; Jander, Hans; Waniewska, Katarina

    2007-12-01

    This report summarises the work done in the field of knowledge preservation regarding a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden and in other selected countries. The purpose of the report is to provide a basis for a proposal for an action plan for knowledge preservation regarding a repository for spent nuclear fuel. The report is based upon identified key documents, interviews with key persons, and other relevant sources of information identified throughout the working process. To preserve information and knowledge regarding the repository of spent nuclear fuel for future generations is no simple task. The report covers the basic principles and methods for information preservation and transfer, and describes their advantages and disadvantages. The report also covers topics such as the time perspective, target groups, context, and discusses the difference between the concepts information and knowledge. The conclusions of the report include a number of recommendations for how SKB can continue the work to produce a proposal for an action plan for how the knowledge about a repository for spent nuclear fuel can be kept for future generations

  5. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_Main_Menu About SaveMyFertility Provider ... of a clinical study approved by an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility ...

  6. Public demand for preserving local open space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline

    2006-01-01

    Increased development results in the loss of forest, farm, range, and other open space lands that contribute to the quality of life of U.S. residents. I describe an economic rationale for growing public support for preserving local open space, based the growing scarcity of open space lands. I test the rationale empirically by correlating the prevalence of open space...

  7. Conservation, Preservation and Restoration in Nigerian Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo-Igbinoba, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses problems involved with the conservation, preservation, and restoration of library materials in Nigeria. Topics discussed include insect pests; light, heat, and humidity; atmospheric pollution and dust; natural disasters including fire and floods; theft and vandalism; acidity of paper; binding and mending; and trained personnel. (15…

  8. Recent developments in persufflation for organ preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Catherine G; Papas, Klearchos K

    2018-06-01

    To summarize current literature and recent findings on the potential of humidified oxygenated gas perfusion (persufflation) as an alternative method for improved organ preservation. Although there are some conflicting data, the majority of the evidence suggests that persufflation, by enhancing oxygenation, can improve preservation and even rescue organs, including organs with prior exposure to warm ischemia. In some cases, persufflation produced better results than hypothermic machine perfusion. The timing of persufflation is of importance; benefits of persufflation appear to increase as the timing of its administration postprocurement decreases. This may be particularly true for tissues that are more sensitive to ischemia, such as the pancreas prior to islet isolation. Combining oxygen persufflation with nitric oxide and addition of pulsatile flow may provide further benefits and amplify its effects on improving transplant outcomes. Persufflation is a promising, relatively simple, preservation technique that enables improved oxygenation, which provides protection and improvement in the graft condition during preservation and prior to transplantation. More detailed studies are needed to optimize persufflation and evaluate its short and long-term effects in vivo.

  9. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the <, =, >

  10. Radiation preservation of strawberry fruit: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaranta, H.O.; Piccini, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the up-to-date literature on strawberry fruit preservation by irradiation, including microbiological and nutritional aspects, as well as chemical alterations in its components through analysis of vitamin content, carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids present, estimation of content of volatiles, and influence of irradiation on shelf-life and appearance. (author)

  11. BLADDER NECK RESECTION WITH PRESERVATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion The complication of retrograde ejaculation in young patients who are in need of fertililty may be avoided by preservation of > 1 cm of the supramontanal part during bladder neck resection. La Résection du Col de Vessie avec Préservation de l'Ejaculation Antégrade Objectif Evaluer une nouvelle méthode de ...

  12. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem Ahmad, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  13. Hearing Preservation in Cochlear Implant Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Carvalho Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a “soft surgery” cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients.

  14. Nucleart, cultural inheritance and nuclear preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Application of gamma radiation to the preservation of artistic objects: destruction of living organisms by irradiation to a suitable dose and possibility to initiate and control polymerization of organic monomers. Penetrating power of gamma rays allows treatment of thick objects [fr

  15. The H1 Data Preservation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D M; Steder, M

    2012-01-01

    The H1 data preservation project was started in 2009 as part of the global data preservation initiative in high-energy physics, DPHEP. In order to retain the full potential for future improvements, the H1 Collaboration aims for level 4 of the DPHEP recommendations, which requires the full simulation and reconstruction chain as well as the data to be preserved for future analysis. A major goal of the H1 project is therefore to provide secure, long-lived and validated access to the H1 data and analysis software, which is realised in collaboration with DESY-IT using virtualisation techniques. By implementing such a system, it is hoped that the lifetime of the unique ep collision data from HERA will be extended, providing the possibility for novel analysis in the future. The preservation of the data and software is performed alongside a consolidation programme of digital and non-digital documentation, some of which dates back to the early 1980s. A new organisational model of the H1 Collaboration, reflecting the change to the long term phase, is to be adopted in July 2012.

  16. Monitoring levels of preservative sensitivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, J D; Shaw, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2002-01-01

    A 10-year multicentre analysis of the frequency of sensitivity to common preservatives collected in 16 centres in 11 countries has shown stable but persisting high levels of sensitivity to formaldehyde and 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one + 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MCI/MI). It has also...

  17. Knowledge Preservation and Web-tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreman, Douglas; Dyer, John; Ahmad, Rashed

    1998-01-01

    We propose a library of "netbooks" as part of a national effort, preserving the wisdom of the early Space Program. NASA is losing its rocket scientists who designed the great systems of the past. Few new systems of similar ambition are being built; much of the expertise that took us to the Moon is evaporating. With retiring NASA designers, we work to preserve something of the expertise of these individuals, developed at great national cost. We show others the tools that make preservation easy and cheap. Retiring engineers and scientists can be coached into speaking (without charge) into recording devices about ideas not widely appreciated but of potential future value. Transcripts of the recordings and the audio itself are combined (cheaply) in netbooks accessible via a standard web-browser (free). Selected netbooks are indexed into a rapidly searchable system, an electronic Library. We recruit support in establishing a standards committee for that Library. The system is to be a model for access by the blind as well as for preservation of important, technical knowledge.

  18. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  19. Preservation of almonds by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, M.

    1997-01-01

    During two months, a series of experiments was carried out to highlight the effects of preservation by ionizing radiation of a variety of Tunisian almonds. This technique was proved correct for doses less than 1 KGy. Nevertheless, this technique may be harmful to proteins.(author)

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in patients facing gonadotoxic therapies: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2013; 100:1224-31. Chow EJ, et al. Pregnancy after chemotherapy in male and female survivors of ...