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Sample records for tungsten oxide prepared

  1. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on graphene oxide sheets as high-performance electrochromic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xueting; Sun, Shibin; Dong, Lihua; Hu, Xiong; Yin, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochromic mechanism of tungsten oxide nanowires-reduced graphene oxide composite. - Highlights: • A novel inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid composite was prepared. • The hybrid composite has sandwich-like structure. • The hybrid composite exhibited high-quality electrohcromic performance. - Abstract: In this work, we report the synthesis of a novel hybrid electrochromic composite through nucleation and growth of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires on graphene oxide sheets using a facile solvothermal route. The competition between the growth of tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduction of graphene oxide sheets leads to the formation of sandwich-structured tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite. Due to the strongly coupled effect between the ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets, the novel electrochromic composite exhibited high-quality electrochromic performance with fast color-switching speed, good cyclic stability, and high coloration efficiency. The present tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite represents a new approach to prepare other inorganic-reduced graphene oxide hybrid materials for electrochemical applications

  2. Synthesis and electrical characterization of tungsten oxide nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Rui; Zhu Jing; Yu Rong

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten oxide nanowires of diameters ranging from 7 to 200 nm are prepared on a tungsten rod substrate by using the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method with vapour-solid (VS) mechanism. Tin powders are used to control oxygen concentration in the furnace, thereby assisting the growth of the tungsten oxide nanowires. The grown tungsten oxide nanowires are determined to be of crystalline W18O49. Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves are measured by an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) to investigate the electrical properties of the nanowires. All of the Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves observed are symmetric, which reveals that the tungsten oxide nanowires are semiconducting. Quantitative analyses of the experimental I V curves by using a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) model give some intrinsic parameters of the tungsten oxide nanowires, such as the carrier concentration, the carrier mobility and the conductivity.

  3. A supercritical carbon dioxide plasma process for preparing tungsten oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Ayato; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Takemori, Toshihiko; Mukasa, Shinobu; Maehara, Tsunehiro

    2007-01-01

    A supercritical carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) plasma process for fabricating one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanowires coated with amorphous carbon is presented. High-frequency plasma was generated in supercritical carbon dioxide at 20 MPa by using tungsten electrodes mounted in a supercritical cell, and subsequently an organic solvent was introduced with supercritical carbon dioxide into the plasma. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy investigations of the deposited materials showed the production of tungsten oxide nanowires with or without an outer layer. The nanowires with an outer layer exhibited a coaxial structure with an outer concentric layer of amorphous carbon and an inner layer of tungsten oxide with a thickness and diameter of 20-30 and 10-20 nm, respectively

  4. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shibin; Chang, Xueting; Li, Zhenjiang

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 o C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  5. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shibin [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China); Chang, Xueting [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, Shandong (China); Li, Zhenjiang, E-mail: zjli126@126.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 {sup o}C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  6. Synthesis and optical properties of Au decorated colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmasebi, Nemat; Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation (PLA). • A very fine metallic Au particles or coating are decorated on the surface of tungsten oxide nanoparticles. • UV–Vis spectroscopy shows an absorption peak at ∼530 nm which is due to SPR effect of gold. • After exposing to hydrogen gas, Au/WO_3 colloidal nanoparticles show excellent gasochromic coloring. - Abstract: In this study, colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of tungsten target using the first harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) in deionized water. After ablation, a 0.33 g/lit HAuCl_4 aqueous solution was added into as-prepared colloidal nanoparticles. In this process, Au"3"+ ions were reduced to decorate gold metallic state (Au"0) onto colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles surface. The morphology and chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied by AFM, XRD, TEM and XPS techniques. UV–Vis analysis reveals a distinct absorption peak at ∼530 nm. This peak can be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au and confirms formation of gold state. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that Au ions’ reduction happens after adding HAuCl_4 solution into as-prepared colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscope shows that an Au shell has been decorated onto colloidal WO_3 nanoparticles. Noble metal decorated tungsten oxide nanostructure could be an excellent candidate for photocatalysis, gas sensing and gasochromic applications. Finally, the gasochromic behavior of the synthesized samples was investigated by H_2 and O_2 gases bubbling into the produced colloidal Au/WO_3 nanoparticles. Synthesized colloidal nanoparticles show excellent coloration contrast (∼80%) through NIR spectra.

  7. Preparation of Pt-mesoporous tungsten carbide/carbon composites via a soft-template method for electrochemical methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Chun’an; Kang, Lingzhi; Shi, Meiqin; Lang, Xiaoling; Jiang, Yekun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous composite Pt-m(WC/C) is prepared by a soft template method. • The structure of phenolic gives a space limitation effect on the growth of WC. • Analysis of the effect of F127 on controlling the structure of composites. • Pt-m(WC/C) exhibits more than three times higher than Pt/C in catalytic activity. -- Abstract: This paper introduces a simple and reproducible chemical process for synthesis of Pt-mesoporous tungsten carbide/carbon composites composites Pt-m(WC/C) by means of a soft-template method. In this process, low-molecular-weight phenolic resol acted as the precursor both for carbon support and also the carbon resource of tungsten carbide. Tungsten hexachloride was used as a tungsten precursor along with different amount of triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as pore-forming component. The best performance of Pt-m(WC/C) towards methanol oxidation is found when the mass ratios of WCl 6 :F127 is 1:0.6. The composite presents an improved methanol oxidation performance evidenced by a negative shift in onset potential, and increase of peak current density, compared with commercial Pt/C. The difference is explained by the adding of appropriate amount of F127 which facilitates the construction of mesoporous matrix structure of WC/C

  8. Reduction of blue tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, T.; Wert, C.; Woodhouse, J.; Morcom, W.

    1975-01-01

    A significant portion of commercial tungsten is produced by hydrogen reduction of oxides. Although several modes of reduction are possible, hydrogen reduction is used where high purity tungsten is required and where the addition of other elements or compounds is desired for modification of the metal, as is done for filaments in the lamp industry. Although several investigations of the reduction of oxides have been reported (1 to 5), few principles have been developed which can aid in assessment of current commercial practice. The reduction process was examined under conditions approximating commercial practice. The specific objectives were to determine the effects of dopants, of water vapor in the reducing atmosphere, and of reduction temperature upon: (1) the rate of the reaction by which blue tungsten oxide is reduced to tungsten metal, (2) the intermediate oxides associated with reduction, and (3) the morphology of the resulting tungsten powder

  9. Preparation of Pt-mesoporous tungsten carbide/carbon composites via a soft-template method for electrochemical methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chun’an, E-mail: science@zjut.edu.cn; Kang, Lingzhi; Shi, Meiqin; Lang, Xiaoling; Jiang, Yekun

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Mesoporous composite Pt-m(WC/C) is prepared by a soft template method. • The structure of phenolic gives a space limitation effect on the growth of WC. • Analysis of the effect of F127 on controlling the structure of composites. • Pt-m(WC/C) exhibits more than three times higher than Pt/C in catalytic activity. -- Abstract: This paper introduces a simple and reproducible chemical process for synthesis of Pt-mesoporous tungsten carbide/carbon composites composites Pt-m(WC/C) by means of a soft-template method. In this process, low-molecular-weight phenolic resol acted as the precursor both for carbon support and also the carbon resource of tungsten carbide. Tungsten hexachloride was used as a tungsten precursor along with different amount of triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as pore-forming component. The best performance of Pt-m(WC/C) towards methanol oxidation is found when the mass ratios of WCl{sub 6}:F127 is 1:0.6. The composite presents an improved methanol oxidation performance evidenced by a negative shift in onset potential, and increase of peak current density, compared with commercial Pt/C. The difference is explained by the adding of appropriate amount of F127 which facilitates the construction of mesoporous matrix structure of WC/C.

  10. Characteristics of tungsten oxide thin films prepared on the flexible substrates using pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyuu, Yoshihito

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) thin films have been prepared on the flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using WO 3 targets in oxygen gas. Color of the WO 3 film on the flexible ITO substrates depends on the oxygen gas mixture. The plasma plume produced by PLD using a Nd:YAG laser and WO 3 target is investigated by temporal and spatial-resolved optical emission spectroscopy. WO 3 films prepared on the flexible ITO substrates show electrochromic properties, even when the substrates are bent. The film color changes from blue to transparent within 10-20 s after the applied DC voltage is turned off

  11. Simple preparation of tungsten supported carbon nanoreactors for specific applications: Adsorption, catalysis and electrochemical activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayani, Vishal J.; Mayani, Suranjana V.; Kim, Sang Wook, E-mail: swkim@dongguk.ac.kr

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Tungsten carbon composites have shown great recognition in catalysis and electrochemistry. • W-carbon composites are prepared by template replication and W-doping on carbon cage. • Nanocomposites offer enormous assurance as adsorbent, electrode and heterogeneous catalyst. - Abstract: Porous carbon supported tungsten carbide nanoreactors, two sizes (∼25 and 170 nm), were designed using economical petroleum pitch residue followed by tungsten (W) doping. X-ray diffractions showed both carbon tungsten composites (CTC-25 and CTC-170) contained tungsten subcarbide (W{sub 2}C) and monocarbide (WC) as the major and minor crystalline phases, respectively. The present study provides a multiple perspective of carbon tungsten composites (CTCs) for methanol oxidation (as an electrode), adsorption (as an adsorbent) and degradation (as a solid catalyst) of methylene blue (MB). The operational electrodes were designed from both CTCs and used as a catalyst in an electrocatalysis process. The electrocatalysts exhibited high and stable catalytic performance (CTCE-25 > CTCE-170) in methanol electro-oxidation. The newly synthesized W-doped carbon nanoreactors were used successfully as an adsorbent for MB and a heterogeneous catalyst for MB oxidation. Ordered CTC-25 and CTC-170 exhibited dynamic MB adsorption within 15 min and complete oxidation of MB in 25–40 min. A synergetic effect between tungsten carbide and the carbon cage framework was noted.

  12. Chemically produced nanostructured ODS-lanthanum oxide-tungsten composites sintered by spark plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, Mazher Ahmed; Wahlberg, Sverker; Bergqvist, Hans; Salem, Hanadi G.; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2011-01-01

    High purity W and W-0.9La 2 O 3 (wt.%) nanopowders were produced by a wet chemical route. The precursor was prepared by the reaction of ammonium paratungstate (APT) with lanthanum salt in aqueous solutions. High resolution electron microscopy investigations revealed that the tungstate particles were coated with oxide precipitates. The precursor powder was reduced to tungsten metal with dispersed lanthanum oxide. Powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1300 and 1400 o C to suppress grain growth during sintering. The final grain size relates to the SPS conditions, i.e. temperature and heating rate, regardless of the starting powder particle size. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oxide phases were mainly accumulated at grain boundaries while the tungsten matrix constituted of nanosized sub-grains. The transmission electron microscopy revealed that the tungsten grains consist of micron-scale grains and finer sub-grains. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of W in dispersed oxide phases with varying chemical composition, which evidenced the presence of complex oxide phases (W-O-La) in the sintered metals.

  13. Microstructure, optical, and electrochromic properties of sol-gel nanoporous tungsten oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaoued, Yahia; Ashrit, P. V.; Badilescu, S.; Bruning, R.

    2003-08-01

    Porous tungsten oxide films have been prepared by a nonhydrolitic sol-gel method using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a structure directing agent. The method entails the hydrolysis of an ethanolic solution of tungsten ethoxide (formed by the reaction of WCl6 with ethanol) followed by condensation and polymerization at the PEG-tungsten oxide oligometers interface. A highly porous WO3 framework was obtained after PEG was burned off by calcination at a relativley low temperature. AFM images of the films treated thermally show an ordered material rather than microscopic particulates. Both fibrilar nanostructures and striped phase can be obtained via this approach, depending on the concentration of PEG in the coating solution. XRD data from the fibrils indicate that they are crystalline with very small crystals, whereas the striped phases obtained with 20% PEG correspond to two crystalline phases, one, the stoichiometric WO3 and the other one an oxygen deficient phase, containing larger crystals (~28 nm). The results show that PEG promotes the formation of oxygen deficient phases and delays crystallization. Compared to WO3 with no PEG, the optical and electrochromic properties of the macroporous tungsten oxide films appear to be significantly improved. The formation of organized nanostructures is tentatively accounted for by the strong hydrogen bonding interactions between PEG and the tungsten oxide oligomers.

  14. Oxalic acid induced hydrothermal synthesis of single crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, V.B.; Adhyapak, P.V.; Suryavanshi, S.S.; Mulla, I.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report synthesis of 1D tungsten oxide using a hydrothermal route at 170 °C. • Oxalic acid plays an important role in the formation of 1D nanostructure. • Monoclinic transforms to hexagonal phase with increment in reaction duration. -- Abstract: One-dimensional single-crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods have been synthesized by the hydrothermal technique. The controlled morphology of tungsten oxide was obtained by using sodium tungstate and oxalic acid as an organic inducer. The reaction was carried out at 170 °C for 24, 48 and 72 h. The obtained tungsten oxides were investigated by using XRD, SEM and HRTEM techniques. In order to understand the role of organic inducer on the shape, size and phase formation of WO 3 was prepared with and without organic inducer. On heating of sodium tungstate without organic inducer for 72 h at 170 °C in the hydrothermal unit we obtain nanoparticles of monoclinic WO 3 , however, on addition of oxalic acid a single phase hexagonal WO 3 with distinct nanorods was formed. On addition of oxalic acid a systematic emergence of nanorod-like morphology was obtained with incrementing reaction times from 24 h to 48 h. The 72 h reaction generates self-assembled 20–30 nm diameter and 4–5 μm long h-WO 3 bundles of nanorods. The XRD studies show hexagonal structure of tungsten oxide, while SAED reveals its single crystalline nature. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum shows a characteristic blue emission peak at 3 eV (410 nm). Raman spectra provide the evidence of hexagonal structure with stretching vibrations (830 cm −1 ) for 72 h of heating at 170 °C

  15. Oxalic acid induced hydrothermal synthesis of single crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, V.B. [School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413255 (India); Adhyapak, P.V. [Centre for Materials for Electronic Technology (C-MET), Pune 411008 (India); Suryavanshi, S.S., E-mail: sssuryavanshi@rediffmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413255 (India); Mulla, I.S., E-mail: ismulla2001@gmail.com [Emeritus Scientist (CSIR), Centre for Materials for Electronic Technology (C-MET), Pune 411008 (India)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • We report synthesis of 1D tungsten oxide using a hydrothermal route at 170 °C. • Oxalic acid plays an important role in the formation of 1D nanostructure. • Monoclinic transforms to hexagonal phase with increment in reaction duration. -- Abstract: One-dimensional single-crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods have been synthesized by the hydrothermal technique. The controlled morphology of tungsten oxide was obtained by using sodium tungstate and oxalic acid as an organic inducer. The reaction was carried out at 170 °C for 24, 48 and 72 h. The obtained tungsten oxides were investigated by using XRD, SEM and HRTEM techniques. In order to understand the role of organic inducer on the shape, size and phase formation of WO{sub 3} was prepared with and without organic inducer. On heating of sodium tungstate without organic inducer for 72 h at 170 °C in the hydrothermal unit we obtain nanoparticles of monoclinic WO{sub 3}, however, on addition of oxalic acid a single phase hexagonal WO{sub 3} with distinct nanorods was formed. On addition of oxalic acid a systematic emergence of nanorod-like morphology was obtained with incrementing reaction times from 24 h to 48 h. The 72 h reaction generates self-assembled 20–30 nm diameter and 4–5 μm long h-WO{sub 3} bundles of nanorods. The XRD studies show hexagonal structure of tungsten oxide, while SAED reveals its single crystalline nature. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum shows a characteristic blue emission peak at 3 eV (410 nm). Raman spectra provide the evidence of hexagonal structure with stretching vibrations (830 cm{sup −1}) for 72 h of heating at 170 °C.

  16. Synergistic tungsten oxide/organic framework hybrid nanofibers for electrochromic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgerbaki, Cigdem; Komur, Ali Ihsan; Nohut Maslakci, Neslihan; Kuralay, Filiz; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2017-08-01

    We report the first successful applications of tungsten oxide/conducting polymer hybrid nanofiber assemblies in electrochromic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/tungsten oxide (PEDOT/WO3) and polypyrrole/tungsten oxide (PPy/WO3) composites were prepared by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of monomers in different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF4), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMIMTFSI) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (BMPTFSI). Electrospinning process was used to form hybrid nanofibers from chemically synthesized nanostructures. The electrospun hybrid samples were compared from both morphological and electrochemical perspectives. Importantly, deposition of nanofibers from chemically synthesized hybrids can be achieved homogenously, on nanoscale dimensions. The morphologies of these assemblies were evaluated by SEM, whereas their electroactivity was characterized by cyclic voltammetry. Electrochromic devices made from hybrid nanofiber electrodes exhibited highest chromatic contrast of 37.66% for PEDOT/WO3/BMIMPF6, 40.42% for PPy/WO3/BMIMBF4 and show a strong electrochromic color change from transparent to light brown. Furthermore, the nanofiber devices exhibit outstanding stability when color switching proceeds, which may ensure a versatile platform for color displays, rear-view mirrors and smart windows.

  17. High Purity Tungsten Spherical Particle Preparation From WC-Co Spent Hard Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was recycled to obtain high purity spherical tungsten powder by a combined hydrometallurgy and physical metallurgy pathway. Selective leaching of tungsten element from hard metal scrap occurs at solid / liquid interface and therefore enlargement of effective surface area is advantageous. Linear oxidation behavior of Tungsten carbide-cobalt and the oxidized scrap is friable to be pulverized by milling process. In this regard, isothermally oxidized Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was mechanically broken into particles and then tungsten trioxide particle was recovered by hydrometallurgical method. Recovered tungsten trioxide was reduced to tungsten particle in a hydrogen environment. After that, tungsten particle was melted and solidified to make a spherical one by RF (Ratio Frequency thermal plasma process. Well spherical tungsten micro-particle was successfully obtained from spent scrap. In addition to the morphological change, thermal plasma process showed an advantage for the purification of feedstock particle.

  18. The gate oxide integrity of CVD tungsten polycide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, N.W.; Su, W.D.; Chang, S.W.; Tseng, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    CVD tungsten polycide has been demonstrated as a good gate material in recent very large scale integration (VLSI) technology. CVD tungsten silicide offers advantages of low resistivity, high temperature stability and good step coverage. On the other hand, the polysilicon underlayer preserves most characteristics of the polysilicon gate and acts as a stress buffer layer to absorb part of the thermal stress origin from the large thermal expansion coefficient of tungsten silicide. Nevertheless, the gate oxide of CVD tungsten polycide is less stable or reliable than that of polysilicon gate. In this paper, the gate oxide integrity of CVD tungsten polycide with various thickness combinations and different thermal processes have been analyzed by several electrical measurements including breakdown yield, breakdown fluence, room temperature TDDB, I-V characteristics, electron traps and interface state density

  19. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on amorphous-like tungsten films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellasega, D; Pezzoli, A; Russo, V; Passoni, M; Pietralunga, S M; Nasi, L; Conti, C; Vahid, M J; Tagliaferri, A

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten oxide nanowires have been synthesized by vacuum annealing in the range 500–710 °C from amorphous-like tungsten films, deposited on a Si(100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in the presence of a He background pressure. The oxygen required for the nanowires formation is already adsorbed in the W matrix before annealing, its amount depending on deposition parameters. Nanowire crystalline phase and stoichiometry depend on annealing temperature, ranging from W_1_8O_4_9-Magneli phase to monoclinic WO_3. Sufficiently long annealing induces the formation of micrometer-long nanowires, up to 3.6 μm with an aspect ratio up to 90. Oxide nanowire growth appears to be triggered by the crystallization of the underlying amorphous W film, promoting their synthesis at low temperatures. (paper)

  20. Study of the structural evolutions of crystalline tungsten oxide films prepared using hot-filament CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, P X; Wang, X P; Zhang, H X; Yang, B Q; Wang, Z B; Gonzalez-BerrIos, A; Morell, G; Weiner, B

    2007-01-01

    Structural evolutions of tungsten oxide(WO 3 ) samples on different substrates are studied using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The WO 3 samples are prepared using hot-filament CVD techniques. The focus of the study is on the evolutions of nano structures at different stages following deposition time. The experimental measurements reveal evolutions of the surface structures from uniform film to fractal-like structures, and eventually to nano particles, and crystalline structures from mono (0 1 0) crystalline thin film to polycrystalline thick film developments. The effect of high temperature on the nanostructured WO 3 is also investigated. Well-aligned nanoscale WO 3 rod arrays are obtained at a substrate temperature of up to 1400 deg. C. Further increasing the substrate temperature yields microscale crystalline WO 3 particles

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of electrode materials pyrochlore tungsten trioxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingdong; Li, Yingjeng James; Stanley Whittingham, M.

    Hydrothermal synthesis methods have been successfully used to prepare new transition-metal oxides for cathodes in electrochemical devices such as lithium batteries and electrochromic windows. The tungsten oxides were the first studied, but the method has been extended to the oxides of molybdenum, vanadium and manganese. Sodium tungsten oxide films with the pyrochlore structure have been prepared on gold/alumina and indium-doped tin oxide substrates. These films reversibly and rapidly intercalate lithium and hydrogen ions.

  2. Annealing induced structural evolution and electrochromic properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ching-Lin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chung-Kwei [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Chun-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Sheng-Chang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: JLH888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-31

    The effect of microstructure on the optical and electrochemical properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide films was evaluated as a function of annealing temperature. The films using block copolymer as the template were prepared from peroxotungstic acid (PTA) by spin-coating onto the substrate and post-annealed at 250–400 °C to form tungsten oxide films with nanostructure. The microstructure of the films was measured by X-ray diffraction and surface electron microscopy. The films annealed at temperatures below 300 °C are characterized by amorphous or nanocrystalline structures with a pore size of less than 10 nm. The evaluated annealing temperature caused a triclinic crystalline structure and microcracks. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed in a LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate electrolyte. The results showed that the ion inserted capacity were maximized for films annealed at 300 °C and decreased with the increasing of annealing temperature. The electrochromic properties of the nanostructured tungsten oxide films were evaluated simultaneously by potentiostat and UV–vis spectroscopy. The films annealed at 300 °C exhibit high transmission modulation (∆T ∼ 40%) at λ = 633 nm and good kinetic properties. As a result, the correlation between the microstructure and kinetic properties was established, and the electrochromic properties have been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Surfactant-assisted WO{sub 3} films have been prepared by sol–gel method. • Nanostructure of porous WO{sub 3} film is retained after crystallization. • Kinetic properties of WO{sub 3} can be improved by nanostructure and crystallinity.

  3. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ran; Zheng, Ding; Zhou, Chang; Cheng, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Li, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Tungsten oxide (WO₃) is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL) for organic solar cells (OSCs). The properties of the WO₃ transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO₃, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO₃, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  4. Graphenated polyaniline-doped tungsten oxide nanocomposite sensor for real time determination of phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovide, Oluwakemi; Jaheed, Nazeem; Mohamed, Nurali; Nxusani, Ezo; Sunday, Christopher E.; Tsegaye, Abebaw; Ajayi, Rachel F.; Njomo, Njagi; Makelane, Hlamulo; Bilibana, Mawethu; Baker, Priscilla G.; Williams, Avril; Vilakazi, Sibulelo; Tshikhudo, Robert; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2014-01-01

    A graphenated polyaniline/tungsten oxide (PANI/WO 3 /GR) nanocomposite sensor was prepared by electropolymerisation of a mixture of aniline monomer and tungsten oxide on a graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The PANI/WO 3 /GR/GCE nanocomposite electrode was tested as a sensor for the determination of phenanthrene. The direct electro-oxidation behaviour of phenanthrene on the PANI/WO 3 /GR modified GCE was carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that the PANI/WO 3 /GR/GCE sensor was more sensitive to phenanthrene (with a dynamic linear range of 1.0 - 6.0 pM and a detection limit of 0.123 pM.) than GCE, PANI/GCE or PANI/WO 3 /GCE. The sensor exhibited excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. The sensor exhibits lower detection sensitivity than the WHO permissible level of 1.12 nM phenanthrene in wastewater

  5. Growth study and photocatalytic properties of Co-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shibin; Chang, Xueting; Li, Zhenjiang

    2012-01-01

    Cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals with different morphologies have been successfully generated using a solvothermal method with tungsten hexachloride and cobalt chloride salts as precursors. The resulting mesocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmet–Teller analysis of nitrogen sorptometer, and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic properties of the cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals were evaluated on the basis of their ability to degrade methyl orange in an aqueous solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. Results showed that the cobalt doping had obvious effect on the morphologies of the final products, and lenticular and blocky cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals could be obtained with 1.0 wt.% and 2.0 wt.% cobalt doping, respectively. The cobalt-doped tungsten oxides exhibited superior photocatalytic activities to that of the undoped tungsten oxide. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustrations of the growth of the bundled nanowires, lenticular mesocrystals, and blocky mesocrystals. Highlights: ► Co-doped W 18 O 49 mesocrystals were synthesized using a solvothermal method. ► The Co doping has obvious effect on the morphology of the final mesocrystals. ► The Co-doped W 18 O 49 exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to the undoped W 18 O 49 .

  6. Electronic structure of nanoparticles of substoichometric hexagonal tungsten oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyzhun, O Y; Solonin, Y M

    2007-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods were used to study the electronic structure of hexagonal h-WO 3 and h-WO 2.8 nanoparticles. For comparison, nanopowder substoichiometric monoclinic tungsten oxides with close content of oxygen atoms, namely m-WO 3 and m-WO 2.77 compounds, were also investigated. For the mentioned oxides, XPS valence-band and corelevel spectra, XES O Kα bands and XAS W L III and O 1s edges were derived. The XPS valence-band spectra and O Kα emission bands in the mentioned hexagonal and monoclinic tungsten oxides were compared on a common energy scale. Both the O Kα bands and XPS valence-band spectra broaden somewhat in the sequences h-WO 3 → h-WO 2.8 and m-WO 3 → m-WO 2.77 , with the half-widths of the spectra being somewhat higher for the hexagonal oxides as compared with those for the monoclinic compounds. The effective positive charge state of tungsten atoms in h-WO 2.8 is very close to that in m-WO 2.77 , but the negative charge states of oxygen atoms are close to each other for all the tungsten oxides under consideration

  7. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten oxide (WO3 is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL for organic solar cells (OSCs. The properties of the WO3 transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO3, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO3, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  8. Electronic Structure Control of Tungsten Oxide Activated by Ni for Ultrahigh-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian; Kou, Zongkui; Amiinu, Ibrahim Saana; Hong, Xufeng; Li, Qingwei; Tang, Yongfu; Zhao, Yufeng; Liu, Shaojun; Mai, Liqiang; Mu, Shichun

    2018-04-17

    Tuning the electron structure is of vital importance for designing high active electrode materials. Here, for boosting the capacitive performance of tungsten oxide, an atomic scale engineering approach to optimize the electronic structure of tungsten oxide by Ni doping is reported. Density functional theory calculations disclose that through Ni doping, the density of state at Fermi level for tungsten oxide can be enhanced, thus promoting its electron transfer. When used as electrode of supercapacitors, the obtained Ni-doped tungsten oxide with 4.21 at% Ni exhibits an ultrahigh mass-specific capacitance of 557 F g -1 at the current density of 1 A g -1 and preferable durability in a long-term cycle test. To the best of knowledge, this is the highest supercapacitor performance reported so far in tungsten oxide and its composites. The present strategy demonstrates the validity of the electronic structure control in tungsten oxide via introducing Ni atoms for pseudocapacitors, which can be extended to other related fields as well. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Growth study and photocatalytic properties of Co-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shibin [College of Logistics Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Chang, Xueting, E-mail: xuetingchang@yahoo.cn [College of Logistics Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); Li, Zhenjiang [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals with different morphologies have been successfully generated using a solvothermal method with tungsten hexachloride and cobalt chloride salts as precursors. The resulting mesocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis of nitrogen sorptometer, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic properties of the cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals were evaluated on the basis of their ability to degrade methyl orange in an aqueous solution under simulated sunlight irradiation. Results showed that the cobalt doping had obvious effect on the morphologies of the final products, and lenticular and blocky cobalt-doped tungsten oxide mesocrystals could be obtained with 1.0 wt.% and 2.0 wt.% cobalt doping, respectively. The cobalt-doped tungsten oxides exhibited superior photocatalytic activities to that of the undoped tungsten oxide. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustrations of the growth of the bundled nanowires, lenticular mesocrystals, and blocky mesocrystals. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-doped W{sub 18}O{sub 49} mesocrystals were synthesized using a solvothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Co doping has obvious effect on the morphology of the final mesocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Co-doped W{sub 18}O{sub 49} exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to the undoped W{sub 18}O{sub 49}.

  10. Research and development of tungsten electrodes added with rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuoren Nie; Ying Chen; Meiling Zhou; Tieyong Zuo

    2001-01-01

    The recent research and development of tungsten electrodes used in TIG and Plasma technologies are introduced, and the tungsten materials as well as the effects of rare earth oxides are specially discussed. in W-La 2 O 3 , W-CeO 2 , W-Y 2 O 3 and W-ThO 2 electrode materials, the W-2.2mass%La 2 O 3 electrode exhibited the best properties when the current is of little or middle volume, and when the electrodes are used in large current, the W-Y 2 O 3 electrode is the best. By a comparative study between the tungsten electrodes activated with single metal oxides, as above-mentioned, and those containing two or three rare earth oxides, namely La 2 O 3 , CeO 2 and Y 2 O 3 , it was indicated that the welding arc properties of the tungsten electrodes activated with combined rare earth oxides additions is superior than that of the electrodes containing single oxides as above mentioned. It was also shown that the operating properties of tungsten electrodes depend intensively on the rare earth oxides contained in the electrodes, and the actions of rare earth oxides during arcing are the most important factors to the electrodes' operating properties, temperature, work function as well as the arc stability. (author)

  11. Synthesis of hexagonal ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires with diameters below 5 nm for enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huidan; Zhu, Qin; Zhang, Mengying; Yan, Yi; Liu, Yongping; Li, Ming; Yang, Zhishu; Geng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    Semiconductor with one dimension (1D) ultrathin nanostructure has been proved to be a promising nanomaterial in photocatalytic field. Great efforts were made on preparation of monoclinic ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires. However, non-monoclinic phase tungsten oxides with 1D ultrathin structure, especially less than 5 nm width, have not been reported. Herein, we report the synthesis of hexagonal ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires (U-WOx NW) by modified hydrothermal method. Microstructure characterization showed that U-WOx NW have the diameters of 1-3 nm below 5 nm and are hexagonal phase sub-stoichiometric WOx. U-WOx NW show absorption tail in the visible and near infrared region due to oxygen vacancies. For improving further photocatalytic performance, Ag co-catalyst was grown directly onto U-WOx NW surface by in situ redox reaction. Photocatalytic measurements revealed hexagonal U-WOx NW have better photodegradation activity, compared with commercial WO3(C-WO3) and oxidized U-WOx NW, ascribe to larger surface area, short diffusion length of photo-generated charge carriers and visible absorption of oxygen-vacancy-rich hexagonal ultrathin nanostructures. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity and stability of U-WOx NW using Ag co-catalyst were further improved.

  12. Electrodeposition of metallic tungsten coating from binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Jiang, F.; Fu, B.J.; Sun, N.B.

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten is considered a promising plasma facing armor material for future fusion devices. An electrodeposited metallic tungsten coating from Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel (LAS) substrate was investigated in this paper. Tungsten coatings were deposited under various pulsed currents conditions at 1173 K in atmosphere. Cathodic current density and pulsed duty cycle were investigated for pulsed current electrolysis. The crystal structure and microstructure of tungsten coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy X-ray dispersive analysis techniques. The results indicated that pulsed current density and duty cycle significantly influence tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. The average grain size of the coating becomes much larger with increasing cathodic current density, which demonstrates that appropriate high cathodic current density can accelerate the growth of grains on the surface of the substrate. The micro-hardness of tungsten coatings increases with the increasing thickness of coatings; the maximum micro-hardness is 482 HV. The prepared tungsten coatings have a smooth surface, a porosity of less than 1%, and an oxygen content of 0.024 wt%

  13. Electrodeposition of metallic tungsten coating from binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology BeiJing, Beijing (China); State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Xicheng District, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.C., E-mail: zycustb@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology BeiJing, Beijing (China); Jiang, F.; Fu, B. J.; Sun, N. B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology BeiJing, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-15

    Tungsten is considered a promising plasma facing armor material for future fusion devices. An electrodeposited metallic tungsten coating from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} binary oxide molten salt on low activation steel (LAS) substrate was investigated in this paper. Tungsten coatings were deposited under various pulsed currents conditions at 1173 K in atmosphere. Cathodic current density and pulsed duty cycle were investigated for pulsed current electrolysis. The crystal structure and microstructure of tungsten coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy X-ray dispersive analysis techniques. The results indicated that pulsed current density and duty cycle significantly influence tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. The average grain size of the coating becomes much larger with increasing cathodic current density, which demonstrates that appropriate high cathodic current density can accelerate the growth of grains on the surface of the substrate. The micro-hardness of tungsten coatings increases with the increasing thickness of coatings; the maximum micro-hardness is 482 HV. The prepared tungsten coatings have a smooth surface, a porosity of less than 1%, and an oxygen content of 0.024 wt%.

  14. Tungsten carbide and tungsten-molybdenum carbides as automobile exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, L.; Daubrege, F.; Gengembre, L.; Leclercq, G.; Prigent, M.

    1987-01-01

    Several catalyst samples of tungsten carbide and W, Mo mixed carbides with different Mo/W atom ratios, have been prepared to test their ability to remove carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and propane from a synthetic exhaust gas simulating automobile emissions. Surface characterization of the catalysts has been performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and selective chemisorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Tungsten carbide exhibits good activity for CO and NO conversion, compared to a standard three-way catalyst based on Pt and Rh. However, this W carbide is ineffective in the oxidation of propane. The Mo,W mixed carbides are markedly different having only a very low activity. 9 refs.; 10 figs.; 5 tabs

  15. Thermal oxidation of tungsten-based sputtered coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louro, C.; Cavaleiro, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of the addition of nickel, titanium, and nitrogen on the air oxidation behavior of W-based sputtered coatings in the temperature range 600 to 800 C was studied. In some cases these additions significantly improved the oxidation resistance of the tungsten coatings. As reported for bulk tungsten, all the coatings studied were oxidized by layers following a parabolic law. Besides WO 3 and WO x phases detected in all the oxidized coatings, TiO 2 and NiWO 4 were also detected for W-Ti and W-Ni films, respectively. WO x was present as an inner protective compact layer covered by the porous WO 3 oxide. The best oxidation resistance was found for W-Ti and W-N-Ni coatings which also presented the highest activation energies (E a = 234 and 218 kJ/mol, respectively, as opposed to E a ∼ 188 kJ/mol for the other coatings). These lower oxidation weight gains were attributed to the greater difficulty of the inward diffusion of oxygen ions for W-Ti films, owing to the formation of fine particles of TiO 2 , and the formation of the external, more protective layer of NiWO 4 for W-N-Ni coatings

  16. Synthesis, Consolidation and Characterization of Sol-gel Derived Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, O [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel (SG) derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition-tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO3) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g·cm-3 or 93% relative density. In addition, those samples were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus retaining their stored chemical energy.

  17. Studies on the pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix as a possible dispenser cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Jinshu; Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Zhou, Meiling

    2015-01-01

    Yttrium oxide was chosen as the secondary emission substance based on calculation results through first principle theory method. A new kind of pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix dispenser cathodes are prepared by a sol–gel method combined with high temperature sintering in dry hydrogen atmosphere. The results show that the growth of the grains is hampered by the pinning effect of Y 2 O 3 distributing uniformly between the tungsten particles, resulting in the formation of small grain size. It is found that Y 2 O 3 improves the secondary electron emission property, i.e., the secondary emission yield increases with the increase of Y 2 O 3 content in the samples. The maximum secondary emission yield δ max of the cathode with 15% amount of Y 2 O 3 can reach 2.92. Furthermore, the cathode shows a certain thermionic emission performance. The zero field emission current density J 0 of 4.18A/cm 2 has reached at 1050 °C b for this kind of cathode after being activated at 1200 °C b , which are much higher than that of rare earth oxide doped molybdenum (REO-Mo) cathode reported in the previous work. - Highlights: • Yttrium oxide was chosen as the secondary emission substance based on first principle calculation result. • A new kind of cathode has been successfully obtained. • Pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix dispenser cathode exhibits good emission properties. • The improvement of the cathode emission can be well explained by the surface analysis results presented in this work

  18. Electronic structure of indium-tungsten-oxide alloys and their energy band alignment at the heterojunction to crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Dorothee; Mews, Mathias; Rech, Bernd; Korte, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The electronic structure of thermally co-evaporated indium-tungsten-oxide films is investigated. The stoichiometry is varied from pure tungsten oxide to pure indium oxide, and the band alignment at the indium-tungsten-oxide/crystalline silicon heterointerface is monitored. Using in-system photoelectron spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and surface photovoltage measurements, we show that the work function of indium-tungsten-oxide continuously decreases from 6.3 eV for tungsten oxide to 4.3 eV for indium oxide, with a concomitant decrease in the band bending at the hetero interface to crystalline silicon than indium oxide.

  19. Crack resistance of tungsten strengthened by dispersed refractory oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, A.V.; Uskov, E.I.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation results are presented for crack resistance of commercial tungsten, obtained during specimen testing at temperatures of 20 deg C to Tsub(cr) (upper boundary of temperature range of ductile-brittle transition). Comparison of s-n diagrams and temperature dependences of crack resistance are conducted for commercial tungsten and tungsten strengthened by refractory oxides. It is shown that dispersion hardening increases crack resistance in the temperature range of 20 to 2000 deg C but the upper boundary of ductile-brittle shifts to the side of higher temperatures

  20. Tungsten carbide/porous carbon composite as superior support for platinum catalyst toward methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liming; Fu, Honggang; Wang, Lei; Mu, Guang; Jiang, Baojiang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Ruihong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The WC nanoparticles are well dispersed in the carbon matrix. The size of WC nanoparticles is about 30 nm. It can be concluded that tungsten carbide and carbon composite was successfully prepared by the present synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • The WC/PC composite with high specific surface area was prepared by a simple way. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst has superior performance toward methanol electro-oxidation. • The current density for methanol electro-oxidation is as high as 595.93 A g −1 Pt. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst shows better durability and stronger CO electro-oxidation. • The performance of Pt/WC/PC is superior to the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide/porous carbon (WC/PC) composites have been successfully synthesized through a surfactant assisted evaporation-induced-assembly method, followed by a thermal treatment process. In particular, WC/PC-35-1000 composite with tungsten content of 35% synthesized at the carbonized temperature of 1000 °C, exhibited a specific surface area (S BET ) of 457.92 m 2 g −1 . After loading Pt nanoparticles (NPs), the obtained Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst exhibits the highest unit mass electroactivity (595.93 A g −1 Pt) toward methanol electro-oxidation, which is about 2.6 times as that of the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. Furthermore, the Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst displays much stronger resistance to CO poisoning and better durability toward methanol electrooxidation compared with the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. The high electrocatalytic activity, strong poison-resistivity and good stability of Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst are attributed to the porous structures and high specific surface area of WC/PC support could facilitate the rapid mass transportation. Moreover, synergistic effect between WC and Pt NPs is favorable to the higher catalytic performance

  1. Refining waste hardmetals into tungsten oxide nanosheets via facile method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhifei; Zheng, Guangwei; Wang, Jinshu, E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn; Li, Hongyi, E-mail: lhy06@bjut.edu.cn; Wu, Junshu; Du, Yucheng [Beijing University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-04-15

    A new hydrothermal system has been designed to recycle waste WC–Co hardmetal with low cobalt (Co) content (3 %). In the solution system, nitric acid was designed to dissolve Co, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} served as oxidant to accelerate the oxidation of the WC–Co hardmetals, and fluorine (F{sup −}) was designed to dissolve and recrystallize generated tungsten oxides, which were found to possess a layered structure using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained tungsten oxides were identified as WO{sub 3}·0.33H{sub 2}O by X-ray diffraction and their specific surface area was measured as 89.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} via N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption techniques. The present layered structure tungsten oxides exhibited a promising capability for removing lead ion (Pb{sup 2+}) and organic species, such as methyl blue. The adsorption model was found to be in agreement with Langmuir isotherm model. Given the facile synthesis procedure and promising properties of final products, this new approach should have great potential for refining some other waste hardmetals or tungsten products.Graphical AbstractA new hydrothermal system was designed to recycle waste hardmetal with low cobalt content. Through this method, waste hardmetal was refined into WO{sub 3}·0.33H{sub 2}O nanosheets which shows excellent adsorption capacities toward methylene blue and lead ion (Pb{sup 2+}).

  2. Studies on the pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix as a possible dispenser cathode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Jinshu, E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn; Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Zhou, Meiling

    2015-01-15

    Yttrium oxide was chosen as the secondary emission substance based on calculation results through first principle theory method. A new kind of pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix dispenser cathodes are prepared by a sol–gel method combined with high temperature sintering in dry hydrogen atmosphere. The results show that the growth of the grains is hampered by the pinning effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} distributing uniformly between the tungsten particles, resulting in the formation of small grain size. It is found that Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} improves the secondary electron emission property, i.e., the secondary emission yield increases with the increase of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in the samples. The maximum secondary emission yield δ{sub max} of the cathode with 15% amount of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} can reach 2.92. Furthermore, the cathode shows a certain thermionic emission performance. The zero field emission current density J{sub 0} of 4.18A/cm{sup 2} has reached at 1050 °C{sub b} for this kind of cathode after being activated at 1200 °C{sub b}, which are much higher than that of rare earth oxide doped molybdenum (REO-Mo) cathode reported in the previous work. - Highlights: • Yttrium oxide was chosen as the secondary emission substance based on first principle calculation result. • A new kind of cathode has been successfully obtained. • Pressed yttrium oxide-tungsten matrix dispenser cathode exhibits good emission properties. • The improvement of the cathode emission can be well explained by the surface analysis results presented in this work.

  3. On-chip microplasma reactors using carbon nanofibres and tungsten oxide nanowires as electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Groenland, A.W.; Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Kumar Chinthaginjala, J.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and tungsten oxide (W18O49) nanowires have been incorporated into a continuous flow type microplasma reactor to increase the reactivity and efficiency of the barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. CNFs and tungsten oxide nanowires were characterized by high-resolution

  4. Characterization and performances of cobalt-tungsten and molybdenum-tungsten carbides as anode catalyst for PEFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izhar, Shamsul; Yoshida, Michiko; Nagai, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of carbon-supported cobalt-tungsten and molybdenum-tungsten carbides and their activity as an anode catalyst for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell were investigated. The electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen oxidation reaction over the catalysts was evaluated using a single-stack fuel cell and a rotating disk electrode. The characterization of the catalysts was performed by XRD, temperature-programmed carburization, temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The maximum power densities of the 30 wt% 873 K-carburized cobalt-tungsten and molybdenum-tungsten mixed with Ketjen carbon (cobalt-tungsten carbide (CoWC)/Ketjen black (KB) and molybdenum-tungsten carbide (MoWC)/KB) were 15.7 and 12.0 mW cm -2 , respectively, which were 14 and 11%, compared to the in-house membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared from a 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst. The CoWC/KB catalyst exhibited the highest maximum power density compared to the MoWC/KB and WC/KB catalysts. The 873 K-carburized CoW/KB catalyst formed the oxycarbided and/or carbided CoW that are responsible for the excellent hydrogen oxygen reaction

  5. High-temperature oxidation of tungsten covered by layer of glass-enamel melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasnetsova, V.B.; Shardakov, N.T.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.; Deryabin, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion losses of tungsten covered by the layer of glass-enamel melt were determined at 800, 850, 900, 950 deg C. It is shown that the rate of high-temperature oxidation of tungsten decreases after application of glass-enamel melt on its surface. This is probably conditioned by reduction of area of metal interaction with oxidizing atmosphere

  6. Closed-cage tungsten oxide clusters in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D M David Jeba; Pradeep, T; Thirumoorthy, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2010-05-06

    During the course of a study on the clustering of W-Se and W-S mixtures in the gas phase using laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry, we observed several anionic W-O clusters. Three distinct species, W(6)O(19)(-), W(13)O(29)(-), and W(14)O(32)(-), stand out as intense peaks in the regular mass spectral pattern of tungsten oxide clusters suggesting unusual stabilities for them. Moreover, these clusters do not fragment in the postsource decay analysis. While trying to understand the precursor material, which produced these clusters, we found the presence of nanoscale forms of tungsten oxide. The structure and thermodynamic parameters of tungsten clusters have been explored using relativistic quantum chemical methods. Our computed results of atomization energy are consistent with the observed LDI mass spectra. The computational results suggest that the clusters observed have closed-cage structure. These distinct W(13) and W(14) clusters were observed for the first time in the gas phase.

  7. Tungsten oxide thin films obtained by anodisation in low electrolyte concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nadja B.D. da [Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Capão do Leão, s/n, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Pazinato, Julia C.O. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sombrio, Guilherme; Pereira, Marcelo B.; Boudinov, Henri [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gündel, André; Moreira, Eduardo C. [Universidade Federal do Pampa, Travessa 45, 1650 Bagé, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Irene T.S., E-mail: irene.garcia@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-03-02

    Tungsten oxide nanostructured films were grown on tungsten substrates by anodisation under a fixed voltage and with sodium fluoride as electrolyte. The effect of the anion chloride and the influence of the modifying agent disodium hydrogen phosphate in the tungsten oxide films were also investigated. The structural characterisation of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The band gap was determined through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The thin films were photoluminescent and emitted in the range of 300 to 630 nm when irradiated at 266 nm. The synthesised films efficiently degraded of methyl orange dye in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and 250 nm radiation. The modifying agent was responsible for the improvement of the photocatalytic activity. Films with similar photocatalytic performance were obtained when the system sodium fluoride and disodium hydrogen phosphate were replaced by sodium chloride. The porous structure and low band gap values were responsible for the photocatalytic behaviour. - Highlights: • Tungsten oxide thin films were obtained by anodisation of tungsten in aqueous media. • The performance of the NaCl, NaF and NaF/Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} as electrolytes was investigated. • The relation between structure and optical behaviour has been discussed. • Films obtained with NaCl and NaF/Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} present similar photocatalytic activity.

  8. Tungsten carbide/porous carbon composite as superior support for platinum catalyst toward methanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liming [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Fu, Honggang, E-mail: fuhg@vip.sina.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Wang, Lei; Mu, Guang; Jiang, Baojiang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Ruihong [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The WC nanoparticles are well dispersed in the carbon matrix. The size of WC nanoparticles is about 30 nm. It can be concluded that tungsten carbide and carbon composite was successfully prepared by the present synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • The WC/PC composite with high specific surface area was prepared by a simple way. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst has superior performance toward methanol electro-oxidation. • The current density for methanol electro-oxidation is as high as 595.93 A g{sup −1} Pt. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst shows better durability and stronger CO electro-oxidation. • The performance of Pt/WC/PC is superior to the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide/porous carbon (WC/PC) composites have been successfully synthesized through a surfactant assisted evaporation-induced-assembly method, followed by a thermal treatment process. In particular, WC/PC-35-1000 composite with tungsten content of 35% synthesized at the carbonized temperature of 1000 °C, exhibited a specific surface area (S{sub BET}) of 457.92 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. After loading Pt nanoparticles (NPs), the obtained Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst exhibits the highest unit mass electroactivity (595.93 A g{sup −1} Pt) toward methanol electro-oxidation, which is about 2.6 times as that of the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. Furthermore, the Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst displays much stronger resistance to CO poisoning and better durability toward methanol electrooxidation compared with the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. The high electrocatalytic activity, strong poison-resistivity and good stability of Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst are attributed to the porous structures and high specific surface area of WC/PC support could facilitate the rapid mass transportation. Moreover, synergistic effect between WC and Pt NPs is favorable to the higher catalytic performance.

  9. Selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} over iron-cerium-tungsten mixed oxide catalyst prepared by different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Zhi-bo, E-mail: xzb328@163.com [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science & Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Research Institute, University of Shanghai for Science & Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Shanghai Power Equipment Research Institute, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Jing; Zhou, Fei; Liu, Dun-yu; Lu, Wei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science & Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Jin, Jing [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science & Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Research Institute, University of Shanghai for Science & Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Ding, Shi-fa [Shanghai Power Equipment Research Institute, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Iron-cerium-tungsten mixed oxide catalysts were prepared through three different methods. • The effect of preparation methods on the NH{sub 3}-SCR activity and the surface structure properties of catalyst were investigated. • Iron-cerium-tungsten mixed oxide prepared through microwave irradiation assistant critic acid sol-gel shows higher NH{sub 3}-SCR activity. - Abstract: A series of magnetic Fe{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.10}W{sub 0.05}O{sub z} catalysts were synthesized by three different methods(Co-precipitation(Fe{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.10}W{sub 0.05}O{sub z}-CP), Hydrothermal treatment assistant critic acid sol-gel method(Fe{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.10}W{sub 0.05}O{sub z}-HT) and Microwave irradiation assistant critic acid sol-gel method(Fe{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.10}W{sub 0.05}O{sub z}-MW)), and the catalytic activity was evaluated for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH{sub 3}. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XPS, H{sub 2}-TPR and NH{sub 3}-TPD. Among the tested catalysts, Fe{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.10}W{sub 0.05}O{sub z}-MW shows the highest NO{sub x} conversion over per gram in unit time with NO{sub x} conversion of 60.8% at 350 °C under a high gas hourly space velocity of 1,200,000 ml/(g h). Different from Fe{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.10}W{sub 0.05}O{sub z}-CP catalyst, there exists a large of iron oxide crystallite(γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) scattered in Fe{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.10}W{sub 0.05}O{sub z} catalysts prepared through hydrothermal treatment or microwave irradiation assistant critic acid sol-gel method, and higher iron atomic concentration on their surface. And Fe{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.10}W{sub 0.05}O{sub z}-MW shows higher surface absorbed oxygen concentration and better dispersion compared with Fe{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.10}W{sub 0.05}O{sub z}-HT catalyst. These features were favorable for the high catalytic performance of NO reduction with NH{sub 3} over Fe{sub 0.85}Ce{sub 0.10}W{sub 0.05}O{sub z}-MW catalyst.

  10. Study of thermoelectron emission of oxidized tungsten sponge in cesium atom flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tursunmetov, K.A.; Sabirov, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Thermoelectron emission of a tungsten sponge with 30-40% porosity is studied. The tungsten sponge is produced of fine-grain tungsten powder (diameter - 1-2 μm) according to standard technology. It is shown that tungsten sponge oxidation at T=1000 K with subsequent heating in vacuum at T=1100 K allows one to obtain the minimal stable and reproducible work function at the level of 1.03-1.05 eV in a flux of cesium atoms. Estimations show that effective emitting surface is 15-20 times as much as the polycrystal surface

  11. Study on the oxidation and reduction of tungsten surface for sub-50 nm patterning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Sung Il; Jhon, Myung S.; Min, Kyung Suk; Kim, Chan Kyu; Jung, Ho Bum; Yeom, Geun Young [Memory Division Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics, San No. 16 Banwol-Ri, Taean-Eup, Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711, South Korea and Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Memory Division Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics, San No. 16 Banwol-Ri, Taean-Eup, Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering and Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The oxidation characteristics of tungsten line pattern during the carbon-based mask-layer removal process using oxygen plasmas have been investigated for sub-50 nm patterning processes, in addition to the reduction characteristics of the WO{sub x} layer formed on the tungsten line surface using hydrogen plasmas. The surface oxidation of tungsten lines during the mask layer removal process could be minimized by using low-temperature (300 K) plasma processing for the removal of the carbon-based material. Using this technique, the thickness of WO{sub x} on the tungsten line could be decreased to 25% compared to results from high-temperature processing. The WO{sub x} layer could also be completely removed at a low temperature of 300 K using a hydrogen plasma by supplying bias power to the tungsten substrate to provide a activation energy for the reduction. When this oxidation and reduction technique was applied to actual 40-nm-CD device processing, the complete removal of WO{sub x} formed on the sidewall of tungsten line could be observed.

  12. Influence of annealing conditions on anodic tungsten oxide layers and their photoelectrochemical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrek, Karolina; Zych, Marta; Zaraska, Leszek; Sulka, Grzegorz D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of annealing temperature on the morphology and crystalline structure of anodic WO 3 was investigated. • Photoelectrochemical properties of WO 3 layers annealed at different temperatures were studied. • Edges of conduction and valence bands were estimated for tungsten oxide layers annealed at different temperatures. • Influence of annealing time on crystalline structure, morphology and photoelectrochemical performance was studied. - Abstract: The nanoporous tungsten oxide films having an amorphous structure were prepared in an electrolyte containing fluoride ions via an anodization process. The as-synthesized anodic oxide layers can be easily converted to the monoclinic WO 3 phase upon annealing in air. The as-synthesized and annealed WO 3 layers were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and photocurrent spectroscopy. The effect of annealing temperature and annealing time on the oxide morphology, crystal structure and electrochemical properties were studied. The samples were annealed in air at the temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 °C, and it was found that the original porous morphology of oxide is completely lost after annealing at 600 °C. The changes in the average crystallite sizes upon annealing were confirmed by XRD measurements. The photoelectrochemical performance of the annealed WO 3 layers were studied under pulsed UV illumination, and the highest photocurrents were observed at the incident light wavelength of 350 nm for the sample annealed at 500 °C for 2 h. The band gap energy and the positions of conduction and valence band edges were determined for all studied samples.

  13. GENERATION, TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF TUNGSTEN-OXIDE AEROSOLS AT 1000 C IN FLOWING AIR-STEAM MIXTURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2001-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the rates of oxidation and vaporization of pure tungsten rods in flowing air, steam and air-steam mixtures in laminar flow. Also measured were the downstream transport of tungsten-oxide condensation aerosols and their region of deposition, including plateout in the superheated flow tube, rainout in the condenser and ambient discharge which was collected on an array of sub-micron aerosol filters. The nominal conditions of the tests, with the exception of the first two tests, were tungsten temperatures of 1000 C, gas mixture temperatures of 200 C and wall temperatures of 150 C to 200 C. It was observed that the tungsten oxidation rates were greatest in all air and least in all steam, generally decreasing non-linearly with increasing steam mole fraction. The tungsten oxidation rates in all air were more than five times greater than the tungsten oxidation rates in all steam. The tungsten vaporization rate was zero in all air and increased with increasing steam mole fraction. The vaporization rate became maximum at a steam mole fraction of 0.85 and decreased thereafter as the steam mole fraction was increased to unity. The tungsten-oxide was transported downstream as condensation aerosols, initially flowing upwards from the tungsten rod through an 18-inch long, one-inch diameter quartz tube, around a 3.5-inch radius, 90{sup o} bend and laterally through a 24-inch horizontal run. The entire length of the quartz glass flow path was heated by electrical resistance clamshell heaters whose temperatures were individually controlled and measured. The tungsten-oxide plateout in the quartz tube was collected, nearly all of which was deposited at the end of the heated zone near the entrance to the condenser which was cold. The tungsten-oxide which rained out in the condenser as the steam condensed was collected with the condensate and weighed after being dried. The aerosol smoke which escaped the condenser was collected on the sub

  14. Field-emission properties of transparent tungsten oxide nano-urchins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyung [Kyungpook National University, Nano-applied Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The field-emission properties of transparent tungsten oxide nano-urchin (NU) films deposited on conducting glass substrates were examined. The novel crystalline tungsten oxide NUs consisted of nanowires added to a spherical shell. The WO{sub 2.72} NUs showed better field-emission properties than the WO{sub 3} NUs with a low turn-on field of approximately 5.8 V/{mu}m and a current density as high as 1.3 mA/cm{sup 2} at 7.2 V/mm. The WO{sub x} NUs films could be used in FE applications using a large-area glass substrate without the need for a catalyst and a mechanical rubbing or lift-up process. These results have implications for the enhancement of FE properties by further tuning the WO{sub x} phases. (orig.)

  15. Effects of oxygen contents on the electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H.-H.

    2008-01-01

    The electrochromism have been extensively investigated due to their potential applications such as smart window of architecture and automobile glazing to save energy and modulate the transmittance of light and solar radiation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of sputtering conditions on the microstructure and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide films prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. Experimental results showed that the deposition rate of WO 3-y films decreased with increasing oxygen flow rate. XRD and Raman spectra analysis suggests that the WO 3-y films deposited at various oxygen flow rates are poor crystallinity or amorphous. The transmission change between colored and bleached states at a wavelength of 550 nm was 61.4% as the oxygen content was 60%. The coloration efficiency slightly increases with increasing oxygen flow rate in the low oxygen content region and reaching a maximum value of 38.94 cm 2 /C at 60% oxygen content. In addition, the films deposited at 60% oxygen content showed a good reversibility. The effects of lithium ions intercalated on the transmission of WO 3-y films were also discussed

  16. Effect of negative bias on the composition and structure of the tungsten oxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihan; Lei, Hao; Wen, Jiaxing; Long, Haibo; Sawada, Yutaka; Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Hou, Zhaoxia

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were deposited at room temperature under different negative bias voltages (Vb, 0 to -500 V) by DC reactive magnetron sputtering, and then the as-deposited films were annealed at 500 °C in air atmosphere. The crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and transmittance of the tungsten oxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The XRD analysis reveals that the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages present a partly crystallized amorphous structure. All the films transfer from amorphous to crystalline (monoclinic + hexagonal) after annealing 3 h at 500 °C. Furthermore, the crystallized tungsten oxide films show different preferred orientation. The morphology of the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages is consisted of fine nanoscale grains. The grains grow up and conjunct with each other after annealing. The tungsten oxide films deposited at higher negative bias voltages after annealing show non-uniform special morphology. Substoichiometric tungsten oxide films were formed as evidenced by XPS spectra of W4f and O1s. As a result, semi-transparent films were obtained in the visible range for all films deposited at different negative bias voltages.

  17. Tungsten Oxide Photonic Crystals as Optical Transducer for Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Sabrina; Wu, Xia; Wagner, Thorsten

    2018-01-26

    Some metal oxide semiconductors, such as tungsten trioxide or tin dioxide, are well-known as resistive transducers for gas sensing and offer high sensitivities down to the part per billion level. Electrical signal read-out, however, limits the information obtained on the electronic properties of metal oxides to a certain frequency range and its application because of the required electrical contacts. Therefore, a novel approach for building an optical transducer for gas reactions utilizing metal oxide photonic crystals is presented here. By the rational design of the structure and composition it is possible to synthesize a functional material which allows one to obtain insight into its electronic properties in the optical frequency range with simple experimental measures. The concept is demonstrated by tungsten trioxide inverse opal structure as optical transducer material for hydrogen sensing. The sensing behavior is analyzed in a temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C and in a wide hydrogen concentration range (3000 ppm to 10%). The sensing mechanism is mainly the refractive index change resulting from hydrogen intercalation in tungsten trioxide, but the back reaction has also impact on the optical properties of this system. Detailed chemical reaction studies provide suggestions for specific sensing conditions.

  18. Coating of tips for electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy by means of silicon, magnesium, and tungsten oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Different combinations of metal tips and oxide coatings have been tested for possible operation in electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy. Silicon and magnesium oxides have been thermally evaporated onto gold and platinum-iridium tips, respectively. Two different thickness values have been explored for both materials, namely, 40 and 120 nm for silicon oxide and 20 and 60 nm for magnesium oxide. Alternatively, tungsten oxide has been grown on tungsten tips via electrochemical anodization. In the latter case, to seek optimal results we have varied the pH of the anodizing electrolyte between one and four. The oxide coated tips have been first inspected by means of scanning electron microscopy equipped with microanalysis to determine the morphological results of the coating. Second, the coated tips have been electrically characterized ex situ for stability in time by means of cyclic voltammetry in 1 M aqueous KCl supporting electrolyte, both bare and supplemented with K3[Fe(CN)6] complex at 10 mM concentration in milliQ water as an analyte. Only the tungsten oxide coated tungsten tips have shown stable electrical behavior in the electrolyte. For these tips, the uncoated metal area has been estimated from the electrical current levels, and they have been successfully tested by imaging a gold grating in situ, which provided stable results for several hours. The successful tungsten oxide coating obtained at pH=4 has been assigned to the WO3 form.

  19. Surface studies of barium and barium oxide on tungsten and its application to understanding the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Surface studies have been made of multilayer and monolayer films of barium and barium oxide on a tungsten substrate. The purpose of the investigation was to synthesize the surface conditions that exist on an activated impregnated tungsten cathode and obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of operation of such cathodes. The techniques employed in these measurements were Auger spectroscopy and work-function measurements. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on oxidized tungsten by evaluating Auger spectra and work-function measurements. Data obtained from desorption studies of barium monolayers on a tungsten substrate in conjunction with Auger and work-function results have been interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impreganated cathode has a partial monolayer, rather than a monolayer, of barium on its surface.

  20. Microstructure and electrical-optical properties of cesium tungsten oxides synthesized by solvothermal reaction followed by ammonia annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingxiao; Ando, Yoshihiko; Dong Xiaoli; Shi Fei; Yin Shu; Adachi, Kenji; Chonan, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akikazu; Sato, Tsugio

    2010-01-01

    Cesium tungsten oxides (Cs x WO 3 ) were synthesized by solvothermal reactions using ethanol and 57.1 vol% ethanol aqueous solution at 200 o C for 12 h, and the effects of post annealing in ammonia atmosphere on the microstructure and electrical-optical properties were investigated. Agglomerated particles consisting of disk-like nanoparticles and nanorods of Cs x WO 3 were formed in the pure ethanol and ethanol aqueous solutions, respectively. The samples retained the original morphology and crystallinity after annealing in ammonia atmosphere up to 500 o C, while a small amount of nitrogen ion were incorporated in the lattice. The as-prepared Cs x WO 3 sample showed excellent near infrared (NIR) light shielding ability as well as high transparency in the visible light region. The electrical resistivity of the pressed pellets of the powders prepared in pure ethanol and 57.1 vol% ethanol aqueous solution greatly decreased after ammonia annealing at 500 o C, i.e., from 734 to 31.5 and 231 to 3.58 Ω cm, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Cesium tungsten oxides (Cs x WO 3 ) with different morphology were synthesized by solvothermal reaction, and the effects of post-ammonia annealing on the microstructure and electrical-optical properties were investigated.

  1. Tungsten oxide thin films grown by thermal evaporation with high resistance to leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Diogo S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos; Pazinato, Julia C.O.; Freitas, Mauricio A. de; Radtke, Claudio; Garcia, Irene T.S., E-mail: irene@iq.ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Dorneles, Lucio S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas

    2014-05-15

    Tungsten oxides show different stoichiometries, crystal lattices and morphologies. These characteristics are important mainly when they are used as photocatalysts. In this work tungsten oxide thin films were obtained by thermal evaporation on (100) silicon substrates covered with gold and heated at 350 and 600 °C, with different deposition times. The stoichiometry of the films, morphology, crystal structure and resistance to leaching were characterized through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and O{sup 16} (α,α')O{sup 16} resonant nuclear reaction. Films obtained at higher temperatures show well-defined spherical nanometric structure; they are composed of WO{sub 3.1} and the presence of hydrated tungsten oxide was also observed. The major crystal structure observed is the hexagonal. Thin films obtained through thermal evaporation present resistance to leaching in aqueous media and excellent performance as photocatalysts, evaluated through the degradation of the methyl orange dye. (author)

  2. Tungsten and molybdenum with oxide dispersion, production and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerdtle, S.; Schmidberger, R.

    1989-01-01

    By the reaction spray process metal powders with dispersed metal oxides can be produced in one step. The systems investigated here are tungsten and molybdenum with 0,5% resp. 5% La 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 . The oxides with diameters below 0,5μm are finely dispersed within the metal powder particles. The sinterability of the powders depends on the oxide content. Maximum density at an oxide content of 0,5% is about 96% at a sintering temperature of 1600 0 C. The type of oxide influences the densification versus temperature but not the final density. 5 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  3. Mechanism of the electrochemical hydrogen reaction on smooth tungsten carbide and tungsten electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesener, K.; Winkler, E.; Schneider, W.

    1985-01-01

    The course of the electrochemical hydrogen reaction on smooth tungsten-carbide electrodes in hydrogen saturated 2.25 M H 2 SO 4 follows a electrochemical sorption-desorption mechanism in the potential range of -0.4 to +0.1 V. At potentials greater than +0.1 V the hydrogen oxidation is controlled by a preliminary chemical sorption step. Concluding from the similar behaviour of tungsten-carbide and tungsten electrodes after cathodic pretreatment, different tungsten oxides should be involved in the course of the hydrogen reaction on tungsten carbide electrodes. (author)

  4. Preparation and characterization of tungsten-loaded titanium dioxide photocatalyst for enhanced dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saepurahman; Abdullah, M.A.; Chong, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten-loaded TiO 2 photocatalyst has been successfully prepared and characterized. TEM analysis showed that the photocatalysts were nanosize with the tungsten species forming layers of coverage on the surface of TiO 2 , but not in clustered form. This was confirmed by XRD and FT-Raman analyses where tungsten species were well dispersed at lower loading ( 3 at higher loadings (>12 mol%). In addition, loading with tungsten could stabilize the anatase phase from transforming into inactive rutile phase and did not shift the optical absorption to the visible region as shown by DRUV-vis analysis. PZC value of TiO 2 was found at 6.4, but the presence of tungsten at 6.5 mol% WO 3 , decreased the PZC value to 3. Tungsten-loaded TiO 2 was superior to unmodified TiO 2 with 2-fold increase in degradation rate of methylene blue, and equally effective for the degradation of different class of dyes such as methyl violet and methyl orange at 1 mol% WO 3 loading.

  5. Quasi physisorptive two dimensional tungsten oxide nanosheets with extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity to NO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hareem; Zavabeti, Ali; Wang, Yichao; Harrison, Christopher J; Carey, Benjamin J; Mohiuddin, Md; Chrimes, Adam F; De Castro, Isabela Alves; Zhang, Bao Yue; Sabri, Ylias M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ou, Jian Zhen; Daeneke, Torben; Russo, Salvy P; Li, Yongxiang; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2017-12-14

    Attributing to their distinct thickness and surface dependent physicochemical properties, two dimensional (2D) nanostructures have become an area of increasing interest for interfacial interactions. Effectively, properties such as high surface-to-volume ratio, modulated surface activities and increased control of oxygen vacancies make these types of materials particularly suitable for gas-sensing applications. This work reports a facile wet-chemical synthesis of 2D tungsten oxide nanosheets by sonication of tungsten particles in an acidic environment and thermal annealing thereafter. The resultant product of large nanosheets with intrinsic substoichiometric properties is shown to be highly sensitive and selective to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) gas, which is a major pollutant. The strong synergy between polar NO 2 molecules and tungsten oxide surface and also abundance of active surface sites on the nanosheets for molecule interactions contribute to the exceptionally sensitive and selective response. An extraordinary response factor of ∼30 is demonstrated to ultralow 40 parts per billion (ppb) NO 2 at a relatively low operating temperature of 150 °C, within the physisorption temperature band for tungsten oxide. Selectivity to NO 2 is demonstrated and the theory behind it is discussed. The structural, morphological and compositional characteristics of the synthesised and annealed materials are extensively characterised and electronic band structures are proposed. The demonstrated 2D tungsten oxide based sensing device holds the greatest promise for producing future commercial low-cost, sensitive and selective NO 2 gas sensors.

  6. Tungsten oxide coatings deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor for detection of nitrogen dioxide gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangc@yzu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Wang, Jie [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Geng, Xin [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)

    2016-05-25

    Increasing attention has been paid on preparation methods for resistive-type gas sensors based on semiconductor metal oxides. In this work, tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) coatings were prepared on alumina substrates and used as gas sensitive layers. The coatings were deposited by atmospheric plasma spray using powder, solution precursor, or a combination of both. Tungsten oxide powder through a powder port and ammonium tungstate aqueous solution through a liquid port were injected into plasma stream respectively or together to deposit WO{sub 3} coatings. Phase structures in the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction analyzer. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that the coatings were in microstructure, nanostructure or micro-nanostructure. The sensing properties of the sensors based on the coatings exposed to 1 ppm nitrogen dioxide gas were characterized in a home-made instrument. Sensing properties of the coatings were compared and discussed. The influences of gas humidity and working temperature on the sensor responses were further studied. - Highlights: • Porous gas sensitive coatings were deposited by plasma spray using powder and solution precursor. • Crystallized WO{sub 3} were obtained through hybrid plasma spray plus a pre-conditioned step. • Plasma power had an important influence on coating microstructure. • The particle size of atmospheric plasma-sprayed microstructured coating was stable. • Solution precursor plasma-sprayed WO{sub 3} coatings had nanostructure and showed good responses to 1 ppm NO{sub 2}.

  7. Oxidation behaviour of silicon-free tungsten alloys for use as the first wall material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, F.; Brinkmann, J.; Lindig, S.; Mishra, T. P.; Linsmeier, Ch

    2011-12-01

    The use of self-passivating tungsten alloys as armour material of the first wall of a fusion power reactor may be advantageous concerning safety issues. In earlier studies good performance of the system W-Cr-Si was demonstrated. Thin films of such alloys showed a strongly reduced oxidation rate compared to pure tungsten. However, the formation of brittle tungsten silicides may be disadvantageous for the powder metallurgical production of bulk W-Cr-Si alloys if a good workability is needed. This paper shows the results of screening tests to identify suitable silicon-free alloys with distinguished self-passivation and a potentially good workability. Of all the tested systems W-Cr-Ti alloys showed the most promising results. The oxidation rate was even lower than the one of W-Cr-Si alloys, the reduction factor was about four orders of magnitude compared to pure tungsten. This performance could be conserved even if the content of alloying elements was reduced.

  8. Oxidation behaviour of silicon-free tungsten alloys for use as the first wall material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F; Brinkmann, J; Lindig, S; Mishra, T P; Linsmeier, Ch

    2011-01-01

    The use of self-passivating tungsten alloys as armour material of the first wall of a fusion power reactor may be advantageous concerning safety issues. In earlier studies good performance of the system W-Cr-Si was demonstrated. Thin films of such alloys showed a strongly reduced oxidation rate compared to pure tungsten. However, the formation of brittle tungsten silicides may be disadvantageous for the powder metallurgical production of bulk W-Cr-Si alloys if a good workability is needed. This paper shows the results of screening tests to identify suitable silicon-free alloys with distinguished self-passivation and a potentially good workability. Of all the tested systems W-Cr-Ti alloys showed the most promising results. The oxidation rate was even lower than the one of W-Cr-Si alloys, the reduction factor was about four orders of magnitude compared to pure tungsten. This performance could be conserved even if the content of alloying elements was reduced.

  9. Highly flexible sub-1 nm tungsten oxide nanobelts as efficient desulfurization catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Liu, Huiling; Xu, Biao; Wang, Xun

    2015-03-01

    Ultrathin tungsten oxide nanobelts are successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. Sub-1 nm thickness and hydrophobic surface property endow the nanobelts with flexibility, viscosity, gelation, and good catalytic performance in oxidative desulfurization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Nitridation of one-dimensional tungsten oxide nanostructures: Changes in structure and photoactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Tamás

    2017-10-12

    In the search for stable, visible light active photoelectrodes, hydrothermally synthesized tungsten oxide nanowires were modified via nitrogen incorporation into their structure. To this end, nanowires were heat-treated in ammonia/nitrogen atmosphere at different temperatures. This procedure caused transitions in their structure that were investigated along with the photoelectrochemical properties of the samples. Results were subsequently compared to the reference samples treated in inert nitrogen atmosphere. Morphological changes and structural transitions were followed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Bandgap energies were determined from the UV–vis spectra of the materials, while photoelectrochemical properties were tested by linear sweep photovoltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Pristine tungsten oxide nanowires were first transformed into tungsten oxynitride and then tungsten nitride during high-temperature calcination in ammonia atmosphere. Electron microscopic investigation revealed that, along with phase transition, the initial fibrous morphology gradually converted into nanosheets. Simultaneously, bandgap energies significantly decreased in the calcination process, too. Photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that photoactivity in the treated samples was not improved by the decrease of the bandgap. This behavior might be explained with the deterioration of charge carrier transport properties of the materials due to the increased number of structural defects (acting as trap states), and current ongoing work aims to verify this notion.

  11. Recent progress in tungsten oxides based memristors and their neuromorphological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei

    2016-09-01

    The advance in conventional silicon based semiconductor industry is now becoming indeterminacy as it still along the road of Moore's Law and concomitant problems associated with it are the emergence of a number of practical issues such as short channel effect. In terms of memory applications, it is generally believed that transistors based memory devices will approach to their scaling limits up to 2018. Therefore, one of the most prominent challenges today in semiconductor industry is the need of a new memory technology which is able to combine the best characterises of current devices. The resistive switching memories which are regarded as "memristors" thus gain great attentions thanks to their specific nonlinear electrical properties. More importantly, their behaviour resembles with the transmission characteristic of synapse in biology. Therefore, the research of synapses biomimetic devices based on memristor will certainly bring a great research prospect in studying synapse emulation as well as building artificial neural networks. Tungsten oxides (WO x ) exhibits many essential characteristics as a great candidate for memristive devices including: accredited endurance (over 105 cycles), stoichiometric flexibility, complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process compatibility and configurable properties including non-volatile rectification, memorization and learning functions. Herein, recent progress on Tungsten oxide based materials and its associating memory devices had been reviewed. The possible implementation of this material as a bio-inspired artificial synapse is also highlighted. The penultimate section summaries the current research progress for tungsten oxide based biological synapses and end up with several proposals that have been suggested for possible future developments.

  12. Visible light assisted nitrogen dioxide sensing using tungsten oxide - Graphene oxide nanocomposite sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Xin [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); You, Jiajun; Wang, Jie [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China); Zhang, Chao, E-mail: zhangc@yzu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) coatings were deposited by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) on alumina substrates. In order to enhance the NO{sub 2} sensing properties of the pure WO{sub 3} coatings at room temperature, illuminating with visible light and formation of p-n heterojunction were used. The SPPS WO{sub 3} coatings were modified by immersing them into a synthesized graphene oxide (GO) suspension to obtain the WO{sub 3}-GO composites. Raman and FTIR results demonstrated that p-n heterojunctions were successfully formed in the WO{sub 3}-GO composites. The UV–Vis spectra showed that the WO{sub 3}-GO composites had a longer visible light absorption range compared with the WO{sub 3} coatings. The sensors based on the WO{sub 3}-GO coatings exhibited ultra-high responses to NO{sub 2} at room temperature performed under visible light illumination. - Highlights: • Highly porous nanostructured WO{sub 3} coatings were deposited by SPPS process. • The WO{sub 3}-GO nanocomposites with p-n heterojunctions were successfully prepared. • The WO{sub 3}-GO nanocomposites exhibited ultra-high responses to 0.9 ppm NO{sub 2}. • The enhanced performance was ascribed to the fine structure and heterojunction.

  13. Tungsten coatings electro-deposited on CFC substrates from oxide molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ningbo; Zhang, Yingchun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com; Lang, Shaoting; Jiang, Fan; Wang, Lili

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten is considered as plasma facing material in fusion devices because of its high melting point, its good thermal conductivity, its low erosion rate and its benign neutron activation properties. On the other hand, carbon based materials like C/C fiber composites (CFC) have been used for plasma facing materials (PFMs) due to their high thermal shock resistance, light weight and high strength. Tungsten coatings on CFC substrates are used in the JET divertor in the frame of the JET ITER-like wall project, and have been prepared by plasma spray (PS) and other techniques. In this study, tungsten coatings were electro-deposited on CFC from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt under various deposition parameters at 900 °C in air. In order to obtain tungsten coatings with excellent performance, the effects of pulse duration ratio and pulse current density on microstructures and crystal structures of tungsten coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Rigaku Industrial Co., Ltd., D/MAX-RB) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM, JSM 6480LV). It is found that the pulsed duration ratio and pulse current density had a significant influence on tungsten nucleation and electro-crystallization phenomena. SEM observation revealed that intact, uniform and dense tungsten coatings formed on the CFC substrates. Both the average grain size and thickness of the coating increased with the pulsed current density. The XRD results showed that the coatings consisted of a single phase of tungsten with the body centered cubic (BCC) structure. The oxygen content of electro-deposited tungsten coatings was lower than 0.05%, and the micro-hardness was about 400 HV.

  14. Surface studies of thermionic cathodes and the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, R.

    1976-09-01

    The surface properties of conventional impregnated cathodes were investigated by the use of Auger spectroscopy and work function measurements, and these were compared with a synthesized barium- or barium oxide coated tungsten surface. The barium- and barium oxide coated surfaces were prepared by evaporating barium onto a tungsten surface that can be heated to elevated temperatures. Multilayer or monolayer coverages can be investigated using this technique. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated tungsten cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on partially oxidized tungsten, using the criteria of identical Auger patterns and work functions. Desorption measurements of barium from a tungsten surface were also made. These results in conjunction with Auger and work function data were interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impregnated cathode operating in the range of 1100 C has a partial monolayer rather than a monolayer of barium on its surface

  15. Preparation and characterization of dimeric and tetrameric clusters of molybdenum and tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, T.R.

    1981-10-01

    The cyclo-addition of two Mo/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/(P(C/sub 6/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/)/sub 2/(CH/sub 3/OH)/sub 2/ molecules has produced a new type of tetrameric molybdenum cluster, Mo/sub 4/Cl/sub 8/L/sub 4/. Structural characterization of this dimer revealed weak molybdenum-methanol bonding which was consistent with the observed reactivity of the compound. New synthetic methods were devised for the preparation of Mo/sub 4/X/sub 8/L/sub 4/ clusters where X = Cl, Br, I and L = PR/sub 3/, Po/sub 3/, RCN, CH/sub 3/OH. A scheme for the metal-metal bonding in these clusters was presented which was in agreement with the known structural features of Mo/sub 4/Cl/sub 8/(PR/sub 3/)/sub 4/, R = C/sub 2/H/sub 5/, n-C/sub 4/H/sub 9/. The preparation of the analogous W/sub 4/Cl/sub 8/(PR/sub 3/)/sub 4/ cluster from WCl/sub 4/ was accomplished by application of techniques used in the molybdenum syntheses. The single crystal x-ray structure revealed slight differences from the molybdenum analog which were rationalized in terms of the known behavior in dimeric tungsten and molybdenum species. The attempted preparation of a tetrameric tungsten cluster from W/sub 2/(mhp)/sub 4/ was unsuccessful (mhp = anion of 2-methyl-6-hydroxypyridine). Instead, the new tungsten dimer, W/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/(mhp)/sub 3/, was isolated which possessed a metal-metal bond order of 3.5. The x-ray crystal structure of the dimer revealed that the chlorine atoms were situated cis, one bound to each tungsten. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the compound could be reversibly reduced, presumably to a W/sub 2//sup 4 +/ dimer containing a quadruple metal-metal bond.

  16. Selective CVD tungsten on silicon implanted SiO/sub 2/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennessy, W.A.; Ghezzo, M.; Wilson, R.H.; Bakhru, H.

    1988-01-01

    The application range of selective CVD tungsten is extended by its coupling to the ion implantation of insulating materials. This article documents the results of selective CVD tungsten using silicon implanted into SiO/sub 2/ to nucleate the tungsten growth. The role of implant does, energy, and surface preparation in achieving nucleation are described. SEM micrographs are presented to demonstrate the selectivity of this process. Measurements of the tungsten film thickness and sheet resistance are provided for each of the experimental variants corresponding to successful deposition. RBS and XPS analysis are discussed in terms of characterizing the tungsten/oxide interface and to evaluate the role of the silicon implant in the CVD tungsten mechanism. Utilizing this method a desired metallization pattern can be readily defined with lithography and ion implantation, and accurately replicated with a layer of CVD tungsten. This approach avoids problems usually associated with blanket deposition and pattern transfer, which are particularly troublesome for submicron VLSI technology

  17. CTAB assisted synthesis of tungsten oxide nanoplates as an efficient low temperature NOX sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Swati S.; Tamboli, Mohaseen S.; Mulla, Imtiaz S.; Suryavanshi, Sharad S.

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten oxide nanoplates with porous morphology were effectively prepared by acidification using CTAB (HexadeCetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide) as a surfactant. For characterization, the synthesized materials were subjected to X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and surface area (BET) measurements. The morphology and size of the particles were controlled by solution acidity. The BET results confirmed that the materials are well crystallized and mesoporous in nature. The nanocrystalline powder was used to prepare thick films by screen printing on alumina substrate for the investigation of gas sensing properties. The gas response measurements revealed that the samples acidified using 10 M H2SO4 exhibits highest response of 91% towards NOX at optimum temperature of 200 °C for 100 ppm, and it also exhibits 35% response at room temperature.

  18. Synthesis of tungsten oxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles by radio frequency plasma in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Inoue, Toru; Usui, Tomoya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •RF plasma in water was used for nanoparticle synthesis. •Nanoparticles were produced from erosion of metallic electrode. •Rectangular and spherical tungsten oxide nanoparticles were produced. •No oxidations of the silver and gold spherical nanoparticles were produced. -- Abstract: A process for synthesis of nanoparticles using plasma in water generated by a radio frequency of 27.12 MHz is proposed. Tungsten oxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles were produced at 20 kPa through erosion of a metallic electrode exposed to plasma. Characterization of the produced nanoparticles was carried out by XRD, absorption spectrum, and TEM. The nanoparticle sizes were compared with those produced by a similar technique using plasma in liquid

  19. Preparation of layered graphene and tungsten oxide hybrids for enhanced performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ling-Li; Huang, Ke-Jing; Fang, Lin-Xia

    2016-11-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ), which was originally poor in capacitive performance, is made into an excellent electrode material for supercapacitors by dispersing it on graphene (Gr). The obtained Gr-WO 3 hybrids are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques, and evaluated as electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A great improvement in specific capacitance is achieved with the present hybrids, from 255 F g -1 for WO 3 nanoparticles to 580 F g -1 for Gr-WO 3 hybrids (scanned at 1 A g -1 in 2 M KOH over a potential window of 0 to 0.45 V). The Gr-WO 3 hybrid exhibits an excellent high rate capability and good cycling stability with more than 92% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles at a current density of 5 A g -1 . The enhancement in supercapacitor performance of Gr-WO 3 is not only attributed to its unique nanostructure with large specific surface area, but also its excellent electro-conductivity, which facilitates efficient charge transport and promotes electrolyte diffusion. As a whole, this work indicates that Gr-WO 3 hybrids are a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  20. Suppression of cavitation in melted tungsten by doping with lanthanum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Lu, G.H.; Xu, B.; Fu, B.Q.; Xu, H.Y.; Li, C.; Jia, Y.Z.; Qu, S.L.; Liu, W.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Luo, G.-N.

    2014-01-01

    Melting and boiling behaviour of pure tungsten and 1 wt% lanthanum-oxide-doped tungsten (WL10) are investigated, focusing on the material selection with respect to material loss induced by cavitation. Melting experiments under high heat loads are carried out in the high heat flux facility GLADIS. Pulsed hydrogen neutral beams with heat flux of 10 and 23 MW m −2 are applied onto the adiabatically loaded samples for intense surface melting. Melt layer of the two tungsten grades exhibit different microstructure characteristics. Substantive voids owing to cavitation in the liquid phase are observed in pure W and lead to porous resolidified material. However, little cavitation bubbles can be found in the dense resolidified layer of WL10. In order to find out the gaseous sources, vapour collection is performed and the components are subsequently detected. Based on the observations and analyses, the microstructure evolutions corresponding to melting and vapourization behaviour of the two tungsten grades are tentatively described, and furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of cavitation in pure W and its suppression in WL10 are discussed. (paper)

  1. Effect of Annealing on Tungsten Oxide Thin Films for Acetone Gas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11

    Abstract: The gas sensing properties and topology of tungsten oxide thin films ..... Figure 3: Atomic force microscopy images of sensing film for (a) as-deposited (a) .... the surface, it forms compounds with the oxygen ions species present on the ...

  2. Thin film deposition and characterization of pure and iron-doped electron-beam evaporated tungsten oxide for gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfamichael, Tuquabo, E-mail: t.tesfamichael@qut.edu.a [Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, School of Engineering Systems, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Arita, Masashi [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita-14, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0814 (Japan); Bostrom, Thor [Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Bell, John [Centre for Built Environment and Engineering Research, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2010-06-30

    Pure tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) and iron-doped (10 at.%) tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}:Fe) nanostructured thin films were prepared using a dual crucible Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE) technique. The films were deposited at room temperature under high vacuum onto glass as well as alumina substrates and post-heat treated at 300 {sup o}C for 1 h. Using Raman spectroscopy the as-deposited WO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}:Fe films were found to be amorphous, however their crystallinity increased after annealing. The estimated surface roughness of the films was similar (of the order of 3 nm) to that determined using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). As observed by AFM, the WO{sub 3}:Fe film appeared to have a more compact surface as compared to the more porous WO{sub 3} film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the elemental stoichiometry of the tungsten oxide films was consistent with WO{sub 3}. A slight difference in optical band gap energies was found between the as-deposited WO{sub 3} (3.22 eV) and WO{sub 3}:Fe (3.12 eV) films. The differences in the band gap energies of the annealed films were significantly higher, having values of 3.12 eV and 2.61 eV for the WO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}:Fe films respectively. The heat treated films were investigated for gas sensing applications using noise spectroscopy. It was found that doping of Fe to WO{sub 3} produced gas selectivity but a reduced gas sensitivity as compared to the WO{sub 3} sensor.

  3. Room temperature NO2-sensing properties of porous silicon/tungsten oxide nanorods composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yulong; Hu, Ming; Wang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Weiyi; Qin, Yuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous silicon/WO 3 nanorods composite is synthesized via hydrothermal method. • The morphology of WO 3 nanorods depends on the amount of oxalic acid (pH value). • The sensor can detect ppb level NO 2 at room temperature. - Abstract: One-dimensional single crystalline WO 3 nanorods have been successfully synthesized onto the porous silicon substrates by a seed-induced hydrothermal method. The controlled morphology of porous silicon/tungsten oxide nanorods composite was obtained by using oxalic acid as an organic inducer. The reaction was carried out at 180 °C for 2 h. The influence of oxalic acid (pH value) on the morphology of porous silicon/tungsten oxide nanorods composite was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The NO 2 -sensing properties of the sensor based on porous silicon/tungsten oxide nanorods composite were investigated at different temperatures ranging from room temperature (∼25 °C) to 300 °C. At room temperature, the sensor behaved as a typical p-type semiconductor and exhibited high gas response, good repeatability and excellent selectivity characteristics toward NO 2 gas due to its high specific surface area, special structure, and large amounts of oxygen vacancies

  4. Selective hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols to cyclic alcohols over tungsten oxide-palladium catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amada, Yasushi; Ota, Nobuhiko; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols such as 1,4-anhydroerythritol was conducted over catalysts containing both a noble metal and a group 5-7 transition-metal oxide. The combination of Pd and WOx allowed the removal of one of the two OH groups selectively. 3-Hydroxytetrahydrofuran was obtained from 1,4-anhydroerythritol in 72 and 74% yield over WOx -Pd/C and WOx -Pd/ZrO2 , respectively. The WOx -Pd/ZrO2 catalyst was reusable without significant loss of activity if the catalyst was calcined as a method of regeneration. Characterization of WOx -Pd/C with temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that Pd metal particles approximately 9 nm in size were formed on amorphous tungsten oxide particles. A reaction mechanism was proposed on the basis of kinetics, reaction results with tungsten oxides under an atmosphere of Ar, and density functional theory calculations. A tetravalent tungsten center (W(IV) ) was formed by reduction of WO3 with the Pd catalyst and H2 , and this center served as the reductant for partial hydrodeoxygenation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hot-wire substoichiometric tungsten oxide films deposited in hydrogen environment with n-type conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostis, I; Vasilopoulou, M; Giannakopoulos, K; Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D; Michalas, L; Papaioannou, G; Konofaos, N; Iliadis, A A; Kennou, S

    2012-01-01

    Substoichiometric tungsten oxide nanostructured films were synthesized by a hot-wire deposition technique in hydrogen-rich environment and characterized for their structural and electrical properties. A semiconducting behaviour was identified, allowing n-type conductivity even at room temperature which is an important result since it is well known that fully stoichiometric tungsten trioxide is nearly an insulator. Current-voltage characteristics for various temperatures were measured for tungsten oxide/Si heterostructures and analysed using proper modelling. As a result, the conduction mechanism inside the films was identified and found to be of a dual nature, with variable range hopping being dominant at near room temperatures. The saturation current was found to be thermally activated and the activation energy was calculated at 0.40 eV and the grain boundaries barrier at 150 meV. From Hall measurements it was also revealed that the dominant carriers are electrons and a carrier concentration of about 10 14 cm -3 was estimated.

  6. Vanadium Doped Tungsten Oxide Material - Electrical Physical and Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin N. Y.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical physical and sensing (to VOCs and inorganic gases properties of vanadium doped tungsten oxide in the regions of phase transition temperature were investigated. Vanadium oxide (II dimerization was observed in the doped material, corresponding to new phase transition. The extreme sensitivity and selectivity to chemically active gases and vapors in small concentrations: CO, NOx, NH3 acetone, ethanol near phase transitions temperature was found. Sensor elements were manufactured for the quantitative detection (close to 1 ppm of alcohol and ammonia.

  7. Tungsten oxide-graphene oxide (WO3-GO) nanocomposite as an efficient photocatalyst, antibacterial and anticancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevitha, G.; Abhinayaa, R.; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.

    2018-05-01

    Functioning of ultrasonically prepared tungsten oxide-graphene oxide (WO3-GO) nanocomposite as a photocatalyst, antibacterial and anticancer system was investigated and the obtained results were compared with that of pure WO3 nanoparticles. Structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties of the prepared WO3 nanoparticles and WO3-GO nanocomposite were studied. Photocatalytic efficiency of the system on organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB, cationic) and indigo carmine (IC, anionic) was investigated. The enhanced efficiency of the WO3-GO nanocomposite system was evaluated under sunlight and compared with that of pure WO3. The degradation efficiency values for MB and IC were found to be 97.03% and 95.43% at 180 and 120 min respectively. Antibacterial activity of the WO3-GO nanocomposite under visible light was tested and improved inhibition results were observed for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis after 6 h of light exposure. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency and antibacterial activity of the WO3-GO nanocomposite are attributed to the improved electron-hole pair separation rate. Investigation on anticancer activity of WO3-GO nanocomposite was tested on human lung cancer (A-549) cell line and the IC50 value was found to be 139.6 ± 4.53 μg/mL. The results obtained in this study may be used as a platform for the development of photocatalysis applications based on WO3-GO nanocomposite.

  8. Preparation and properties of molybdenum-tungsten-carbonitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, M.; Ettmayer, P.; Kieffer, R.

    1982-01-01

    Molybdenum-tungsten-carbonitrides can be prepared by reacting prealloyed powders of Mo and W with carbon in the presence of nitrogen or ammonia. Single phase carbonitrides (Mo,W) (C,N) with the WC-type structure can be obtained. The nitrogen content of these carbonitrides increases with increasing molybdenum content. Flowing ammonia has a decarburizing effect, which has to be counterbalanced by an addition of a carbonaceous gas such as methane. Nitrogen instead of ammonia is equally effective and gives carbonitrides which have a nitrogen content only insignificantly lower than the carbonitrides obtained in flowing ammonia. The lattice parameters of the carbonitrides are found to slightly smaller than the lattice parameters of the corresponding carbides. (Author)

  9. On-chip microplasma reactors using carbon nanofibres and tungsten oxide nanowires as electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agiral, Anil; Groenland, Alfons W; Han Gardeniers, J G E; Chinthaginjala, J Kumar; Seshan, K; Lefferts, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and tungsten oxide (W 18 O 49 ) nanowires have been incorporated into a continuous flow type microplasma reactor to increase the reactivity and efficiency of the barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. CNFs and tungsten oxide nanowires were characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nanodiffraction methods. Field emission of electrons from those nanostructures supplies free electrons and ions during microplasma production. Reduction in breakdown voltage, higher number of microdischarges and higher energy deposition were observed at the same applied voltage when compared with plane electrodes at atmospheric pressure in air. Rate coefficients of electron impact reaction channels to decompose CO 2 were calculated and it was shown that CO 2 consumption increased using CNFs compared with plane electrode in the microplasma reactor.

  10. Thermodynamics of the hydrogen-carbon-oxygen-tungsten system, as applied to the manufacture of tungsten and tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the quaternary hydrogen-carbon oxygen-tungsten system and its binary and ternary sub-systems are reviewed. Published thermodynamic data are evaluated, and expression for free energies of formation are chosen. These expressions are integrated with and equilibrium-calculating algorithm, producing a powerful tool for understanding and improving the manufacture of tungsten and tungsten carbide. Three examples are presented: reduction/carburization of tungstic oxide with hydrogen, carbon, and methane. (author)

  11. Effect of tungsten doping on catalytic properties of niobium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Franciane P.; Nogueira, Andre E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG (Brazil); Patricio, Patricia S.O., E-mail: patriciapatricio@cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, CEFET, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz C.A. [Departamento de Quimica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    A novel material based on niobia (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was synthesized to oxidize an organic compound in aqueous medium in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} after chemical modifications. Niobia was modified by doping with tungsten and also treating with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in order to maximize the oxidative properties of this oxide. The analysis of the products from methylene blue dye oxidation with electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed that the dye was successively oxidized to different intermediate compounds. The successive hydroxylation during this oxidation strongly suggests that highly reactive hydroxyl radicals are generated involving H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the W-doped niobia grain surface. These results strongly suggest that the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can regenerate in situ the peroxo group remaining active the system. (author)

  12. Preparation and Photoluminescence of Tungsten Disulfide Monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Lv

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten disulfide (WS2 monolayer is a direct band gap semiconductor. The growth of WS2 monolayer hinders the progress of its investigation. In this paper, we prepared the WS2 monolayer through chemical vapor transport deposition. This method makes it easier for the growth of WS2 monolayer through the heterogeneous nucleation-and-growth process. The crystal defects introduced by the heterogeneous nucleation could promote the photoluminescence (PL emission. We observed the strong photoluminescence emission in the WS2 monolayer, as well as thermal quenching, and the PL energy redshift as the temperature increases. We attribute the thermal quenching to the energy or charge transfer of the excitons. The redshift is related to the dipole moment of WS2.

  13. Tungsten oxide proton conducting films for low-voltage transparent oxide-based thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Wan, Qing; Wan, Changjin; Wu, Guodong; Zhu, Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO x ) electrolyte films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering showed a high room temperature proton conductivity of 1.38 × 10 −4 S/cm with a relative humidity of 60%. Low-voltage transparent W-doped indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors gated by WO x -based electrolytes were self-assembled on glass substrates by one mask diffraction method. Enhancement mode operation with a large current on/off ratio of 4.7 × 10 6 , a low subthreshold swing of 108 mV/decade, and a high field-effect mobility 42.6 cm 2 /V s was realized. Our results demonstrated that WO x -based proton conducting films were promising gate dielectric candidates for portable low-voltage oxide-based devices.

  14. Tungsten oxide thin film exposed to low energy D and He plasma: evidence for a thermal enhancement of the erosion yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Hussein; Martin, C.; Roubin, P.; Addab, Y.; Cabie, C.; Pardanaud, C.; Bannister, M.; Meyer, F.

    2017-10-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten oxide thin films (25 nm - 250 nm thickness) produced by thermal oxidation of a tungsten substrate were exposed to low energy D and He plasma. Low energy D plasma exposure (11 eV/D+) of these films have resulted in the formation of a tungsten bronze (DxWO3) clearly observed by Raman microscopy. D plasma bombardment (4 1021 m-2) has also induced a color change of the oxide layer which is similar to the well-known electro-chromic effect and has been named ``plasma-chromic effect''. To unravel physical and chemical origins of the modifications observed under exposure, similar tungsten oxide films were also exposed to low energy helium plasma (20 eV/He+) . Due to the low fluence (4 1021 m-2) and low ion energy (20 eV), at room temperature, He exposure has induced only very few morphological and structural modifications. On the contrary, at 673 K, significant erosion is observed, which gives evidence for an unexpected thermal enhancement of the erosion yield. We present here new results concerning He beam exposures at low fluence (4 1021 m-2) varying the He+ energy from 20 eV to 320 eV to measure the tungsten oxide sputtering threshold energy. Detailed analyses before/after exposure to describe the D and He interaction with the oxide layer, its erosion and structural modification at the atomic and micrometer scale will be presented.

  15. Dataset on electro-optically tunable smart-supercapacitors based on oxygen-excess nanograin tungsten oxide thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar I. Inamdar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented here is related to the research article entitled “Highly Efficient Electro-optically Tunable Smart-supercapacitors Using an Oxygen-excess Nanograin Tungsten Oxide Thin Film” (Akbar et al., 2017 [9] where we have presented a nanograin WO3 film as a bifunctional electrode for smart supercapacitor devices. In this article we provide additional information concerning nanograin tungsten oxide thin films such as atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Moreover, their electrochemical properties such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical supercapacitor properties, and electrochromic properties including coloration efficiency, optical modulation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are presented.

  16. Tungsten-Based Mesoporous Silicates W-MMM-E as Heterogeneous Catalysts for Liquid-Phase Oxidations with Aqueous H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Maksimchuk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous tungsten-silicates, W-MMM-E, have been prepared following evaporation-induced self-assembly methodology and characterized by elemental analysis, XRD, N2 adsorption, STEM-HAADF (high angle annular dark field in scanning-TEM mode, DRS UV-vis, and Raman techniques. DRS UV-vis showed the presence of two types of tungsten oxo-species in W-MMM-E samples: isolated tetrahedrally and oligomeric octahedrally coordinated ones, with the ratio depending on the content of tungsten in the catalyst. Materials with lower W loading have a higher contribution from isolated species, regardless of the preparation method. W-MMM-E catalyzes selectively oxidize of a range of alkenes and organic sulfides, including bulky terpene or thianthrene molecules, using green aqueous H2O2. The selectivity of corresponding epoxides reached 85–99% in up to 80% alkene conversions, while sulfoxides formed with 84–90% selectivity in almost complete sulfide conversions and a 90–100% H2O2 utilization efficiency. The true heterogeneity of catalysis over W-MMM-E was proved by hot filtration tests. Leaching of inactive W species depended on the reaction conditions and initial W loading in the catalyst. After optimization of the catalyst system, it did not exceed 20 ppm and 3 ppm for epoxidation and sulfoxidation reactions, respectively. Elaborated catalysts could be easily retrieved by filtration and reused several times with maintenance of the catalytic behavior.

  17. Preparation and electrocatalytic property of WC/carbon nanotube composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guohua; Ma Chunan; Tang Junyan; Sheng Jiangfeng

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten carbide/carbon nanotube composite was prepared by surface decoration and in situ reduction-carbonization. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, HRTEM and BET, respectively. The XRD results show that the sample is composed of carbon nanotube, tungsten carbide and tungsten oxide. The EDS results show that the distribution of tungsten oxide is consistent with that of tungsten carbide. SEM, TEM and HRTEM results show that the tungsten carbide nanoparticle with irregular granule grows on the outside surface of carbon nanotube homogenously. The electrocatalytic activity of the sample for p-nitrophenol reduction was tested by a powder microelectrode in a basic solution. The results show that the electrocatalytic activity of the sample is higher than that of granular tungsten carbide, hollow globe tungsten carbide with mesoporosity and carbon nanotube purified. The improvement of the electrocatalytic activity of the sample can be attributed to its components and composite structure. These results indicate that tungsten carbide/carbon nanotube composite is one of the effective ways to improve the electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide

  18. High-pressure synthesis of fully occupied tetragonal and cubic tungsten bronze oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeuchi, Yuya; Takatsu, Hiroshi; Tassel, Cedric; Goto, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Taito; Kageyama, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    A high-pressure reaction yielded the fully occupied tetragonal tungsten bronze K{sub 3}W{sub 5}O{sub 15} (K{sub 0.6}WO{sub 3}). The terminal phase shows an unusual transport property featuring slightly negative temperature-dependence in resistivity (dρ/dT<0) and a large Wilson ratio of R{sub W}=3.2. Such anomalous metallic behavior possibly arises from the low-dimensional electronic structure with a van Hove singularity at the Fermi level and/or from enhanced magnetic fluctuations by geometrical frustration of the tungsten sublattice. The asymmetric nature of the tetragonal tungsten bronze K{sub x}WO{sub 3}-K{sub 0.6-y}Ba{sub y}WO{sub 3} phase diagram implies that superconductivity for x≤0.45 originates from the lattice instability because of potassium deficiency. A cubic perovskite KWO{sub 3} phase was also identified as a line phase - in marked contrast to Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} and Li{sub x}WO{sub 3} with varying quantities of x (<1). This study presents a versatile method by which the solubility limit of tungsten bronze oxides can be extended. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Tungsten behaviour under anodic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas'ko, A.T.; Patsyuk, F.N.

    1980-01-01

    Electrochemical investigations have been carried out to identify the state of elements of the tungsten galvanic coating. Active zones on anode polarization curves in the hydrogen region of galvanic tungsten are established. The difference in the behaviour of monocrystal and galvanic tungsten electrodes is shown to be connected with the oxidation of hydrogen in the galvanic sediment

  20. Crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate monoliths synthesized by directed soft template method for highly sensitive NO2 gas sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Duy, Nguyen Van; Hieu, Nguyen Van

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Mesoporous WO 3 nanoplate monoliths were obtained by direct templating synthesis. ► Enable effective accession of the analytic molecules for the sensor applications. ► The WO 3 sensor exhibited a high performance to NO 2 gas at low temperature. -- Abstract: Controllable synthesis of nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with nanocrystalline size, porous structure, and large specific surface area is one of the key issues for effective gas sensor applications. In this study, crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate-like monoliths with high specific surface areas were obtained through instant direct-templating synthesis for highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) sensor applications. The copolymer soft template was converted into a solid carbon framework by heat treatment in an inert gas prior to calcinations in air to sustain the mesoporous structure of tungsten oxide. The multidirectional mesoporous structures of tungsten oxide with small crystalline size, large specific surface area, and superior physical characteristics enabled the rapid and effective accession of analytic gas molecules. As a result, the sensor response was enhanced and the response and recovery times were reduced, in which the mesoporous tungsten oxide based gas sensor exhibited a superior response of 21,155% to 5 ppm NO 2 . In addition, the developed sensor exhibited selective detection of low NO 2 concentration in ammonia and ethanol at a low temperature of approximately 150 °C.

  1. Tungsten oxide-Au nanosized film composites for glucose oxidation and sensing in neutral medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gougis M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maxime Gougis, Dongling Ma, Mohamed Mohamedi INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Varennes, Québec, Canada Abstract: In this work, we report for the first time the use of tungsten oxide (WOx as catalyst support for Au toward the direct electrooxidation of glucose. The nanostructured WOx/Au electrodes were synthesized by means of laser-ablation technique. Both micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the produced WOx thin film is amorphous and made of ultrafine particles of subnanometer size. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that only metallic Au was present at the surface of the WOx/Au composite, suggesting that the WOx support did not alter the electronic structure of Au. The direct electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in neutral medium such as phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 solution has been investigated with cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and square-wave voltammetry. Sensitivity as high as 65.7 µA cm-2 mM-1 up to 10 mM of glucose and a low detection limit of 10 µM were obtained with square-wave voltammetry. This interesting analytical performance makes the laser-fabricated WOx/Au electrode potentially promising for implantable glucose fuel cells and biomedical analysis as the evaluation of glucose concentration in biological fluids. Finally, owing to its unique capabilities proven in this work, it is anticipated that the laser-ablation technique will develop as a fabrication tool for chip miniature-sized sensors in the near future. Keywords: Au, tungsten oxide, nanostructures, pulsed laser deposition, glucose oxidation and sensing

  2. Incorporation of tungsten metal fibers in a metal and ceramic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brozek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten fibers have high tensile strength but a poor oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. Using this first characteristic and to prevent oxidation of tungsten coated composite materials in which the primary requirement: reinforcement against destruction or deformation, was studied on tungsten fibers and tungsten wires which were coated by applying the metal and ceramic powders via plasma spraying device in plasma generator WSP®. Deposition took place in an atmosphere of Ar + 7 % H2, sufficient to reduce the oxidized trace amounts of tungsten.

  3. Detection of Methanol with Fast Response by Monodispersed Indium Tungsten Oxide Ellipsoidal Nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Kou, Xueying; Xie, Ning; Guo, Lanlan; Sun, Yanfeng; Chuai, Xiaohong; Ma, Jian; Sun, Peng; Wang, Yue; Lu, Geyu

    2017-05-26

    Indium tungsten oxide ellipsoidal nanospheres were prepared with different In/W ratios by using a simple hydrothermal method without any surfactant for the first time. Sensors based on different In/W ratios samples were fabricated, and one of the samples exhibited better response to methanol compared with others. High content of defective oxygen (Ov) and proper output proportion of In to W might be the main reasons for the better gas sensing properties. The length of the nanosphere was about 150-200 nm, and the width was about 100 nm. Various techniques were applied to investigate the nanospheres. Sensing characteristics toward methanol were investigated. Significantly, the sensor exhibited ultrafast response to methanol. The response time to 400 ppm methanol was no more than 2 s and the recovery time was 9 s at 312 °C. Most importantly, the humidity almost had no effect on the response of the sensor fabricated here, which is hard to achieve in gas-sensing applications.

  4. Nanogravimetric studies of tungsten oxide thin films obtained by the polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, V.C.; Santos, M.C.; Bulhoes, L.O.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the intercalation/de-intercalation process of Li + ions in the tungsten oxide matrix was investigated. The reaction mechanism involved was also investigated. The WO 3 films, prepared by the polymeric precursor method, were deposited on a Pt covered quartz crystal using the dip-coating technique. The electrolyte was 0.1 mol L -1 LiClO 4 in acetonitrile. The morphology and structure of the deposit was accomplished by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. In the electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance results, it was observed that the mass transport as well as the kinetic processes involved are facilitated in the films cycled at lower potential sweep-rates. The mass variation data as a function of the charge variations in the anodic and cathodic regions indicate the participation of solvent molecules (acetonitrile) during the Li + ion intercalation/de-intercalation process. This was confirmed by the development of a model of the species flux as a function of the potential

  5. Preparation of tungsten coatings on graphite by electro-deposition via Na2WO4–WO3 molten salt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ning-bo; Zhang, Ying-chun; Jiang, Fan; Lang, Shao-ting; Xia, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings on graphite were firstly obtained by electro-deposition method via Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 molten salt system. • Uniform and dense tungsten coatings could be easily prepared in each face of the sample, especially the complex components. • The obtained tungsten coatings are with high purity, ultra-low oxygen content (about 0.022 wt%). • Modulate pulse parameters can get tungsten coatings with different thickness and hardness. - Abstract: Tungsten coating on graphite substrate is one of the most promising candidate materials as the ITER plasma facing components. In this paper, tungsten coatings on graphite substrates were fabricated by electro-deposition from Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 molten salt system at 1173 K in atmosphere. Tungsten coatings with no impurities were successfully deposited on graphite substrates under various pulsed current densities in an hour. By increasing the current density from 60 mA cm −2 to 120 mA cm −2 an increase of the average size of tungsten grains, the thickness and the hardness of tungsten coatings occurs. The average size of tungsten grains can reach 7.13 μm, the thickness of tungsten coating was in the range of 28.8–51 μm, and the hardness of coating was higher than 400 HV. No cracks or voids were observed between tungsten coating and graphite substrate. The oxygen content of tungsten coating is about 0.022 wt%

  6. Process for recovering tungsten from alkaline leaching solution of tungsten ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozaki, S.; Nemoto, S.; Hazeyama, T.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for recovering tungsten from an alkaline leaching solution of tungsten ores. This invention comprises adjusting the pH of an alkaline leaching solution which is obtained by lixiviating ore containing tungsten with an alkaline solution to 7--8 with acid to oxidize molybdic acid ions in the solution, adding a sulfide donor, then precipitating molybdenum sulfide compounds by adjusting the pH value of the solution to 2--3. Tungstic acid ions are recovered as calcium tungstate by the addition of a calcium ion donor after the molybdenum sulfide compounds are separated

  7. Structure of tungsten electrodeposited from oxide chloride-fluoride molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovskij, V.A.; Reznichenko, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigation results on the influence of electrolysis parameters and electrolyte composition on tungsten cathode deposit structure are presented. The electrolysis was performed in NaCl-NaF-WO 3 molten salts using tungsten and tungsten coated molybdenum cathodes. Morphological and metallographic studies of tungsten crystals were carrier out. Tungsten deposits were obtained in the form of crystalline conglomerates, sponge and high dispersity powder

  8. Evaluation of catalytic properties of tungsten carbide for the anode of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Miriam; Zhao, Feng; Quaas, Marion; Wulff, Harm; Schroeder, Uwe; Scholz, Fritz [Universitaet Greifswald, Institut fuer Biochemie, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 4, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-07-31

    In this communication we discuss the properties of tungsten carbide, WC, as anodic electrocatalyst for microbial fuel cell application. The electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide is evaluated in the light of its preparation procedure, its structural properties as well as the pH and the composition of the anolyte solution and the catalyst load. The activity of the noble-metal-free electrocatalyst towards the oxidation of several common microbial fermentation products (hydrogen, formate, lactate, ethanol) is studied for microbial fuel cell conditions (e.g., pH 5, room temperature and ambient pressure). Current densities of up to 8.8 mA cm{sup -2} are achieved for hydrogen (hydrogen saturated electrolyte solution), and up to 2 mA cm{sup -2} for formate and lactate, respectively. No activity was observed for ethanol electrooxidation. The electrocatalytic activity and chemical stability of tungsten carbide is excellent in acidic to pH neutral potassium chloride electrolyte solutions, whereas higher phosphate concentrations at neutral pH support an oxidative degradation. (author)

  9. In situ oxide dispersion strengthened tungsten alloys with high compressive strength and high strain-to-failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lin; Jiang, Lin; Topping, Troy D.; Dai, Chen; Wang, Xin; Carpenter, Ryan; Haines, Christopher; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk tungsten materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS). The results show that the application of a high pressure of 1 GPa during SPS significantly accelerates the densification process. Concurrently, the second phase oxide nanoparticles with an average grain size of 108 nm, which are distributed within the interiors of the W grains, simultaneously provide strengthening and plasticity by inhibiting grain growth, and generating, blocking, and storing dislocations. - Graphical abstract: In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk W materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS).

  10. New doped tungsten cathodes. Applications to power grid tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachard, J. de; Cadoret, K; Martinez, L.; Veillet, D.; Millot, F.

    2001-01-01

    Thermionic emission behavior of tungsten/tungsten carbide modified with rare earth (La, Ce, Y) oxides is examined on account of suitability to deliver important current densities in a thermo-emissive set up and for long lifetime. Work functions of potential cathodes have been determined from Richardson plots for La 2 O 3 doped tungsten and for tungsten covered with variable compositions rare earth tungstates. The role of platinum layers covering the cathode was also examined. Given all cathodes containing mainly lanthanum oxides were good emitters, emphasis was put on service lifetime. Comparisons of lifetime in tungsten doped with rare earth oxides and with rare earth tungstates show that microstructure of the operating cathodes may play the major role in the research of very long lifetime cathodes. Based on these results, tests still running show lifetime compatible with power grid tubes applications. (author)

  11. Crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate monoliths synthesized by directed soft template method for highly sensitive NO{sub 2} gas sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoa, Nguyen Duc, E-mail: ndhoa@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST) (Viet Nam); Duy, Nguyen Van [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST) (Viet Nam); Hieu, Nguyen Van, E-mail: hieu@itims.edu.vn [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST) (Viet Nam)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Mesoporous WO{sub 3} nanoplate monoliths were obtained by direct templating synthesis. ► Enable effective accession of the analytic molecules for the sensor applications. ► The WO{sub 3} sensor exhibited a high performance to NO{sub 2} gas at low temperature. -- Abstract: Controllable synthesis of nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with nanocrystalline size, porous structure, and large specific surface area is one of the key issues for effective gas sensor applications. In this study, crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate-like monoliths with high specific surface areas were obtained through instant direct-templating synthesis for highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sensor applications. The copolymer soft template was converted into a solid carbon framework by heat treatment in an inert gas prior to calcinations in air to sustain the mesoporous structure of tungsten oxide. The multidirectional mesoporous structures of tungsten oxide with small crystalline size, large specific surface area, and superior physical characteristics enabled the rapid and effective accession of analytic gas molecules. As a result, the sensor response was enhanced and the response and recovery times were reduced, in which the mesoporous tungsten oxide based gas sensor exhibited a superior response of 21,155% to 5 ppm NO{sub 2}. In addition, the developed sensor exhibited selective detection of low NO{sub 2} concentration in ammonia and ethanol at a low temperature of approximately 150 °C.

  12. Direct atomic-emission determination of tungsten in molybdenum oxide in dc arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotareva, N.I.; Grazhulene, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    A method of direct atomic-emission determination of tungsten impurity in molybdenum trioxide of high purity in dc arc is presented. Chemically active additives of elementary sulfur and gallium oxide are used to optimize W evaporation rate and residence time in the arc plasma. The procedure is easy to use and provides the limit of W determination at a level of 2x10 -4 wt. % [ru

  13. Mechanism of anodic oxidation of molybdenum and tungsten in nitrate-nitrite melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurkinskij, V.P.; Firsova, E.G.; Morachevskij, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of anode oxidation of tungsten and molybdenum in NaNO 3 -KNO 3 (50 mass %) nitrate-nitrite melts with NaNO 2 -KNO 2 (0.5-50 mass %) addition and in NaNO 2 -KNO 2 (35 mole %) nitrite melt in the 516-580 K temperature range is studied. It is supposed that the process of anode dissloving of the mentioned metals in nitrite melt and nitrate-nitrite mixtures is two-electron. Formation of oxide passivating film is possible under electrolysis on the anode surface, the film is then dissolved in nitrate-nitrite melt with formation of molybdates or tungstates

  14. Optical properties of tungsten oxide thin films by non-reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Riech, I.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were grown on glass substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature using a tungsten trioxide target for several values of the Argon pressure (PAr). The structural and morphological properties of these films were studied using X-ray diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy. The as-deposited films were amorphous irrespective of the Argon pressure, and crystallized in a mixture of hexagonal and monoclinic phases after annealing at a temperature of 3500 C in air. Surface-Roughness increased by an order of magnitude (from 1 nm to 20 nm) after thermal treatment. The Argon pressure, however, had a strong influence on the optical properties of the films. Three different regions are clearly identified: deep blue films for PAr 40 mTorr with high transmittance values. We suggest that the observed changes in optical properties are due to an increasing number of Oxygen vacancies as the growth Argon pressure decreases. (Full text)

  15. Robust superhydrophobic tungsten oxide coatings with photochromism and UV durability properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ting [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials and Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan, 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Guo, Zhiguang, E-mail: zguo@licp.cas.cn [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials and Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan, 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic tungsten oxide (TO) coatings with a water contact angle (WCA) of 155° and rolling angle of 3.5° were developed. • The superhydrophobic coatings have excellent mechanical robustness and UV durability. • The superhydrophobic TO coatings show the reversible convert of photochromism. • The coating exhibited excellent self-cleaning behavior due to its high WCA and low rolling angle. - Abstract: Robust superhydrophobic tungsten oxide (TO) coatings with a water contact angle (WCA) of 155° were developed for photochromism via a facile and substrate-independent route. Importantly, after scatch test on both a single and two orthogonal direction, the TO coating still exhibited superhydrophobic behavior, indicating excellent mechanical robustness. It is worth mentioning that the superhydrophobic TO coatings showed the reversible convert of photochromism of WO{sub 3} induced by alternating UV and visible light irradiation. Besides that, the TO coating remained superhydrophobicity after UV irradiation for 36 h, showing excellent UV durability. In addition, the coating showed good resistance to acidic droplets. Moreover, it can also be applied on other substrates, such as copper mesh, steel, paper and fiber. The coating exhibited excellent self-cleaning behavior due to its high WCA and low rolling angle. Overall, this work is a promising approach to design and produce functional superhydrophobic coatings for various substrates.

  16. Ion sensing properties of vanadium/tungsten mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelli, Eder Jose; Guerra, Elidia Maria; Mulato, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Vanadium/tungsten mixed oxide (V 2 O 5 /WO 3 ) sensing membranes were deposited on glassy carbon substrates and used as the H + sensor of the extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) device. X-ray diffractograms indicated a decrease of the interplanar spacing of V 2 O 5 after the insertion of WO 3 revealing that the lamellar structure is under compressive stress. The crystallinity increases with increasing WO 3 molar ratio. The film is not homogeneous, with more WO 3 material sitting at the surface. This influences the response of pH sensors using the EGFET configuration. The maximum sensitivity of 68 mV pH -1 was obtained for the sample with 5% WO 3 molar ratio. For higher WO 3 molar ratios, the behavior is not linear. It can be concluded that V 2 O 5 dominates for acidic solutions while WO 3 dominates for basic solutions. Therefore, the mixed oxide with low amount of WO 3 is the main candidate for further use as biosensor.

  17. An investigation of tungsten by neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetsreni, R.

    1978-01-01

    This investigation used neutron from Plutonium-Beryllium source (5 curie) to analyse the amount of tungsten in tungsten oxide which was extracted from tungsten ores, slag and tungsten alloy of tungsten iron and carbon. The technique of neutron activation analysis with NaI(Tl) gamma detector 3'' x 3'' and 1024 multichannel analyzer. The dilution technique was used by mixing Fe 2 O 3 or pure sand into the sample before irradiation. In this study self shielding effect in the analysis of tungsten was solved and the detection limit of the tungsten in the sample was about 0.5%

  18. Tungsten/copper composite deposits produced by a cold spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Ki; Kang, Suk Bong

    2003-01-01

    An agglomerated tungsten/copper composite powder was both cold sprayed and plasma sprayed onto a mild steel substrate for electronic package applications. Most pores resulting from the spraying were found in the vicinity of the tungsten-rich regions of the final product. The levels of porosity varied with the amount of tungsten present. No copper oxidation was found at the cold-sprayed deposit, but relatively high copper oxidation was observed at the plasma-sprayed deposit

  19. Advanced smart tungsten alloys for a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Tan, X.; Schmitz, J.; Mao, Y.; Coenen, J. W.; Bram, M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.

    2017-06-01

    The severe particle, radiation and neutron environment in a future fusion power plant requires the development of advanced plasma-facing materials. At the same time, the highest level of safety needs to be ensured. The so-called loss-of-coolant accident combined with air ingress in the vacuum vessel represents a severe safety challenge. In the absence of a coolant the temperature of the tungsten first wall may reach 1200 °C. At such a temperature, the neutron-activated radioactive tungsten forms volatile oxide which can be mobilized into atmosphere. Smart tungsten alloys are being developed to address this safety issue. Smart alloys should combine an acceptable plasma performance with the suppressed oxidation during an accident. New thin film tungsten-chromium-yttrium smart alloys feature an impressive 105 fold suppression of oxidation compared to that of pure tungsten at temperatures of up to 1000 °C. Oxidation behavior at temperatures up to 1200 °C, and reactivity of alloys in humid atmosphere along with a manufacturing of reactor-relevant bulk samples, impose an additional challenge in smart alloy development. First exposures of smart alloys in steady-state deuterium plasma were made. Smart tungsten-chroimium-titanium alloys demonstrated a sputtering resistance which is similar to that of pure tungsten. Expected preferential sputtering of alloying elements by plasma ions was confirmed experimentally. The subsequent isothermal oxidation of exposed samples did not reveal any influence of plasma exposure on the passivation of alloys.

  20. Preparation and Dynamic Mechanical Properties at Elevated Temperatures of a Tungsten/Glass Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chong; Wang, Yingchun; Ma, Xueya; Liu, Keyi; Wang, Yubing; Li, Shukui; Cheng, Xingwang

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to prepare a borosilicate glass matrix composite containing 50 vol.% tungsten and examine its dynamic compressive behavior at elevated temperatures in the range of 450-775 °C. The results show that the homogenous microstructure of the tungsten/glass composite with relative density of 97% can be obtained by hot-pressing sintering at 800 °C for 1 h under pressure of 30 MPa. Dynamic compressive testing was carried out by a separate Hopkinson pressure bar system with a synchronous device. The results show that the peak stress decreases and the composite transforms from brittle to ductile in nature with testing temperature increasing from 450 to 750 °C. The brittle-ductile transition temperature is about 500 °C. Over 775 °C, the composite loses load-bearing capacity totally because of the excessive softening of the glass phase. In addition, the deformation and failure mechanism were analyzed.

  1. Microscopic investigations of chemo-mechanical polishing of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Min Soo; Heide, Paul A.W. van der; Perry, Scott S.; Galloway, Heather C.; Koeck, Deborah C.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of aqueous solutions of KNO 3 , KClO 3 , and KIO 3 on tungsten surfaces has been investigated in terms of the degree of surface oxidation, metal dissolution and interfacial friction. The surface properties of tungsten films have been measured ex-situ with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ with atomic force microscopy. Measurements of the surface composition reveal a greater degree of oxidation for surfaces treated in solutions of KIO 3 in comparison to the other solutions. This increase in surface oxidation is correlated to a greater rate of localized film dissolution that occurs under the action of the scanning probe tip. In turn, the process of material removal is the predominant origin of the higher interfacial friction measured at tungsten surfaces immersed in KIO 3 solutions, as compared to KClO 3 and KNO 3 solutions. Collectively, these measurements portray a fundamental pathway of material removal at tungsten surfaces in the presence of oxidizing species and highlight complementary roles of chemical and mechanical action

  2. Microscopic investigations of chemo-mechanical polishing of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Min Soo; Heide, Paul A.W. van der; Perry, Scott S.; Galloway, Heather C.; Koeck, Deborah C

    2004-06-15

    The influence of aqueous solutions of KNO{sub 3}, KClO{sub 3}, and KIO{sub 3} on tungsten surfaces has been investigated in terms of the degree of surface oxidation, metal dissolution and interfacial friction. The surface properties of tungsten films have been measured ex-situ with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ with atomic force microscopy. Measurements of the surface composition reveal a greater degree of oxidation for surfaces treated in solutions of KIO{sub 3} in comparison to the other solutions. This increase in surface oxidation is correlated to a greater rate of localized film dissolution that occurs under the action of the scanning probe tip. In turn, the process of material removal is the predominant origin of the higher interfacial friction measured at tungsten surfaces immersed in KIO{sub 3} solutions, as compared to KClO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} solutions. Collectively, these measurements portray a fundamental pathway of material removal at tungsten surfaces in the presence of oxidizing species and highlight complementary roles of chemical and mechanical action.

  3. Vaporization of tungsten-metal in steam at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate

  4. Synthesis of tungsten oxide (W{sub 18}O{sub 49}) nanosheets utilizing EDTA salt by microwave irradiation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariharan, V.; Parthibavarman, M. [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Sekar, C., E-mail: Sekar2025@gmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-04-07

    Research highlights: > We have synthesized tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3-{delta}}) nanoparticles by microwave irradiation method for the first time using EDTA as surface modulator. The variation in stoichiometric oxygen content of the annealed samples clearly indicates the role of EDTA in reaction medium. The variation in oxygen content also modified the transparency of the end product confirming the change in optical conductivity. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of crystalline W{sub 18}O{sub 49} with nanosheet like morphology by low cost microwave irradiation method without employing hydrothermal process for the first time. Initially, WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O was synthesized using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as surface modulator. The product was annealed at 600 {sup o}C for 6 h in ambient atmosphere in order to obtain anhydrous tungsten oxide W{sub 18}O{sub 49}. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirmed the as prepared WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O to be orthorhombic and W{sub 18}O{sub 49} to be monoclinic phase, respectively. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) revealed that the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanosheets have the average dimensions of the order of 250 nm in length and around 150 nm in width. UV-visible diffusion reflectance spectroscopic (DRS) studies revealed the band gap energies to be 3.28 and 3.47 eV for WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and W{sub 18}O{sub 49} samples, respectively. The growth mechanism of two dimensional W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanosheets is discussed.

  5. Electrocatalysis on tungsten carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, R.

    1975-01-01

    General concepts of electrocatalysis, the importance of the equilibrium rest potential and its standardization on polished WC-electrodes, the influence of oxygen in the catalysts upon the oxidation of hydrogen, and the attained results of the hydrogen oxidation on tungsten carbide are treated. (HK) [de

  6. Mechanism and Microstructure of Oxide Fluxes for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. M.; Zhang, Z. D.; Song, G.; Wang, L.

    2007-03-01

    Five single oxide fluxes—MgO, CaO, TiO2, MnO2, and Cr2O3—were used to investigate the effect of active flux on the depth/width ratio in AZ31B magnesium alloy. The microstructure and mechanical property of the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding seam were studied. The oxygen content in the weld seam and the arc images during the TIG welding process were analyzed. A series of emission spectroscopy of weld arc for TIG welding for magnesium with and without flux were developed. The results showed that for the five single oxide fluxes, all can increase the weld penetration effectively and grain size in the weld seam of alternating current tungsten inert gas (ACTIG) welding of the Mg alloy. The oxygen content of the welds made without flux is not very different from those produced with oxide fluxes not considering trapped oxide. However, welds that have the best penetration have a relatively higher oxygen content among those produced with flux. It was found that the arc images with the oxide fluxes were only the enlarged form of the arc images without flux; the arc constriction was not observed. The detection of arc spectroscopy showed that the metal elements in the oxides exist as the neutral atom or the first cation in the weld arc. This finding would influence the arc properties. When TIG simulation was carried out on a plate with flux applied only on one side, the arc image video showed an asymmetric arc, which deviated toward the flux free side. The thermal stability, the dissociation energy, and the electrical conductivity of oxide should be considered when studying the mechanism for increased TIG flux weld penetration.

  7. Optical properties of tungsten oxide thin films by non-reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Riech, I.

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were grown on glass substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature using a tungsten trioxide target for several values of the argon pressure (P Ar ). The structural and morphological properties of these films were studied using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The as-deposited films were amorphous irrespective of the argon pressure, and crystallized in a mixture of hexagonal and monoclinic phases after annealing at a temperature of 350 o C in air. Surface-roughness increased by an order of magnitude (from 1 nm to 20 nm) after thermal treatment. The argon pressure, however, had a strong influence on the optical properties of the films. Three different regions are clearly identified: deep blue films for P Ar ≤ 2.67 Pa with low transmittance values, light blue films for 2.67 Pa Ar Ar ≥ 6 Pa with high transmittance values. We suggest that the observed changes in optical properties are due to an increasing number of oxygen vacancies as the growth argon pressure decreases.

  8. Catalytic activity of tungsten carbide-carbon (WC@C) core-shell structured for ethanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Gourav, E-mail: gsinghla@gmail.com; Singh, K., E-mail: kusingh@thapar.edu; Pandey, O.P., E-mail: oppandey@thapar.edu

    2017-01-15

    In this study, carbon coated WC (WC@C) was synthesized through solvothermal reactions in the presence of reducing agent magnesium (Mg) by employing tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) as a precursor, acetone (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O) as a carbon source. The formation of WC@C nano particles is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the synthesized powder examined in air shows its stability up to 550 °C. In this method, in-situ produced outer carbon layer increase the surface area of materials which is 52.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} with pore volume 0.213 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. The Electrocatalytic activity of ethanol oxidation on a synthesized sample with and without Pt nano particles have been investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The CV results show the enhancement in oxidation stability of WC@C in acidic media as well as better CO-tolerance for ethanol oxidation after the deposition of Pt nanoparticles as compared to without Pt nano particles. - Highlights: • Tungsten carbide nano powder was synthesized using acetone as carbon source. • In-situ produced outer carbon layer increase the surface area of materials. • Mesoporous WC with surface areas 52.6 m{sup 2}/g obtained. • Pt modified WC powder showed higher electrochemical stability. • Better CO-tolerance for ethanol oxidation after the deposition of Pt nanoparticles.

  9. Nature of the concentration thresholds of europium atom yield from the oxidized tungsten surface under electron stimulated desorption

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, S Y

    2002-01-01

    The nature of the electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of the europium atoms by the E sub e irradiating electrons energies, equal to 50 and 80 eV, as well as peculiarities of the Eu atoms yield dependence on their concentration on the oxidized tungsten surface are discussed. It is shown, that the ESD originates by the electron transition from the interval 5p- or 5s shell of the tungsten surface atom onto the oxygen external unfilled 2p-level

  10. Information extraction from FN plots of tungsten microemitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Khalil O; Mousa, Marwan S; Fischer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Tungsten based microemitter tips have been prepared both clean and coated with dielectric materials. For clean tungsten tips, apex radii have been varied ranging from 25 to 500 nm. These tips were manufactured by electrochemical etching a 0.1 mm diameter high purity (99.95%) tungsten wire at the meniscus of two molar NaOH solution. Composite micro-emitters considered here are consisting of a tungsten core coated with different dielectric materials-such as magnesium oxide (MgO), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and zinc oxide (ZnO). It is worthwhile noting here, that the rather unconventional NaOH coating has shown several interesting properties. Various properties of these emitters were measured including current-voltage (IV) characteristics and the physical shape of the tips. A conventional field emission microscope (FEM) with a tip (cathode)-screen (anode) separation standardized at 10 mm was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. The system was evacuated down to a base pressure of ∼10(-8) mbar when baked at up to ∼180 °C overnight. This allowed measurements of typical field electron emission (FE) characteristics, namely the IV characteristics and the emission images on a conductive phosphorus screen (the anode). Mechanical characterization has been performed through a FEI scanning electron microscope (SEM). Within this work, the mentioned experimental results are connected to the theory for analyzing Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots. We compared and evaluated the data extracted from clean tungsten tips of different radii and determined deviations between the results of different extraction methods applied. In particular, we derived the apex radii of several clean and coated tungsten tips by both SEM imaging and analyzing FN plots. The aim of this analysis is to support the ongoing discussion on recently developed improvements of the theory for analyzing FN plots related to metal field electron emitters, which in particular

  11. Gas-driven permeation of deuterium through tungsten and tungsten alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenauer, Dean A., E-mail: dabuche@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Energy Innovation Department, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Karnesky, Richard A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Energy Innovation Department, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Fang, Zhigang Zak; Ren, Chai [University of Utah, Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Oya, Yasuhisa [Shizuoka University, Graduate School of Science, Shizuoka (Japan); Otsuka, Teppei [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Yuji [Hokkaido University, Third Division of Quantum Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sapporo (Japan); Whaley, Josh A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Energy Innovation Department, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We have designed and performed initial studies on a high temperature gas-driven permeation cell capable of operating at temperatures up to 1150 °C and at pressures between 0.1–1 atm. • Permeation measurements on ITER grade tungsten compare well with past studies by Frauenfelder and Zahkarov in the temperature range from 500 to 1000 °C. • First permeation measurements on Ti dispersoid-strengthened ultra-fine grained tungsten show higher permeation at 500 °C, but very similar permeation with ITER tungsten at 1000 °C. Diffusion along grain boundaries may be playing a role for this type of material. - Abstract: To address the transport and trapping of hydrogen isotopes, several permeation experiments are being pursued at both Sandia National Laboratories (deuterium gas-driven permeation) and Idaho National Laboratories (tritium gas- and plasma-driven tritium permeation). These experiments are in part a collaboration between the US and Japan to study the performance of tungsten at divertor relevant temperatures (PHENIX). Here we report on the development of a high temperature (≤1150 °C) gas-driven permeation cell and initial measurements of deuterium permeation in several types of tungsten: high purity tungsten foil, ITER-grade tungsten (grains oriented through the membrane), and dispersoid-strengthened ultra-fine grain (UFG) tungsten being developed in the US. Experiments were performed at 500–1000 °C and 0.1–1.0 atm D{sub 2} pressure. Permeation through ITER-grade tungsten was similar to earlier W experiments by Frauenfelder (1968–69) and Zaharakov (1973). Data from the UFG alloy indicates marginally higher permeability (< 10×) at lower temperatures, but the permeability converges to that of the ITER tungsten at 1000 °C. The permeation cell uses only ceramic and graphite materials in the hot zone to reduce the possibility for oxidation of the sample membrane. Sealing pressure is applied externally, thereby allowing for elevation

  12. Information extraction from FN plots of tungsten microemitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussa, Khalil O. [Department of Physics, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Mousa, Marwan S., E-mail: mmousa@mutah.edu.jo [Department of Physics, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Fischer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.fischer@physik.tu-chemnitz.de [Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Tungsten based microemitter tips have been prepared both clean and coated with dielectric materials. For clean tungsten tips, apex radii have been varied ranging from 25 to 500 nm. These tips were manufactured by electrochemical etching a 0.1 mm diameter high purity (99.95%) tungsten wire at the meniscus of two molar NaOH solution. Composite micro-emitters considered here are consisting of a tungsten core coated with different dielectric materials—such as magnesium oxide (MgO), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and zinc oxide (ZnO). It is worthwhile noting here, that the rather unconventional NaOH coating has shown several interesting properties. Various properties of these emitters were measured including current–voltage (IV) characteristics and the physical shape of the tips. A conventional field emission microscope (FEM) with a tip (cathode)–screen (anode) separation standardized at 10 mm was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. The system was evacuated down to a base pressure of ∼10{sup −8}mbar when baked at up to ∼180°C overnight. This allowed measurements of typical field electron emission (FE) characteristics, namely the IV characteristics and the emission images on a conductive phosphorus screen (the anode). Mechanical characterization has been performed through a FEI scanning electron microscope (SEM). Within this work, the mentioned experimental results are connected to the theory for analyzing Fowler–Nordheim (FN) plots. We compared and evaluated the data extracted from clean tungsten tips of different radii and determined deviations between the results of different extraction methods applied. In particular, we derived the apex radii of several clean and coated tungsten tips by both SEM imaging and analyzing FN plots. The aim of this analysis is to support the ongoing discussion on recently developed improvements of the theory for analyzing FN plots related to metal field electron emitters, which in

  13. Information extraction from FN plots of tungsten microemitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussa, Khalil O.; Mousa, Marwan S.; Fischer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten based microemitter tips have been prepared both clean and coated with dielectric materials. For clean tungsten tips, apex radii have been varied ranging from 25 to 500 nm. These tips were manufactured by electrochemical etching a 0.1 mm diameter high purity (99.95%) tungsten wire at the meniscus of two molar NaOH solution. Composite micro-emitters considered here are consisting of a tungsten core coated with different dielectric materials—such as magnesium oxide (MgO), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and zinc oxide (ZnO). It is worthwhile noting here, that the rather unconventional NaOH coating has shown several interesting properties. Various properties of these emitters were measured including current–voltage (IV) characteristics and the physical shape of the tips. A conventional field emission microscope (FEM) with a tip (cathode)–screen (anode) separation standardized at 10 mm was used to electrically characterize the electron emitters. The system was evacuated down to a base pressure of ∼10 −8 mbar when baked at up to ∼180°C overnight. This allowed measurements of typical field electron emission (FE) characteristics, namely the IV characteristics and the emission images on a conductive phosphorus screen (the anode). Mechanical characterization has been performed through a FEI scanning electron microscope (SEM). Within this work, the mentioned experimental results are connected to the theory for analyzing Fowler–Nordheim (FN) plots. We compared and evaluated the data extracted from clean tungsten tips of different radii and determined deviations between the results of different extraction methods applied. In particular, we derived the apex radii of several clean and coated tungsten tips by both SEM imaging and analyzing FN plots. The aim of this analysis is to support the ongoing discussion on recently developed improvements of the theory for analyzing FN plots related to metal field electron emitters, which in

  14. The chemistry and structure of nickel–tungsten coatings obtained by pulse galvanostatic electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argañaraz, M.P. Quiroga; Ribotta, S.B.; Folquer, M.E.; Zelaya, E.; Llorente, C.; Ramallo-López, J.M.; Benítez, G.; Rubert, A.; Gassa, L.M.; Vela, M.E.; Salvarezza, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed characterization of electrodeposited Ni-W coatings prepared by pulse electrodeposition on steel and copper substrates is presented. The coatings were obtained at high current pulse frequency and show high microhardness and absence of brittleness. The surface of the coating consists of nanometer sized crystals forming a cauliflower-like structure protected by a mixture of nickel and tungsten oxides. The cauliflower structure is preserved into the bulk coating that exhibits an average composition ≈70 at% Ni-30 at% W. Different phases are observed in the bulk structure: a W-rich amorphous phase (≈40%) and Ni-rich crystalline phases (≈60%). The crystalline phases consist of crystalline domains ≈7 nm in size of Ni(W) (fcc) solid solution (12 at% W content) and a minor Ni 4 W component (less than 10%). The amorphous phase exhibits a less compact Ni-W structure where some amount of C could also be present. Oxidized W species cannot be detected in the bulk coating, thus discarding the presence of significant amounts of tungsten carbide, tungstates or citrate–tungsten complexes. Our results shed light on controversial points related to the chemical composition and demonstrate the complex structure of this system.

  15. Adhesion of non-selective CVD tungsten to silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.W.; Wilson, R.H.; Sanchez-Martinez, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Adhesion of non-selective, CVD tungsten to silicon dioxide is a critical issue in the development of tungsten as a metalization for VLSI circuitry. Without special adhesion promoters, tungsten deposited from WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/ has typically failed a standard tape test over all types of silicon oxides and nitrides. The reasons for failure of thin films, and CVD tungsten in particular are explored along with standard techniques for improving adhesion of thin films. Experiments are reported which include a number of sputtered metals as adhesion promoters, as well as chemical and plasma treatment of the oxide surface. Sputtered molybdenum is clearly the superior adhesion promoting layer from these tests. Traditional adhesion layers such as chromium or titanium failed as adhesion layers for CVD tungsten possibly due to chemical reactions between the WF/sub 6/ and Cr or Ti

  16. Formation of tungsten blue oxide and its phase constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Z.; Wu, E.; Tan, A.; Qian, C.

    1984-01-01

    By means of X-ray diffraction structure analysis, SEM observation, chemical analysis and particle specific surface analysis etc., an investigation was made in order to determine the regularity of tungsten blue oxide formation during reductional calcine process of APT. It was found that the oxygen index (OI) decreased continuously with increasing calcine temperature. The decrease rate of OI variated as the calcine atmosphere being changed, the stronger the reductivity of the atmosphere is, the more OI decreases. The deammonia-dewater process and the phase constitution variation during calcine was studied, some idea for description of phase transformation path was suggested. It was found that the most important parameter affecting phase constitution and transformation is calcine temperature. At the temperature lower than 450 0 C, the main formed phase was ATB, while at higher temperature, the different phase like W/sub 20/O/sub 58/, WO/sub 3/ etc., could be formed by different ways depending on the atmosphere reductivity. The composition and the OI of ATB are changeable. An experiment for some blue oxides reduction at low temperature was carried out. It was found that OI and the constitution of blue oxide strongly affected the particle size of the formed W-powder

  17. Preparation of tungsten coatings on graphite by electro-deposition via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ning-bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Ying-chun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Fan; Lang, Shao-ting [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Xia, Min [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Institute of Powder Metallurgy and Advanced Ceramics, Southwest Jiaotong University, 111, 1st Section, Northern 2nd Ring Road, Chengdu (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings on graphite were firstly obtained by electro-deposition method via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system. • Uniform and dense tungsten coatings could be easily prepared in each face of the sample, especially the complex components. • The obtained tungsten coatings are with high purity, ultra-low oxygen content (about 0.022 wt%). • Modulate pulse parameters can get tungsten coatings with different thickness and hardness. - Abstract: Tungsten coating on graphite substrate is one of the most promising candidate materials as the ITER plasma facing components. In this paper, tungsten coatings on graphite substrates were fabricated by electro-deposition from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system at 1173 K in atmosphere. Tungsten coatings with no impurities were successfully deposited on graphite substrates under various pulsed current densities in an hour. By increasing the current density from 60 mA cm{sup −2} to 120 mA cm{sup −2} an increase of the average size of tungsten grains, the thickness and the hardness of tungsten coatings occurs. The average size of tungsten grains can reach 7.13 μm, the thickness of tungsten coating was in the range of 28.8–51 μm, and the hardness of coating was higher than 400 HV. No cracks or voids were observed between tungsten coating and graphite substrate. The oxygen content of tungsten coating is about 0.022 wt%.

  18. Thermoemission properties of tungsten with additions of rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gural'nik, N.I.; Evstifeev, V.V.; Imangulova, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Thermoemission properties of tungsten with addition of rare earth oxides are studied in the superhigh vacuum set with oil-free pumping system. Electronic work function eφ is determined by the method of total saturation current. Temperature dependences are obtained of the work function for three types of cathodes: W+La 2 O 3 ; W+φ 2 O 3 and W+Dy 2 O 3 . It is stated, that the first two types eφ decreases approximately from 4.2 to 3.3 eV and from 4.5 to 3.8 eV, respectively, after activation at proper temperatures. These cathodes are the most effective ones at the temperature of 1700 (W+La 2 O 3 ) and 1900-2100 K (W+ φ 4 O 3 ). The work function of cathodes with addition of dysprosium oxide did not practically vary (4.55-4.3 eV) within the whole studied temperature interval (1500-2100 K)

  19. The influence of Fe content on spreading ability of tungsten heavy alloys matrix on tungsten surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krzyńska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental study of tungsten spreading ability with W-Ni-Co-Fe matrix are presented. The aim of these investigations was to see how Fe concentration in W – Ni – Co matrix influences the wettability of tungsten grains during liquid phase sintering. Four green compact specimens containing 50%W, 10%Co and Ni + Fe = 40% but with different Ni to Fe ratio were prepared. The cylindrical specimen 5mm diameter and 5mm height were put on clean pure tungsten substrate and then 20 minutes heated at 1520oC in hydrogen atmosphere. After heating the specimens were carefully measured and then the specimens for structure observations were prepared. It was concluded, that increase of Fe content decrease the melting temperature of W – Ni – Co alloy. The melting point decrease caused by Fe content increase substantially the spreading ability of tungsten substrate with W – Ni – Co alloy. Metallography investigations showed some microstructure changes in “reaction zone” identified in tungsten substrate – (WNi40-xCo10Fex interface. The results of the study confirmed our earlier observations that even relative small Fe addition promotes Weight Heavy Alloys (WHA liquid phase sintering.

  20. High resolution electron microscopy study of as-prepared and annealed tungsten-carbon multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Gronsky, R.; Kortright, J.B.

    1988-12-01

    A series of sputtered tungsten-carbon multilayer structures with periods ranging from 2 to 12 nm in the as-prepared state and after annealing at 500/degree/C for 4 hours has been studied with high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The evolution with annealing of the microstructure of these multilayers depends on their period. As-prepared structures appear predominantly amorphous from TEM imaging and diffraction. Annealing results in crystallization of the W-rich layers into WC in the larger period samples, and less complete or no crystallization in the smaller period samples. X-ray scattering reveals that annealing expands the period in a systematic way. The layers remain remarkably well-defined after annealing under these conditions. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Effect of cathodic current density on performance of tungsten coatings on molybdenum prepared by electrodeposition in molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    Smooth tungsten coatings were prepared at current density below 70 mA cm-2 by electrodeposition on molybdenum substrate from Na2WO4-WO3 -melt at 1173 K in air atmosphere. As the current density reached up to 90 mA cm-2, many significant nodules were observed on the surface of the coating. Surface characterization, microstructure and mechanical properties were performed on the tungsten coatings. As the increasing of current density, the preferred orientation of the coatings changed to (2 0 0). All coatings exhibited columnar-grained-crystalline. There was about a 2 μm thick diffusion layer between tungsten coating and molybdenum substrate. The bending test revealed the tungsten coating had -good bonding strength with the molybdenum substrate. There is a down trend of the grain size of the coating on molybdenum as the current density increased from 30 mA cm-2 to 50 mA cm-2. The coating obtained at 50 mA cm-2 had a minimum grain size of 4.57 μm, while the microhardness of this coating reached to a maximum value of 495 HV.

  2. Effects of Mo-doping on microstructure and near-infrared shielding performance of hydrothermally prepared tungsten bronzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingjuan; Li, Can; Xu, Wenai; Zhao, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jingxin [Laboratory of Green Energy Materials and Storage Systems, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Jiang, Haiwei, E-mail: tyjmx@163.com [Laboratory of Green Energy Materials and Storage Systems, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Kang, Litao, E-mail: kangltxy@163.com [Laboratory of Green Energy Materials and Storage Systems, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhao, Zhe [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Mo-doped tungsten bronzes were hydrothermally synthesized at 80 °C. • Samples transformed from hexagonal to monoclinic structure with Mo-content increase. • 1.5% Mo-doped samples show the best near-infrared shielding performance. • High Mo-doping weakens localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption and thus NIR shielding performance. • Small polaron absorption seems to be less affected by Mo-doping. - Abstract: Both Mo and W belong to VIB-sub-group, and possess similar ionic radii, electronegativity and oxide lattice configuration. Herein, Mo-doped (0–80 at.%) tungsten bronzes, M{sub x}WO{sub 3}, were hydrothermally prepared to systematically explore the influence of Mo-doping on their micro-structure and optical performance. The products adopted a hexagonal structure within 6 at.% Mo-doping, and transformed into a monoclinic phase with higher Mo-doping content. Further tests suggested that 1.5 at.% Mo-doping is beneficial for the formation of pure hexagonal phase and uniform nano-rod morphology. Optical measures showed that all samples exhibited high and comparable visible transmittance (70–80%), but a very different near infrared (NIR) shielding ability. The sample doped with 1.5 at.% Mo demonstrated the best NIR shielding ability with a transmittance minimum of 20% at 1300 nm. Further increase of Mo-doping dosage remarkably deteriorated NIR shielding ability by depressing the absorption of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). However, the optical absorption from small-polaron was less influenced by the introduction of Mo. As a result, Mo-doping caused an evident blue shift of the infrared absorption peaks from 1350 to 750 nm.

  3. Properties of tungsten films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K.Y.; Ting, C.Y.; Brodsky, S.B.; Fryer, P.M.; Davari, B.; Angillelo, J.; Herd, S.R.; Licata, T.

    1986-01-01

    High-rate magnetron sputtering is a relatively simple process to produce tungsten films with good electrical and mechanical properties, and it offers good uniformity, reproducibility, process flexibility, and high throughput. The purity of the sputtered films is affected by the target purity (cold-pressed 99.95%, chemical vapor deposited 99.99% and cast 99.999%), base pressure, deposition rate, and substrate bias. Typical resistivity in films of 2000 to 3000A thickness deposited on Si, poly-Si, and SiO/sub 2/ ranges from 10 to 12 μΩ-cm, and this may be compared with 6 and 11 μΩ-cm by high-temperature evaporation and chemical vapor deposition, respectively. The presence of biaxial stress caused by substrate scanning was determined by x-ray technique. The sputtered films exhibit high compressive stress when deposited at low Ar pressure. It decreases with increasing pressure, and eventually changes sign to become tensile, and increases further with increasing pressure. Effects of processing parameters on films properties, and a comparison of film properties prepared by evaporation and chemical vapor deposition are discussed

  4. Morphology of Si/tungsten-silicides/Si interlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodore, N.; Secco d'Aragona, F.; Blackstone, S.

    1992-01-01

    Tungsten and tungsten-silicides are of interest for semiconductor technology because of their refractory nature, low electrical-resistivity and high electromigration-resistance. This paper presents the first formation of buried tungsten-silicide layers in silicon, by proximity adhesion. The interlayers, created by a combination of chemical vapor-deposition (CVD) and proximity-adhesion were studied using transmission electron-microscopy (TEM). The behavior of the layers in the presence and absence of an adjacent silicon-dioxide interlayer was also investigated. Buried silicide layers were successfully formed with or without the adjacent silicon-dioxide. The silicide formed continuous layers with single grains encompassing the width of the interlayer. Individual grains were globular, with cusps at grain boundaries. This caused interlayer-thicknesses to be non-uniform, with lower thickness values being present at the cusps. Occasional voids were observed at grain-boundary cusps. The voids were smaller and less frequent in the presence of an adjacent oxide-layer, due to flow of the oxide during proximity adhesion. Electron-diffraction revealed a predominance of tungsten-disilicide in the interlayers, with some free tungsten being present. Stresses in the silicide layers caused occasional glide dislocations to propagate into the silicon substrate beneath the interlayers. The dislocations propagate only ∼100 nm into the substrate and therefore should not be detrimental to use of the buried layers. Occasional precipitates were observed at the end of glide-loops. These possibly arise due to excess tungsten from the interlayer diffusion down the glide dislocation to finally precipitate out as tungsten-silicide

  5. The formation of tungsten doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings on aluminum by plasma electrolytic oxidation and their application in photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojadinović, Stevan; Vasilić, Rastko; Radić, Nenad; Tadić, Nenad; Stefanov, Plamen; Grbić, Boško

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). • Coatings are mainly composed of alpha alumina, ZnO and metallic tungsten. • Photocatalytic activity of doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings is higher than of undoped ones. • The increase of photoluminescence corresponds to decrease of photocatalytic activity. • Tungsten acts as a charge trap to reduce the recombination rate of electron/hole pairs. - Abstract: Tungsten doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminum substrate in supporting electrolyte (0.1 M boric acid + 0.05 M borax + 2 g/L ZnO) with addition of different concentrations of Na_2WO_4·2H_2O. The morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition, and light absorption characteristics of formed surface coatings are investigated. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that formed surface coatings consist of alpha and gamma phase of Al_2O_3, ZnO, metallic tungsten and WO_3. Obtained results showed that incorporated tungsten does not have any influence on the absorption spectra of Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings, which showed invariable band edge at about 385 nm. The photocatalytic activity of undoped and tungsten doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings is estimated by the photodegradation of methyl orange. The photocatalytic activity of tungsten doped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings is higher thanof undoped Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings; the best photocatalytic activity is ascribed to coatings formed in supporting electrolyte with addition of 0.3 g/L Na_2WO_4·2H_2O. Tungsten in Al_2O_3/ZnO coatings acts as a charge trap, thus reducing the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The results of PL measurements are in agreement with photocatalytic activity. Declining PL intensity corresponds to increasing photocatalytic activity of the coatings, indicating slower recombination of electron-hole pairs.

  6. Detection and reduction of tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polignano, M.L.; Galbiati, A.; Grasso, S.; Mica, I.; Barbarossa, F.; Magni, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we review the results of some studies addressing the problem of tungsten contamination in implantation processes. For some tests, the implanter was contaminated by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer, resulting in critical contamination conditions. First, DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were calibrated to measure tungsten contamination in ion-implanted samples. DLTS measurements of tungsten-implanted samples showed that the tungsten concentration increases linearly with the dose up to a rather low dose (5 x 10 10 cm -2 ). Tungsten deactivation was observed when the dose was further increased. Under these conditions, ToF-SIMS revealed tungsten at the wafer surface, showing that deactivation was due to surface segregation. DLTS calibration could therefore be obtained in the linear dose regime only. This calibration was used to evaluate the tungsten contamination in arsenic implantations. Ordinary operating conditions and critical contamination conditions of the equipment were compared. A moderate tungsten contamination was observed in samples implanted under ordinary operating conditions. This contamination was easily suppressed by a thin screen oxide. On the contrary, implantations in critical conditions of the equipment resulted in a relevant tungsten contamination, which could be reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide (up to 150 Aa). A decontamination process consisting of high dose implantations of dummy wafers was tested for its efficiency to remove tungsten and titanium contamination. This process was found to be much more effective for titanium than for tungsten. Finally, DLTS proved to be much more sensitive that TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) in detecting tungsten contamination. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Detection and reduction of tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polignano, M.L.; Galbiati, A.; Grasso, S.; Mica, I.; Barbarossa, F.; Magni, D. [STMicroelectronics, Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we review the results of some studies addressing the problem of tungsten contamination in implantation processes. For some tests, the implanter was contaminated by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer, resulting in critical contamination conditions. First, DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were calibrated to measure tungsten contamination in ion-implanted samples. DLTS measurements of tungsten-implanted samples showed that the tungsten concentration increases linearly with the dose up to a rather low dose (5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}). Tungsten deactivation was observed when the dose was further increased. Under these conditions, ToF-SIMS revealed tungsten at the wafer surface, showing that deactivation was due to surface segregation. DLTS calibration could therefore be obtained in the linear dose regime only. This calibration was used to evaluate the tungsten contamination in arsenic implantations. Ordinary operating conditions and critical contamination conditions of the equipment were compared. A moderate tungsten contamination was observed in samples implanted under ordinary operating conditions. This contamination was easily suppressed by a thin screen oxide. On the contrary, implantations in critical conditions of the equipment resulted in a relevant tungsten contamination, which could be reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide (up to 150 Aa). A decontamination process consisting of high dose implantations of dummy wafers was tested for its efficiency to remove tungsten and titanium contamination. This process was found to be much more effective for titanium than for tungsten. Finally, DLTS proved to be much more sensitive that TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) in detecting tungsten contamination. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. The tungsten powder study of the dispenser cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Jixiu; Wan Baofei

    2006-01-01

    The intercorrelation of tungsten powder properties, such as grain size, distribution and morphology, and porous matrix parameters with electron emission capability and longevity of Ba dispenser cathodes has been investigated for the different grain morphologies. It is shown that a fully cleaning step of the tungsten powder is so necessary that the tungsten powder will be reduction of oxide in hydrogen atmosphere above 700 deg. C. The porosity of the tungsten matrix distributes more even and the closed pore is fewer, the average granule size of the tungsten powder distributes more convergent. The porosity of the tungsten matrix and the evaporation of the activator are bigger and the pulse of the cathode is smaller when the granularity is bigger by the analysis of the electronic microscope and diode experiment

  9. The tungsten powder study of the dispenser cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ji-xiu; Wan, Bao-fei

    2006-06-01

    The intercorrelation of tungsten powder properties, such as grain size, distribution and morphology, and porous matrix parameters with electron emission capability and longevity of Ba dispenser cathodes has been investigated for the different grain morphologies. It is shown that a fully cleaning step of the tungsten powder is so necessary that the tungsten powder will be reduction of oxide in hydrogen atmosphere above 700 °C. The porosity of the tungsten matrix distributes more even and the closed pore is fewer, the average granule size of the tungsten powder distributes more convergent. The porosity of the tungsten matrix and the evaporation of the activator are bigger and the pulse of the cathode is smaller when the granularity is bigger by the analysis of the electronic microscope and diode experiment.

  10. Characterization of a Cobalt-Tungsten Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthøj, Anders; Holt, Tobias; Caspersen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    is to act both as a diffusion barrier for chromium and provide better protection against high temperature oxidation than a pure cobalt coating. This work presents a characterization of a cobalt-tungsten alloy coating electrodeposited on the ferritic steel Crofer 22 H which subsequently was oxidized in air......A ferritic steel interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell must be coated in order to prevent chromium evaporation from the steel substrate. The Technical University of Denmark and Topsoe Fuel Cell have developed an interconnect coating based on a cobalt-tungsten alloy. The purpose of the coating...... for 300 h at 800 °C. The coating was characterized with Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy (GDOES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The oxidation properties were evaluated by measuring weight change of coated samples of Crofer 22 H and Crofer 22 APU as a function...

  11. Validation of new ceramic materials from tungsten mining wastes. Mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran Suarez, J. A.; Montoya Herrera, J.; Silva, A. P.; Peralbo Cano, R.; Castro-Gomes, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    New ceramic materials obtained from tungsten mining wastes, from region of Beira Interior in Portugal, with no commercial use, responsible for landscape and environmental problems are presented. These preshaped new ceramic products, prepared in a wide thermal range (800 degree centigrade to 1300 degree centigrade) was evaluated by mechanical test, but also was characterized the starting raw materials: tungsten wastes mining and industrial kaolin. Results, which also include a mineralogical characterization of ceramic products and morphologic evaluation of neoformed by scanning electron microscopy, show firstly, the feasibility of converting a large number of these wastes in marketable ceramics. Thanks to the experimentation carried out, the ability to generate ceramic materials is emphasized, without the presence of mineral clay, due to the particular composition of these waste of mining with content of acid, neutral and basic oxides. (Author)

  12. Properties of pentacene-based films prepared using a heated tungsten mesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heya, Akira, E-mail: heya@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Matsuo, Naoto

    2014-11-03

    A heated tungsten (W) mesh, set between a pentacene source and a substrate in a vacuum chamber, was used to prepare a bulk-phase pentacene film and a pentacene-based organic semiconductor film. Since the pentacene molecules come into contact with the heated W mesh before reaching the substrate, their thermal energy is increased prior to deposition. As the mesh temperature was increased from 23 to 1200 °C, the intensity ratio of bulk to thin-film phases increased from 0 to 9.7. Above 1300 °C there is a notable decomposition reaction, the products of which were identified as dihydropentacene, p-distrylbenzene, and 2,2′-dimethyl-1,1′-binaphthalene. These decomposed precursors are expected to provide a potential source of large graphene sheets and graphene nanoribbons. - Highlights: • Organic semiconductor films were prepared using pentacene, H{sub 2} gas, and heated W mesh. • The effect of mesh temperature on film deposition was observed. • Pentacene decomposition above 1300 °C provides graphene precursors. • A method is proposed for controlling the sheet resistance of organic films.

  13. Combustion of powdery tungsten in pyrotechnic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, G.V.; Reshetov, A.A.; Viktorenko, A.M.; Surkov, V.G.; Karmadonov, L.N.

    1982-01-01

    The basic regularities of tungsten burning (powder 2-5 μm) with oxidizers most typical for pyrotechnics: nitrates, lead and barium peroxides (powder, 2-8 μm) and potassium perchlorate (powder, 2-8 μm) are studied. Dependences of burning rate as a function of pressure and ratio of components are established. It is supposed that tungsten burning in mixtures with the mentioned nitrates is a complex and multistage process the rate of which is determined by tungsten dissolution in nitrate melts. Analysis of burning products using available methods is complex

  14. Demonstration of production of tungsten metal powder and its consolidation into shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Kishor, J.; Paul, B.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten is a strategically important metal used as plasma facing component in fusion reactors, radiation shields in cancer therapy machines, ammunition in defence applications, high speed cutting tools etc. The primary resources or minerals occurring in India contain a very low value (0.25-0.5 wt. %) of tungsten. Mineral beneficiation processes involving crushing, grinding, primary and secondary gravity separation, floatation are essential to produce the ore-concentrate suitable for further processing up to the preparation of the intermediate ammonium para-tungstate (APT). APT was further converted to tungsten tri-oxide (WO_3). Hydrogen reduction of WO_3 producing high purity W metal powder was demonstrated in large scale batches. Densification of W powder was further studied using vacuum hot pressing at 1950°C, and high density W metal plates of 5 mm thickness and 60 mm diameter were produced. The products obtained at every stage were systematically characterized using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques. (author)

  15. Surface tungsten reduction during thermal decomposition of ammonium paratungstate tetrahydrate in oxidising atmosphere: A paradox?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fait, Martin J.G.; Radnik, Jörg; Lunk, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Detection of reduced tungsten ions at the solid’s surface in oxidising atmosphere. • Detection of gaseous ammonia liberated as oxidising agent. • Detection of ammonia’s oxidation products. • Quantification of the ammonia/tungsten redox process. - Abstract: The interaction of ammonia, liberated during thermal decomposition of ammonium paratungstate tetrahydrate in oxidising atmosphere, with tungsten has been studied employing a conventional microbalance combined with MS (Setaram’s instrument Sensys). Applying XPS a partial reduction of tungsten at the surface with the minimal tungsten oxidation number of +5.3 for a sample generated at 293 °C was detected. The balancing oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen/nitrogen oxides has been proven by MS. An amount of 0.049 mol e"− per mol W was transferred which resulted in an ammonia conversion degree from 2.1 mol% (NO_2 formation) to 3.0 mol% (N_2 formation).

  16. Surface tungsten reduction during thermal decomposition of ammonium paratungstate tetrahydrate in oxidising atmosphere: A paradox?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fait, Martin J.G., E-mail: martin.fait@catalysis.de [Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V., Albert-Einstein-Strasse 29a, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Radnik, Jörg [Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V., Albert-Einstein-Strasse 29a, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Lunk, Hans-Joachim [2858 Lake RD, Towanda, PA 18848 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • Detection of reduced tungsten ions at the solid’s surface in oxidising atmosphere. • Detection of gaseous ammonia liberated as oxidising agent. • Detection of ammonia’s oxidation products. • Quantification of the ammonia/tungsten redox process. - Abstract: The interaction of ammonia, liberated during thermal decomposition of ammonium paratungstate tetrahydrate in oxidising atmosphere, with tungsten has been studied employing a conventional microbalance combined with MS (Setaram’s instrument Sensys). Applying XPS a partial reduction of tungsten at the surface with the minimal tungsten oxidation number of +5.3 for a sample generated at 293 °C was detected. The balancing oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen/nitrogen oxides has been proven by MS. An amount of 0.049 mol e{sup −} per mol W was transferred which resulted in an ammonia conversion degree from 2.1 mol% (NO{sub 2} formation) to 3.0 mol% (N{sub 2} formation).

  17. Comparison of Iron and Tungsten Based Oxygen Carriers for Hydrogen Production Using Chemical Looping Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. N.; Shamim, T.

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen production by using a three reactor chemical looping reforming (TRCLR) technology is an innovative and attractive process. Fossil fuels such as methane are the feedstocks used. This process is similar to a conventional steam-methane reforming but occurs in three steps utilizing an oxygen carrier. As the oxygen carrier plays an important role, its selection should be done carefully. In this study, two oxygen carrier materials of base metal iron (Fe) and tungsten (W) are analysed using a thermodynamic model of a three reactor chemical looping reforming plant in Aspen plus. The results indicate that iron oxide has moderate oxygen carrying capacity and is cheaper since it is abundantly available. In terms of hydrogen production efficiency, tungsten oxide gives 4% better efficiency than iron oxide. While in terms of electrical power efficiency, iron oxide gives 4.6% better results than tungsten oxide. Overall, a TRCLR system with iron oxide is 2.6% more efficient and is cost effective than the TRCLR system with tungsten oxide.

  18. Effect of cathodic current density on performance of tungsten coatings on molybdenum prepared by electrodeposition in molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Fan, E-mail: jiangfan1109@163.com [Department of Materials and Physics, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, 219 Ningliu Road, Nanjing 210044, Jiangsu Province (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 10083 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Tungsten coatings were successfully electroplated on molybdenum substrate. • The electrodeposition was studied in the air atmosphere at 1173 K. • The coating had columnar structure with preferential growth orientation of (2 0 0). • The coating obtained at 50 mA cm{sup −2} had a maximum microhardness of 495 HV. - Abstract: Smooth tungsten coatings were prepared at current density below 70 mA cm{sup −2} by electrodeposition on molybdenum substrate from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} -melt at 1173 K in air atmosphere. As the current density reached up to 90 mA cm{sup −2}, many significant nodules were observed on the surface of the coating. Surface characterization, microstructure and mechanical properties were performed on the tungsten coatings. As the increasing of current density, the preferred orientation of the coatings changed to (2 0 0). All coatings exhibited columnar-grained-crystalline. There was about a 2 μm thick diffusion layer between tungsten coating and molybdenum substrate. The bending test revealed the tungsten coating had –good bonding strength with the molybdenum substrate. There is a down trend of the grain size of the coating on molybdenum as the current density increased from 30 mA cm{sup −2} to 50 mA cm{sup −2}. The coating obtained at 50 mA cm{sup −2} had a minimum grain size of 4.57 μm, while the microhardness of this coating reached to a maximum value of 495 HV.

  19. Electrical transport properties of nanoplates shaped tungsten oxide embedded poly(vinyl-alcohol) film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amit Kumar; Chatterjee, Piyali; Meikap, Ajit Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoplates have been synthesized via hydrothermal method. The average crystallite size of the nanoplates is 28.9 ± 0.5 nm. The direct and indirect band gap of WO3 is observed. The AC conductivity of PVA-WO3 composite film has been observed and carrier transport mechanism follows correlated barrier hopping model. The maximum barrier height of the composite film is 0.1 eV. The electric modulus reflects the non-Debye type behaviour of relaxation time which is simulated by Kohlrausch-Willims-Watts (KWW) function.

  20. Differential reflectometry of thin film metal oxides on copper, tungsten, molybdenum and chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.K. III; Hummel, R.E.; Verink, E.D. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A differential reflectometry study was undertaken to investigate the characteristics of thin oxide films on metal substrates. The oxides were produced by heating pure metals of copper, tungsten, molybdenum and chromium in dry oxygen. A new 'halfpolishing' technique was applied to obtain specimens with a step in oxide thickness in order to make them suitable for differential reflectometry. It was found that oxides formed this way yielded the same differential reflectograms as by electrochemical oxidation. A mathematical model involving the interaction of light with a thin corrosion product on metal substrates was applied to generate computer calculated differential reflectograms utilizing various optical constants and thicknesses of the assumed film. Three different thickness ranges have been identified. (a) For large film thicknesses, the differential reflectograms are distinguished by a sequence of interference peaks. (b) If the product of thickness and refraction index of the films is smaller than about 40 nm, no interference peaks are present. Any experimentally observed peaks in differential reflectograms of these films are caused entirely by electron interband transitions. (c) In an intermediate thickness range, superposition of interference and interband peaks are observed. (author)

  1. Micro creep mechanisms of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levoy, R.; Hugon, I.; Burlet, H.; Baillin, X.; Guetaz, L.

    2000-01-01

    Due to its high melting point (3410 deg C), tungsten offers good mechanical properties at elevated temperatures for several applications in non-oxidizing environment. The creep behavior of tungsten is well known between 1200 and 2500 deg C and 10 -3 to 10 -1 strain. However, in some applications when dimensional stability of components is required, these strains are excessive and it is necessary to know the creep behavior of the material for micro-strains (between 10 -4 and 10 -6 ). Methods and devices used to measure creep micro-strains are presented, and creep equations (Norton and Chaboche laws) were developed for wrought, annealed and recrystallized tungsten. The main results obtained on tungsten under low stresses are: stress exponent 1, symmetry of micro-strains in creep-tension and creep-compression, inverse creep (threshold stress), etc. TEM, SEM and EBSD studies allow interpretation of the micro-creep mechanism of tungsten under low stresses and low temperature (∼0.3 K) like the Harper-Dorn creep. In Harper-Dorn creep, micro-strains are associated with the density and the distribution of dislocations existing in the crystals before creep. At 975 deg C, the initial dislocation structure moves differently whether or not a stress is applied. To improve the micro-creep behavior of tungsten, a heat treatment is proposed to create the optimum dislocation structure. (authors)

  2. Growth of single-crystal W whiskers during humid H2/N2 reduction of Ni, Fe-Ni, and Co-Ni doped tungsten oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiliang; He Yuehui; Zou Jou; Wang Yong; Huang Han

    2009-01-01

    Numbers of W whiskers were obtained by reducing Ni, Ni-Fe, and Ni-Co doped tungsten oxide in a mixed atmosphere of humid H 2 and N 2 . The phases and morphologies of the reduction products were characterized by XRD and SEM. Intensive TEM and EDS analyses showed that the obtained whiskers were W single crystals which typical have alloyed particles (Ni-W, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni-W) at the growth tips. The formed W whiskers were presumed to be induced by the alloyed particles. Our experimental results revealed that, during the reduction process of tungsten oxide, the pre-reduced Ni, Fe-Ni, or Co-Ni particles not only served as nucleation aids for the initial growth of W phase from W oxide but also played the roles of catalysts during the reductive decomposition of gaseous WO 2 (OH) 2 .

  3. Smart tungsten alloys as a material for the first wall of a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Unterberg, B.; Coenen, J. W.; Du, H.; Mayer, J.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Calvo, A.; Ordas, N.

    2017-06-01

    Tungsten is currently deemed as a promising plasma-facing material (PFM) for the future power plant DEMO. In the case of an accident, air can get into contact with PFMs during the air ingress. The temperature of PFMs can rise up to 1200 °C due to nuclear decay heat in the case of damaged coolant supply. Heated neutron-activated tungsten forms a volatile radioactive oxide which can be mobilized into the atmosphere. New self-passivating ‘smart’ alloys can adjust their properties to the environment. During plasma operation the preferential sputtering of lighter alloying elements will leave an almost pure tungsten surface facing the plasma. During an accident the alloying elements in the bulk are forming oxides thus protecting tungsten from mobilization. Good plasma performance and the suppression of oxidation are required for smart alloys. Bulk tungsten (W)-chroimum (Cr)-titanium (Ti) alloys were exposed together with pure tungsten (W) samples to the steady-state deuterium plasma under identical conditions in the linear plasma device PSI 2. The temperature of the samples was ~576 °C-715 °C, the energy of impinging ions was 210 eV matching well the conditions expected at the first wall of DEMO. Weight loss measurements demonstrated similar mass decrease of smart alloys and pure tungsten samples. The oxidation of exposed samples has proven no effect of plasma exposure on the oxidation resistance. The W-Cr-Ti alloy demonstrated advantageous 3-fold lower mass gain due to oxidation than that of pure tungsten. New yttrium (Y)-containing thin film systems are demonstrating superior performance in comparison to that of W-Cr-Ti systems and of pure W. The oxidation rate constant of W-Cr-Y thin film is 105 times less than that of pure tungsten. However, the detected reactivity of the bulk smart alloy in humid atmosphere is calling for a further improvement.

  4. Formation of tungsten oxide nanowires by ion irradiation and vacuum annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Dong; Ren, Feng; Wu, Heng-Yi; Qin, Wen-Jing; Jiang, Chang-Zhong

    2018-04-01

    Here we reported the fabrication of tungsten oxide (WO3-x ) nanowires by Ar+ ion irradiation of WO3 thin films followed by annealing in vacuum. The nanowire length increases with increasing irradiation fluence and with decreasing ion energy. We propose that the stress-driven diffusion of the irradiation-induced W interstitial atoms is responsible for the formation of the nanowires. Comparing to the pristine film, the fabricated nanowire film shows a 106-fold enhancement in electrical conductivity, resulting from the high-density irradiation-induced vacancies on the oxygen sublattice. The nanostructure exhibits largely enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect due to the oxygen vacancy. Thus, ion irradiation provides a powerful approach for fabricating and tailoring the surface nanostructures of semiconductors.

  5. Cathodic electrodeposition of mixed molybdenum tungsten oxides from peroxo-polymolybdotungstate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrachova, Lilia; Hahn, Benjamin P; Vijayaraghavan, Ganesh; Williams, Ryan D; Stevenson, Keith J

    2006-12-05

    Mixed molybdenum tungsten trioxide films of varying stoichiometry (MoxW1 - xO3, 0 cathodic electrodeposition on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates from aqueous peroxo-polymolybdotungstate solutions. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), cyclic voltammetry, and chronocoulometry were used to gain insight into the electrodeposition mechanism. The compositional and structural properties were characterized for MoxW1 - xO3 films deposited at intermediate potentials (-0.35 V vs Ag/AgCl) and sintered at 250 degrees C using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. These studies reveal that films consist of homogeneously mixed MoxW1 - xO3, with an enriched Mo content ranging in composition from 0.4 < x < 0.7 depending upon the mol % Mo present in the deposition solution. Chronoamperometry and spectroelectrochemical measurements were conducted to estimate lithium ion diffusion coefficients and coloration efficiencies for the mixed metal oxide films in 1 M LiClO4/propylene carbonate. The subtle interplay between structural and compositional properties due to the uniform mixing of Mo and W oxide components shows that electrochromic and lithium ion transport properties are moderately enhanced relative to those of single-component WO3 and MoO3 and demonstrate improved structural stability over pure MoO3 polymorphs during electrochemical cycling.

  6. Spark plasma sintering of pure and doped tungsten as plasma facing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autissier, E.; Richou, M.; Minier, L.; Naimi, F.; Pintsuk, G.; Bernard, F.

    2014-04-01

    In the current water cooled divertor concept, tungsten is an armour material and CuCrZr is a structural material. In this work, a fabrication route via a powder metallurgy process such as spark plasma sintering is proposed to fully control the microstructure of W and W composites. The effect of chemical composition (additives) and the powder grain size was investigated. To reduce the sintering temperature, W powders doped with a nano-oxide dispersion of Y2O3 are used. Consequently, the sintering temperature for W-oxide dispersed strengthened (1800 °C) is lower than for pure W powder. Edge localized mode tests were performed on pure W and compared to other preparation techniques and showed promising results.

  7. The effect of phosphorus on the formation of tungsten dioxide: A novel morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegedus, E.; Neugebauer, J.

    1999-01-01

    The industrial production of tungsten is based on the hydrogen reduction of tungsten oxides, ammonium paratungstate (APT) or ammonium tungsten oxide bronze (ATOB). Hydrogen reduction is applied when high purity tungsten is required and when the addition of other elements or compounds (dopants) is desired for modification of the properties of the metal powder. The first stage of the reduction is finished when WO 2 is formed and it seems that the efficient incorporation of the additives starts mainly at this reduction step. The study reported here was undertaken to investigate the effect of phosphorus dope on the morphology of the intermediate tungsten dioxide and analyze its influence on the grain size of the final tungsten metal powder. The authors observed star shaped morphology of WO 2 , a structure which has not been describe in the literature. Contrary to the well-known cauliflower shaped tungsten dioxide, these starlets are not pseudomorphic to the initial ATOB particles; they grow separately and have a great influence on the grain size of the final metal powder

  8. Stress in tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujada, B.R.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon (WC-DLC) multilayer coatings have been prepared by sputter deposition from a tungsten-carbide target and periodic switching on and off of the reactive acetylene gas flow. The stress in the resulting WC-DLC multilayers has been studied by substrate curvature.

  9. Evaporation of tungsten in vacuum at low hydrogen and water vapor pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrievskij, R.A.; Galkin, E.A.; Khromonozhkin, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of tungsten evaporation rates in the temperature range 1650-2500 K, partial hydrogen and water vapours pressures 1x10 -5 -10 Pa are presented. Experi-- mental plant, equipment employed and radiometric technique of tungsten evaporation study are described. The dependences of evaporation rate and probabilities of tungsten oxidation by residual vacuum water vapours and dependences of tungsten evaporation rate on partial hydrogen and water vapours pressures are determined [ru

  10. Review of WO3 thin film preparation for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsan Eftekhari; Mohammad Kassim

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ), which is one of the most essential materials in our daily life has appeared as an excellent photo electrode material for environmental purification. The nano-size of WO 3 thin film water-splitting technology has great potential for environmentally friendly solar-hydrogen production for the future hydrogen economy. There are several methods for producing tungsten oxide film. In this review, we outlined several WO 3 thin film preparation methods such as doctor Bladding, sputtering, layer-by-layer brush painting, spray pyrolysis deposition, sol-gel and other methods. Here we compare the maximum photocurrent obtained, different condition for preparation of WO 3 thin film and characterization outcome. (author)

  11. Surface composition of carburized tungsten trioxide and its catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, M.; Okamoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    The surface composition and electronic structure of carburized tungsten trioxide are investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The relationship between the surface composition and the catalytic activity for methanol electro-oxidation is clarified. The tungsten carbide concentration in the surface layer increases with the carburization time. The formation of tungsten carbide enhances the catalytic activity. On the other hand, the presence of free carbon or tungsten trioxide in the surface layer reduces the activity remarkably. It is also shown that, the higher the electronic density of states near the Fermi level, the higher the catalytic activity

  12. Dense Pure Tungsten Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianzheng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing using tungsten, a brittle material, is difficult because of its high melting point, thermal conductivity, and oxidation tendency. In this study, pure tungsten parts with densities of up to 18.53 g/cm3 (i.e., 96.0% of the theoretical density were fabricated by selective laser melting. In order to minimize balling effects, the raw polyhedral tungsten powders underwent a spheroidization process before laser consolidation. Compared with polyhedral powders, the spherical powders showed increased laser absorptivity and packing density, which helped in the formation of a continuous molten track and promoted densification.

  13. Hetero- and homogeneous three-dimensional hierarchical tungsten oxide nanostructures by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houweling, Z.S., E-mail: Silvester.Houweling@asml.com [Utrecht University, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics—Physics of Devices, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands); Harks, P.-P.R.M.L.; Kuang, Y.; Werf, C.H.M. van der [Utrecht University, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics—Physics of Devices, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands); Geus, J.W. [Utrecht University, Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Schropp, R.E.I. [Utrecht University, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics—Physics of Devices, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-30

    We present the synthesis of three-dimensional tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3−x}) nanostructures, called nanocacti, using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. The growth of the nanocacti is controlled through a succession of oxidation, reduction and re-oxidation processes. By using only a resistively heated W filament, a flow of ambient air and hydrogen at subatmospheric pressure, and a substrate heated to about 700 °C, branched nanostructures are deposited. We report three varieties of simple synthesis approaches to obtain hierarchical homo- and heterogeneous nanocacti. Furthermore, by using catalyst nanoparticles site-selection for the growth is demonstrated. The atomic, morphological and crystallographic compositions of the nanocacti are determined using a combination of electron microscopy techniques, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron diffraction. - Highlights: • Continuous upscalable hot-wire CVD of 3D hierarchical nanocacti • Controllable deposition of homo- and heterogeneous WO{sub 3−x}/WO{sub 3−y} nanocacti • Introduction of three synthesis routes comprising oxidation, reduction and re-oxidation processes • Growth of periodic arrays of hetero- and homogeneous hierarchical 3D nanocacti.

  14. Hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid surface treatment of tungsten for carbon fibre-reinforced composite hybrids in space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanerva, M., E-mail: Mikko.Kanerva@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, P.O.B. 14300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Johansson, L.-S.; Campbell, J.M. [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, P.O.B. 16300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Revitzer, H. [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, P.O.B. 16300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Sarlin, E. [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, P.O.B. 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Brander, T.; Saarela, O. [Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, P.O.B. 14300, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • XPS and AFM analysis of the effect of hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid on tungsten. • Dreiling's model established 54.4% thinning of WO{sub 3} due to 67 s treatment. • Strain energy release rate increased ≈8.4 J/m{sup 2} at the interface. • Failure loci analysis expressed the oxide and carbon fibre surfaces as weak points. - Abstract: Hybrid material systems, such as combinations of tungsten foils and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), are replacing metal alloy concepts in spacecraft enclosures. However, a good adhesion between the tungsten oxide scale and the epoxy resin used is required. Here, the effects of a hydrofluoric–nitric–sulphuric-acid (HFNS) treatment on tungsten oxides and subsequent adhesion to CFRP are analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fracture testing. The work shows that HFNS treatment results in decreased oxygen content, over 50% thinner tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) layer and increased nano-roughness on thin tungsten foils. Fracture testing established a 39% increase in the average critical strain for tungsten–CFRP specimens after HFNS treatment was carried out on tungsten. The effect of the oxide scale modification regarding the critical strain energy release rate was ΔG{sub c}≈ 8.4 J/m{sup 2}.

  15. The formation of tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings on aluminum by plasma electrolytic oxidation and their application in photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojadinović, Stevan, E-mail: sstevan@ff.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vasilić, Rastko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Radić, Nenad [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tadić, Nenad [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Stefanov, Plamen [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grbić, Boško [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). • Coatings are mainly composed of alpha alumina, ZnO and metallic tungsten. • Photocatalytic activity of doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings is higher than of undoped ones. • The increase of photoluminescence corresponds to decrease of photocatalytic activity. • Tungsten acts as a charge trap to reduce the recombination rate of electron/hole pairs. - Abstract: Tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminum substrate in supporting electrolyte (0.1 M boric acid + 0.05 M borax + 2 g/L ZnO) with addition of different concentrations of Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O. The morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition, and light absorption characteristics of formed surface coatings are investigated. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that formed surface coatings consist of alpha and gamma phase of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZnO, metallic tungsten and WO{sub 3}. Obtained results showed that incorporated tungsten does not have any influence on the absorption spectra of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings, which showed invariable band edge at about 385 nm. The photocatalytic activity of undoped and tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings is estimated by the photodegradation of methyl orange. The photocatalytic activity of tungsten doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings is higher thanof undoped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings; the best photocatalytic activity is ascribed to coatings formed in supporting electrolyte with addition of 0.3 g/L Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O. Tungsten in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO coatings acts as a charge trap, thus reducing the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The results of PL measurements are in agreement with photocatalytic activity. Declining PL intensity corresponds to increasing photocatalytic activity of the

  16. Development of tungsten coatings for the corrosion protection of alumina-based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.; Hafstrom, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A means of applying tungsten coatings to an alumina based ceramic is described. A slurry of pure tungsten was prepared and applied by brush coating or slip casting on the alumina-3 wt % Yt small crucible. The composite was fired and a very dense ceramic crucible with a crack free tungsten coating was produced

  17. Process for separation of tungsten and molybdenum by extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelikman, A.N.; Voldman, G.M.; Rumyantsev, V.K.; Ziberov, G.N.; Kagermanian, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the separation of tungsten and molybdenum by extraction involves the addition of HCl or HNO 3 to an aqueous solution containing tungsten and molybdenum to obtain a pH from 0.5 to 4.3, and introduction of a stabilizer comprising water-soluble phosphorus salts and a complexing agent, hydrogen peroxide, in an amount from 1.5 to 2 mole per 1 g-atom of the total content of tungsten and molybdenum. Then molybdenum is selectively extracted from the resulting aqueous solution with tri-n-butylphosphate with equal volumetric proportioning of the aqueous and organic solutions. Re-extraction of molybdenum and partially tungsten is carried out from the organic extracting agent with an alkali or soda solution. The process makes possible the preparation of tungsten solution containing no more than 0.001 g/l of molybdenum, and an increase in the degree of extraction of tungsten and molybdenum

  18. Charge-density-wave instabilities expected in monophosphate tungsten bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadell, E.; Whangbo, M.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of tight-binding band calculations, we examined the electronic structures of the tungsten oxide layers found in the monophosphate tungsten bronze (MPTB) phases. The Fermi surfaces of these MPTB phases consist of five well-nested one- and two-dimensional pieces. We calculated the nesting vectors of these Fermi surfaces and discussed the expected charge-density-wave instabilities

  19. Effect of oxygen vacancies on the electronic and optical properties of tungsten oxide from first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Pachter, Ruth; Murphy, Neil R.; Johnson, Walter E.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we investigated theoretically the role of oxygen vacancies on the electronic and optical properties of cubic, γ-monoclinic, and tetragonal phases of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films. Following the examination of structural properties and stability of the bulk tungsten oxide polymorphs, we analyzed band structures and optical properties, applying density functional theory (DFT) and GW (Green's (G) function approximation with screened Coulomb interaction (W)) methods. Careful benchmarking of calculated band gaps demonstrated the importance of using a range-separated functional, where results for the pristine room temperature γ-monoclinic structure indicated agreement with experiment. Further, modulation of the band gap for WO3 structures with oxygen vacancies was quantified. Dielectric functions for cubic WO3, calculated at both the single-particle, essentially time-dependent DFT, as well as many-body GW-Bethe-Salpeter equation levels, indicated agreement with experimental data for pristine WO3. Interestingly, we found that introducing oxygen vacancies caused appearance of lower energy absorptions. A smaller refractive index was indicated in the defective WO3 structures. These predictions could lead to further experiments aimed at tuning the optical properties of WO3 by introducing oxygen vacancies, particularly for the lower energy spectral region.

  20. Investigation of composition of the products of thermal processing of tungsten concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, I.V.; Krasnova, T.V.

    1994-01-01

    The composition of the products of carbidization of tungsten concentrate has been investigated. A method ha sbeen developed for chemcial phase analysis of multicomponent powders based on tungsten carbides. The prepared powders have been used for the manufacture of electrode tools based on a tungsten-copper preudoalloy, which can be for dimensional electroerosion treatment of hard alloys and electrodes for electric-spark alloying

  1. The correlations of electrochromism and thermochromism of tungsten oxide films studied by slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chuangxin; Zhou Chunlan; Zhang Zhiming; Wang Baoyi; Wei Long

    2004-01-01

    Electrochromic (EC) and thermochromic (TC) tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) films, deposited by magnetron sputtering and vacuum thermal evaporation, were studied systematically by means of slow positron measurements. The S parameters of colored amorphous WO 3 film and crystalline WO 3 film behaved quite similarly in the processes of thermochromism and electrochromism, little influenced by the different deposition methods. It indicates that the coloration processes under various external conditions are correlated with each other. It also shows that the slow positron beam technique may play a particular role in the study of chromogenic materials. (orig.)

  2. Micro-powder injection moulding of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeep, B.

    2007-12-01

    high hardness comparable to recrystalized material as well as a tensile strength of 290 N/mm 2 and an elongation of break at 35 %. Nevertheless, by conventional sintering extensive grain growth up to 68 μm was observed for samples with a sintered density of 99% theoretical density. To avoid extensive grain growth a HIP-process was developed for injection moulded tungsten samples, achieving a grain size of 5,5 μm. In addition to tungsten, a wide range of tungsten alloys are of industrial interest for e.g. electrodes, thermal shielding, microelectronics and automotive applications. Accordingly the process developments for micro injection moulding has successfully been extended to oxide disperse strengthened tungsten and tungsten heavy alloys. (orig.)

  3. Development and electrochemical characterization of Ni‐P coated tungsten incorporated electroless nickel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibli, S.M.A., E-mail: smashibli@yahoo.com; Chinchu, K.S.

    2016-08-01

    Ni‐P-W alloy and composite coatings were prepared by incorporation of sodium tungstate/tungsten and Ni‐P coated tungsten into electroless nickel bath respectively. Good inter-particle interactions among the depositing elements i.e. Ni and P with the incorporating tungsten particles were achieved by means of pre-coated tungsten particle by electroless nickel covering prior to its addition into the electroless bath. The pre-coated tungsten particles got incorporated uniformly into the Ni-P matrix of the coating. The particles and the coatings were characterized at different stages by different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The electroless Ni-P coating incorporated with pre-coated tungsten exhibited considerably high hardness, thickness and deposition rate. The performance and corrosion resistance characteristics of the composite coating incorporated with the nickel coated tungsten were found to be superior over other conventional Ni-P-W ternary alloy coatings currently reported. - Highlights: • An amorphous Ni-P coating was effectively formed on tungsten particles. • Electroless ternary Ni-P-W composite coatings were successfully prepared. • Enhancement in the inter-particle interaction in the Ni-P composite matrix was achieved. • Efficient and uniform incorporation of the composite in the internal layer was evident. • The tungsten incorporated coating possessed effective barrier protection.

  4. Mesoporous amorphous tungsten oxide electrochromic films: a Raman analysis of their good switching behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzikyriakou, Dafni; Krins, Natacha; Gilbert, Bernard; Colson, Pierre; Dewalque, Jennifer; Denayer, Jessica; Cloots, Rudi; Henrist, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous films exhibit better electrochemical kinetics compared to the dense films. • Mesoporous films exhibit better reversibility compared to the dense films. • Li + cations disrupt WO 3 network in a reversible way in the mesoporous film. • Li + irreversibly intercalate in the voids of crystallites in the dense film. - Abstract: The intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium cations in electrochromic tungsten oxide thin films are significantly influenced by their structural and surface characteristics. In this study, we prepared two types of amorphous films via the sol-gel technique: one dense and one mesoporous in order to compare their response upon lithium intercalation and de-intercalation. According to chronoamperometric measurements, Li + intercalates/de-intercalates faster in the mesoporous film (24s/6s) than in the dense film (48s/10s). The electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) also showed worse reversibility for the dense film compared to the mesoporous film, giving rise to important Li + trapping and remaining coloration of the film. Raman analysis showed that the mesoporous film provides more accessible and various W-O surface bonds for Li + intercalation. On the contrary, in the first electrochemical insertion and de-insertion in the dense film, Li + selectively reacts with a few surface W-O bonds and preferentially intercalates into pre-existing crystallites to form stable irreversible Li x WO 3 bronze

  5. Color in 'tungsten trioxide' thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, P.; Deneuville, A.; Hollinger, G.; Duc, Tran Minh

    1977-01-01

    We show that evaporated tungsten trioxide amorphous layers commonly used in electrochromic displays actually have the composition WO_2_._7H_y (0.2< y<0.5). We emphasize that coloration of virgin transparent films can be obtained without injection of any external ion into the layer, and further that around a critical substoichiometry by sputtering, namely, WO_2_._5, one can prepare blue virgin layers without any hydrogen. The effect of substoichiometry on the valence of tungsten atoms has been followed by XPS measurements of sputtered layers.

  6. Color in ''tungsten trioxide'' thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, P.; Deneuville, A.; Hollinger, G.; Tran Minh Duc

    1977-01-01

    We show that evaporated tungsten trioxide amorphous layers commonly used in electrochromic displays actually have the composition WO/sub 2.7/H/sub y/ (0.2< y<0.5). We emphasize that coloration of virgin transparent films can be obtained without injection of any external ion into the layer, and further that around a critical substoichiometry by sputtering, namely, WO/sub 2.5/, one can prepare blue virgin layers without any hydrogen. The effect of substoichiometry on the valence of tungsten atoms has been followed by XPS measurements of sputtered layers

  7. Strain aging in tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowding, R.J.; Tauer, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on tungsten heavy alloys which are two-phase mixtures of body center cubic (BCC) tungsten surrounded by a face center cubic (FCC) matrix. The matrix is most often composed of nickel and iron in a ratio of 70:30 but, occasionally, the matrix may also contain cobalt or copper. Nickel, however, is always the primary matrix component. The tungsten heavy alloy is fabricated through powder metallurgy techniques. Elemental powders are blended, pressed to shape, and sintered. Depending upon the tungsten content, the sintering temperatures are usually in the range of 1450 degrees C to 1525 degrees C. These temperatures are high enough that, as a result, the matrix is at the liquid phase and the process is known as liquid phase sintering. At the liquid phase temperature, the matrix becomes saturated with tungsten, but this does not change the FCC character of the matrix. The sintering is usually done in a hydrogen atmosphere furnace in order to reduce the oxides on the tungsten powder surfaces and create clean, active surfaces which will enhance the adherence between the tungsten and the matrix. The hydrogen atmosphere also creates the presence of excess dissolved hydrogen in the alloy. It has been shown that the hydrogen degrades the toughness and ductility of the heavy alloy. A post-sintering vacuum heat treatment is generally required to insure that there is no residual hydrogen present. The as-sintered tensile strength of a 90% tungsten, 7% nickel, 3% iron alloy (90W) is in the range of 800 to 940 MPa and can be increased significantly by cold working, usually rolling or swaging. Swaging to reductions in area of 20% can result in tensile strengths of 1250 MPa or more. As the strength increases, the elongation, which may have been 30% or more, decreases to less than 5%

  8. Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.

    1978-01-01

    There is no substitute for tungsten in its main field of application so that the demand will not decrease, but there is a need for further important applications. If small variations are left out of account, a small but steady increase in the annual tungsten consumption can be expected. The amount of tungsten available will increase due to the exploritation of new deposits and the extension of existing mines. This tendency will probably be increased by the world-wide prospection. It is hard to make an assessment of the amount of tungsten are obtained in the People's Republic of china, the purchases of Eastern countries in the West, and the sales policy of the USA; pice forecasts are therefore hard to make. A rather interesting subject with regard to the tungsten cycle as a whole is the reprocessing of tungsten-containing wastes. (orig.) [de

  9. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  10. Microstructural study of tungsten influence on Co-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaali, A.; Mirouh, K.; Hamamda, S.; Guiraldenq, P.

    2005-01-01

    Alloying elements, such as W, Mo, Mn,..., are of a great importance in the preoxidation of dental alloys and, consequently, on the ceramic/metal bond quality. This study deals with the effect of tungsten addition on the microstructural state of Co-Cr dental alloys, before the ceramisation process. These materials were prepared by unidirectional solidification. Their characterization has been carried out, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction. It shows that the addition of tungsten up to 8 wt.% induces structural transformations, which are believed to be linked to the added amount of tungsten

  11. Oxidation behaviour of bulk W-Cr-Ti alloys prepared by mechanical alloying and HIPing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Rosales, C.; López-Ruiz, P.; Alvarez-Martín, S.; Calvo, A.; Ordás, N.; Koch, F.; Brinkmann, J.

    2014-01-01

    Self-passivating tungsten based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten when used as first wall armour of future fusion reactors, due to the formation of a protective oxide scale, preventing the formation of volatile and radioactive WO 3 in case of a loss of coolant accident with simultaneous air ingress. In this work results of isothermal oxidations tests at 800 and 1000 °C on bulk alloy WCr12Ti2.5 performed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by exposure to flowing air in a furnace are presented. In both cases a thin, dense Cr 2 O 3 layer is found at the outer surface, below which a Cr 2 WO 6 scale and Ti 2 CrO 5 layers alternating with WO 3 are formed. The Cr 2 O 3 , Cr 2 WO 6 and Ti 2 CrO 5 scales act as protective barriers against fast inward O 2− diffusion. The oxidation kinetics seems to be linear for the furnace exposure tests while for the TGA tests at 800 °C the kinetics is first parabolic, transforming into linear after an initial phase. The linear oxidation rates are 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than for pure W

  12. Enhanced NO2 sensing characteristics of Au modified porous silicon/thorn-sphere-like tungsten oxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lin; Hu, Ming; Wei, Yulong; Ma, Wenfeng

    2016-12-01

    The thorn-sphere-like tungsten oxide (WO3) made up by 1D nanorods has been successfully synthesized through hydrothermal method on the Au-modified porous silicon (PS) substrates with seed-layer induction. By using XRD, EDS, FESEM and TEM techniques, we tested and verified that the crystal structure and morphology evolution of WO3 hierarchical nanostructure on the Au-modified PS strongly depend on the Au-sputtering time and hydrothermal reaction time. In addition, by comparing the NO2-sensing properties of the prepared products, we found that the 10 s-Au decorated PS/WO3-3 h (sputtering Au for 10 s and hydrothermal reaction for 3 h) composites sensor behaving as a typical p-type semiconductor and operating at room temperature (RT) exhibits high sensitivity and response characteristics even to ppb-level NO2, which makes this kind of sensor a competitive candidate for NO2-sensing applications. Moreover, the enhanced response may not only due to the high specific surface area but the Au nanoparticles acting as promoters for the spillover effect and forming metal-semiconductor heterojunctions with the PS and WO3. The transmission of electrons and holes in the heterogeneous interface generated among PS, WO3 and Au is proposed to illustrate the p-type response mechanism.

  13. Electron work function of stepped tungsten surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahl-Urban, B.

    1976-03-01

    The electron work function of tungsten (110) vicinal faces was measured with the aid of thermionic emission, and its dependence on the crystallographic orientation and the surface structure was investigated. The thermionic measurements were evaluated with the aid of the Richardson plot. The real temperature of the emitting tungsten faces was determined with an accuracy of +- 0.5% in the range between 2,200 and 2,800 K. The vicinal faces under investigation have been prepared with an orientation exactness of +- 15'. In the tungsten (110) vicinal faces under investigation, a strong dependence of the temperature coefficient d PHI/dT of the work function on the crystallographic orientation was found. A strong influence of the edge structure as well as of the step density on the temperature coefficient was observed. (orig./HPOE) [de

  14. The nano-fractal structured tungsten oxides films with high thermal stability prepared by the deposition of size-selected W clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Chemistry, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Dollinger, Andreas; Huether, Lukas; Blankenhorn, Moritz; Koehler, Kerstine; Gantefoer, Gerd [Konstanz University, Department of Physics, Constance (Germany); Seo, Hyun Ook [Sangmyung University, Department of Chemistry and Energy Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Size-selected W{sub n}{sup -} clusters (n = 1650) were deposited on the highly ordered pyrolytic graphite surface at room temperature under high vacuum conditions by utilizing a magnetron sputtering source and a magnet sector field. Moreover, geometrical structure and surface chemical states of deposited clusters were analyzed by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The formation of 2-D islands (lateral size ∝150 nm) with multiple dendritic arms was observed by STM, and the structure of the individual W{sub 1650} clusters survived within the dendritic arms. To study the thermal stability of the nano-fractal structure under the atmospheric conditions, the sample was brought to the ambient air conditions and sequentially post-annealed at 200, 300, and 500 C in the air. The nano-fractal structure was maintained after the 1st post-annealing process at 200 C for 1 h in the air, and the subsequent 2nd post-annealing at 300 C (for 1 h, in the air) also did not induce any noticeable change in the topological structure of the sample. The topological changes were observed only after the further post-annealing at a higher temperature (at 500 C, 1 h) in the air. We show high potential use of these nano-structured films of tungsten oxides in ambient conditions. (orig.)

  15. Tungsten carbide nanoparticles as efficient cocatalysts for photocatalytic overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2012-12-17

    Tungsten carbide exhibits platinum-like behavior, which makes it an interesting potential substitute for noble metals in catalytic applications. Tungsten carbide nanocrystals (≈5 nm) are directly synthesized through the reaction of tungsten precursors with mesoporous graphitic C3N 4 (mpg-C3N4) as the reactive template in a flow of inert gas at high temperatures. Systematic experiments that vary the precursor compositions and temperatures used in the synthesis selectively generate different compositions and structures for the final nanocarbide (W 2C or WC) products. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the WC phase with a high surface area exhibits both high activity and stability in hydrogen evolution over a wide pH range. The WC sample also shows excellent hydrogen oxidation activity, whereas its activity in oxygen reduction is poor. These tungsten carbides are successful cocatalysts for overall water splitting and give H2 and O2 in a stoichiometric ratio from H 2O decomposition when supported on a Na-doped SrTiO3 photocatalyst. Herein, we present tungsten carbide (on a small scale) as a promising and durable catalyst substitute for platinum and other scarce noble-metal catalysts in catalytic reaction systems used for renewable energy generation. Platinum replacement: The phase-controlled synthesis of tungsten carbide nanoparticles from the nanoconfinement of a mesoporous graphite C 3N4 (mpg-C3N4) reactive template is shown. The nanomaterials catalyze hydrogen evolution/oxidation reactions, but are inactive in the oxygen reduction reaction. Tungsten carbide is an effective cocatalyst for photocatalytic overall water splitting (see picture). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Tungsten carbide nanoparticles as efficient cocatalysts for photocatalytic overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Ou, Yiwei; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten carbide exhibits platinum-like behavior, which makes it an interesting potential substitute for noble metals in catalytic applications. Tungsten carbide nanocrystals (≈5 nm) are directly synthesized through the reaction of tungsten precursors with mesoporous graphitic C3N 4 (mpg-C3N4) as the reactive template in a flow of inert gas at high temperatures. Systematic experiments that vary the precursor compositions and temperatures used in the synthesis selectively generate different compositions and structures for the final nanocarbide (W 2C or WC) products. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the WC phase with a high surface area exhibits both high activity and stability in hydrogen evolution over a wide pH range. The WC sample also shows excellent hydrogen oxidation activity, whereas its activity in oxygen reduction is poor. These tungsten carbides are successful cocatalysts for overall water splitting and give H2 and O2 in a stoichiometric ratio from H 2O decomposition when supported on a Na-doped SrTiO3 photocatalyst. Herein, we present tungsten carbide (on a small scale) as a promising and durable catalyst substitute for platinum and other scarce noble-metal catalysts in catalytic reaction systems used for renewable energy generation. Platinum replacement: The phase-controlled synthesis of tungsten carbide nanoparticles from the nanoconfinement of a mesoporous graphite C 3N4 (mpg-C3N4) reactive template is shown. The nanomaterials catalyze hydrogen evolution/oxidation reactions, but are inactive in the oxygen reduction reaction. Tungsten carbide is an effective cocatalyst for photocatalytic overall water splitting (see picture). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Emission property of scandia and Re doped tungsten matrix dispenser cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinshu; Wang Yanchun; Liu Wei; Li Lili; Wang Yiman; Zhou Meiling

    2008-01-01

    Scandia and rhenium doped tungsten powders have been prepared by solid-liquid doping combined with two-step reduction method. The experimental results show that scandia distributes evenly in the doped tungsten powder. Moreover, the addition of scandia and rhenium could decrease the particle size of tungsten. By using this kind of powder, scandia and rhenium doped tungsten matrix with sub-micrometer sized tungsten grains and a uniform distribution of Sc 2 O 3 together with high pore density has been obtained. The emission property result shows that high space charge limited current density of more than 30 A/cm 2 at 850 deg. C has been obtained for this cathode. This excellent emission capability results from an active layer uniformly covering the sub-micron structure framework of the cathodes

  18. Processing of tungsten csrap into powders by electroerosion dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominskij, L.P.; Myuller, A.S.; Levchuk, M.V.; Tarabrina, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    A powder produced by electroerosion dispersion in water from tungsten chips and rod cuttings is studied for its properties and structure. Powder particles are mainly of spherical shape, their predominant size is 2-4 μm. A fraction of -63 μm comprises a basic mass of the powder (up to 80%), an ultrafine (to 40 μm) phase of WO which is isolated by decantation comprises about 3.5% of its mass. The powder particles are low oxidized, have a fine-grain microstructure and consist of tungsten with admixture of β-W (to 30%). A fraction of total oxygen mass in the mixture of fractio s 0.74%. The powder containing less than 0.25% of oxygen is produced by decantation of the oxide phase. The product purity is determined exclusively by the purity of the raw material. Prior to producing articles it is recommended to anneal the powder either in the inert atmosphere or in the reduced medium at 750 deg C for β-W to transfer into common tungsten

  19. Space-confined preparation of high surface area tungsten oxide and tungsten nitride inside the pores of mesoporous silica SBA-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Simon; Beyer, Hans; Köhler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    For the direct preparation of high surface area nitride materials, a lack of suitable precursors exists. Indirect preparation by gas phase nitridation (e.g. by ammonia) requires high temperatures and often results in sintering. The present work demonstrates that the space-confined preparation of ...

  20. Changes in the structural and electrical properties of vacuum post-annealed tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten- and titanium-doped indium oxide (IWO and ITiO) filmswere deposited at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, and vacuum post-annealing was used to improve the electron mobility. With increasing deposition power, the as deposited films showed an increasingly

  1. Oxidation behaviour of bulk W-Cr-Ti alloys prepared by mechanical alloying and HIPing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rosales, C., E-mail: cgrosales@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); López-Ruiz, P.; Alvarez-Martín, S.; Calvo, A.; Ordás, N. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Koch, F.; Brinkmann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Self-passivating tungsten based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten when used as first wall armour of future fusion reactors, due to the formation of a protective oxide scale, preventing the formation of volatile and radioactive WO{sub 3} in case of a loss of coolant accident with simultaneous air ingress. In this work results of isothermal oxidations tests at 800 and 1000 °C on bulk alloy WCr12Ti2.5 performed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by exposure to flowing air in a furnace are presented. In both cases a thin, dense Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is found at the outer surface, below which a Cr{sub 2}WO{sub 6} scale and Ti{sub 2}CrO{sub 5} layers alternating with WO{sub 3} are formed. The Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and Ti{sub 2}CrO{sub 5} scales act as protective barriers against fast inward O{sup 2−} diffusion. The oxidation kinetics seems to be linear for the furnace exposure tests while for the TGA tests at 800 °C the kinetics is first parabolic, transforming into linear after an initial phase. The linear oxidation rates are 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than for pure W.

  2. A study of scandia and rhenium doped tungsten matrix dispenser cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinshu; Li, Lili; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yanchun; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Meiling

    2007-10-01

    Scandia and rhenium doped tungsten powders were prepared by solid-liquid doping combined with two-step reduction method. The experimental results show that scandia was distributed evenly on the surface of tungsten particles. The addition of scandia and rhenium could decrease the particle size of doped tungsten, for example, the tungsten powders doped with Sc 2O 3 and Re had the average size of about 50 nm in diameter. By using this kind of powder, scandia and rhenium doped tungsten matrix with the sub-micrometer sized tungsten grains was obtained. This kind of matrix exhibited good anti-bombardment insensitivity at high temperature. The emission property result showed that high space charge limited current densities of more than 60 A/cm 2 at 900 °C could be obtained for this cathode. A Ba-Sc-O multilayer about 100 nm in thickness formed at the surface of cathode after activation led to the high emission property.

  3. Codeposition of either molybdenum or tungsten with the metals of iron group 8. The citric acid influence on codeposition of nickel and tungsten from sulphamic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernotas, A.; Kadziauskiene, V.; Jasulaitiene, V.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of citric acid on codeposition of Ni and W from sulphamic electrolytes was investigated by measuring the hydrogen content in electro deposits and determining the current efficiency and the alloy composition by chemical analysis and X-ray spectroscopy. The reduction of W(VI) to W(0) in the electrolyte with and without citric acid was found to proceed through the formation of tungsten compounds of intermediate oxidation state. It is supposed that an increased amount of tungsten in the alloys with the increase of citric acid concentration in the electrolyte (to 0.042 mol/l) is caused by a large amount of W(IV) at the cathodic surface. The further increase of the concentration of citric acid in the electrolyte causes a decrease of tungsten amount in the alloy, because the blocking of the metallic surface of Ni and W by W compounds of intermediate oxidation state makes the reduction of W(VI) to W(0) more difficult. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. The determination of iron, chromium, titanium, and tungsten by x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austen, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    An accurate and precise method is described for the determination of iron and chromium in chromite, iron and titanium in ilmenite, and tungsten in tungsten ores. Samples are prepared for analysis by fusion with sodium peroxide or sodium tetraborate and leaching of the melt in a solution of tartaric or hydrochloric acid. Matrix correction and calibration are achieved by means of the single-standard calibration method with reference solutions prepared from compounds of the elements determined

  5. Tungsten Trioxide/Zinc Tungstate Bilayers: Electrochromic Behaviors, Energy Storage and Electron Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Huige; Ding, Daowei; Yan, Xingru; Guo, Jiang; Shao, Lu; Chen, Haoran; Sun, Luyi; Colorado, Henry A.; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten oxide and zinc tungstate bilayers have been prepared via a facile sol-gel method for integrated applications of electrochromic behaviors and energy storage;. • Electron transfer behaviors between the semiconductor bilayer films have been found dependent on the bilayer assembly sequence;. • Methylene blue (MB) has been employed for the first time as an indicator to study the electron transfer phenomenon in the bilayer films. - Abstract: Pair-sequentially spin-coated tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) and zinc tungstate (ZnWO 4 ) bilayer films onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass slides have been prepared via sol-gel methods followed by annealing. The bilayers (ZnWO 4 /WO 3 denoting the bilayer film with the inner layer of ZnWO 4 and the outer layer of WO 3 on the ITO while WO 3 /ZnWO 4 standing for the bilayer film with the inner layer of WO 3 and the outer layer of ZnWO 4 on the ITO) exhibit integrated functions of electrochromic and energy storage behaviors as indicated by the in situ spectroelectrochemistry and cyclic voltammetry (CV) results. Accordingly, blue color was observed for the bilayer films at -1 V in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution. An areal capacitance of 140 and 230 μF/cm 2 was obtained for the ZnWO 4 /WO 3 , and WO 3 /ZnWO 4 film, respectively, at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s in the CV measurements. The CV results also unveiled the electron transfer behavior between the semiconductor films in the oxidation process, suggesting a sequence-dependent electrochemical response in the bilayer films. Meanwhile, methylene blue (MB) was used as an indicator to study the electron transfer phenomenon during the reduction process at negative potentials of -0.4 and -0.8 V, in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 . The results indicated that the electrons transfer across the bilayers was enhanced at more negative potentials

  6. Ductile tungsten-nickel alloy and method for making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jr., William B.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a ductile, high-density tungsten-nickel alloy which possesses a tensile strength in the range of 100,000 to 140,000 psi and a tensile elongation of 3.1 to 16.5 percent in 1 inch at 25.degree.C. This alloy is prepared by the steps of liquid phase sintering a mixture of tungsten-0.5 to 10.0 weight percent nickel, heat treating the alloy at a temperature above the ordering temperature of approximately 970.degree.C. to stabilize the matrix phase, and thereafter rapidly quenching the alloy in a suitable liquid to maintain the matrix phase in a metastable, face-centered cubic, solid- solution of tungsten in nickel.

  7. Tungsten and tungsten alloys by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadjhamida, A.; German, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tungsten has a historical link with powder metallurgy and there is continued progress in expanding the available compositions and processing options. This paper starts with an introduction to the history of tungsten powder metallurgy and use this as a basis for analyzing some of the current trends. The literature base in tungsten processing is expanding and includes new alloys, microstructures, and processing routes. A few examples will be emphasize here to produce a frame work for this program, including description of sintering mechanisms for tungsten, liquid phase sintering advances, hot consolidation fundamentals, and options for complex shaping using powder injection modeling. For this base, subsequent presentations will expand on these fundamental advances

  8. A study of the switching mechanism and electrode material of fully CMOS compatible tungsten oxide ReRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, W. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Lai, E. K.; Lee, F. M.; Lin, Y. Y.; Chuang, Alfred T. H.; Chang, K. P.; Yao, Y. D.; Chou, T. H.; Lin, H. M.; Lee, M. H.; Shih, Y. H.; Hsieh, K. Y.; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO X ) resistive memory (ReRAM), a two-terminal CMOS compatible nonvolatile memory, has shown promise to surpass the existing flash memory in terms of scalability, switching speed, and potential for 3D stacking. The memory layer, WO X , can be easily fabricated by down-stream plasma oxidation (DSPO) or rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of W plugs universally used in CMOS circuits. Results of conductive AFM (C-AFM) experiment suggest the switching mechanism is dominated by the REDOX (Reduction-oxidation) reaction—the creation of conducting filaments leads to a low resistance state and the rupturing of the filaments results in a high resistance state. Our experimental results show that the reactions happen at the TE/WO X interface. With this understanding in mind, we proposed two approaches to boost the memory performance: (i) using DSPO to treat the RTO WO X surface and (ii) using Pt TE, which forms a Schottky barrier with WO X . Both approaches, especially the latter, significantly reduce the forming current and enlarge the memory window.

  9. Influence of annealing temperature on microstructure and optical properties of sol-gel derived tungsten oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xilian; Cao Hongtao; Liu Zhimin; Li Jianzhong

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) thin films have been extensively studied for their interesting physical properties and a variety of potential applications in electrochromic devices. In order to explore the possibility of using these in electrochromic devices, a preliminary and thorough study of the optical properties of the host materials is an important step. Based on this, the influence of annealing temperature on the structural, surface morphological, optical and electrochromic properties has been investigated in the present work. The host material, WO 3 films, has been prepared from an ethanolic acetylated peroxotungstic acid sol containing 5 wt.% oxalic acid dehydrate (OAD) by sol-gel technique. The monoclinic structure and textured nature change of the films with the temperature increasing have been investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The surface morphology evolution of the films has been characterized by SEM. The shift in absorption edge towards the higher wavelength region observed from optical studies may be due to the electron scattering effects and the optical band filling effect that reveals the crystallization of the film. The amorphous film shows better optical modulation (ΔT = 76.9% at λ = 610 nm), fast color-bleach kinetics (t c ∼ 4 s and t b ∼ 9 s) and good reversibility (Q b /Q c = 90%), thereby rendering it suitable for smart window applications.

  10. Preparation of oxide materials from metal alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turevskaya, E.P.; Turova, N.Ya.; Yanovskaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on the sol-gel technologies on the basis of alkoxides are presented. The synthesis and properties of titanates zirconates, niobates, tantalates, vanadates and solid solutions on the basis of Mo, W and Bi oxides, iron oxides and high-temperature superconductors are presented. The most important aspects, determining the choice of optimal conditions for preparation of oxides of concrete compositions with required properties are pointed out. Accomplishment of the whole chain of studies made it possible to synthesize a broad range of metal alkoxides and study their properties and also carry out large-scale studies on preparation of various oxides and materials on the basis thereof, using the source base of the sol-gel method [ru

  11. Thermal stability of tungsten sub-nitride thin film prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Wu, Y.Z., E-mail: youzhiwu@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Mu, B. [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Qiao, L. [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Li, W.X.; Li, J.J. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, P., E-mail: pengwang@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Tungsten sub-nitride thin films deposited on silicon samples by reactive magnetron sputtering were used as a model system to study the phase stability and microstructural evolution during thermal treatments. XRD, SEM&FIB, XPS, RBS and TDS were applied to investigate the stability of tungsten nitride films after heating up to 1473 K in vacuum. At the given experimental parameters a 920 nm thick crystalline film with a tungsten and nitrogen stoichiometry of 2:1 were achieved. The results showed that no phase and microstructure change occurred due to W{sub 2}N film annealing in vacuum up to 973 K. Heating up to 1073 K led to a partial decomposition of the W{sub 2}N phase and the formation of a W enrichment layer at the surface. Increasing the annealing time at the same temperature, the further decomposition of the W{sub 2}N phase was negligible. The complete decomposition of W{sub 2}N film happened as the temperature reached up to 1473 K.

  12. Process for the manufacture of a fuel catalyst made of tungsten carbide for electrochemical fuel cells. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Brennstoffkatalysators aus Wolframcarbid fuer elektrochemische Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baresel, D.; Gellert, W.; Scharner, P.

    1982-05-19

    The invention refers to a process for the manufacture of a fuel catalyst made of tungsten carbide for the direct generation of electrical energy by the oxidation of hydrogen, formaldehyde or formic acid in electrochemical fuel cells. Tungsten carbide is obtained by carburisation of tungsten or tungsten oxide by carbon monoxide. The steps of the process are as follows: dissolving the commercial-quality tungstic acid in ammonium hydroxide; precipitating the tungstic acid with concentrated hydrochloric acid; drying in a vacuum and then heating to 200/sup 0/C to remove the water of crystallisation forming tungsten trioxide; and mixing the tungsten trioxide with zinc powder and heating to 600/sup 0/C. The zinc oxide is dissolved with hydrochloric acid after cooling. The finely divided tungsten obtained in this way is converted with carbon monoxide in a quartz tube at 700/sup 0/C.

  13. Development of tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites towards their use in DEMO—potassium doped tungsten wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, J.; Han, Y.; Almanstötter, J.; Coenen, J. W.; Höschen, T.; Jasper, B.; Zhao, P.; Linsmeier, Ch; Neu, R.

    2016-02-01

    For the next step fusion reactor the use of tungsten is inevitable to suppress erosion and allow operation at elevated temperature and high heat loads. Tungsten fibre-reinforced composites overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten and its susceptibility to operation embrittlement and thus allow its use as a structural as well as an armour material. That this concept works in principle has been shown in recent years. In this contribution we present a development approach towards its use in a future fusion reactor. A multilayer approach is needed addressing all composite constituents and manufacturing steps. A huge potential lies in the optimization of the tungsten wire used as fibre. We discuss this aspect and present studies on potassium doped tungsten wire in detail. This wire, utilized in the illumination industry, could be a replacement for the so far used pure tungsten wire due to its superior high temperature properties. In tensile tests the wire showed high strength and ductility up to an annealing temperature of 2200 K. The results show that the use of doped tungsten wire could increase the allowed fabrication temperature and the overall working temperature of the composite itself.

  14. Development of tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites towards their use in DEMO—potassium doped tungsten wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesch, J; Han, Y; Höschen, T; Zhao, P; Neu, R; Almanstötter, J; Coenen, J W; Jasper, B; Linsmeier, Ch

    2016-01-01

    For the next step fusion reactor the use of tungsten is inevitable to suppress erosion and allow operation at elevated temperature and high heat loads. Tungsten fibre-reinforced composites overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten and its susceptibility to operation embrittlement and thus allow its use as a structural as well as an armour material. That this concept works in principle has been shown in recent years. In this contribution we present a development approach towards its use in a future fusion reactor. A multilayer approach is needed addressing all composite constituents and manufacturing steps. A huge potential lies in the optimization of the tungsten wire used as fibre. We discuss this aspect and present studies on potassium doped tungsten wire in detail. This wire, utilized in the illumination industry, could be a replacement for the so far used pure tungsten wire due to its superior high temperature properties. In tensile tests the wire showed high strength and ductility up to an annealing temperature of 2200 K. The results show that the use of doped tungsten wire could increase the allowed fabrication temperature and the overall working temperature of the composite itself. (paper)

  15. Mesoporous metal oxides and processes for preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suib, Steven L.; Poyraz, Altug Suleyman

    2018-03-06

    A process for preparing a mesoporous metal oxide, i.e., transition metal oxide. Lanthanide metal oxide, a post-transition metal oxide and metalloid oxide. The process comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to form the mesoporous metal oxide. A mesoporous metal oxide prepared by the above process. A method of controlling nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in mesoporous metal oxides. The method comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to control nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in the mesoporous metal oxides. Mesoporous metal oxides and a method of tuning structural properties of mesoporous metal oxides.

  16. Tungsten foil laminate for structural divertor applications - Joining of tungsten foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Jens; Rieth, Michael; Möslang, Anton; Dafferner, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Jan; Mrotzek, Tobias; Hoffmann, Andreas; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Yi, Xiaoou

    2013-05-01

    This paper is the fourth in our series on tungsten laminates. The aim of this paper is to discuss laminate synthesis, meaning the joining of tungsten foils. It is obvious that the properties of the tungsten laminate strongly depend on the combination of (i) interlayer and (ii) joining technology, as this combination defines (i) the condition of the tungsten foil after joining (as-received or recrystallised) as well as (ii) the characteristics of the interface between the tungsten foil and the interlayer (wettability or diffusion leading to a solid solution or the formation of intermetallics). From the example of tungsten laminates joined by brazing with (i) an eutectic silver copper brazing filler, (ii) copper, (iii) titanium, and (iv) zirconium, the microstructure will be discussed, with special focus on the interface. Based on our assumptions of the mechanism of the extraordinary ductility of tungsten foil we present three syntheses strategies and make recommendations for the synthesis of high temperature tungsten laminates.

  17. Development and characterisation of a tungsten-fibre reinforced tungsten composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesch, Johann

    2012-01-01

    In tungsten-fibre reinforced tungsten, tungsten wire is combined with a tungsten matrix. The outstanding ductility of the fibres and extrinsic mechanisms of energy dissipation lead to an intense toughening. With extensive analytical and experimental investigations a manufacturing method based on chemical vapour infiltration is developed and first material is produced. The toughening mechanisms are shown by means of sophisticated mechanical experiments i.a. X-ray microtomography.

  18. Titrimetric determination of tungsten in its alloys with tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinson, S.V.; Nezhnova, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    Titrimetric method of tungsten determination in tantalum base alloys has been developed. The method permits to determine 5-10% tungsten in the alloys with relative standard deviation of 0.013. The conditions are created by application of precipitation from homogeieous solutions or by the method of appearing reagents at pH values, which condition gradual hydrolytic precipitation of tantalum, and sodium tungstate remains in the solution and is not sorbed on tantalum hydroxide. After separation of tantalum oxide tungsten is precipitated in the form of lead tungstate by the excess of ti trated solution of lead salt during boiling and then at the background of lead tungstate precipitate without its separation lead excess is titrated by EDTA in the presence of mixed indicator-4-(2-pyridylazo)resocinol and xylenole orange in acetate buffer solution

  19. Tungsten as First Wall Material in Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    concept depends on the cooling medium water or helium. The latter requires relative high pressure of the coolant. Specific developments are devoted to the suppression of the production of volatile tungsten oxide in case of a loss of coolant accident, to reduce the risk of releasing radioactive material. Altogether tungsten as the plasma facing material looks promising but a series of open questions still have to be solved. (author)

  20. Electron-induced desorption of europium atoms from oxidized tungsten surface: concentration dependence of low-energy peak

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, S Y

    2002-01-01

    One discusses nature of electron induced desorption of Eu sup 0 europium atoms under E sub e irradiating electron low-energies (approx 30 eV) and peculiarities of yield dependence of Eu sup 0 atoms on their concentration at oxidized tungsten surface. Primary act of vacancy origination in europium adatom inner 5p-shell turned to be the determining stage. Evaluations have shown that just the first of two possible scenarios of ionization (electron intra-atomic to Eu adatom external quasi-level or realise of knocked out electron into vacuum) leads to Eu sup 0 desorption. One determined concentration threshold for yield of Eu sup 0 atoms

  1. Large area synthesis, characterization, and anisotropic etching of two dimensional tungsten disulfide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutlu, Zafer; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2016-01-01

    Emergent properties of tungsten disulfide at the quantum confinement limit hold promise for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here we report on the large area synthesis of atomically thin tungsten disulfide films with strong photoluminescence properties via sulfurization of the pre-deposited tungsten films. Detailed characterization of the pre-deposited tungsten films and tungsten disulfide films are performed using microscopy and spectroscopy methods. By directly heating tungsten disulfide films in air, we have shown that the films tend to be etched into a series of triangular shaped pits with the same orientations, revealing the anisotropic etching behavior of tungsten disulfide edges. Moreover, the dimensions of the triangular pits increase with the number of layers, suggesting a thickness dependent behavior of etching in tungsten disulfide films. This method offers a promising new avenue for engineering the edge structures of tungsten disulfide films. - Highlights: • Large-scale synthesis of WS_2 films is achieved via sulfurization of W films. • Annealing of W films leads to a substantial improvement in the quality of WS_2 films. • WS_2 films show laser power dependent photoluminescence characteristics. • WS_2 films are etched with well-oriented triangular pits upon annealing in air. • Anisotropic oxidative etching is greatly affected by the thickness of WS_2 films.

  2. Determination of tungsten and tin ions after preconcentration by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, U.; Kunze, S.

    1990-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective combined method of flotation followed by spectrophotometry/d.c. polarography for the determination of tungsten and tin ions in acid and alkaline waste waters and hydrometallurgical solutions is presented here. Both kinds of ions are coprecipitated in the analyte solution with zirconium hydroxide after addition of ZrOCl 2 solution and ammonia. Afterwards, the collector precipitate is separated from the aqueous phase and preconcentrated by flotation for which sodium oleate and a frother are added. The precipitate is dissolved in a small amount of acid, with the organic reagents being destroyed by oxidation. The enrichment factor of the proposed technique is 100, with variations possible. Recovery is 94 % for tungsten and 99 % for tin. Spectrophotometry of the thiocyanate complex and d.c. polarography are applied as determination techniques for tungsten and tin, respectively. Detection limits attainable by this technique are 6 ng.ml -1 for tungsten and 5 ng.ml -1 for tin for the initial sample. (Authors)

  3. Tungsten and carbon surface change under high dose plasma exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, Y.V.; Khripunov, B.I.; Petrov, V.B.

    2009-01-01

    Study of surface composition dynamics has been made on the LENTA linear plasma simulator. Experiments have been made on tungsten and carbon materials subjected to steady-state plasma exposure. The achieved ion doses on the surface were 10 21 ion cm -2 . WL 10 tungsten containing 1% of La2O3 oxide and titanium-doped graphite RG-T were studied. The following experimental conditions were varied in these experiments: energy of ions, surface temperature, working gas. Irradiations of tungsten WL 10 were executed in deuterium plasma at low ion energies (about 20 eV) and at 200 eV for temperatures below 340 K. Graphite RG-T was exposed at 1300 K. Elevated surface temperature (about 1050K) was also characteristic of experiments on tungsten sample under nitrogen plasma impact (simulated inter-ELMs condition). Surface microstructure modification has been observed and surface composition changes were found on the materials showing influence of high dose plasma irradiations on element redistribution in the near surface layers. (author)

  4. Preparation and utilization of metal oxide fine powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Soo; Jang, Hee Dong; Lim, Young Woong; Kim, Sung Don; Lee, Hi Sun; Lee, Hoo In; Kim, Chul Joo; Shim, Gun Joo; Jang, Dae Kyu [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Metal oxide fine powders finds many applications in industry as new materials. It is very much necessary for the development of such powders to improve the domestic industry. The purpose of present research is to develop a process for the preparation and utilization of metal oxide fine powder. This project is consisted of two main subjects. (1) Production of ultrafine metal oxide powder: Ultrafine metal oxide powder is defined as a metal oxide powder of less than 100 nanometer in particle size. Experiments for the control of particle size and distributions in the various reaction system and compared with results of (2 nd year research). Various reaction systems were adopted for the development of feasible process. Ultrafine particles could be prepared even higher concentration of TiCl{sub 4} and lower gas flowrate compared to TiCl{sub 4}-O{sub 2} system in the TiCl{sub 4}-Air-H{sub 2}O system. Ultrafine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders also prepared with the change of concentration and gas flowrate. Experiments on the treatment of surface characteristics of ultrafine TiO{sub 2} powders were investigated using esterification and surface treating agents. A mathematical model that can predict the particle size and distribution was also developed. (2) Preparation of cerium oxide for high-grade polishing powder: Used cerium polishing powder was recycled for preparation of high grade cerium oxide polishing powder. Also, cerium hydroxide which was generated as by-product in processing of monazite ore was used as another material. These two materials were leached respectively by using acid, and the precipitate was gained in each leached solution by adjusting pH of the solution, and by selective crystallization. These precipitates were calcined to make high grade cerium oxide polishing powder. The effect of several experimental variables were investigated, and the optimum conditions were obtained through the experiments. (author). 81 refs., 49 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Tungsten foil laminate for structural divertor applications – Joining of tungsten foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Jens, E-mail: jens.reiser@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP) (Germany); Rieth, Michael; Möslang, Anton; Dafferner, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Jan [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP) (Germany); Mrotzek, Tobias; Hoffmann, Andreas [PLANSEE SE, Reutte (Austria); Armstrong, D.E.J.; Yi, Xiaoou [University of Oxford, Department of Materials (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    This paper is the fourth in our series on tungsten laminates. The aim of this paper is to discuss laminate synthesis, meaning the joining of tungsten foils. It is obvious that the properties of the tungsten laminate strongly depend on the combination of (i) interlayer and (ii) joining technology, as this combination defines (i) the condition of the tungsten foil after joining (as-received or recrystallised) as well as (ii) the characteristics of the interface between the tungsten foil and the interlayer (wettability or diffusion leading to a solid solution or the formation of intermetallics). From the example of tungsten laminates joined by brazing with (i) an eutectic silver copper brazing filler, (ii) copper, (iii) titanium, and (iv) zirconium, the microstructure will be discussed, with special focus on the interface. Based on our assumptions of the mechanism of the extraordinary ductility of tungsten foil we present three syntheses strategies and make recommendations for the synthesis of high temperature tungsten laminates.

  6. Non-traditional Oxidants in Preparative Coordination Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, Vadim Yu; Kukushkin, Yurii N.

    1986-10-01

    The application of nitrosonium and arenediazonium salts, carbenium, silver(I), and mercury(II) ions, protic acids, and amine oxides as oxidants in preparative coordination chemistry is examined. Specific examples illustrate which problems in the field of the synthesis and reactions of coordination compounds can be solved with the aid of these oxidants. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  7. Tungsten Oxide and Polyaniline Composite Fabricated by Surfactant-Templated Electrodeposition and Its Use in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxue Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanostructures of tungsten oxide and polyaniline (PANI were fabricated on carbon electrode by electrocodeposition using sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS as the template. The morphology of the composite can be controlled by changing SDBS surfactant and aniline monomer concentrations in solution. With increasing concentration of aniline in surfactant solution, the morphological change from nanoparticles to nanofibers was observed. The nanostructured WO3/PANI composite exhibited enhanced capacitive charge storage with the specific capacitance of 201 F g−1 at 1.28 mA cm−2 in large potential window of -0.5~ 0.65 V versus SCE compared to the bulk composite film. The capacitance retained about 78% when the sweeping potential rate increased from 10 to 150 mV/s.

  8. An economic route to mass production of graphene oxide solution for preparing graphene oxide papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Yan-Jia; Tsai, Bo-Da; Huang, Wu-Jang, E-mail: wjhuang@mail.npust.edu.tw

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide paper can be prepared from synthesized graphene sheet containing carbon materials. • Graphene oxide paper can be used as a phase change materials for thermal storage. • To prepare graphene oxide paper from synthesized graphene sheet containing carbon materials could highly reduce the cost. - Abstract: Graphene oxide paper (GOP) is a composite material fabricated from graphene oxide (GO) solution. In addition, it can be a novel and potential material for application on the separation of water vapor from gaseous steam or larger alkali ions from aqueous solution. GOP could be used as electricity and thermal storage materials. The preparation of GO commonly uses high purity natural or artificial graphite. It is difficult to prepare GOP from artificial graphite powder due to the cost of $1,450 US/ton. In this study, we tried to prepare GOPs from homemade graphene sheets containing carbon materials (GSCCMs) and evaluate the thermal properties of GSCCM derived GOPs. Results show that GSCCM derived GOPs have a higher phase transition temperature, and the average mesophase phase change enthalpy is 9.41 J/g, which is 2.87 times higher than graphite derived GOP. Therefore, to prepare GOP from GSCCMs could highly reduce the cost.

  9. Electrochromic Properties of Tungsten Oxide Films Prepared by Reactive Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Hong; Kang, Tai Young; Jung, Yu Sup; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2013-05-01

    WO3-x thin films were deposited on induim tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates with various oxygen flow ratios from 0.55 to 0.7 by the reactive facing-target sputtering method, at a power density of 4 W/cm2 and room temperature. The structural properties of the WO3-x thin films were measured by X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectral analysis. As-deposited WO3-x thin films had an amorphous structure. In the Raman spectra, WO3-x thin films exhibited two strong peaks at 770 and 950 cm-1 attributed to the vibrations of W6+-O and W6+=O bonds, respectively. The electrochemical and optical properties of WO3-x thin films were measured by cyclic voltammetry and UV/vis spectrometry. The results showed the highest charge density at an oxygen flow ratio of 0.7 and the highest transmittance in the visible range. The maximum coloration efficiency was 30.82 cm2/C at an oxygen flow ratio of 0.7.

  10. High-energy, high-rate consolidation of tungsten and tungsten-based composite powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunathan, S.K.; Persad, C.; Bourell, D.L.; Marcus, H.L. (Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1991-01-20

    Tungsten and tungsten-based heavy alloys are well known for their superior mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. However, unalloyed tungsten is difficult to consolidate owing to its very high melting temperature (3683 K). The additions of small amounts of low-melting elements such as iron, nickel, cobalt and copper, facilitate the powder processing of dense heavy alloys at moderate temperatures. Energetic high-current pulses have been used recently for powder consolidation. In this paper, the use of a homopolar generator as a power source to consolidate selected tungsten and tungsten-based alloys is examined. Various materials were consolidated including unalloyed tungsten, W-Nb, W-Ni, and tungsten heavy alloy with boron carbide. The effect of process parameters such as pressure and specific energy input on the consolidation of different alloy systems is described in terms of microstructure and property relationships. (orig.).

  11. Cyclic Nanostructures of Tungsten Oxide (WO3)n  (n = 2–6) as NOx Gas Sensor: A Theoretical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadyar, Mohammad; Jamsaz, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Today's WO3-based gas sensors have received a lot of attention, because of important role as a sensitive layer for detection of the small quantities of  NOx. In this research, a theoretical study has been done on the sensing properties of different cyclic nanoclusters of (WO3)n  (n = 2–6) for NOx  (x = 1,2) gases. Based on the calculated adsorption energies by B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, from the different orientations of  NOx molecule on the tungsten oxide clusters, O–N⋯W was preferred. Different sizes of the mentioned clusters have been analyzed and W2O6 cluster was chosen as the best candidate for NOx detection from the energy viewpoint. Using the concepts of the chemical hardness and electronic charge transfer, some correlations between the energy of adsorption and interaction energy have been established. These analyses confirmed that the adsorption energy will be boosted with charge transfer enhancement. However, the chemical hardness relationship is reversed. Finally, obtained results from the natural bond orbital and electronic density of states analysis confirmed the electronic charge transfer from the adsorbates to WO3 clusters and Fermi level shifting after adsorption, respectively. The last parameter confirms that the cyclic clusters of tungsten oxide can be used as NOx gas sensors. PMID:25544841

  12. Cyclic Nanostructures of Tungsten Oxide WO3n  (n=2–6 as NOx Gas Sensor: A Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Izadyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s WO3-based gas sensors have received a lot of attention, because of important role as a sensitive layer for detection of the small quantities of  NOx. In this research, a theoretical study has been done on the sensing properties of different cyclic nanoclusters of WO3n  (n=2–6 for NOx  (x=1,2 gases. Based on the calculated adsorption energies by B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, from the different orientations of  NOx molecule on the tungsten oxide clusters, O–N⋯W was preferred. Different sizes of the mentioned clusters have been analyzed and W2O6 cluster was chosen as the best candidate for NOx detection from the energy viewpoint. Using the concepts of the chemical hardness and electronic charge transfer, some correlations between the energy of adsorption and interaction energy have been established. These analyses confirmed that the adsorption energy will be boosted with charge transfer enhancement. However, the chemical hardness relationship is reversed. Finally, obtained results from the natural bond orbital and electronic density of states analysis confirmed the electronic charge transfer from the adsorbates to WO3 clusters and Fermi level shifting after adsorption, respectively. The last parameter confirms that the cyclic clusters of tungsten oxide can be used as NOx gas sensors.

  13. An improved method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns an improved method of preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalyst precursors comprising...... combustible crystallization seeds upon which the catalyst metal oxide is coprecipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step....

  14. Volatility from copper and tungsten alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolik, G.R.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Piet, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accident scenarios for fusion power plants present the potential for release and transport of activated constituents volatilized from first wall and structural materials. The extent of possible mobilization and transport of these activated species, many of which are ''oxidation driven'', is being addressed by the Fusion Safety Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report presents experimental measurements of volatilization from a copper alloy in air and steam and from a tungsten alloy in air. The major elements released included zinc from the copper alloy and rhenium and tungsten from the tungsten alloy. Volatilization rates of several constituents of these alloys over temperatures ranging from 400 to 1200 degree C are presented. These values represent release rates recommended for use in accident assessment calculations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Underwater explosive compaction-sintering of tungsten-copper coating on a copper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xiaojie; Yan, Honghao; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Saiwei

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated underwater explosive compaction-sintering for coating a high-density tungsten-copper composite on a copper surface. First, 50% W-50% Cu tungsten-copper composite powder was prepared by mechanical alloying. The composite powder was pre-compacted and sintered by hydrogen. Underwater explosive compaction was carried out. Finally, a high-density tungsten-copper coating was obtained by diffusion sintering of the specimen after explosive compaction. A simulation of the underwater explosive compaction process showed that the peak value of the pressure in the coating was between 3.0 and 4.8 GPa. The hardness values of the tungsten-copper layer and the copper substrate were in the range of 87-133 and 49 HV, respectively. The bonding strength between the coating and the substrate was approximately 100-105 MPa.

  16. UNS S31603 Stainless Steel Tungsten Inert Gas Welds Made with Microparticle and Nanoparticle Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Hung Tseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between tungsten inert gas (TIG welding of austenitic stainless steel assisted by microparticle oxides and that assisted by nanoparticle oxides. SiO2 and Al2O3 were used to investigate the effects of the thermal stability and the particle size of the activated compounds on the surface appearance, geometric shape, angular distortion, delta ferrite content and Vickers hardness of the UNS S31603 stainless steel TIG weld. The results show that the use of SiO2 leads to a satisfactory surface appearance compared to that of the TIG weld made with Al2O3. The surface appearance of the TIG weld made with nanoparticle oxide has less flux slag compared with the one made with microparticle oxide of the same type. Compared with microparticle SiO2, the TIG welding with nanoparticle SiO2 has the potential benefits of high joint penetration and less angular distortion in the resulting weldment. The TIG welding with nanoparticle Al2O3 does not result in a significant increase in the penetration or reduction of distortion. The TIG welding with microparticle or nanoparticle SiO2 uses a heat source with higher power density, resulting in a higher ferrite content and hardness of the stainless steel weld metal. In contrast, microparticle or nanoparticle Al2O3 results in no significant difference in metallurgical properties compared to that of the C-TIG weld metal. Compared with oxide particle size, the thermal stability of the oxide plays a significant role in enhancing the joint penetration capability of the weld, for the UNS S31603 stainless steel TIG welds made with activated oxides.

  17. Partial thermodynamic functions of hydrogen in complex hydrated vanadium(5) and tungsten(6) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.L.; Zakharova, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    The partial thermodynamic characteristics of hydrogen in the complex hydrated vanadium(5) and tungsten(6) oxides, obtained through the sol-gel method, of the general formula H 2 V 12-y W y O 31+δ ·nH 2 O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) are determined through the emf method. The changes in these values (ΔG-bar(H 2 ), ΔH-bar(H 2 ) and ΔS-bar(H 2 )) in dependence on the compound composition are discussed. It is established that ΔG-bar(H 2 ) phases, amorphous to X-rays are determined by the ΔS-bar(H 2 ) value and crystalline ones by ΔH-bar(H 2 ). The scheme of the phase relationships of the H 2 O-H-WO 3 -V 2 O 5 system, whereto the given phases are related are presented [ru

  18. Review on the explosive consolidation methods to fabricate tungsten based PFMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuming, E-mail: wangshuming@ustb.edu.cn; Sun, Chongxiao; Guo, Wenhao; Yan, Qingzhi; Zhou, Zhangjian; Zhang, Yingchun; Shen, Weiping; Ge, Changchun

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten is one of the best candidates for plasma-facing materials in the fusion reactors, owing to its many unique properties. In the development of tungsten-based Plasma Facing Materials/Components (PFMs/PFCs), materials scientists have explored many different, innovative preparation and processing routes to meet the requirement of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Some explosive consolidation technology intrinsic characteristics, which make it suitable for powder metallurgy (powders consolidation) and PFMs production, are the high pressure processing, highly short heating time and can be considered as a highly competitive green technology. In this work, an overview of explosive consolidation techniques applied to fabricate tungsten-based PFMs is presented. Emphasis is given to describe the main characteristics and potentialities of the explosive sintering, explosive consolidation techniques. The aspects presented and discussed in this paper indicate the explosive consolidation processes as a promising and competitive technology for tungsten-based PFMs processing.

  19. W-containing oxide layers obtained on aluminum and titanium by PEO as catalysts in thiophene oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnev, V. S.; Lukiyanchuk, I. V.; Vasilyeva, M. S.; Morozova, V. P.; Zelikman, V. M.; Tarkhanova, I. G.

    2017-11-01

    W-containing oxide layers fabricated on titanium and aluminum alloys by Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) have been tested in the reaction of the peroxide oxidation of thiophene. Samples with two types of coatings have been investigated. Coatings I contained tungsten oxide in the matrix and on the surface of amorphous silica-titania or silica-alumina layers, while coatings II comprised crystalline WO3 and/or Al2(WO4)3. Aluminum-supported catalyst containing a smallest amount of transition metals in the form of tungsten oxides and manganese oxides in low oxidation levels showed high activity and stability.

  20. Preparation and characterization of polyindole - iron oxide nanocomposite electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasudha, G.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A novel polyindole-iron oxide containing LiClO 4 solid polymer electrolyte has been prepared. The diverse property of magnetic nanoparticle has elicited wide interest from the point of view of technological applications. Their properties are known to be strongly dependent on size, anisotropy and inter particle interactions. The proton conducting materials has received considerable attention as electrolyte materials in technological applications such as fuel cells, sensors and electrochromic display. In this work, polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite containing LiClO 4 was prepared by in situ polymerization. The indole was polymerized in the presence of iron oxide, using ammonium peroxy disulphate as an oxidizing agent. The polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, IR, SEM, TGA and TEM. The iron oxide nano particles was incorporated into polyindole and was confirmed by XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface Morphology and thermal stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and SEM respectively. The ionic conductivity of polyindole electrolyte was analyzed from impedance spectrum. The prepared polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite could be used as solid electrolyte in lithium ion batteries

  1. Mechanistic Understanding of Tungsten Oxide In-Plane Nanostructure Growth via Sequential Infiltration Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Jin; Suh, Hyo Seon; Zhou, Chun; Mane, Anil U.; Lee, Byeongdu; Kim, Soojeong; Emery, Jonathan D.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Nealey, Paul F.; Fenter, Paul; Fister, Timothy T.

    2018-02-21

    Tungsten oxide (WO3-x) nanostructures with hexagonal in-plane arrangements were fabricated by sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), using the selective interaction of gas phase precursors with functional groups in one domain of a block copolymer (BCP) self-assembled template. Such structures are highly desirable for various practical applications and as model systems for fundamental studies. The nanostructures were characterized by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, grazing-incidence small/wide-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS/GIWAXS), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements at each stage during the SIS process and subsequent thermal treatments, to provide a comprehensive picture of their evolution in morphology, crystallography and electronic structure. In particular, we discuss the critical role of SIS Al2O3 seeds toward modifying the chemical affinity and free volume in a polymer for subsequent infiltration of gas phase precursors. The insights into SIS growth obtained from this study are valuable to the design and fabrication of a wide range of targeted nanostructures.

  2. Issues associated with the use of the Tungsten-188/Rhenium188 generator and concentrator system and preparation of Re-188 HDD: A report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F.Jr.; Turner, J.H.; Jeong, J.-M.; Padhy, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The ready availability of no-carrier-added Rhenium-188 from the Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator represents an important source of a therapeutic radioisotope for a broad range of therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, rheumatology and interventional cardiology. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is coordinating a clinical trial involving the use of Rhenium188-Lipiodol for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. This report summarizes the experience of investigators at ten participating centres associated with the use and performance of the Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generators and the preparation and handling of the Re-188 HDD agent. This evaluation has demonstrated the cost effective provision of on-site therapeutic activities of Rhenium-188 and recommendations are made for further development of the next generator prototype in light of this international experience. The high bolus volumes (20-40 ml) of the ORNL generator requires post elution concentration of the Re-188 bolus by passage through the tandem silver cation/anion column system. The high back pressure often encountered during generator elution through the silver cation/anion concentrator system has been identified as a potential problem. The details of a method involving in house preparation of the silver cation columns were provided and implementation of this method for Re-188 bolus concentration is recommended. It is also recommended that ORNL investigators reassess the possibility of increasing Tungsten generator loading capacity and the use of higher specific activity Tungsten-188, with a view to reducing the generator bolus volume. The Re-188 HDD/Lipiodol conjugate?;ate is used in this IAEA trial for radioembolytic therapy of primary liver cancer, and methods for preparation of Re-188 HDD and its extraction into Lipiodol are discussed. Since Re-188 HDD binds to glass surfaces, the recovery yields are variable and can be as low as 40-45%. In an effort to maximize the

  3. Influence of variable tungsten valency on optical transmittance and radiation hardness of lead tungstate (PWO) scintillation crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Burachas, S; Makov, I; Saveliev, Yu; Ippolitov, M S; Man'ko, V; Nikulin, S P; Nyanin, A; Vasilev, A; Apanasenko, A; Tamulaitis, G

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to interpret the radiation hardness of PbWO//4 (PWO) scintillators is developed by revealing importance of the inclusions of tungsten oxides WO//3//-//x with variable valency. It is demonstrated that the influence of the ionizing radiation on PWO is, in many aspects, similar to the effect of the high-temperature annealing in oxygenless ambient. In both cases, a valency change of the tungsten oxides is initiated and results in induced absorption and, consequently, in crystal coloration. In the PWO crystals doped with L//2O//3 (L = Y, La, Gd), the radiation hardness and the optical properties are mainly affected by inclusions of W//1//-//yL//yO//3//- //x (0 less than x less than 0.3) instead of inclusions of WO//3//- //x prevailing in the undoped samples. It is demonstrated that the radiation-induced bleaching and the photochromic effect of PWO are caused by phase transitions in the inclusions of tungsten oxide. Thermodynamic conditions for the phase transitions are discussed and the optimal oxid...

  4. Further development of the tungsten-fibre reinforced tungsten composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gietl, Hanns; Hoeschen, Till; Riesch, Johann [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aumann, Martin; Coenen, Jan [Forschungszentrum Juelich, IEK4, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Huber, Philipp [Lehrstuhl fuer Textilmaschinenbau und Institut fuer Textiltechnik (ITA), 52062 Aachen (Germany); Neu, Rudolf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For the use in a fusion device tungsten has a unique property combination. The brittleness below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and the embrittlement during operation e.g. by overheating, neutron irradiation are the main drawbacks for the use of pure tungsten. Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites utilize extrinsic mechanisms to improve the toughness. After proofing that this idea works in principle the next step is the conceptual proof for the applicability in fusion reactors. This will be done by producing mock-ups and testing them in cyclic high heat load tests. For this step all constituents of the composite, which are fibre, matrix and interface, and all process steps need to be investigated. Tungsten fibres are investigated by means of tension tests to find the optimum diameter and pretreatment. New interface concepts are investigated to meet the requirements in a fusion reactor, e.g. high thermal conductivity, low activation. In addition weaving processes are evaluated for their use in the fibre preform production. This development is accompanied by an extensive investigation of the materials properties e.g. single fibre tension tests.

  5. Evaluation of removal efficiency of residual diclofenac in aqueous solution by nanocomposite tungsten-carbon using design of experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, M H; Mokhtari, M; Raeisi, Z; Ehrampoush, M H; Sadeghian, H A

    2017-09-01

    Wastewater containing pharmaceutical residual components must be treated before being discharged to the environment. This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of tungsten-carbon nanocomposite in diclofenac removal using design of experiment (DOE). The 27 batch adsorption experiments were done by choosing three effective parameters (pH, adsorbent dose, and initial concentration) at three levels. The nanocomposite was prepared by tungsten oxide and activated carbon powder in a ratio of 1 to 4 mass. The remaining concentration of diclofenac was measured by a spectrometer with adding reagents of 2, 2'-bipyridine, and ferric chloride. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine the main and interaction effects. The equilibrium time for removal process was determined as 30 min. It was observed that the pH had the lowest influence on the removal efficiency of diclofenac. Nanocomposite gave a high removal at low concentration of 5.0 mg/L. The maximum removal for an initial concentration of 5.0 mg/L was 88.0% at contact time of 30 min. The results of ANOVA showed that adsorbent mass was among the most effective variables. Using DOE as an efficient method revealed that tungsten-carbon nanocomposite has high efficiency in the removal of residual diclofenac from the aqueous solution.

  6. High surface area synthesis, electrochemical activity, and stability of tungsten carbide supported Pt during oxygen reduction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhina, H.; Campbell, S.; Kesler, O.

    The oxidation of carbon catalyst supports to carbon dioxide gas leads to degradation in catalyst performance over time in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The electrochemical stability of Pt supported on tungsten carbide has been evaluated on a carbon-based gas diffusion layer (GDL) at 80 °C and compared to that of HiSpec 4000™ Pt/Vulcan XC-72R in 0.5 M H 2SO 4. Due to other electrochemical processes occurring on the GDL, detailed studies were also performed on a gold mesh substrate. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was measured both before and after accelerated oxidation cycles between +0.6 V and +1.8 V vs. RHE. Tafel plots show that the ORR activity remained high even after accelerated oxidation tests for Pt/tungsten carbide, while the ORR activity was extremely poor after accelerated oxidation tests for HiSpec 4000™. In order to make high surface area tungsten carbide, three synthesis routes were investigated. Magnetron sputtering of tungsten on carbon was found to be the most promising route, but needs further optimization.

  7. High surface area synthesis, electrochemical activity, and stability of tungsten carbide supported Pt during oxygen reduction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhina, H. [Automotive fuel cell corporation, 9000 Glenlyon Parkway, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 5 King' s College Road, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Campbell, S. [Automotive fuel cell corporation, 9000 Glenlyon Parkway, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 5 King' s College Road, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    The oxidation of carbon catalyst supports to carbon dioxide gas leads to degradation in catalyst performance over time in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The electrochemical stability of Pt supported on tungsten carbide has been evaluated on a carbon-based gas diffusion layer (GDL) at 80 C and compared to that of HiSpec 4000 trademark Pt/Vulcan XC-72R in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Due to other electrochemical processes occurring on the GDL, detailed studies were also performed on a gold mesh substrate. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was measured both before and after accelerated oxidation cycles between +0.6 V and +1.8 V vs. RHE. Tafel plots show that the ORR activity remained high even after accelerated oxidation tests for Pt/tungsten carbide, while the ORR activity was extremely poor after accelerated oxidation tests for HiSpec 4000 trademark. In order to make high surface area tungsten carbide, three synthesis routes were investigated. Magnetron sputtering of tungsten on carbon was found to be the most promising route, but needs further optimization. (author)

  8. The Effectof Underwater Explosion on the Kinetics of Alkaline Leaching of Roasted Tungsten Carbide Scraps for Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    BAIK, Seung Woo; SHIBAYAMA, Atsushi; MURATA, Kenji; FUJITA, Toyohisa

    2004-01-01

    Wasted tungsten scraps are important resources for recycling, however, the mechanical recycle process of tungsten has a difficulty for recycling due to its mechanical strength. Underwater explosion fracturing technique was designed for solving this problem. The kinetics for alkaline leaching of roasted tungsten alloy scraps with different size distribution prepared by two ways of crushing technique has been investigated to evaluate the effect of the underwater explosion-crushing. The merit of...

  9. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Michael

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation. The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  10. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D 2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  11. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, M

    2004-07-01

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. . Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D{sub 2} molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. . Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  12. Cyclic Nanostructures of Tungsten Oxide (WO3) n   (n = 2-6) as NO x Gas Sensor: A Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadyar, Mohammad; Jamsaz, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Today's WO3-based gas sensors have received a lot of attention, because of important role as a sensitive layer for detection of the small quantities of  NO x . In this research, a theoretical study has been done on the sensing properties of different cyclic nanoclusters of (WO3) n   (n = 2-6) for NO x   (x = 1,2) gases. Based on the calculated adsorption energies by B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, from the different orientations of  NO x molecule on the tungsten oxide clusters, O-N⋯W was preferred. Different sizes of the mentioned clusters have been analyzed and W2O6 cluster was chosen as the best candidate for NO x detection from the energy viewpoint. Using the concepts of the chemical hardness and electronic charge transfer, some correlations between the energy of adsorption and interaction energy have been established. These analyses confirmed that the adsorption energy will be boosted with charge transfer enhancement. However, the chemical hardness relationship is reversed. Finally, obtained results from the natural bond orbital and electronic density of states analysis confirmed the electronic charge transfer from the adsorbates to WO3 clusters and Fermi level shifting after adsorption, respectively. The last parameter confirms that the cyclic clusters of tungsten oxide can be used as NO x gas sensors.

  13. A Silica-Supported Monoalkylated Tungsten Dioxo Complex Catalyst for Olefin Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Niladri

    2018-02-15

    A well-defined silica-supported monoalkylated tungsten dioxo complex [(Si-O-)W(=O)(CH-Bu)] was prepared by treatment of highly dehydroxylated silica (SiO: silica treated at 700 °C under high vacuum) with an ionic precursor complex [NEt][W(=O)(CH-Bu)]. The identity of the resulting neutral monoalkylated tungsten dioxo surface complex was established by means of elemental microanalysis and spectroscopic studies (IR, solid-state NMR, Raman, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies). The supported tungsten complex was found to act as a precatalyst for the self-metathesis of 1-octene in a batch reactor. The mechanistic implications of this reaction are discussed with the support of DFT calculations highlighting the potential occurrence of thus-far unexplored mechanistic pathways.

  14. A Silica-Supported Monoalkylated Tungsten Dioxo Complex Catalyst for Olefin Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Niladri; Barman, Samir; Minenkov, Yury; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Ma, Tao; Qureshi, Ziyauddin; Cavallo, Luigi; D'Elia, Valerio; Gates, Bruce C.; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    A well-defined silica-supported monoalkylated tungsten dioxo complex [(Si-O-)W(=O)(CH-Bu)] was prepared by treatment of highly dehydroxylated silica (SiO: silica treated at 700 °C under high vacuum) with an ionic precursor complex [NEt][W(=O)(CH-Bu)]. The identity of the resulting neutral monoalkylated tungsten dioxo surface complex was established by means of elemental microanalysis and spectroscopic studies (IR, solid-state NMR, Raman, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies). The supported tungsten complex was found to act as a precatalyst for the self-metathesis of 1-octene in a batch reactor. The mechanistic implications of this reaction are discussed with the support of DFT calculations highlighting the potential occurrence of thus-far unexplored mechanistic pathways.

  15. The Risk Evaluation of Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticles in Cultured Rat Liver Cells for Its Safe Applications in Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Turkez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten (VI oxide (WO3 nanoparticles (NPs are used for many industrial purposes in everyday life. However, their effects on human health have not been sufficiently evaluated. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the toxicity potentials of various concentrations (0 to 1000 ppm of WO3NPs (<100 nm particle size in cultured primary rat hepatocytes. The results of cell viability assay showed that the higher concentrations of dispersed WO3 NPs (300, 500 and 1000 ppm caused significant (p<0.05 decreases of cell viability. Also, dose dependent negative alterations were observed in oxidative status and antioxidant capacity levels after the application of WO3 in cultured rat primary hepatocytes. The results of genotoxicity tests revealed that these NPs did not cause significant increases of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs but increased 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG levels as compared to the control culture.

  16. Oxidation of cyclic amines by molybdenum(II and tungsten(II halocarbonyls, [M(CO4X2]2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mbuvi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The molybdenum(II and tungsten(II halocarbonyls, [M(CO4X2]2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br react with a large excess of the nitrogen bases, 1-methylpyrrolidine, 1-methylpiperidine, 1-ethylpiperidine and 2-ethylpiperidine to give aminecarbonyl complexes of the type M(CO3L3 (L= alkylamine. Excess piperidine reacts with the tungsten halocarbonyls, [W(CO4X2]2 (X = Cl, Br, to give the trans isomer of the complex, W(CO3(C5H11N3. The halogens were recovered as the amminium salts, amine, HX. The oxidized amine dimerized to form a yellow product which was recovered as an oily liquid but in very small amounts. However, in the reaction between Mo(CO4Br2 and 1-ethylpiperidine, a yellow crystalline solid, with a melting point of 224 oC was recovered in sufficient amounts for elemental analysis, melting point and spectral data. Its mass spectrum showed a molecular ion peak at m+/z = 222, a clear evidence that the oxidized amine dimerizes. The cyclic dibasic amine piperazine, C4H10N2 is not, however, oxidized by these halocarbonyls but rather it reacts by substituting some CO groups to form products of the type, M(CO3(C4H10N22X2 (M = Mo, W; X = Cl, Br. Products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV, 1H NMR and mass spectrometry.

  17. Spark plasma sintering of tungsten-yttrium oxide composites from chemically synthesized nanopowders and microstructural characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, M.A.; Wahlberg, Sverker; Bergqvist, Hans; Salem, H.G.; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2011-01-01

    Nano-crystalline W-1%Y 2 O 3 (wt.%) powder was produced by a modified solution chemical reaction of ammonium paratungstate (APT) and yttrium nitrate. The precursor powder was found to consist of particles of bimodal morphology i.e. large APT-like particles up to 20 μm and rectangular yttrium containing ultrafine plates. After thermal processing tungsten crystals were evolved from W-O-Y plate like particles. spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to consolidate the powder at 1100 and 1200 deg. C for different holding times in order to optimize the sintering conditions to yield high density but with reduced grain growth. Dispersion of yttrium oxide enhanced the sinterability of W powder with respect to lanthanum oxide. W-1%Y 2 O 3 composites with sub-micron grain size showed improved density and mechanical properties as compared to W-La 2 O 3 composites. Sample sintered in two steps showed improved density, due to longer holding time at lower temperature (900 deg. C) and less grain growth due to shorter holding time at higher temperature i.e. 1 min at 1100 deg. C.

  18. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of tungsten slugs.

  19. Effect of two-stage sintering process on microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS tungsten heavy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Seung I. [International Center for Young Scientists, National Institute for Materials Science 1-1, Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Ryu, Ho J. [DUPIC, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shhong@kaist.ac.kr

    2007-06-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) tungsten heavy alloys have been considered as promising candidates for advanced kinetic energy penetrator due to their characteristic fracture mode compared to conventional tungsten heavy alloy. In order to obtain high relative density, the ODS tungsten heavy alloy needs to be sintered at higher temperature for longer time, however, induces growth of tungsten grains. Therefore, it is very difficult to obtain controlled microstructure of ODS tungsten heavy alloy having fine tungsten grains with full densification. In this study, two-stage sintering process, consisted of primary solid-state sintering and followed by secondary liquid phase sintering, was introduced for ODS tungsten heavy alloys. The mechanically alloyed 94W-4.56Ni-1.14Fe-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders are solid-state sintered at 1300-1450 deg. C for 1 h in hydrogen atmosphere, and followed by liquid phase sintering temperature at 1465-1485 deg. C for 0-60 min. The microstructure of ODS tungsten heavy alloys showed high relative density above 97%, with contiguous tungsten grains after primary solid-state sintering. The microstructure of solid-state sintered ODS tungsten heavy alloy was changed into spherical tungsten grains embedded in W-Ni-Fe matrix during secondary liquid phase sintering. The two-stage sintered ODS tungsten heavy alloy from mechanically alloyed powders showed finer microstructure and higher mechanical properties than conventional liquid phase sintered alloy. The mechanical properties of ODS tungsten heavy alloys are dependent on the microstructural parameters such as tungsten grain size, matrix volume fraction and tungsten/tungsten contiguity, which can be controlled through the two-stage sintering process.

  20. Tensile behaviour of drawn tungsten wire used in tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesch, J; Feichtmayer, A; Fuhr, M; Gietl, H; Höschen, T; Neu, R; Almanstötter, J; Coenen, J W; Linsmeier, Ch

    2017-01-01

    In tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (W f /W) the brittleness problem of tungsten is solved by utilizing extrinsic toughening mechanisms. The properties of the composite are very much related to the properties of the drawn tungsten wire used as fibre reinforcements. Its high strength and capability of ductile deformation are ideal properties facilitating toughening of W f /W. Tensile tests have been used for determining mechanical properties and study the deformation and the fracture behaviour of the wire. Tests of as-fabricated and straightened drawn wires with a diameter between 16 and 150 μ m as well as wire electrochemically thinned to a diameter of 5 μ m have been performed. Engineering stress–strain curves and a microscopic analysis are presented with the focus on the ultimate strength. All fibres show a comparable stress–strain behaviour comprising necking followed by a ductile fracture. A reduction of the diameter by drawing leads to an increase of strength up to 4500 MPa as a consequence of a grain boundary hardening mechanism. Heat treatment during straightening decreases the strength whereas electrochemical thinning has no significant impact on the mechanical behaviour. (paper)

  1. Preparation and characterization of tempered tungsten layers on single crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzsche, K.; Knedlik, C.; Tippmann, H.; Spiess, L.; Harman, R.; Vanek, O.; Tvarozek, V.

    1984-01-01

    Tungsten layers have been deposited on single crystalline silicon by sputtering and characterized by measurements of the sheet resistance by a linear four point method and the van der Pauw method. The influence of tempering under argon on the resistance has been studied. By means of the RBS spectroscopy it was found that the increase in the specific resistance is caused by interdiffusion

  2. A novel composite electrode based on tungsten oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes for the electrochemical determination of paracetamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Duzmen, Sehriban; Teker, Tugce; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a composite of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the quantification of paracetamol (PR). Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed for the characterization of the nanocomposite layer. Compared with a bare GCE and a GCE modified with CNTs, the proposed electrode (WO 3 NPs/CNTs/GCE) exhibited a well-defined redox couple for PR and a marked enhancement of the current response. The experimental results also showed that ascorbic acid (AA) did not interfere with the selective determination of PR. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of PR in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.0 using square wave voltammetry (SWV). The peak current increased linearly with the concentration of PR in the range of 1.0 × 10 −9 –2.0 × 10 −7 M. The detection limit (LOD) was 5.54 × 10 −11 M (based on 3 S b /m). The proposed voltammetric sensor provided long-time stability, improved voltammetric behavior and good reproducibility for PR. The selective, accurate and precise determination of PR makes the proposed electrode of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. - Highlights: • A voltammetric nanosensor was prepared using nanoparticles of WO 3 and CNTs. • A selective quantification of paracetamol was carried out in the presence of AA. • A linear plot was obtained for current responses versus concentrations over the range from 1.0 × 10 −9 to 2.0 × 10 −7 M. • A detection limit of 554 pM was obtained for paracetamol using the proposed nanosensor. • An accurate quantification makes the proposed nanosensor of great interest for public health

  3. Tritium Decay Helium-3 Effects in Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Merrill, B. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    retention in helium-3 bubble. This paper reports the initial experimental observation of tritium-decay helium-3 in tungsten exposed to deuterium/tritium plasma along with electron microscope analysis and also discusses a Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) analysis of tritium-decay helium-3 effects on tritium retention in tungsten for DEMO and future fusion reactor. [1] Y. Hatano, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 53 (2013) 073006 [2] M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008 [3] M. Sawan, Fus. Sci. Technol. 66 (2014) 272 [4] T. Otsuka, Fus. Sci. Technol. 60 (2011) 1539 This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  4. Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, Erik Q.; Cafasso, Danielle E.; Lee, Karen W.M.; Pierce, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals. -- Highlights: ► Intratracheal instillation of W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe induces lung inflammation in rats. ► W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe alter expression of oxidative stress and toxicity genes. ► W

  5. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  6. Methanol electro-oxidation on platinum modified tungsten carbides in direct methanol fuel cells: a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Tian; Lin, Xiao; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Hu, P; Sun, Shi-Gang; Chu, You-Qun; Ma, Chun-An; Lin, Wen-Feng

    2015-10-14

    In exploration of low-cost electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), Pt modified tungsten carbide (WC) materials are found to be great potential candidates for decreasing Pt usage whilst exhibiting satisfactory reactivity. In this work, the mechanisms, onset potentials and activity for electrooxidation of methanol were studied on a series of Pt-modified WC catalysts where the bare W-terminated WC(0001) substrate was employed. In the surface energy calculations of a series of Pt-modified WC models, we found that the feasible structures are mono- and bi-layer Pt-modified WCs. The tri-layer Pt-modified WC model is not thermodynamically stable where the top layer Pt atoms tend to accumulate and form particles or clusters rather than being dispersed as a layer. We further calculated the mechanisms of methanol oxidation on the feasible models via methanol dehydrogenation to CO involving C-H and O-H bonds dissociating subsequently, and further CO oxidation with the C-O bond association. The onset potentials for the oxidation reactions over the Pt-modified WC catalysts were determined thermodynamically by water dissociation to surface OH* species. The activities of these Pt-modified WC catalysts were estimated from the calculated kinetic data. It has been found that the bi-layer Pt-modified WC catalysts may provide a good reactivity and an onset oxidation potential comparable to pure Pt and serve as promising electrocatalysts for DMFCs with a significant decrease in Pt usage.

  7. Sol-gel preparation of uranium oxide spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, J.; Urbanek, V.

    1978-01-01

    Information is presented on problems of preparing nuclear fuel by the sol-gel method. Basic data on different process types are given. A more detailed description of the method of preparation of spherical particles of uranium oxide gel developed and used at the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez is given. Advantages and disadvantages of sol-gel materials are discussed in comparison with fuel materials prepared by classical precipitation methods. The feasibility of the sol-gel methods for preparing other materials is shortly mentioned and their application outlined. (author)

  8. Co-deposition of rhodium and tungsten films for the first-mirror on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marot, Laurent; Steiner, Roland; Gantenbein, Markus; Mathys, Daniel; Meyer, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    The detailed characterizations of rhodium/tungsten films prepared by co-deposition using a dual magnetron sputtering have been carried out on silicon substrates at room temperature. Effects of the tungsten incorporated in the film on the chemical bonding state, optical reflectivity and crystallinity were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), reflectivity measurements, X-rays diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The incorporation of tungsten changes the films crystalline structure i.e. leading to Rh 3 W formation. The reflectivity of the films decreases linearly with the decrease of rhodium concentration. XPS and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) measurements show a positive shift of the core level binding energy of rhodium which is coupled to a shift of the Rh d-band ΔE d away from the Fermi level. Opposite shifts are observed for tungsten.

  9. WO3 nano-ribbons: their phase transformation from tungstite (WO3·H2O) to tungsten oxide (WO3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Majid; Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Younesi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) nano-ribbons (NRs) were obtained by annealing tungstite (WO3·H2O) NRs. The latter was synthesized below room temperature using a simple, environmentally benign, and low cost aging treatment of precursors made by adding hydrochloric acid to diluted sodium tungstate solutions (...

  10. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Che

    Full Text Available We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver. Keywords: Surface second-harmonic generation, Nonlinear optics, Metal thin films

  11. Preparation of Ba1-xSrxWO4 and Ba1-xCaxWO4 films on tungsten plate by mechanically assisted solution reaction at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangappa, Dinesh; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Yoshimura, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Preparation of the alkaline earth tungstate films such as Ba 1-x Sr x WO 4 and Ba 1-x Ca x WO 4 on the tungsten substrate was studied with a simple solution process assisted with the ball rotation at room temperature. The solid solution formation and limitations, the effect of oxidizing agent H 2 O 2 and alkaline earth ions concentration on the dissolution of W substrate and the growth of Ba 1-x Sr x WO 4 and Ba 1-x Ca x WO 4 films were studied in detail. The ball rotation assistance plays a very important role to enhance the dissolution of the W substrate and mass transport of the reactant species such as alkaline earth ions and WO 4 2- ions onto the solid/solution interface region, where precipitation occurs. Therefore, the rate of film formation was accelerated by the ball rotation assistance to the reaction system. Ba-rich Ba 1-x Sr x WO 4 and Ba 1-x Ca x WO 4 films were formed without high energy or high temperature treatment

  12. Preparation and electrochemical characterization of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Wang Dianlong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites are prepared by hydrothermal reaction in distilled water or 5% ammonia aqueous solution at 130 deg. C, with MnO 2 -graphene oxide composites which are synthesized by a redox reaction between KMnO 4 and graphene oxide. → MnO 2 is deoxidized to MnOOH on graphene oxide through hydrothermal reaction without any extra reductants. → It is found that the electrochemical resistance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites decreases and the capacitance increases to 76 F g -1 when hydrothermal reaction is conducted in ammonia aqueous solution. → MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites prepared by hydrothermal reaction in 5% ammonia aqueous solution have excellent capacitance retention ratio at scan rate from 5 mV s -1 to 40 mV s -1 . - Abstract: MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites are prepared by hydrothermal reaction in distilled water or 5% ammonia aqueous solution at 130 deg. C with MnO 2 -graphene oxide composites which are synthesized by a redox reaction between KMnO 4 and graphene oxide. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDAX) show MnO 2 is deoxidized to MnOOH on graphene oxide through hydrothermal reaction without any extra reductants. The electrochemical capacitance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites prepared in 5% ammonia aqueous solution is 76 F g -1 at current density of 0.1 A g -1 . Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) suggests the electrochemical resistance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites is reduced when hydrothermal reaction is conducted in ammonia aqueous solution. The relationship between the electrochemical capacitance and the structure of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites is characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results indicate the electrochemical performance of MnOOH nanowire-graphene oxide composites strongly depends on their

  13. Tungsten foil laminate for structural divertor applications – Analyses and characterisation of tungsten foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, Jens; Rieth, Michael; Dafferner, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Andreas; Yi Xiaoou; Armstrong, David E.J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been attempted for several years to synthesise a tungsten material with a low brittle-to-ductile transition temperature and a high fracture toughness that can be used for structural parts. It was shown in our previous work that tungsten foil is ductile at room temperature and that this ductility can be transformed to bulk by synthesising a tungsten laminate. In this work we want to focus on tungsten foil and assess the microstructure as well as the mechanical properties of the foil. The assessment of the microstructure of 0.1 mm tungsten foil will be performed using electron microscopy. It will be shown that the grains of the tungsten foil have a dimension of 0.5 μm × 3 μm × 15 μm and a clear texture in (1 0 0) 〈0 1 1〉. This texture becomes even more pronounced by annealing. Three-point-bending tests with tungsten foil, as-received, will define the barriers: ductile at room temperature and brittle in liquid nitrogen (−196 °C). This shows that the ductility is a thermally activated process. Recrystallised tungsten foil (annealed for 1 h/2700 °C) shows ductile material behaviour at 200 °C. The paper closes with a discussion on the reasons of the ductility of 0.1 mm tungsten foil. These might be the ultra fine grained (UFG) microstructure or, in other words, a nano microstructure (see tungsten foil as-received), the high amount of mobile edge dislocations, and/or the foil effect, which means that dislocations can move to the surface and are annihilated (see tungsten foil recrystallised).

  14. The use of tungsten as a chronically implanted material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Idil, A.; Donaldson, N.

    2018-04-01

    This review paper shows that tungsten should not generally be used as a chronically implanted material. The metal has a long implant history, from neuroscience, vascular medicine, radiography, orthopaedics, prosthodontics, and various other fields, primarily as a result of its high density, radiopacity, tensile strength, and yield point. However, a crucial material criterion for chronically implanted metals is their long-term resistance to corrosion in body fluids, either by inherently noble metallic surfaces, or by protective passivation layers of metal oxide. The latter is often assumed for elemental tungsten, with references to its ‘inertness’ and ‘stability’ common in the literature. This review argues that in the body, metallic tungsten fails this criterion, and will eventually dissolve into the soluble hexavalent form W6+, typically represented by the orthotungstate WO42- (monomeric tungstate) anion. This paper outlines the metal’s unfavourable corrosion thermodynamics in the human physiological environment, the chemical pathways to either metallic or metal oxide dissolution, the rate-limiting steps, and the corrosion-accelerating effects of reactive oxidising species that the immune system produces post-implantation. Multiple examples of implant corrosion have been reported, with failure by dissolution to varying extents up to total loss, with associated emission of tungstate ions and elevated blood serum levels measured. The possible toxicity of these corrosion products has also been explored. As the field of medical implants grows and designers explore novel solutions to medical implant problems, the authors recommend the use of alternative materials.

  15. Potentiometric determination of the tungsten content of tantalum-tungsten alloys with chromium II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavra, Z.; Ronen, S.; Levin, R.

    1977-05-01

    A method was developed for the potentiometric determination of the tungsten content of tantalum-tungsten alloys of different compositions. These were dissolved under conditions that enabled the tungsten content to be determined with chromium (II). Phosphoric acid was selected as a suitable complexing agent for the prevention of the precipitation of tungsten and tantalum compounds. The use of chromium (II) required an oxygen-tight system and therefore the work was carried out in suitable vessels for storage and tritation

  16. High temperature diffusion of hafnium in tungsten and a tungsten-hafnium carbide alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Y.; Zee, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Refractory metals and ceramics are used extensively in energy systems due to their high temperature properties. This is particularly important in direct conversion systems where thermal to electric conversion efficiency is a direct function of temperature. Tungsten, which has the highest melting temperature among elemental metals, does not possess sufficient creep resistance at temperature above 1,600 K. Different dispersion strengthened tungsten alloys have been developed to extend the usefulness of tungsten to higher temperatures. One of these alloys, tungsten with 0.4 mole percent of finely dispersed HfC particles (W-HfC), has the optimum properties for high temperature applications. Hafnium carbide is used as the strengthening agent due to its high chemical stability and its compatibility with tungsten. The presence of HfC particles retards the rate of grain growth as well as restricting dislocation motion. Both of which are beneficial for creep resistance. The long term behavior of this alloy depends largely on the evolution of its microstructure which is governed by the diffusion of its constituents. Data on the diffusion of carbon in tungsten and tungsten self-diffusion are available, but no direct measurements have been made on the diffusion of hafnium in tungsten. The only diffusion data available are estimated from a coarsening study and these data are highly unreliable. In this study, the diffusion behavior of hafnium in pure tungsten and in a W-HfC alloy was directly measured by means of Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). The selection of the W-HfC alloy is due to its importance in high temperature engineering applications, and its higher recrystallization temperature. The presence of HfC particles in tungsten restricts grain growth resulting in better high temperature creep resistance. The higher recrystallization temperature allows measurements to be made over a wider range of temperatures at a relatively constant grain size

  17. A density-functional theory approach to the existence and stability of molybdenum and tungsten sesquioxide polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Nils; Dronskowski, Richard [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie; RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance; Reimann, Christoph; Bredow, Thomas [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie; Weber, Dominik; Luedtke, Tobias; Lerch, Martin [Berlin Technische Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    2017-03-01

    The sesquioxides of molybdenum and tungsten have been reported as thin films or on surfaces as early as 1971, but the preparation of bulk materials and their crystal structures are still unknown up to the present day. We present a systematic ab initio approach to their possible syntheses and crystal structures applying complementary methods and basis-set types. For both compounds, the corundum structure is the most stable and does not display any imaginary frequencies. Calculations targeted at a high-pressure synthesis starting from the stable oxides and metals predict a reaction pressure of 15 GPa for Mo{sub 2}O{sub 3} and over 60 GPa for W{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  18. Synthesis and nature of heterogeneous catalysts of low-valent tungsten supported on alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, A.; Hucul, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Temperature-programed decomposition of catalysts prepared from zero-valent W(CO)/sub 6/ and alumina under rigorously air-free conditions showed a low-temperature carbon monoxide desorption peak at 110/sup 0/-172/sup 0/C, depending on alumina pretreatment, in which a relatively stable surface W(CO)/sub 3/ complex was formed; and a high-temperature carbon monoxide desorption peak at 257/sup 0/ to > 400/sup 0/C, which gave zero-valent tungsten if the ratio of hydroxyl groups of alumina to tungsten surface complexes was low, and hexavalent tungsten if the ratio was high. Up to about half the W(CO)/sub 6/ sublimated from the alumina during activation.

  19. Plasma etching of patterned tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franssila, S.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma etching of tungsten is discussed from the viewpoint of thin film structure and integrated circuit process engineering. The emphasis is on patterned tungsten etching for silicon device and X-ray mask fabrication. After introducing tungsten etch chemistries and mechanisms, microstructural aspects of tungsten films (crystal structure, grain size, film density, defects, impurities) in relation to etching are discussed. Approaches to etch process optimization are presented, and the current state-of-the-art of patterned tungsten etching is reviewed. (orig.)

  20. Physical Properties of Macroporous Tungsten Oxide Thin Films and Their Impact on the Photocurrent Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Riech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten trioxide (WO3 films were prepared using polystyrene spheres of two different diameters as a template in order to create porous layers. X-ray diffraction data and electron microscopy images show that annealed films exhibit polycrystalline structure with monoclinic phase and pore size of approximately hundred nanometers. The optical band gap energies have been determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy as 3.17 eV, and this value was not affected by sample morphology. Low temperature photoluminescence spectra exhibit broad band in the blue region. Deconvolutions of PL spectra show that there are two transitions which intensity depends on thin film pore size. We discuss the possible origin of this emissions associated with oxygen vacancies and surface states. A comparative study of the WO3 films used as photoanodes is presented and correlated with PL results.

  1. A strategic approach for preparation of oxide nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A microwave assisted solvothermal method is described for rapid preparation of nano-oxides. This method is based on exploiting differential dielectric constants to induce preferred heating and decomposition of the oxide precursors in the presence of suitable capping agents. This strategic approach has been used to ...

  2. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  3. In Situ Synthesis of Tungsten-Doped SnO2 and Graphene Nanocomposites for High-Performance Anode Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Shi, Liyi; Chen, Guorong; Ba, Chaoqun; Wang, Zhuyi; Zhu, Jiefang; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2017-05-24

    The composite of tungsten-doped SnO 2 and reduced graphene oxide was synthesized through a simple one-pot hydrothermal method. According to the structural characterization of the composite, tungsten ions were doped in the unit cells of tin dioxide rather than simply attaching to the surface. Tungsten-doped SnO 2 was in situ grown on the surface of graphene sheet to form a three-dimensional conductive network that enhanced the electron transportation and lithium-ion diffusion effectively. The issues of SnO 2 agglomeration and volume expansion could be also avoided because the tungsten-doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed on a graphene sheet. As a result, the nanocomposite electrodes of tungsten-doped SnO 2 and reduced graphene oxide exhibited an excellent long-term cycling performance. The residual capacity was still as high as 1100 mA h g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 after 100 cycles. It still remained at 776 mA h g -1 after 2000 cycles at the current density of 1A g -1 .

  4. Suppression of photo-bias induced instability for amorphous indium tungsten oxide thin film transistors with bi-layer structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Po-Tsun, E-mail: ptliu@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Chih-Jui [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-27

    This study investigates the instability induced by bias temperature illumination stress (NBTIS) for an amorphous indium-tungsten-oxide thin film transistor (a-IWO TFT) with SiO{sub 2} backchannel passivation layer (BPL). It is found that this electrical degradation phenomenon can be attributed to the generation of defect states during the BPL process, which deteriorates the photo-bias stability of a-IWO TFTs. A method proposed by adding an oxygen-rich a-IWO thin film upon the a-IWO active channel layer could effectively suppress the plasma damage to channel layer during BPL deposition process. The bi-layer a-IWO TFT structure with an oxygen-rich back channel exhibits superior electrical reliability of device under NBTIS.

  5. Glucose aided preparation of tungsten sulfide/multi-wall carbon nanotube hybrid and use as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jihuai; Yue, Gentian; Xiao, Yaoming; Huang, Miaoliang; Lin, Jianming; Fan, Leqing; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jeng-Yu

    2012-12-01

    The tungsten sulfide/multi-wall carbon nanotube (WS(2)/MWCNT) hybrid was prepared in the presence of glucose by the hydrothermal route. The hybrid materials were used as counter electrode in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The results of cyclic voltammetry measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the glucose aided prepared (G-A) WS(2)/MWCNT electrode had low charge-transfer resistance (R(ct)) and high electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction. The excellent electrochemical properties for (G-A) WS(2)/MWCNT electrode is due to the synergistic effects of WS(2) and MWCNTs, as well as amorphous carbon introduced by glucose. The DSSC based on the G-A WS(2)/MWCNT counter electrode achieved a high power conversion efficiency of 7.36%, which is comparable with the performance of the DSSC using Pt counter electrode (7.54%).

  6. Study on single step solid state synthesis of WC@C nanocomposite and electrochemical stability of synthesized WC@C & Pt/WC@C for alcohol oxidation (methanol/ethanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Gourav, E-mail: gsinghla@gmail.com; Singh, K., E-mail: kusingh@thapar.edu; Pandey, O.P., E-mail: oppandey@thapar.edu

    2016-04-25

    WC@C nano composite was prepared by a single step solid–state reaction through in situ reduction and carburization of WO{sub 3} in the presence of Mg and activated charcoal. The XRD results and thermodynamics analysis showed that the optimization of reaction temperature facilitates the reduction as well as carburization of tungsten oxide(s) at different reaction temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis of the product was done to assess the thermal stability in air. The Raman spectroscopy was used to find out the nature (amorphous/graphitic) of carbon in the obtained phase. The N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurement showed a narrow pore size distribution from 3 to 4 nm with BET surface area of up to 522.5 m{sup 2}/g. TEM/HRTEM images confirmed formation of the WC nano particles with spherical morphology. Electrochemical stability of pure and platinized carbide sample (Pt/WC) has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry in acidic media for alcohol (methanol and ethanol) oxidation. - Highlights: • Tungsten carbide nano powder was synthesized using charcoal as carbon source. • Formation of WC occurs through the formation of lower tungsten oxide. • CO{sub 2}/CO ratio effect the formation of WC. • Mesoporous tungsten carbide with surface areas 522.5 m{sup 2}/g obtained by using charcoal. • Pt modified WC powder showed higher electrochemical stability.

  7. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, G; Pintsuk, G; Linke, J; Hirai, T; Norajitra, P; Reiser, J; Giniyatulin, R; Makhankov, A; Mazul, I

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ∼14 MW m -2 , the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  8. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, G.; Hirai, T.; Norajitra, P.; Reiser, J.; Giniyatulin, R.; Makhankov, A.; Mazul, I.; Pintsuk, G.; Linke, J.

    2009-12-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ~14 MW m-2, the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  9. Validation of new ceramic materials from tungsten mining wastes. Mechanical properties; Validacion de nuevos materiales ceramicos a partir de rocas de desecho de mineria. Propiedades mecanicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Suarez, J. A.; Montoya Herrera, J.; Silva, A. P.; Peralbo Cano, R.; Castro-Gomes, J. P.

    2014-07-01

    New ceramic materials obtained from tungsten mining wastes, from region of Beira Interior in Portugal, with no commercial use, responsible for landscape and environmental problems are presented. These preshaped new ceramic products, prepared in a wide thermal range (800 degree centigrade to 1300 degree centigrade) was evaluated by mechanical test, but also was characterized the starting raw materials: tungsten wastes mining and industrial kaolin. Results, which also include a mineralogical characterization of ceramic products and morphologic evaluation of neoformed by scanning electron microscopy, show firstly, the feasibility of converting a large number of these wastes in marketable ceramics. Thanks to the experimentation carried out, the ability to generate ceramic materials is emphasized, without the presence of mineral clay, due to the particular composition of these waste of mining with content of acid, neutral and basic oxides. (Author)

  10. Ultrathin Tungsten Oxide Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites for Toluene Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hassan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based composites have gained great attention in the field of gas sensor fabrication due to their higher surface area with additional functional groups. Decorating one-dimensional (1D semiconductor nanomaterials on graphene also show potential benefits in gas sensing applications. Here we demonstrate the one-pot and low cost synthesis of W18O49 NWs/rGO composites with different amount of reduced graphene oxide (rGO which show excellent gas-sensing properties towards toluene and strong dependence on their chemical composition. As compared to pure W18O49 NWs, an improved gas sensing response (2.8 times higher was achieved in case of W18O49 NWs composite with 0.5 wt. % rGO. Promisingly, this strategy can be extended to prepare other nanowire based composites with excellent gas-sensing performance.

  11. Development of quantitative atomic modeling for tungsten transport study using LHD plasma with tungsten pellet injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H. A.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, D.; Goto, M.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Morita, S.

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative tungsten study with reliable atomic modeling is important for successful achievement of ITER and fusion reactors. We have developed tungsten atomic modeling for understanding the tungsten behavior in fusion plasmas. The modeling is applied to the analysis of tungsten spectra observed from plasmas of the large helical device (LHD) with tungsten pellet injection. We found that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission of W24+ to W33+ ions at 1.5-3.5 nm are sensitive to electron temperature and useful to examine the tungsten behavior in edge plasmas. We can reproduce measured EUV spectra at 1.5-3.5 nm by calculated spectra with the tungsten atomic model and obtain charge state distributions of tungsten ions in LHD plasmas at different temperatures around 1 keV. Our model is applied to calculate the unresolved transition array (UTA) seen at 4.5-7 nm tungsten spectra. We analyze the effect of configuration interaction on population kinetics related to the UTA structure in detail and find the importance of two-electron-one-photon transitions between 4p54dn+1- 4p64dn-14f. Radiation power rate of tungsten due to line emissions is also estimated with the model and is consistent with other models within factor 2.

  12. Preparation and characterization of several transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wold, A.; Dwight, K.

    1989-01-01

    The structure-property relationships of several conducting transition metal oxides, as well as their preparative methods, are presented in this paper. The importance of preparing homogeneous phases with precisely known stoichiometry is emphasized. A comparison is also made of the various techniques used to prepare both polycrystalline and single crystal samples. For transition metal oxides, the metallic properties are discussed either in terms of metal-metal distances which are short enough to result in metallic behavior, or in terms of the formation of a π* conduction band resulting from covalent metal-oxygen interactions. Metallic behavior is observed when the conduction bands are populated with either electrons or holes. The concentration of these carriers can be affected by either cation or anion substitutions. The discussion in this presentation will be limited to the elements Re, Ti, V, Cr, Mo, and Cu

  13. Micro/nano composited tungsten material and its high thermal loading behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jinglian, E-mail: fjl@csu.edu.cn; Han, Yong; Li, Pengfei; Sun, Zhiyu; Zhou, Qiang

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten (W) is considered as promising candidate material for plasma facing components (PFCs) in future fusion reactors attributing to its many excellent properties. Current commercial pure tungsten material in accordance with the ITER specification can well fulfil the performance requirements, however, it has defects such as coarse grains, high ductile–brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and relatively low recrystallization temperature compared with its using temperature, which cannot meet the harsh wall loading requirement of future fusion reactor. Grain refinement has been reported to be effective in improving the thermophysical and mechanical properties of W. In this work, rare earth oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and carbides (TiC/ZrC) were used as dispersion phases to refine W grains, and micro/nano composite technology with a process of “sol gel – heterogeneous precipitation – spray drying – hydrogen reduction – ordinary consolidation sintering” was invented to introduce these second-phase particles uniformly dispersed into W grains and grain-boundaries. Via this technology, fine-grain W materials with near-full density and relatively high mechanical properties compared with traditional pure W material were manufactured. Preliminary transient high-heat flux tests were performed to evaluate the thermal response under plasma disruption conditions, and the results show that the W materials prepared by micro/nano composite technology can endure high-heat flux of 200 MW/m{sup 2} (5 ms)

  14. Development of quantitative atomic modeling for tungsten transport study Using LHD plasma with tungsten pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H.A.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, D.; Goto, M.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative tungsten study with reliable atomic modeling is important for successful achievement of ITER and fusion reactors. We have developed tungsten atomic modeling for understanding the tungsten behavior in fusion plasmas. The modeling is applied to the analysis of tungsten spectra observed from currentless plasmas of the Large Helical Device (LHD) with tungsten pellet injection. We found that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines of W 24+ to W 33+ ions are very sensitive to electron temperature (Te) and useful to examine the tungsten behavior in edge plasmas. Based on the first quantitative analysis of measured spatial profile of W 44+ ion, the tungsten concentration is determined to be n(W 44+ )/n e = 1.4x10 -4 and the total radiation loss is estimated as ∼4 MW, of which the value is roughly half the total NBI power. (author)

  15. Heat load and deuterium plasma effects on SPS and WSP tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilémová Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten is a prime choice for armor material in future nuclear fusion devices. For the realization of fusion, it is necessary to address issues related to the plasma–armor interactions. In this work, several types of tungsten material were studied, i.e. tungsten prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS and by water stabilized plasma spraying (WSP technique. An intended surface porosity was created in the samples to model hydrogen/helium bubbles. The samples were subjected to a laser heat loading and a radiation loading of deuterium plasma to simulate edge plasma conditions of a nuclear fusion device (power density of 108 W/cm2 and 107 W/cm2, respectively, in the pulse intervals up to 200 ns. Thermally induced changes in the morphology and the damage to the studied surfaces are described. Possible consequences for the fusion device operation are pointed out.

  16. Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxides as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yaocai

    2012-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide as outstanding candidate electrode material for supercapacitor has been investigated. This thesis includes two topics. One is that three kinds of reduced graphene oxides were prepared by hydrothermal reduction under different pH conditions. The pH values were found to have great influence on the reduction of graphene oxides. Acidic and neutral media yielded reduced graphene oxides with more oxygen-functional groups, lower specific surface areas but broader pore size distributions than those in basic medium. Variations induced by the pH changes resulted in great differences in the supercapacitor performance. The graphene produced in the basic solution presented mainly electric double layer behavior with specific capacitance of 185 F/g, while the other two showed additional pseudocapacitance behavior with specific capacitance of 225 F/g (acidic) and 230 F/g (neutral), all at a constant current density of 1A/g. The other one is that different reduced graphene oxides were prepared via solution based hydrazine reduction, low temperature thermal reduction, and hydrothermal reduction. The as- prepared samples were then investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning electron microscope. The supercapacitor performances were also studied and the hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide exhibited the highest specific capacitance.

  17. One-step inkjet printing of tungsten oxide-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulphonate hybrid film and its applications in electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thi-Thuy-Nga, E-mail: thuysnga@gmail.com; Chan, Chih-Yu; He, Ju-Liang

    2016-03-31

    Hybrid film comprised tungsten oxide and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulphonate (WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS) was developed by applying one-step inkjet printing from an office inkjet printer. The WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized from commercial crystalline WO{sub 3} powder through a wet ball-milling process, which is a simple, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective method of using water as a green solvent and low-energy milling. The WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS inkjet ink was prepared by dispersing the as-milled WO{sub 3} and PEDOT:PSS in n-propanol and deionized water. The inkjet-printed WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS thin films show marked improvements of cathodic electrochromism over WO{sub 3} films: the transmittance change of 20% at 550 nm (visible region) and 35% at 900 nm (infrared region) along with the response time of 5.67/0.30 s in their colored/bleached state, and the electrochromic coloration efficiency of 27.86 cm{sup 2}/C at 550 nm and 69.64 cm{sup 2}/C at 900 nm. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by milling commercial crystalline WO{sub 3}. • Wet ball-milling was carried out by using water as a green solvent and low energy. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS hybrid ink was simply prepared by adding n-propanol and DI water. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were inkjet-printed via an office inkjet printer. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS films show better electrochromic performances than WO{sub 3} films.

  18. Effects of thermal treatment on the anodic growth of tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Y., E-mail: yqchai85@gmail.com; Tam, C.W.; Beh, K.P.; Yam, F.K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-08-03

    This work reports the investigation of the effects of thermal treatment on anodic growth tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}). The increase of the thermal treatment temperature above 400 °C significantly influences WO{sub 3} film where high porosity structure reduces to more compact film. As-grown film is amorphous, which transforms to monoclinic/orthorhombic phase upon annealing at 300–600 °C. With the reducing of porous structure, preferential growth of (002) plane shifts to (020) plane at 600 °C with more than twentyfold increase of peak's intensity compared to the film annealed at 500 °C. Films annealed at low thermal treatment show better ion intercalation and reversibility during electrochemical measurements; however, it has larger optical band gap. Photoelectrochemical measurement reveals that film annealed at 400 °C exhibits the best photocatalytic performance among the films annealed at 300–600 °C. - Highlights: • Porosity of the WO{sub 3} reduces as annealing temperature increases above 400 °C. • As-grown film is amorphous which transforms to monoclinic/orthorhombic upon annealing. • As-grown film shows better ion intercalation in electrochemical process. • Optical band gap of WO{sub 3} reduces as the annealing temperature increases. • Film annealed at 400 °C exhibits best photocatalytic performance.

  19. Tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films for application in advanced energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullapalli, S. K.; Vemuri, R. S.; Manciu, F. S.; Enriquez, J. L.; Ramana, C. V.

    2010-01-01

    Inherent processes in coal gasification plants produce hazardous hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which must be continuously and efficiently detected and removed before the fuel is used for power generation. An attempt has been made in this work to fabricate tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) thin films by radio-frequency reactive magnetron-sputter deposition. The impetus being the use of WO 3 films for H 2 S sensors in coal gasification plants. The effect of growth temperature, which is varied in the range of 30-500 deg. C, on the growth and microstructure of WO 3 thin films is investigated. Characterizations made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that the effect of temperature is significant on the microstructure of WO 3 films. XRD and SEM results indicate that the WO 3 films grown at room temperature are amorphous, whereas films grown at higher temperatures are nanocrystalline. The average grain-size increases with increasing temperature. WO 3 films exhibit smooth morphology at growth temperatures ≤300 deg. C while relatively rough at >300 deg. C. The analyses indicate that the nanocrystalline WO 3 films grown at 100-300 deg. C could be the potential candidates for H 2 S sensor development for application in coal gasification systems.

  20. Tungsten - Yttrium Based Nuclear Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Chessa, Jack; Martinenz, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem currently facing the nuclear science community in this 21st century is design and development of novel structural materials, which will have an impact on the next-generation nuclear reactors. The materials available at present include reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, dispersion strengthened reduced activation ferritic steels, and vanadium- or tungsten-based alloys. These materials exhibit one or more specific problems, which are either intrinsic or caused by reactors. This work is focussed towards tungsten-yttrium (W-Y) based alloys and oxide ceramics, which can be utilized in nuclear applications. The goal is to derive a fundamental scientific understanding of W-Y-based materials. In collaboration with University of Califonia -- Davis, the project is designated to demonstrate the W-Y based alloys, ceramics and composites with enhanced physical, mechanical, thermo-chemical properties and higher radiation resistance. Efforts are focussed on understanding the microstructure, manipulating materials behavior under charged-particle and neutron irradiation, and create a knowledge database of defects, elemental diffusion/segregation, and defect trapping along grain boundaries and interfaces. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  1. Hollow microspheres with a tungsten carbide kernel for PEMFC application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arbigny, Julien Bernard; Taillades, Gilles; Marrony, Mathieu; Jones, Deborah J; Rozière, Jacques

    2011-07-28

    Tungsten carbide microspheres comprising an outer shell and a compact kernel prepared by a simple hydrothermal method exhibit very high surface area promoting a high dispersion of platinum nanoparticles, and an exceptionally high electrochemically active surface area (EAS) stability compared to the usual Pt/C electrocatalysts used for PEMFC application.

  2. Tungsten oxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowire arrays as novel negative electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengmei; Zhan, Xueying; Cheng, Zhongzhou; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Qisheng; Xu, Kai; Safdar, Muhammad; He, Jun

    2015-02-11

    Among active pseudocapacitive materials, polypyrrole (PPy) is a promising electrode material in electrochemical capacitors. PPy-based materials research has thus far focused on its electrochemical performance as a positive electrode rather than as a negative electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). Here high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors are designed with tungsten oxide@PPy (WO3 @PPy) core-shell nanowire arrays and Co(OH)2 nanowires grown on carbon fibers. The WO3 @PPy core-shell nanowire electrode exhibits a high capacitance (253 mF/cm2) in negative potentials (-1.0-0.0 V). The ASCs packaged with CF-Co(OH)2 as a positive electrode and CF-WO3 @PPy as a negative electrode display a high volumetric capacitance up to 2.865 F/cm3 based on volume of the device, an energy density of 1.02 mWh/cm3 , and very good stability performance. These findings promote the application of PPy-based nanostructures as advanced negative electrodes for ASCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Textbook tests with tungsten

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Warmbein

    2010-01-01

    CERN's linear collider detector group joins forces with CALICE in building the world's first tungsten hadronic calorimeter.   Hadronic calorimeter prototype made of tungsten for the linear collider detector being equipped with CALICE scintillators. In a hall for test beam experiments at CERN, next to the CLOUD climate experiment and an irradiation facility, sits a detector prototype that is in many ways a first. It's the first ever hadronic sandwich calorimeter (HCal) prototype made of tungsten. It's the first prototype for a detector for the Compact Linear Collider Study CLIC, developed by the linear collider detector R&D group (LCD group) at CERN. And it's the first piece of hardware that results directly from the cooperation between CLIC and ILC detector study groups. Now its makers are keen to see first particle showers in their detector. The tungsten calorimeter has just moved from a workshop at CERN, where it was assembled from finely polished tungsten squares and triangles, into the ...

  4. Evaluation of feasibility of tungsten/oxide dispersion strengthened steel bonding with vanadium insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Akihiko; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Satoru; Nogami, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    A diffusion bonding (DB) technique to reduce thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between tungsten (W) and oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel (ODS-FS) was developed by applying a vanadium (V) alloy as an insert material. In order to suppress σ phase precipitation at the interface, DB of ODS-FS and V-4Cr-4Ti was carried out by introducing a Ti insert as a diffusion barrier between V-4Cr-4Ti and ODS-FS, and examined feasibility of W/V/Ti/ODS-FS joint for application to fusion reactor components by comparing the three-point bending strength and microstructure between the joints with and without a Ti diffusion barrier layer. It is shown that the fracture strength of the joint without a Ti insert was decreased by 25% after aging at 700°C for 100 h, but that with a Ti insert shows no change after the aging treatment up to 1000 h. The result indicates that the introduction of a Ti insert leads to the prevention of the formation of σ phase during aging and resultant control of the degradation of the bonding strength. (author)

  5. Recent progress in R and D on tungsten alloys for divertor structural and plasma facing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, S., E-mail: stefan.wurster@oeaw.ac.at [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austria and Association EURATOM-ÖAW, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Baluc, N.; Battabyal, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Crosby, T. [University of California, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Du, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); García-Rosales, C. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Técnicas de Gipuzkoa (CEIT), San Sebastián (Spain); Hasegawa, A. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University (Japan); Hoffmann, A. [Plansee Metall GmbH, Reutte (Austria); Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University (Japan); Kurishita, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Material Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (Japan); Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Li, H. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austria and Association EURATOM-ÖAW, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Chair of Atomistic Modelling and Design of Materials, University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria); Noh, S.; Reiser, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Riesch, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rieth, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Setyawan, W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Walter, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); You, J.-H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); and others

    2013-11-15

    Tungsten materials are candidates for plasma-facing components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the DEMOnstration power plant because of their superior thermophysical properties. Because these materials are not common structural materials like steels, knowledge and strategies to improve the properties are still under development. These strategies discussed here, include new alloying approaches and microstructural stabilization by oxide dispersion strengthened as well as TiC stabilized tungsten based materials. The fracture behavior is improved by using tungsten laminated and tungsten wire reinforced materials. Material development is accompanied by neutron irradiation campaigns. Self-passivation, which is essential in case of loss-of-coolant accidents for plasma facing materials, can be achieved by certain amounts of chromium and titanium. Furthermore, modeling and computer simulation on the influence of alloying elements and heat loading and helium bombardment will be presented.

  6. Oxygen-ion-migration-modulated bipolar resistive switching and complementary resistive switching in tungsten/indium tin oxide/gold memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinghui; Zhang, Qiuhui; Cui, Nana; Xu, Weiwei; Wang, Kefu; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Qixing

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report our investigation of room-temperature-fabricated tungsten/indium tin oxide/gold (W/ITO/Au) resistive random access memory (RRAM), which exhibits asymmetric bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behavior. The device displays good write/erase endurance and data retention properties. The device shows complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics after controlling the compliance current. A WO x layer electrically formed at the W/ITO in the forming process. Mobile oxygen ions within ITO migrate toward the electrode/ITO interface and produce a semiconductor-like layer that acts as a free-carrier barrier. The CRS characteristic here can be elucidated in light of the evolution of an asymmetric free-carrier blocking layer at the electrode/ITO interface.

  7. Preparation and characterization of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X. P.; Yao, B. H.; Pan, Q. H.; Pen, C.; Zhang, C. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts have been prepared by two methods and characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by a photocatalytic reactor and an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results showed that-BaSb2O5•4H2O, BaSb2O6 two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts were successfully prepared in this experiment and they showed good photocatalytic properties. In addition, BaSb2O6 morphology showed more regular, microstructure and better catalytic performance.

  8. Toughness enhancement of tungsten reinforced with short tungsten fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, L.H. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fang, Q.F., E-mail: qffang@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, T.; Wang, X.P.; Hao, T.; Liu, C.S. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-04-06

    The feasibility and toughening efficiency of the short tungsten fibre reinforcement on tungsten were investigated in W{sub f}/W composites fabricated by powder metallurgy method of spark plasma sintering. Fibres in the composites presented a Z-free laminar structure. Partial recrystallization of fibre grains occurred but fibre crack or damage was not detected. Fracture energy of W{sub f}/W composites was estimated in tensile tests, and the results indicated great toughness improvement over pure tungsten in virtue of frictional pullout and plastic deformation of fibres, and matrix-fibres interfacial debonding since 873 K. The specimen with mass fraction of 10% and fibre diameter of 100 µm exhibits the largest elongation of 9±1.1% and the highest ultimate strength of 482±13 MPa at 873 K.

  9. Behavior of molybdenum in mixed-oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacchetti, G.; Sari, C.

    1976-01-01

    Metallic molybdenum, Mo--Ru--Rh--Pd alloys, barium, zirconium, and tungsten were added to uranium and uranium--plutonium oxides by coprecipitation and mechanical mixture techniques. This material was treated in a thermal gradient similar to that existing in fuel during irradiation to study the behavior of molybdenum in an oxide matrix as a function of the O/(U + Pu) ratio and some added elements. Result of ceramographic and microprobe analysis shows that when the overall O/(U + Pu) ratio is less than 2, molybdenum and Mo--Ru--Rh--Pd alloy inclusions are present in the uranium--plutonium oxide matrix. If the O/(U + Pu) ratio is greater than 2, molybdenum oxidizes to MoO 2 , which is gaseous at a temperature approximately 1000 0 C. Molybdenum oxide vapor reacts with barium oxide and forms a compound that exists as a liquid phase in the columnar grain region. Molybdenum oxide also reacts with tungsten oxide (tungsten is often present as an impurity in the fuel) and forms a compound that contains approximately 40 wt percent of actinide metals. The apparent solubility of molybdenum in uranium and uranium--plutonium oxides, determined by electron microprobe, was found to be less than 250 ppM both for hypo- and hyperstoichiometric fuels

  10. Effects of oxygen addition in reactive cluster beam deposition of tungsten by magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polášek, J., E-mail: xpolasekj@seznam.cz [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physic, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, Prague 8, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Mašek, K. [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physic, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, Prague 8, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Marek, A.; Vyskočil, J. [HVM Plasma Ltd., Na Hutmance 2, Prague 5, CZ-158 00 (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-30

    In this work, we investigated the possibilities of tungsten and tungsten oxide nanoclusters generation by means of non-reactive and reactive magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation. It was found that in pure argon atmosphere, cluster aggregation proceeded in two regimes depending on argon pressure in the aggregation chamber. At the lower pressure, cluster generation was dominated by two-body collisions yielding larger clusters (about 5.5 nm in diameter) at lower rate. At higher pressures, cluster generation was dominated by three-body collisions yielding smaller clusters (3–4 nm in diameter) at higher rate. The small amount of oxygen admixture in the aggregation chamber had considerable influence on cluster aggregation process. At certain critical pressure, the presence of oxygen led to the raise of deposition rate and cluster size. Resulting clusters were composed mostly of tungsten trioxide. The oxygen pressure higher than critical led to the target poisoning and the decrease in the sputtering rate. Critical oxygen pressure decreased with increasing argon pressure, suggesting that cluster aggregation process was influenced by atomic oxygen species (namely, O{sup −} ion) generated by oxygen–argon collisions in the magnetron plasma. - Highlights: • Formation of tungsten and tungsten oxide clusters was observed. • Two modes of cluster aggregation in pure argon atmosphere were found. • Dependence of cluster deposition speed and size on oxygen admixture was observed. • Changes of dependence on oxygen with changing argon pressure were described.

  11. Effects of oxygen addition in reactive cluster beam deposition of tungsten by magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polášek, J.; Mašek, K.; Marek, A.; Vyskočil, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the possibilities of tungsten and tungsten oxide nanoclusters generation by means of non-reactive and reactive magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation. It was found that in pure argon atmosphere, cluster aggregation proceeded in two regimes depending on argon pressure in the aggregation chamber. At the lower pressure, cluster generation was dominated by two-body collisions yielding larger clusters (about 5.5 nm in diameter) at lower rate. At higher pressures, cluster generation was dominated by three-body collisions yielding smaller clusters (3–4 nm in diameter) at higher rate. The small amount of oxygen admixture in the aggregation chamber had considerable influence on cluster aggregation process. At certain critical pressure, the presence of oxygen led to the raise of deposition rate and cluster size. Resulting clusters were composed mostly of tungsten trioxide. The oxygen pressure higher than critical led to the target poisoning and the decrease in the sputtering rate. Critical oxygen pressure decreased with increasing argon pressure, suggesting that cluster aggregation process was influenced by atomic oxygen species (namely, O"− ion) generated by oxygen–argon collisions in the magnetron plasma. - Highlights: • Formation of tungsten and tungsten oxide clusters was observed. • Two modes of cluster aggregation in pure argon atmosphere were found. • Dependence of cluster deposition speed and size on oxygen admixture was observed. • Changes of dependence on oxygen with changing argon pressure were described.

  12. Improved opto-electronic properties of silicon heterojunction solar cells with SiO x /Tungsten-doped indium oxide double anti-reflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian; Zhou, Jie; Bian, Jiantao; Zhang, Liping; Liu, Yucheng; Shi, Jianhua; Meng, Fanying; Liu, Jinning; Liu, Zhengxin

    2017-08-01

    Amorphous SiO x was prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form SiO x /tungsten-doped indium oxide (IWO) double anti-reflective coatings for silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell. The sheet resistance of SiO x /IWO stacks decreases due to plasma treatment during deposition process, which means thinner IWO film would be deposited for better optical response. However, the comparisons of three anti-reflective coating (ARC) structures reveal that SiO x film limits carier transport and the path of IWO-SiO x -Ag structure is non-conductive. The decrease of sheet resistance is defined as pseudo conductivity. IWO film capping with SiO x allows observably reduced reflectance and better response in 300-400 and 600-1200 nm wavelength ranges. Compared with IWO single ARC, the average reflection is reduced by 1.65% with 70 nm SiO x /80 nm IWO double anti-reflective coatings (DARCs) in 500-1200 nm wavelength range, leading to growing external quantum efficiency response, short circuit current density (J sc), and efficiency. After well optimization of SiO x /IWO stacks, an impressive efficiency of 23.08% is obtained with high J sc and without compromising open circuit voltage (V oc) and fill factor. SiO x /IWO DARCs provide better anti-reflective properties over a broad range of wavelength, showing promising application for SHJ solar cells.

  13. Sol-gel coatings on large area glass sheets for electrochromic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Spee, C.I.M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The preparation of vanadium and tungsten oxide coatings is described using vanadium oxide tri-2-propoxide/2-propanol and tungsten penta-ethoxide/2-propanol solutions. These solutions are dip coated onto K-glass substrates and cured. For vanadium oxide coatings it is shown that sol-gel/dip coat

  14. A novel composite electrode based on tungsten oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes for the electrochemical determination of paracetamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Duzmen, Sehriban; Teker, Tugce; Aslanoglu, Mehmet, E-mail: maslanoglu@harran.edu.tr

    2015-12-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a composite of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the quantification of paracetamol (PR). Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed for the characterization of the nanocomposite layer. Compared with a bare GCE and a GCE modified with CNTs, the proposed electrode (WO{sub 3}NPs/CNTs/GCE) exhibited a well-defined redox couple for PR and a marked enhancement of the current response. The experimental results also showed that ascorbic acid (AA) did not interfere with the selective determination of PR. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of PR in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.0 using square wave voltammetry (SWV). The peak current increased linearly with the concentration of PR in the range of 1.0 × 10{sup −9}–2.0 × 10{sup −7} M. The detection limit (LOD) was 5.54 × 10{sup −11} M (based on 3 S{sub b}/m). The proposed voltammetric sensor provided long-time stability, improved voltammetric behavior and good reproducibility for PR. The selective, accurate and precise determination of PR makes the proposed electrode of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. - Highlights: • A voltammetric nanosensor was prepared using nanoparticles of WO{sub 3} and CNTs. • A selective quantification of paracetamol was carried out in the presence of AA. • A linear plot was obtained for current responses versus concentrations over the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −9} to 2.0 × 10{sup −7} M. • A detection limit of 554 pM was obtained for paracetamol using the proposed nanosensor. • An accurate quantification makes the proposed nanosensor of great interest for public health.

  15. Effects of phosphourus addition on the physical properties and surface condition of tungsten-copper composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyoshi, N.; Nakada, K.; Nakayama, M.; Kohda, K.

    2001-01-01

    Tungsten-copper composites containing a small amount of phosphorus prepared using conventional P/M method. Cu 3 P powder was used as phosphorous source. The effects of phosphorus addition on the physical properties and the surface condition were investigated and the existing form of phosphorus was specified on the tungsten-copper composites The results are summarized as follows. The tungsten-copper composite containing 10 % copper, for example, demonstrated optimum thermal conductivity at the phosphorus addition of 0.02 %. The density of the composites was almost 100 % and the surface of the sintered body was flat and smooth after sintering at a temperature between 1100 and 1150 o C. It was shown that phosphorus exists as Co 2 P. (author)

  16. Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxides as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yaocai

    2012-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide as outstanding candidate electrode material for supercapacitor has been investigated. This thesis includes two topics. One is that three kinds of reduced graphene oxides were prepared by hydrothermal reduction under different

  17. Hydroxyaromatic compounds of tantalum, tungsten, and the lighter actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gfaller, H.

    1980-01-01

    Some hydroxyaromatic compounds of the elements tantalum, tungsten, thorium and uranium were prepared as well as the basic materials for these synthesis processes, i.e. metal halides and metal alkoxides. The hydroxyaromatic compounds were studied by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, 1 H-NMR spectroscopy (if soluble in suitable solvents) and, in some cases, by X-ray fine structure analysis. (orig./EF) [de

  18. Recent Advances in Preparation, Structure, Properties and Applications of Graphite Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Suneel Kumar; Pionteck, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Graphite oxide, also referred as graphitic oxide or graphitic acid, is an oxidized bulk product of graphite with a variable composition. However, it did not receive immense attention until it was identified as an important and easily obtainable precursor for the preparation of graphene. This inspired many researchers to explore facts related to graphite oxide in exploiting its fascinating features. The present article culminates up-dated review on different preparative methods, morphology and characterization of physical/chemical properties of graphite oxide by XRD, XPS, FTIR, Raman, NMR, UV-visible, and DRIFT analyses. Finally, recent developments on intercalation and applications of GO in multifaceted areas of catalysis, sensor, supercapacitors, water purification, hydrogen storage and magnetic shielding etc. has also been reviewed.

  19. In vivo corrosion, tumor outcome, and microarray gene expression for two types of muscle-implanted tungsten alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, B.E. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, B434 Mulberry Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5609 (United States); Roszell, L.E. [U.S. Army Institute of Public Health, 5158 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010‐5403 (United States); Murr, L.E.; Ramirez, D.A. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Demaree, J.D. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, B434 Mulberry Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5609 (United States); Klotz, B.R. [Dynamic Science Inc., Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005‐5609 (United States); Rosencrance, A.B.; Dennis, W.E. [U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, Department of Chemistry, Ft. Detrick, MD 21702‐5010 (United States); Bao, W. [SAS Institute, Inc. SAS Campus Drive, Cary, NC 27513 (United States); Perkins, E.J. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 3909 Hall Ferry Road, Vicksburg MS 39180 (United States); Dillman, J.F. [U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 3100 Ricketts Point Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010‐5400 (United States); Bannon, D.I., E-mail: desmond.bannon@us.army.mil [U.S. Army Institute of Public Health, 5158 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010‐5403 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Tungsten alloys are composed of tungsten microparticles embedded in a solid matrix of transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. To understand the toxicology of these alloys, male F344 rats were intramuscularly implanted with pellets of tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, or pure tungsten, with tantalum pellets as a negative control. Between 6 and 12 months, aggressive rhabdomyosarcomas formed around tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets, while those of tungsten/nickel/iron or pure tungsten did not cause cancers. Electron microscopy showed a progressive corrosion of the matrix phase of tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets over 6 months, accompanied by high urinary concentrations of nickel and cobalt. In contrast, non-carcinogenic tungsten/nickel/iron pellets were minimally corroded and urinary metals were low; these pellets having developed a surface oxide layer in vivo that may have restricted the mobilization of carcinogenic nickel. Microarray analysis of tumors revealed large changes in gene expression compared with normal muscle, with biological processes involving the cell cycle significantly up‐regulated and those involved with muscle development and differentiation significantly down‐regulated. Top KEGG pathways disrupted were adherens junction, p53 signaling, and the cell cycle. Chromosomal enrichment analysis of genes showed a highly significant impact at cytoband 7q22 (chromosome 7) which included mouse double minute (MDM2) and cyclin‐dependant kinase (CDK4) as well as other genes associated with human sarcomas. In conclusion, the tumorigenic potential of implanted tungsten alloys is related to mobilization of carcinogenic metals nickel and cobalt from corroding pellets, while gene expression changes in the consequent tumors are similar to radiation induced animal sarcomas as well as sporadic human sarcomas. -- Highlights: ► Tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, and pure tungsten were studied. ► Male Fischer rats implanted with

  20. In vivo corrosion, tumor outcome, and microarray gene expression for two types of muscle-implanted tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.E.; Roszell, L.E.; Murr, L.E.; Ramirez, D.A.; Demaree, J.D.; Klotz, B.R.; Rosencrance, A.B.; Dennis, W.E.; Bao, W.; Perkins, E.J.; Dillman, J.F.; Bannon, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten alloys are composed of tungsten microparticles embedded in a solid matrix of transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. To understand the toxicology of these alloys, male F344 rats were intramuscularly implanted with pellets of tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, or pure tungsten, with tantalum pellets as a negative control. Between 6 and 12 months, aggressive rhabdomyosarcomas formed around tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets, while those of tungsten/nickel/iron or pure tungsten did not cause cancers. Electron microscopy showed a progressive corrosion of the matrix phase of tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets over 6 months, accompanied by high urinary concentrations of nickel and cobalt. In contrast, non-carcinogenic tungsten/nickel/iron pellets were minimally corroded and urinary metals were low; these pellets having developed a surface oxide layer in vivo that may have restricted the mobilization of carcinogenic nickel. Microarray analysis of tumors revealed large changes in gene expression compared with normal muscle, with biological processes involving the cell cycle significantly up‐regulated and those involved with muscle development and differentiation significantly down‐regulated. Top KEGG pathways disrupted were adherens junction, p53 signaling, and the cell cycle. Chromosomal enrichment analysis of genes showed a highly significant impact at cytoband 7q22 (chromosome 7) which included mouse double minute (MDM2) and cyclin‐dependant kinase (CDK4) as well as other genes associated with human sarcomas. In conclusion, the tumorigenic potential of implanted tungsten alloys is related to mobilization of carcinogenic metals nickel and cobalt from corroding pellets, while gene expression changes in the consequent tumors are similar to radiation induced animal sarcomas as well as sporadic human sarcomas. -- Highlights: ► Tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, and pure tungsten were studied. ► Male Fischer rats implanted with

  1. Corrosion of tungsten microelectrodes used in neural recording applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Erin; Orazem, Mark E; Sanchez, Justin C; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2011-06-15

    In neuroprosthetic applications, long-term electrode viability is necessary for robust recording of the activity of neural populations used for generating communication and control signals. The corrosion of tungsten microwire electrodes used for intracortical recording applications was analyzed in a controlled bench-top study and compared to the corrosion of tungsten microwires used in an in vivo study. Two electrolytes were investigated for the bench-top electrochemical analysis: 0.9% phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and 0.9% PBS containing 30 mM of hydrogen peroxide. The oxidation and reduction reactions responsible for corrosion were found by measurement of the open circuit potential and analysis of Pourbaix diagrams. Dissolution of tungsten to form the tungstic ion was found to be the corrosion mechanism. The corrosion rate was estimated from the polarization resistance, which was extrapolated from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data. The results show that tungsten microwires in an electrolyte of PBS have a corrosion rate of 300-700 μm/yr. The corrosion rate for tungsten microwires in an electrolyte containing PBS and 30 mM H₂O₂ is accelerated to 10,000-20,000 μm/yr. The corrosion rate was found to be controlled by the concentration of the reacting species in the cathodic reaction (e.g. O₂ and H₂O₂). The in vivo corrosion rate, averaged over the duration of implantation, was estimated to be 100 μm/yr. The reduced in vivo corrosion rate as compared to the bench-top rate is attributed to decreased rate of oxygen diffusion caused by the presence of a biological film and a reduced concentration of available oxygen in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tungsten Filament Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent…

  3. Electro-chemically-based technologies for processing of tungsten components in fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, N.; Konys, J.; Krauss, W.; Lorenz, J.

    2010-01-01

    In fusion technology layers and bulk components fabricated from tungsten and W-alloys are used as functional materials, e.g. as coatings of blanket modules or T-permeation barriers and also as structural components in a He-cooled divertor. Their application under high heat loads and temperatures is besides manufacturing, also challenging regarding joining, caused e.g. by expansion mismatches in combination with steel or other diffusion issues. Driven by these needs, electro-chemically-based technologies were analyzed concerning their advantages in processing in the fields of soft structuring of tungsten alloys and in deposition of functional scales. The Electro-Chemistry (EC) of tungsten is characterized by its affection to build up passivation layers in aqueous media during the initial oxidation, which is the result of an unavoidable basic electrochemical reaction with water (W + 3H 2 O → WO 3 + 3H 2 ), although the element standard potential is situated between common EC material like iron and copper. (orig.)

  4. Molecular basis of carcinogenicity of tungsten alloy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Robert M.; Williams, Tim D.; Waring, Rosemary H.; Hodges, Nikolas J., E-mail: n.hodges@bham.ac.uk

    2015-03-15

    The tungsten alloy of 91% tungsten, 6% nickel and 3% cobalt (WNC 91–6–3) induces rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into a rat thigh muscle. To investigate whether this effect is species-specific human HSkMc primary muscle cells were exposed to WNC 91–6–3 particles and responses were compared with those from a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6-C11). Toxicity was assessed by the adenylate kinase assay and microscopy, DNA damage by the Comet assay. Caspase 3 enzyme activity was measured and oligonucleotide microarrays were used for transcriptional profiling. WNC 91–6–3 particles caused toxicity in cells adjacent to the particles and also increased DNA strand breaks. Inhibition of caspase 3 by WNC 91–6–3 occurred in rat but not in human cells. In both rat and human cells, the transcriptional response to WNC 91–6–3 showed repression of transcripts encoding muscle-specific proteins with induction of glycolysis, hypoxia, stress responses and transcripts associated with DNA damage and cell death. In human cells, genes encoding metallothioneins were also induced, together with genes related to angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis and proliferation consistent with pre-neoplastic changes. An alloy containing iron, WNF 97–2–1, which is non-carcinogenic in vivo in rats, did not show these transcriptional changes in vitro in either species while the corresponding cobalt-containing alloy, WNC 97–2–1 elicited similar responses to WNC 91–6–3. Tungsten alloys containing both nickel and cobalt therefore have the potential to be carcinogenic in man and in vitro assays coupled with transcriptomics can be used to identify alloys, which may lead to tumour formation, by dysregulation of biochemical processes. - Highlights: • Use of transcriptomics to identify likely carcinogenic tungsten alloys in vitro • Cobalt containing alloys cause oxidative stress, DNA-damage and perturb apoptosis. • Presence of cobalt causes changes in gene expression

  5. The study of optimal conditions of electrochemical etching of tunnel electron microscopy tungsten tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguiano, E.; Aguilar, M.; Olivar, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    We present the experimental results obtained during the study made in the electrochemical etching of tunneling electron microscopy tungsten tips. The experiments was made using DC and two usual electrolytes: KOH and NaOH. For the tip preparation we used a electrochemical cell with stainless steel cathode and the tungsten wire as anode. the electrodes was introduced in a glass recipient containing the electrolytic solution. We study the effects of applied voltage, polish time, tip length and electrolyte concentration as process relevant parameters. The best condition for tip preparation was obtained with a metallurgical microscope and with a SEM.EDX and Auger analysis was made. The results shown the better tips was made with KOH as electrolyte with a limited concentration range (2-4 normal) and applied voltage (2-6 volts) (Author) 20 refs

  6. Simulation of tungsten armour cracking due to small ELMs in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestchanyi, S.; Garkusha, I.; Landman, I.

    2010-01-01

    Simulations of tungsten armour cracking under small ELM-like plasma heat load, which does not cause surface melting, have been performed using the PEGASUS-3D code. A dedicated series of experiments have been performed in the QSPA-Kh50 facility for measurements of the unknown tungsten thermophysical properties and for verification of the PEGASUS-3D simulation results. The simulations revealed that a cellular crack network with average mesh size Λ ∼ 0.5 mm formed after first ELMs and the pattern does not change further. With increasing number of repetitive ELMs loads, the average crack width Δ(n) has a maximum value Δ m . The ratio of Δ m /Λ is equal to the tungsten thermal expansion at the maximum surface temperature. Δ(n) tends to this value exponentially. The number of ELMs n m needed for Δ stabilization depends on the ELMs energy density and time duration, n m ∼ 300 for the simulated ELMs of 0.45 MJ/m 2 and 0.25 ms duration. The PEGASUS-3D code is prepared for simulations of tungsten armour damage under action of ELMs of various energy deposition and time duration. These parameters of ELMs depend on ITER regimes of operation and on how successful will be the efforts on ELMs mitigation.

  7. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz

  8. Preparation and characterization of perovskite structure lanthanum gallate and lanthanum aluminate based oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shuai

    2009-01-01

    The present work was initiated to study the synthesis and properties of lanthanum gallate based oxides as intermediate temperature electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells. The wet chemical method, polymer complexing route, was used to prepare the precursor powders. To further investigate the polymer complexing method, it was also applied to the preparation of lanthanum aluminate based oxides.   Single perovskite phase La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.83Mg0.17O2.815 can be prepared by the polymer complexing meth...

  9. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasael

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  10. Metal oxide nanostructures: preparation, characterization and functional applications as chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Dario; Bertuna, Angela; Comini, Elisabetta; Kaur, Navpreet; Poli, Nicola; Sberveglieri, Veronica; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of different metal oxide (NiO, WO 3 , ZnO, SnO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 ) nanostructures for chemical sensing are presented. p-Type (NiO) and n-type (WO 3 , SnO 2 , ZnO and Nb 2 O 5 ) metal oxide nanostructures were grown on alumina substrates using evaporation-condensation, thermal oxidation and hydrothermal techniques. Surface morphologies and crystal structures were investigated through scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, different batches of sensors have been prepared, and their sensing performances towards carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide have been explored. Moreover, metal oxide nanowires have been integrated into an electronic nose and successfully applied to discriminate between drinking and contaminated water.

  11. TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan as appliance for the preparation of hard capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yuying; Zhao, Huiying; Liu, Xianwu; Li, Zusen; Liu, Bin; Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan (OKGM) was developed as new material for preparing vegetarian hard capsules. OKGM of different degrees of oxidation: DO30%, DO50%, and DO80% were prepared to select optimum DO for capsule formation. FT-IR results proved that the primary alcohol groups on KGM were

  12. Room temperature NO2 gas sensing of Au-loaded tungsten oxide nanowires/porous silicon hybrid structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Deng-Feng; Liang Ji-Ran; Li Chang-Qing; Yan Wen-Jun; Hu Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report an enhanced nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) gas sensor based on tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) nanowires/porous silicon (PS) decorated with gold (Au) nanoparticles. Au-loaded WO 3 nanowires with diameters of 10 nm–25 nm and lengths of 300 nm–500 nm are fabricated by the sputtering method on a porous silicon substrate. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrographs show that Au nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the surfaces of WO 3 nanowires. The effect of the Au nanoparticles on the NO 2 -sensing performance of WO 3 nanowires/porous silicon is investigated over a low concentration range of 0.2 ppm–5 ppm of NO 2 at room temperature (25 °C). It is found that the 10-Å Au-loaded WO 3 nanowires/porous silicon-based sensor possesses the highest gas response characteristic. The underlying mechanism of the enhanced sensing properties of the Au-loaded WO 3 nanowires/porous silicon is also discussed. (paper)

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopy measurements of the spin Hall effect in tungsten films by using iron-coated tungsten tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting; Dreyer, Michael; Bowen, David; Hinkel, Dan; Butera, R. E.; Krafft, Charles; Mayergoyz, Isaak

    2018-05-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments using iron-coated tungsten tips and current-carrying tungsten films have been conducted. An asymmetry of the tunneling current with respect to the change of the direction of the bias current through a tungsten film has been observed. It is argued that this asymmetry is a manifestation of the spin Hall effect in the current-carrying tungsten film. Nanoscale variations of this asymmetry across the tungsten film have been studied by using the scanning tunneling microscopy technique.

  14. Tuning the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystal colloids by tungsten doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haiping; Liao, Jianhua; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Wang, Zhuyi; Shi, Liyi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were prepared by hydrothermal methods. • The properties of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids can be tuned by tungsten doping. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher stability and dispersity. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The effects of tungsten doping on the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were investigated. The nanostructure, chemical state of Ti, W, O, and the properties of tungsten doped TiO 2 samples were investigated carefully by TEM, XRD, XPS, UV–vis, PL and photocatalytic degradation experiments. And the structure–activity relationship was discussed according to the analysis and measurement results. The analysis results reveal that the morphology, zeta potential and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystals can be easily tuned by changing the tungsten doping concentration. The tungsten doped TiO 2 colloid combines the characters of high dispersity and high photocatalytic activity

  15. Scanning tunneling microscopy measurements of the spin Hall effect in tungsten films by using iron-coated tungsten tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Scanning tunneling microscopy experiments using iron-coated tungsten tips and current-carrying tungsten films have been conducted. An asymmetry of the tunneling current with respect to the change of the direction of the bias current through a tungsten film has been observed. It is argued that this asymmetry is a manifestation of the spin Hall effect in the current-carrying tungsten film. Nanoscale variations of this asymmetry across the tungsten film have been studied by using the scanning tunneling microscopy technique.

  16. Comparison of Preparation Methods of Copper Based PGMFree Diesel-Soot Oxidation Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available CuO-CeO2 systems have been proposed as a promising catalyst for low temperature diesel-soot oxidation. CuO-CeO2 catalysts prepared by various methods were examined for air oxidation of the soot in a semi batch tubular flow reactor. The air oxidation of soot was carried out under tight contact with soot/catalyst ratio of 1/10. Air flow rate was 150 ml/min, soot-catalyst mixture was 110 mg, heating rate was 5 0C/min. Prepared catalysts were calcined at 500 0C and their stability was examined by further heating to 800 0C for 4 hours. It was found that the selectivity of all the catalysts was nearly 100% to CO2 production. It was observed that the activity and stability of the catalysts greatly influenced by the preparation methods. The strong interaction between CuO and CeO2 is closely related to the preparation route that plays a crucial role in the soot oxidation over the CuO-CeO2 catalysts. The ranking order of the preparation methods of the catalysts in the soot oxidation performance is as follows: sol-gel > urea nitrate combustion > Urea gelation method > thermal decomposition > co-precipitation. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 27th June 2010, Revised: 7th August 2010; Accepted: 13rd October 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2011. Comparison of Preparation Methods of Copper Based PGMFree Diesel-Soot Oxidation Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 6(1: 15-21. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.822.15-21][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.822.15-21 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/822 | View in 

  17. Rapid determination of main components by means of flame-atomic-absorption spectrometry for chromium, silicon and tungsten in CrSiW materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.; Stahlberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    The application of Flame-Atomic-Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) for determining chromium, silicon and tungsten in CrSiW materials is described. The FAAS determinations of the main components are shown under optimum conditions. Sufficient precision and reliability have been achieved for routine analysis. The application of a mixture of acids for preparing CrSiW solutions is proposed. The preparation of samples is discussed in detail. Optimum conditions are recommended for determining chromium, silicon and tungsten using one solution only. (orig.) [de

  18. Impact of residual by-products from tungsten film deposition on process integration due to nonuniformity of the tungsten film

    CERN Document Server

    Sidhwa, A; Gandy, T; Melosky, S; Brown, W; Ang, S; Naseem, H; Ulrich, R

    2002-01-01

    The effects of residual by products from a tungsten film deposition process and their impact on process integration due to the nonuniformity of the tungsten film were investigated in this work. The tungsten film deposition process involves three steps: nucleation, stabilization, and tungsten bulk fill. Six experiments were conducted in search for a solution to the problem. The resulting data suggest that excess nitrogen left in the chamber following the tungsten nucleation step, along with residual by products, causes a shift in the tungsten film uniformity during the tungsten bulk fill process. Data reveal that, due to the residual by products, an abnormal grain growth occurs causing a variation in the tungsten thickness across the wafer during the bulk fill step. Although several possible solutions were revealed by the experiments, potential integration problems limited the acceptable solutions to one. The solution chosen was the introduction of a 10 s pumpdown immediately following the nucleation step. Thi...

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Hydrous Zirconium Oxide Formed by Homogeneous Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva G.L.J.P. da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the preparation, characterization and study of the ion exchange behavior of hydrous zirconium oxides formed by homogeneous precipitation from zirconium oxychloride. The precipitants used were obtained by thermal decomposition of urea, sodium nitrite or ammonium carbonate. Seven compounds were prepared and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry and by surface area measurements. Amorphous forms were obtained in each case, a result that agrees with those obtained by conventional gel precipitation methodology. All these materials present surface area values of >148 m².g-1, determined after heat treatment at 50 °C. The ion exchange behavior of each hydrous zirconium oxide prepared was studied using K+ as the exchanged species and the results compared with those obtained for hydrous zirconium oxide originally precipitated by the sol gel method.

  20. Tungsten Oxide Nanofibers Self-assembled Mesoscopic Microspheres as High-performance Electrodes for Supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Juan; Ding, Taotao; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Changqing; Fang, Yanyan; Wu, Zhihao; Huo, Kaifu; Dai, Jiangnan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • WO 3 mesoscopic microspheres self-assembled by nanofibers. • Inorganic solvent H 2 O 2 play an integral role in the process of self-assembly. • WO 3 mesoscopic microspheres exhibit specific capacitance value of 797.05 F g −1 at a constant density of 0.5 A g −1 in 2 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution. • The WO 3 //AC asymmetric supercapacitor displays a maximum energy density of 97.61 Wh kg −1 and power density of 28.01 kW kg −1 . - Abstract: Mesoscopic WO 3 microspheres composed of self-assembly nanofibers were prepared by hydrothermal reaction of tungsten acid potassium and H 2 O 2 . The mesoscopic WO 3 microspheres offer desired porous properties and large effective active areas provided by intertwining nanofibers, thereby resulting in excellent supercapacitive properties due to facile electrolyte flow and fast reaction kinetics. In three electrode configuration, mesoscopic WO 3 microspheres exhibit specific capacitance value of 797.05 F g −1 at the current density of 0.5 A g −1 and excellent cycling stability without decay after 2000 cycles in 2 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution. These values are superior to other reported WO 3 composites. An asymmetric supercapacitor is constructed using the as-prepared WO 3 mesoscopic microspheres as the positive electrode and the activated carbon as the negative electrode, which displays excellent electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of 97.61 Wh kg −1 and power density of 28.01 kW kg −1 . These impressive performances suggest that the mesoscopic WO 3 microspheres are promising electrode materials for supercapacitor

  1. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, L.M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Byun, T.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Reiser, J.; Rieth, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    Tungsten-copper laminate composite has shown promise as a structural plasma-facing component as compared to tungsten rod or plate. The present study evaluated the tungsten-copper composite after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at temperatures of 410–780 °C and fast neutron fluences of 0.02–9.0 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}, E > 0.1 MeV, 0.0039–1.76 displacements per atom (dpa) in tungsten. Tensile tests were performed on the composites, and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Before irradiation, the tungsten layers had brittle cleavage failure, but the overall composite had 15.5% elongation at 22 °C. After only 0.0039 dpa this was reduced to 7.7% elongation, and no ductility was observed after 0.2 dpa at all irradiation temperatures when tensile tested at 22 °C. For elevated temperature tensile tests after irradiation, the composite only had ductile failure at temperatures where the tungsten was delaminating or ductile. - Highlights: • Fusion reactors need a tough, ductile tungsten plasma-facing material. • The unirradiated tungsten-copper laminate is more ductile than tungsten alone. • After neutron irradiation, the composite has significantly less ductility. • The tungsten behavior appears to dominate the overall composite behavior.

  2. Electrochemistry of hydrous oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, L.D.; Lyons, M.E.G.

    1986-01-01

    The formation, acid-base properties, structural aspects, and transport processes of hydrous oxide films are discussed. Classical and nonclassical theoretical models of the oxide-solution interface are compared. Monolayer oxidation, behavior, and crystal growth of oxides on platinum, palladium, gold, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, and some non-noble metals, including tungsten, are reviewed and compared

  3. Hydrogen permeation properties of plasma-sprayed tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Hankins, M.R.; Longhurst, G.R.; Neiser, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Tungsten has been proposed as a plasma-facing component material for advanced fusion facilities. This paper reports on laboratory-scale studies that were done to assess the hydrogen permeation properties of plasma-sprayed tungsten for such applications. The work entailed deuterium permeation measurements for plasma-sprayed (PS) tungsten coatings, sputter-deposited (SP) tungsten coatings, and steel substrate material using a mass-analyzed, 3 keV D + 3 ion beam with fluxes of similar 6.5x10 19 D/m 2 s. Extensive characterization analyses for the plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings were made using Auger spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Observed permeation rates through composite PS-tungsten/steel specimens were several orders of magnitude below the permeation levels observed for SP-tungsten/steel composite specimens and pure steel specimens. Characterization analyses indicated that the plasma-sprayed tungsten coating had a nonhomogeneous microstructure that consisted of splats with columnar solidification, partially-melted particles with grain boundaries, and void regions. Reduced permeation levels can be attributed to the complex microstructure and a substantial surface-connected porosity. ((orig.))

  4. Hydrogen permeation properties of plasma-sprayed tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, R.A. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Pawelko, R.J. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Hankins, M.R. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Longhurst, G.R. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Neiser, R.A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States))

    1994-09-01

    Tungsten has been proposed as a plasma-facing component material for advanced fusion facilities. This paper reports on laboratory-scale studies that were done to assess the hydrogen permeation properties of plasma-sprayed tungsten for such applications. The work entailed deuterium permeation measurements for plasma-sprayed (PS) tungsten coatings, sputter-deposited (SP) tungsten coatings, and steel substrate material using a mass-analyzed, 3 keV D[sup +][sub 3] ion beam with fluxes of similar 6.5x10[sup 19] D/m[sup 2] s. Extensive characterization analyses for the plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings were made using Auger spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Observed permeation rates through composite PS-tungsten/steel specimens were several orders of magnitude below the permeation levels observed for SP-tungsten/steel composite specimens and pure steel specimens. Characterization analyses indicated that the plasma-sprayed tungsten coating had a nonhomogeneous microstructure that consisted of splats with columnar solidification, partially-melted particles with grain boundaries, and void regions. Reduced permeation levels can be attributed to the complex microstructure and a substantial surface-connected porosity. ((orig.))

  5. Kinetics of low pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten silicide from dichlorocilane reduction of tungsten hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, D.; Raupp, G.B.; Hillman, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report on experiments to determine the intrinsic surface reaction rate dependences and film properties' dependence on local reactant partial pressures and wafer temperature in low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of tungsten silicide from dichlorosilane reduction of tungsten hexafluoride. Films were deposited in a commercial-scale Spectrum CVD cold wall single wafer reactor under near differential, gradientless conditions. Over the range of process conditions investigated, deposition rate was found to be first order in dichlorosillane and negative second order in tungsten hexafluoride partial pressure. The apparent activation energy in the surface reaction limited regime was found to be 70-120 kcal/mol. The silicon to tungsten ratio of as deposited silicide films ranged from 1.1 to 2.4, and increased with increasing temperature and dichlorosillane partial pressure, and decreased with increasing tungsten hexafluoride pressure. These results suggest that the apparent silicide deposition rate and composition are controlled by the relative rates of at least two competing reactions which deposit stoichiometric tungsten silicides and/or silicon

  6. Preparation of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) by modified domestic iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, M.; Amighian

    2002-01-01

    Iron oxide by product of a local steel complex was modified to use for preparation of Yttrium iron garnet (YIG). The improvement was necessary to reduce impurities, especially the Si0 2 and Cl contents, which have deteriorative effects on magnetic properties and equipment used for preparation of the samples. The modified iron oxide was then mixed with Yttrium oxide of Merck Company in appropriate proportion to obtain a stoichiometric single phase YIG, using the conventional ceramic technique. XRD and SEM equipments were used to identify the resulting phases and microstructure respectively. Magnetic parameters were measured by VSM. Curie temperature of the samples was obtained by DTG (M) method. The results were compared with those obtained from samples that made by Merck iron oxide. There are small differences between the results. This was discussed according to extra pores and minute secondary phase in the samples made by domestic iron oxide. (Author)

  7. Structural, mechanical, and tribological characterization of sol-gel layers with inbedded anorganic fullerene-like tungsten-disulphide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattermann, Hilke

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of composite coatings consisting of different materials with improved properties has been an intensively studied area of thin film technology in recent years. One method to prepare such composite coatings is the incorporation of nano or micro particles into a matrix of a different material. In this thesis, such composite coatings are investigated which have been prepared via a sol-gel route und contain up to about 30 wt.-% tungsten disulfide particles. These inorganic fullerenes have typical particle sizes of about 100 nm to 200 nm. Two different types of composite coatings with a thickness of up to a few micrometers and with embedded tungsten disulfide particles are prepared: First, coatings with a relatively stiff alumina matrix, and second, coatings with a matrix made of organically modified silica. Different analytical methods are used for the structural characterization of the coatings. The crystal structure and the chemical composition of the coatings are determined via X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence measurements and via energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Through scanning and transmission electron microscopy the incorporation and the distribution of the tungsten disulfide particles in the respective matrix are analysed. Furthermore, the roughness and the adhesion of the coatings on the substrate are investigated. The influence of the embedded particles and of the temperature of the final heat treatment during the sample preparation on the mechanical properties, like elastic modulus and hardness, of the composite coatings are measured through nanoindentation testing. These experimental results are compared with theoretical values determined via different analytical models for effective materials. Finally, the tribological behavior of the composite coatings is investigated in comparison to pure coatings made of alumina or organically modified silica. With ball-on-disc tests the coefficient of friction of the coatings is measured

  8. Novel hard compositions and methods of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-08-23

    Novel very hard compositions of matter are prepared by using in all embodiments only a minor amount of a particular carbide (or materials which can form the carbide in situ when subjected to heat and pressure); and no strategic cobalt is needed. Under a particular range of conditions, densified compositions of matter of the invention are prepared having hardnesses on the Rockwell A test substantially equal to the hardness of pure tungsten carbide and to two of the hardest commercial cobalt-bonded tungsten carbides. Alternately, other compositions of the invention which have slightly lower hardnesses than those described above in one embodiment also possess the advantage of requiring no tungsten and in another embodiment possess the advantage of having a good fracture toughness value. Photomicrographs show that the shapes of the grains of the alloy mixture with which the minor amount of carbide (or carbide-formers) is mixed are radically altered from large, rounded to small, very angular by the addition of the carbide. Superiority of one of these hard compositions of matter over cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide for ultra-high pressure anvil applications was demonstrated. 3 figs.

  9. Electrical and optical properties of mixed phase tungsten trioxide films grown by laser pyrolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available the tungstate bronzes to tungsten oxide. I-V curves of the films showed n-type semiconducting behaviour, but the mixed phase appeared to cause a similar behaviour of dopants in a semiconductor. The refractive index decreased with increasing wavelength and gave...

  10. Hydrogen retention properties of polycrystalline tungsten and helium irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.; Koyama, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hirohata, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The hydrogen retention properties of a polycrystalline tungsten and tungsten irradiated by helium ions with an energy of 5 keV were examined by using an ECR ion irradiation apparatus and a technique of thermal desorption spectroscopy, TDS. The polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated at RT with energetic hydrogen ions, with a flux of 10 15 H cm -2 and an energy of 1.7 keV up to a fluence of 5 x 10 18 H cm -2 . Subsequently, the amount of retained hydrogen was measured by TDS. The heating temperature was increased from RT to 1000 C, and the heating rate was 50 C min -1 . Below 1000 C, two distinct hydrogen desorption peaks were observed at 200 C and 400 C. The retained amount of hydrogen was observed to be five times smaller than that of graphite, but the concentration in the implantation layer was comparable with that of graphite. Also, the polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated with 5 keV helium ions up to a fluence of 1.4 x 10 18 He cm -2 , and then re-irradiated with 1.7 keV hydrogen ions. The amount of retained hydrogen in this later experiment was close to the value in the case without prior helium ion irradiation. However, the amount of hydrogen which desorbed around the low temperature peak, 200 C, was largely enhanced. The desorption amount at 200 C saturated for the helium fluence of more than 5 x 10 17 He cm -2 . The present data shows that the trapping state of hydrogen is largely changed by the helium ion irradiation. Additionally, 5 keV helium ion irradiation was conducted on a sample pre-implanted with hydrogen ions to simulate a helium ion impact desorption of hydrogen retained in tungsten. The amount of the hydrogen was reduced as much as 50%. (orig.)

  11. Preparation of uranium-based oxide catalysts; Preparation de catalyseurs oxydes a base d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressat, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    We have studied the thermal decomposition of uranyl and uranium IV oxalates as a mean of producing uranium dioxide. We have isolated the main intermediate phases of the decompositions and have indexed the lines of their X-ray diffraction patterns. The oxides produced by the decomposition are ill-defined and unstable: they strongly absorb atmospheric oxygen with modification of the composition and, in certain cases, of the structure (pyrophoric oxide). With a view to obtaining stable oxides, we have prepared mixed uranium-thorium oxalates. In order to prepare an oxalate having a homogeneous composition, it is necessary to adopt a well-defined preparation method: the addition of solutions of thorium and uranium IV nitrates to a continually saturated oxalic acid solution. The mixed oxide obtained from the thermal decomposition of an oxalate U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}, 2 H{sub 2}O at 500 C for 24 hours in a current of oxygen leads to a cubic structure which is well-defined both in the bulk and superficially when x is less than 0.35. Above this atomic concentration of uranium, some uranium moves out of the lattice in the form of UO{sub 3} or U{sub 3}O{sub 8} according to the temperature. The mixed oxide is not stoichiometric,(U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}O{sub 2+y}) and the average degree of oxidation of the uranium varies with the temperature and partial oxygen pressure. The oxides thus formed have a high surface area. By dissolving the mixed oxalates in a concentrated solution of ammonium oxalate, it is possible to deposit the catalyst on a support, but the differences in the solubilities of the thorium and uranium IV oxalates in the ammonium oxalate make it impossible to prepare double salts formed either of thorium and uranium and of ammonium. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie la decomposition thermique des oxalates d'uranyle et d'uranium IV en vue d'aboutir au dioxide d'uranium. Nous avons pu isoler les principales phases intermediaires des decompositions

  12. Fractographic peculiarities of cermet tungsten fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, V.A.; Babak, A.V.; Uskov, E.I.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of test temperature on fracture peculiarities of cermets tungsten with initial cellular structure of deformation is shown. Tungsten crack resistance increases at temperatures to Tsub(x) (ductile-brittle transition temperature) and decreases at temperatures above Tsub(x). The degree of ceramics tungsten plasticity realization depends on its crack resistance

  13. Simulation of tungsten armour cracking due to small ELMs in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestchanyi, S., E-mail: sergey.pestchanyi@ihm.fzk.de [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM (Germany); Garkusha, I. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Simulations of tungsten armour cracking under small ELM-like plasma heat load, which does not cause surface melting, have been performed using the PEGASUS-3D code. A dedicated series of experiments have been performed in the QSPA-Kh50 facility for measurements of the unknown tungsten thermophysical properties and for verification of the PEGASUS-3D simulation results. The simulations revealed that a cellular crack network with average mesh size {Lambda} {approx} 0.5 mm formed after first ELMs and the pattern does not change further. With increasing number of repetitive ELMs loads, the average crack width {Delta}(n) has a maximum value {Delta}{sub m}. The ratio of {Delta}{sub m}/{Lambda} is equal to the tungsten thermal expansion at the maximum surface temperature. {Delta}(n) tends to this value exponentially. The number of ELMs n{sub m} needed for {Delta} stabilization depends on the ELMs energy density and time duration, n{sub m} {approx} 300 for the simulated ELMs of 0.45 MJ/m{sup 2} and 0.25 ms duration. The PEGASUS-3D code is prepared for simulations of tungsten armour damage under action of ELMs of various energy deposition and time duration. These parameters of ELMs depend on ITER regimes of operation and on how successful will be the efforts on ELMs mitigation.

  14. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingjin; Ge, Liming; Lyu, Yongbo; Zi, Yaxin; Li, Xinying; Li, Defu; Mu, Changdao

    2017-10-15

    The oxidized κ-carrageenans with different oxidation levels were prepared through the hydrogen peroxide and copper sulfate redox system. The oxidation level of oxidized κ-carrageenan was successfully controlled by adjusting the dosage of hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the microtopography of oxidized κ-carrageenan changed from rough granules to smooth flakes, mainly resulting from the easily melting property of oxidized κ-carrageenan induced by introduced carboxyl and aldehyde groups. Especially, the antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenans against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was systematically investigated. The results showed that the oxidized κ-carrageenan could damage the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and suppress the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The oxidized κ-carrageenan possessed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, which may be used as a new antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An electrochemical process for the recycling of tungsten carbide scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the development of a number of designs for electrochemical cells, and the subsequent construction and operation of a vibrating-plate cell capable of oxidizing 15 kilograms of tungsten carbide a day to a crude tungstic acid precipitate, with similtaneous recovery of cobalt metal on the cathode. The effects on the process of the reagent concentration, temperature, current density, and cathode material are discussed

  16. Tungsten wire and tubing joined by nickel brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Thin tungsten wire and tungsten tubing are brazed together using a contacting coil of nickel wire heated to its melting point in an inert-gas atmosphere. This method is also effective for brazing tungsten to tungsten-rhenium parts.

  17. Determination of tungsten in high-alloy steels and heat resisting alloys by isotope dilution-spark source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Morimasa; Yamada, Kei; Okochi, Haruno; Hirose, Fumio

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten in high-alloy steels and heat-resisting alloys was determined by isotope dilution method combined with spark source mass spectrometry by using 183 W enriched tungsten. The spike solution was prepared by fusing tungsten trioxide in sodium carbonate. A high-alloy steel sample was dissolved in the mixture of sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid together with the spike solution; a sample of heat resisting alloy was similarly dissolved in the mixture of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid. The solution was evaporated to give dense white fumes. Tungsten was separated from the residue by a conventional cinchonine salt-precipitation method. The salt was ignited, and the residue was mixed with graphite powder and pressed into electrodes. The isotope 183 W and 184 W were measured. The method was applied to the determination of tungsten in JSS and NBS standard high-alloy steels and JAERI standard nickel- and NBS standard cobalt-base heat resisting alloys containing more than 0.05% tungsten. The results were obtained with satisfactory precision and accuracy. However, the results obtained for JSS standard high- speed steels containing molybdenum tended to be significantly lower than the certified values. (author)

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed Ultrafine Chromium Oxide Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Feng; Jiang Xianliang; Yu Yueguang; Zeng Keli; Ren Xianjing; Li Zhenduo

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine chromium oxide coatings were prepared by plasma spraying with ultrafine feedstock. Processing parameters of plasma spraying were optimized. Optical microscope (OM) was used to observe the microstructure of the ultrafine chromium oxide coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and particle size of ultrafine powder feedstock as well as to examine the microstructure of the chromium oxide coating. In addition, hardness and bonding strength of the ultrafine chromium oxide coatings were measured. The results showed that the optimized plasma spraying parameters were suitable for ultrafine chromium oxide coating and the properties and microstructure of the optimized ultrafine chromium oxide coating were superior compared to conventional chromium oxide wear resistant coatings

  19. Tungsten oxides as interfacial layers for improved performance in hybrid optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, M.; Palilis, L.C.; Georgiadou, D.G.; Argitis, P.; Kennou, S.; Kostis, I.; Papadimitropoulos, G.; Stathopoulos, N.A.; Iliadis, A.A.; Konofaos, N.; Davazoglou, D.; Sygellou, L.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) films with thicknesses ranging from 30 to 100 nm were grown by Hot Filament Vapor Deposition (HFVD). Films were studied by X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) and were found to be stoichiometric. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Samples had a granular form with grains in the order of 100 nm. The surface roughness was found to increase with film thickness. HFVD WO 3 films were used as conducting interfacial layers in advanced hybrid organic-inorganic optoelectronic devices. Hybrid-Organic Light Emitting Diodes (Hy-OLEDs) and Organic Photovoltaics (Hy-OPVs) were fabricated with these films as anode and/or as cathode interfacial conducting layers. The Hy-OLEDs showed significantly higher current density and a lower turn-on voltage when a thin WO 3 layer was inserted at the anode/polymer interface, while when inserted at the cathode/polymer interface the device performance was found to deteriorate. The improvement was attributed to a more efficient hole injection and transport from the Fermi level of the anode to the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) of a yellow emitting copolymer (YEP). On the other hand, the insertion of a thin WO 3 layer at the cathode/polymer interface of Hy-OPV devices based on a polythiophene-fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend photoactive layer resulted in an increase of the produced photogenerated current, more likely due to improved electron extraction at the Al cathode.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide thin films prepared by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc oxide thin films were prepared with ammonia/ammonium chloride buffer as the reaction moderating agent in the chemical bath deposition technique. An observable color change during the reaction due to variations in the reactants concentration indicated the existence of the cupric (CuO) and cuprous (Cu2O) oxides ...

  1. Recrystallization and embrittlement of sintered tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bega, N.D.; Babak, A.V.; Uskov, E.I.

    1982-01-01

    The recrystallization of sintered tungsten with a cellular structure of deformation is studied as related to its embrittlement. It is stated that in case of preliminary recrystallization the sintered tungsten crack resistance does not depend on the testing temperature. The tungsten crack resistance is shown to lower with an increase of the structure tendency to primary recrystallization [ru

  2. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania-silica mixed oxide prepared via basic hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chao; Xu Zili; Yang Qiujing; Xue Baoyong; Du Yaoguo; Zhang Jiahua

    2004-01-01

    Two different synthesis routes were applied to prepare TiO 2 -XSiO 2 (X denotes mol% of silica in titania-silica mixed oxides) with different silica concentrations by using ammonia water as hydrolysis catalyst. Through comparing the photocatalytic performance of two sets of mixed oxides, we found that the photocatalytic activity of mixed oxides prepared via the route which can promote homogeneity, was significantly enhanced as compared with that of counterparts prepared via the another route, and the highest photocatalytic activity obtained by adding about 9.1 mol% silica into titania was much higher than that of pure TiO 2 . The mixed oxides were investigated by means of XRD, thermal analysis, UV-vis, FT-IR and XPS. The characterization results suggest that, in comparison with pure TiO 2 , the mixed oxides exhibit smaller crystallite size and higher thermal stability which can elevate the temperature of anatase to rutile phase transformation due to the addition of silica. Furthermore, Broensted acidity, which is associated with the formation of Ti-O-Si hetero linkages where tetrahedrally coordinated silica is chemically mixed with the octahedral titania matrix, may be a very important contribution to the enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania-silica mixed oxides as well

  3. Methods of preparing deposits containing iron oxides for recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical industry is one of the largest sources of wastes. Some of them, however, owing to their content of metals such as zinc or iron, may become valuable secondary raw materials. In order to achieve that purpose, they require appropriate preparation. This article provides a discussion on the methods of preparation of scrap from steelworks, namely deposits containing iron oxides, enabling their recycling.

  4. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Oksuz, Betul Akgol [Genome Technology Center, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Shen, Steven [Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten's ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer-related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA sequencing. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data show the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. - Highlights: • Tungsten (W) induces cell transformation and increases migration in vitro. • W increases xenograft growth in nude mice. • W altered the expression of cancer-related genes such as those involved in leukemia. • Some of the dysregulated leukemia genes include, CD74, CTGF, MST4, and HOXB5. • For the first time, data is presented that demonstrates tungsten's carcinogenic potential.

  5. Effects of fusion relevant transient energetic radiation, plasma and thermal load on PLANSEE double forged tungsten samples in a low-energy plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, S.; Ouyang, B.; Zhang, Z.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Salar Elahi, A.; Rawat, R. S.

    2018-06-01

    Tungsten is the leading candidate for plasma facing component (PFC) material for thermonuclear fusion reactors and various efforts are ongoing to evaluate its performance or response to intense fusion relevant radiation, plasma and thermal loads. This paper investigates the effects of hot dense decaying pinch plasma, highly energetic deuterium ions and fusion neutrons generated in a low-energy (3.0 kJ) plasma focus device on the structure, morphology and hardness of the PLANSEE double forged tungsten (W) samples surfaces. The tungsten samples were provided by Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), Germany via International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. Tungsten samples were irradiated using different number of plasma focus (PF) shots (1, 5 and 10) at a fixed axial distance of 5 cm from the anode top and also at various distances from the top of the anode (5, 7, 9 and 11 cm) using fixed number (5) of plasma focus shots. The virgin tungsten sample had bcc structure (α-W phase). After PF irradiation, the XRD analysis showed (i) the presence of low intensity new diffraction peak corresponding to β-W phase at (211) crystalline plane indicating the partial structural phase transition in some of the samples, (ii) partial amorphization, and (iii) vacancy defects formation and compressive stress in irradiated tungsten samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed the distinctive changes to non-uniform surface with nanometer sized particles and particle agglomerates along with large surface cracks at higher number of irradiation shots. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated the reduction in relative tungsten oxide content and the increase in metallic tungsten after irradiation. Hardness of irradiated samples initially increased for one shot exposure due to reduction in tungsten oxide phase, but then decreased with increasing number of shots due to increasing concentration of defects. It is demonstrated that the plasma focus device provides

  6. Field electron emission from dense array of microneedles of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, F.; Aoyagi, M.; Kitai, T.; Ishikawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    Characteristics of field electron emission from the dense array of microneedles of tungsten prepared on a 10-μm tungsten filament were measured at an environmental pressure of approx.1 x 10 -8 Torr (1.33 x 10 -6 Pa). Electron emission was not uniform over the filament surface, but the variation of emission current with applied voltage explicitly obeyed the Fowler-Nordheim relationship. At an emission current of approx.10 -4 A, a vacuum arc was induced that led to a permanent change in current-voltage characteristic. Current fluctuation was dependent on emitter temperature and applied voltage, and the lowest fluctuation of about 4% was routinely obtained at approx.550 K and at applied voltages several percent lower than the arc-inducing voltage. Macroscopic current density amounted to approx.20-80 mA/cm 2 at the best stability

  7. Environmental fate of tungsten from military use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Jay L.; Korte, Nic

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript describes the distribution, fate and transport of tungsten used in training rounds at three small arms ranges at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), USA. Practice with tungsten/nylon rounds began in 2000 subsequent to a 1997 US Environmental Protection Agency ban on training with lead. Training with the tungsten rounds was halted in 2005 because of concerns regarding tungsten's environmental mobility and potential toxicity. This study, therefore, examines how tungsten partitions in the environment when fired on a small arms training range. Soil sampling revealed surface soil concentrations, highest at the berm face, up to 2080 mg/kg. Concentrations decreased rapidly with depth-at least by an order of magnitude by 25 cm. Nonetheless, tungsten concentrations remained above background to at least 150 cm. Pore-water samples from lysimeters installed in berm areas revealed a range of concentrations (< 1-400 mg/L) elevated with respect to background although there was no discernable trend with depth. Groundwater monitoring well samples collected approximately 30 m below ground surface showed tungsten (0.001-0.56 mg/L) attributable to range use

  8. comparative study between different oxidizing agents to prepare radioiodinated alpha fetoprotein (AFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kolaly, M.T.; Ragab, M.T.; El-Mohty, A.A.; Sallam, K.M.; Arief, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    the aim of the present study was designed to prepare four different preparation of radioiodinated alpha fetoprotein ( 125 I-Afp) using different oxidizing agents. the oxidizing agents were chloramine-T (Ch-T), lodogen (1,3,4 , 6-tetrachloro 3 α ,6α diphenyl glycoluril ), N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and lactoperoxidase (LPS). the product was purified by gel filtration using sephadex G-25. then the tracers obtained were tested by radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. different affecting factors were extensively studied including reaction time, reaction volume, oxidizing agent content and Ph of reaction. it was found that the Ch-T method is the best one

  9. Method for preparing corrosion-resistant ceramic shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1979-12-07

    Ceramic shapes having impermeable tungsten coatings can be used for containing highly corrosive molten alloys and salts. The shapes are prepared by coating damp green ceramic shapes containing a small amount of yttria with a tungsten coating slip which has been adjusted to match the shrinkage rate of the green ceramic and which will fire to a theoretical density of at least 80% to provide an impermeable coating.

  10. Serrated flow behavior in tungsten heavy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Jiten, E-mail: das.jiten@gmail.com; Sankaranarayana, M.; Nandy, T.K.

    2015-10-14

    Flow behavior of a tungsten heavy alloy of composition, 90.5 wt% W–7.1 wt% Ni–1.65 wt% Fe–0.5 wt% Co–0.25 wt% Mo was investigated in a temperature range of 223–973 K and strain rate range of 10{sup −5}–10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. In the temperature range of 773–873 K, the stress strain curves were characterized by jerky flow pointing towards Dynamic Strain Ageing (DSA)/Portevin Le-Chatelier's (PLC) effect. Characteristics of DSA were analyzed in detail. Based on the value of activation energy determined from the critical strain method, diffusion of interstitials (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen) were thought to be responsible for the DSA effect. The results were discussed in relation to information existing in this area in tungsten heavy alloys. The study of fracture surface of tensile tested samples (in the range of 823–973 K) showed that the fractographic features, mostly intergranular, predominantly govern the overall ductility of the alloy and do not change except for surface oxidation at relatively higher temperatures.

  11. High heat flux testing of TiC coated molybdenum with a tungsten intermediate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitsuka, Masakazu; Fukutomi, Masao; Okada, Masatoshi

    1988-01-01

    The use of low atomic number (Z) material coatings for fusion reactor first-wall components has proved to be a valuable technique to reduce the plasma radiation losses. Molybdenum coated with titanium carbide is considered very promising since it has a good capability of receiving heat from the plasma. An interfacial reaction between the TiC film and the molybdenum substrate, however, causes a severe deterioration of the film at elevated temperatures. In order to solve this problem a TiC coated molybdenum with an intermediate tungsten layer was developed. High temperature properties of this material was evaluated by a newly devised electron beam heating apparatus. TiC coatings prepared on a vacuum-heat-treated molybdenum with a tungsten intermediate layer showed good high temperature stability and survived 2.0 s pulses of heating at a power density as high as 53 MW/m 2 . The melt area of the TiC coatings in high heat flux testings also markedly decreased when a tungsten intermediate layer was applied. The melting mechanism of the TiC coatings with and without a tungsten intermediate layer was discussed by EPMA measurements. (author)

  12. Electro-optical evaluation of tungsten oxide and vanadium pentoxide thin films for modeling an electrochromic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Najafi Ashtiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tungsten oxide and vanadium oxide electrochromic thin films were placed in vacuum and in a thickness of 200 nm on a transparent conductive substrate of SnO2:F using the physical method of thermal evaporation. Then they were studied for the optical characteristics in the wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm and for their electrical potentials in the range form +1.5 to -1.5 volts. The films were post heated in order to assess changes in energy gap with temperature, at temperatures120 , 300 and 500°C. Refractive and extinction coefficients and the transition type of films in the visible light range and in the thickness of 200 nm were determined and measured. X-ray diffraction pattern and SEM images and cyclic Voltammetry of layers were also studied. The results of this study due to the deposition of layers, the layer thickness selected, the type of substrate, the range of annealing temperatures and selected electrolyte were in full compliance with the works of other researchers [1,2,3]. Therefore, these layers with features such as crystal structure, refractive and even extinction coefficients in the range of visible light, the appropriate response of chromic switch in the replication potential, good adhesion to the substrate, and the high amount of optical transmition and so on, prove useful to be used in an electrochromic device

  13. Powder of a copper oxide superconductor precursor, fabrication process and use for the preparation of superconducting oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaudt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The precursor powder comprises at least a copper compound (hydroxide, oxide and hydroxynitrates), at least a rare earth and/or yttrium compound (nitrates, hydroxides and hydroxynitrates) or bismuth oxide and at least an alkaline earth nitrate. It can be prepared by atomization drying of a suspension a copper precipitate or coprecipitate and other elements of the superconducting oxide in solution [fr

  14. Influence of surface morphology and microstructure on performance of CVD tungsten coating under fusion transient thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Youyun, E-mail: lianyy@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jianbao; Feng, Fan [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Lv, Yanwei; Song, Jiupeng [China National R& D Center for Tungsten Technology, Xiamen Tungsten Co. Ltd, 361026 Xiamen (China); Chen, Jiming [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Thick CVD-W coatingswere deposited at a rapid growth rate. • The polished CVD-W coatings have highly textured structure and exhibited a very strong preferred orientation. • The polished CVD tungsten coatings show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings. • The crack formation of the polished CVD-W was almost suppressed at an elevated temperature. - Abstract: Thick tungsten coatings have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a rapid growth rate. A series of tungsten coatings with different thickness and surface morphology were prepared. The surface morphology, microstructure and preferred orientation of the CVD tungsten coatings were investigated. Thermal shock analyses were performed by using an electron beam facility to study the influence of the surface morphology and the microstructure on the thermal shock resistance of the CVD tungsten coatings. Repetitive (100 pulses) ELMs-like thermal shock loads were applied at various temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C with pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1 GW/m{sup 2}. The results of the tests demonstrated that the specific surface morphology and columnar crystal structure of the CVD tungsten have significant influence on the surface cracking threshold and crack propagation of the materials. The CVD tungsten coatings with a polished surface show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings with a rough surface.

  15. Assembly of tungsten oxide nanobundles and their electrochromic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Xueting; Sun Shibin; Li Zhenjiang; Xu Xiao; Qiu Yanyan

    2011-01-01

    Lenticular W 18 O 49 nanobundles composed of ultra-thin nanowires with diameters of 5-10 nm have been synthesized through a simple solvothermal method with hexachloride as precursor and mixed cyclohexanol and ethanol as solvent. Electrochromic films were prepared by assembling the W 18 O 49 nanobundle suspension onto tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated glass. Results showed that self-assembly of the W 18 O 49 nanobundles was strongly influenced by the solvents employed to disperse the nanobundles. The W 18 O 49 nanobundles coated films exhibited excellent electrochromic stability and reversibility. The W 18 O 49 nanobundle films also showed much higher charge-insertion density compared with the WO 3 nanorod film, which may be due to the ultrathin feature of single nanowires constituting the nanobundles, unique oxygen vacancies of monoclinic W 18 O 49 , and the highly ordered assembly of the nanobundles.

  16. ITER tungsten divertor design development and qualification program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, T., E-mail: takeshi.hirai@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Escourbiac, F.; Carpentier-Chouchana, S.; Fedosov, A.; Ferrand, L.; Jokinen, T.; Komarov, V.; Kukushkin, A.; Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Pitts, R.A.; Shu, W.; Sugihara, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Riccardi, B. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Suzuki, S. [JAEA, Fusion Research and Development Directorate JAEA, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka, Ibaragi 311-0193 (Japan); Villari, R. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Detailed design development plan for the ITER tungsten divertor. • Latest status of the ITER tungsten divertor design. • Brief overview of qualification program for the ITER tungsten divertor and status of R and D activity. -- Abstract: In November 2011, the ITER Council has endorsed the recommendation that a period of up to 2 years be set to develop a full-tungsten divertor design and accelerate technology qualification in view of a possible decision to start operation with a divertor having a full-tungsten plasma-facing surface. To ensure a solid foundation for such a decision, a full tungsten divertor design, together with a demonstration of the necessary high performance tungsten monoblock technology should be completed within the required timescale. The status of both the design and technology R and D activity is summarized in this paper.

  17. Effect of pulse current parameters on microstructure of tungsten coating electroplated from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3}–NaPO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Yingchun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com; Sun, Ningbo; Len, Jiaxun

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings were electroplated on cooper alloy by pulse plating. • Increasing current density resulted in an increase in grain size of tungsten coating. • With the increase in duty cycle, the grain size of tungsten coating increased. • The pulse period had an insignificant effect on the tungsten grain size. - Abstract: The tungsten coatings with low oxygen content were prepared on copper alloy substrate by pulse electroplating in Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3}–NaPO{sub 3} molten salt. A series of tungsten coatings with compact morphologies were successfully obtained under various conditions. The influences of current density, duty cycle and period on tungsten grain size and coatings thickness were investigated. The results demonstrated that current density was the most important factor influencing tungsten grain size, which had a positive correlation with current density. The thickness of coating decreased when the current density was up to 80 mA cm{sup −2}. However, the tungsten grain size, tungsten coating thickness and current efficiency changed a little with the increase in pulse periods.

  18. Far-infrared spectroscopy of thermally annealed tungsten silicide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiotti, M.; Borghesi, A.; Guizzetti, G.; Nava, F.; Santoro, G.

    1991-01-01

    The far-infrared transmittance spectrum of tungsten silicide has been observed for the first time. WSi 2 polycrystalline films were prepared by coevaporation and chemical-vapour deposition on silicon wafers, and subsequently thermally annealed at different temperatures. The observed structures are interpreted, on the basis of the symmetry properties of the crystal, such as infrared-active vibrational modes. Moreover, the marked lineshape dependence on annealing temperature enables this technique to analyse the formation of the solid silicide phases

  19. Hydrogen permeation properties of plasma-sprayed tungsten*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Pawelko, R. J.; Hankins, M. R.; Longhurst, G. R.; Neiser, R. A.

    1994-09-01

    Tungsten has been proposed as a plasma-facing component material for advanced fusion facilities. This paper reports on laboratory-scale studies that were done to assess the hydrogen permeation properties of plasma-sprayed tungsten for such applications. The work entailed deuterium permeation measurements for plasma-sprayed (PS) tungsten coatings, sputter-deposited (SP) tungsten coatings, and steel substrate material using a mass-analyzed, 3 keV D 3+ ion beam with fluxes of ˜6.5 × 10 19 D/m 2 s. Extensive characterization analyses for the plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings were made using Auger spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Observed permeation rates through composite PS-tungsten/steel specimens were several orders of magnitude below the permeation levels observed for SP-tungsten/steel composite specimens and pure steel specimens. Characterization analyses indicated that the plasma-sprayed tungsten coating had a nonhomogeneous microstructure that consisted of splats with columnar solidification, partially-melted particles with grain boundaries, and void regions. Reduced permeation levels can be attributed to the complex microstructure and a substantial surface-connected porosity.

  20. Vapor-transport of tungsten and its geologic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibue, Y [Hyogo Univ. of Teacher Education, Hyogo (Japan)

    1988-11-10

    The volatility of tungsten in a hydrous system at elevated temperatures and pressures was examined, and a tentative model for the enrichment of tungsten in hydrothermal solutions for the deposits related to granitic activities was proposed. To produce vapor-saturated solution, 17 or 15ml of 20wt% NaCl solution was introduced into an autoclave. Ca(OH){sub 2} for tungsten and H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} for base metals were used as vapor-captures, and run products were identified by X-ray powder diffractometry. The results suggested that the ratio of tungsten to base metals was higher in a vapor phase than in a liquid phase, and more enrichment of tungsten in the vapor phase occurred at higher temperature and pressure under the coexistence of the vapor and liquid phase. The tentative model emphasizing the vapor-transport of tungsten could explain the presence of tungsten deposits without large mineralization of base metals. Geological schematic model for the generation of the hydrothermal solution enriched in tungsten compared with base metals was illustrated based on above mentioned results. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Environmental fate of tungsten from military use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Jay L. [Research and Development Center, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, New Hampshire, 03755 (United States)], E-mail: Jay.L.Clausen@erdc.usace.army.mil; Korte, Nic [1946 Clover Ct., Grand Junction, Colorado, 81506 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This manuscript describes the distribution, fate and transport of tungsten used in training rounds at three small arms ranges at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR), USA. Practice with tungsten/nylon rounds began in 2000 subsequent to a 1997 US Environmental Protection Agency ban on training with lead. Training with the tungsten rounds was halted in 2005 because of concerns regarding tungsten's environmental mobility and potential toxicity. This study, therefore, examines how tungsten partitions in the environment when fired on a small arms training range. Soil sampling revealed surface soil concentrations, highest at the berm face, up to 2080 mg/kg. Concentrations decreased rapidly with depth-at least by an order of magnitude by 25 cm. Nonetheless, tungsten concentrations remained above background to at least 150 cm. Pore-water samples from lysimeters installed in berm areas revealed a range of concentrations (< 1-400 mg/L) elevated with respect to background although there was no discernable trend with depth. Groundwater monitoring well samples collected approximately 30 m below ground surface showed tungsten (0.001-0.56 mg/L) attributable to range use.

  2. Tungsten Speciation in Firing Range Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    satisfactorily, such as: which tungsten mineral phase is present in soil and to what extent is adsorption important in regu- lating soil solution concentrations... soil solution rather than discrete mineral phases. Information provided in this report will assist the following organizations in future decision...the soil solution ERDC TR-11-1 43 must affect tungsten speciation in other ways. The precipitation of soil minerals also would limit tungsten

  3. Novel synthesis strategy for the preparation of individual phytosterol oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junlan; Yue, Qiulin; Ji, Yishun; Cheng, Beijiu; Zhang, Xin

    2013-01-30

    Sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols) are important structural components of cell membranes and major constituents of lipid metabolism. Research on their oxides, such as the factors affecting oxidation, oxides' structures, and qualitative and quantitative analysis, aroused more attention in this decade. However, the biological roles of individual phytosterol oxides are still unclear because no commercial individual phytosterol oxide standards are available. Different from the traditional chemical synthesis, in the present study, chemical synthesis from a starting phytosterol mixture followed with a semipreparative HPLC separation produced individual oxides. TLC and analytical HPLC were used here to not only monitor the reaction process but also specifically analyze the synthetic intermediates and oxides. The chromatographic results exhibited strict rules and similar characteristics. Finally, for the first time, four individual phytosterol oxides were successfully separated and collected by a semipreparative HPLC system, thus providing a novel strategy for the preparation of individual phytosterol oxides.

  4. The behaviour of tungsten electrodes in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, T.J.; Vajgand, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    Tungsten electrodes have advantageously been used for potentiometric end-point detection in perchloric acid titration of bases in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride. They have also given good results in biamperometric detection of the equivalence point in continuous coulometric titration of small quantities of bases and acids in the same solvent. Tungsten electrodes in the presence of quinhydrone behave like platinum electrodes, but in biamperometric end-point determination in the absence of quinhydrone it is better to remove the oxide layer from their surface. Some other factors affecting their behaviour have also been studied. Errors in determination do not exceed +-2% even in titration of very small quantities of substances. (author)

  5. Chemically deposited tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten – The way to a mock-up for divertor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Riesch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of advanced materials is essential for sophisticated energy systems like a future fusion reactor. Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W utilize extrinsic toughening mechanisms and therefore overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten at low temperature and its sensitivity to operational embrittlement. This material has been successfully produced and tested during the last years and the focus is now put on the technological realisation for the use in plasma facing components of fusion devices. In this contribution, we present a way to utilize Wf/W composites for divertor applications by a fabrication route based on the chemical vapour deposition (CVD of tungsten. Mock-ups based on the ITER typical design can be realized by the implementation of Wf/W tiles. A concept based on a layered deposition approach allows the production of such tiles in the required geometry. One fibre layer after the other is positioned and ingrown into the W-matrix until the final sample size is reached. Charpy impact tests on these samples showed an increased fracture energy mainly due to the ductile deformation of the tungsten fibres. The use of Wf/W could broaden the operation temperature window of tungsten significantly and mitigate problems of deep cracking occurring typically in cyclic high heat flux loading. Textile techniques are utilized to optimise the tungsten wire positioning and process speed of preform production. A new device dedicated to the chemical deposition of W enhances significantly, the available machine time for processing and optimisation. Modelling shows that good deposition results are achievable by the use of a convectional flow and a directed temperature profile in an infiltration process.

  6. Preparation of Dispersion-Hardened Copper by Internal Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Povl; Sørensen, Ole Toft

    1978-01-01

    Internal oxidation experiments in CO2/CO atmospheres on Cu-Al alloys for preparation of dispersion-hardened Cu are described. The oxygen pressures of the atmospheres used in the experiments were controlled with a solid electrolyte oxygen cell based on ZrO2 (CaO). The particle size distributions o...

  7. Novel metal oxides prepared by ingenious synthetic routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.N.R.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Vidyasagar, K.; Ganguli, A.K.; Ramanan, A.; Ganapathi, L.

    1986-01-01

    Several novel oxides have been prepared by the decomposition of carbonate precursors of calcite structure of the general formulas Mn/sub 1-x/M/sub x/CO 3 (M = Mg,Co,Cd), Ca/sub 1-x/M/sup prime//sub x/CO 3 , and Ca/sub 1-x/-yM/sup //sub x/M/sup double-prime//sub y/CO 3 (M',M'' = Mn,Fe,Co). Typical of the oxides synthesized are a variety of monoxides, Mn/sub 1-x/M/sub x/O, of rocksalt structure and perovskite-related oxides such as Ca 2 FeCoO 5 , Ca 2 Co 2 O 5 , and Ca 3 Fe 2 MnO 8 , many of them exhibiting novel anion-vacancy-ordered superstructures. An interesting series of oxides prepared by the topotactic reduction of Ca 2 Fe/sub 2-x/Mn/sub x/O/sub 6-y/ (synthesized by the decomposition of the corresponding carbonate precursors) is Ca 2 Fe/sub 2-x/Mn/sub x/O 5 where three different coordination polyhedra (octahedra, tetrahedra, and square pyramids) of the transition metals coexist. Topotactic reduction of LaCoO 3 and LaNiO 3 yields new oxides, La 2 Co 2 O 5 and La 2 Ni 2 O 5 , possessing anion-vacancy-ordered superstructures. While La 2 Co 2 O 5 adopts the brownmillerite structure, La 2 Ni 2 O 5 exhibits a new type of vacancy ordering with octahedral and square-planar coordination of Ni 2+ . Slightly reduced LaNiO 3 seem to exhibit crystallographic shear (CS) planes similar to WO/sub 3-x/. Topotactic dehydration of isostructural Mo/sub 1-x/W/sub x/O 3 x H 2 O provides a convenient route for the synthesis of Mo/sub 1-x/W/sub x/O 3 (0 3 -related structure

  8. Promotion of catalytic performance by adding W into Pt/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst for selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mengmeng [Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Wang, Suning; Li, Yuanshan [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Xu, Haidi, E-mail: xuhaidi@scu.edu.cn [Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Chen, Yaoqiang, E-mail: nic7501@scu.edu.cn [Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The tungsten species weaken platinum-oxygen bond strength. • Pt{sup 0} was the active species of ammonia oxidation reaction in the low temperature. • Some PtO species could convert to Pt [111] beside WO{sub 3} species. - Abstract: Pt-WO{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was prepared by co-impregnation method to improve the ammonia oxidation performance of Pt/ZrO{sub 2}. Differences in textural, structural, surface chemical states, redox properties and acid properties, together with the catalytic performance of Pt/ZrO{sub 2} and Pt-WO{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts were investigated systematically. The results of H{sub 2}-TPR revealed that higher reduction ability was possessed by Pt-WO{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} than that of Pt/ZrO{sub 2} due to the influence of tungsten on platinum. The XPS results showed that electron transfer from tungsten to platinum species made higher electron density around platinum. The TEM results revealed that the active lattice plane Pt[111] was obtained by modification of W species. Consequently, Pt-WO{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} exhibited obviously better ammonia oxidation performance compared with Pt/ZrO{sub 2}, the light-off temperature of NH{sub 3} shifted from 284 °C to 249 °C, the activation energy decreased from 113.4 kJ mol{sup −1} to 96.2 kJ mol{sup −1}.

  9. In situ monitoring of the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebsz, Melinda [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Kollender, Jan Philipp [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Hassel, Achim Walter [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

    2017-09-15

    In the present work, which is aimed to monitor in situ the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten by using a Flow-Type Scanning Droplet Cell Microscope (FT-SDCM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), novel results are reported. The anodic oxide growth and its dissolution on the surface of W have been monitored in situ. The results of this current study show the importance of coupling electrochemical experiments to ICP-MS. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. The development of latent fingerprints by zinc oxide and tin oxide nanoparticles prepared by precipitation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Deepali; Kumar, Sacheen

    2018-05-01

    Fingerprints are the very important evidence at the crime scene which must be developed clearly with shortest duration of time to solve the case. Metal oxide nanoparticles could be the mean to develop the latent fingerprints. Zinc oxide and Tin Oxide Nanoparticles were prepared by using chemical precipitation technique which were dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The size of zinc oxide crystallite was found to be 14.75 nm with minimum reflectance at 360 nm whereas tin oxide have the size of 90 nm and reflectance at minimum level 321 nm. By using these powdered samples on glass, plastic and glossy cardboard, latent fingerprints were developed. Zinc oxide was found to be better candidate than tin oxide for the fingerprint development on all the three types of substrates.

  11. Assembly of tungsten oxide nanobundles and their electrochromic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Xueting, E-mail: xuetingchang@yahoo.cn [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Sun Shibin [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Li Zhenjiang; Xu Xiao; Qiu Yanyan [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Lenticular W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundles composed of ultra-thin nanowires with diameters of 5-10 nm have been synthesized through a simple solvothermal method with hexachloride as precursor and mixed cyclohexanol and ethanol as solvent. Electrochromic films were prepared by assembling the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundle suspension onto tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated glass. Results showed that self-assembly of the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundles was strongly influenced by the solvents employed to disperse the nanobundles. The W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundles coated films exhibited excellent electrochromic stability and reversibility. The W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanobundle films also showed much higher charge-insertion density compared with the WO{sub 3} nanorod film, which may be due to the ultrathin feature of single nanowires constituting the nanobundles, unique oxygen vacancies of monoclinic W{sub 18}O{sub 49}, and the highly ordered assembly of the nanobundles.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  13. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading

  14. Dissolution kinetics of small amounts of oxygen in tantalum alloy T-111 and internal oxide displacement reactions during annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Oxygen was added to T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf, wt. %) at 820 and 990 C at an oxygen pressure of about 0.0003 torr. The technique employed permitted predetermined and reproducible doping of T-111 up to 3.0 at. % oxygen. Based on the temperature dependence of the doping reaction, it is concluded that the initial rates of oxygen pickup are probably controlled by solution of oxygen into the T-111 lattice. Although hafnium oxides are more stable than those of tantalum or tungsten, analyses of extracted residues indicate that the latter oxides predominate in the as-doped specimens, presumably because of the higher concentrations of tantalum and tungsten in the alloy. However, high-temperature annealing promotes gettering of dissolved oxygen and of other oxides to form hafnium oxides. Small amounts of tantalum and tungsten oxides were still present after high-temperature annealing. Tungsten oxide (WO3) volatilizes slightly from the surface of T-111 at 990 C. The vaporization of WO3 has no apparent affect on the doping reaction.

  15. Preparation and study of properties of dispersed graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Seliverstova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ability of graphene oxide to form stable dispersion in organic solvents was studied in this work. As it was shown, sonication of graphene leads to the decreas of the particle size. Stability of prepared graphene dispersions was studied upon measurements of distribution of number of the particles via size and change of optical density of the solutions with time. It was found that graphene oxide forms a more stable dispersion in tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide than in chloroform and acetone.

  16. Tungsten trioxide as high-{kappa} gate dielectric for highly transparent and temperature-stable zinc-oxide-based thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Michael; Wenckstern, Holger von; Grundmann, Marius [Universitaet Leipzig, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors with high-{kappa}, room-temperature deposited, highly transparent tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) as gate dielectric. The channel material consists of a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film. The transmittance and resistivity of WO{sub 3} films was tuned in order to obtain a highly transparent and insulating WO{sub 3} dielectric. The devices were processed by standard photolithography using lift-off technique. On top of the WO{sub 3} dielectric a highly transparent and conductive oxide consisting of ZnO: Al 3% wt. was deposited. The gate structure of the devices exhibits an average transmittance in the visible spectral range of 86%. The on/off-current ratio is larger than 10{sup 8} with off- and gate leakage-currents below 3 x 10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2}. Due to the high relative permittivity of {epsilon}{sub r} {approx} 70, a gate voltage sweep of only 2 V is necessary to turn the transistor on and off with a minimum subthreshold swing of 80 mV/decade. The channel mobility of the transistors equals the Hall-effect mobility with a value of 5 cm{sup 2}/Vs. It is furthermore shown, that the devices are stable up to operating temperatures of at least 150 C.

  17. Tungsten or Wolfram: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoroddu, Maria A; Medici, Serenella; Peana, Massimiliano; Nurchi, Valeria M; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Laulicht-Glickc, Freda; Costa, Max

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten or wolfram was regarded for many years as an enemy within the tin smelting and mining industry, because it conferred impurity or dirtiness in tin mining. However, later it was considered an amazing metal for its strength and flexibility, together with its diamond like hardness and its melting point which is the highest of any metal. It was first believed to be relatively inert and an only slightly toxic metal. Since early 2000, the risk exerted by tungsten alloys, its dusts and particulates to induce cancer and several other adverse effects in animals as well as humans has been highlighted from in vitro and in vivo experiments. Thus, it becomes necessary to take a careful look at all the most recent data reported in the scientific literature, covering the years 2001-2016. In fact, the findings indicate that much more attention should be devoted to thoroughly investigate the toxic effects of tungsten and the involved mechanisms of tungsten metal or tungsten metal ions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Synthesis of the cactus-like silicon nanowires/tungsten oxide nanowires composite for room-temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiyi, E-mail: zhangweiyi@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Hu, Ming [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Xing; Wei, Yulong; Li, Na [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Qin, Yuxiang, E-mail: qinyuxiang@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-09-15

    In the present work, the tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanowires functionalized silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with cactus-like structure has been successfully synthesized for room-temperature NO{sub 2} detection. The novel nanocomposite was fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) and thermal annealing of tungsten film. The WO{sub 3} nanowires were evenly distributed from the upper to the lower part of the SiNWs, indicating excellent uniformity which is conducive to adsorption and desorption of gas molecules. The gas-sensing properties have been examined by measuring the resistance change towards 0.25–5 ppm NO{sub 2} gas. At room temperature, which is the optimum working temperature, the SiNWs/WO{sub 3} nanowires composite showed two-times higher NO{sub 2} response than that of the bare SiNWs at 2 ppm NO{sub 2}. On the contrary, the responses of composite sensors to high concentrations of other reducing gases were very low, indicating excellent selectivity. Simultaneously, the composite sensors exhibited good sensing repeatability and stability. The enhancement in gas sensing properties may be attributed to the change in width of the space charge region, which is similar to the behavior of p-n junctions under forward bias, in the high-density p-n heterojunction structure formed between SiNWs and WO{sub 3} nanowires. - Highlights: • SiNWs/WO{sub 3} nanowires composite with cactus-like structure is synthesized. • The morphology of WO{sub 3} nanowires depends on the thermal annealing temperature. • The nanocomposite sensor exhibit better gas response than that of bare SiNWs. • The gas sensing mechanism is discussed using p-n heterojunction theory.

  19. The Preparation and Property of Graphene /Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphene doped tin oxide composites were prepared with SnCIZ·2HZ 0 and graphene oxide as raw materials with sol-gel method and then spincoated on the quartz glass to manufacture a new transparent conductive film. The composite film was characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRDand scanning electron microscopy(SEM analysis. XRD results show that the graphene oxide was successfully prepared with Hummers method. The graphene layers and particulate SnOZ can be clearly observed in SEM photos. The transmittance and conductivity of the thin films were tested with ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. The results show that the transmittivity of composite film in visible region is more than 90% and surface square resistance is 41 S2/口.The graphene/ SnOZ film exhibits a higher performance in transparence and conductivity than commercial FTO glass.

  20. Oxidation of scandium thin films on tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskij, D.A.; Martynyuk, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Presence of Sc on the surface of W in amounts larger than a monolayer coverage leads to a decrease of the work function at the initial oxidation stage, which is attributed to oxygen implantation into the surface layer of the metal. A subsequent oxidation is followed by the formation on the surface of a thin oxide layer and an increase of the work function. An increase of the amount of Sc deposited on the surface before the oxidation decreases the work function of the obtained oxide from 5.8 (clean W surface) down to 3.3 eV (thick Sc layer on W)

  1. Thermal Spray Coating of Tungsten for Tokamak Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianliang; Gitzhofer, F; Boulos, M I

    2006-01-01

    Thermal spray, such as direct current (d.c.) plasma spray or radio frequency induced plasma spray, was used to deposit tungsten coatings on the copper electrodes of a tokamak device. The tungsten coating on the outer surface of one copper electrode was formed directly through d.c. plasma spraying of fine tungsten powder. The tungsten coating/lining on the inner surface of another copper electrode could be formed indirectly through induced plasma spraying of coarse tungsten powder. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the cross section and the interface of the tungsten coating. Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray (EDAX) was used to analyze the metallic elements attached to a separated interface. The influence of the particle size of the tungsten powder on the density, cracking behavior and adhesion of the coating is discussed. It is found that the coarse tungsten powder with the particle size of 45 ∼ 75 μm can be melted and the coating can be formed only by using induced plasma. The coating deposited from the coarse powder has much higher cohesive strength, adhesive strength and crack resistance than the coating made from the fine powder with a particle size of 5 μm

  2. Operation of ASDEX Upgrade with tungsten coated walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, V.

    2002-01-01

    An alternative for low-Z materials in the main chamber of a future fusion device are high-Z materials, but the maximal tolerable concentration in the plasma core is restricted. A step by step approach to employ tungsten at the central column of ASDEX Upgrade was started in 1999. Meanwhile almost the whole central column is covered with tiles, which were coated by PVD with tungsten. Up to now 9000 s of plasma discharge covering all relevant scenarios were performed. Routine operation of ASDEX Upgrade was not affected by the tungsten. Typical concentrations below 10 -5 were found. The tungsten concentration is mostly connected to the transport into the core plasma, not to the tungsten erosion. It can be demonstrated, that additional central heating can eliminate the tungsten accumulation. These experiments demonstrate the compatibility of fusion plasmas with W plasma facing components under reactor relevant conditions. The erosion pattern found by post mortem analysis indicates that the main effect is ion sputtering. The main erosion of tungsten seems to occur during plasma ramp-up and ramp-down. (author)

  3. Tungsten Targets the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Alicia M.; Sabourin, Valérie; Molina, Manuel Flores; Police, Alice M.; Negro Silva, Luis Fernando; Plourde, Dany; Lemaire, Maryse; Ursini-Siegel, Josie; Mann, Koren K.

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals exposed to high levels of tungsten is increasing, yet there is limited knowledge of the potential human health risks. Recently, a cohort of breast cancer patients was left with tungsten in their breasts following testing of a tungsten-based shield during intraoperative radiotherapy. While monitoring tungsten levels in the blood and urine of these patients, we utilized the 66Cl4 cell model, in vitro and in mice to study the effects of tungsten exposure on mammary tumor growth and metastasis. We still detect tungsten in the urine of patients’ years after surgery (mean urinary tungsten concentration at least 20 months post-surgery = 1.76 ng/ml), even in those who have opted for mastectomy, indicating that tungsten does not remain in the breast. In addition, standard chelation therapy was ineffective at mobilizing tungsten. In the mouse model, tungsten slightly delayed primary tumor growth, but significantly enhanced lung metastasis. In vitro, tungsten did not enhance 66Cl4 proliferation or invasion, suggesting that tungsten was not directly acting on 66Cl4 primary tumor cells to enhance invasion. In contrast, tungsten changed the tumor microenvironment, enhancing parameters known to be important for cell invasion and metastasis including activated fibroblasts, matrix metalloproteinases, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We show, for the first time, that tungsten enhances metastasis in an animal model of breast cancer by targeting the microenvironment. Importantly, all these tumor microenvironmental changes are associated with a poor prognosis in humans. PMID:25324207

  4. Amorphous nickel/cobalt tungsten sulfide electrocatalysts for high-efficiency hydrogen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lun [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Xinglong, E-mail: hkxlwu@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, NingBo University, NingBo 315001 (China); Zhu, Xiaoshu [Center for Analysis and Testing, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210093 (China); He, Chengyu; Meng, Ming; Gan, Zhixing [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous nickel/cobalt tungsten sulfides were synthesized by a thermolytic process. • Amorphous NiWS and CoWS could realize hydrogen evolution efficiently. • Ni/Co promotion and annealing alter the porous structure and chemical bonding states. • Active sites on the surface of amorphous WS{sub x} are increased with Ni or Co doping. • Amorphous NiWS and CoWS have immense potentials in water splitting devices. - Abstract: The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), an appealing solution for future energy supply, requires efficient and inexpensive electrocatalysts with abundant active surface sites. Although crystalline MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2} are promising candidates, their activity is dominated by edge sites. Amorphous tungsten sulfide prepared so far lacks the required active sites and its application has thus been hampered. In this work, nickel and cobalt incorporated amorphous tungsten sulfide synthesized by a thermolytic process is demonstrated to enhance the HER efficiency dramatically. The amorphous nickel tungsten sulfide (amorphous NiWS) annealed at 210 °C delivers the best HER performance in this system boasting a Tafel slope of 55 mV per decade and current density of 8.6 mA cm{sup −2} at 250 mV overpotential in a sustained test for 24 h. The introduction of Ni or Co into the catalyst and subsequent thermal treatment alters the porous structure and chemical bonding states thereby increasing the density of active sites on the surface.

  5. Formation of self-ordered porous anodized alumina template for growing tungsten trioxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tajamal; Shah, Asma Tufail; Shehzad, Khurram; Mujahid, Adnan; Farooqi, Zahoor Hussain; Raza, Muhammad Hamid; Ahmed, Mirza Nadeem; Nisa, Zaib Un

    2015-12-01

    Uniform porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane has been synthesized by two-step anodization for fabricating tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanowires. Under assayed conditions, uniform porous structure of alumina (Al2O3) membrane with long range ordered hexagonal arrangements of nanopores was achieved. The self-assembled template possesses pores of internal diameter of 50 nm and interpore distance ( d int) of 80 nm with a thickness of about 80 µm, i.e., used for fabrication of nanostructures. WO3 nanowires have been fabricated by simple electroless deposition method inside Al2O3 nanopores. SEM images show tungsten trioxide nanowire with internal diameter of about 50 nm, similar to porous diameter of AAO template. XRD results showed that nanowires exist in cubic crystalline state with minor proportion of monoclinic phase.

  6. Controlling of morphology and electrocatalytic properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared by potentiodynamic deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallaj, Rahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhtari, Keivan [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanian, Saied [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Electrodeposited cobalt oxide nanostructures were prepared by Repetitive Triangular Potential Scans (RTPS) as a simple, remarkably fast and scalable potentiodynamic method. Electrochemical deposition of cobalt oxide nanostructures onto GC electrode was performed from aqueous Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, (pH 6) solution using cyclic voltammetry method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology of fabricated nanostructures. The evaluation of electrochemical properties of deposited films was performed using cyclic voltametry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) techniques. The analysis of the experimental data clearly showed that the variations of potential scanning ranges during deposition process have drastic effects on the geometry, chemical structure and particle size of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of prepared nanostructures can be controlled through applying different potential windows in electrodeposition process. The imaging and voltammetric studies suggested to the existence of at least three different shapes of cobalt-oxide nanostructures in various potential windows applied for electrodeposition. With enlarging the applied potential window, the spherical-like cobalt oxide nanoparticles with particles sizes about 30–50 nm changed to the grain-like structures (30 nm × 80 nm) and then to the worm-like cobalt oxide nanostructures with 30 nm diameter and 200–400 nm in length. Furthermore, the roughness of the prepared nanostructures increased with increasing positive potential window. The GC electrodes modified with cobalt oxide nanostructures shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and As (III) oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared at more positive potential window toward hydrogen peroxide oxidation was increased, while for As(III) oxidation the electrocatalytic

  7. Controlling of morphology and electrocatalytic properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared by potentiodynamic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaj, Rahman; Akhtari, Keivan; Salimi, Abdollah; Soltanian, Saied

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposited cobalt oxide nanostructures were prepared by Repetitive Triangular Potential Scans (RTPS) as a simple, remarkably fast and scalable potentiodynamic method. Electrochemical deposition of cobalt oxide nanostructures onto GC electrode was performed from aqueous Co(NO 3 ) 2 , (pH 6) solution using cyclic voltammetry method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology of fabricated nanostructures. The evaluation of electrochemical properties of deposited films was performed using cyclic voltametry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) techniques. The analysis of the experimental data clearly showed that the variations of potential scanning ranges during deposition process have drastic effects on the geometry, chemical structure and particle size of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of prepared nanostructures can be controlled through applying different potential windows in electrodeposition process. The imaging and voltammetric studies suggested to the existence of at least three different shapes of cobalt-oxide nanostructures in various potential windows applied for electrodeposition. With enlarging the applied potential window, the spherical-like cobalt oxide nanoparticles with particles sizes about 30–50 nm changed to the grain-like structures (30 nm × 80 nm) and then to the worm-like cobalt oxide nanostructures with 30 nm diameter and 200–400 nm in length. Furthermore, the roughness of the prepared nanostructures increased with increasing positive potential window. The GC electrodes modified with cobalt oxide nanostructures shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 and As (III) oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared at more positive potential window toward hydrogen peroxide oxidation was increased, while for As(III) oxidation the electrocatalytic activity decreased

  8. Preparation of uranium-based oxide catalysts; Preparation de catalyseurs oxydes a base d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressat, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    We have studied the thermal decomposition of uranyl and uranium IV oxalates as a mean of producing uranium dioxide. We have isolated the main intermediate phases of the decompositions and have indexed the lines of their X-ray diffraction patterns. The oxides produced by the decomposition are ill-defined and unstable: they strongly absorb atmospheric oxygen with modification of the composition and, in certain cases, of the structure (pyrophoric oxide). With a view to obtaining stable oxides, we have prepared mixed uranium-thorium oxalates. In order to prepare an oxalate having a homogeneous composition, it is necessary to adopt a well-defined preparation method: the addition of solutions of thorium and uranium IV nitrates to a continually saturated oxalic acid solution. The mixed oxide obtained from the thermal decomposition of an oxalate U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}, 2 H{sub 2}O at 500 C for 24 hours in a current of oxygen leads to a cubic structure which is well-defined both in the bulk and superficially when x is less than 0.35. Above this atomic concentration of uranium, some uranium moves out of the lattice in the form of UO{sub 3} or U{sub 3}O{sub 8} according to the temperature. The mixed oxide is not stoichiometric,(U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}O{sub 2+y}) and the average degree of oxidation of the uranium varies with the temperature and partial oxygen pressure. The oxides thus formed have a high surface area. By dissolving the mixed oxalates in a concentrated solution of ammonium oxalate, it is possible to deposit the catalyst on a support, but the differences in the solubilities of the thorium and uranium IV oxalates in the ammonium oxalate make it impossible to prepare double salts formed either of thorium and uranium and of ammonium. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie la decomposition thermique des oxalates d'uranyle et d'uranium IV en vue d'aboutir au dioxide d'uranium. Nous avons pu isoler les principales phases

  9. Processing of tungsten scrap into powders by electroerosion disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominskii, L.P.; Leuchuk, M.V.; Myuller, A.S.; Tarabrina, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    Utilization of tungsten and tungsten alloy swarf and other waste and also of rejected and worn parts is a matter of great importance in view of the shortage of this metal. The authors examine the electroerosion (EE) disintegration of tungsten in water as a means of utilizing swarf and other loose waste. Unlike chemical methods, EE disintegration ensures ecological purity since there are no effluent waters or toxic discharges. Swarf and trimmings of rods of diameters up to 20 mm obtained after the lathe-turning of tungsten bars sintered from PVN and PVV tungsten powders were disintegrated in water at room temperature between tungsten electrodes. The phase composition of the powder was studied using FeK /SUB alpha/ radiation, by x-ray diffraction methods in a DRON-2 diffractometer with a graphite monochromator on the secondary beam. When tungsten is heated to boiling during EE disintegration, the impurities present in it can evaporate and burn out. Thus, tungsten powder produced by EE disintegration can be purer than the starting metal

  10. Solvent extraction in analytical chemistry of tungsten (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.M.; Busev, A.I.; Sokolova, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    The use of extraction for isolating and concentrating tungsten with subsequent determination by various methods is considered. For tungsten extractants of all types are employed: neutral, basic and acidic. Neutral extractants are used for isolating and concentrating tungsten, basic and acidic ones are employed, as a rule, for the isolation and subsequent determination of tungsten. This type of extractants is highly promising, since, selectively extracting tungsten, they allow its simultaneous determination. Neutral extractants are oxygen-containing solvents, TBP; basic extractants are aniline, pyridine, 1-naphthylamine, trialkylbenzylammoniumanitrate. As acidic reagents use is made of 8-oxyquinoline and its derivatives, oximes and hydroxamic acids, β-diketones, carbaminates. In the extraction radioactive isotope 185 W is employed

  11. A Phase Transfer Catalyzed Permanganate Oxidation: Preparation of Vanillin from Isoeugenol Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and results are provided for the preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate. Reaction scheme used to prepare the vanillin and a table indicating the different oxidation experiments carried out on isoeugenol or isoeugenol acetate are also provided. (JN)

  12. Surface energy anisotropy of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R; Grenga, H E [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (USA). School of Chemical Engineering

    1976-10-01

    Field-ion microscopy was used to study the faceting behavior and/or surface energy anisotropy of tungsten in vacuum and in hydrogen. In vacuum below 1700 K the activation energy for (110) facet growth agreed with values previously reported for surface diffusion on tungsten. The observed anisotropy values at 0.5 Tsub(m), where Tsub(m) is the absolute melting temperature of tungsten (approximately 3680 K), were different from those previously reported at higher temperatures and more nearly agreed with broken bond calculations based on Mie potential using m=5, n=8, and a 1.5% lattice expansion. Hydrogen appeared to have a negligible effect on surface energy anisotropy, but did preferentially increase surface diffusion rates on (310) regions.

  13. Purification and preparation of graphite oxide from natural graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panatarani, C., E-mail: c.panatarani@phys.unpad.ac.id; Muthahhari, N.; Joni, I. Made [Instrumentation Systems and Functional Material Processing Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21, Jatinangor, 45363, Jawa Barat (Indonesia); Rianto, Anton [Grafindo Nusantara Ltd., Belagio Mall Lantai 2, Unit 0 L3-19, Kawasan Mega Kuningan, Kav. B4 No.3, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Graphite oxide has attracted much interest as a possible route for preparation of natural graphite in the large-scale production and manipulation of graphene as a material with extraordinary electronic properties. Graphite oxide was prepared by modified Hummers method from purified natural graphite sample from West Kalimantan. We demonstrated that natural graphite is well-purified by acid leaching method. The purified graphite was proceed for intercalating process by modifying Hummers method. The modification is on the reaction time and temperature of the intercalation process. The materials used in the intercalating process are H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and KMNO{sub 4}. The purified natural graphite is analyzed by carbon content based on Loss on Ignition test. The thermo gravimetricanalysis and the Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy are performed to investigate the oxidation results of the obtained GO which is indicated by the existence of functional groups. In addition, the X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are also applied to characterize respectively for the crystal structure and elemental analysis. The results confirmed that natural graphite samples with 68% carbon content was purified into 97.68 % carbon content. While the intercalation process formed a formation of functional groups in the obtained GO. The results show that the temperature and reaction times have improved the efficiency of the oxidation process. It is concluded that these method could be considered as an important route for large-scale production of graphene.

  14. High Heat Load Properties of Ultra Fine Grain Tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Du, J.; Ge, C.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Song, S.X.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is increasingly considered as a promising candidate armour materials facing the plasma in tokamaks for medium to high heat flux components (EAST, ASDEX, ITER). Fabrication tungsten with ultra fine grain size is considered as an effective way to ameliorate some disadvantages of tungsten, such as its brittleness at room temperature. But the research data on the performance of ultra fine grain tungsten is still very limit. In this work, high heat load properties of pure ultra-fine grain tungsten have been studied. The ultra fine grain tungsten samples with average grain size of 0.2 μm, 1 μm and 3 μm were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra high pressure. The annealing experiments for the investigation of the material resistance against grain growth have been done by annealing samples in a vacuum furnace at different temperature holding for 2 hours respectively. It is found that recrystallization and grain growth occur at heating temperature of 1250 deg. c. The finer the initial grain sizes of tungsten, the smaller its grain growth grain. The effects of transient high thermal loads (off normal events like disruptions) on tungsten surface morphology have been performed in electron beam test facility JUDITH. The thermal loads tests have been carried out with 4 ms pulses at different power density of 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.88 GW/m 2 respectively. Horizontal cracks formed for all tungsten samples at 0.44 GW/m 2 . Particle erosions occurred for tungsten with 3 μm size at 0.33 GW/m 2 and for tungsten with 0.2 and 1 μm size at 0.55 GW/m 2 . The weight loss of tungsten with 0.2, 1 and 3 μm size are 2,0.1,0.6 mg respectively at 0.88 GW/m 2 . The effects of a large number of very short transient repetitive thermal loads (ELM-like) on tungsten surface morphology also have been performed by using a fundamental wave of a YAG laser. It is found that tungsten with 0.2 μm size has the best performance. (authors)

  15. High Heat Load Properties of Ultra Fine Grain Tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Du, J.; Ge, C. [Lab. of Special Ceramic and P/M, University of Science and Technology, 100083 Beijing (China); Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G. [FZJ-Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association Euratom-FZJ, Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Postfach 1913, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Song, S.X. [Research Center on Fusion Materials (RCFM), University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), 100083 Beijing (China)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Tungsten is increasingly considered as a promising candidate armour materials facing the plasma in tokamaks for medium to high heat flux components (EAST, ASDEX, ITER). Fabrication tungsten with ultra fine grain size is considered as an effective way to ameliorate some disadvantages of tungsten, such as its brittleness at room temperature. But the research data on the performance of ultra fine grain tungsten is still very limit. In this work, high heat load properties of pure ultra-fine grain tungsten have been studied. The ultra fine grain tungsten samples with average grain size of 0.2 {mu}m, 1 {mu}m and 3 {mu}m were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra high pressure. The annealing experiments for the investigation of the material resistance against grain growth have been done by annealing samples in a vacuum furnace at different temperature holding for 2 hours respectively. It is found that recrystallization and grain growth occur at heating temperature of 1250 deg. c. The finer the initial grain sizes of tungsten, the smaller its grain growth grain. The effects of transient high thermal loads (off normal events like disruptions) on tungsten surface morphology have been performed in electron beam test facility JUDITH. The thermal loads tests have been carried out with 4 ms pulses at different power density of 0.22, 0.33, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.88 GW/m{sup 2} respectively. Horizontal cracks formed for all tungsten samples at 0.44 GW/m{sup 2}. Particle erosions occurred for tungsten with 3 {mu}m size at 0.33 GW/m{sup 2} and for tungsten with 0.2 and 1 {mu}m size at 0.55 GW/m{sup 2}. The weight loss of tungsten with 0.2, 1 and 3 {mu}m size are 2,0.1,0.6 mg respectively at 0.88 GW/m{sup 2}. The effects of a large number of very short transient repetitive thermal loads (ELM-like) on tungsten surface morphology also have been performed by using a fundamental wave of a YAG laser. It is found that tungsten with 0.2 {mu}m size has

  16. Conducting metal oxide and metal nitride nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Subban, Chinmayee V.

    2017-12-26

    Conducting metal oxide and nitride nanoparticles that can be used in fuel cell applications. The metal oxide nanoparticles are comprised of for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and combinations thereof. The metal nitride nanoparticles are comprised of, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, zirconium, and combinations thereof. The nanoparticles can be sintered to provide conducting porous agglomerates of the nanoparticles which can be used as a catalyst support in fuel cell applications. Further, platinum nanoparticles, for example, can be deposited on the agglomerates to provide a material that can be used as both an anode and a cathode catalyst support in a fuel cell.

  17. Tungsten--carbide critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, G.E.; Paxton, H.C.

    1975-06-01

    The tungsten--carbide critical assembly mainly consists of three close-fitting spherical shells: a highly enriched uranium shell on the inside, a tungsten--carbide shell surrounding it, and a steel shell on the outside. Ideal critical specifications indicate a rather low computed value of k/sub eff/. Observed and calculated fission-rate distributions for 235 U, 238 U, and 237 Np are compared, and calculated leakage neutrons per fission in various energy groups are given. (U.S.)

  18. Low temperature photoresponse of monolayer tungsten disulphide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingchen Cao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High photoresponse can be achieved in monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the response times are inconveniently limited by defects. Here, we report low temperature photoresponse of monolayer tungsten disulphide prepared by exfoliation and chemical vapour deposition (CVD method. The exfoliated device exhibits n-type behaviour; while the CVD device exhibits intrinsic behaviour. In off state, the CVD device has four times larger ratio of photoresponse for laser on/off and photoresponse decay–rise times are 0.1 s (limited by our setup, while the exfoliated device has few seconds. These findings are discussed in terms of charge trapping and localization.

  19. Analytical redox reactions and redox potentials of tungsten and its concomitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensch, G.; Mintrop, L.; Tracht, U.

    1985-01-01

    It is demonstrated that tungsten can be more effectively determined by redox titrimetry than by gravimetry. In addition to its inherent greater simplicity the volumetric approach offers to determine several components of the sample from consecutive redox titrations. To provide the necessary information the conditional redox potentials of W, Mo, Fe, V, Ti, Sn, Cu, Cr in HCl, HCl + HF and HCl + H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ have been determined. Use of HF and/or H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ allows sample preparations without any precipitation of tungstic acid. The influence of these auxiliary complexing agents on the potentials and kinetics is discussed. The titrations can be performed reductimetrically or more conveniently oxidimetrically using potentiometric or amperometric indication. The use of strongly reducing agents restricts the tolerance interval to +-0.6%, so that the gravimetric determination of tungsten remains superior for high precision analyses.

  20. Analytical redox reactions and redox potentials of tungsten and its concomitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensch, G.; Mintrop, L.; Tracht, U.

    1985-01-01

    It is demonstrated that tungsten can be more effectively determined by redox titrimetry than by gravimetry. In addition to its inherent greater simplicity the volumetric approach offers to determine several components of the sample from consecutive redox titrations. To provide the necessary information the conditional redox potentials of W, Mo, Fe, V, Ti, Sn, Cu, Cr in HCl, HCl + HF and HCl + H 3 PO 4 have been determined. Use of HF and/or H 3 PO 4 allows sample preparations without any precipitation of tungstic acid. The influence of these auxiliary complexing agents on the potentials and kinetics is discussed. The titrations can be performed reductimetrically or more conveniently oxidimetrically using potentiometric or amperometric indication. The use of strongly reducing agents restricts the tolerance interval to +-0.6%, so that the gravimetric determination of tungsten remains superior for high precision analyses. (orig.) [de

  1. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu

  2. Low temperature processing of tungsten-fibre high-strength composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semrau, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A tungsten nickel/iron compound with a high tungsten content up to over 90 percent by volume of tungsten and an ideal distribution of the nickel-iron multilayer-matrix avoiding tungsten - tungsten interfaces, has been processed without the use of any sintering process and thus resulted in avoiding temperatures of above 700 o C during the entire manufacturing process. An electrochemical coating of coarse tungsten powder with alternating layers of nickel and iron and a forging process at temperatures not exceeding 650 o C resulted in a high strength compound, which easily could be altered into a tungsten fiber compound with a fiber-length to fiber-diameter ratio of more than 10 3 . From the viewpoint of the metallurgist, easier handling systems are obtained when both a liquid phase and high temperatures with their risks for grain structures and grain boundaries are lacking. (author)

  3. Electro-deposition metallic tungsten coatings in a Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} melt on copper based alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.H., E-mail: dreamerhong77@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Y.C.; Liu, Q.Z.; Li, X.L.; Jiang, F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tungsten coating (>1 mm) was obtained by electro-deposition method in molten salt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different thickness tungsten coatings were obtained by using different durations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good performance of coating was obtained when pulse parameters were modulated. - Abstract: The tungsten coating was prepared by electro-deposition technique on copper alloy substrate in a Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} melt. The coating's surface and cross-section morphologies as well as its impurities were investigated by XPS, SEM and line analysis. Various plating durations were investigated in order to obtain an optimal coating's thickness. The results demonstrated that the electro-deposited coating was compact, voidless, crackless and free from impurities. The tungsten coating's maximum Vickers hardness was measured to be 520 HV. The tungsten coating's minimum oxygen content was determined to be 0.018 wt%. Its maximum thickness was measured to be 1043.67 {mu}m when the duration of electrolysis was set to 100 h. The result of this study has demonstrated the feasibility of having thicker tungsten coatings on copper alloy substrates. These electrodeposited tungsten coatings can be potentially implemented as reliable armour for the medium heat flux plasma facing component (PFC).

  4. Preparation of molybdenum oxide thin films by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, R. Martinez; Garcia, J.R. Vargas; Santes, V.; Gomez, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, molybdenum oxide films were prepared in a horizontal hot-wall MOCVD apparatus using molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate as precursor. The molybdenum precursor was synthesized from acetylacetone and molybdenum oxide powder. Thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA) of the precursor suggested the formation of molybdenum oxides around 430 o C (703 K). Thus, a range of deposition temperatures varying from 350 to 630 o C (623-903 K) was explored to investigate the effects on the nature of the molybdenum oxide films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the films consisted of α-MoO 3 phase at deposition temperatures ranging from 400 to 560 o C (673-833 K). Crystalline α-MoO 3 films can be obtained from molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate precursor, without need of a post-annealing treatment. The best crystalline quality was found in films having needle-like crystallites grown at deposition temperature of about 560 o C (833 K), which exhibit a strong (0 1 0) preferred orientation and a transparent visual appearance

  5. Preparation of molybdenum oxide thin films by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, R. Martinez [Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300, D.F. (Mexico); Garcia, J.R. Vargas [Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: rvargasga@ipn.mx; Santes, V. [CIIEMAD-IPN, Miguel Othon de Mendizabal 485, Mexico 07700, D.F. (Mexico); Gomez, E. [Instituto de Quimica-UNAM, Circuito Exterior-Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-05-31

    In this study, molybdenum oxide films were prepared in a horizontal hot-wall MOCVD apparatus using molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate as precursor. The molybdenum precursor was synthesized from acetylacetone and molybdenum oxide powder. Thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA) of the precursor suggested the formation of molybdenum oxides around 430 {sup o}C (703 K). Thus, a range of deposition temperatures varying from 350 to 630 {sup o}C (623-903 K) was explored to investigate the effects on the nature of the molybdenum oxide films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the films consisted of {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} phase at deposition temperatures ranging from 400 to 560 {sup o}C (673-833 K). Crystalline {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} films can be obtained from molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate precursor, without need of a post-annealing treatment. The best crystalline quality was found in films having needle-like crystallites grown at deposition temperature of about 560 {sup o}C (833 K), which exhibit a strong (0 1 0) preferred orientation and a transparent visual appearance.

  6. Freeze-dried processing of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.D.; Gurwell, W.E.

    1989-06-01

    Tungsten heavy alloy powders were produced from freeze-dried aqueous solutions of ammonium metatungstate and, principally, sulfates of Ni and Fe. The freeze-dried salts were calcined and hydrogen reduced to form very fine, homogeneous, low-density, W heavy alloy powders having a coral-like structure with elements of approximately 0.1 μm in diameter. The powders yield high green strength and sinterability. Tungsten heavy alloy powders of 70%, 90%, and 96% W were prepared by freeze drying, compacted, and solid-state (SS) sintered to fully density at temperatures as low as 1200 degree C and also at conventional liquid-phase (LP) sintering temperatures. Solid-state sintered microstructures contained polygonal W grains with high contiguity; the matrix did not coat and separate the W grains to form low-contiguity, high-ductility structures. Liquid-phase sintered microstructures were very conventional in appearance, having W spheroids of low contiguity. All these materials were found to be brittle. High levels of residual S accompanied by segregation of the S to all the microstructural interfaces are principally responsible for the brittleness; problems with S could be eliminated by using Fe and Ni nitrates rather than the sulfates. 9 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Tritium absorption and desorption in ITER relevant materials: comparative study of tungsten dust and massive samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisolia, C., E-mail: christian.grisolia@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Hodille, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Chene, J.; Garcia-Argote, S.; Pieters, G.; El-Kharbachi, A. [CEA Saclay, SCBM, iBiTec-S, PC n° 108, 91191 Gifsur-Yvette (France); Marchetti, L.; Martin, F.; Miserque, F. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SCCME/LECA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vrel, D.; Redolfi, M. [LSPM, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UPR 3407 CNRS, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Malard, V. [CEA, DSV, IBEB, Lab Biochim System Perturb, Bagnols-sur-Cèze F-30207 (France); Dinescu, G.; Acsente, T. [NILPRP, 409 Atomistilor Street, 77125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Gensdarmes, F.; Peillon, S. [IRSN, PSN-RES/SCA/LPMA, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91192 (France); Pegourié, B. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Rousseau, B. [CEA Saclay, SCBM, iBiTec-S, PC n° 108, 91191 Gifsur-Yvette (France)

    2015-08-15

    Tritium adsorption and desorption from well characterized tungsten dust are presented. The dust used are of different types prepared by planetary milling and by aggregation technique in plasma. For the milled powder, the surface specific area (SSA) is 15.5 m{sup 2}/g. The particles are poly-disperse with a maximum size of 200 nm for the milled powder and 100 nm for the aggregation one. Prior to tritiation the particles are carefully de-oxidized. Both samples are experiencing a high tritium inventory from 5 GBq/g to 35 GBq/g. From comparison with massive samples and considering that tritium inventory increases with SSA, it is shown that surface effects are predominant in the tritium trapping process. Extrapolation to the ITER environment is undertaken with the help of a Macroscopic Rate Equation model. It is shown that, during the life time of ITER, these particles can exceed rapidly 1 GBq/g.

  8. Preparation and characterization of dialdehyde starch by one-step acid hydrolysis and oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Liu, Wenjie; Xiao, Junhua; Zhao, Xing; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Yiqiang

    2017-10-01

    Dialdehyde starch was prepared by one-step synthesis of acid hydrolysis and oxidation, using corn starch as the raw material, sodium periodate (NaIO 4 ) as the oxidant, and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the acid solution. The prepared dialdehyde starch was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The results confirmed that oxidation occurred between the starch and NaIO 4 . The acid hydrolysis reaction reduced the molecular weight of starch and effectively improved the aldehyde group contents (92.7%). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis indicated that the average particle size decreased after acid hydrolysis and oxidation reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) analysis demonstrated that the crystallinity of the obtained dialdehyde starch showed a downward trend and a decelerated thermal decomposition rate. The starch after acid hydrolysis and oxidation exhibited lower hot paste viscosity and higher reactivity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Radiative capture of slow electrons by tungsten surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonov, O.M.; Belkina, G.M.; Samarin, S.N.; Yakovlev, I.I.

    1987-01-01

    Isochromatic spectra of radiation capture of slow electrons by the surface of mono- and polycrystal tungsten recorded on 322 and 405 nm wave lengths are presented. The effect of oxygen adsorption on isochromates of the (110) face of tungsten monocrystal is investigated. The obtained isochromatic spectra are compared with energy band structure of tungsten. Based on the analysis of the obtained experimental results it is assumed that optical transition to the final state at the energy of 7.3 eV relatively to Fermi level is conditioned by surface states of the tungsten face (110)

  10. Initial Considerations of a Dust Dispenser for Injecting Tungsten Particles in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    approved for toxic dusts and fumes  May combust at high temperature  Keep away from ignition sources  Material in powder form, capable of...creating a dust explosion with ignition source Toxicity  None  None  Inert  Not available Handling and Storage  Maintain good...on oxidation: Tungsten  Does not react with air, oxygen, and water at room temperature [6]  Strongly attacked by fluorine at room temperature [6

  11. Surface morphologies of He-implanted tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannister, M.E., E-mail: bannisterme@ornl.gov [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6371 (United States); Meyer, F.W.; Hijazi, H. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6371 (United States); Unocic, K.A.; Garrison, L.M.; Parish, C.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Surface morphologies of tungsten surfaces, both polycrystalline and single-crystal [1 1 0], were investigated using SEM and FIB/SEM techniques after implantations at elevated surfaces temperatures (1200–1300 K) using well-characterized, mono-energetic He ion beams with a wide range of ion energies (218 eV–250 keV). Nanofuzz was observed on polycrystalline tungsten (PCW) following implantation of 100-keV He ions at a flux threshold of 0.9 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, but not following 200-keV implantations with similar fluxes. No nanofuzz formation was observed on single-crystal [1 1 0] tungsten (SCW), despite fluxes exceeding those demonstrated previously to produce nanofuzz on polycrystalline tungsten. Pre-damaging the single-crystal tungsten with implanted C impurity interstitials did not significantly affect the surface morphologies resulting from the high-flux He ion implantations. The main factor leading to the different observed surface structures for the pristine and C-implanted single-crystal W samples appeared to be the peak He ion flux characterizing the different exposures. It was speculated that nanofuzz formation was not observed for any SCW target exposures because of increased incubation fluences required for such targets.

  12. Effect of pulse parameter on preparation of W coating on V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Fan, E-mail: jiangfan1109@163.com; Zhang, Yingchun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com; Li, Xuliang, E-mail: lixuliang0715@qq.com; Sun, Ningbo, E-mail: suningbo682@163.com; Wang, Lili, E-mail: 751083268@qq.com

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings were electroplated on vanadium alloy by pulse plating. • The influence degree of current parameters was investigated by orthogonal experimental. • The pulse parameters affected the performance of tungsten coatings. • The effects of duty cycle on morphology were investigated. • The effects of period on morphology were investigated. - Abstract: The tungsten coatings were prepared on vanadium alloy substrate by pulse electroplating in Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt. A series of tungsten coatings with compact and smooth morphologies were successfully obtained under various conditions. Orthogonal experimental design method was used to analysis the influence degree of current density, duty cycle and period on tungsten grain size, coatings thickness and current efficiency. The results demonstrated that current density was the most important factor influencing tungsten grain size and tungsten coatings thickness, which all had a positive correlation with current density. The pulse duty was the most important factor influencing current efficiency; the result also showed a positive correlation between current efficiency and pulse duty factor.

  13. Oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel as prepared by supercritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiayu Xin; Hiroaki Imahara; Shiro Saka [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science

    2008-08-15

    A non-catalytic supercritical methanol method is an attractive process to convert various oils/fats efficiently into biodiesel. To evaluate oxidation stability of biodiesel, biodiesel produced by alkali-catalyzed method was exposed to supercritical methanol at several temperatures for 30 min. As a result, it was found that the tocopherol in biodiesel is not stable at a temperature higher than 300{sup o}C. After the supercritical methanol treatment, hydroperoxides were greatly reduced for biodiesel with initially high in peroxide value, while the tocopherol slightly decreased in its content. As a result, the biodiesel prepared by the supercritical methanol method was enhanced for oxidation stability when compared with that prepared by alkali-catalyzed method from waste oil. Therefore, supercritical methanol method is useful especially for oils/fats having higher peroxide values. 32 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Comparative Investigation of Tungsten Fibre Nets Reinforced Tungsten Composite Fabricated by Three Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten fibre nets reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W containing four net layers were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS, hot pressing (HP and cold rolling after HP (HPCR, with the weight fraction of fibres being 17.4%, 10.5% and 10.5%, respectively. The relative density of the HPCRed samples is the highest (99.8% while that of the HPed composites is the lowest (95.1%. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron back scattering diffraction were exploited to characterize the microstructure, while tensile and hardness tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the samples. It was found that partial recrystallization of fibres occurred after the sintering at 1800 °C. The SPSed and HPed Wf/W composites begin to exhibit plastic deformation at 600 °C with tensile strength (TS of 536 and 425 MPa and total elongation at break (TE of 11.6% and 23.0%, respectively, while the HPCRed Wf/W composites exhibit plastic deformation at around 400 °C. The TS and TE of the HPCRed Wf/W composites at 400 °C are 784 MPa and 8.4%, respectively. The enhanced mechanical performance of the Wf/W composites over the pure tungsten can be attributed to the necking, cracking, and debonding of the tungsten fibres.

  15. A solid tungsten divertor for ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A; Greuner, H; Jaksic, N; Böswirth, B; Maier, H; Neu, R; Vorbrugg, S

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a solid tungsten divertor for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is presented. The Div-III design is compatible with the existing divertor structure. It re-establishes the energy and heat receiving capability of a graphite divertor and overcomes the limitations of tungsten coatings. In addition, a solid tungsten divertor allows us to investigate erosion and bulk deuterium retention as well as test castellation and target tilting. The design criteria as well as calculations of forces due to halo and eddy currents are presented. The thermal properties of the proposed sandwich structure are calculated with finite element method models. After extensive testing of a target tile in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS, two solid tungsten tiles were installed in AUG for in-situ testing.

  16. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; Moore, B.T.

    1988-12-01

    The behaviour of four high-density sintered tungsten alloys has been evluated and compared with that of pure tungsten. Rates of corrosion during the cyclic humidity and the salt mist tests were ascertained from weight loss measurements. Insight into the corrosion mechanism was gained from the nature of the corrosion products and an examination of the corroded surfaces. In the tests, the alloy 95% W, 2.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe was the most corrosion resistant. The data showed that copper as an alloying element accelerates corrosion of tungsten alloys. Both attack on the tungsten particles and the binder phase were observed together with tungsten grain loss. 6 refs., 3 tabs.,

  17. Substructure and electrical resistivity analyses of pure tungsten sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trybus, C.L.; Sellers, C.H.; Anderl, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The substructure of pure tungsten sheet (0.025 mm thick) is examined and quantified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dislocation populations and arrangements are evaluated for as-worked and various annealed conditions of the tungsten sheet. The worked (rolled) tungsten substructure was nonhomogeneous, consisting of areas of very high and low dislocation densities. These results are correlated to resistivity measurements of the tungsten sheet following thermal cycling to 1200 degrees C to determine the substructural changes as a function of temperature. The comparison between the two characterization techniques is used to examine the relationship between structural and electronic properties in tungsten. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Absence of translational energy accomodation of O2 on clean and oxidized tungsten, specularly and diffusely scattered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, D.; Becker, C.; Cowin, J.; Wharton, L.

    1977-01-01

    The authors have determined by a direct molecular beam velocity measurement that translational energy accomodation of O 2 molecules scattered from a reactive hot polycrystalline tungsten target is very inefficient. Translational energy accomodation is inefficient whether the surface is clean or covered with oxygen atoms to a varying extent, even though in the latter case the scattering is diffuse. On a clean tungsten surface the scattering of the O 2 is specular. The results shows directly that diffuse scattering does not imply or require large energy accomodation. They also show that this surface covered with atoms matching the incoming beam atoms is not an efficient energy accomodator. Thus a diminished role for mass matching in energy transfer is apparent. (Auth.)

  19. Synthesis of full-density nanocrystalline tungsten carbide by reduction of tungstic oxide at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Eskandarany, M.S.; Omori, M.; Ishikuro, M.; Konno, T.J.; Takada, K.; Sumiyama, K.; Hirai, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Among the hard alloys, WC alloys find wide industrial applications as tips for cutting tools and wear-resistant parts. Their intrinsic resistance to oxidation and corrosion at high temperatures also makes them desirable as a protective coating for devices at elevated temperatures. In the industrial scale of production, WC is prepared by a direct union of the elements at a temperature of 3,273 to 3,473 K. Accordingly, the high cost of preparation is a disadvantage of this process. Here, the authors report a novel technique for preparing a large amount of WC powder using a simple method. This process is based on mechanical solid-state reduction (MSSR) followed y solid-state reaction (SSR) during room-temperature ball milling (a high energy ball mill, Fritsch P6, was used at a rotation speed of 4.2 s -1 ) of a mixture of WO 3 , Mg, and C powders

  20. Tungsten transport in the plasma edge at ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzer, Michael Arthur

    2015-04-30

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) will play a crucial role in future deuterium-tritium magnetically confined fusion power plants, since they will be subject to high energy and particle loads, but at the same time have to ensure long lifetimes and a low tritium retention. These requirements will most probably necessitate the use of high-Z materials such as tungsten for the wall materials, since their erosion properties are very benign and, unlike carbon, capture only little tritium. The drawback with high-Z materials is, that they emit strong line radiation in the core plasma, which acts as a powerful energy loss mechanism. Thus, the concentration of these high-Z materials has to be controlled and kept at low levels in order to achieve a burning plasma. Understanding the transport processes in the plasma edge is essential for applying the proper impurity control mechanisms. This control can be exerted either by enhancing the outflux, e.g. by Edge Localized Modes (ELM), since they are known to expel impurities from the main plasma, or by reducing the influx, e.g. minimizing the tungsten erosion or increasing the shielding effect of the Scrape Off Layer (SOL). ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) has been successfully operating with a full tungsten wall for several years now and offers the possibility to investigate these edge transport processes for tungsten. This study focused on the disentanglement of the frequency of type-I ELMs and the main chamber gas injection rate, two parameters which are usually linked in H-mode discharges. Such a separation allowed for the first time the direct assessment of the impact of each parameter on the tungsten concentration. The control of the ELM frequency was performed by adjusting the shape of the plasma, i.e. the upper triangularity. The radial tungsten transport was investigated by implementing a modulated tungsten source. To create this modulated source, the linear dependence of the tungsten erosion rate at the Ion Cyclotron Resonance

  1. Elaboration, physical and electrochemical characterizations of CO tolerant PEMFC anode materials. Study of platinum-molybdenum and platinum-tungsten alloys and composites; Elaborations et caracterisations electrochimiques et physiques de materiaux d'anode de PEMFC peu sensibles a l'empoisonnement par CO: etude d'alliages et de composites a base de platine-molybdene et de platine-tungstene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyrelade, E.

    2005-06-15

    PEMFC development is hindered by the CO poisoning ability of the anode platinum catalyst. It has been previously shown that the oxidation potential of carbon monoxide adsorbed on the platinum atoms can be lowered using specific Pt based catalysts, either metallic alloys or composites. The objective is then to realize a catalyst for which the CO oxidation is compatible with the working potential of a PEMFC anode. In our approach, to enhance the CO tolerance of platinum based catalyst supported on carbon, we studied platinum-tungsten and platinum-molybdenum alloys and platinum-metal oxide materials (Pt-WO{sub x} and Pt-MoO{sub x}). The platinum based alloys demonstrate a small effect of the second metal towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The platinum composites show a better tolerance to carbon monoxide. Electrochemical studies on both Pt-MoO{sub x} and Pt-WO{sub x} demonstrate the ability of the metal-oxides to promote the ability of Pt to oxidize CO at low potentials. However, chrono-amperometric tests reveal a bigger influence of the tungsten oxide. Complex chemistry reactions on the molybdenum oxide surface make it more difficult to observe. (author)

  2. Thermal and electrochemical stability of tungsten carbide catalyst supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhina, H. [Ballard Power Systems, 9000 Glenlyon Parkway, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Campbell, S. [Ballard Power Systems, 9000 Glenlyon Parkway, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-02-10

    The thermal and electrochemical stability of tungsten carbide (WC), with and without a catalyst dispersed on it, have been investigated to evaluate the potential suitability of the material as an oxidation-resistant catalyst support. Standard techniques currently used to disperse Pt on carbon could not be used to disperse Pt on WC, so an alternative method was developed and used to disperse Pt on both commercially available WC and on carbon for comparison of stability. Electrochemical testing was performed by applying oxidation cycles between +0.6 V and +1.8 V to the support-catalyst material combinations and monitoring the activity of the supported catalyst over 100 oxidation cycles. Comparisons of activity change with cumulative oxidation cycles were made between C and WC supports with comparable loadings of catalyst by weight, solid volume, and powder volume. WC was found to be more thermally and electrochemically stable than currently used carbon support material Vulcan XC-72R. However, further optimization of the particle sizes and dispersion of Pt/WC catalyst/support materials and of comparison standards between new candidate materials and existing carbon-based supports are required. (author)

  3. Synthesis of high purity tungsten nanoparticles from tungsten heavy alloy scrap by selective precipitation and reduction route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, S.S. Kalyan; Sahoo, P.K.; Vimala, J.; Shanker, B.; Ghosal, P.; Durai, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report synthesis of tungsten nanoparticles of high purity >99.7 wt% from heavy alloy scrap using a novel chemical route of selective precipitation and reduction. The effect of Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) polymer on controlling the particle size is established through FTIR spectra and corroborated with TEM images, wherein the average size decreased form 210 to 45 nm with increasing PVP content from zero to 2 g under different experimental conditions. This process is economical as raw material is a scrap and the efficiency of the reaction is >95%. - Highlights: • Tungsten nanoparticles were synthesized from tungsten heavy alloy scrap. • A novel chemical route of precipitation and reduction with Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) polymer as stabilizer is reported. • The average size decreased form 210 to 45 nm with increasing PVP content from zero to 2 g. • High pure tungsten nanoparticles of >99.7% purity could be synthesized using this route. • Efficiency of the reaction is >95%.

  4. Comparison of the redox activities of sol-gel and conventionally prepared Bi-Mo-Ti mixed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildberger, M.; Grundwaldt, J.D.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A. [Lab. of Technical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    Novel sol-gel Bi-Mo-Ti oxides have been prepared and characterized by XRD, XPS, FT-Raman and HRTEM. The surface Bi{sup 3+} and Mo{sup 6+} species of some xerogels and an aerogel could be reduced and oxidized at room temperature, whereas the conventionally prepared reference materials were not reduced by H{sub 2} below 300 C. The unusual redox properties, under very mild conditions, are likely due to the unique morphology of Bi-Mo-oxides stabilized by titania. During butadiene oxidation to furan at above 400 C to sol-gel mixed oxides restructured considerably and their performance was barely better than that of titania-supported Bi-Mo oxides. (orig.)

  5. Investigation of Surface Alkylation Strategy in SOMC: In Situ Generation of a Silica-Supported Tungsten Methyl Catalyst for Cyclooctane Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali

    2016-07-28

    An efficient and potentially scalable method is described for the synthesis of the silica-supported complexes [(≡Si-O-)WMe5] and [(≡Si-O-)WMe2(≡CH)] obtained by in situ alkylation of the surface-grafted tungsten chloride [(≡Si-O-)WCl5] (1). [(≡Si-O-)WCl5] can be readily prepared by the reaction of commercially available and stable tungsten hexachloride WCl6 with partially dehydroxylated silica at 700 °C (SiO2-700). Further reaction with ZnMe2 at room temperature rapidly forms a mixture of surface-alkylated tungsten complexes. They were fully characterized by microanalysis, FTIR, mass balance, and solid-state NMR (1H, 13C, 1H-13C HETCOR, 1H-1H double quantum and triple quantum) and identified as [(≡Si-O-)WMe5] and another product, [(≡Si-O-)WMe2(≡CH)]. The latter might have been generated by partial decomposition of the tungsten methyl chloride compound, which is formed during the stepwise alkylation of [(≡Si-O-)WCl5]. DFT calculations were carried out to check the relative stability of the tungsten methyl chloride intermediates and the feasibility of the reaction and corroborate the experimental results. This tungsten complex and its derivative were found to be active catalysts for the metathesis of cyclooctane. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  6. Investigation of Surface Alkylation Strategy in SOMC: In Situ Generation of a Silica-Supported Tungsten Methyl Catalyst for Cyclooctane Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali; Dey, Raju; Samantaray, Manoja; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Chen, Yin; Pelletier, Jeremie; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    An efficient and potentially scalable method is described for the synthesis of the silica-supported complexes [(≡Si-O-)WMe5] and [(≡Si-O-)WMe2(≡CH)] obtained by in situ alkylation of the surface-grafted tungsten chloride [(≡Si-O-)WCl5] (1). [(≡Si-O-)WCl5] can be readily prepared by the reaction of commercially available and stable tungsten hexachloride WCl6 with partially dehydroxylated silica at 700 °C (SiO2-700). Further reaction with ZnMe2 at room temperature rapidly forms a mixture of surface-alkylated tungsten complexes. They were fully characterized by microanalysis, FTIR, mass balance, and solid-state NMR (1H, 13C, 1H-13C HETCOR, 1H-1H double quantum and triple quantum) and identified as [(≡Si-O-)WMe5] and another product, [(≡Si-O-)WMe2(≡CH)]. The latter might have been generated by partial decomposition of the tungsten methyl chloride compound, which is formed during the stepwise alkylation of [(≡Si-O-)WCl5]. DFT calculations were carried out to check the relative stability of the tungsten methyl chloride intermediates and the feasibility of the reaction and corroborate the experimental results. This tungsten complex and its derivative were found to be active catalysts for the metathesis of cyclooctane. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  7. Bulk tungsten with uniformly dispersed La2O3 nanoparticles sintered from co-precipitated La2O3/W nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Min; Yan, Qingzhi; Xu, Lei; Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Lingxu; Ge, Changchun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: La 2 O 3 doped La 2 O 3 /W nanoparticles with high-purity and uniform diameters have been fabricated by a co-precipitation process. The as-prepared nanoparticles demonstrate the potential of this method for fabricating uniformly structured bulk tungsten materials. -- Abstract: We report the preparation of 1 wt% La 2 O 3 doped La 2 O 3 /W nanoparticles by a co-precipitation process, using ammonium metatungstate (AMT) and lanthanum nitrate as raw materials. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Filed-emission scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the as-synthesized particles possess uniform diameters of about 70 nm, and are of high purity. The TEM and the corresponding fast Fourier transform images demonstrated that La 2 O 3 precipitates were homogeneously doped into the nano-sized tungsten particles. When the as-synthesized nanoparticles were sintered by spark plasma sintering, the electron backscatter diffraction images of the bulk material reveal that La 2 O 3 nanoparticles were homogenously distributed in both the tungsten grains and the grain boundaries, and the sample exhibit a narrow micro-hardness distribution

  8. Characterization of porous tungsten by microhardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, C.; Wood, J.V.; Morley, N.; Bentham, R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the applications of tungsten is as high current density dispenser cathode in the form of porous tungsten. It is used as a cathode after being impregnated with an electron emissive material so pore distribution in the part is the most important parameter for its function as a uniform and controlled porosity will lead to a better performance. In this study, application of microhardness as a characterization method for uniformity of the pore distribution and homogeneity of the structure is introduced. Optical microscopy and SEM is used to relate the results and porous tungsten structure for a better understanding of the method applied. (author)

  9. The catalytic activity of several tungsten oxides for the oxidation of propene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, S.; Schiavello, M.; Rome Univ.; Iguchi, E.; Tilley, R.J.D.

    1976-01-01

    A study has been made of the catalytic oxidation of propene over the oxides WO 3 , WOsub(2,95), WOsub(2,90), WOsub(2,72) and Wo 2 , which were selected because they possess specific features of chemical and structural interest rather than for their catalytic ability. It was found that the oxides WOsub(2,95), WOsub(2,90) and WOsub(2,72) all selectively produce acrolein in small amounts. The oxides WO 3 and WO 2 were non-selective and rather inactive. The results are discussed in terms of a mechanism involving both variable valence in the crystal and the specific structural geometry of these compounds. (orig.) [de

  10. Tungsten carbide encapsulated in nitrogen-doped carbon with iron/cobalt carbides electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jinwei, E-mail: jwchen@scu.edu.cn; Jiang, Yiwu; Zhou, Feilong; Wang, Gang; Wang, Ruilin, E-mail: rl.wang@scu.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A hybrid catalyst was prepared via a quite green and simple method to achieve an one-pot synthesis of the N-doping carbon, tungsten carbides, and iron/cobalt carbides. It exhibited comparable electrocatalytic activity, higher durability and ability to methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C to ORR. - Highlights: • A novel type of hybrid Fe/Co/WC@NC catalysts have been successfully synthesized. • The hybrid catalyst also exhibited better durability and methanol tolerance. • Multiple effective active sites of Fe{sub 3}C, Co{sub 3}C, WC, and NC help to improve catalytic performance. - Abstract: This work presents a type of hybrid catalyst prepared through an environmental and simple method, combining a pyrolysis of transition metal precursors, a nitrogen-containing material, and a tungsten source to achieve a one-pot synthesis of N-doping carbon, tungsten carbides, and iron/cobalt carbides (Fe/Co/WC@NC). The obtained Fe/Co/WC@NC consists of uniform Fe{sub 3}C and Co{sub 3}C nanoparticles encapsulated in graphitized carbon with surface nitrogen doping, closely wrapped around a plate-like tungsten carbide (WC) that functions as an efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The introduction of WC is found to promote the ORR activity of Fe/Co-based carbide electrocatalysts, which is attributed to the synergistic catalysts of WC, Fe{sub 3}C, and Co{sub 3}C. Results suggest that the composite exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity, higher durability, and ability for methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C for ORR in alkaline electrolyte. These advantages make Fe/Co/WC@NC a promising ORR electrocatalyst and a cost-effective alternative to Pt/C for practical application as fuel cell.

  11. Microstructure and tensile properties of tungsten at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tielong [Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dai, Yong, E-mail: yong.dai@psi.ch [Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Lee, Yongjoong [European Spallation Source, Tunavägen 24, 223 63 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    In order to support the development of the 5 MW spallation target for the European Spallation Source, the effect of fabrication process on microstructure, ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), tensile and fracture behaviour of powder-metallurgy pure tungsten materials has been investigated. A hot-rolled (HR) tungsten piece of 12 mm thickness and a hot-forged (HF) piece of about 80 mm thickness were used to simulate the thin and thick blocks in the target. The two tungsten pieces were characterized with metallography analysis, hardness measurement and tensile testing. The HR piece exhibits an anisotropic grain structure with an average size of about 330 × 140 × 40 μm in rolling, long transverse and short transverse (thickness) directions. The HF piece possesses a bimodal grain structure with about 310 × 170 × 70 μm grain size in deformed part and about 25 μm sized grains remained from sintering process. Hardness (HV0.2) of the HR piece is slightly greater than that of the HF one. The ductility of the HR tungsten specimens is greater than that of the HF tungsten. For the HF tungsten piece, specimens with small grains in gauge section manifest lower ductility but higher strength. The DBTT evaluated from the tensile results is 250–300 °C for the HR tungsten and about 350 °C for the HF tungsten. - Highlights: • This work was conducted to support the development of the 5 MW spallation target for the European Spallation Source. • The effect of fabrication process on microstructure, ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and tensile behaviour was studied with hot-rolled and hot-forged tungsten. • The tungsten materials were characterized with metallography analysis, hardness measurement and tensile test in a temperature range of 25–500 °C. • The results indicate that the HR tungsten has better mechanical properties in terms of greater ductility and lower ductile-to-brittle transition temperature.

  12. Quenching and recovery experiments on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasch, K.D.; Siegel, R.W.; Schultz, H.

    1976-01-01

    A short summary is given of new results concerning transmission electron microscopy and resistivity measurements on quenched tungsten. These results give evidence for the first time that the quenching and annealing of high purity tungsten leads to vacancy--defect clustering resulting in small voids observable in the electron microscope. 21 references

  13. Catalytic Oxidation of Toluene on Hydrothermally Prepared Ceria Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Duplančić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceria nanocrystals were prepared hydrothermally and tested as potential catalysts for oxidation of volatile organic compounds using toluene as a model compound. Pure ceria with a crystallite size of 4 nm, determined by the Scherrer method from XRD pattern has been obtained. The specific surface area of the prepared nanoparticles determined by BET analysis yielded 201 m2 g–1, while the band gap of 3.2 eV was estimated from DRS spectrum via Tauc’s plot. Catalytic tests were performed on calcined ceria (500 °C with increased crystallite size (9 nm caused by thermal treatment. The tests showed good activities for the toluene oxidation with T50 temperatures, corresponding to 50 % toluene conversion, observed at 250 °C and even lower temperatures depending on the total flow rate of the gas mixture. The one-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model of the fixed bed reactor was proposed to describe the reactor performance and the appropriate kinetic parameters were estimated. Good agreement between experimental data and the proposed model was observed.

  14. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Sharpe, John Phillip; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200°C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices

  15. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tantalum Alloy T-222 During Air Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.

    2000-10-31

    Tantalum alloys are one of the refractory metals with renewed consideration for high temperatures in fusion reactor applications. Tantalum alloys perform well in protective environments but oxidized readily in gases containing higher oxygen levels. In addition, the radioactive isotope Ta-182 would be produced in tantalum and could be a significant contributor to dose if mobilized. Other isotopes of importance are produced from tungsten and hafnium. Mobilization of activated products during an accident with air ingress is therefore a safety issue. In this study, we measured the extent of oxidation and mobilization from tantalum alloy T-222 oxidized in flowing air between 500 and 1200 C. This alloy nominally contains 10 wt% tungsten, 2.5 wt% hafnium and 0.01 wt% carbon. We found that the mobilization of Ta and Hf was closely linked to the occurrence of oxide spalling. These elements showed no migration from the test chamber. Some W was mobilized by volatilization as evidenced by transport from the chamber. Tungsten volatilization could occur primarily during initial stages of oxidation before an oxide scale forms and impedes the process. The mobilization of Ta and W are presented in terms of the mass flux (g/m 2 -h) as a function of test temperature. These measurements along with specific designs, activation calculations, and accident scenarios provide information useful for dose calculations of future fusion devices.

  16. Surface studies of tungsten erosion and deposition in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Y.; Fukumoto, M.; Nishikawa, M.; Tanabe, T.; Miya, N.; Arai, T.; Masaki, K.; Ishimoto, Y.; Tsuzuki, K.; Asakura, N.

    2007-01-01

    In order to study tungsten erosion and migration in JT-60U, 13 W tiles have been installed in the outer divertor region and tungsten deposition on graphite tiles was measured. Dense local tungsten deposition was observed on a CFC tile toroidally adjacent to the W tiles, which resulted from prompt ionization and short range migration of tungsten along field lines. Tungsten deposition with relatively high surface density was found on an inner divertor tile around standard inner strike positions and on an outer wing tile of a dome. On the outer wing tile, tungsten deposition was relatively high compared with carbon deposition. In addition, roughly uniform tungsten depth distribution near the upper edge of the inner divertor tile was observed. This could be due to lift-up of strike point positions in selected 25 shots and tungsten flow in the SOL plasma

  17. Preparation of nano-iron oxide red pigment powders by use of cyanided tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dengxin; Gao Guolong; Meng Fanling; Ji Chong

    2008-01-01

    On one hand, cyanided tailings are one kind of pollutants. On the other hand, they contain a lot of valuable elements. So utilization of them can bring social and environmental benefits. In this paper, cyanided tailings were used to prepare nano-iron oxide red pigment powders by an ammonia process with urea as precipitant. At first, cyanided tailings were oxidized by nitric acid. Then, the oxidizing mixture was separated into solid and liquid parts. The liquid mixture was reduced by scrap iron and the impurity of it was removed by use of NH 3 .H 2 O. Then, the seed crystal of γ-FeOOH was obtained, when the pure liquid reacted with ammonia liquid at the selected experimental conditions. At last, nano-iron oxide red pigment powders were prepared. The structure, morphology and size distribution of seed crystal and iron oxide red were characterized systematically by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and laser particle size analyzer (LPSA). The results revealed that typical iron oxide nanoparticles were α-Fe 2 O 3 with particle size of 50-70 nm. Furthermore, the factors that affected the hue and quality of the seed crystal and iron oxide red pigment were also discussed

  18. Characterization and Electrical Response to Humidity of Sintered Polymeric Electrospun Fibers of Vanadium Oxide-({TiO}_{{2}} /{WO}_{{3}} )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, E. S.; Libardi, J.; Faia, P. M.; de Oliveira, H. P.

    2018-02-01

    Metal oxide composites have attracted much consideration due to their promising applications in humidity sensors in response to the physical and chemical property modifications of the resulting materials. This work focused on the preparation, microstructural characterization and analysis of humidity-dependent electrical properties of undoped and vanadium oxide (V2O5)-doped titanium oxide/tungsten oxide (TiO2/WO3) sintered ceramic films obtained by electrospinning. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance spectroscopy (400 Hz-40 MHz) as a function of relative humidity (RH). The results revealed a typical transition in the transport mechanisms controlled by the appropriated doping level of V2O5, which introduces important advantages to RH detection due to the atomic substitution of titanium by vanadium atoms in highly doped structures. These aspects are directly related to the microstructure modification and structure fabrication procedure.

  19. Tungsten metallizing alumina--yttria ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.E.; Stoddard, S.D.

    1977-03-01

    The ease with which high-alumina bodies may be metallized with tungsten is improved by additions of yttria to the alumina. Mechanisms of this bonding process were studied by use of optical and electron microscopy, electron microprobe, and tensile tests. Variables studied included yttria content of the body and the firing temperature during metallizing. The study showed that a reaction between the tungsten and the yttrogarnet grain boundary phase markedly improved adherence

  20. Ultrasharp tungsten tips—characterization and nondestructive cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setvín, M.; Javorský, J.; Turčinková, D.; Matolínová, I.; Sobotík, P.; Kocán, P.; Ošt’ádal, I.

    2012-01-01

    We study the treatment of ultrasharp tungsten tips used for applications in nanoscience and introduce a fast and simple method for estimation of the tip radius using a single measurement of the autoemission current. The method is based on a detailed investigation of the influence of an arrangement of electrodes on the electric field layout in close proximity of the tip apex. The electric field was calculated using Monte Carlo Floating Random Walk algorithm. The most frequently used cleaning procedures (heating the whole tip to high temperature, electron bombardment and self-sputtering) were investigated by electrical measurements and microscopy techniques (SEM, TEM) and the results of the particular methods are compared. We report on the effectiveness and limiting conditions of the cleaning methods with respect to the damage they cause to the tip apex. -- Highlights: ► The article describes methods how to prepare, characterize and clean ultrasharp tungsten tips. ► A novel method for estimating the tip radius based on a single measurement of autoemission current is described. ► MCFRW (Monte Carlo Floating Random Walk) method is used to calculate an electric field in proximity of the tip apex. ► The most frequently used tip cleaning procedures are investigated. ► Effectiveness and optimal cleaning conditions are discussed for each of the methods.

  1. Use of ion exchange during preparation of raw materials for production of molybdenum and tungsten of high purify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.A.; Rumyantsev, V.K.; Taushkanov, V.P.; Maksimkov, S.M.; Majorov, D.Yu.; Pak, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The data on the application of selective ionites for the steep purification of ammonium molybdate and tungstate solutions, are given. It is shown that to purify molybdenum and ammonium tungstate solutions from the impuerities of alkali earth and two- and threevalent transition metals, iminodiacetate ampholites of the ANKB-35 type are the most effective sorbents. To purify from phosphorus, silicon and arsenic impurities composition ionites on the base of hydrated oxides of multivalent metals introduced in the granules of porous cationites should be used. To extract phosphorus, silicon, arsenic impurities from ammonium molybdate and tungstate solutions and tungsten from ammonium molybdate solutions the method of their coprecipitation with iron (3) hydroxide can also be used. The best results on the purification of ammonium molybdate from tungstate provides for the application of structural organomineral ionites as well as weak-basicity anionites of the AN-31 type and its different modifications containing hydroxyl groups along with aminogroups. To purity ammonium tungstate solutions from molybdate a method is developed which transforms molybdenum in the form of thiocomplexes and the following selective sorption by strong-basicity anionites. The data on the quality of molybdenum monocrystals which are taken from the raw material purified using ionites, are given

  2. Physical metallurgy of tungsten. Metallovedenie vol'frama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitskii, E M; Povarova, K B; Makarov, P V

    1978-01-01

    The physico-chemical principles of the interaction between tungsten and the elements of the periodic chart are systematized and summarized, and a description is given of the physical and mechanical properties of tungsten and its alloys. An examination is made of the nature of cold brittleness and methods of increasing the plasticity of alloys, means of producing tungsten, methods of purification, alloying, thermal and mechanical processing, and a survey is made of the contemporary use of tungsten and its alloys in advanced sectors of modern technology. The book is designed for personnel at scientific-research institutes, design bureaus and plants, engaged in the development, technology, and use of alloys of refractory metals as well as for instructors, graduate students and senior students taking metal studies and machine building courses, and aeronautical institutions of higher learning. 431 references, 11 tables.

  3. Graphene oxide powders with different oxidation degree, prepared by synthesis variations of the Hummers method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Contreras, Jesus; Caballero-Briones, F.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) powders with different oxidation degree estimated through the relative intensity of the infrared absorption bands related to oxygen containing groups were prepared through variations of the Hummers method. The GO powders were analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, UV–VIS spectroscopy and Electrical Resistance measurements. Several square micron GO sheets with low wrinkling were obtained. Oxygen to carbon ratio is around 0.2 in all the samples although a strong variance in the relative intensity of the oxygen related infrared bands is evident. Thus, the oxidation degree was estimated from the FTIR measurements using the quotient between the C–O related bands area to the total area under the spectra. FTIR shows presence of hydroxyl (–OH), epoxy (C–O–C), carboxyl (–COOH) and carbonyl (C=O) moieties and evidence of intermolecular interactions between adjacent groups. These interactions influence the exfoliation degree, the absorbance of the GO suspensions, as well as the electrical resistance, while the crystalline domain sizes, estimated from XRD and Raman do not show a noticeable behavior related with the composition and molecular structure. The results indicate that the electrical resistance is influenced mainly by the surface chemistry of the GO powders and not only by the O/C ratio. The control of the surface chemistry of GO powders would allow their use as additives in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells with enhanced photoconversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Powders of graphene oxide with different oxidation degree were prepared through variations of the Hummers method. • Raman spectroscopy and XRD demonstrated similar crystallite domain size in the samples. • Electrical resistance, exfoliation degree and optical absorption depend on the molecular structure.

  4. Graphene oxide powders with different oxidation degree, prepared by synthesis variations of the Hummers method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Contreras, Jesus; Caballero-Briones, F., E-mail: fcaballero@ipn.mx

    2015-03-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) powders with different oxidation degree estimated through the relative intensity of the infrared absorption bands related to oxygen containing groups were prepared through variations of the Hummers method. The GO powders were analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, UV–VIS spectroscopy and Electrical Resistance measurements. Several square micron GO sheets with low wrinkling were obtained. Oxygen to carbon ratio is around 0.2 in all the samples although a strong variance in the relative intensity of the oxygen related infrared bands is evident. Thus, the oxidation degree was estimated from the FTIR measurements using the quotient between the C–O related bands area to the total area under the spectra. FTIR shows presence of hydroxyl (–OH), epoxy (C–O–C), carboxyl (–COOH) and carbonyl (C=O) moieties and evidence of intermolecular interactions between adjacent groups. These interactions influence the exfoliation degree, the absorbance of the GO suspensions, as well as the electrical resistance, while the crystalline domain sizes, estimated from XRD and Raman do not show a noticeable behavior related with the composition and molecular structure. The results indicate that the electrical resistance is influenced mainly by the surface chemistry of the GO powders and not only by the O/C ratio. The control of the surface chemistry of GO powders would allow their use as additives in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells with enhanced photoconversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Powders of graphene oxide with different oxidation degree were prepared through variations of the Hummers method. • Raman spectroscopy and XRD demonstrated similar crystallite domain size in the samples. • Electrical resistance, exfoliation degree and optical absorption depend on the molecular structure.

  5. An effective approach to synthesize monolayer tungsten disulphide crystals using tungsten halide precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangaraja, Amutha; Shinde, Sachin M.; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of large-area monolayer tungsten disulphide (WS 2 ) single crystal is critical for realistic application in electronic and optical devices. Here, we demonstrate an effective approach to synthesize monolayer WS 2 crystals using tungsten hexachloride (WCl 6 ) as a solid precursor in atmospheric chemical vapor deposition process. In this technique, 0.05M solution of WCl 6 in ethanol was drop-casted on SiO 2 /Si substrate to create an even distribution of the precursor, which was reduced and sulfurized at 750 °C in Ar atmosphere. We observed growth of triangular, star-shaped, as well as dendritic WS 2 crystals on the substrate. The crystal geometry evolves with the shape and size of the nuclei as observed from the dendritic structures. These results show that controlling the initial nucleation and growth process, large WS 2 single crystalline monolayer can be grown using the WCl 6 precursor. Our finding shows an easier and effective approach to grow WS 2 monolayer using tungsten halide solution-casting, rather than evaporating the precursor for gas phase reaction

  6. Tungsten-based composite materials for fusion reactor shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Composite tungsten-based materials were recently proposed for the heavy constituent of compact fusion reactor shields. These composite materials will enable the incorporation of tungsten - the most efficient nonfissionable inelastic scattering (as well as good neutron absorbing and very good photon attenuating) material - in the shield in a relatively cheap way and without introducing voids (so as to enable minimizing the shield thickness). It is proposed that these goals be achieved by bonding tungsten powder, which is significantly cheaper than high-density tungsten, with a material having the following properties: good shielding ability and relatively low cost and ease of fabrication. The purpose of this work is to study the effectiveness of the composite materials as a function of their composition, and to estimate the economic benefit that might be gained by the use of these materials. Two materials are being considered for the binder: copper, second to tungsten in its shielding ability, and iron (or stainless steel), the common fusion reactor shield heavy constituent

  7. The Design and Use of Tungsten Coated TZM Molybdenum Tile Inserts in the DIII-D Tokamak Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Christopher [General Atomics, San Diego; Nygren, R. E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Chrobak, C P. [General Atomics, San Diego; Buchenauer, Dean [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Holtrop, Kurt [General Atomics, San Diego; Unterberg, Ezekial A. [ORNL; Zach, Mike P. [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    Future tokamak devices are envisioned to utilize a high-Z metal divertor with tungsten as theleading candidate. However, tokamak experiments with tungsten divertors have seen significantdetrimental effects on plasma performance. The DIII-D tokamak presently has carbon as theplasma facing surface but to study the effect of tungsten on the plasma and its migration aroundthe vessel, two toroidal rows of carbon tiles in the divertor region were modified with high-Zmetal inserts, composed of a molybdenum alloy (TZM) coated with tungsten. A dedicated twoweek experimental campaign was run with the high-Z metal inserts. One row was coated withtungsten containing naturally occurring levels of isotopes. The second row was coated withtungsten where the isotope 182W was enhanced from the natural level of 26% up to greater than90%. The different isotopic concentrations enabled the experiment to differentiate between thetwo different sources of metal migration from the divertor. Various coating methods wereexplored for the deposition of the tungsten coating, including chemical vapor deposition,electroplating, vacuum plasma spray, and electron beam physical vapor deposition. The coatingswere tested to see if they were robust enough to act as a divertor target for the experiment. Testsincluded cyclic thermal heating using a high power laser and high-fluence deuterium plasmabombardment. The issues associate with the design of the inserts (tile installation, thermal stress,arcing, leading edges, surface preparation, etc.), are reviewed. The results of the tests used toselect the coating method and preliminary experimental observations are presented.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of tungsten or calcium doped PZT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.M.; Caracas, L.B.; Noronha, R.G.; Santos, M.M.T. dos; Paiva-Santos, C.O.

    2009-01-01

    Pure and doped (tungsten or calcium) PZT ceramics were prepared by association of the polymeric precursor and partial oxalate method. The phase formation was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The affect of W or Ca doping PZT and their electrical properties was evaluated. Substitution of W by Ti and Ca by Pb leads to an increase of Curie temperature and broadening of dielectric constant. A typical hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature and the remnant polarization was increased with the content of W and Ca. (author)

  9. S tudies on the phase transitions and properties of tungsten (VI oxide nanoparticles by X - Ray diffraction (XRD and thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Abdullah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten (VI oxide, WO3nanoparticles were synthesized by colloidal gas aphrons(CGAs technique.The resultant WO3nanoparticleswere characterized by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA and X-Ray diffraction (XRD measurements in order to determine the phase transitions, the crystallinity and the size of theWO3nanoparticles. As a comparison, transmission electron microscope (TEM was used to investigate the size of the WO3nanoparticles. The result from XRD and DTA show that the formation of polymorphsWO3nanoparticles have the following sequence: orthorhombic (b-WO3®monoclinic (g-WO3 ®triclinic (d-WO3 ®monoclinic (e-WO3 with respect to the calcination temperature of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. No diffraction peaks were found in the X-Ray diffraction measurements for the sample heat treated at 300°C (as-prepared, suggesting that an amorphous structure was obtained at this temperature whereas the crystallinity had been obtained by the other samples of theWO3nanoparticles at the calcination temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. It is also found that the X-Ray diffraction measurements produced an average diameter of (30 ±5, (50 ±5, (150 ±10 and (200 ±10 nm at calcination temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C respectively by using Debye-Scherrer formula. The TG curve revealed that the WO3nanoparticles is purely anhydrous since the weight loss is insignificant (0.3 –1.4 % from 30 until 600°C for the WO3nanoparticles calcined at 400°C. Finally, the composition and the purity of the WO3nanoparticleshave been examined by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Theresults indicate no significant changes to the composition and the purity of the WO3nanoparticle produced due to the temperature variations

  10. Computer simulations for thorium doped tungsten crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten has the highest melting point among all metals in the periodic table of elements. Furthermore, its equilibrium vapor pressure is by far the lowest at the temperature given. Thoria, ThO 2 , as a particle dopant, results in a high temperature creep resistant material. Moreover, thorium covered tungsten surfaces show a drastically reduced electronic work function. This results in a tremendous reduction of tip temperatures of cathodes in discharge lamps, and, therefore, in dramatically reduced tungsten vapor pressures. Thorium sublimates at temperatures below those of a typical operating cathode. For proper operation, a diffusional flow of thorium atoms towards the surface has to be maintained. This atomic flux responds very sensitively on the local microstructure, as grain boundaries as well as dislocation cores offer ''short circuit paths'' for thorium atoms. In this work, we address some open issues of thoriated tungsten. A molecular dynamics scheme (MD) is used to derive static as well as dynamic material properties which have their common origin in the atomistic behavior of tungsten and thorium atoms. The interatomic interactions between thorium and tungsten atoms are described within the embedded atom model (EAM). So far, in literature no W-Th interaction potentials on this basis are described. As there is no alloying system known between thorium and tungsten, we have determined material data for the fitting of these potentials using ab-initio methods. This is accomplished using the full potential augmented plane wave method (FLAPW), to get hypothetical, i.e. not occurring in nature, ''alloy'' data of W-Th. In order to circumvent the limitations of classical (NVE) MD schemes, we eventually couple our model systems to external heat baths or volume reservoirs (NVT, NPT). For the NPT ensemble, we implemented a generalization of the variable cell method in combination with the Langevin piston, which results in a set of Langevin equations, i.e. stochastic

  11. Nanocrystalline-grained tungsten prepared by surface mechanical attrition treatment: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hong-Yan; Xia, Min; Wu, Zheng-Tao; Chan, Lap-Chung; Dai, Yong; Wang, Kun; Yan, Qing-Zhi; He, Man-Chao; Ge, Chang-Chun; Lu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    A nanostructured surface layer was fabricated on commercial pure tungsten using the method of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The microstructure evolution of the surface layer was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and its formation mechanism was discussed as well. Both refinement and elongation of the brittle W grains were confirmed. The elongated SMATed W was heavily strained, the maximum value of the strain at the grain boundaries reaches as high as 3–5%. Dislocation density in the SMATed W nanograins was found to be 5 × 10 12  cm −2 . The formation of the nanograins in the top surface layer of the W was ascribed to the extremely high strain and strain rate, as well as the multidirectional repetitive loading. Bending strength of commercial W could be improved from 825 MPa to 1850 MPa by SMAT process. Microhardness results indicated the strain range in SMATed W can reach up to 220 μm beneath the top surface. The notched Charpy testing results demonstrated that SMATed W possess higher ductility than that of commercial W. The top surface of the W plates with and without SMATe processing possesses residual compressive stress of about −881 MPa and −234 MPa in y direction, and −872 MPa and −879 MPa in x direction respectively. The improvement of toughness (DBTT shift) of SMATed W may be the synergistic effect of residual compressive stress, dislocation density improvement and microstructure refinement induced by SMAT processing. SMAT processing could be a complementary method to further decrease the DBTT value of tungsten based materials.

  12. Nanocrystalline-grained tungsten prepared by surface mechanical attrition treatment: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hong-Yan [State Key Laboratory for GeoMechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Institute of Nuclear Materials, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tae Chee Avenue Kowloon, Hong Kong 999077 (China); Xia, Min, E-mail: xmdsg@ustb.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Materials, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wu, Zheng-Tao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chan, Lap-Chung [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tae Chee Avenue Kowloon, Hong Kong 999077 (China); Dai, Yong; Wang, Kun [Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5323 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Yan, Qing-Zhi [Institute of Nuclear Materials, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); He, Man-Chao [State Key Laboratory for GeoMechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Ge, Chang-Chun, E-mail: ccge@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Materials, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Lu, Jian, E-mail: jianlu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tae Chee Avenue Kowloon, Hong Kong 999077 (China)

    2016-11-15

    A nanostructured surface layer was fabricated on commercial pure tungsten using the method of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The microstructure evolution of the surface layer was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and its formation mechanism was discussed as well. Both refinement and elongation of the brittle W grains were confirmed. The elongated SMATed W was heavily strained, the maximum value of the strain at the grain boundaries reaches as high as 3–5%. Dislocation density in the SMATed W nanograins was found to be 5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. The formation of the nanograins in the top surface layer of the W was ascribed to the extremely high strain and strain rate, as well as the multidirectional repetitive loading. Bending strength of commercial W could be improved from 825 MPa to 1850 MPa by SMAT process. Microhardness results indicated the strain range in SMATed W can reach up to 220 μm beneath the top surface. The notched Charpy testing results demonstrated that SMATed W possess higher ductility than that of commercial W. The top surface of the W plates with and without SMATe processing possesses residual compressive stress of about −881 MPa and −234 MPa in y direction, and −872 MPa and −879 MPa in x direction respectively. The improvement of toughness (DBTT shift) of SMATed W may be the synergistic effect of residual compressive stress, dislocation density improvement and microstructure refinement induced by SMAT processing. SMAT processing could be a complementary method to further decrease the DBTT value of tungsten based materials.

  13. Preparation of transparent conducting zinc oxide films by rf reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanelli, L.; Valentini, A.; Losacco, A.

    1986-01-01

    Transparent conducting zinc oxide films have been prepared by reactive sputtering in a Ar/H/sub 2/ mixture. The optical and electrical properties of the films are presented and discussed. The effects of some post-deposition thermal treatment have been also investigated. ZnO/CdTe heterojunctions have been prepared by sputtering ZnO films on CdTe single crystals. The photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of the obtained solar cells was 6.8%

  14. Preparation of cerium oxide for lens polishing powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injarean, Uthaiwan; Rodthongkom, Chouvana; Pichestapong, Pipat; Changkrurng, Kalaya

    2003-10-01

    Cerium is an element of rare earth group which is called lanthanide series. It is found in the ores like monazite and xenotime which are the tailings of tin mines in the south of Thailand. Cerium is used mostly as lens polishing powder besides the applications in other industries. In this study, cerium extracted from monazite ore breakdown by alkaline process was used for the preparation of lens polishing powder. Cerium hydroxide cake from the process was dissolved by hydrochloric acid and precipitated with oxalic acid. The oxalate precipitate then was calcined to oxide powder and its particle size was measured. Precipitation conditions being studied are concentration of feed cerium chloride solution, concentration of oxalic acid used for the precipitation, concentration of sulfuric acid used as precipitation control reagent and the precipitation temperature. It was found that the appropriate precipitation conditions yielded the fine oxide powder with particle size about 12μm. The oxide powder can be ground to the size of 1-3 μm which is suitable for making lens polishing powder

  15. Tungsten deposition by hydrogen-atom reaction with tungsten hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    Using gaseous hydrogen atoms with WF 6 , tungsten atoms can be produced in a gas-phase reaction. The atoms then deposit in a near-room temperature process, which results in the formation of tungsten films. The W atoms (10 10 -10 11 /cm 3 ) were measured in situ by atomic absorption spectroscopy during the CVD process. Deposited W films were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, and X-ray diffraction. The surface morphology of the deposited films and filled holes was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The deposited films were highly adherent to different substrates, such as Si, SiO 2 , Ti/Si, TiN/Si and Teflon. The reaction mechanism and kinetics were studied. The experimental results indicated that this method has three advantages compared to conventional CVD or PECVD: (1) film growth occurs at low temperatures; (2) deposition takes place in a plasma-free environment; and (3) a low level of impurities results in high-quality adherent films

  16. Modeling of hydrogen desorption from tungsten surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guterl, J., E-mail: jguterl@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Smirnov, R.D. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Krasheninnikov, S.I. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Nuclear Research National University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Uberuaga, B.; Voter, A.F.; Perez, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 8754 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen retention in metallic plasma-facing components is among key-issues for future fusion devices. For tungsten, which has been chosen as divertor material in ITER, hydrogen desorption parameters experimentally measured for fusion-related conditions show large discrepancies. In this paper, we therefore investigate hydrogen recombination and desorption on tungsten surfaces using molecular dynamics simulations and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations to analyze adsorption states, diffusion, hydrogen recombination into molecules, and clustering of hydrogen on tungsten surfaces. The quality of tungsten hydrogen interatomic potential is discussed in the light of MD simulations results, showing that three body interactions in current interatomic potential do not allow to reproduce hydrogen molecular recombination and desorption. Effects of surface hydrogen clustering on hydrogen desorption are analyzed by introducing a kinetic model describing the competition between surface diffusion, clustering and recombination. Different desorption regimes are identified and reproduce some aspects of desorption regimes experimentally observed.

  17. Preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Yoko, T.; Sakka, S.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is carried out on the types of siloxane polymers produced in the course of the hydrolysis of silicon tetraethoxide, as well as the preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by the sol-gel method.

  18. Preparation of iron molybdate catalysts for methanol to formaldehyde oxidation based on ammonium molybdoferrate(II precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Nikolenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It was demonstrated that iron molybdate catalysts for methanol oxidation can be prepared using Fe(II as a precursor instead of Fe(III. This would allow for reduction of acidity of preparation solutions as well as elimination of Fe(III oxide impurities which are detrimental for the process selectivity. The system containing Fe(II and Mo(VI species in aqueous solution was investigated using UV–Vis spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that three types of chemical reactions occur in the Fe(II–Mo(VI system: (i formation of complexes between Fe(II and molybdate(VI ions, (ii inner sphere oxidation of coordinated Fe(II by Mo(VI and (iii decomposition of the Fe–Mo complexes to form scarcely soluble Fe(III molybdate, Mo(VI hydrous trioxide and molybdenum blue. Solid molybdoferrate(II prepared by interaction of Fe(II and Mo(VI in solution was characterized by EDXA, TGA, DTA and XRD and a scheme of its thermal evolution proposed. The iron molybdate catalyst prepared from Fe(II precursor was tested in methanol-to-formaldehyde oxidation in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor to show similar activity and selectivity to the conventional catalyst prepared with the use of Fe(III.

  19. Substitution of thoriated tungsten electrodes in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, H.; Piller, G.

    2006-01-01

    Thoriated tungsten electrodes are frequently used for inert gas welding (TIG/WIG). The use of these electrodes can lead to doses which are well above the limit for the general population (1mSv/year). This has been shown by different investigations, for example from the ''Berufsgenossenschaft''. With these findings in mind, the regulatory authorities (Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) and Swiss National Accident Insurance Association (Suva)) started in 1999 to examine the justification of thoriated tungsten electrodes and a possible substitution with products containing no radioactive material. Up to this time, the use of thoriated tungsten electrodes could be justified since no thorium-free products leading to comparable results were available on the market. This was also the reason why the SFOPH approved several types of these electrodes. Discussions with formation centers for welding and inquiries made at welding shops, trading companies and producers showed that in the mean-time thorium-free products with comparable welding specifications and results became available on the market. Since the 1 January 2004, thoriated tungsten electrodes can only be used if the user has obtained the corresponding license from the SFOPH. The use of thoriated tungsten electrodes is thus not completely forbidden, but very strict conditions have to be fulfilled. Up to now and due to the involvement of the relevant partners, the substitution process has not met any problem. Neither trading companies nor users made any opposition and no request for obtaining a license for thoriated tungsten electrodes was made. (orig.)

  20. Effect of neutron irradiation on the microstructure of tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Klimenkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two grades of pure tungsten, single and polycrystalline, were irradiated for 282 days in the HFR reactor, Petten, at 900 °C to an average damage level of 1.6dpa. Each grade of tungsten was investigated using the transmission electron microscope (TEM to assess the effect of neutron irradiation on tungsten microstructure. Investigations revealed the formation of faceted cavities, whose diameter varies from 4 to 14nm in both materials. The cavities are homogeneously distributed only inside single crystalline tungsten. The local distribution of cavities in polycrystalline tungsten is strongly influenced by grain boundaries. The number densities of cavities were measured to be 4×1021 m−3 for polycrystalline and 2.5×1021 m−3 for single crystalline tungsten. This corresponds to volumetric densities of 0.45% and 0.33% respectively. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM revealed that faces of cavities are oriented in (110 plane. Analytical investigations showed precipitation of rhenium and osmium produced by a transmutation reaction around cavities and at grain boundaries.

  1. One-step approach to prepare magnetic iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid for efficient organic and inorganic pollutants removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Suman; Karak, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    An environmentally friendly effective technique was demonstrated to prepare iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid (IO/RGO) at room temperature by using banana peel ash aqueous extract as the base source and Colocasia esculenta leaves aqueous extract as the reducing agent. The nanohybrid was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, Raman spectroscopy and thermal studies. The results indicated the decoration of superparamagnetic IO nanoparticles on the surface of the RGO. Both organic and inorganic pollutants were effectively removed from the contaminated water (for Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ within 10 min, whereas for tetrabromobisphenol A within 30 min) by IO/RGO. The study revealed that adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics and isotherms were well described by the Langmuir model in all the cases. The thermodynamics parameters (ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH°) were calculated from the temperature dependent isotherms and indicated that the adsorptions were endothermic and spontaneous. - Highlights: • Eco-friendly one step preparation of iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid. • The nanohybrid has excellent pollutants removal capacity from contaminated water. • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles help in easy recycle. • The adsorption processes of pollutants are endothermic and spontaneous

  2. One-step approach to prepare magnetic iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid for efficient organic and inorganic pollutants removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Suman; Karak, Niranjan, E-mail: karakniranjan@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    An environmentally friendly effective technique was demonstrated to prepare iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid (IO/RGO) at room temperature by using banana peel ash aqueous extract as the base source and Colocasia esculenta leaves aqueous extract as the reducing agent. The nanohybrid was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, Raman spectroscopy and thermal studies. The results indicated the decoration of superparamagnetic IO nanoparticles on the surface of the RGO. Both organic and inorganic pollutants were effectively removed from the contaminated water (for Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} within 10 min, whereas for tetrabromobisphenol A within 30 min) by IO/RGO. The study revealed that adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics and isotherms were well described by the Langmuir model in all the cases. The thermodynamics parameters (ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH°) were calculated from the temperature dependent isotherms and indicated that the adsorptions were endothermic and spontaneous. - Highlights: • Eco-friendly one step preparation of iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid. • The nanohybrid has excellent pollutants removal capacity from contaminated water. • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles help in easy recycle. • The adsorption processes of pollutants are endothermic and spontaneous.

  3. Partial Oxidation of n-Butane over a Sol-Gel Prepared Vanadium Phosphorous Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium phosphorous oxide (VPO is traditionally manufactured from solid vanadium oxides by synthesizing VOHPO4∙0.5H2O (the precursor followed by in situ activation to produce (VO2P2O7 (the active phase. This paper discusses an alternative synthesis method based on sol-gel techniques. Vanadium (V triisopropoxide oxide was reacted with ortho-phosphoric acid in an aprotic solvent. The products were dried at high pressure in an autoclave with a controlled excess of solvent. This procedure produced a gel of VOPO4 with interlayer entrapped molecules. The surface area of the obtained materials was between 50 and 120 m2/g. Alcohol produced by the alkoxide hydrolysis reduced the vanadium during the drying step, thus VOPO4 was converted to the precursor. This procedure yielded non-agglomerated platelets, which were dehydrated and evaluated in a butane-air mixture. Catalysts were significantly more selective than the traditionally prepared materials with similar intrinsic activity. It is suggested that the small crystallite size obtained increased their selectivity towards maleic anhydride.

  4. Fabrication and evaluation of chemically vapor deposited tungsten heat pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupi, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A network of lithium-filled tungsten heat pipes is being considered as a method of heat extraction from high temperature nuclear reactors. The need for material purity and shape versatility in these applications dictates the use of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten. Adaptability of CVD tungsten to complex heat pipe designs is shown. Deposition and welding techniques are described. Operation of two lithium-filled CVD tungsten heat pipes above 1800 K is discussed.

  5. Advanced tungsten materials for plasma-facing components of DEMO and fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, R.; Riesch, J.; Coenen, J.W.; Brinkmann, J.; Calvo, A.; Elgeti, S.; García-Rosales, C.; Greuner, H.; Hoeschen, T.; Holzner, G.; Klein, F.; Koch, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of W-fibre enhanced W-composites incorporating extrinsic toughening mechanisms. • Production of a large sample (more than 2000 long fibres) for mechanical and thermal testing. • Even in a fully embrittled state, toughening mechanisms are still effective. • Emissions of volatile W-oxides can be suppressed by alloying W with elements forming stable oxides. • WCr10Ti2 has been successfully tested under accidental conditions and high heat fluxes. - Abstract: Tungsten is the major candidate material for the armour of plasma facing components in future fusion devices. To overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten, which strongly limits its operational window, a W-fibre enhanced W-composite material (W_f/W) has been developed incorporating extrinsic toughening mechanisms. Small W_f/W samples show a large increase in toughness. Recently, a large sample (50 mm × 50 mm × 3 mm) with more than 2000 long fibres has been successfully produced allowing further mechanical and thermal testing. It could be shown that even in a fully embrittled state, toughening mechanisms as crack bridging by intact fibres, as well as the energy dissipation by fibre-matrix interface debonding and crack deflection are still effective. A potential problem with the use of pure W in a fusion reactor is the formation of radioactive and highly volatile WO_3 compounds and their potential release under accidental conditions. It has been shown that the oxidation of W can be strongly suppressed by alloying with elements forming stable oxides. WCr10Ti2 alloy has been produced on a technical scale and has been successfully tested in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS. Recently, W-Cr-Y alloys have been produced on a lab-scale. They seem to have even improved properties compared to the previously investigated W alloys.

  6. Advanced tungsten materials for plasma-facing components of DEMO and fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, R., E-mail: Rudolf.Neu@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fakultät für Maschinenbau, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Riesch, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Coenen, J.W. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Brinkmann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Calvo, A. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Elgeti, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); García-Rosales, C. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Greuner, H.; Hoeschen, T.; Holzner, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Klein, F. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Koch, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Development of W-fibre enhanced W-composites incorporating extrinsic toughening mechanisms. • Production of a large sample (more than 2000 long fibres) for mechanical and thermal testing. • Even in a fully embrittled state, toughening mechanisms are still effective. • Emissions of volatile W-oxides can be suppressed by alloying W with elements forming stable oxides. • WCr10Ti2 has been successfully tested under accidental conditions and high heat fluxes. - Abstract: Tungsten is the major candidate material for the armour of plasma facing components in future fusion devices. To overcome the intrinsic brittleness of tungsten, which strongly limits its operational window, a W-fibre enhanced W-composite material (W{sub f}/W) has been developed incorporating extrinsic toughening mechanisms. Small W{sub f}/W samples show a large increase in toughness. Recently, a large sample (50 mm × 50 mm × 3 mm) with more than 2000 long fibres has been successfully produced allowing further mechanical and thermal testing. It could be shown that even in a fully embrittled state, toughening mechanisms as crack bridging by intact fibres, as well as the energy dissipation by fibre-matrix interface debonding and crack deflection are still effective. A potential problem with the use of pure W in a fusion reactor is the formation of radioactive and highly volatile WO{sub 3} compounds and their potential release under accidental conditions. It has been shown that the oxidation of W can be strongly suppressed by alloying with elements forming stable oxides. WCr10Ti2 alloy has been produced on a technical scale and has been successfully tested in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS. Recently, W-Cr-Y alloys have been produced on a lab-scale. They seem to have even improved properties compared to the previously investigated W alloys.

  7. Comparison of four tungsten alloys for use as ultrasonic thermometer sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arave, A.E.

    1975-06-01

    Four tungsten alloy materials were evaluated for use as ultrasonic sensors: (a) tungsten, (b) tungsten-1 percent thoria, (c) tungsten-2 percent thoria, and (d) tungsten-26 percent rhenium. Four parameters were checked: (1) temperature sensitivity, (2) signal attenuation as a function of temperature, (3) temperature sensitivity as a function of frequency, and (4) relative signal attenuation as a function of frequency. The temperature sensors were designed for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) and Power Burst Facility (PBF) reactors. (U.S.)

  8. Behavior and microstructural changes in different tungsten-based materials under pulsed plasma loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilémová, Monika; Pala, Zdeněk; Jäger, Aleš; Matějíček, Jiří; Chernyshova, M.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Gribkov, V. A.; Janata, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, December (2016), s. 123-127 ISSN 2352-1791. [International Conference of Fusion Reactor Material (ICFRM-17) /17./. Aachen, 11.10.2015-16.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : ODS tungsten * yttrium oxide * porosity * phase stability * monoclinic phase * plasma focus * damage * erosion Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials; JJ - Other Materials (FZU-D) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2016.06.004

  9. Mechanical properties of tungsten alloys with Y2O3 and titanium additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, M.V.; Martin, A.; Pastor, J.Y.; LLorca, J.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this research the mechanical behaviour of pure tungsten (W) and its alloys (2 wt.% Ti-0.47 wt.% Y 2 O 3 and 4 wt.% Ti-0.5 wt.% Y 2 O 3 ) is compared. These tungsten alloys, have been obtained by powder metallurgy. The yield strength, fracture toughness and elastic modulus have been studied in the temperature interval of 25 deg. C to 1000 deg. C. The results have shown that the addition of Ti substantially improves the bending strength and toughness of W, but it also dramatically increases the DBTT. On the other hand, the addition of 0.5% Y 2 O 3 , is enough to improve noticeably the oxidation behaviour at the higher temperatures. The grain size, fractography and microstructure are studied in these materials. Titanium is a good grain growth inhibitor and effective precursor of liquid phase in HIP. The simultaneous presence of Y 2 O 3 and Ti permits to obtain materials with low pores presence.

  10. Deuterium transport and trapping in polycrystalline tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Trybus, C.L.; Sellers, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that deuterium permeation studies for polycrystalline tungsten foil have been conducted to provide data for estimating tritium transport and trapping in tungsten-clad divertors proposed for advanced fusion-reactor concepts. Based on a detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microstructural characterization of the specimen material and on analyses of permeation data measured at temperatures ranging form 610 to 823 K for unannealed and annealed tungsten foil (25 μm thick), the authors note the following key results: deuterium transport in