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  1. Tumour model with intrusive morphology, progressive phenotypical heterogeneity and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Alqahtani, Rubayyi T.

    2018-03-01

    The model of a tumour, taking into account invasive morphology, progressive phenotypical heterogeneity and also memory, is developed and analyzed in this paper. Three models are investigated: first we consider the model describing the proliferation concentrates in proximity of tumour boundaries, in which the oxygen levels are pronounced. Then we consider the model where the oxygen around the tumour is considered to be unchanged by the vascular system. Finally, we investigate the model of growth of tumours using the concept of non-local operators with the Mittag-Leffler kernel. We provide the numerical solution using the extended 3/8 Simpson method for the new trends of fractional integration for the proliferation concentrates in the proximity of the tumour model. Then we provide the exact solutions of the Gompertz model with three different fractional differentiations involving power law, exponential decay law and the Mittag-Leffler law.

  2. Gelatinase B/MMP-9 in Tumour Pathogenesis and Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Antonietta Rosella; Mackay, Andrew Reay, E-mail: andrewreay.mackay@univaq.it [Department of Applied Clinical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito 2, L’Aquila 67100 (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    Since its original identification as a leukocyte gelatinase/type V collagenase and tumour type IV collagenase, gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is now recognised as playing a central role in many aspects of tumour progression. In this review, we relate current concepts concerning the many ways in which gelatinase B/MMP-9 influences tumour biology. Following a brief outline of the gelatinase B/MMP-9 gene and protein, we analyse the role(s) of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in different phases of the tumorigenic process, and compare the importance of gelatinase B/MMP-9 source in the carcinogenic process. What becomes apparent is the importance of inflammatory cell-derived gelatinase B/MMP-9 in tumour promotion, early progression and triggering of the “angiogenic switch”, the integral relationship between inflammatory, stromal and tumour components with respect to gelatinase B/MMP-9 production and activation, and the fundamental role for gelatinase B/MMP-9 in the formation and maintenance of tumour stem cell and metastatic niches. It is also apparent that gelatinase B/MMP-9 plays important tumour suppressing functions, producing endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, promoting inflammatory anti-tumour activity, and inducing apoptosis. The fundamental roles of gelatinase B/MMP-9 in cancer biology underpins the need for specific therapeutic inhibitors of gelatinase B/MMP-9 function, the use of which must take into account and substitute for tumour-suppressing gelatinase B/MMP-9 activity and also limit inhibition of physiological gelatinase B/MMP-9 function.

  3. Id1 suppresses anti-tumour immune responses and promotes tumour progression by impairing myeloid cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyridonos, Marianna; Matei, Irina; Huang, Yujie; do Rosario Andre, Maria; Brazier-Mitouart, Helene; Waite, Janelle C; Chan, April S; Kalter, Julie; Ramos, Ilyssa; Wu, Qi; Williams, Caitlin; Wolchok, Jedd D; Chapman, Paul B; Peinado, Hector; Anandasabapathy, Niroshana; Ocean, Allyson J; Kaplan, Rosandra N; Greenfield, Jeffrey P; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Skokos, Dimitris; Lyden, David

    2015-04-29

    A central mechanism of tumour progression and metastasis involves the generation of an immunosuppressive 'macroenvironment' mediated in part through tumour-secreted factors. Here we demonstrate that upregulation of the Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1), in response to tumour-derived factors, such as TGFβ, is responsible for the switch from dendritic cell (DC) differentiation to myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion during tumour progression. Genetic inactivation of Id1 largely corrects the myeloid imbalance, whereas Id1 overexpression in the absence of tumour-derived factors re-creates it. Id1 overexpression leads to systemic immunosuppression by downregulation of key molecules involved in DC differentiation and suppression of CD8 T-cell proliferation, thus promoting primary tumour growth and metastatic progression. Furthermore, advanced melanoma patients have increased plasma TGFβ levels and express higher levels of ID1 in myeloid peripheral blood cells. This study reveals a critical role for Id1 in suppressing the anti-tumour immune response during tumour progression and metastasis.

  4. Analysis of the progression of fibroepithelial tumours of the breast by PCR-based clonality assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arno; Buerger, H.; Simon, R.; Schaefer, K-L.; Croonen, A.; Boecker, W.; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van

    2002-01-01

    Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour of the breast are both fibroepithelial tumours. Although progression to epithelial malignancy has been described, the behaviour of most fibroadenomas is benign. Phyllodes tumours, on the other hand, can display locally destructive growth and can even metastasize. A

  5. Nuclear expression of Snail1 in borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumours is associated with tumour progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuhkanen, Hanna; Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Anttila, Maarit; Sironen, Reijo; Hämäläinen, Kirsi; Kukkonen, Laura; Virtanen, Ismo; Mannermaa, Arto

    2009-01-01

    Transcription factor Snail1 has a central role in induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of the present study was to elucidate the expression of Snail1 protein during epithelial ovarian tumourigenesis and to study the association of Snail1 expression with clinicopathological factors and prognosis. Epithelial and stromal fibroblast-like fusiform cells of 14 normal ovarian samples, 21 benign, 24 borderline and 74 malignant epithelial ovarian tumours were studied for Snail1 protein using immunohistochemistry. Nuclei of surface peritoneal cells of normal ovaries (n = 14) were regarded as negative for Snail1. Nuclear expression of Snail1 protein in epithelial ovarian tumours was increased during tumour progression from precursor lesions into carcinomas both in epithelial (p = 0.006) and stromal cells (p = 0.007). Nuclei of benign tumours (n = 21) were negative for Snail1. In borderline tumours (n = 24) occasional positive epithelial cells were found in 2 (8%) samples and in 3 (13%) samples stromal cells were focally positive for Snail1. In carcinomas (n = 74) focal Snail1 staining in epithelial cells was present in 17 (23%) tumours, and in stromal cells in 18 (24%) tumours. Nuclear expression of Snail1 in epithelial or stromal cells was not associated with clinicopathological factors or prognosis. Nuclear Snail1 expression seems to be related to tumour progression, and expression in borderline tumours indicates a role for Snail1 in early epithelial ovarian tumour development. Snail1 also appears to function more generally in tissue remodelling as positive staining was demonstrated in stromal cells

  6. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-04-26

    Abstract Background Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression. Methods Primary cultures were established from human breast tumour and adjacent non-tumour tissue. Putative progenitor cell populations were isolated based on co-expression or concomitant absence of the epithelial and myoepithelial markers EPCAM and CALLA respectively. Results Significant reductions in cellular senescence were observed in tumour versus non-tumour cultures, accompanied by a stepwise increase in proliferation:senescence ratios. A novel correlation between tumour aggressiveness and an imbalance of putative progenitor subpopulations was also observed. Specifically, an increased double-negative (DN) to double-positive (DP) ratio distinguished aggressive tumours of high grade, estrogen receptor-negativity or HER2-positivity. The DN:DP ratio was also higher in malignant MDA-MB-231 cells relative to non-tumourogenic MCF-10A cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the DN subpopulation in an invasive tumour culture revealed enrichment in lipofuscin bodies, markers of ageing or senescent cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that an imbalance in tumour progenitor subpopulations imbalances the functional relationship between proliferation and senescence, creating a microenvironment favouring tumour progression.

  7. Tumour therapy with radionuclides: assessment of progress and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Joergen; Forssell Aronsson, Eva; Hietala, Sven-Ola; Stigbrand, Torgny; Tennvall, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a promising modality for treatment of tumours of haematopoietic origin while the success for treatment of solid tumours so far has been limited. The authors consider radionuclide therapy mainly as a method to eradicate disseminated tumour cells and small metastases while bulky tumours and large metastases have to be treated surgically or by external radiation therapy. The promising therapeutic results for haematological tumours give hope that radionuclide therapy will have a breakthrough also for treatment of disseminated cells from solid tumours. New knowledge related to this is continuously emerging since new molecular target structures are being characterised and the knowledge on pharmacokinetics and cellular processing of different types of targeting agents increases. There is also improved understanding of the factors of importance for the choice of appropriate radionuclides with respect to their decay properties and the therapeutic applications. Furthermore, new methods to modify the uptake of radionuclides in tumour cells and normal tissues are emerging. However, we still need improvements regarding dosimetry and treatment planning as well as an increased knowledge about the tolerance doses for normal tissues and the radiobiological effects on tumour cells. This is especially important in targeted radionuclide therapy where the dose rates often are lower than 1 Gy/h

  8. An imbalance in progenitor cell populations reflects tumour progression in breast cancer primary culture models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Many factors influence breast cancer progression, including the ability of progenitor cells to sustain or increase net tumour cell numbers. Our aim was to define whether alterations in putative progenitor populations could predict clinicopathological factors of prognostic importance for cancer progression.

  9. Relationship of computed tomography perfusion and positron emission tomography to tumour progression in malignant glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, Timothy P C [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Yartsev, Slav [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Lee, Ting-Yim [Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, Victoria Hospital, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5W9 (Australia); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4V2 (Canada); Wong, Eugene [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 3K7 (Canada); He, Wenqing [Department of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Fisher, Barbara; VanderSpek, Lauren L [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Macdonald, David [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, University Hospital, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5A5 (Canada); Bauman, Glenn, E-mail: glenn.bauman@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the potential for computed tomography (CT) perfusion and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting sites of future progressive tumour on a voxel-by-voxel basis after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: Ten patients underwent pre-radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR), FDG-PET and CT perfusion near the end of radiotherapy and repeated post-radiotherapy follow-up MR scans. The relationships between these images and tumour progression were assessed using logistic regression. Cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the value of these images in predicting sites of tumour progression. Results: Pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour; near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion; CT perfusion blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability-surface area (PS) product; FDG-PET standard uptake value (SUV); and SUV:BF showed significant associations with tumour progression on follow-up MR imaging (P < 0.0001). The mean sensitivity (±standard deviation), specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PS were 0.64 ± 0.15, 0.74 ± 0.07 and 0.72 ± 0.12 respectively. This mean AUC was higher than that of the pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour and near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion (both AUCs = 0.6 ± 0.1, P ≤ 0.03). The multivariate model using BF, BV, PS and SUV had a mean AUC of 0.8 ± 0.1, but this was not significantly higher than the PS only model. Conclusion: PS is the single best predictor of tumour progression when compared to other parameters, but voxel-based prediction based on logistic regression had modest sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Relationship of computed tomography perfusion and positron emission tomography to tumour progression in malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, Timothy P C; Yartsev, Slav; Lee, Ting-Yim; Wong, Eugene; He, Wenqing; Fisher, Barbara; VanderSpek, Lauren L; Macdonald, David; Bauman, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the potential for computed tomography (CT) perfusion and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting sites of future progressive tumour on a voxel-by-voxel basis after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: Ten patients underwent pre-radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR), FDG-PET and CT perfusion near the end of radiotherapy and repeated post-radiotherapy follow-up MR scans. The relationships between these images and tumour progression were assessed using logistic regression. Cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the value of these images in predicting sites of tumour progression. Results: Pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour; near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion; CT perfusion blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability-surface area (PS) product; FDG-PET standard uptake value (SUV); and SUV:BF showed significant associations with tumour progression on follow-up MR imaging (P < 0.0001). The mean sensitivity (±standard deviation), specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PS were 0.64 ± 0.15, 0.74 ± 0.07 and 0.72 ± 0.12 respectively. This mean AUC was higher than that of the pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour and near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion (both AUCs = 0.6 ± 0.1, P ≤ 0.03). The multivariate model using BF, BV, PS and SUV had a mean AUC of 0.8 ± 0.1, but this was not significantly higher than the PS only model. Conclusion: PS is the single best predictor of tumour progression when compared to other parameters, but voxel-based prediction based on logistic regression had modest sensitivity and specificity

  11. Impact of tumour volume on prediction of progression-free survival in sinonasal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennersdorf, Florian; Mauz, Paul-Stefan; Adam, Patrick; Welz, Stefan; Sievert, Anne; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyse potential prognostic factors, with emphasis on tumour volume, in determining progression free survival (PFS) for malignancies of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. Retrospective analysis of 106 patients with primary sinonasal malignancies treated and followed-up between March 2006 and October 2012. Possible predictive parameters for PFS were entered into univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis included age, sex, baseline tumour volume (based on MR imaging), histology type, TNM stage and prognostic groups according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis concerning the predictive value of tumour volume for recurrence was also conducted. The main histological subgroup consisted of epithelial tumours (77%). The majority of the patients (68%) showed advanced tumour burden (AJCC stage III–IV). Lymph node involvement was present in 18 cases. The mean tumour volume was 26.6 ± 21.2 cm 3 . The median PFS for all patients was 24.9 months (range: 2.5–84.5 months). The ROC curve analysis for the tumour volume showed 58.1% sensitivity and 75.4% specificity for predicting recurrence. Tumour volume, AJCC staging, T- and N- stage were significant predictors in the univariate analysis. Positive lymph node status and tumour volume remained significant and independent predictors in the multivariate analysis. Radiological tumour volume proofed to be a statistically reliable predictor of PFS. In the multivariate analysis, T-, N- and overall AJCC staging did not show significant prognostic value

  12. Tumour-derived exosomes as a signature of pancreatic cancer - liquid biopsies as indicators of tumour progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzhat, Zarin; Kinhal, Vyjayanthi; Sharma, Shayna; Rice, Gregory E; Joshi, Virendra; Salomon, Carlos

    2017-03-07

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer in the world. It is known to have a poor prognosis, mostly because early stages of the disease are generally asymptomatic. Progress in pancreatic cancer research has been slow, leaving several fundamental questions pertaining to diagnosis and treatment unanswered. Recent studies highlight the putative utility of tissue-specific vesicles (i.e. extracellular vesicles) in the diagnosis of disease onset and treatment monitoring in pancreatic cancer. Extracellular vesicles are membrane-limited structures derived from the cell membrane. They contain specific molecules including proteins, mRNA, microRNAs and non-coding RNAs that are secreted in the extracellular space. Extracellular vesicles can be classified according to their size and/or origin into microvesicles (~150-1000 nm) and exosomes (~40-120 nm). Microvesicles are released by budding from the plasmatic membrane, whereas exosomes are released via the endocytic pathway by fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasmatic membrane. This endosomal origin means that exosomes contain an abundance of cell-specific biomolecules which may act as a 'fingerprint' of the cell of origin. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, particularly the potential role of EVs in these facets of disease management. In particular, we suggest that as exosomes contain cellular protein and RNA molecules in a cell type-specific manner, they may provide extensive information about the signature of the tumour and pancreatic cancer progression.

  13. A joint frailty-copula model between tumour progression and death for meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Takeshi; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Murotani, Kenta; Rondeau, Virginie

    2017-12-01

    Dependent censoring often arises in biomedical studies when time to tumour progression (e.g., relapse of cancer) is censored by an informative terminal event (e.g., death). For meta-analysis combining existing studies, a joint survival model between tumour progression and death has been considered under semicompeting risks, which induces dependence through the study-specific frailty. Our paper here utilizes copulas to generalize the joint frailty model by introducing additional source of dependence arising from intra-subject association between tumour progression and death. The practical value of the new model is particularly evident for meta-analyses in which only a few covariates are consistently measured across studies and hence there exist residual dependence. The covariate effects are formulated through the Cox proportional hazards model, and the baseline hazards are nonparametrically modeled on a basis of splines. The estimator is then obtained by maximizing a penalized log-likelihood function. We also show that the present methodologies are easily modified for the competing risks or recurrent event data, and are generalized to accommodate left-truncation. Simulations are performed to examine the performance of the proposed estimator. The method is applied to a meta-analysis for assessing a recently suggested biomarker CXCL12 for survival in ovarian cancer patients. We implement our proposed methods in R joint.Cox package.

  14. HIF1α and HIF2α: sibling rivalry in hypoxic tumour growth and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Brian; Johnson, Randall S; Simon, M Celeste

    2011-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are broadly expressed in human cancers, and HIF1α and HIF2α were previously suspected to promote tumour progression through largely overlapping functions. However, this relatively simple model has now been challenged in light of recent data from various approaches that reveal unique and sometimes opposing activities of these HIFα isoforms in both normal physiology and disease. These effects are mediated in part through the regulation of unique target genes, as well as through direct and indirect interactions with important oncoproteins and tumour suppressors, including MYC and p53. As HIF inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as cancer therapeutics, a more thorough understanding of the unique roles performed by HIF1α and HIF2α in human neoplasia is warranted.

  15. Modelling the tumour microenvironment in long-term microencapsulated 3D co-cultures recapitulates phenotypic features of disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Marta F; Rebelo, Sofia P; Davies, Emma J; Pinto, Marta T; Pereira, Hugo; Santo, Vítor E; Smalley, Matthew J; Barry, Simon T; Gualda, Emilio J; Alves, Paula M; Anderson, Elizabeth; Brito, Catarina

    2016-02-01

    3D cell tumour models are generated mainly in non-scalable culture systems, using bioactive scaffolds. Many of these models fail to reflect the complex tumour microenvironment and do not allow long-term monitoring of tumour progression. To overcome these limitations, we have combined alginate microencapsulation with agitation-based culture systems, to recapitulate and monitor key aspects of the tumour microenvironment and disease progression. Aggregates of MCF-7 breast cancer cells were microencapsulated in alginate, either alone or in combination with human fibroblasts, then cultured for 15 days. In co-cultures, the fibroblasts arranged themselves around the tumour aggregates creating distinct epithelial and stromal compartments. The presence of fibroblasts resulted in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and deposition of collagen in the stromal compartment. Tumour cells established cell-cell contacts and polarised around small lumina in the interior of the aggregates. Over the culture period, there was a reduction in oestrogen receptor and membranous E-cadherin alongside loss of cell polarity, increased collective cell migration and enhanced angiogenic potential in co-cultures. These phenotypic alterations, typical of advanced stages of cancer, were not observed in the mono-cultures of MCF-7 cells. The proposed model system constitutes a new tool to study tumour-stroma crosstalk, disease progression and drug resistance mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Joint modelling of longitudinal CEA tumour marker progression and survival data on breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana; Sousa, Inês; Castro, Luis

    2017-06-01

    This work proposes the use of Biostatistics methods to study breast cancer in patients of Braga's Hospital Senology Unit, located in Portugal. The primary motivation is to contribute to the understanding of the progression of breast cancer, within the Portuguese population, using a more complex statistical model assumptions than the traditional analysis that take into account a possible existence of a serial correlation structure within a same subject observations. We aim to infer which risk factors aect the survival of Braga's Hospital patients, diagnosed with breast tumour. Whilst analysing risk factors that aect a tumour markers used on the surveillance of disease progression the Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). As survival and longitudinal processes may be associated, it is important to model these two processes together. Hence, a joint modelling of these two processes to infer on the association of these was conducted. A data set of 540 patients, along with 50 variables, was collected from medical records of the Hospital. A joint model approach was used to analyse these data. Two dierent joint models were applied to the same data set, with dierent parameterizations which give dierent interpretations to model parameters. These were used by convenience as the ones implemented in R software. Results from the two models were compared. Results from joint models, showed that the longitudinal CEA values were signicantly associated with the survival probability of these patients. A comparison between parameter estimates obtained in this analysis and previous independent survival[4] and longitudinal analysis[5][6], lead us to conclude that independent analysis brings up bias parameter estimates. Hence, an assumption of association between the two processes in a joint model of breast cancer data is necessary. Results indicate that the longitudinal progression of CEA is signicantly associated with the probability of survival of these patients. Hence, an assumption of

  17. Breast Carcinoma Progression and Tumour Vascular Markers Related to Apoptotic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Bilecova-Rabajdova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the last few years, the cancer research had tried to identify and characterize new biochemical and molecular pathways in which the inhibition induces prosurvival mechanisms. Our work describes the expression of two different members of apoptotic regulatory pathway and their relationship with a progression of breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods. We compared expression of genes related to apoptosis (DR6 and Gpm6B in the blood of patients suffering from stage I of breast cancer in different grades (I–IV, with healthy controls. After isolation of mRNA, transcription of mRNA into the cDNA was performed. The quantification of gene expression changes in DR6 and Gpm6B was detected by RT-PCR method. Analysis at the protein level was performed by the Western blot.Results. In statistical analysis of Dr6 mRNA level changes we detected significant increase starting in Grading 1 (G1 and reached maximal level in G3.This expression on mRNA levels was similar to protein levels, which copy rising tendency with maximal value in G3. The results of Gpm6B were significantly lower.Conclusion. This result showed that antiapoptotic signalling during neovascularization is increased significantly. It would be advisable in the future to study the influence of cytostatic treatment on the expression of genes related to apoptotic pathways and their relationship with progression of breast cancer tumours.

  18. Progression of fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumour in a 14-year female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridi, S.H.; Aslam, M.; Siddiqui, B.; Ahmad, S.S.

    2018-01-01

    Phyllodes tumours are uncommon breast tumours which account for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. High-grade malignant phyllodes tumour is a very rare but aggressive breast malignancy and forms approximately 15-30% of all phyllodes tumours. The transformation of a benign fibroadenoma into a malignant phyllodes tumour in a teenaged female is even rarer. We report here an interesting case of malignant phyllodes tumour in a 14-year female patient who was operated twice previously with the diagnosis of complex fibroadenoma in the same breast. There was a large tumour involving whole of the breast and infiltrating the skin. The patient was operated and total mastectomy was done. Diagnosis was confirmed after histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry of the resected specimen. Patient received adjuvant radiotherapy and there was no recurrence on 6-month follow-up. Owing to the rare occurrence of malignant phyllodes tumour in this age group along with previous operations for complex fibroadenoma, this case is being reported here. (author)

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadoxetic acid for local tumour progression after radiofrequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lee, Jisun; Song, Kyoung Doo; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young-sun; Lim, Hyo Keun; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Seong Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gwak, Geum-Youn [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sin-Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Biostatics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To develop and validate a prediction model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for local tumour progression (LTP) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Two hundred and eleven patients who had received RFA as first-line treatment for HCC were retrospectively analyzed. They had undergone gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI before treatment, and parameters including tumour size; margins; signal intensities on T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted images, and hepatobiliary phase images (HBPI); intratumoral fat or tumoral capsules; and peritumoural hypointensity in the HBPI were used to develop a prediction model for LTP after treatment. This model to discriminate low-risk from high-risk LTP groups was constructed based on Cox regression analysis. Our analyses produced the following model: 'risk score = 0.617 x tumour size + 0.965 x tumour margin + 0.867 x peritumoural hypointensity on HBPI'. This was able to predict which patients were at high risk for LTP after RFA (p < 0.001). Patients in the low-risk group had a significantly better 5-year LTP-free survival rate compared to the high-risk group (89.6 % vs. 65.1 %; hazard ratio, 3.60; p < 0.001). A predictive model based on MRI before RFA could robustly identify HCC patients at high risk for LTP after treatment. (orig.)

  20. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in the treatment patients with progressive recurrent malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.S.; Grunnet, K.; Sorensen, M.

    2009-01-01

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively determined the efficacy and safety of a combination of bevacizumab and irinotecan in a consecutive series of 52 heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours. Patients received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) and irinotecan [340 mg/m(2...... acceptable safety and is a clinically relevant choice of therapy in heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  1. Antiproliferative effects of lanreotide autogel in patients with progressive, well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours: a Spanish, multicentre, open-label, single arm phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Richard, Marta; Sala, Maria Angeles; Pericay, Carlos; Rivera, Fernando; Sastre, Javier; Segura, Ángel; Quindós, Maria; Maisonobe, Pascal; Massutí, Bartomeu; Pineda, Eva; Alonso, Vicente; Marmol, Maribel; Castellano, Daniel; Fonseca, Emilio; Galán, Antonio; Llanos, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) are indicated to relieve carcinoid syndrome but seem to have antiproliferative effects on neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). This is the first prospective study investigating tumour stabilisation with the long-acting SSA lanreotide Autogel in patients with progressive NETs. This was a multicentre, open-label, phase II trial conducted in 17 Spanish specialist centres. Patients with well-differentiated NETs and radiologically confirmed progression within the previous 6 months received lanreotide Autogel, 120 mg every 28 days over ≤92 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were response rate, tumour biomarkers, symptom control, quality of life (QoL), and safety. Radiographic imaging was assessed by a blinded central radiologist. Of 30 patients included in the efficacy and safety analyses, 40% had midgut tumours and 27% pancreatic tumours; 63% of tumours were functioning. Median PFS time was 12.9 (95% CI: 7.9, 16.5) months, and most patients achieved disease stabilisation (89%) or partial response (4%). No deterioration in QoL was observed. Nineteen patients (63%) experienced treatment-related adverse events, most frequently diarrhoea and asthenia; only one treatment-related adverse event (aerophagia) was severe. Lanreotide Autogel provided effective tumour stabilisation and PFS >12 months in patients with progressive NETs ineligible for surgery or chemotherapy, with a safety profile consistent with the pharmacology of the class. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00326469; EU Clinical Trial Register EudraCT no 2004-002871-18

  2. Phase II study of radiopeptide {sup 177}Lu-octreotate and capecitabine therapy of progressive disseminated neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claringbold, Phillip G. [Fremantle Hospital, Department of Oncology, Fremantle, WA (Australia); Brayshaw, Paul A.; Turner, J.H. [University of Western Australia, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fremantle Hospital, Fremantle, WA (Australia); Price, Richard A. [Fremantle Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fremantle, WA (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    In this phase II study we investigated the safety and efficacy of combination capecitabine and {sup 177}Lu-octreotate for the treatment of disseminated, progressive, unresectable neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Enrolled in the study were 33 patients with biopsy-proven NETs, positive {sup 111}In-octreotide scintigraphy and progressive disease measurable by CT/MRI who were to receive four cycles of 7.8 GBq {sup 177}Lu-octreotate 8-weekly, with 14 days of 1,650 mg/m{sup 2} capecitabine per day. Of the 33 patients, 25 completed four cycles. Minimal transient myelosuppression at 3-4 weeks caused grade 3 thrombocytopenia in one patient but no neutropenia. Nephrotoxicity was absent. Critical organ radiation dosimetry provided median estimates of the dose per cycle to the kidneys of 2.4 Gy and to the liver of 4.8 Gy, and showed cumulative doses all below toxic thresholds. Objective response rates (ORR) were 24% partial response (PR), 70% stable disease (SD) and 6% progressive disease. Median progression-free survival and median overall survival had not been reached at a median follow-up of 16 months (range 5-33 months). Survival at 1 and 2 years was 91% (95% CI 75-98%) and 88% (95% CI 71-96%), respectively. The addition of capecitabine radiosensitizing chemotherapy does not increase the minimal toxicity of {sup 177}Lu-octreotate radiopeptide therapy and led to an ORR of 24% PR and 70% minor response or SD in patients with progressive metastatic NETs. Tumour control and stabilization of disease was obtained in 94% of these patients. (orig.)

  3. Roles of the multifunctional glycoprotein, emmprin (basigin; CD147), in tumour progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Zucker, Stanley; Toole, Bryan P

    2005-02-01

    Emmprin (basigin;CD147) is a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein that belongs to the Ig superfamily and is highly enriched on the surface of malignant tumour cells. Emmprin is involved in numerous physiological and pathological systems and exhibits several molecular and cellular characteristics, but a major function of emmprin is stimulation of synthesis of several matrix metalloproteinases. In tumours, emmprin most likely stimulates matrix metalloproteinase production in stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells as well as in tumour cells themselves by a mechanism involving homophilic interactions between emmprin molecules on apposing cells or on neighbouring cells after membrane vesicle shedding. Membrane-associated cofactors, including caveolin-1 and annexin II, regulate emmprin activity. Emmprin induces angiogenesis via stimulation of VEGF production, invasiveness via stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase production and multidrug resistance via hyaluronan-mediated up-regulation of ErbB2 signaling and cell survival pathway activities. Although the detailed mechanisms whereby it regulates these numerous phenomena are not yet known, it is clear that emmprin is a major mediator of malignant cell behavior.

  4. Analysis of the effects of exposure to acute hypoxia on oxidative lesions and tumour progression in a transgenic mouse breast cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunt Sarah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumour hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator, predictive of increased risk of metastatic disease and reduced survival. Genomic instability has been proposed as one of the potential mechanisms for hypoxic tumour progression. Both of these features are commonly found in many cancer types, but their relationship and association with tumour progression has not been examined in the same model. Methods To address this issue, we determined the effects of 6 week in vivo acute hypoxic exposure on the levels of mutagenic lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA (8-oxo-dG lesions in the transgenic polyomavirus middle T (PyMT breast cancer mouse model. Results We observed significantly increased plasma lipid peroxidation and 8-oxo-dG lesion levels in the hypoxia-exposed mice. Consumption of malondialdehyde also induced a significant increase in the PyMT tumour DNA lesion levels, however, these increases did not translate into enhanced tumour progression. We further showed that the in vivo exposure to acute hypoxia induced accumulation of F4/80 positive tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs, demonstrating a relationship between hypoxia and macrophages in an experimental model. Conclusion These data suggest that although exposure to acute hypoxia causes an increase in 8-oxo-dG lesions and TAMs in the PyMT tumours, these increases do not translate into significant changes in tumour progression at the primary or metastatic levels in this strong viral oncogene-driven breast cancer model.

  5. Nanodiamond modified copolymer scaffolds affects tumour progression of early neoplastic oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Salwa; Mustafa, Kamal; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Osdal, Tereza; Hamza, Amani O; Sun, Yang; Parajuli, Himalaya; Waag, Thilo; Nickel, Joachim; Johannessen, Anne Christine; McCormack, Emmet; Costea, Daniela Elena

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tumorigenic potential of functionalising poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds. The copolymer scaffolds were functionalised with nanodiamonds (nDP) or with nDP and physisorbed BMP-2 (nDP-PHY) to enhance osteoinductivity. Culturing early neoplastic dysplastic keratinocytes (DOK(Luc)) on nDP modified scaffolds reduced significantly their subsequent sphere formation ability and decreased significantly the cells' proliferation in the supra-basal layers of in vitro 3D oral neoplastic mucosa (3D-OT) when compared to DOK(Luc) previously cultured on nDP-PHY scaffolds. Using an in vivo non-invasive environmentally-induced oral carcinogenesis model, nDP scaffolds were observed to reduce bioluminescence intensity of tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAF). nDP modification was also found to promote differentiation of DOK(Luc) both in vitro in 3D-OT and in vivo in xenografts formed by DOK(Luc) alone. The nDP-PHY scaffold had the highest number of invasive tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + CAF outside the scaffold area compared to the nDP and control scaffolds. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results presented here demonstrate that nDP modified copolymer scaffolds are able to decrease the tumorigenic potential of DOK(Luc), while confirming concerns for the therapeutic use of BMP-2 for reconstruction of bone defects in oral cancer patients due to its tumour promoting capabilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. HumanMethylation450K Array–Identified Biomarkers Predict Tumour Recurrence/Progression at Initial Diagnosis of High-risk Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark O Kitchen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC is a clinically unpredictable disease. Despite clinical risk estimation tools, many patients are undertreated with intra-vesical therapies alone, whereas others may be over-treated with early radical surgery. Molecular biomarkers, particularly DNA methylation, have been reported as predictive of tumour/patient outcomes in numerous solid organ and haematologic malignancies; however, there are few reports in HR-NMIBC and none using genome-wide array assessment. We therefore sought to identify novel DNA methylation markers of HR-NMIBC clinical outcomes that might predict tumour behaviour at initial diagnosis and help guide patient management. Patients and methods: A total of 21 primary initial diagnosis HR-NMIBC tumours were analysed by Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays and subsequently bisulphite Pyrosequencing. In all, 7 had not recurred at 1 year after resection and 14 had recurred and/or progressed despite intra-vesical BCG. A further independent cohort of 32 HR-NMIBC tumours (17 no recurrence and 15 recurrence and/or progression despite BCG were also assessed by bisulphite Pyrosequencing. Results: Array analyses identified 206 CpG loci that segregated non-recurrent HR-NMIBC tumours from clinically more aggressive recurrence/progression tumours. Hypermethylation of CpG cg11850659 and hypomethylation of CpG cg01149192 in combination predicted HR-NMIBC recurrence and/or progression within 1 year of diagnosis with 83% sensitivity, 79% specificity, and 83% positive and 79% negative predictive values. Conclusions: This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of a unique HR-NMIBC tumour cohort encompassing known 1-year clinical outcomes. Our analyses identified potential novel epigenetic markers that could help guide individual patient management in this clinically unpredictable disease.

  7. Impact of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor treatment on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll; Østergaard, Mikkel; Bøyesen, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    radiographic progression rates during the DMARD (prebaseline to baseline x-ray) and TNF-I (baseline to follow-up x-ray) periods were calculated.RESULTS: 517 RA patients (76% women, 80% IgM rheumatoid factor positive, 65% anticyclic citrullinated peptide positive, 40% current smokers, age 54 years (range 21......OBJECTIVES: To compare radiographic progression during treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) and subsequent treatment with tumour necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNF-I) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in clinical practice.METHODS: Conventional radiographs (x......-1002) and the median TNF-I period was 562 days (IQR 405-766). The median radiographic progression rate decreased from 0.7 (IQR 0-2.9) total Sharp score units/year (dTSS) in the DMARD period to 0 (0-0.9) units/year in the TNF-I period (p0) in the DMARD period compared with 158 patients in the TNF-I period (p...

  8. Review: the Contribution of both Nature and Nurture to Carcinogenesis and Progression in Solid Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Iain Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Cancer arises due to a series of somatic mutations that accumulate within the nucleus of a cell which enable the cell to proliferate in an unregulated manner. These mutations arise as a result of both endogenous and exogenous factors. Genes that are commonly mutated in cancer cells are involved in cell cycle regulation, growth and proliferation. It is known that both nature and nurture play important roles in cancer development through complex gene-environment interactions; however, the exact mechanism of these interactions in carcinogenesis is presently unclear. Key environmental factors that play a role in carcinogenesis include smoking, UV light and oncoviruses. Angiogenesis, inflammation and altered cell metabolism are important factors in carcinogenesis and are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although the exact mechanism of nature-nurture interactions in solid tumour formation are not yet fully understood, it is evident that neither nature nor nurture can be considered in isolation. By understanding more about gene-environment interactions, it is possible that cancer mortality could be reduced.

  9. Tumour Progression and Spontaneous Regression in the Lewis Rat Sarcoma Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalská, Jana; Mishra, Rajbardhan; Jebavý, L.; Makovický, P.; Janda, Jozef; Plánská, D.; Červinková, Monika; Horák, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 12 (2015), s. 6539-6549 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : spontaneous regression * progression * sarcoma Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.895, year: 2015

  10. Cell kinetics of hypoxic cells in a murine tumour in vivo: flow cytometric determination of the radiation-induced blockage of cell cycle progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers, D.H.; Niessen, D.P.P.; Linden, P.M. van der

    1987-01-01

    Cells from the small cell population of viable cells in the large necrotic centre of murine M8013 tumours were investigated with respect to their cell kinetics. Flow cytometry (FCM) of this part of subcutaneously transplanted tumours revealed the presence of tumour cells with G1,S and G2 + M phase DNA-contents. These severely hypoxic cells could have stopped cell cycle progression due to the nutritional deprivation, irrespective of their position within the cell cycle. Labelling methods, used to disclose the cell kinetics of this cell population, are hampered by the absence of a transport system in these large necrotic areas. Therefore FCM was used to monitor radiation induced changes in the cell cycle distribution. From this investigation it was concluded that hypoxic cells in the necrotic centre of the M8013 tumour progress through the cell cycle. As well as a cell population with a cell cycle time (Tsub(c)) of approximately 84 hr, a subpopulation with a Tsub(c) of approximately 21 hr occurred. (author)

  11. High expression of insulin receptor on tumour-associated blood vessels in invasive bladder cancer predicts poor overall and progression-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudnicky, Filip; Dieterich, Lothar C; Poyet, Cedric; Buser, Lorenz; Wild, Peter; Tang, Dave; Camenzind, Peter; Ho, Chien Hsien; Otto, Vivianne I; Detmar, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Bladder cancer is a frequently recurring disease with a very poor prognosis once progressed to invasive stages, and tumour-associated blood vessels play a crucial role in this process. In order to identify novel biomarkers associated with progression, we isolated blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) from human invasive bladder cancers and matched normal bladder tissue, and found that tumour-associated BECs greatly up-regulated the expression of insulin receptor (INSR). High expression of INSR on BECs of invasive bladder cancers was significantly associated with shorter progression-free and overall survival. Furthermore, increased expression of the INSR ligand IGF-2 in invasive bladder cancers was associated with reduced overall survival. INSR may therefore represent a novel biomarker to predict cancer progression. Mechanistically, we observed pronounced hypoxia in human bladder cancer tissue, and found a positive correlation between the expression of the hypoxia marker gene GLUT1 and vascular INSR expression, indicating that hypoxia drives INSR expression in tumour-associated blood vessels. In line with this, exposure of cultured BECs and human bladder cancer cell lines to hypoxia led to increased expression of INSR and IGF-2, respectively, and IGF-2 increased BEC migration through the activation of INSR in vitro. Taken together, we identified vascular INSR expression as a potential biomarker for progression in bladder cancer. Furthermore, our data suggest that IGF-2/INSR mediated paracrine crosstalk between bladder cancer cells and endothelial cells is functionally involved in tumour angiogenesis and may thus represent a new therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Verification of predicted alternatively spliced Wnt genes reveals two new splice variants (CTNNB1 and LRP5 and altered Axin-1 expression during tumour progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reich Jens G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Splicing processes might play a major role in carcinogenesis and tumour progression. The Wnt pathway is of crucial relevance for cancer progression. Therefore we focussed on the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway in order to validate the expression of sequences predicted as alternatively spliced by bioinformatic methods. Splice variants of its key molecules were selected, which may be critical components for the understanding of colorectal tumour progression and may have the potential to act as biological markers. For some of the Wnt pathway genes the existence of splice variants was either proposed (e.g. β-Catenin and CTNNB1 or described only in non-colon tissues (e.g. GSK3β or hitherto not published (e.g. LRP5. Results Both splice variants – normal and alternative form – of all selected Wnt pathway components were found to be expressed in cell lines as well as in samples derived from tumour, normal and healthy tissues. All splice positions corresponded totally with the bioinformatical prediction as shown by sequencing. Two hitherto not described alternative splice forms (CTNNB1 and LRP5 were detected. Although the underlying EST data used for the bioinformatic analysis suggested a tumour-specific expression neither a qualitative nor a significant quantitative difference between the expression in tumour and healthy tissues was detected. Axin-1 expression was reduced in later stages and in samples from carcinomas forming distant metastases. Conclusion We were first to describe that splice forms of crucial genes of the Wnt-pathway are expressed in human colorectal tissue. Newly described splicefoms were found for β-Catenin, LRP5, GSK3β, Axin-1 and CtBP1. However, the predicted cancer specificity suggested by the origin of the underlying ESTs was neither qualitatively nor significant quantitatively confirmed. That let us to conclude that EST sequence data can give adequate hints for the existence of alternative splicing

  13. Mutant, wild type, or overall p53 expression: freedom from clinical progression in tumours of astrocytic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, F S; Hsu, D W; Zeheb, R; Efird, J T; Okunieff, P G; Malkin, D M

    2004-11-01

    Abnormalities of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene are found in a significant proportion of astrocytic brain tumours. We studied tumour specimens from 74 patients evaluated over 20 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital, where clinical outcome could be determined and sufficient pathologic material was available for immunostaining. p53 expression studies employed an affinity-purified p53 monoclonal antibody, whose specificity was verified in absorption studies and, in a minority of cases, a second antibody recognising a different epitope of p53. Significant overexpression of p53 protein was found in 48% of the 74 tumours included in this series and high levels of expression were associated with higher mortality from astrocytic tumours (Pexpression of p53 plays an important role in the pathobiology of these tumours. In a subset of 36 cases, coding regions of the p53 gene were completely sequenced via SSCP and direct DNA sequencing, revealing that overexpression of p53 protein is not always associated with point mutations in conserved exons of the p53 gene. Finally, we confirmed p53 protein expression in early-passage human glioma cell lines of known p53 mutational status and immunostaining scores. Although grade continues to be the strongest prognostic variable, the use of p53 staining as a prognostic indicator, in contrast to mutational DNA analyses, may be a useful adjunct in identifying patients at higher risk of treatment failure.

  14. Reduced expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma signifies tumour progression and poor prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fristedt

    Full Text Available The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR is a key component of the mucosal immune system that mediates epithelial transcytosis of immunoglobulins. High pIgR expression has been reported to correlate with a less aggressive tumour phenotype and an improved prognosis in several human cancer types. Here, we examined the expression and prognostic significance of pIgR in pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma. The study cohort encompasses a consecutive series of 175 patients surgically treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma in Malmö and Lund University Hospitals, Sweden, between 2001-2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed from primary tumours (n = 175 and paired lymph node metastases (n = 105. A multiplied score was calculated from the fraction and intensity of pIgR staining. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to select the prognostic cut-off. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR for death and recurrence within 5 years were calculated. pIgR expression could be evaluated in 172/175 (98.3% primary tumours and in 96/105 (91.4% lymph node metastases. pIgR expression was significantly down-regulated in lymph node metastases as compared with primary tumours (p = 0.018. Low pIgR expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation grade (p < 0.001, perineural growth (p = 0.027, lymphatic invasion (p = 0.016, vascular invasion (p = 0.033 and infiltration of the peripancreatic fat (p = 0.039. In the entire cohort, low pIgR expression was significantly associated with an impaired 5-year survival (HR = 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.71-5.25 and early recurrence (HR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.67-4.98. This association remained significant for survival after adjustment for conventional clinicopathological factors, tumour origin and adjuvant treatment (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.10-3.57. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that high tumour-specific pIgR expression signifies

  15. Risk prediction scores for recurrence and progression of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer : An international validation in primary tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Vedder (Moniek); M. Márquez (Mirari); E.W. de Bekker-Grob (Esther); M.L. Calle (Malu); L. Dyrskjot (Lars); M. Kogevinas (Manolis); U. Segersten (Ulrika); P.-U. Malmström (Per-Uno); F. Algaba (Ferran); W. Beukers (Willemien); T.F. Orntoft (Torben); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen); F.X. Real (Francisco); N. Malats (Núria); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We aimed to determine the validity of two risk scores for patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in different European settings, in patients with primary tumours. Methods: We included 1,892 patients with primary stage Ta or T1 non-muscle invasive bladder cancer who

  16. The role of S100a4 (Mts1) in Apc- and Smad4-driven tumour onset and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlasi, Yaser; Noori, Rubina; Marolin, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    burden characteristic of the Apc1638N model. In agreement with these results, S100a4 appears to be co-expressed together with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers in desmoid tumours from Apc1638N/+ mice, as well as from sporadic and hereditary human desmoids. Conclusion Our data provide the first report...

  17. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin and decreased expression of epithelial cadherin in human papillomavirus-positive tonsillar cancer: an early event in human papillomavirus-related tumour progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Yosef, Basima; Huebbers, Christian U; Preuss, Simon F; Dienes, Hans-Peter; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Odenthal, Margarete; Klussmann, Jens P

    2011-06-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) constitute an important risk factor for tonsillar cancer. This study describes changes in cell adhesion molecules during metastasis of HPV-related and HPV-unrelated tonsillar carcinomas. We examined 48 primary tonsillar carcinoma samples (25 HPV-16 DNA-positive, 23 HPV-16 DNA-negative) and their respective lymph node metastases for their HPV status and for the expression of p16, epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), β-catenin, and vimentin. A positive HPV-specific polymerase chain reaction finding correlated significantly with p16 overexpression in both primary tumours and their metastases (P<0.0001 for both). In HPV-unrelated carcinomas, the expression of E-cadherin was significantly lower in metastases than in primary tumours (P<0.001). In contrast, the expression of nuclear β-catenin was significantly higher in metastases than in primary tumours (P=0.016). In HPV-related carcinomas, nuclear localization of β-catenin expression was already apparent in primary tumours (P=0.030). The expression of vimentin significantly correlated with the grading of the primary tumour (P=0.021). Our data indicate that the down-regulation of E-cadherin and the up-regulation of nuclear β-catenin expression might be crucial steps during tumour progression of tonsillar carcinomas, being already present in primary tumours in HPV-driven carcinomas, but becoming apparent in HPV-unrelated tumours later in the process of metastasis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  18. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 73 m2 ) at first transurethral resection of bladder tumour is a significant predictor of subsequent recurrence and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, Michael L; Kucherov, Victor; Rushmer, Timothy J; Damodaran, Shivashankar; Shi, Fangfang; Abel, E Jason; Jarrard, David F; Richards, Kyle A; Messing, Edward M; Downs, Tracy M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate if moderate chronic kidney disease [CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 73 m 2 ] is associated with high rates of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence or progression. A multi-institutional database identified patients with serum creatinine values prior to first transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). The CKD-epidemiology collaboration formula calculated patient eGFR. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations with recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In all, 727 patients were identified with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age of 69.8 (60.1-77.6) years. Data for eGFR were available for 632 patients. During a median (IQR) follow-up of 3.7 (1.5-6.5) years, 400 (55%) patients had recurrence and 145 (19.9%) patients had progression of tumour stage or grade. Moderate or severe CKD was identified in 183 patients according to eGFR. Multivariable analysis identified an eGFR of 73 m 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.9; P = 0.002) as a predictor of tumour recurrence. The 5-year RFS rate was 46% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 27% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P 73 m 2 (HR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.75-7.94; P = 0.001) was associated with progression to muscle-invasive disease. The 5-year PFS rate was 83% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 71% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P = 0.01). Moderate CKD at first TURBT is associated with reduced RFS and PFS. Patients with reduced renal function should be considered for increased surveillance. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Immune escape phenotype of HPV16-associated tumours: MHC class I expression changes during progression and therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Bubeník, Jan; Vonka, V.; Šmahel, M.; Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Šímová, Jana; Jandlová, Táňa

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2005), s. 521-527 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NC7148; GA MZd(CZ) NR8004; GA MZd(CZ) NR7807; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5052203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV16 * MHC class I- tumour cells * CTLs Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.681, year: 2005

  20. TUMOUR VACCINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ernst; Kircheis, Ralf; Crommelin, D.; Van Slooten, Maaike; Storm, Gert

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a tumour vaccine with a tumour antigen base. In addition to a source of tumour antigens, the vaccine contains a release system for the delayed release of the active agent IFN- gamma , the active dose of IFN- gamma being 50 ng to 5 mu g. The IFN- gamma is released over a

  1. Prognosis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer: difference between primary and progressive tumours and implications for therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, B.P.; Hollander, M.P.; Rhijn, B.W. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the difference in prognosis between progressive and primary muscle-invasive bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1986 to 2000, 74 patients with progressive muscle-invasive bladder cancer were identified. Eighty-nine patients with primary muscle-invasive bladder cancer

  2. Electrochemotherapy of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sersa, G.; Cemazar, M.; Rudolf, Z.; Miklavcic, D.

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy consists of chemotherapy followed by local application of electric pulses to the tumour to increase drug delivery into cells. Drug uptake can be increased by electroporation for only those drugs whose transport through the plasma membrane is impeded. Among many drugs that have been tested so far, only bleomycin and cisplatin found their way from preclinical testing to clinical trials. In vitro studies demonstrated several fold increase of their cytotoxicity after electroporation of cells. In vivo, electroporation of tumours after local or systemic administration of either of the drugs, i.e. electrochemotherapy, proved to be an effective antitumour treatment. In preclinical studies on several tumour models, electrochemotherapy either with bleomycin or cisplatin was elaborated and parameters for effective local tumour control were determined. In veterinary medicine, electrochemotherapy also proved to be effective in the treatment of primary tumours in cats, dogs and horses. In human clinical studies, electrochemotherapy was performed on the patients with progressive disease and accessible tumour nodules of different malignancies. All clinical studies demonstrated that electrochemotherapy is an effective treatment for local tumour control in cancer patients. (author)

  3. Auto-catalysed progression of aneuploidy explains the Hayflick limit of cultured cells, carcinogen-induced tumours in mice, and the age distribution of human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnick, D

    2000-06-15

    Evidence continues to accumulate that aneuploidy, an imbalance in the number of chromosomes, is responsible for the characteristic phenotypes of cancer, including the abnormal cellular size and morphology of cancer cells, the appearance of tumour-associated antigens, as well as the high levels of membrane-bound and secreted proteins responsible for invasiveness and loss of contact inhibition. Aneuploidy has also been demonstrated to be the self-perpetuating source of the karyotypic instability of cancer cells. Here it is shown that the auto-catalysed progression of aneuploidy explains the kinetics of the finite lifetime of diploid cells in culture, the time course of the appearance of papillomas and carcinomas in benzo[a]pyrene-treated mice, and the age-dependence of human cancers. Modelling studies indicate that the ease of spontaneous transformation of mouse cells in culture may be due to a chaotic progression of aneuploidy. Conversely, the strong preference towards senescence and resistance to transformation of human cells in culture may be the result of a non-chaotic progression of aneuploidy. Finally, a method is proposed for quantifying the aneuploidogenic potencies of carcinogens.

  4. TP53 alterations in Wilms tumour represent progression events with strong intratumour heterogeneity that are closely linked but not limited to anaplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Wegert, Jenny; Vokuh, Christian; Ziegler, Barbara; Ernestus, Karen; Leuschner, Ivo; Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Graf, Norbert; Gessler, Manfred

    2018-01-01

    TP53 mutations have been associated with anaplasia in Wilms tumour, which conveys a high risk for relapse and fatal outcome. Nevertheless, TP53 alterations have been reported in no more than 60% of anaplastic tumours, and recent data have suggested their presence in tumours that do not fulfil the criteria for anaplasia, questioning the clinical utility of TP53 analysis. Therefore, we characterized the TP53 status in 84 fatal cases of Wilms tumour, irrespective of histological subtype. We iden...

  5. TP53 alterations in Wilms tumour represent progression events with strong intratumour heterogeneity that are closely linked but not limited to anaplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Wegert, Jenny; Vokuhl, Christian; Ziegler, Barbara; Ernestus, Karen; Leuschner, Ivo; Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Graf, Norbert; Gessler, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Abstract TP53 mutations have been associated with anaplasia in Wilms tumour, which conveys a high risk for relapse and fatal outcome. Nevertheless, TP53 alterations have been reported in no more than 60% of anaplastic tumours, and recent data have suggested their presence in tumours that do not fulfil the criteria for anaplasia, questioning the clinical utility of TP53 analysis. Therefore, we characterized the TP53 status in 84 fatal cases of Wilms tumour, irrespective of histological subtype...

  6. Differential S-phase progression after irradiation of p53 functional versus non-functional tumour cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zölzer Friedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many pathways seem to be involved in the regulation of the intra-S-phase checkpoint after exposure to ionizing radiation, but the role of p53 has proven to be rather elusive. Here we have a closer look at the progression of irradiated cells through S-phase in dependence of their p53 status.

  7. Combination of baseline metabolic tumour volume and early response on PET/CT improves progression-free survival prediction in DLBCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaeel, N.G.; Smith, Daniel [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Clinical Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Dunn, Joel T.; Phillips, Michael; Barrington, Sally F. [King' s College London, PET Imaging Centre at St Thomas' Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Moeller, Henrik [King' s College London, Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Population Health, London (United Kingdom); Fields, Paul A.; Wrench, David [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Haematology, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The study objectives were to assess the prognostic value of quantitative PET and to test whether combining baseline metabolic tumour burden with early PET response could improve predictive power in DLBCL. A total of 147 patients with DLBCL underwent FDG-PET/CT scans before and after two cycles of RCHOP. Quantitative parameters including metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured, as well as the percentage change in these parameters. Cox regression analysis was used to test the relationship between progression-free survival (PFS) and the study variables. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis determined the optimal cut-off for quantitative variables, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. The median follow-up was 3.8 years. As MTV and TLG measures correlated strongly, only MTV measures were used for multivariate analysis (MVA). Baseline MTV (MTV-0) was the only statistically significant predictor of PFS on MVA. The optimal cut-off for MTV-0 was 396 cm{sup 3}. A model combing MTV-0 and Deauville score (DS) separated the population into three distinct prognostic groups: good (MTV-0 < 400; 5-year PFS > 90 %), intermediate (MTV-0 ≥ 400+ DS1-3; 5-year PFS 58.5 %) and poor (MTV-0 ≥ 400+ DS4-5; 5-year PFS 29.7 %) MTV-0 is an important prognostic factor in DLBCL. Combining MTV-0 and early PET/CT response improves the predictive power of interim PET and defines a poor-prognosis group in whom most of the events occur. (orig.)

  8. Putting tumours in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, M J; Radisky, D

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumour growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets.

  9. TP53 alterations in Wilms tumour represent progression events with strong intratumour heterogeneity that are closely linked but not limited to anaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegert, Jenny; Vokuhl, Christian; Ziegler, Barbara; Ernestus, Karen; Leuschner, Ivo; Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Graf, Norbert; Gessler, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    TP53 mutations have been associated with anaplasia in Wilms tumour, which conveys a high risk for relapse and fatal outcome. Nevertheless, TP53 alterations have been reported in no more than 60% of anaplastic tumours, and recent data have suggested their presence in tumours that do not fulfil the criteria for anaplasia, questioning the clinical utility of TP53 analysis. Therefore, we characterized the TP53 status in 84 fatal cases of Wilms tumour, irrespective of histological subtype. We identified TP53 alterations in at least 90% of fatal cases of anaplastic Wilms tumour, and even more when diffuse anaplasia was present, indicating a very strong if not absolute coupling between anaplasia and deregulation of p53 function. Unfortunately, TP53 mutations do not provide additional predictive value in anaplastic tumours since the same mutation rate was found in a cohort of non-fatal anaplastic tumours. When classified according to tumour stage, patients with stage I diffuse anaplastic tumours still had a high chance of survival (87%), but this rate dropped to 26% for stages II-IV. Thus, volume of anaplasia or possible spread may turn out to be critical parameters. Importantly, among non-anaplastic fatal tumours, 26% had TP53 alterations, indicating that TP53 screening may identify additional cases at risk. Several of these non-anaplastic tumours fulfilled some criteria for anaplasia, for example nuclear unrest, suggesting that such partial phenotypes should be under special scrutiny to enhance detection of high-risk tumours via TP53 screening. A major drawback is that these alterations are secondary changes that occur only later in tumour development, leading to striking intratumour heterogeneity that requires multiple biopsies and analysis guided by histological criteria. In conclusion, we found a very close correlation between histological signs of anaplasia and TP53 alterations. The latter may precede development of anaplasia and thereby provide diagnostic value

  10. Infiltration of tumour-associated macrophages in prostate biopsy specimens is predictive of disease progression after hormonal therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Norio; Takayama, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Masashi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Kawashima, Atsunari; Mukai, Masatoshi; Nagahara, Akira; Aozasa, Katsuyuki; Tsujimura, Akira

    2011-06-01

    • To evaluate tumour-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration in prostate biopsy specimens as a possible prognostic factor for prostate cancer (PCa) after hormonal therapy. • Immunostaining of TAMs in prostate biopsy specimens was performed using a monoclonal antibody CD68 for 71 patients having PCa treated with hormonal therapy. • Six microscopic (×400) fields around the cancer foci were selected for TAM counting. • The median value of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 50.1 ng/mL, and the median TAM count was 22. • Recurrence-free survival was significantly better in patients with fewer TAMs (<22) than in those with higher numbers of TAMs (≥22) (P < 0.001). • TAM count was higher in those with higher serum PSA (PSA), higher Gleason score, clinical T stage or those with PSA failure. Cox multivariate analysis showed that TAM count is one of the prognostic factors for PCa treated by hormonal therapy (P < 0.0001). • TAM infiltration in prostate needle biopsy specimens is a useful predictive factor for PSA failure or progression of PCa after hormonal therapy. © 2010 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2010 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  11. Primary pleuro-pulmonary malignant germ cell tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideeswar P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lungs and pleura are rare sites for malignant germ-cell tumours. Two cases, pure yolk-sac tumour and yolk sac-sac tumour/embryonal carcinoma are described in young males who presented with rapid progression of respiratory symptoms. The malignant mixed germ cell tumour occurred in the right lung, while the yolk-sac tumour had a pseudomesotheliomatous growth pattern suggesting a pleural origin. Alpha-foetoprotein was immunohistochemically demonstrated in both.

  12. Tumours following retinoblastoma radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollot, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    Radioinduced tumours in young patients irradiated in childhood for retinoblastoma take on a particularly deadly aspect. The onset of this true clinical entity characterized by a long post-irradiation latency period induced by a dose above 6000 rads is a real tragedy. The vast majority of patients then enter into a long martyrdom ending in death. The only cure is surgical, but seldom possible. Treatment is limited to palliative radiotherapy, effective for a while, and chemiotherapy as a last resort but often difficult to prescribe. Prevention alone is the answer. The quality and reliability of the radiotherapeutic treatment depend not only on the personal talent of the radiotherapist but above all on the standard of the equipment. A strong reduction in the doses employed as well as recent technological progress improving the material, its precision and reproducibility appear already to have lowered the frequency curve of these fatal radioinduced tumours [fr

  13. Imaging oxygenation of human tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhani, Anwar R.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Lewis, Jason S.; Alber, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Tumour hypoxia represents a significant challenge to the curability of human tumours leading to treatment resistance and enhanced tumour progression. Tumour hypoxia can be detected by non-invasive and invasive techniques but the inter-relationships between these remains largely undefined. 18 F-MISO and Cu-ATSM-PET, and BOLD-MRI are the lead contenders for human application based on their non-invasive nature, ease of use and robustness, measurement of hypoxia status, validity, ability to demonstrate heterogeneity and general availability, these techniques are the primary focus of this review. We discuss where developments are required for hypoxia imaging to become clinically useful and explore potential new uses for hypoxia imaging techniques including biological conformal radiotherapy. (orig.)

  14. The prevalence of the HPV 16 genome, integrated viral status and p53 genotype in cervical cancer population of north-eastern Hungary, the correlation with the established markers of tumour progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Zoltán; Sápy, Tamás; Krasznai, Zoárd T

    2004-03-15

    To evaluate the prevalence of the HPV 16 integrated status and the p53 genotype in cervical cancer in north-eastern Hungary and their correlation with the established prognostic factors. Parallel with the routine histological examination, Southern blot hybridisation and multiplex PCRs were used to detect type/physical state of HPV DNA in primary tumours and in regional lymph nodes combined with p53 genotyping of 83 patients. 46.9% (39/83) prevalence rate of HPV 16 genome was found. The frequency of viral integration (76.9% in primary tumours and 95.2% in regional lymph nodes) and that of the p53Arg homozygous genotype (64.1%) proved to be higher than reported from other parts of the world. The HPV 16 integration and the p53 genotype, failed to correlate with the FIGO stage and lymphatic spread. The prevalence of the integrated status of the HPV 16 genome combined with homozygous p53Arg genotype is relatively high in Hungary. These factors however failed to show a strong correlation with the established markers of tumour progression.

  15. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  16. Tumour sleuths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.; Springolo, E.; Conradie, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common disease in South Africa and its identification difficult. Methods for the diagnosis of this disease includes the production of hybridoma cell lines by inoculating laboratory mice with a purified human tumour-associated antigen or the antigen-containing surface membranes or the intact cells. In the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, high concentrations of serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) can be measured by means of radioimmunoassay techniques. The need for specific methods of diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma led to the investigation by the Isotope Production Centre at Pelindaba into the possibility of using radiolabelled monoclonal anti-AFP for diagnosis, and later, therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. The monoclonal antibodies can also be labelled with 131 I. Recently the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the University of the Witwatersrand is conducting diagnostic trials on patients who have given their informed consent, to assess the specificity of 131 I radiolabelled anti-AFP monoclonal antibodies to hepatocellular carcinoma cells in humans. Although the investigation is still in its infancy, monoclonal antibodies may prove to be successful non-invasive agents for detecting tumors in early stages

  17. Adnexal Tumours Of Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parate Sanjay N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total 120 cases of epidermal appendage tumours of skin were analysed and classified according to the classification provided by WHO’. Epidermal appendage tumours accounted for 12.87% of all skin tumours, of which 29.17% were benign and 70.83% were malignant. Most of the tumours (75.83% were in the head and face region. The most common tumour was basal cell epithelioma (55%.

  18. The expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4 in predicting postoperative tumour progression in stages I-II colon cancer: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Changzheng; Yao, Yunfeng; Xue, Weicheng; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Peng, Yifan; Gu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic significance of chemokine receptors in stage I/II colon cancer is unclear. We assessed the prognostic value of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and CXCR4 in stage I/II colon cancer. 145 patients with stage I/II colon cancer who underwent curative surgery alone from 2000 to 2007 were investigated. Chemokine receptor expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The associations between CXCR3, CXCR4 and clinicopathological variables were analysed using the χ2 test, and the relationships between chemokine receptors and a 5-year disease-free survival were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The high-expression rates of CXCR3 and CXCR4 were 17.9% (26/145) and 38.6% (56/145), respectively. There were no significant associations between the expressions of CXCR3, CXCR4 and clinicopathological factors including gender, age, tumour location, histological differentiation, pathological stage, lymphovascular invasion and pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The 5-year disease-free survival was not significantly different between low-expression groups and high-expression groups of CXCR3 and CXCR4. Multivariate analysis revealed that serum CEA and a number of retrieved lymph nodes, rather than chemokine receptors, were independent prognosticators. CXCR3 and CXCR4 are not independent prognosticators for stage I/II colon cancer after curative surgery.

  19. Nuclear medicine procedures to diagnose endocrine pancreatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bares, R.; Besenfelder, H.; Eschmann, S.M.; Pfannenberg, C.

    2003-01-01

    The typical clinical features of endocrine pancreatic tumours are either symptoms caused by excessive hormone production or progressive tumour growth. In several prospective studies it has been shown that somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is the most accurate imaging technique currently available to detect endocrine pancreatic tumours. Therefore it should be used whenever curative surgical treatment appears to be feasible. Furthermore it should be applied if a radionuclide treatment of inoperable tumours is considered. In this situation scintigraphy with 123 I-mIBG might be useful, too. Future developments include the use of PET with labelled somatostatin analogues or DOPA derivatives as well as image fusion techniques to optimize preoperative tumour localization. (orig.) [de

  20. Neurofibromatosis type 1: brain stem tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilaniuk, L.T.; Molloy, P.T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Phillips, P.C.; Vaughan, S.N.; Liu, G.T.; Sutton, L.N.; Needle, M.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the clinical and imaging findings of brain stem tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The NF1 patients imaged between January 1984 and January 1996 were reviewed and 25 patients were identified with a brain stem tumour. Clinical, radiographical and pathological results were obtained by review of records and images. Brain stem tumour identification occurred much later than the clinical diagnosis of NF1. Medullary enlargement was most frequent (68 %), followed by pontine (52 %) and midbrain enlargement (44 %). Patients were further subdivided into those with diffuse (12 patients) and those with focal (13 patients) tumours. Treatment for hydrocephalus was required in 67 % of the first group and only 15 % of the second group. Surgery was performed in four patients and revealed fibrillary astrocytomas, one of which progressed to an anaplastic astrocytoma. In 40 % of patients both brain stem and optic pathway tumours were present. The biological behaviour of brain stem tumours in NF1 is unknown. Diffuse tumours in the patients with NF1 appear to have a much more favourable prognosis than patients with similar tumours without neurofibromatosis type 1. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Improving tumour response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation oncology is in the middle of the most exciting developments in its 100-year history. Progress in treatment planning and delivery, in medical imaging and in basic cancer and normal tissue biology is likely to change the indication for radiotherapy as well as the way it is prescribed and delivered. Technological and conceptual advances, in particular the development of the multi-leaf collimator and the concept of inverse treatment planning, have led to the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with its capability to plan and deliver non-uniform dose distributions in the clinic. This has forced us to re-think radiation oncology: refining the indication for radiotherapy, optimizing the prescription of dose distributions and considering how, based on clinical evidence, radiation can best be combined with other treatment modalities, surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and biologically targeted therapies. The attraction of radiation therapy as an element of multi-modality cancer therapy is that it induces DNA damage that can be modulated in space and time. Progress in basic cancer biology, genomics and proteomics, as well as biological imaging provides novel avenues for individualization of cancer therapy and for biological optimization of radiotherapy. In improving cancer care, it is the therapeutic ratio, rather than tumour control per se, that must be optimised. Interestingly, the two main avenues for improving the effectiveness of radiotherapy currently being actively pursued in the clinic generally aim at different sides of the therapeutic ratio: 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT predominantly aim to reduce normal-tissue side effects - and by doing this, open the way for dose escalation that may lead to increased tumour control rates - whereas combined radio-chemotherapy aims to improve tumour response - while keeping the fingers crossed that this will not increase normal-tissue complications to the same extent. In parallel with these

  2. of brain tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outline of the important clinical issues related to brain tumours and psychiatry. ... Left-sided, frontal tumours also seem to be associated with higher rates of depression, while those in the frontal lobe of the right .... Oxford: Blackwell Science,.

  3. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  4. Grade and location of power Doppler are predictive of damage progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients in clinical remission by anti-tumour necrosis factor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffeiner, Bernd; Grisan, Enrico; Botsios, Costantino; Stramare, Roberto; Rizzo, Gaia; Bernardi, Livio; Punzi, Leonardo; Ometto, Francesca; Doria, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    To investigate power Doppler (PD) signal, grade and location and their association with radiographic progression in RA patients in remission. A prospective observational study was conducted in 125 consecutive RA patients in stable 28-joint DAS (DAS28) remission (⩾6 months) achieved on anti-TNF-α. At baseline, patients in stable remission underwent radiographic and US examination of the wrists and MCP, PIP and MTP joints. Semi-quantitative PD scoring (0-3) was recorded. We scored PD according to two locations: capsular or within synovial tissue without bone contact (location 1) and with bone contact or penetrating bone cortex (location 2). Radiographic progression was evaluated at the 1 year follow-up and defined as a change in van der Heijde-modified total Sharp score >0. Risk ratios (RRs) of radiographic progression according to presence, grade and location of PD were calculated. Four patients were excluded because of missing data. At baseline, 59/121 (48.7%) patients had a PD signal in one or more joints. PD location 2 was found in 74.6% patients (44/59). At the 1 year follow-up, 17/121 patients experienced radiographic progression: all had PD signal in one or more joints at baseline (RR 2.47, P location 2 (RR 3.49, P < 0.0001). Higher PD grades and PD in contact with/or penetrating bone are associated with radiographic progression in patients in DAS28 remission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Evidence that progression of cells into S-phase is not a prerequisite for recovery between split doses of U.V.-light in synchronized and plateau phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EAT-cells) to perform split-dose recovery after U.V. exposure was studied with unfed plateau phase as well as with synchronized cells selected from exponentially growing cultures. The cells were kept in balanced salt solution which inhibited the progression of the cells through the cell cycle. The results indicated that split-dose recovery occurred in EAT-cells in all phases of the cell cycle and that progression of the cells into S-phase was not a prerequisite for this type of repair. The second-dose survival curves of G 1 -and S-phase cells showed, 24 hours after the first U.V. exposure, a shoulder width comparable to that of singly irradiated cells. Second-dose survival curves for G 2 -cells showed, after the same time interval, a shoulder width smaller than that for singly exposed cells, presumably due to some cell division. The recovery time constant (t 50 between 4 and 8 hours) increased with increasing U.V. exposure. (author)

  6. Oxidative stress specifically downregulates survivin to promote breast tumour formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, S; Tran, L; Urman, R; Braga, M; Parveen, M; Li, S A; Chaudhuri, G; Singh, R

    2013-03-05

    Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease has been broadly classified into oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) or oestrogen receptor negative (ER-) tumour types. Each of these tumours is dependent on specific signalling pathways for their progression. While high levels of survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein, increases aggressive behaviour in ER- breast tumours, oxidative stress (OS) promotes the progression of ER+ breast tumours. Mechanisms and molecular targets by which OS promotes tumourigenesis remain poorly understood. DETA-NONOate, a nitric oxide (NO)-donor induces OS in breast cancer cell lines by early re-localisation and downregulation of cellular survivin. Using in vivo models of HMLE(HRAS) xenografts and E2-induced breast tumours in ACI rats, we demonstrate that high OS downregulates survivin during initiation of tumourigenesis. Overexpression of survivin in HMLE(HRAS) cells led to a significant delay in tumour initiation and tumour volume in nude mice. This inverse relationship between survivin and OS was also observed in ER+ human breast tumours. We also demonstrate an upregulation of NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX1) and its activating protein p67, which are novel markers of OS in E2-induced tumours in ACI rats and as well as in ER+ human breast tumours. Our data, therefore, suggest that downregulation of survivin could be an important early event by which OS initiates breast tumour formation.

  7. Imaging of sacral tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, S.; Ollivier, L.; Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S.; Leclere, J.; Vanel, D.; Missenard, G.; Pinieux, G. de

    2008-01-01

    All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological types have a predilection for the sacrum, especially chordoma and giant cell tumour. Clinical signs are usually minor, and sacral tumours are often discovered in the context of nerve root or pelvic organ compression. The roles of conventional radiology, CT and MRI are described and compared with the histological features of the main tumours. The impact of imaging on treatment decisions and follow-up is also reviewed. (orig.)

  8. Imaging of sacral tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S.; Ollivier, L.; Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S. [Institut Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Leclere, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Vanel, D. [The Rizzoli Institute, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Missenard, G. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Comite de pathologie tumorale de l' appareil locomoteur, Villejuif (France); Pinieux, G. de [CHRU de Tours, Department of Pathology, Hopital Trousseau, Tours (France)

    2008-04-15

    All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological types have a predilection for the sacrum, especially chordoma and giant cell tumour. Clinical signs are usually minor, and sacral tumours are often discovered in the context of nerve root or pelvic organ compression. The roles of conventional radiology, CT and MRI are described and compared with the histological features of the main tumours. The impact of imaging on treatment decisions and follow-up is also reviewed. (orig.)

  9. RESEARCH Osteosarcoma presentation stages at a tumour unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant primary bone tumour in children and ... in treatment, the diagnosis must be made prior to progression beyond localised .... Typical radiographic findings of an aggressive bone-forming tumour ... however, can often be overlooked or mistaken for benign lesions.12. Table 1. Patient ...

  10. Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wilms' tumour or nephroblastoma is a cancer of the kidney that ... It may be noticed by parents or it may be an incidental finding ... patients. It may lead to iron deficiency anaemia. Rarely Wilms' tumour may present with acquired von Willebrand's ... the best treatment approach. ... with multimodality therapy in paediatric.

  11. Tumour microembolism presenting as "primary pulmonary hypertension"

    OpenAIRE

    Hibbert, M.; Braude, S.

    1997-01-01

    Pulmonary tumour microembolism is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension. A case of rapidly progressive pulmonary hypertension in a patient with a past history of breast carcinoma is presented. Despite active consideration and investigation for malignancy as a cause, correct diagnosis was only made at necropsy. 




  12. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian; Chekenya, Martha; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Enger, Per Ø; Miletic, Hrvoje; Sakariassen, Per Ø; Huszthy, Peter C; Jacobsen, Hege; Brekkå, Narve; Li, Xingang; Zhao, Peng; Mørk, Sverre

    2009-01-01

    Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression

  13. Analysis of clonogenic human brain tumour cells: preliminary results of tumour sensitivity testing with BCNU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, M L; Dougherty, D A; Deen, D F; Hoshino, T; Wilson, C B [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Neurology

    1980-04-01

    Biopsies from 6 patients with glioblastoma multiforme were disaggregated and single cells were treated in vitro with various concentrations of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso urea (BCNU) and plated for cell survival. One patient's cells were sensitive to BCNU in vitro; after a single dose of BCNU her brain scan reverted to normal and she was clinically well. Five tumours demonstrated resistance in vitro. Three of these tumours progressed during the first course of chemotherapy with a nitrosourea and the patients died at 21/2, 4 and 81/2 months after operation. Two patients who showed dramatic responses to radiation therapy were considered unchanged after the first course of nitrosourea therapy (although one demonstrated tumour enlargement on brain scan). The correlation of in vitro testing of tumour cell sensitivity with actual patient response is encouraging enough to warrant further work to determine whether such tests should weigh in decisions on patient therapy.

  14. Tumour-induced osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minisola, Salvatore; Peacock, Munro; Fukumoto, Seijii; Cipriani, Cristiana; Pepe, Jessica; Tella, Sri Harsha; Collins, Michael T

    2017-07-13

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO), also known as oncogenic osteomalacia, is a rare paraneoplastic disorder caused by tumours that secrete fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Owing to the role of FGF23 in renal phosphate handling and vitamin D synthesis, TIO is characterized by decreased renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate, by hypophosphataemia and by low levels of active vitamin D. Chronic hypophosphataemia ultimately results in osteomalacia (that is, inadequate bone mineralization). The diagnosis of TIO is usually suspected when serum phosphate levels are chronically low in the setting of bone pain, fragility fractures and muscle weakness. Locating the offending tumour can be very difficult, as the tumour is often very small and can be anywhere in the body. Surgical removal of the tumour is the only definitive treatment. When the tumour cannot be located or when complete resection is not possible, medical treatment with phosphate salts or active vitamin D is necessary. One of the most promising emerging treatments for unresectable tumours that cause TIO is the anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody KRN23. The recent identification of a fusion of fibronectin and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) as a molecular driver in some tumours not only sheds light on the pathophysiology of TIO but also opens the door to a better understanding of the transcription, translocation, post-translational modification and secretion of FGF23, as well as suggesting approaches to targeted therapy. Further study will reveal if the FGFR1 pathway is also involved in tumours that do not harbour the translocation.

  15. Malignant thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, W.; Reiners, C.

    1987-01-01

    The subjects dealt with at the symposium cover all topical aspects of pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy, and aftercare of the malignant thyroid tumours. A survey of the histological classification of the thyroid tumours and a review of the latest findings concerning the radiocarcinogenesis are followed by a detailed discussion of the most significant tumours. There are also papers dealing with controversial aspects of the histological classification, the value of diagnostic methods, radicality of the therapy, or after care. For five conference papers, separate records are available in the database. (orig./ECB) With 59 figs.; 57 tabs [de

  16. Acetyltransferases and tumour suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A C; Vousden, Karen H

    2000-01-01

    The acetyltransferase p300 was first identified associated with the adenoviral transforming protein E1A, suggesting a potential role for p300 in the regulation of cell proliferation. Direct evidence demonstrating a role for p300 in human tumours was lacking until the recentl publication by Gayther et al, which strongly supports a role for p300 as a tumour suppressor. The authors identify truncating mutations associated with the loss or mutation of the second allele in both tumour samples and cell lines, suggesting that loss of p300 may play a role in the development of a subset of human cancers

  17. A Tense Situation: Forcing Tumour Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Bailey AJ. The effects of the Maillard reaction on the physical properties and cell interactions of collagen. Pathol Biol (Paris) 2006;54:387–395... reaction and, following this law, cells in vivo will respond to alterations in the mechanical properties of their surrounding matrix by adjusting...cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence. Biophys J 2005;88:3689–369. [PubMed: 15722433] 29. Cross SE, Jin YS, Rao J

  18. Radiopharmaceutical therapy of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, P.; Franceschi, G.; Frattarelli, M.; Casi, M.; Santimaria, M.; Cremonini, A.M.; Guiducci, G.; Riva, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The loco-regional radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of high-grade malignant glioma may represent a further favourable therapeutic approach, able to ameliorate the ominous prognosis of these diseases. The anti-tenascin monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are directly injected in the tumoral bed after the operation. In the first pilot study, 81 glioblastoma patients received the MAbs (BC2 and BC4) labelled with 131 I (mean dose 2035 MBq). The toxicity was absent. The median survival was prolonged up to 25 months and the response rate (PR + CR + NED: no evidence of disease in cases with minimal lesions after customary treatments) was 44%. More recently, 90 Y instead of 131 I was employed. The benzyl-DTPA chelator was utilized for 90 Y conjugation. A phase I study was performed in 20 glioblastoma patients, who previously received all conventional regimens, but with progressive tumour. They were intralesionally given escalating 90 Y doses (185, 370, 555, 740, 925 MBq), 4 cases were included in each incremental level. No change in haematology, liver and renal parameters were encountered. The brain MTD was 925 MBq. The radiopharmaceutical remained in high amount only in the neoplastic area and did not diffuse in normal brain region nor in normal organs. The radiation dose to the tumour was, on average, 0.54 Gy per MBq of 90 Y administered (about 4 times higher in comparison to 131 I). Now a phase II study has been initiated. 30 evaluable patients (23 glioblastoma and 7 anaplastic astrocytoma; 8 newly diagnosed and 22 recurrent tumours) who have been already treated with surgery and radiotherapy, underwent loco-regional RIT, by administering a mean 90 Y dose of 740 MBq; in many cases multiple cycles were given. The median survival of patients who had the antibody infusion when their tumour burden was reduced was 28 months. The objective response consisted of 8 PD, 5 SD, 11 PR, 1 CR and 4 NED. The global response rate (PR + CR + NED) was 53.3% (47.8% in glioblastoma and 75.7% in

  19. Targeting radiation to tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Greater Glasgow Health Board, Glasgow

    1994-01-01

    Biologically targeted radiotherapy entails the preferential delivery of radiation to solid tumours or individual tumour cells by means of tumour-seeking delivery vehicles to which radionuclides can be conjugated. Monoclonal antibodies have attracted attention for some years as potentially selective targeting agents, but advances in tumour and molecular biology are now providing a much wider choice of molecular species. General radiobiological principles may be derived which are applicable to most forms of targeted radiotherapy. These principles provide guidelines for the appropriate choice of radionuclide in specific treatment situations and its optimal combination with other treatment modalities. In future, the availability of gene targeting agents will focus attention on the use of Auger electron emitters whose high potency and short range selectivity makes them attractive choices for specific killing of cancer cells whose genetic peculiarities are known. (author)

  20. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  1. Experimental tumour treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report of 1984 is the seventh in a series and presents that year's results of continuous studies in the domain of experimental tumour radiotherapy. In the year under review, more personnel has been available for the studies, and the scientific programmes for the assessment of acute and chronic side effects of radiotherapies have been extended. New models have been developed, among them a first system based on animal experiments, for quantifying the mucositis of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, a limiting condition in the radiotherapy of head and throat tumours. Another significant advancement is a model for quantification of chronical damage to the ureter, which still is a serious problem in the radiotherapy of gynaecological tumours. The 1984 experimental tumour studies have been mainly devoted to the repopulation and split-dose recovery in various tumours, concentrating on dose fractionation as one of the major problems studies. Particular interest has been attached to the processes involved in treatments over several weeks with a daily effective dose of 2 Gy. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Heterogeneity of expression of immunohistochemical tumour markers in testicular carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Kvist, Majbrit; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the precursor of germ cell tumours in adults, except for spermatocytic seminoma. The mechanism of the progression from premalignant CIS to invasive and overt tumours is largely unknown. There are currently two main hypotheses: one is that CIS can progress dir...

  3. Tumour-induced osteomalacia’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Javier; Michel Ortega, Rosa; Celzo, Florence; Donthireddy, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented 2 years before his diagnosis with long-standing muscle cramping, progressive generalised weakness and chronic hip pain. The patient was found to have bilateral femoral neck pathologic fractures therefore, underwent reamed intramedullary nailing of both femurs. Laboratory studies showed hypophosphataemia. Bone marrow biopsy was negative for malignancy. Positron emission tomography demonstrated fludeoxyglucose uptake only in the posterior neck. Bone scan showed innumerable foci of increased activity throughout the skeleton consistent with pseudofractures seen in osteomalacia. Fine needle aspiration from the mass in the neck revealed a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour of mixed connective tissue type. Resection of the mass in the neck resulted in resolution of generalised complaints with no evidence of recurrence with a follow-up of 12 months. PMID:22736784

  4. Royal Society Scientific Meeting: Extracellular vesicles in the tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Ryan Charles; Elmusrati, Areeg A; Lambert, Daniel; Carter, David Raul Francisco

    2018-01-05

    Cancer cells do not grow as an isolated homogeneous mass; tumours are, in fact, complex and heterogeneous collections of cancer and surrounding stromal cells, collectively termed the tumour microenvironment. The interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment has emerged as a key concept in the regulation of cancer progression. Understanding the intercellular dialogue in the tumour microenvironment is therefore an important goal. One aspect of this dialogue that has not been appreciated until recently is the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are small vesicles released by cells under both normal and pathological conditions; they can transfer biological molecules between cells leading to changes in phenotype. EVs have emerged as important regulators of biological processes and can be dysregulated in diseases such as cancer; rapidly growing interest in their biology and therapeutic potential led to the Royal Society hosting a Scientific Meeting to explore the roles of EVs in the tumour microenvironment. This cross-disciplinary meeting explored examples of how aberrant crosstalk between tumour and stromal cells can promote cancer progression, and how such signalling can be targeted for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic benefit. In this review, and the special edition of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B that follows, we will provide an overview of the content and outcomes of this exciting meeting.This article is part of the discussion meeting issue 'Extracellular vesicles and the tumour microenvironment'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Genetically modified tumour vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, Suppl. 1 (2005), S7 ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour vaccines * HPV16 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  6. The development of tumours under a ketogenic diet in association with the novel tumour marker TKTL1: A case series in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Natalie; Walach, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial observations by Warburg in 1924, it has become clear in recent years that tumour cells require a high level of glucose to proliferate. Therefore, a ketogenic diet that provides the body with energy mainly through fat and proteins, but contains a reduced amount of carbohydrates, has become a dietary option for supporting tumour treatment and has exhibited promising results. In the present study, the first case series of such a treatment in general practice is presented, in which 78 patients with tumours were treated within a time window of 10 months. The patients were monitored regarding their levels of transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), a novel tumour marker associated with aerobic glycolysis of tumour cells, and the patients' degree of adherence to a ketogenic diet. Tumour progression was documented according to oncologists' reports. Tumour status was correlated with TKTL1 expression (Kruskal-Wallis test, Pketogenic diet, with one patient experiencing a stagnation in tumour progression and others an improvement in their condition. The adoption of a ketogenic diet was also observed to affect the levels of TKTL1 in those patients. In conclusion, the results from the present case series in general practice suggest that it may be beneficial to advise tumour patients to adopt a ketogenic diet, and that those who adhere to it may have positive results from this type of diet. Thus, the use of a ketogenic diet as a complementary treatment to tumour therapy must be further studied in rigorously controlled trials.

  7. History of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the macro- and micro-environment of tumour-bearing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, James E.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2015-01-01

    Tumour-induced granulocytic hyperplasia is associated with tumour vasculogenesis and escape from immunity via T-cell suppression. Initially, these myeloid cells were identified as granulocytes or monocytes; however, recent studies revealed that this hyperplasia was associated with populations of multi-potent progenitor cells identified as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The discovery and study of MDSCs have provided a wealth of information regarding tumour pathobiology, extended our understanding of neoplastic progression, and modified our approaches to immune adjuvant therapy. In this perspective, we discuss the history of MDSCs, their influence on tumour progression and metastasis, and the crosstalk between tumour cells, MDSCs, and the host macroenvironment. PMID:24060865

  8. Evaluating the agreement between tumour volumetry and the estimated volumes of tumour lesions using an algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubender, Ruediger P. [German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Lynghjem, Julia; D' Anastasi, Melvin; Graser, Anno [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Heinemann, Volker; Modest, Dominik P. [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Department of Medical Oncology, Munich (Germany); Mansmann, Ulrich R. [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); Sartorius, Ute; Schlichting, Michael [Merck KGaA, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the agreement between tumour volume derived from semiautomated volumetry (SaV) and tumor volume defined by spherical volume using longest lesion diameter (LD) according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or ellipsoid volume using LD and longest orthogonal diameter (LOD) according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Twenty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the CIOX trial were included. A total of 151 target lesions were defined by baseline computed tomography and followed until disease progression. All assessments were performed by a single reader. A variance component model was used to compare the three volume versions. There was a significant difference between the SaV and RECIST-based tumour volumes. The same model showed no significant difference between the SaV and WHO-based volumes. Scatter plots showed that the RECIST-based volumes overestimate lesion volume. The agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume, evaluated by intraclass correlation, showed nearly perfect agreement. Estimating the volume of metastatic lesions using both the LD and LOD (WHO) is more accurate than those based on LD only (RECIST), which overestimates lesion volume. The good agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume enables a reasonable approximation of three-dimensional tumour burden. (orig.)

  9. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. Methods In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. Results The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression.

  10. Development of a transplantable glioma tumour model from genetically engineered mice: MRI/MRS/MRSI characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciezka, Magdalena; Acosta, Milena; Herranz, Cristina; Canals, Josep M; Pumarola, Martí; Candiota, Ana Paula; Arús, Carles

    2016-08-01

    The initial aim of this study was to generate a transplantable glial tumour model of low-intermediate grade by disaggregation of a spontaneous tumour mass from genetically engineered models (GEM). This should result in an increased tumour incidence in comparison to GEM animals. An anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (OA) tumour of World Health Organization (WHO) grade III was obtained from a female GEM mouse with the S100β-v-erbB/inK4a-Arf (+/-) genotype maintained in the C57BL/6 background. The tumour tissue was disaggregated; tumour cells from it were grown in aggregates and stereotactically injected into C57BL/6 mice. Tumour development was followed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), while changes in the metabolomics pattern of the masses were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging (MRS/MRSI). Final tumour grade was evaluated by histopathological analysis. The total number of tumours generated from GEM cells from disaggregated tumour (CDT) was 67 with up to 100 % penetrance, as compared to 16 % in the local GEM model, with an average survival time of 66 ± 55 days, up to 4.3-fold significantly higher than the standard GL261 glioblastoma (GBM) tumour model. Tumours produced by transplantation of cells freshly obtained from disaggregated GEM tumour were diagnosed as WHO grade III anaplastic oligodendroglioma (ODG) and OA, while tumours produced from a previously frozen sample were diagnosed as WHO grade IV GBM. We successfully grew CDT and generated tumours from a grade III GEM glial tumour. Freezing and cell culture protocols produced progression to grade IV GBM, which makes the developed transplantable model qualify as potential secondary GBM model in mice.

  11. Haemorrhagic pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, C.M.; Philippine General Hospital, Manila; Guo, W.Y.; Sami, M.; Hindmarsch, T.; Ericson, K.; Hulting, A.L.; Wersaell, J.

    1994-01-01

    In a group of 69 patients with pituitary tumours, 12 were found to have evidence of intratumoral haemorrhage on MRI, characterized by high signal intensity on short TR/TE sequences. This was verified in all but 1 patient. The majority of the bleedings occurred in macroadenomas. Five (42%) were prolactinomas and 4 (33%) were non-functioning adenomas. There were 2 GH- and 1 ACTH-secreting tumours. All 5 patients with prolactinomas were on bromocriptine medication. Two of the patients had a clinical picture of pituitary apoplexy. The haemorrhage was not large enough to prompt surgery in any of the patients. However, surgical verification of the diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases, while 6 patients were examined with follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  12. Skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: borgesalexandra@clix.pt

    2008-06-15

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base.

  13. Skull base tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base

  14. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  15. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  16. Imaging brain tumour microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Englund, Elisabet; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Sundgren, Pia C

    2018-05-08

    Imaging is an indispensable tool for brain tumour diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow-up. Definite diagnosis, however, often demands histopathological analysis of microscopic features of tissue samples, which have to be obtained by invasive means. A non-invasive alternative may be to probe corresponding microscopic tissue characteristics by MRI, or so called 'microstructure imaging'. The promise of microstructure imaging is one of 'virtual biopsy' with the goal to offset the need for invasive procedures in favour of imaging that can guide pre-surgical planning and can be repeated longitudinally to monitor and predict treatment response. The exploration of such methods is motivated by the striking link between parameters from MRI and tumour histology, for example the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient and cellularity. Recent microstructure imaging techniques probe even more subtle and specific features, providing parameters associated to cell shape, size, permeability, and volume distributions. However, the range of scenarios in which these techniques provide reliable imaging biomarkers that can be used to test medical hypotheses or support clinical decisions is yet unknown. Accurate microstructure imaging may moreover require acquisitions that go beyond conventional data acquisition strategies. This review covers a wide range of candidate microstructure imaging methods based on diffusion MRI and relaxometry, and explores advantages, challenges, and potential pitfalls in brain tumour microstructure imaging. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [Adrenal tumours in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos-Moreno, G A; Pozo-Román, J; Argente, J

    2013-09-01

    This special article aims to summarise the current knowledge regarding the two groups of tumours with their origin in the adrenal gland: 1) adrenocortical tumours, derived from the cortex of the adrenal gland and 2) phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, neuroendocrine tumours derived from nodes of neural crest derived cells symmetrically distributed at both sides of the entire spine (paragangliomas [PG]). These PGs can be functioning tumors that secrete catecholamines, which confers their typical dark colour after staining with chromium salts (chromaffin tumors). Among these, the term phaeochromocytoma (PC) is restricted to those PGs derived from the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (intra-adrenal PGs), whereas the term PG is used for those sympathetic or parasympathetic ones in an extra-adrenal location. We analyse the state of the art of their pathogenic and genetic bases, as well as their clinical signs and symptoms, the tests currently available for performing their diagnosis (biochemical, hormonal, imaging and molecular studies) and management (surgery, pre- and post-surgical medical treatment), considering the current and developing strategies in chemo- and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  19. Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog. Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST, which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna, currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

  20. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  1. Radiological diagnosis of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstedt, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty patients treated with an intra-arterial cytostatic drug for metastases from colo-rectal carcinoma were evaluated with angiography to determine prognostic parameters. The extent of tumour in the liver and an unchanged or diminished tumour volume following treatment, as demonstrated with angiography, were associated with significant prolongation of survival. Patients who developed occlusion of the hepatic artery or of branches of the portal vein, also survived longer. 189 patients examined with angiography, 161 with computed tomography (CT), 95 with computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) and 71 with ultrasound (US) were subjected to liver evaluation at laparotomy consisting of inspection and palpation. The result of this surgical liver evaluation was for the purpose of the study regarded as completely accurate and was used to assess the accuracy of the different radiological methods. The location of tumour in the liver lobes or segments was analysed, with a separate evaluation of the right and left liver lobes. The rate of detection of individual tumour nodules was also determined. Angiography detected 55% of liver areas affected by tumour and 47% of individual tumour nodules. CT detected 83% of liver lobes or segments containing tumour, and 70% of the tumour nodules. US detected 69% of the portions of liver holding tumour, and also 69% of the tumour nodules. CTA detected 85% of tumours areas and 74% of separate tumour nodules. Some lesions detected with CT were not seen with CTA and vice versa. More false-positive results were recorded with CTA than with CT using intravenous contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  2. Neurohypophysis granular cell tumours. Upon neurohypophysis rare tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrande, G.; Kujas, M.; Gancel, A.; Turpin, G.; Bruckert, E.; Kuhn, J.M.; Luton, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Granular cell tumours of neurohypophysis are rare. These tumours are more often encountered as incidental autopsy findings seen in up to 17 % of unselected adult autopsy cases. There are few reports of para-sellar granular cell tumours large enough to cause symptoms. We present three cases of neurohypophysis granular cell tumour and a review of the literature. In one patient, the asymptomatic granular cell tumour was incidentally discovered at surgical removal of a corticotrophic micro-adenoma. The remaining 2 patients had a symptomatic tumour which caused neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance and headaches and endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism or hyper-prolactinaemia. In these 2 cases, computerized tomography showed a well-circumscribed, contrast-enhanced, intra-sellar and supra-sellar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense gadolinium-enhanced mass in T1-weighted-images. Trans-sphenoidal partial resection was performed and histology was interpreted as a granular cell tumour. The immunohistochemical study was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GEAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in 1 of the 2 tumours and positive for S100 protein and vimentin in both tumours but negative for CD68. The histogenesis of neurohypophysis granular cell tumours is still controversial but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies support the theory that may arise from pituicytes, the glial cells of neurohypophysis. Management of these benign, slow growing, tumours is based mainly on neurosurgical resection. Data from the literature do not support a beneficial effect of post operative radiation therapy on postoperative recurrences. (authors). 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Management of parapharyngeal space tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Waqar-Uddin; Khan, M.S.; Khawar, A.; Bangush, W.; Aslam, J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the role of clinical features, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and computed tomography (CT) scan in diagnosing Para pharyngeal space (PPS) tumours and treatment options. Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: From July 2000 to July 2002 at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. Patients and Methods: Patients diagnosed as having PPS tumours were studied. The medical record of patients was reviewed for their age, gender, clinical features, investigations (FNAC and CT scan) and treatment. The mean age, percentage of different clinical features and the sensitivity and specificity of FNAC was determined. Results: The mean age of patients presenting with PPS tumours was 33.6 years. The most common clinical features were neck mass (93%) and bulge in lateral pharyngeal wall (80%). The CT scan showed exact location and extent of tumour in 11 out of 15 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of FNAC was 70% and 85% respectively. The most common tumours were neurogenic tumours and salivary gland tumours. Surgery was performed in all except 2 patients with lymphoma in whom radiation and chemotherapy was recommended. Conclusion: This study indicates that PPS tumours are usually benign neurosurgeon and salivary gland tumours presenting with neck mass and bulge in or oropharynx. FNAC and CT scan are important in diagnostic work up and treatment planning. Surgery has the best results in most cases. (author)

  4. Askin Tumour: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Carolina; Ramirez, Sandra Milena; Quesada, Diana Constanza; Unigarro Luz Adriana

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report a case of a 19 year-old woman with a final diagnosis of an extra skeletal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the chest, also known as Askin tumour. The histologic features and the immunohistochemical profile were consistent with this aggressive malignancy of the chest wall that affects young people. Because the low incidence of this entity, as well as the clear radiological findings, we considered it interesting to describe this documented case and undertake a review of the literature.

  5. Leaky vessels as a potential source of stromal acidification in tumours

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Natasha K.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Maini, Philip K.

    2010-01-01

    results found in vivo with a tumour implanted in the mammary fat pad of a mouse in a window chamber construct. We find that leaky vasculature can cause a net acidification of the normal tissue away from the tumour boundary, though not a progressive

  6. Gastric neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, David A; Donohoe, Claire L; Fitzgerald, Louise; Muldoon, Cian; Hayes, Brian; O'Toole, Dermot; Reynolds, John V

    2012-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are increasingly recognised, and management decisions may be difficult due to an incomplete understanding of aetiology, natural history and optimum therapy. This article presents a current understanding based on recent advances in epidemiology, classification, molecular profiling, and treatment. Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Gastric NETs may be divided into three clinical prognostic groups: type I is associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type III lesions are gastrin-independent, have the greatest metastatic potential and poorest prognosis. There has been an increased frequency of gastric NETs reported. Management approaches have evolved in parallel with advances in endoscopic staging and surgery, as well as improved understanding of the biology and natural history of NETs. Gastric NETs present a spectrum of activity from indolent tumours to metastatic malignancy. Treatment decisions for patients must be individualised and are best managed by a multidisciplinary team approach. The current evidence base is limited to small series and efforts to treat patients within clinical networks of expertise are warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Radiotherapy in ocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences. (M.G.B.)

  8. Tc(V)-DMS tumour imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, K.; Yomoda, I.; Yokoyama, A.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.

    1986-01-01

    The data obtained by the authors provide good evidence of Tc(V)-DMS as a stable, large-molecular-size Tc-complex or polynuclear Tc-complex, comparable to Tc-cit and Ga-cit. A role for this polynuclear configuration in the generation of Tc-species with affinity for neoplastic cells was demonstrated using the dilution method as a promoter of Tc(V)-DMS dissociation. The concurrent Ehrlich ascites tumour cell uptake studies with TLC analysis revealed the chromatographically detected changes well traced by the biological cell utilization. The biological implications of dilution as one of the factors regulating radiopharmaceutical delivery to the tumour cell tissue were better demonstrated in the biodistribution studies carried out with Erhlich ascites-bearing mice. If, on the basis of the present data, the authors may take their postulate one step further, a more dissociated Tc-species, defined speculatively as TcO/sub 4//sup 3-/, might constitute an active Tc- species within the cell interacting with some tumour-specific substance or site. Research to find evidence of its presence is currently in progress

  9. Genomic aberrations in spitzoid tumours and their implications for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Thomas; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Mihm, Martin J.; Busam, Klaus J.; Murali, Rajmohan

    2016-01-01

    techniques, such as array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) or fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), are capable of accurately classifying histologically benign and malignant Spitz tumours, but are not very helpful in the diagnosis of ambiguous melanocytic lesions. Nevertheless, we expect that progress in our understanding of tumour genomics and progression will refine the classification of melanocytic tumours in the near future. By integrating clinical, pathological, and genetic criteria, distinct tumour subsets will be defined within the heterogeneous group of Spitz tumours, which will eventually lead to improvements in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. PMID:27020384

  10. Carcinoid Tumour of the Ovary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A case of bilateral carcinoid tumour of the ovary, with benign cystic teratoma in one ovary, in a 38 year old woman is presented. She had total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy and appendectomy. There was no macroscopic tumour in the vermiform appendix and the ...

  11. [Neonatal tumours and congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbel Tornero, O; Ortega García, J A; Ferrís i Tortajada, J; García Castell, J; Donat i Colomer, J; Soldin, O P; Fuster Soler, J L

    2008-06-01

    The association between pediatric cancer and congenital abnormalities is well known but, there is no exclusive data on the neonatal period and the underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms are unknown. First, to analyze the frequency of neonatal tumours associated with congenital abnormalities; and second, to comment on the likely etiopathogenic hypotheses of a relationship between neonatal tumours and congenital abnormalities. Historical series of neonatal tumours from La Fe University Children's Hospital in Valencia (Spain), from January 1990 to December 1999. Histological varieties of neonatal tumours and associated congenital abnormalities were described. A systematic review of the last 25 years was carried out using Medline, Cancerlit, Index Citation Science and Embase. The search profile used was the combination of "neonatal/congenital-tumors/cancer/neoplasms" and "congenital malformations/birth defects". 72 neonatal tumours were identified (2.8% of all pediatric cancers diagnosed in our hospital) and in 15 cases (20.8%) there was some associated malformation, disease or syndrome. The association between congenital abnormalities and neonatal tumours were: a) angiomas in three patients: two patients with congenital heart disease with a choanal stenosis, laryngomalacia; b) neuroblastomas in two patients: horseshoe kidney with vertebral anomalies and other with congenital heart disease; c) teratomas in two patients: one with cleft palate with vertebral anomalies and other with metatarsal varus; d) one tumour of the central nervous system with Bochdaleck hernia; e) heart tumours in four patients with tuberous sclerosis; f) acute leukaemia in one patient with Down syndrome and congenital heart disease; g) kidney tumour in one case with triventricular hydrocephaly, and h) adrenocortical tumour: hemihypertrophy. The publications included the tumours diagnosed in different pediatric periods and without unified criteria to classify the congenital abnormalities. Little data

  12. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  13. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Soevik, Aste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Oeyvind S; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2006-01-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO 2 -related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO 2 -related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO 2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO 2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure

  14. Monocytic and granulocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells differentially regulate spatiotemporal tumour plasticity during metastatic cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounova, Maria; Lee, Eunmi; Piranlioglu, Raziye; El Andaloussi, Abdeljabar; Kolhe, Ravindra; Demirci, Mehmet F; Marasco, Daniela; Asm, Iskander; Chadli, Ahmed; Hassan, Khaled A; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Zhou, Gang; Arbab, Ali S; Cowell, John K; Korkaya, Hasan

    2017-04-06

    It is widely accepted that dynamic and reversible tumour cell plasticity is required for metastasis, however, in vivo steps and molecular mechanisms are poorly elucidated. We demonstrate here that monocytic (mMDSC) and granulocytic (gMDSC) subsets of myeloid-derived suppressor cells infiltrate in the primary tumour and distant organs with different time kinetics and regulate spatiotemporal tumour plasticity. Using co-culture experiments and mouse transcriptome analyses in syngeneic mouse models, we provide evidence that tumour-infiltrated mMDSCs facilitate tumour cell dissemination from the primary site by inducing EMT/CSC phenotype. In contrast, pulmonary gMDSC infiltrates support the metastatic growth by reverting EMT/CSC phenotype and promoting tumour cell proliferation. Furthermore, lung-derived gMDSCs isolated from tumour-bearing animals enhance metastatic growth of already disseminated tumour cells. MDSC-induced 'metastatic gene signature' derived from murine syngeneic model predicts poor patient survival in the majority of human solid tumours. Thus spatiotemporal MDSC infiltration may have clinical implications in tumour progression.

  15. Metastatic behaviour of primary human tumours in a zebrafish xenotransplantation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ines J; Bagowski, Christoph P; Weiss, Frank Ulrich; Vlecken, Danielle H; Nitsche, Claudia; Bakkers, Jeroen; Lagendijk, Anne K; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Lerch, Markus M

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of cell migration drives progression of many diseases, including cancer cell invasion and metastasis formation. Analysis of tumour invasion and metastasis in living organisms to date is cumbersome and involves difficult and time consuming investigative techniques. For primary human tumours we establish here a simple, fast, sensitive and cost-effective in vivo model to analyse tumour invasion and metastatic behaviour. We fluorescently labelled small explants from gastrointestinal human tumours and investigated their metastatic behaviour after transplantation into zebrafish embryos and larvae. The transparency of the zebrafish embryos allows to follow invasion, migration and micrometastasis formation in real-time. High resolution imaging was achieved through laser scanning confocal microscopy of live zebrafish. In the transparent zebrafish embryos invasion, circulation of tumour cells in blood vessels, migration and micrometastasis formation can be followed in real-time. Xenografts of primary human tumours showed invasiveness and micrometastasis formation within 24 hours after transplantation, which was absent when non-tumour tissue was implanted. Furthermore, primary human tumour cells, when organotopically implanted in the zebrafish liver, demonstrated invasiveness and metastatic behaviour, whereas primary control cells remained in the liver. Pancreatic tumour cells showed no metastatic behaviour when injected into cloche mutant embryos, which lack a functional vasculature. Our results show that the zebrafish is a useful in vivo animal model for rapid analysis of invasion and metastatic behaviour of primary human tumour specimen

  16. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  17. VIP secreting tumours in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.P.; Slavotinek, J.P.; Dorney, S.F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) secreting neural crest tumours are an uncommon but important treatable cause of intractable childhood diarrhoea. The radiological appearances of two cases are presented with a review of radiological findings in childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours. Twenty eight cases of childhood VIP secreting neural crest tumours were reviewed. Nineteen (68%) were ganglioneuroblastomas and nine (32%) were ganglioneuromas. The majority of tumours (66%) were in a paravertebral location in the abdomen indicating that a search for such a tumour should be initiated at this site. Eighteen of the twenty eight cases reviewed discussed relevant radiological investigations. Calcification was detected in 50% of abdominal radiographs. Gut dilatation was often a prominent feature. A mass was detected in 5 of 5 cases where ultrasound findings were reported, and seven of seven cases with CT findings reported. Prior to the availability of CT and ultrasound the most useful investigation was IVU which demonstrated evidence of a mass in 5 of 9 cases. The presence of paravertebral calcification and gut dilatation on the plain radiograph of a child with intractable diarrhoea suggests the presence of a VIP secreting neural crest tumour. If an abdominal tumour is not found in the appropriate clinical setting and VIP levels are elevated, a widespread search of the paravertebral region is indicated. (orig.)

  18. Primary vertebral tumours in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.

    1984-03-01

    20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution.

  19. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba Univ. (Japan); Ohtomo, K. [Univ. of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    In this pictorial essay we present the typical appearances of cystic pancreatic tumours, the wide spectrum of their features, and differential features among cystic pancreatic masses with an emphasis on CT. Pseudocysts are the most common cystic lesion in the pancreas and can be induced by pancreatitis, trauma or surgery. Pseudocysts appear as a round cystic mass with a definite wall. However, they can mimic cystic tumours associated with internal septation and/or necrotic mass of various shapes. Conversely, cystic tumours can appear as a simple cyst lacking any thickening of wall, septation or mural nodule. Pancreatic carcinoma not infrequently induces secondary cysts upstream of the obstructed pancreatic duct. The cysts are pseudocysts or retention cysts in nature. When cysts are formed in the pancreatic parenchyma or adjacent to pancreatic carcinoma they may mimic cystic tumour. (orig./VHE)

  20. Cystic tumours of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Y.; Ohtomo, K.

    1996-01-01

    In this pictorial essay we present the typical appearances of cystic pancreatic tumours, the wide spectrum of their features, and differential features among cystic pancreatic masses with an emphasis on CT. Pseudocysts are the most common cystic lesion in the pancreas and can be induced by pancreatitis, trauma or surgery. Pseudocysts appear as a round cystic mass with a definite wall. However, they can mimic cystic tumours associated with internal septation and/or necrotic mass of various shapes. Conversely, cystic tumours can appear as a simple cyst lacking any thickening of wall, septation or mural nodule. Pancreatic carcinoma not infrequently induces secondary cysts upstream of the obstructed pancreatic duct. The cysts are pseudocysts or retention cysts in nature. When cysts are formed in the pancreatic parenchyma or adjacent to pancreatic carcinoma they may mimic cystic tumour. (orig./VHE)

  1. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.; Fornara, P.; Fabricius, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.) [de

  2. Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour: Imaging features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, V. Anik; Hirsch, Michelle S.; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2012-01-01

    Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour is a rare, recently described neoplasm with a distinctive histological appearance. Although reported in the pathology literature, to our knowledge, no prior reports have described its imaging appearance. We describe the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of an incidentally detected renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour that appeared as a well-marginated, solid T2-hypointense enhancing mass, in a 50-year-old woman. It is indistinguishable from a variety of benign and malignant renal neoplasms. PMID:23093565

  3. Paediatric laryngeal granular cell tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Ayuba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumour (GCT affecting the larynx is not common, especially in children. Most cases are apt to be confused with respiratory papilloma and may even be mistaken for a malignant neoplasia. We present a case of laryngeal GCT in a 12-year-old child to emphasize that the tumour should be regarded in the differential of growths affecting the larynx in children.

  4. Surgical approach to pineal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, F; Broggi, G; Fornari, M; Franzini, A; Solero, C L; Allegranza, A

    1989-01-01

    During a period of 10 years (1977-1986) 40 cases of tumour of the pineal region have been treated at the Istituto Neurologico "C. Besta"-of Milan. Out of these 40 cases, 27 (67.5%) were in the paediatric (10-15 years) or juvenile (15-20 years) age at the time of operation. Since 1983 a specific diagnostic and therapeutic protocol has been adopted and thereafter direct surgical removal of the tumour was performed only when the neuroradiological investigations were highly suggestive of a benign extrinsic lesion. Sixteen cases in this series underwent direct surgical removal; in the remaining 24 cases stereotactic biopsy of the tumour was performed in the first instance. On the basis of the histological diagnosis obtained by this procedure surgical excision of the tumour (9 cases) or radiotherapy (15 cases) was then performed. 25 cases underwent surgical removal of the lesion. In all the cases the infratentorial supracerebellar approach as introduced by Krause and then modified by Stein was adopted. On analysis of the data of this series it was observed that in 25% of the cases completely benign resectable tumours were found; in 25% of the cases astrocytoma (grade I-II) which could be treated at least by partial removal were present; in 30% of the cases radiosensitive lesions were encountered. In the remaining 20% of the cases highly malignant tumours were found which should be treated only by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

  5. MRI characteristics of midbrain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Wang, C.C.; Wang, J.

    1999-01-01

    We diagnosed 60 cases of midbrain tumours by MRI between 1993 to 1997. There were 39 males and 21 females, aged 2-64 years, mean 25.6 years. We found 38 patients with true intramedullary midbrain tumours, 11 predominantly in the tectum, 20 in the tegmentum and 7 with a downward extension to the pons; there were 7 within the cerebral aqueduct. There were 22 patients with infiltrating midbrain tumours extending from adjacent structures, 11 cases each from the thalamus and pineal region. All patients received surgical treatment. Gross total resection was achieved in 42 cases, subtotal (> 75 %) resection in 18. Pathological diagnoses included 16 low-grade and 15 high-grade astrocytomas; 5 oligodendroastrocytomas; 2 ependymomas; 11 glioblastomas; and 11 pineal parenchymal or germ-cell tumours. Midbrain tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, with wide variation in clinical and MRI features, related to the site and type of tumour. MRI not only allows precise analysis of their growth pattern, but also can lead to a correct preoperative diagnosis in the majority of cases. (orig.) (orig.)

  6. Spatio-temporal cell dynamics in tumour spheroid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, H.; Bleicher, M.; Meyer-Hermann, M.; Kempf, H.; Bleicher, M.; Kempf, H.; Meyer-Hermann, M.

    2010-01-01

    Multicellular tumour spheroids are realistic in vitro systems in radiation research that integrate cell-cell interaction and cell cycle control by factors in the medium. The dynamic reaction inside a tumour spheroid triggered by radiation is not well understood. Of special interest is the amount of cell cycle synchronization which could be triggered by irradiation, since this would allow follow-up irradiations to exploit the increased sensitivity of certain cell cycle phases. In order to investigate these questions we need to support irradiation experiments with mathematical models. In this article a new model is introduced combining the dynamics of tumour growth and irradiation treatments. The tumour spheroid growth is modelled using an agent-based Delaunay/Voronoi hybrid model in which the cells are represented by weighted dynamic vertices. Cell properties like full cell cycle dynamics are included. In order to be able to distinguish between different cell reactions in response to irradiation quality we introduce a probabilistic model for damage dynamics. The overall cell survival from this model is in agreement with predictions from the linear-quadratic model. Our model can describe the growth of avascular tumour spheroids in agreement to experimental results. Using the probabilistic model for irradiation damage dynamics the classic 'four Rs' of radiotherapy can be studied in silico. We found a pronounced reactivation of the tumour spheroid in response to irradiation. A majority of the surviving cells is synchronized in their cell cycle progression after irradiation. The cell synchronization could be actively triggered and should be exploited in an advanced fractionation scheme. Thus it has been demonstrated that our model could be used to understand the dynamics of tumour growth after irradiation and to propose optimized fractionation schemes in cooperation with experimental investigations. (authors)

  7. The Janus face of death receptor signalling during tumour immunoediting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear O' Reilly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immune-surveillance is essential for the inhibition of carcinogenesis. Malignantly transformed cells can be recognised by both the innate and adaptive immune systems through different mechanisms. Immune effector cells induce extrinsic cell death in the identified tumour cells by expressing death ligand cytokines of the tumour necrosis factor ligand family. However, some tumour cells can escape immune elimination and progress. Acquisition of resistance to the death-ligand induced apoptotic pathway can be obtained through cleavage of effector-cell expressed death-ligands into a poorly active form, mutations or silencing of the death receptors or overexpression of decoy receptors and pro-survival proteins. Although the immune system is highly effective in the elimination of malignantly transformed cells, abnormal/ dysfunctional death-ligand signalling curbs its cytotoxicity. Moreover, death receptors can also transmit pro-survival and pro-migratory signals. Consequently, dysfunctional death receptor-mediated apoptosis/necroptosis signalling does not only give a passive resistance against cell death, but actively drives tumour cell motility, invasion and contributes to consequent metastasis. This dual contribution of the death ligand-death receptor signalling in both the early, elimination phase and then in the late, escape phase of the tumour immunoediting process is discussed in this review. Death receptor agonists still hold potential for cancer therapy since they can execute the tumour-eliminating immune-effector function even in the absence of activation of the immune system against the tumour. The opportunities and challenges of developing death receptor agonists into effective cancer therapeutics are also discussed.

  8. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for malignant liver tumours in challenging locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelogrigoris, Michalis; Laspas, Fotios; Kyrkou, Katerina; Stathopoulos, Kostas; Georgiadou, Vithleem; Thanos, Loucas

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment results of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for primary and metastatic malignant liver tumours in challenging locations and also to present the treatment strategy that was used in these cases.From January 2007 to January 2010, we performed CT-guided RFA on 528 lesions in 402 patients (265 men and 137 women; mean age 65.1 years, range 19–82 years) with liver tumours (primary and metastatic) of which 98 lesions in 84 patients (55 men and 29 women; mean age 67.8 years, range 33–82 years) were located in challenging locations, defined as less than 5 mm from a large vessel or an extrahepatic organ (heart, lung, gall bladder, right kidney or gastrointestinal tract). The sizes of the tumours ranged 1.5–6 cm. We used two different RFA systems with an expandable needle electrode (RITA; Rita Medical Systems, Inc, Mountain View, CA, USA and MIRAS; Invatec S.r.l., Roncadelle, Italy).The tumours were considered as ablated completely if no viability was found on dual-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced CT at 1 month after RFA. Complete ablation was obtained in 89.7% (88/98) of the high-risk located lesions, while 10 (10.3%) of the lesions were managed with repeated RFA because of tumour residue. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 82.6, 67.3 and 54.1%, respectively. Minor complications occurred in eight of the 84 patients (9.5%), including small sub-capsular haematoma in four, small pleural effusion in three and partial liver infarction in one. Local tumour progression rate was 9.2% (9/98). RFA is a safe and effective method of treatment of primary and metastatic liver tumours even located in challenging locations when performed by a well-trained and experienced interventional radiologist.

  9. Tumour-associated microglia/macrophages predict poor prognosis in high-grade gliomas and correlate with an aggressive tumour subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M D; Dahlrot, R H; Boldt, H B

    2018-01-01

    (+) TAMs co-expressed proteins related to tumour aggressiveness including matrix metallopeptidase-14 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to use automated quantitative immunofluorescence to determine the prognostic impact of TAMs. Our results suggest that M2-like TAMs hold......AIMS: Glioblastomas are highly aggressive and treatment resistant. Increasing evidence suggests that tumour-associated macrophages/microglia (TAMs) facilitate tumour progression by acquiring a M2-like phenotype. Our objective was to investigate the prognostic value of TAMs in gliomas using...

  10. Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies - how do they arise?

    OpenAIRE

    Levis, Angelo G; Minicuci, Nadia; Ricci, Paolo; Gennaro, Valerio; Garbisa, Spiridione

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Whether or not there is a relationship between use of mobile phones (analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless) and head tumour risk (brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, and salivary gland tumours) is still a matter of debate; progress requires a critical analysis of the methodological elements necessary for an impartial evaluation of contradictory studies. Methods A close examination of the protocols and results from all case-control and cohort studies, pooled- and meta-...

  11. Modelling breast cancer tumour growth for a stable disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isheden, Gabriel; Humphreys, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Statistical models of breast cancer tumour progression have been used to further our knowledge of the natural history of breast cancer, to evaluate mammography screening in terms of mortality, to estimate overdiagnosis, and to estimate the impact of lead-time bias when comparing survival times between screen detected cancers and cancers found outside of screening programs. Multi-state Markov models have been widely used, but several research groups have proposed other modelling frameworks based on specifying an underlying biological continuous tumour growth process. These continuous models offer some advantages over multi-state models and have been used, for example, to quantify screening sensitivity in terms of mammographic density, and to quantify the effect of body size covariates on tumour growth and time to symptomatic detection. As of yet, however, the continuous tumour growth models are not sufficiently developed and require extensive computing to obtain parameter estimates. In this article, we provide a detailed description of the underlying assumptions of the continuous tumour growth model, derive new theoretical results for the model, and show how these results may help the development of this modelling framework. In illustrating the approach, we develop a model for mammography screening sensitivity, using a sample of 1901 post-menopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.

  12. The Askin tumour. Neuroactodermic tumour of the thoracic wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, P.; Nicolas, A. I.; Vivas, I.; Damaso Aquerreta, J.; Martinez-Cuesta, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Askin tumours is an extremely rare and malignant process in the thoracic pulmonary region during infancy and youth. The differential diagnosis has to be considered with other thoracic wall tumours that are more common in pediatrics like the undifferentiated neuroblastoma, the embionic rabdomiosarcoma, the Ewing sarcoma and the linfoma. A retrospective examination was carried out on 473 thoracic wall tumours from 1994 to 1997 at our centre, resulting in 4 patients with an anatomopathologically tested Askin tumour (ages from 13-21). All the cases were studied using simple radiography and CT. In two cases MRI was also used. The most common clinical manifestation was a palpable painful mass in the thoracic wall. In the simple radiograph the main finding was a large mass of extrapleural soft material, with costal destruction ( n=3) and a pleural effusion (n=2). In the CT study the mass was heterogeneous, with internal calcifications in one case. CT and MRI showed invasion in the mediastinum (n=1), medular channel (n=1) and phrenic and sulphrenic extension (n=1). The Askin tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic wall masses in infant-youth ages. There are no specific morphological characteristics. Both CT and MRI are useful for the diagnosis, staging and follow up. (Author) 11 refs

  13. Childhood Adrenocortical Tumours: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques-Pereira Rosana

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood adrenocortical tumour (ACT is not a common disease, but in southern Brazil the prevalence is 15 times higher than in other parts of the world. One hundred and thirty-seven patients have been identified and followed by our group over the past four decades. Affected children are predominantly girls, with a female-to-male ratio of 3.5:1 in patients below 4 years of age. Virilization alone (51.6% or mixed with Cushing's syndrome (42.0% was the predominant clinical picture observed in these patients. Tumours are unilateral, affecting both glands equally. TP53 R337H germline mutations underlie most childhood ACTs in southern Brazil. Epidemiological data from our casuistic studies revealed that this mutation has ~10% penetrance for ACT. Surgery is the definitive treatment, and a complete resection should always be attempted. Although adjuvant chemotherapy has shown some encouraging results, its influence on overall outcome is small. The survival rate is directly correlated to tumour size; patients with small, completely excised tumours have survival rates close to 90%, whereas in those patients with inoperable tumours and/or metastatic disease it is less than 10%. In the group of patients with large, excisable tumours, half of them have an intermediate outcome. Recent molecular biology techniques and genomic approaches may help us to better understand the pathogenesis of ACT, the risk of developing a tumour when TP53 R337H is present, and to predict its outcome. An ongoing pilot study consisting of close monitoring of healthy carriers of the TP53 R337H mutation - siblings and first-degree relatives of known affected cases - aims at the early detection of ACTs and an improvement of the cure rate.

  14. Hypothesis: solid tumours behave as systemic metabolic dictators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Ming; Chang, Wei-Chun; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2016-06-01

    Current knowledge regarding mechanisms of carcinogenesis in human beings centres around the accumulation of genetic instability, amplified cellular signalling, disturbed cellular energy metabolism and microenvironmental regulation governed by complicated cell-cell interactions. In this article, we provide an alternative view of cancer biology. We propose that cancer behaves as a systemic dictator that interacts with tissues throughout the body to control their metabolism and eventually homeostasis. The mechanism of development of this endocrine organ-like tumour (EOLT) tissue might be the driving force for cancer progression. Here, we review the literature that led to the development of this hypothesis. The EOLT phenotype can be defined as a tumour that alters systemic homeostasis. The literature indicates that the EOLT phenotype is present throughout cancer progression. The feedback mechanism that governs the interaction between tumours and various organs is unknown. We believe that investigating the mechanism of EOLT development may advance the current knowledge of regulation within the tumour macroenvironment and consequently lead to new diagnostic methods and therapy. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. Imaging in unilateral Wilms tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, Herve J.; Smets, Anne M.; Kaste, Sue C.; Owens, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumour is one of the most common malignancies in children, with an excellent prognosis after therapy. There is a very diverse approach to treatment according to geographical location. This variation in therapeutic attitude toward Wilms tumour, particularly between the United States and Europe, has consequences for the choice of imaging modality at diagnosis. In Europe, the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) treatment protocol is based on chemotherapy followed by surgery. Imaging (US, CT and MRI), clinical history and examination will help predict whether the findings are consistent with Wilms tumour. Furthermore, in the UK preoperative image-guided biopsy is advised to help identify the small group of patients who, despite typical imaging features of Wilms tumour, have other types of neoplasia that require alternative management. In the United States, the National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS) advises surgery prior to chemo- and radiotherapy. Hence imaging must provide detailed anatomical information for surgical planning. This article discusses the role of imaging at diagnosis and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the available radiological techniques. We also focus on imaging the lung for metastatic disease and the consequences (to the patient's ultimate outcome) of CT-diagnosed small pulmonary nodules and discuss the radiological diagnosis and consequences of tumour rupture present at diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. A slow progressor HIV-infected boy developing quadriplegia with evidence of Epstein-Barr virus associated smooth muscle tumour of the cervical spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Wilaisakditipakorn, Tanaporn; Vilaisaktipakorn, Pitchamol; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of slowly progressive HIV in an 11-year-old boy whose initial presenting AIDS-defining symptom was progressive quadriplegia with complete cord compression and pathological confirmation of Epstein-Barr virus associated smooth muscle tumour. Despite tumour removal, quadriplegia persisted as did ventilator dependence.

  17. A slow progressor HIV-infected boy developing quadriplegia with evidence of Epstein-Barr virus associated smooth muscle tumour of the cervical spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilaisakditipakorn, Tanaporn; Vilaisaktipakorn, Pitchamol; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2015-06-29

    The authors report a case of slowly progressive HIV in an 11-year-old boy whose initial presenting AIDS-defining symptom was progressive quadriplegia with complete cord compression and pathological confirmation of Epstein-Barr virus associated smooth muscle tumour. Despite tumour removal, quadriplegia persisted as did ventilator dependence. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Tocopherol in irradiation of temporary hypoxic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaagerud, A.; Lund, N.; Peterson, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of tocopherol on the effect of local irradiation under induced ischaemia by temporary tourniquet of two rat tumours transplanted intramuscularly into one hindleg was evaluated. An impaired retardation of growth rate occurred in tumours irradiated under ischaemia. This effect was eliminated by pretreatment of animals with tocopherol. In separate experiments the method of inducing ischaemia was investigated by MDO-electrode measurements of tumour tissue oxygen pressure. A significant tumour hypoxia was found under tourniquet of the tumour-bearing leg of the animals. Pretreatment with tocopherol did not influence the tumour pO 2 . (Auth.)

  19. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  20. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  1. Targeted radiotherapy with Sm-153-EDTMP in nine cases of canine primary bone tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Milner

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Nine dogs with primary bone tumours were treated with Samarium-153-EDTMP (Sm-153- EDTMP. Conventional treatment protocols were precluded by the size of the dogs and the owners' refusal of limb amputation. All the tumours were of the appendicular skeleton; 4 were confirmed osteosarcomas. The other 5 tumours were radiologically suspect for osteosarcoma. Bone scans were performed on all dogs using Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m-MDP before administration of Sm-153-EDTMP. Regions of interest were identified over the contralateral limb at the same site as the tumour and counts per pixel were recorded for the tumour and contralateral limb and expressed as a ratio. The dogs were given 1 injection of 37 MBq/kg (1 mCi/kg of Sm-153-EDTMP intravenously. Thoracic and primary tumour site radiographs were taken at monthly or 2-monthly intervals to monitor progression of the primary tumour and search for evidence of metastasis. Two dogs showed no response to treatment, with an increase in bone pain, and were euthanased within 1 month. In 1 dog, a tumour of the scapula underwent complete involution and the dog is considered free of disease at 20 months post Sm-153-EDTMP treatment. The overall tumourcidal effect of a single dose of Sm-153-EDTMP on primary bone tumours was difficult to evaluate in this group of dogs, as, with one exception, all the primary tumours progressed over time and the dogs were euthanased. Pain control, for which Sm-155-EDTMP is used in man, was not evident, except in the dog that responded completely to treatment.

  2. Primary tonsillar mast cell tumour in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekell, C C; Thomson, M J; Miller, R I; Mackie, J T

    2018-05-01

    A 6-year-old speyed female Bull Arab-cross dog was found to have a small tonsillar nodule. Histological examination revealed a well-differentiated mast cell tumour (MCT). At initial staging, no evidence of concurrent cutaneous or visceral MCTs was found on a complete blood count, a single lateral thoracic radiograph, abdominal ultrasound or cytology of the spleen and regional lymph nodes. A diagnosis of primary tonsillar MCT was made. At 40 months postoperatively, the dog is alive with no evidence of gross tumour progression, in contrast to some previous reports of rapid disease progression and metastasis in dogs with primary oral MCTs. To the authors' knowledge, no previous reports of a primary MCT of the tonsil in dogs exist in the veterinary literature. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Leaky vessels as a potential source of stromal acidification in tumours

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Natasha K.

    2010-12-01

    Malignant tumours are characterised by higher rates of acid production and a lower extracellular pH than normal tissues. Previous mathematical modelling has indicated that the tumour-derived production of acid leads to a gradient of low pH in the interior of the tumour extending to a normal pH in the peritumoural tissue. This paper uses mathematical modelling to examine the potential of leaky vessels as an additional source of stromal acidification in tumours. We explore whether and to what extent increasing vascular permeability in vessels can lead to the breakdown of the acid gradient from the core of the tumour to the normal tissue, and a progressive acidification of the peritumoural stroma. We compare our mathematical simulations to experimental results found in vivo with a tumour implanted in the mammary fat pad of a mouse in a window chamber construct. We find that leaky vasculature can cause a net acidification of the normal tissue away from the tumour boundary, though not a progressive acidification over time as seen in the experiments. Only through progressively increasing the leakiness can the model qualitatively reproduce the experimental results. Furthermore, the extent of the acidification predicted by the mathematical model is less than as seen in the window chamber, indicating that although vessel leakiness might be acting as a source of acid, it is not the only factor contributing to this phenomenon. Nevertheless, tumour destruction of vasculature could result in enhanced stromal acidification and invasion, hence current therapies aimed at buffering tumour pH should also examine the possibility of preventing vessel disruption.

  4. Comparative tumour localization properties of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody preparations of defined immunoreactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, M.V.; Baldwin, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The immunoreactive fraction of an anti-CEA monoclonal antibody preparation has been progressively decreased by the addition of increasing proportions of impurity in the form of immunologically inert mouse immunoglobulin. Following radioiodination, the immunoreactive fractions of the preparations were determined and their localization in a human tumour xenograft in nude mice was assessed. There was a progressive decline in tumour localization, from tumour to blood ratios of 2:1 with unadulterated antibody to 0.6:1 with preparations only 15% with respect to the initial antibody. These findings demonstrate that the immunoreactive fraction of monoclonal antibody preparations is a major limiting factor in tumour localization and this has implications for experimental and clinical applications of monoclonal antibodies. (orig.)

  5. Lack of relationship between TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity, treatment efficacy and prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Christensen, Rikke Kølby

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may ther...... immunoreactivity in tumour tissue from patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer did not correlate with patient survival or response to combination platinum/cyclophosphamide therapy.......BACKGROUND: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may...... therefore play an essential role in the progression of a malignant tumour.The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate TIMP-1 protein immunoreactivity in tissue from primary ovarian cancer patients and associate these findings with the course of the disease including response to treatment...

  6. Tumour-associated microglia/macrophages predict poor prognosis in high-grade gliomas and correlate with an aggressive tumour subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M D; Dahlrot, R H; Boldt, H B

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Glioblastomas are highly aggressive and treatment resistant. Increasing evidence suggests that tumour-associated macrophages/microglia (TAMs) facilitate tumour progression by acquiring a M2-like phenotype. Our objective was to investigate the prognostic value of TAMs in gliomas using...... automated quantitative double immunofluorescence. METHODS: Samples from 240 patients with primary glioma were stained with antibodies against ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (IBA-1) and cluster of differentiation 204 (CD204) to detect TAMs and M2-like TAMs. The expression levels were quantified...... by software-based classifiers. The associations between TAMs, gemistocytic cells and glioblastoma subtype were examined with immuno- and haematoxylin-eosin stainings. Three tissue arrays containing glioblastoma specimens were included to study IBA-1/CD204 levels in central tumour and tumour periphery...

  7. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewole, I.F.

    1999-02-01

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  8. Mohs micrographic surgery of rare cutaneous tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flohil, S.C.; Lee, C.B. van; Beisenherz, J.; Mureau, M.A.M.; Overbeek, L.I.H.; Nijsten, T.; Bos, R.R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrence rates after Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for rare cutaneous tumours are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the recurrence rate after MMS for rare cutaneous tumours at a university centre. METHODS & MATERIALS: Retrospective review of all rare cutaneous tumours treated

  9. Putting tumours in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process

  10. Androgen deprivation results in time-dependent hypoxia in LNCaP prostate tumours: informed scheduling of the bioreductive drug AQ4N improves treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Louise; Byrne, Niall M; Camac, Sarah Nicole; Mitchell, Christopher A; Ward, Claire; Waugh, David J; McKeown, Stephanie R; Worthington, Jenny

    2013-03-15

    Androgen withdrawal induces hypoxia in androgen-sensitive tissue; this is important as in the tumour microenvironment, hypoxia is known to drive malignant progression. Our study examined the time-dependent effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on tumour oxygenation and investigated the role of ADT-induced hypoxia on malignant progression in prostate tumours. LNCaP xenografted tumours were treated with anti-androgens and tumour oxygenation measured. Dorsal skin fold (DSF) chambers were used to image tumour vasculature in vivo. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) identified differential gene expression following treatment with bicalutamide. Bicalutamide-treated and vehicle-only-treated tumours were re-established in vitro, and invasion and sensitivity to docetaxel were measured. Tumour growth delay was calculated following treatment with bicalutamide combined with the bioreductive drug AQ4N. Tumour oxygenation measurements showed a precipitate decrease following initiation of ADT. A clinically relevant dose of bicalutamide (2 mg/kg/day) decreased tumour oxygenation by 45% within 24 hr, reaching a nadir of 0.09% oxygen (0.67 ± 0.06 mmHg) by Day 7; this persisted until Day 14 when it increased up to Day 28. Using DSF chambers, LNCaP tumours treated with bicalutamide showed loss of small vessels at Days 7 and 14 with revascularisation occurring by Day 21. QPCR showed changes in gene expression consistent with the vascular changes and malignant progression. Cells from bicalutamide-treated tumours were more malignant than vehicle-treated controls. Combining bicalutamide with AQ4N (50 mg/kg, single dose) caused greater tumour growth delay than bicalutamide alone. Our study shows that bicalutamide-induced hypoxia selects for cells that show malignant progression; targeting hypoxic cells may provide greater clinical benefit. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  11. Detection of apoptotic cells in tumour paraffin sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizem, J.; Coer, A.

    2003-01-01

    Apoptosis is a distinct form of cell death characterised by specific morphological features and regulated by complex molecular mechanisms. Its deregulation is fundamental for tumour growth and progression and, moreover, anticancer therapies suppress tumour growth mainly by induction of apoptosis. Since the extent of apoptosis in a tumour may have prognostic as well as therapeutic implications, much effort has been invested in developing specific methods that can be routinely used to detect apoptotic cells in archival formalin- fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Complex molecular pathways are involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Pro-apoptotic signals trigger activation of caspases that specifically cleave target proteins. Cleavage of proteins (caspase substrates) is responsible for morphological changes of apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation. In the last decade, detection of apoptotic cells in formalin-fixed tumour tissue sections has been based mainly on morphology and characteristic DNA fragmentation. Recently, specific antibodies to activated caspases and cleaved target proteins (including cytokeratin 18, actin and PARP) have been produced that enable accurate detection of apoptosis in paraffin sections. (author)

  12. Total {sup 18}F-dopa PET tumour uptake reflects metabolic endocrine tumour activity in patients with a carcinoid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Brouwers, Adrienne H. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim; Links, Thera P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Endocrinology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-dopa) has an excellent sensitivity to detect carcinoid tumour lesions. {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake and the levels of biochemical tumour markers are mediated by tumour endocrine metabolic activity. We evaluated whether total {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake on PET, defined as whole-body metabolic tumour burden (WBMTB), reflects tumour load per patient, as measured with tumour markers. Seventy-seven consecutive carcinoid patients who underwent an {sup 18}F-dopa PET scan in two previously published studies were analysed. For all tumour lesions mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) at 40% of the maximal SUV and tumour volume on {sup 18}F-dopa PET were determined and multiplied to calculate a metabolic burden per lesion. WBMTB was the sum of the metabolic burden of all individual lesions per patient. The 24-h urinary serotonin, urine and plasma 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), catecholamines (nor)epinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites, measured in urine and plasma, and serum chromogranin A served as tumour markers. All but 1 were evaluable for WBMTB; 74 patients had metastatic disease. {sup 18}F-dopa PET detected 979 lesions. SUV{sub max} on {sup 18}F-dopa PET varied up to 29-fold between individual lesions within the same patients. WBMTB correlated with urinary serotonin (r = 0.51) and urinary and plasma 5-HIAA (r = 0.78 and 0.66). WBMTB also correlated with urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and plasma dopamine, but not with serum chromogranin A. Tumour load per patient measured with {sup 18}F-dopa PET correlates with tumour markers of the serotonin and catecholamine pathway in urine and plasma in carcinoid patients, reflecting metabolic tumour activity. (orig.)

  13. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  14. Fast growth associated with aberrant vasculature and hypoxia in fibroblast growth factor 8b (FGF8b) over-expressing PC-3 prostate tumour xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomela, Johanna; Solin, Olof; Minn, Heikki; Härkönen, Pirkko L; Grönroos, Tove J; Valta, Maija P; Sandholm, Jouko; Schrey, Aleksi; Seppänen, Jani; Marjamäki, Päivi; Forsback, Sarita; Kinnunen, Ilpo

    2010-01-01

    Prostate tumours are commonly poorly oxygenated which is associated with tumour progression and development of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and radiotherapy. Fibroblast growth factor 8b (FGF8b) is a mitogenic and angiogenic factor, which is expressed at an increased level in human prostate tumours and is associated with a poor prognosis. We studied the effect of FGF8b on tumour oxygenation and growth parameters in xenografts in comparison with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-expressing xenografts, representing another fast growing and angiogenic tumour model. Subcutaneous tumours of PC-3 cells transfected with FGF8b, VEGF or empty (mock) vectors were produced and studied for vascularity, cell proliferation, glucose metabolism and oxygenation. Tumours were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), flow cytometry, use of radiolabelled markers of energy metabolism ([ 18 F]FDG) and hypoxia ([ 18 F]EF5), and intratumoral polarographic measurements of pO 2 . Both FGF8b and VEGF tumours grew rapidly in nude mice and showed highly vascularised morphology. Perfusion studies, pO 2 measurements, [ 18 F]EF5 and [ 18 F]FDG uptake as well as IHC staining for glucose transport protein (GLUT1) and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1 showed that VEGF xenografts were well-perfused and oxygenised, as expected, whereas FGF8b tumours were as hypoxic as mock tumours. These results suggest that FGF8b-induced tumour capillaries are defective. Nevertheless, the growth rate of hypoxic FGF8b tumours was highly increased, as that of well-oxygenised VEGF tumours, when compared with hypoxic mock tumour controls. FGF8b is able to induce fast growth in strongly hypoxic tumour microenvironment whereas VEGF-stimulated growth advantage is associated with improved perfusion and oxygenation of prostate tumour xenografts

  15. MRI of primary meningeal tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, H.K.; Na, D.G.; Byun, H.S.; Han, B.K.; Kim, S.S.; Kim, I.O.; Shin, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Childhood meningeal tumours are uncommon and mostly meningiomas. We reviewed the histological and radiological findings in meningeal tumours in six children aged 12 years or less (four benign meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma). Compared to the adult counterpart, childhood meningiomas showed atypical features: cysts, haemorrhage, aggressiveness and unusual location. MRI features varied according to the site of the tumour, histology, haemorrhage, and presence of intra- or peritumoral cysts. Diagnosis of the extra-axial tumour was relatively easy in two patients with meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma. MRI findings strongly suggested an intra-axial tumour in two patients with benign meningiomas, because of severe adjacent edema. Awareness of the variable findings of childhood meningiomas and similar tumours may help in differentiation from brain tumours. (orig.)

  16. Primary bone tumours of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Azouz, E.M.; Campbell, J.; Marton, D.; Morris, L.; Padovani, J.; Sprague, P.; Beluffi, G.; Berzero, G.F.; Cherubino, P.; Adelaide Children's Hospital; Hospital for Children, Perth; Montreal Children's Hospital, Quebec; Saint Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec; Children's Hospital, Denver, CO; Hopital des Enfants, 13 - Marseille; Pavia Univ.; Pavia Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-one primary bone tumours of the hand in children from 8 paediatric hospitals are reported. Osteochondromas and enchondromas were not included. Our material consisted of 16 patients with common tumours (3 Ewing's sarcoma, 5 aneurysmal bone cyst, 6 osteoid osteoma and 2 epithelioma) and 5 patients with uncommon tumours (osteoma, simple bone cyst, haemangiopericytoma, capillary angiomatous tumour and benign ossifying fibroma or osteoblastoma). The X-ray diagnosis of the common tumours should have high concordance with histology, whereas that of uncommon tumours in much more difficult and uncertain. The characteristic features of Ewing's sarcoma are stressed as all our children with this tumour had a delayed diagnosis and a fatal outcome. Differential diagnosis with other short tubular bone lesions of the hand - specifically osteomyelitis - is discussed and the posibilities of microscopic diagnosis are stressed. (orig.)

  17. Radiodiagnosis of tumours of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Yu.N.; Antonovich, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic description of X-ray picture of tumours of gastrointestinal tract organs is given. The possibilities of contemporary methods of X-ray examination in their revealing are shown. Clinical and X-ray trend of tumour diagnosis is underlined. The basic and accessory symptoms are analyzed from which X-ray semiotics of tumours is turned out. The expressiveness of X-ray symptoms is shown in relation to morphological forms and localization of the tumours. Much attention is given to radiodiagnosis of early tumours of stomach. Differential diagnosis of tumours with non-tumoural diseases is given. X-ray semiotics of lesions of gastrointestinal tract organs in malignant diseases of blood system is presented [ru

  18. Teratoid Wilms tumour with chemotherapy resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Gahine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Teratoid Wilms tumour (a rare histologic variant in a 4 year old male who presented with an abdominal lump. Wilms Tumour with paracaval lymphadenopathy and tumour thrombi in right renal vein and inferior vena cava was made radiologically. FNAC report was suggestive of Wilms tumour and patient was subjected to 6 cycles of chemotherapy with not much reduction in size. Post nephrectomy histological diagnosis of Teratoid Wilms tumour was established. Resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is thought to be due to presence of well differentiated histologic appearance. Teratoid Wilms tumour is usually not an aggressive neoplasm and prognosis is comparatively neoplasm and prognosis is comparatively good if the tumour is excised completely thus surgery being the best treatment.

  19. CNS embryonal tumours: WHO 2016 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, J C; Hawkins, C; Pietsch, T; Jacques, T S

    2018-02-01

    Embryonal tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) present a significant clinical challenge. Many of these neoplasms affect young children, have a very high mortality and therapeutic strategies are often aggressive with poor long-term outcomes. There is a great need to accurately diagnose embryonal tumours, predict their outcome and adapt therapy to the individual patient's risk. For the first time in 2016, the WHO classification took into account molecular characteristics for the diagnosis of CNS tumours. This integration of histological features with genetic information has significantly changed the diagnostic work-up and reporting of tumours of the CNS. However, this remains challenging in embryonal tumours due to their previously unaccounted tumour heterogeneity. We describe the recent revisions made to the 4th edition of the WHO classification of CNS tumours and review the main changes, while highlighting some of the more common diagnostic testing strategies. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  20. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  1. [Awake craniotomy for brain tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Peter; Metcalf, Kerstin; Vigren, Patrick; Lindehammar, Hans; Nilsson, Malin; Boström, Sverre

    2016-10-11

    Awake craniotomy for brain tumours  Awake neurosurgery is a useful method in lesions near eloquent brain areas, particularly low-grade gliomas.The aim is to maximise tumour resection and preserve neurological function. We performed 40 primary awake surgeries and 8 residual surgeries. Patients were operated awake throughout the procedure or with a laryngeal mask and general anaesthesia during the opening stage and then awake during intracerebral surgery. Language and motor function were mapped with direct cortical stimulation, motor evoked potential and standardised neurological testing. Radiologically, complete resection was achieved in 18 out of 40 patients in the primary surgeries. Full neurological recovery at three months was observed in 29 patients. Of the 11 patients with persisting neurological deficits at three months, symptoms were present preoperatively in 9 patients. We conclude that awake surgery, combined with intraoperative neurophysiological methods, is a safe method to improve treatment for low-grade gliomas.

  2. Reconstructive options in pelvic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic tumours present a complex problem. It is difficult to choose between limb salvage and hemipelvectomy. Method: Forty three patients of tumours of pelvis underwent limb salvage resection with reconstruction in 32 patients. The majority were chondrosarcomas (20 cases followed by Ewing sarcoma. Stage II B was the most common stage in malignant lesions and all the seven benign lesions were aggressive (B3. Surgical margins achieved were wide in 31 and marginal in 12 cases. Ilium was involved in 51% of cases and periacetabular involvement was seen in 12 patients. The resections done were mostly of types I &II of Enneking′s classification of pelvic resection. Arthrodesis was attempted in 24 patients. Customized Saddle prosthesis was used in seven patients and no reconstruction in 12 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all high-grade malignant tumours, combined with radiotherapy in 7 patients. Results: With a mean follow up of 48.5 months and one patient lost to follow up, the recurrence rate among the evaluated cases was 16.6%. Oncologically, 30 patients were continuously disease free with 7 local recurrences and 4 deaths due to disseminated disease and 2 patients died of other causes. During the initial years, satisfactory functional results were achieved with prosthetic replacement. Long-term functional result of 36 patients who were alive at the time of latest follow up was satisfactory in 75% who underwent arthrodesis and in those where no reconstruction was used. We also describe a method of new classification of pelvic resections that clarifies certain shortcomings of the previous systems of classification. Conclusion: Selection of a procedure depends largely on the patient factors, the tumour grade, the resultant defect and the tissue factors. Resection with proper margins gives better functional and oncological results

  3. Low tumour cell content in a lung tumour bank: implications for molecular characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Felicia; Duhig, Edwina E; Clarke, Belinda E; McCaul, Elizabeth; Passmore, Linda; Courtney, Deborah; Windsor, Morgan; Naidoo, Rishendren; Franz, Louise; Parsonson, Kylie; Yang, Ian A; Bowman, Rayleen V; Fong, Kwun M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer encompasses multiple malignant epithelial tumour types, each with specific targetable, potentially actionable mutations, such that precision management mandates accurate tumour typing. Molecular characterisation studies require high tumour cell content and low necrosis content, yet lung cancers are frequently a heterogeneous mixture of tumour and stromal cells. We hypothesised that there may be systematic differences in tumour cell content according to histological subtype, and that this may have implications for tumour banks as a resource for comprehensive molecular characterisation studies in lung cancer. To investigate this, we estimated tumour cell and necrosis content of 4267 samples resected from 752 primary lung tumour specimens contributed to a lung tissue bank. We found that banked lung cancer samples had low tumour cell content (33%) generally, although it was higher in carcinoids (77.5%) than other lung cancer subtypes. Tumour cells comprise a variable and often small component of banked resected tumour samples, and are accompanied by stromal reaction, inflammation, fibrosis, and normal structures. This has implications for the adequacy of unselected tumour bank samples for diagnostic and molecular investigations, and further research is needed to determine whether tumour cell content has a significant impact on analytical results in studies using tissue from tumour bank resources. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Allograft in bone tumour surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the last twenty years, there has been a vast improvement in the prognosis of primary malignant tumours of bone. This is due to many factors including early detection, staging and classification of tumours as a result of better staining and imaging techniques, better surgical technology, e.g. endoprosthesis and most importantly adjuvant treatment with cytotoxic drugs. As a result of long term survival, amputation of limb has more or less been replaced by limb salvage surgery. This procedure consists of two parts. Primary objective is of course complete removal of the tumour by adequate soft tissue cover and secondarily by reconstruction of the locomotor system, If possible with retention of the function of the limb. These procedures include endo-prosthetic replacement or arthroplasty and arthrodesis using autologus grafts, allograft or combination. With the development of bone banks and assured safety of preserved bones, reconstructive limb salvage surgery using massive allograft is gradually replacing prosthetic implants. The advantages include replacement of articular surfaces, incorporation of the graft to the host bone, attachment of bone tissue and increased probably permanent survival. Allograft can be used for intercalary replacement, osteo-articular arthroplasty arthrodesis or filling large cavities. Inherent complication of massive allograft are disease transmission, infection, delayed and non-union, pathological fractures, mechanical failure and joint destruction. Several limb salvage procedures using allografts have been carried out in our institution with one failure due to infection. Paucity of available allograft has restricted more such procedures to be carried out

  5. On the relationship between tumour growth rate and survival in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh B. Mistry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A recurrent question within oncology drug development is predicting phase III outcome for a new treatment using early clinical data. One approach to tackle this problem has been to derive metrics from mathematical models that describe tumour size dynamics termed re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth. They have shown to be strong predictors of overall survival in numerous studies but there is debate about how these metrics are derived and if they are more predictive than empirical end-points. This work explores the issues raised in using model-derived metric as predictors for survival analyses. Re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth were calculated for three large clinical studies by forward and reverse alignment. The latter involves re-aligning patients to their time of progression. Hence, it accounts for the time taken to estimate re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth but also assesses if these predictors correlate to survival from the time of progression. I found that neither re-growth rate nor time to tumour re-growth correlated to survival using reverse alignment. This suggests that the dynamics of tumours up until disease progression has no relationship to survival post progression. For prediction of a phase III trial I found the metrics performed no better than empirical end-points. These results highlight that care must be taken when relating dynamics of tumour imaging to survival and that bench-marking new approaches to existing ones is essential.

  6. Multiscale biomechanics of brain tumours favours cancer invasion by cell softening and tissue stiffening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Josef; Fritsch, Anatol; Grosser, Steffen; Friebe, Sabrina; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Müller, Wolf; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Sack, Ingolf

    Cancer progression needs two contradictory mechanical prerequisites. For metastasis individual cancer cells or small clusters have to flow through the microenvironment by overcoming the yield stress exerted by the surrounding. On the other hand a tumour has to behave as a solid to permit cell proliferation and spreading of the tumour mass against its surrounding. We determine that the high mechanical adaptability of cancer cells and the scale controlled viscoelastic properties of tissues reconcile both conflicting properties, fluid and solid, simultaneously in brain tumours. We resolve why different techniques that assess cell and tissue mechanics have produced apparently conflicting results by our finding that tumours generate different viscoelastic behaviours on different length scales, which are in concert optimal for tumour spreading and metastasis. Single cancer cells become very soft in their elastic behavior which promotes cell unjamming. On the level of direct cell-to-cell interactions cells feel their micro-environment as rigid elastic substrate that stimulates cancer on the molecular level. All over a tumour has predominately a stiff elastic character in terms of viscoelastic behaviour caused by a solid backbone. Simultaneously, the tumour mass is characterized by a large local variability in the storage and loss modulus that is caused by areas of a more fluid nature.

  7. Intra-Tumour Signalling Entropy Determines Clinical Outcome in Breast and Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Severini, Simone; Caldas, Carlos; Teschendorff, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    The cancer stem cell hypothesis, that a small population of tumour cells are responsible for tumorigenesis and cancer progression, is becoming widely accepted and recent evidence has suggested a prognostic and predictive role for such cells. Intra-tumour heterogeneity, the diversity of the cancer cell population within the tumour of an individual patient, is related to cancer stem cells and is also considered a potential prognostic indicator in oncology. The measurement of cancer stem cell abundance and intra-tumour heterogeneity in a clinically relevant manner however, currently presents a challenge. Here we propose signalling entropy, a measure of signalling pathway promiscuity derived from a sample’s genome-wide gene expression profile, as an estimate of the stemness of a tumour sample. By considering over 500 mixtures of diverse cellular expression profiles, we reveal that signalling entropy also associates with intra-tumour heterogeneity. By analysing 3668 breast cancer and 1692 lung adenocarcinoma samples, we further demonstrate that signalling entropy correlates negatively with survival, outperforming leading clinical gene expression based prognostic tools. Signalling entropy is found to be a general prognostic measure, valid in different breast cancer clinical subgroups, as well as within stage I lung adenocarcinoma. We find that its prognostic power is driven by genes involved in cancer stem cells and treatment resistance. In summary, by approximating both stemness and intra-tumour heterogeneity, signalling entropy provides a powerful prognostic measure across different epithelial cancers. PMID:25793737

  8. Intra-tumour signalling entropy determines clinical outcome in breast and lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R S Banerji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell hypothesis, that a small population of tumour cells are responsible for tumorigenesis and cancer progression, is becoming widely accepted and recent evidence has suggested a prognostic and predictive role for such cells. Intra-tumour heterogeneity, the diversity of the cancer cell population within the tumour of an individual patient, is related to cancer stem cells and is also considered a potential prognostic indicator in oncology. The measurement of cancer stem cell abundance and intra-tumour heterogeneity in a clinically relevant manner however, currently presents a challenge. Here we propose signalling entropy, a measure of signalling pathway promiscuity derived from a sample's genome-wide gene expression profile, as an estimate of the stemness of a tumour sample. By considering over 500 mixtures of diverse cellular expression profiles, we reveal that signalling entropy also associates with intra-tumour heterogeneity. By analysing 3668 breast cancer and 1692 lung adenocarcinoma samples, we further demonstrate that signalling entropy correlates negatively with survival, outperforming leading clinical gene expression based prognostic tools. Signalling entropy is found to be a general prognostic measure, valid in different breast cancer clinical subgroups, as well as within stage I lung adenocarcinoma. We find that its prognostic power is driven by genes involved in cancer stem cells and treatment resistance. In summary, by approximating both stemness and intra-tumour heterogeneity, signalling entropy provides a powerful prognostic measure across different epithelial cancers.

  9. Effective immunotherapy of weakly immunogenic solid tumours using a combined immunogene therapy and regulatory T-cell inactivation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelan, M C

    2012-01-31

    Obstacles to effective immunotherapeutic anti-cancer approaches include poor immunogenicity of the tumour cells and the presence of tolerogenic mechanisms in the tumour microenvironment. We report an effective immune-based treatment of weakly immunogenic, growing solid tumours using a locally delivered immunogene therapy to promote development of immune effector responses in the tumour microenvironment and a systemic based T regulatory cell (Treg) inactivation strategy to potentiate these responses by elimination of tolerogenic or immune suppressor influences. As the JBS fibrosarcoma is weakly immunogenic and accumulates Treg in its microenvironment with progressive growth, we used this tumour model to test our combined immunotherapies. Plasmids encoding GM-CSF and B7-1 were electrically delivered into 100 mm(3) tumours; Treg inactivation was accomplished by systemic administration of anti-CD25 antibody (Ab). Using this approach, we found that complete elimination of tumours was achieved at a level of 60% by immunogene therapy, 25% for Treg inactivation and 90% for combined therapies. Moreover, we found that these responses were immune transferable, systemic, tumour specific and durable. Combined gene-based immune effector therapy and Treg inactivation represents an effective treatment for weakly antigenic solid growing tumours and that could be considered for clinical development.

  10. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma Is a Rare but Important Tumour Found in the Oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Mohammad Murad Kasim; Jespersen, Marie Louise; Pilegaard, Hans Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) is a rare tumour of the gastrointestinal tract that consists of a dual adenocarcinomatous and neuroendocrine differentiation, each component representing at least 30% of the tumour. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with two...... as poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the oesophagus. The patient underwent surgery and lower oesophagus resection was performed. Based on the histopathology and immunohistochemistry of the tumour in the oesophagogastrectomy specimen, a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC......) was diagnosed. The objective of this case report is to advocate for the focus on the MANEC diagnosis as such patients need to be referred to a centre of excellence with expertise in NET tumours, to have the correct diagnostic work-up, treatment, and secondary diagnostic procedures performed at progression...

  11. Erythrokinetics in mice bearing tumours in either preirradiated or unirradiated tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirtle, R.L.; Clifton, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were designed to clarify the causes of anaemia in hosts bearing tumours in either unirradiated or preirradiated tissue. Isotopic methods are described which enable the estimation of erythrocyte destruction and production rates, and the potential red cell life spans in tumour-bearing animals. In this experimental system, anaemia (a) is in large part due to accelerated random erythrocyte loss, (b) is exacerbated as tumours grow by a progressive reduction in the potential erythrocyte life span due to intrinsic erythrocyte defects. (c) is accompanied by an increase in erythrocyte production of six- to ten-fold and (d) is postponed in onset and decreased in magnitude by preirradiation of the tumour transplant site. (author)

  12. Erythrokinetics in mice bearing tumours in either preirradiated or unirradiated tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirtle, R L; Clifton, K H [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Div. of Clinical Oncology

    1978-11-01

    Experiments were designed to clarify the causes of anaemia in hosts bearing tumours in either unirradiated or preirradiated tissue. Isotopic methods are described which enable the estimation of erythrocyte destruction and production rates, and the potential red cell life spans in tumour-bearing animals. In this experimental system, anaemia (a) is in large part due to accelerated random erythrocyte loss, (b) is exacerbated as tumours grow by a progressive reduction in the potential erythrocyte life span due to intrinsic erythrocyte defects. (c) is accompanied by an increase in erythrocyte production of six- to ten-fold and (d) is postponed in onset and decreased in magnitude by preirradiation of the tumour transplant site.

  13. Tumour-associated endothelial-FAK correlated with molecular sub-type and prognostic factors in invasive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulou, Annika N; Ho-Yen, Colan M; Papalazarou, Vassilis; Elia, George; Jones, J Louise; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into one of 4 main molecular sub-types: luminal A, luminal B, Her2 over-expressing and basal-like (BL). These tumour sub-types require different treatments and have different risks of disease progression. BL cancers can be considered a sub-group of Triple negative (TN) cancers since they lack estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and Her2 expression. No targeted treatment currently exists for TN/BL cancers. Thus it is important to identify potential therapeutic targets and describe their relationship with established prognostic factors. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is upregulated in several human cancers and also plays a functional role in tumour angiogenesis. However, the association between breast cancer sub-types and tumour endothelial-FAK expression is unknown. Using immunofluorescence, we quantified FAK expression in tumour endothelial and tumour cell compartments in 149 invasive breast carcinomas and correlated expression with clinical, pathological and molecular parameters. Low endothelial-FAK expression was independently associated with luminal A tumours at univariate (p < 0.001) and multivariate (p = 0.001) analysis. There was a positive correlation between FAK expression in the vascular and tumour cell compartments (Spearman’s correlation co-efficient = 0.394, p < 0.001). Additionally, endothelial and tumour cell FAK expression were significantly increased in TN tumours (p = 0.043 and p = 0.033 respectively), in tumours with negative ER and PR status, and in high grade tumours at univariate analysis. Our findings establish a relationship between endothelial-FAK expression levels and the molecular sub-type of invasive breast cancer, and suggest that endothelial-FAK expression is potentially more clinically relevant than tumour cell FAK expression in breast cancer

  14. Oncogenic signalling pathways in benign odontogenic cysts and tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Xavier, Guilherme Machado; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2017-09-01

    The first step towards the prevention of cancer is to develop an in-depth understanding of tumourigenesis and the molecular basis of malignant transformation. What drives tumour initiation? Why do most benign tumours fail to metastasize? Oncogenic mutations, previously considered to be the hallmark drivers of cancers, are reported in benign cysts and tumours, including those that have an odontogenic origin. Despite the presence of such alterations, the vast majority of odontogenic lesions are benign and never progress to the stage of malignant transformation. As these lesions are likely to develop due to developmental defects, it is possible that they harbour quiet genomes. Now the question arises - do they result from DNA replication errors? Specific candidate genes have been sequenced in odontogenic lesions, revealing recurrent BRAF mutation in the case of ameloblastoma, KRAS mutation in adenomatoid odontogenic tumours, PTCH1 mutation in odontogenic keratocysts, and CTNNB1 (Beta-catenin) mutation in calcifying odontogenic cysts. Studies on these benign and rare entities might reveal important information about the tumorigenic process and the mechanisms that hinder/halt neoplastic progression. This is because the role of relatively common oncogenic mutations seems to be context dependent. In this review, each mutation signature of the odontogenic lesion and the affected signalling pathways are discussed in the context of tooth development and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, behavioural differences between different types of odontogenic lesions are explored and discussed based on the molecular alteration described. This review also includes the employment of molecular results for guiding therapeutic approaches towards odontogenic lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Negative argininosuccinate synthetase expression in melanoma tumours may predict clinical benefit from arginine-depleting therapy with pegylated arginine deiminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feun, L G; Marini, A; Walker, G; Elgart, G; Moffat, F; Rodgers, S E; Wu, C J; You, M; Wangpaichitr, M; Kuo, M T; Sisson, W; Jungbluth, A A; Bomalaski, J; Savaraj, N

    2012-01-01

    Background: Arginine-depleting therapy with pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) was reported to have activity in advanced melanoma in early phase I–II trial, and clinical trials are currently underway in other cancers. However, the optimal patient population who benefit from this treatment is unknown. Methods: Advanced melanoma patients with accessible tumours had biopsy performed before the start of treatment with ADI-PEG20 and at the time of progression or relapse when amenable to determine whether argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression in tumour was predictive of response to ADI-PEG20. Results: Twenty-seven of thirty-eight patients treated had melanoma tumours assessable for ASS staining before treatment. Clinical benefit rate (CBR) and longer time to progression were associated with negative expression of tumour ASS. Only 1 of 10 patients with ASS-positive tumours (ASS+) had stable disease, whereas 4 of 17 (24%) had partial response and 5 had stable disease, when ASS expression was negative (ASS−), giving CBR rates of 52.9 vs 10%, P=0.041. Two responding patients with negative ASS expression before therapy had rebiopsy after tumour progression and the ASS expression became positive. The survival of ASS− patients receiving at least four doses at 320 IU m−2 was significantly better than the ASS+ group at 26.5 vs 8.5 months, P=0.024. Conclusion: ADI-PEG20 is safe and the drug is only efficacious in melanoma patients whose tumour has negative ASS expression. Argininosuccinate synthetase tumour positivity is associated with drug resistance and tumour progression. PMID:22472884

  16. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zagozdzon, Agnieszka M

    2012-05-30

    AbstractBackgroundNumerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study.ResultsA new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice) expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal.ConclusionsWe have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and\\/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  17. A case of insulin and ACTH co-secretion by a neuroendocrine tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomou, S; Khan, R; Propper, D; Berney, D; Druce, M

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old male was diagnosed with a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of uncertain primary. He defaulted from follow-up without therapy and some months later developed episodic severe hypoglycaemia, which was found to be associated with inappropriately elevated insulin and C-peptide levels. It was considered likely that the neuroendocrine tumour was the source of the insulin secretion. Diazoxide and somatostatin analogue were used to control hypoglycaemia. Much later in the course of the disease, he developed metabolic derangement, increased skin pigmentation and psychological disturbance, without frankly Cushingoid physical findings. Investigations revealed highly elevated cortisol levels (the levels having previously been normal) with markedly raised ACTH levels, consistent with the co-secretion of ACTH and insulin by the tumour. Treatment with metyrapone improved his psychological state and electrolyte imbalance. Unfortunately, despite several cycles of first-, second- and third-line chemotherapy from the start of the first hormonal presentation onwards, imaging revealed widespread progressive metastatic disease and the patient eventually passed away. This case highlights the importance of keeping in mind the biochemical heterogeneity of endocrine tumours during their treatment. The clinical presentation of insulin-secreting tumours includes symptoms of neuroglycopaenia and sympathetic overstimulation.Tumour-associated hypoglycaemia can be due to pancreatic insulinomas, and although ectopic hormone production occurs in a number of tumours, ectopic secretion of insulin is rare.A possible switch in the type of hormone produced can occur during the growth and progression of neuroendocrine tumours and, when treating neuroendocrine tumours, it is important to keep in mind their biochemical heterogeneity.

  18. Generation of a new bioluminescent model for visualisation of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagozdzon Agnieszka M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous transgenic models have been generated to study breast cancer. However, despite many advantages, traditional transgenic models for breast cancer are also burdened with difficulties in early detection and longitudinal observation of transgene-induced tumours, which in most cases are randomly located and occur at various time points. Methods such as palpation followed by mechanical measurement of the tumours are of limited value in transgenic models. There is a crucial need for making these previously generated models suitable for modern methods of tumour visualisation and monitoring, e.g. by bioluminescence-based techniques. This approach was successfully used in the current study. Results A new mouse strain (MMTV-Luc2 mice expressing Luc2 luciferase primarily in mammary tissue in females, with low-level background expression in internal organs, was generated and bred to homozygosity. After these mice were intercrossed with MMTV-PyVT mice, all double transgenic females developed mammary tumours by the age of 10 weeks, the localisation and progression of which could be effectively monitored using the luminescence-based in vivo imaging. Luminescence-based readout allowed for early visualisation of the locally overgrown mammary tissue and for longitudinal evaluation of local progression of the tumours. When sampled ex vivo at the age of 10 weeks, all tumours derived from MMTV-Luc2PyVT females displayed robust bioluminescent signal. Conclusions We have created a novel transgenic strain for visualisation and longitudinal monitoring of mammary tumour development in transgenic mice as an addition and/or a new and more advanced alternative to manual methods. Generation of this mouse strain is vital for making many of the existing mammary tumour transgenic models applicable for in vivo imaging techniques.

  19. Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, Anne M.; Kraker, Jan de

    2010-01-01

    Primitive malignant renal tumours comprise 6% of all childhood cancers. Wilms tumour (WT) or nephroblastoma is the most frequent type accounting for more than 90%. Imaging alone cannot differentiate between these tumours with certainty but it plays an important role in screening, diagnostic workup, assessment of therapy response, preoperative evaluation and follow-up. The outcome of WT after therapy is excellent with an overall survival around 90%. In tumours such as those where the outcome is extremely good, focus can be shifted to a risk-based stratification to maintain excellent outcome in children with low risk tumours while improving quality of life and decreasing toxicity and costs. This review will discuss the imaging issues for WT from the European perspective and briefly discuss the characteristics of other malignant renal tumours occurring in children and new imaging techniques with potential in this matter. (orig.)

  20. Tumour regrowth after irradiation. An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, H; Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1979-03-01

    Structural changes in irradiated tumours and their regrowth were studied in a rat hepatoma, AH109A, using histological and transparent-chamber techniques. The development of the tumour was examined by means of vascular morphometry as observed in the chamber. Schematically, the tumour tissue was divided into four isocentric layers according to vascular morphology and measurements of vessel volume, surface area, and length per mm/sup 3/ of tissue. The vascularity was greatest in the outermost region, decreased towards the inner parts and reached an absence of vascularity at the central necrosis. The tumours were gamma- or X-irradiated with various doses. The inside hypoxic region was destroyed completely after 300 rad, and regrowths started exclusively from the outermost area of the tumour where enhancement of the effect of radiation by oxygen was thought to be greatest. Possible mechanisms of tumour regrowth are discussed.

  1. Imaging of solid kidney tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Nyman, R.; Jacobsson, B.; Jorulf, H.; Sackey, K.; McDonald, P.

    1995-01-01

    Eighteen children aged 6 months to 12 years with 20 solid renal tumours; 13 Wilms' tumours (WT), 2 clear cell sarcomas of the kidney, 1 malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney and 2 cases of bilateral nephroblastomatosis with Wilms' tumour underwent evaluation with US, CT and MR imaging. Contrast-enhanced CT and non-enhanced MR were equally accurate in determining the size and origin of the tumour but were unreliable in separation of stages I, II and III. US could only accurately assess the size of the tumours. MR characteristics varied somewhat between WTs and non-WTs but contrast-enhanced MR imaging might be useful for separation of WTs from nephroblastomatosis. (orig.)

  2. Unilateral testicular tumour associated to congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Failure of specific tumoral molecular markers to discriminate between adrenal rest and leydigioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, P; Bstandig, B; Roger, C; Chevallier, D; Michels, J-F; Sadoul, J-L; Hieronimus, S; Brucker-Davis, F

    2008-11-01

    Testicular adrenal rest tumours are frequently associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). These ACTH-dependent tumours cannot be easily distinguished histologically from Leydig-cell tumours. We report the case of a 30-year-old man who was explored for infertility, azoospermia and unilateral testicular tumour. High levels of 17-OH progesterone and ACTH, low cortisol and undetectable gonadotropins levels, associated to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, led to the diagnosis of CAH by 21-OH deficiency with a composite heterozygoty. The testicular tumour was first considered as adrenal rest. However, histological analysis of this unilateral painful tumour showed a steroid-hormone-secreting cell proliferation with atypical and frequent mitosis. To discriminate between a benign adrenal rest tumour and a possible malignant leydigioma, tumoral expression of specific gene products was analyzed by RT-PCR. No 11-beta-hydroxylase nor ACTH receptor mRNAs could be found in the tumour, which did not behave like usual adrenal rest cells. For this unilateral testicular tumour, the lack of adrenal-specific markers associated with a high rate of mitosis and pleiomorphism supported a leydigian origin with malignant potential. However, lack of tumoral LH-R mRNA expression and a tumour-free 3-year follow-up led us to retain the diagnosis of adrenal rest tumour with loss of adrenal gene expression and progressive autonomous behaviour.

  3. Modulation of actin dynamics as potential macrophage subtype-targeting anti-tumour strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Carlo; Schubert, Katrin; Pace, Simona; Ziereisen, Jana; Nikels, Felix; Scherer, Olga; Hüttel, Stephan; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Müller, Rolf; Raasch, Martin; Mosig, Alexander; Koeberle, Andreas; Werz, Oliver

    2017-01-30

    Tumour-associated macrophages mainly comprise immunosuppressive M2 phenotypes that promote tumour progression besides anti-tumoural M1 subsets. Selective depletion or reprogramming of M2 may represent an innovative anti-cancer strategy. The actin cytoskeleton is central for cellular homeostasis and is targeted for anti-cancer chemotherapy. Here, we show that targeting G-actin nucleation using chondramide A (ChA) predominantly depletes human M2 while promoting the tumour-suppressive M1 phenotype. ChA reduced the viability of M2, with minor effects on M1, but increased tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α release from M1. Interestingly, ChA caused rapid disruption of dynamic F-actin filaments and polymerization of G-actin, followed by reduction of cell size, binucleation and cell division, without cellular collapse. In M1, but not in M2, ChA caused marked activation of SAPK/JNK and NFκB, with slight or no effects on Akt, STAT-1/-3, ERK-1/2, and p38 MAPK, seemingly accounting for the better survival of M1 and TNFα secretion. In a microfluidically-supported human tumour biochip model, circulating ChA-treated M1 markedly reduced tumour cell viability through enhanced release of TNFα. Together, ChA may cause an anti-tumoural microenvironment by depletion of M2 and activation of M1, suggesting induction of G-actin nucleation as potential strategy to target tumour-associated macrophages in addition to neoplastic cells.

  4. Growth of extrapulmonary tumours after inhalation of small doses of plutonium oxide by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Masse, R.; L'Hullier, I.; Metivier, H.; Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    After inhalation of plutonium oxide ( 239 PuO 2 ) involving initial lung burdens ranging from 74 to 103 Bq, male rats of the Wistar strain are kept in conditions allowing maximum survival; tumour incidences for the target organ (lung) and for the rest of the organs are calculated separately after the death of the animals. In the outbred Wistar rat the incidence of lung tumours is 18.5% for an initial lung burden of 74 Bq. The mean survival time of animals having such tumours is 973 days after inhalation. For an initial burden of 103 Bq syngenetic Wistar AG rats show a lower frequency of lung tumours (6.1%), but also a much reduced mean survival time, namely 757 days. Compared with the frequencies observed in the corresponding control groups, the frequency of non-pulmonary tumours is twice as high (12%) in consanguineous rats and six times as high (25.9%) in conventional rats. A supralinear dose-effect relationship at very low doses seems improbable in view of the dose delivered ( -3 Gy in the most exposed organs, such as the liver) and, in particular, because there is no correlation between the dose delivered to the organs and the location of the tumours. The exposed animals show, on the one hand, no specificity of organs for the surplus extrapulmonary tumours observed, and on the other, an inhibition by about 45% in the natural cytotoxic activity (natural killers) measured one year after inhalation. These observations suggest the hypothesis that an anti-tumour control mechanism is affected, perhaps as a result of the irradiation experienced during the circulation of blood cells in the lung capillaries. The failure of this system would in that case allow the expression of neoplastic characters as ageing progresses. A non-specific BCG immunotherapy does not restore this anti-tumour control system. (author)

  5. Nanoparticle-triggered in situ catalytic chemical reactions for tumour-specific therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han; Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2018-03-21

    Tumour chemotherapy employs highly cytotoxic chemodrugs, which kill both cancer and normal cells by cellular apoptosis or necrosis non-selectively. Catalysing/triggering the specific chemical reactions only inside tumour tissues can generate abundant and special chemicals and products locally to initiate a series of unique biological and pathologic effects, which may enable tumour-specific theranostic effects to combat cancer without bringing about significant side effects on normal tissues. Nevertheless, chemical reaction-initiated selective tumour therapy strongly depends on the advances in chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology and biomedicine. This emerging cross-disciplinary research area is substantially different from conventional cancer-theranostic modalities in clinics. In response to the fast developments in cancer theranostics based on intratumoural catalytic chemical reactions, this tutorial review summarizes the very-recent research progress in the design and synthesis of representative nanoplatforms with intriguing nanostructures, compositions, physiochemical properties and biological behaviours for versatile catalytic chemical reaction-enabled cancer treatments, mainly by either endogenous tumour microenvironment (TME) triggering or exogenous physical irradiation. These unique intratumoural chemical reactions can be used in tumour-starving therapy, chemodynamic therapy, gas therapy, alleviation of tumour hypoxia, TME-responsive diagnostic imaging and stimuli-responsive drug release, and even externally triggered versatile therapeutics. In particular, the challenges and future developments of such a novel type of cancer-theranostic modality are discussed in detail to understand the future developments and prospects in this research area as far as possible. It is highly expected that this kind of unique tumour-specific therapeutics by triggering specific in situ catalytic chemical reactions inside tumours would provide a novel but efficient

  6. Expression of p16(INK4A) gene in human pituitary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, Gloria; Cotignola, Javier; Danilowicz, Karina; Carbonara, Carolina; Paes de Lima, Andrea; Basso, Armando; Bruno, Oscar Domingo; Szijan, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise 10-15% of primary intracranial tumours but the mechanisms leading to tumour development are yet to be clearly established. The retinoblastoma pathway, which regulates the progression through the cell cycle, is often deregulated in different types of tumours. We studied the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4A) gene expression at mRNA level in human pituitary adenomas. Forty-six tumour specimens of different subtypes, 21 clinically non-functioning, 12 growth hormone-secreting, 6 prolactin-secreting, 6 adrenocorticotropin-secreting, and 1 thyrotropin-secreting tumours were studied. All clinically non-functioning and most of the hormone-secreting tumours were macroadenomas (38/46). The RT-PCR assay and electrophoresis of the PCR-products showed that p16(INK4A) mRNA was undetectable in: 62% of non-functioning, 8% of growth hormone-secreting, 17% of prolactin-secreting and 17% of adrenocorticotropin-secreting adenomas. Forty percent of all macroadenomas and 25% of microadenomas had negative p16(INK4A) mRNA, the latter results suggest that the absence of p16(INK4A) product might be an early event in tumours with no expression of this suppressor gene. Within the non-functioning adenomas 63% were "null cell" and 37% were positive for some hormone, both subgroups showed similar percentage of cases with absence of p16(INK4A) mRNA. Our results show that clinically non-functioning macroadenomas have impaired p16(INK4A) expression in a clearly higher proportion than any other pituitary tumour subtype investigated. Other regulatory pathways may be implicated in the development of tumours with positive p16(INK4A) expression.

  7. An unusual presentation of a glomus tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N

    2011-02-01

    Glomus tumours are benign, soft tissue tumours, usually of fingertips. Classically they present with severe pain, temperature sensitivity and localised tenderness. The diagnosis is often delayed due to sometimes non-specific symptoms and rarity of the disorder. While usually a clinical diagnosis, imaging may be necessary for diagnosis and localisation. We present a case of glomus tumour of the fingertip with an unusual history.

  8. Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, M.A.; Yusuf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinicopathological presentation and treatment options in epithelial parotid tumours with emphasis on surgery. Subjects and Methods: Epithelial parotid tumours diagnosed and operated by an ENT surgeon and a general surgeon in 10 years during their posting in different teaching hospitals were included in the study. Clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, operative procedure, histopathology report, postoperative complications and further management were recorded. The data was collected and reviewed from the records of all the patients maintained by the authors. Results: Fifty-two patients presented with parotid tumour. Average age was 38 years. Commonest presentation was painless lump over the parotid region (85%), pain (15%), facial palsy, and enlarged neck nodes. Majority of tumours were benign, only two were recurrent. Parotid pleomorphic Adenoma (PPA) was the commonest benign tumour, others being Warthin's tumour and monomorphic adenoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour 29% followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Others were carcinoma in PPA squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed tumour, malignant Iymphoepithelioma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Superficial parotidectomy (SP) was the commonest operation performed in 69%. Other procedures were total conservative parotidectomy in 11%, total radical surgery in 9% and enucleation in only one patient earliest in the series. Neck node dissection was done in 2 patients. Except for one child, rest of the 13 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient of Iymphoepithelioma received chemotherapy in addition. Commonest postoperative complication was temporary facial weakness in 35% (18/52). Permanent facial palsy occurred in 08 patients. Of these 07 had a malignant process and only one patient had excision biopsy. Conclusion: Benign and malignant epithelial parotid tumours can be diagnosed by there clinical presentation . supplemented with

  9. Comparison of metastatic disease after local tumour treatment with radiotherapy or surgery in various tumour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiter, J. de; Cramer, S.J.; Lelieveld, P.; Putten, L.M. van

    1982-01-01

    Spontaneous metastases in lymph nodes and/or the lung were obtained after tumour cell inoculation of four mouse tumours and one rat tumour into the foot-pads of syngeneic animals or their F 1 hybrids. Following local radiotherapy with doses of 45-80 Gy, significantly more mice died with metastases than following local amputation of the tumour-bearing foot when the 2661 carcinoma was involved. No significant difference was observed after these treatments for the other tumours. The enhancement of metastatic growth after local radiotherapy in the 2661 carcinoma seems not to be due to incomplete killing of tumour cells in the foot. The presence of irradiated normal structures and tumour tissue after radiotherapy promoted the outgrowth of 2661 carcinoma cells which were outside the radiation field at the time of treatment. Evidently, even under similar experimental conditions, radiotherapy may enhance the growth of metastases from some tumours and not from others. (author)

  10. Nuclear medicine in childhood tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In recent years the contribution of nuclear medicine has been of increasing interest to paediatric oncology, in particular in imaging for diagnosis, staging and follow-up, in quantitative function analysis of organs at risk during oncological therapy, as well as in radionuclide therapy. For tumour imaging a great number of tumour-seeking radiopharmaceuticals are available, exploiting various metabolic and biological properties of individual tumours; several of these agents can also be applied for radionuclide therapy. More recent tracers allow the characterization of tumours, highlighting features like hormone receptors, hypoxia, MDR and apoptosis. New techniques in paediatric oncology include PET and probe-guided surgery. As a functional modality, nuclear medicine is well suited to monitor the function of organs at risk during treatment in paediatric oncology, in particular cardiac, pulmonary, renal and salivary gland function. A summary of applications and major Indications will be presented. Osteosarcoma: In differentiated osteosarcoma bone scintigraphy/SPECT using 99m Tc-diphosphonate may, as a result of Its targeting the tumour-produced osteoid, visualize not only the primary bone tumour and skeletal metastases, but also the extraosseous metastases. For preoperative therapy nd palliation of metastases beta-emitting bone-seeking agents, such as 89 Sr-chloride, 186 Re-HEDP and 153 Sm-EDTMP, are available. Lymphoma: 67 Ga-citrate has been used for decades in the detection, staging and follow up of lymphoma, as well as for early recognition of response to therapy. 201 TI-chloride scintigraphy/SPECT and PET using 18 F-deoxyglucose can also be used for this purpose. 99m Tc- sestamibi and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin are associated with p-glycoprotein, playing a role in multidrug resistance. In adults with recurrent non Hodgkin lymphoma treatment with 131 l- or 90 Y labelled anti-CD20 antibodies is highly effective. Thyroid carcinoma. 201 TI-chloride scintigraphy

  11. Tumours of the pineal region in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H.D.; Schulte, F.J.; Winkler, D.; Mueller, D.

    1988-01-01

    36 patients with tumours in the pineal region were treated between 1980 and 1986, 19 of whom were under 20 years of age. Diagnosis was based on cranial CT, supplemented to by MRI as from 1986. Preoperative angiography was peformed on all patients to demonstrate tumour vascularization and type of vascular supply. Stereotactic biopsies were complemented by intraoperative ventriculography. Stereotactic biopsy only was performed in 13 patients out of the total group to verify tumour histology. 23 patients were directly operated on primarily. 3 of these died postoperative. In cases of germ-cell tumours and pineal blastomas the total brain and the vertebral canal were irradiated. (orig./MG) [de

  12. 131I-MIBG and neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva Gonzalez, Juan Perfecto; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Joaquin Jorge; Calderon Marin, Carlos Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are neoplasms that arise from various tissues closely linked to the neural crest by their common embryological origin. These tumours have the ability to synthesize neurotransmitter peptides and hormones, as well as to store catecholamines. Some of these tumours express somatostatin receptors at their membranes, what have allowed nuclear medicine to be involved in their diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Since they arise from different and varied types of tissues, these tumours have a wide range of signs and symptoms different for every one of them. These signs and symptoms mainly depend on their biochemical characteristics, given by the substances they secrete, as well as by their location, and consequently, they also depend on the place where the tumour appears, its local infiltration, and potential long-distance metastasis resulting from the tumour). Neuroendocrine tumours are diagnosed by means of nuclear medicine images, which are obtained by using different techniques and radiopharmaceuticals such as 99 mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA(V)), 99 mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI), metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) labelled with 131 I or 123 I ( 131 I-MIBG or 123 I -MIBG), 111 In-labelled octreotide, positron emission tomography, using 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues and carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibodies. Nuclear medicine uses mainly somatostatin analogues labelled with 90 Y or 177 Lu for the treatment of these tumours. This paper is aimed at showing our experience in the use of 131 I-MIBG for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.(author)

  13. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are considered relatively rare tumours that have the characteristic property of secreting bioactive substances, such as amines and hormones. They constitute a heterogeneous group, characterized by good prognosis, but important disparities of the evolutionary potential. In the aggressive forms, the therapeutic strategies are limited. The metabolic or internal radiotherapy, using radiolabelled peptides, which can act at the same time on the primary tumour and its metastases, constitutes a tempting therapeutic alternative, currently in evolution. The prospects are related to the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, with the use of other peptide analogues whose applications will overflow the framework of the neuro-endocrine tumours. (authors)

  14. Computed tomography in malignant primary bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersjes, W.; Harder, T.; Haeffner, P.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of computed tomography is examined in malignant primary bone tumours using a strongly defined examination group of 13 Patients (six Ewing's-sarcomas, five osteosarcomas, one chondrosarcoma and one spindle-shaped cell sarcoma). Computed tomography is judged superior compared to plain radiographs in recognition of bone marrow infiltration and presentation of parosteal tumour parts as well as in analysis of tissue components of tumours, CT is especially suitable for therapy planning and evaluating response to therapy. CT does not provide sufficient diagnostic information to determine dignity and exact diagnosis of bone tumours. (orig.) [de

  15. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  16. Treatment Of Brain Tumours In Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancokova, T.

    2007-01-01

    Children tumours are the second most common oncologic diseases in childhood (20 %) with highest incidence of mortality in children oncology. Brain tumours form a heterogenous group of tumours with their classification,diagnostic criteria and therapeutic modalities. General principles of treatment involve neurosurgery, which is a prognostic factor, its radicality depends on localization. Radiotherapy has limitations in children until 3 years for possible late effects. Chemotherapy is effective in tumours with high growing rate. These days challenge is to improve therapeutic outcomes and minimalize toxicity of therapy. (author)

  17. Giant hydronephrosis mimicking progressive malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Andres Jan; Anderer, Georgia; von Knobloch, Rolf; Heidenreich, Axel; Hofmann, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Background Cases of giant hydronephroses are rare and usually contain no more than 1–2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis mimicking a progressive malignant abdominal tumour. Case presentation A 78-year-old cachectic woman presented with an enormous abdominal tumour, which, according to the patient, had slowly increased in diameter. Medical history was unremarkable except for a hysterectomy >30 years before. A CT scan revealed a giant cystic tumour filling almost the entire abdominal cavity. It was analysed by two independent radiologists who suspected a tumour originating from the right kidney and additionally a cystic ovarian neoplasm. Subsequently, a diagnostic and therapeutic laparotomy was performed: the tumour presented as a cystic, 35 × 30 × 25 cm expansive structure adhesive to adjacent organs without definite signs of invasive growth. The right renal hilar vessels could finally be identified at its basis. After extirpation another tumourous structure emerged in the pelvis originating from the genital organs and was also resected. The histopathological examination revealed a >15 kg hydronephrotic right kidney, lacking hardly any residual renal cortex parenchyma. The second specimen was identified as an ovary with regressive changes and a large partially calcified cyst. There was no evidence of malignant growth. Conclusion Although both clinical symptoms and the enormous size of the tumour indicated malignant growth, it turned out to be a giant hydronephrosis. Presumably, a chronic obstruction of the distal ureter had caused this extraordinary hydronephrosis. As demonstrated in our case, an accurate diagnosis of giant hydronephrosis remains challenging due to the atrophy of the renal parenchyma associated with chronic obstruction. Therefore, any abdominal cystic mass even in the absence of other evident pathologies should include the differential diagnosis of a possible hydronephrosis. Diagnostic

  18. Diagnostic utility of Wilms′ tumour-1 protein (WT-1 immunostaining in paediatric renal tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: WT1 helps to differentiate Wilms′ tumour from other paediatric renal tumours. It may help in differentiating the two subgroups of Wilms′ tumour which have distinct molecular pathogenesis and biological behaviour, however, further prospective studies are required for validation of this hypothesis.

  19. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.

  20. Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies - how do they arise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Angelo G; Minicuci, Nadia; Ricci, Paolo; Gennaro, Valerio; Garbisa, Spiridione

    2011-06-17

    Whether or not there is a relationship between use of mobile phones (analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless) and head tumour risk (brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, and salivary gland tumours) is still a matter of debate; progress requires a critical analysis of the methodological elements necessary for an impartial evaluation of contradictory studies. A close examination of the protocols and results from all case-control and cohort studies, pooled- and meta-analyses on head tumour risk for mobile phone users was carried out, and for each study the elements necessary for evaluating its reliability were identified. In addition, new meta-analyses of the literature data were undertaken. These were limited to subjects with mobile phone latency time compatible with the progression of the examined tumours, and with analysis of the laterality of head tumour localisation corresponding to the habitual laterality of mobile phone use. Blind protocols, free from errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give positive results that reveal a cause-effect relationship between long-term mobile phone use or latency and statistically significant increase of ipsilateral head tumour risk, with biological plausibility. Non-blind protocols, which instead are affected by errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give negative results with systematic underestimate of such risk. However, also in these studies a statistically significant increase in risk of ipsilateral head tumours is quite common after more than 10 years of mobile phone use or latency. The meta-analyses, our included, examining only data on ipsilateral tumours in subjects using mobile phones since or for at least 10 years, show large and statistically significant increases in risk of ipsilateral brain gliomas and acoustic neuromas. Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone shows an almost doubling of the risk of head tumours induced by

  1. Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies - how do they arise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Valerio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether or not there is a relationship between use of mobile phones (analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless and head tumour risk (brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, and salivary gland tumours is still a matter of debate; progress requires a critical analysis of the methodological elements necessary for an impartial evaluation of contradictory studies. Methods A close examination of the protocols and results from all case-control and cohort studies, pooled- and meta-analyses on head tumour risk for mobile phone users was carried out, and for each study the elements necessary for evaluating its reliability were identified. In addition, new meta-analyses of the literature data were undertaken. These were limited to subjects with mobile phone latency time compatible with the progression of the examined tumours, and with analysis of the laterality of head tumour localisation corresponding to the habitual laterality of mobile phone use. Results Blind protocols, free from errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give positive results that reveal a cause-effect relationship between long-term mobile phone use or latency and statistically significant increase of ipsilateral head tumour risk, with biological plausibility. Non-blind protocols, which instead are affected by errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give negative results with systematic underestimate of such risk. However, also in these studies a statistically significant increase in risk of ipsilateral head tumours is quite common after more than 10 years of mobile phone use or latency. The meta-analyses, our included, examining only data on ipsilateral tumours in subjects using mobile phones since or for at least 10 years, show large and statistically significant increases in risk of ipsilateral brain gliomas and acoustic neuromas. Conclusions Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone

  2. Malignant tumours of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, E.

    1983-01-01

    The thesis analyses 317 patients with vulvar malignancies treated at the University Hospital, Lund, during 1960-1979. The three most common histological types of malignancy have been analysed. The oncological clinic in Lund has since the 1960's used a surgical technique where the primary tumour and the regional lymph nodes are operated on in two separate surgical seances. The vulvectomy is performed with tarm knife technique, and the wound is left open. The 5-year crude survival rate for the entire patient material treated with curative intention was over 60 %, which agrees well with reports from other centres. Our surgical approach using two separate seances has, however, much lower rates of postoperative complications and mortality than the rates in other reports. The overall most important prognostic factors for the patients with invasive vulvar malignancies are the presence of lymphatic metastases at the time of surgery, and the surgical radicality of the primary surgery. The treatment at most stages of tumour development and most histological types should include total vulvectomy preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymphadenectomy. Only local extirpation and hemivulvectomy are, however, indicated for small microinvasively growing squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Samll invasive onesided squamous cell carcinoma is best treated with ipsilateral surgery combined with preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes. Patients with metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes should receive additional irradiation of the inguinal and pelvic lymph node stations. (Author)

  3. Extinction rates in tumour public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlee, Philip; Altrock, Philipp M

    2017-09-01

    Cancer evolution and progression are shaped by cellular interactions and Darwinian selection. Evolutionary game theory incorporates both of these principles, and has been proposed as a framework to understand tumour cell population dynamics. A cornerstone of evolutionary dynamics is the replicator equation, which describes changes in the relative abundance of different cell types, and is able to predict evolutionary equilibria. Typically, the replicator equation focuses on differences in relative fitness. We here show that this framework might not be sufficient under all circumstances, as it neglects important aspects of population growth. Standard replicator dynamics might miss critical differences in the time it takes to reach an equilibrium, as this time also depends on cellular turnover in growing but bounded populations. As the system reaches a stable manifold, the time to reach equilibrium depends on cellular death and birth rates. These rates shape the time scales, in particular, in coevolutionary dynamics of growth factor producers and free-riders. Replicator dynamics might be an appropriate framework only when birth and death rates are of similar magnitude. Otherwise, population growth effects cannot be neglected when predicting the time to reach an equilibrium, and cell-type-specific rates have to be accounted for explicitly. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. MicroRNA expression in a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Green

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are a heterogeneous set of bone and soft tissue neoplasms that can cause a number of paraneoplastic syndromes such as tumour induced osteomalacia. The term phosphaturic comes from the common finding that these tumours secrete high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 which causes renal phosphate wasting leading to hypophosphatemia. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are rare and diagnosis is difficult. A very active 68 year old male presented with bone pain and muscle weakness. He was hypophosphataemic and total alkaline phosphatase was markedly elevated. The patient was placed on vitamin D supplementation but his condition progressed. In the fifth year of presentation the patient required the use of a wheelchair and described “explosive” bone pain on physical contact. Serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D was low and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 was significantly elevated, raising suspicion of a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour. A lesion was detected in his left femoral head and the patient underwent a total hip replacement. The patient displayed a rapid improvement to his condition and during a three year follow up period he returned to an active lifestyle. As molecular testing may help provide a robust diagnosis and is particularly useful in rare diseases we took a next generation sequencing approach to identify a differential expression of small RNAs in the resected tumour. Small RNAs are non-coding RNA molecules that play a key role in regulation of gene expression and can be used as specific biomarkers. We found an upregulation of miR-197. We also found a downregulation of miR-20b, miR-144 and miR-335 which is a small RNA profile typical of osteosarcoma. MiR-21, the most frequently upregulated microRNA in cancer, was downregulated. We conclude that the specific small RNA profile is typical of osteosarcoma except for the downregulation of oncogenic miR-21. Transcriptional plasticity of miR-197, which is

  5. Pick 'n' mix: neuropatholgical detection of peri-tumour taupathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lonergan, Roisin

    2013-11-01

    Radiotherapy is used to treat recurrent oligodendrogliomas, WHO grade 2 tumours. Potential morbitities include steroid-responsive radiation necrosis and radiation leucoencephalopathy, characterised pathologically by reactive astrogliosis, focal necrosis, demyelination, axonal loss, and clinically by progressive subcortical deficits (ataxia, amnesia, incontinence, cognitive decline), with relative sparing of cortical function. Although subcortical features may overlap with neurodegenerative conditions (eg frontotemporal dementia), focal cortical atrophy of FTD causes loss of language function in addition to memory, and specific histopathological features characterise FTD subtypes (eg Pick disease). Association between mitotic disease and tauopathy has not been reported widely, but co-existence is possible. Diagnostic accuracy may guide management.

  6. REPORT OF SEVEN CASES OF METASTATIC TUMOURS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major Adebayo

    Metastatic lesions may mimic odontogenic infections and other disease conditions in the oral cavity in presentation leading to late diagnosis by the unwary clinician. In Nigeria, reports on jaw tumours from metastasis elsewhere are quite scarce. This report presents a series of histologically verified metastatic tumours to the ...

  7. Second primary tumours in oral cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.

    2010-01-01

    Second primary tumours in patients treated for oral cancer occur at a rate of 3% to 7% per year. The majority of these tumours show up at least six months after the detection of the primary and are often located in the upper aerodigestive tract. Cessation of smoking habits may reduce the risk of the

  8. Tumour cell expansion in bladder epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBladder cancer is common in western society. The major problem of patients with superficial bladder cancer is the high recurrence rate and multifocality of these tumours. In 70 % of the patients superficial bladder cancer recurs after local resection of the tumour within 15 years. The

  9. Tumour screening by means of tomography methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.

    2005-01-01

    Tomography methods such as computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), and sonography/ultrasound examinations make it possible to detect small asymptomatic tumours, thus potentially preventing their manifestation at an advanced stage and improving survival prospects for the patients concerned. There are data available on various common tumours which show that modern tomography methods are capable of detecting not only small asymptomatic tumours but also their benign precursors (e.g. polyps of the large intestine). This has been demonstrated for lung cancer, colon cancer and breast cancer. However, it has not been possible to date to show for any tomography method or any type of tumour that the systematic use of such diagnostic procedures does anything to lower the mortality rate for that tumour. For other types of tumour (pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, ovary cancer) the above named methods are either not sufficiently sensitive or the body of data that has accumulated on their respective use is too small to judge the benefit of tomography screenings. Current technical developments make it appear probable that for many types of cancer the reliability with which small tumours can be detected will improve in future. Studies aimed at clarifying the potential of screenings for reducing mortality rates are already underway for lung cancer and would be worthwhile performing for other tumour types

  10. MHC class II molecules and tumour immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oven, I.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Tumour immunotherapy attempts to use the specificity and capability of the immune system to kill malignant cells with a minimum damage to normal tissue. Increasing knowledge of the identity of tumour antigens should help us design more effective therapeutic vaccines. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that MHC class II molecules and CD4+ T cells play important roles in generating and maintaining antitumour immune responses in animal models. These data suggest that it may be necessary to involve both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for more effective antitumour therapy. Novel strategies have been developed for enhancing T cell responses against cancer by prolonging antigen presentation of dendritic cells to T cells, by the inclusion of MHC class II-restricted tumour antigens and by genetically modifying tumour cells to present antigen to T lymphocytes directly. Conclusions. Vaccines against cancers aim to induce tumour-specific effector T cells that can reduce tumour mass and induce development of tumour-specific T cell memory, that can control tumour relapse. (author)

  11. CASE REPORT Paraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could be confirmed on the lateral lumbar spine X-ray. The T11 inter- pedicular distance was ... Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Limpopo, Medunsa Campus. CASE REPORT. 18. SA JOURNAL OF ... tumours from neural crest origin.1-4,6 PNET and ES are classified together into the Ewing family of tumours ...

  12. Successful neoadjuvant peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for an inoperable pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes da Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs can present with advanced local or distant (metastatic disease limiting the possibility of surgical cure. Several treatment options have been used in experimental neoadjuvant settings to improve the outcomes in such cases. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PPRT using beta emitting radiolabelled somatostatin analogues has been used in progressive pancreatic NETs. We report a 55-year-old female patient with a 12.8 cm pancreatic NET with significant local stomach and superior mesenteric vein compression and liver metastases. The patient underwent treatment with [177Lutetium-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-octreotate for the treatment of local and metastatic symptomatic disease. Six months after 4 cycles of 177lutetium-octreotate, resolution of the abdominal complaints was associated with a significant reduction in tumour size and the tumour was rendered operable. Histology of the tumour showed a 90% necrotic tumour with abundant hyalinized fibrosis and haemorrhage compatible with PPRT-induced radiation effects on tumour cells. This report supports that PPRT has a role in unresectable and metastatic pancreatic NET.

  13. Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumour of rare sarcomatoid epithelioid subtype: Case study and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gustaw; Korcz, Wojciech; Kowalczyk, Emilia; Guzel, Tomasz; Radoch, Marcin; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract, but they represent less than 3% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies. This is a detailed case study of a 52-year-old male patient treated for very uncommon histological subtype of gastric GIST with atypical clinical presentation, asymptomatic progress and late diagnosis. The resected tumour, giant in diameters, was confirmed to represent the most rare histopathologic subtype of GISTs - sarcomatoid epithelioid GIST. We report this case and review the literature with a special focus on pathomorphological evaluation, biological aggressiveness and prognostic factors. To our knowledge this is the first report of giant GIST of very uncommon sarcomatoid epithelioid subtype. It is concluded that clinicians should pay attention to the fact that initial diagnosis may be delayed due to mildly asymptomatic and non-specific clinical presentation. Asymptomatic tumours diagnosed at a late stage, which is often the case, can be large on presentation. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with GIST depend on tumour size, mitotic rate, histopathologic subtype and tumour location. That is why early diagnosis and R0 resection, which is usually feasible and safe even in giant gastric sarcomatoid epithelioid subtype of GISTs, are the key factors for further treatment and good prognosis. PMID:25805949

  14. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjavaara, S.

    2011-07-01

    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  15. Complement-mediated tumour growth: implications for cancer nanotechnology and nanomedicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S. M.; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2009-01-01

    The recent unexpected observation that complement activation helps turnout growth and progression has an important bearing on the future development of cancer nanomedicines for site-specific tumour targeting as these entities are capable of triggering complement. These issues are discussed and su...

  16. Mononucleotide precedes dinucleotide repeat instability during colorectal tumour development in Lynch syndrome patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Ana M.; Westers, Helga; Sousa, Sonia; Wu, Ying; Niessen, Renee C.; Olderode-Berends, Maran; van der Sluis, Tineke; Reuvekamp, Peter T. W.; Seruca, Raquel; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Hollema, Harry; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    A progressive accumulation of genetic alterations underlies the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer. This accumulation of mutations is driven by genetic instability, of which there are different types. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is the predominant type present in the tumours of

  17. Parotid gland tumours: a six years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    To find out the different types of Parotid tumours in out setup and their prevalence in different age groups. All patients admitted with Parotid swellings, irrespective of age and sex. The detailed data of the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 15 to 65 years were included in the study. Most of the patients were in the 31-50 years of age group. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign tumour with an incidence of 66.6%, while Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with an incidence of 11.11% was the most common malignant tumour. Parotid gland is the principal site of salivary gland tumours. Males are affected more and Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant tumour. (author)

  18. Molecular pathology of bone tumours: diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Florian; Niblett, Angela J; Mangham, D Chas

    2014-03-01

    Alongside histomorphology and immunohistochemistry, molecular pathology is now established as one of the cornerstones in the tissue diagnosis of bone tumours. We describe the principal molecular pathological techniques employed, and each of the bone tumour entities where their identified characteristic molecular pathological changes can be detected to support and confirm the suspected histological diagnosis. Tumours discussed include fibrous dysplasia, classical and subtype osteosarcomas, central and surface cartilaginous tumours, Ewing's sarcoma, vascular tumours, aneurysmal bone cyst, chordoma, myoepithelioma, and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. This is a rapidly evolving field with discoveries occurring every few months, and some of the newer entities (the Ewing's-like sarcomas), which are principally identified by their molecular pathology characteristics, are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Musculoskeletal desmoid tumours: Diagnostic imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Daniel; Perera, Warren; Schlicht, Stephen; Choong, Peter; Slavin, John; Pianta, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discuss the role medical imaging has on diagnosis of musculoskeletal desmoid tumours and to describe their radiological appearances on various imaging modalities. Imaging of histologically proven cases of desmoid tumours at St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne were obtained via picture archiving communication system (PACS) and then assessed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Suitable imagings were obtained from PACS. All imaging chosen was de-identified. Desmoid tumours can occur in many areas of the body. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of these tumours and magnetic resonance imaging has been the gold standard for imaging and is the most accurate in terms of assessing tumour margins and involvement of surrounding structure.

  20. Cooperative tumour cell membrane targeted phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heegon; Lee, Junsung; Oh, Chanhee; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics. The SR-lipids are first delivered selectively to tumour cell membranes in the perivascular region using fusogenic liposomes. By hitchhiking with extracellular vesicles secreted by the cells, the SR-lipids are transferred to neighbouring cells and further spread throughout the tumour tissues where the molecular targets are limited. We show that this tumour cell membrane-targeted delivery of SR-lipids leads to uniform distribution and enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy of the targeted photosensitizer.

  1. A fatal pseudo-tumour: disseminated basidiobolomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemelman Willem A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basidiobolomycosis is a rare disease caused by the fungus Basidiobolus ranarum, member of the class Zygomycetes, order Entomophthorales, found worldwide. Usually basidiobolomycosis is a subcutaneous infection but rarely gastrointestinal manifestations have been described; 13 adults and 10 children and a few retroperitoneal or pulmonary cases. In gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis the colon is most frequently involved, usually presenting with subacute mild abdominal pain. In contrast to children only very few described adult patients had hepatic masses. Definitive diagnosis requires culture, serological testing can be helpful. The fungal morphology and the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon are characteristic histological features. There are no prominent risk factors. Usually surgery and prolonged antifungal therapy are required. Case presentation A 61 year old man presented with progressive left abdominal pain and constipation since a few months. Colonoscopy showed an obstructing tumour in the descending colon, and a hemicolectomy was performed. Histology showed inflammation, possibly caused by a fungal or parasitic infection, without definite identification of an organism. A few weeks postoperatively a CT scan made because of abdominal discomfort, revealed a livermass (6 cm. Treatment with metronidazole, directed against an amoebic liver abscess, was unsuccessful. He developed a marked eosinophilia (27.7%. A liver biopsy was performed and the patient was referred to a university hospital. A repeated CT scan showed a livermass of 9 cm diameter. Review of colon and liver biopsy samples showed extensive necrosis and histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells and numerous eosinophils. Grocott stained sections contained unusually large hyphae surrounded by strongly eosinophilic material in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections (Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. A presumptive diagnosis of Basidiobolus spp. infection was made and treated

  2. Tumour location within the breast: Does tumour site have prognostic ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Seth; Hueman, Matthew T; Costantino, Nick; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    Tumour location within the breast varies with the highest frequency in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ) and lowest frequency in the lower inner quadrant (LIQ). Whether tumour location is prognostic is unclear. To determine whether tumour location is prognostic, associations between tumour site and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. All patients enrolled in the Clinical Breast Care Project whose tumour site-UOQ, upper inner quadrant (UIQ), central, LIQ, lower outer quadrant (LOQ)-was determined by a single, dedicated breast pathologist were included in this study. Patients with multicentric disease (n = 122) or tumours spanning multiple quadrants (n = 381) were excluded from further analysis. Clinicopathological characteristics were analysed using chi-square tests for univariate analysis with multivariate analysis performed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple logistic regression. Significance was defined as P location, 30 had bilateral disease. Tumour location in the UOQ (51.5%) was significantly higher than in the UIQ (15.6%), LOQ (14.2%), central (10.6%), or LIQ (8.1%). Tumours in the central quadrant were significantly more likely to have higher tumour stage (P = 0.003) and size (P location as a prognostic factor revealed that although tumours in the central region are associated with less favourable outcome, these associations are not independent of location but rather driven by larger tumour size. Tumours in the central region are more difficult to detect mammographically, resulting in larger tumour size at diagnosis and thus less favourable prognosis. Together, these data demonstrate that tumour location is not an independent prognostic factor.

  3. Egfr Amplification Specific Gene Expression in Phyllodes Tumours of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Agelopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, we were able to show that amplifications of the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr gene and the overexpression of EGFR were associated with the initiation and progression of phyllodes tumours. Methods: In order to gain further insights into regulation mechanisms associated with egfr amplifications and EGFR expression in phyllodes tumours, we performed global gene expression analysis (Affymetrix A133.2 on a series of 10 phyllodes tumours, of these three with and seven without amplifications of an important regulatory repeat in intron 1 of egfr (CA-SSR I. The results were verified and extended by means of immunohistochemistry using the tissue microarray method on an extensively characterized series of 58 phyllodes tumours with antibodies against caveolin-1, eps15, EGF, TGF-α, pErk, pAkt and mdm2. Results: We were able to show that the presence of egfr CA-SSR I amplifications in phyllodes tumours was associated with 230 differentially expressed genes. Caveolin-1 and eps15, involved in EGFR turnover and signalling, were regulated differentially on the RNA and protein level proportionally to egfr gene dosage. Further immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of caveolin-1 and eps15 were also significantly correlated with the expression of pAkt (p < 0.05, pERK (p < 0.05, mdm2 (p < 0.01 and EGF (p < 0.001 for caveolin-1. Eps15 and pERK were further associated with tumour grade (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Our results show that amplifications within regulatory sequences of egfr are associated with the expression of eps15 and caveolin-1, indicating an increased turnover of EGFR. The interplay between EGFR and caveolin-1, eps15, pAkt, mdm2 and pERK therefore seems to present a major molecular pathway in carcinogenesis and progression of breast phyllodes tumours.

  4. High precision conformal radiotherapy employing conservative margins in childhood benign and low-grade brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Rakesh; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Sharma, Dayananda S.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To report local control and follow up outcome data of high precision conformal radiotherapy in childhood brain tumours. Materials and methods: Between December 1999 and December 2002, 26 children (17 boys and 9 girls, median age 11.5 years) with incompletely excised or recurrent benign and low-grade brain tumours [13 craniopharyngiomas, 11 low-grade gliomas (LGG) and 2 others] were treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy (CRT) (12 patients) and stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) (14 patients). Gross tumour volume (GTV) included neuro-imaging based visible tumour and/or resected tumour bed. Clinical target volume (CTV) consisted of GTV + 5 mm margin and planning target volume (PTV) consisted of additional 5 mm margin for CRT and 2 mm for SCRT. Treatment was delivered with 3-9 conformal fixed fields to a median dose of 54 Gy/30 fractions. Results: The actuarial 2 and 3 year disease free and overall survival was 96 and 100%, respectively (median follow up: 25 months, range 12-47 months). Radiological follow up available in 25 patients revealed complete response in 1, partial regression in 10, stable disease in 13 and progression in 1 patient (within the CTV). One patient with craniopharyngioma on a routine imaging revealed a mild asymptomatic cyst enlargement, which resolved with conservative management. A patient with chiasmatic glioma developed cystic degeneration and hydrocephalus 9 months after SCRT requiring cyst drainage and placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusion: High-precision conformal techniques delivering irradiation to a computer generated target volume employing 7-10 mm 3D margins beyond the visible tumour and/or resected tumour bed appear to be safe in children with incompletely resected or recurrent benign and low-grade brain tumours, based on these data

  5. In vivo volumetric analysis of tumours by CT: What is the value of the calculation of tumour volumes for recurrent rectal cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, H.; Richter, E.; Feyerabend, T.; Bohndorf, W.

    1990-01-01

    The volumetric analysis of a tumour by CT is a reliable and clinically important method of examination which is rarely used. As for oncology, the importance of this method is based upon the determination of the stage of remission posttherapeutically, especially in those cases which respond to therapy without a roentgenologic change in comparison to pretherapeutic findings. This applies in particular for the evaluation of CT images. In this study 115 CT examinations of 38 patients with recurrent rectal cancer were evaluated and the tumour remission was measured by an exact determination of the tumour volume before and after radiotherapy. The results were compared with the CT findings without volumetric analysis. A change of the tumour size up to 20% of the pretherapeutic volume which eludes from the visual perception can be revealed by a subtle CT-assisted volumetric analysis. Formulas for calculation of the volume or the data concerning length, width and depth of a mass prove to be insufficient or incorrect. Therefore the correct evaluation of a tumour regression or progression shoud be done more often by CT-assisted volumetric analysis. (orig.) [de

  6. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Kurisu, K.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  8. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C.L. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Sahdev, A.; Rockall, A.G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Singh, N. [Department of Pathology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Sohaib, S.A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, R.H. [Cancer Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm{sup 3}) and mucinous (6358.2 cm{sup 3}) subtypes (p = 0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  9. Resistance to treatment in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: What radiologists should know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirumani, S.H.; Jagannathan, J.P.; Hornick, J.L.; Ramaiya, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour resistance to treatment with imatinib occurs due to pre-existing or acquired mutations. Computed tomography and positron-emission tomography play an essential role in prompt recognition of resistance to treatment. Primary resistance to treatment, which is encountered in the first 6 months of treatment, is associated with specific mutations. Imaging of these tumours shows no anatomical or metabolic response to treatment. Secondary resistance to treatment, which develops after an initial response, is associated with a variety of mutations acquired after the start of treatment. Imaging findings of secondary resistance are of disease progression

  10. Radiopharmaceuticals as probes to characterize tumour tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Israt S.; Arshad, Mubarik A.; Nguyen, Quang-De; Aboagye, Eric O.

    2015-01-01

    Tumour cells exhibit several properties that allow them to grow and divide. A number of these properties are detectable by nuclear imaging methods. We discuss crucial tumour properties that can be described by current radioprobe technologies, further discuss areas of emerging radioprobe development, and finally articulate need areas that our field should aspire to develop. The review focuses largely on positron emission tomography and draws upon the seminal 'Hallmarks of Cancer' review article by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2011 placing into context the present and future roles of radiotracer imaging in characterizing tumours. (orig.)

  11. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  12. Interleukin 21 controls tumour growth and tumour immunosurveillance in colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Dominik; Martin, Maria; Schiechl, Gabriela; Kesselring, Rebecca; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Geissler, Edward K; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    Colitis-associated tumorigenesis is a balance between proliferation of tumour cells and tumour immunosurveillance. The role of T-helper-cell-derived cytokines in tumour growth is not fully understood. In this study the authors investigated the influence of interleukin (IL) 21 on intestinal tumorigenesis. Chronic colitis was induced in IL-21(-/-) and littermate control wild-type mice with three cycles of 1.5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) over 7 days followed by 7 days of drinking water. Mice received an azoxymethane injection on day 0 of DSS-colitis to induce tumorigenesis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on inflamed and tumour-bearing areas of colons. Cytokine expression of isolated colonic CD4 T cells was determined by ELISA. Cytotoxic capacity of isolated colonic CD8 T cells targeting tumour cells was evaluated by flow cytometry and quantitative cytotoxicity assay. Apoptosis of tumour cells was determined by TUNEL assay of colonic sections. Increasing expression of IL-21 was observed in chronic colitis, which showed functional importance, since IL-21 deficiency prevented chronic DSS-colitis development. Further, in the absence of IL-21, significantly fewer tumour nodules were detected, despite a similar extent of intestinal inflammation. In wild-type mice, 8.6±1.9 tumour nodules were found compared with 1.0±1.2 in IL-21-deficient mice. In tumour-bearing IL-21-deficient mice, intestinal inflammation was restored and partly dependent on interferon (IFN)-γ, whereas the inflammation in wild-type mice showed high IL-17A concentrations. In these rare tumours in IL-21-deficient mice, tumour cell proliferation (Ki-67) was decreased, while cell apoptosis was increased, compared with wild-type mice. Increased IFNγ expression in tumour-bearing IL-21-deficient mice led to increased tumour immunosurveillance mediated by cytotoxic CD8CD103 T cells targeting E-cadherin(+) colonic tumour cells and therefore limited tumour growth. These results indicate that IL-21

  13. A forgotten facial nerve tumour: granular cell tumour of the parotid and its implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerut, B; Vosbeck, J; Linder, T E

    2011-04-01

    We present a rare case of a facial nerve granular cell tumour in the right parotid gland, in a 10-year-old boy. A parotid or neurogenic tumour was suspected, based on magnetic resonance imaging. Intra-operatively, strong adhesions to surrounding structures were found, and a midfacial nerve branch had to be sacrificed for complete tumour removal. Recent reports verify that granular cell tumours arise from Schwann cells of peripheral nerve branches. The rarity of this tumour within the parotid gland, its origin from peripheral nerves, its sometimes misleading imaging characteristics, and its rare presentation with facial weakness and pain all have considerable implications on the surgical strategy and pre-operative counselling. Fine needle aspiration cytology may confirm the neurogenic origin of this lesion. When resecting the tumour, the surgeon must anticipate strong adherence to the facial nerve and be prepared to graft, or sacrifice, certain branches of this nerve.

  14. Radiological diagnosis of malignant tumours in patients with renal transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaijmakers, P A.M.; Rosenbusch, G; Hoitsma, A J; Boetes, C; Strijk, S P; Koene, R A.P.

    1984-12-01

    17 of 400 patients with a total of 537 renal transplantations developed a malignant tumour (4,2%). 3 patients had a tumour of the skin or lips, 5 a solid lymphoma, 2 a hepatocellular carcinoma and 7 each another tumour. The radiologic findings of the patients are described. The problems around the diagnostics of malignant tumours in patients with renal transplantations are discussed.

  15. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney: radiologic-pathological correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chea, Y W; Agrawal, Rashi; Poh, Angeline C C

    2008-06-01

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney is a rare malignancy. We report the computed tomographic features and the histopathological correlation of such a tumour occurring in a middle-aged man. Although the radiological appearance has significant overlap with other renal tumours, this tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of a large renal mass in younger patients.

  16. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: In prepubertal children, most testicular tumours are benign. If tumour markers were negative testis-preserving surgery can be proposed, complete excision of the tumour should be ascertained. In the case of testicular teratoma, the possibility of contralateral tumour should be considered in the follow-up.

  17. Primary malignant bone tumour in a tropical African University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone tumours are relatively rare tumours as compared with all other tumours. The relative frequency has not been well documented in this environment. The aim of the study was to define the frequency of primary malignant bone tumours in an African University teaching hospital in Ibadan. The medical records of 114 ...

  18. Childhood vascular Tumours in Benin City, Nigeria | Igbe | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vasoformative tumours are one of the commonest tumours in childhood. The patterns of these tumours in Benin City, however, are not known. Objective: To determine the incidence and morphological patterns of childhood vascular tumours as seen in the Department of Pathology University of Benin Teaching ...

  19. Ovarian yolk sac tumour in a girl - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Charu; Shah, Hemanshi; Sisodiya Shenoy, Neha; Makhija, Deepa; Waghmare, Mukta

    2017-01-01

    Yolk sac tumours are rare ovarian malignancies accounting for less than 1% of malignant ovarian germ cell tumours. They are mostly seen in adolescents and young women and are usually unilateral making fertility preservation imperative. Raised alpha-feto protein level is the hallmark of this tumour. We describe stage III yolk sac tumour in a girl child.

  20. Neonatal testicular tumour presenting as an acute scrotum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) is a rare benign stromal cell tumour of the testis accounting for approximately 1% of all paediatric testicular tumours. Presenting primarily as a painless testicular mass, the tumour may be associated with undescended testis, hydrocele or testicular torsion. Abnormal karyotype has also ...

  1. Neonatal testicular tumour presenting as an acute scrotum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal testicular tumour presenting as an acute scrotum. Joyce M. Muhlschlegel, Alice L. Mears and Rowena J. Hitchcock. Juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) is a rare benign stromal cell tumour of the testis accounting for approximately 1% of all paediatric testicular tumours. Presenting primarily as a painless ...

  2. Pancreatic pseudopapillary tumour: A rare misdiagnosed entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affirul, C A; Qisti, F N; Zamri, Z; Azlanuddin, A; Hairol, A O; Razman, J

    2014-01-01

    Solid pseudo papillary pancreatic tumour is a rare entity. The atypical presentation causes a delayed or misdiagnosis of these pathology. It commonly affects the female population in the 2nd and 3rd decade of life. The presentation varies from non-specific abdominal pain to incidental findings in asymptomatic patients. It is a low-grade premalignant condition that is curable by excision of the tumour. This paper presents a 17-year-old girl with intra-abdominal mass diagnosed with solid pseudo papillary tumour that underwent Whipple's procedure. We discuss the presentations, diagnosis and pathology findings of this rare pathology. The diagnosis remains an enigma in view of the nature and location of the tumour. Resection is still the best choice remains for this condition. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The hypoxic tumour cell in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Neuherberg/Muenchen

    1976-01-01

    In most tumours there is a disproportion between the tumour cells and vascular connective tissue. A lack of oxygen depending on extent and duration, leads to changes of the metabolism and of the proliferative properties of the cells, to an increase of radiation resistance and to a reduction of the ability to recover from radiation injuries. Finally with longer duration, hypoxy leads to cell killing. As a result of irradiation, a reoxygenation of a part of the previous hypoxic tumour cell occurs more or less quickly. The time and topographic changes of these factors are involved in a complex manner in the radiotherapy of malignant tumours and essentially share the responsibility regarding the curative success of radiotherapy. (orig./LH) [de

  4. ERG Protein Expression in Diagnostic Specimens Is Associated with Increased Risk of Progression During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Vainer, Ben; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk

    2014-01-01

    with a ready-to-use kit (anti-ERG, EPR3864). Men were characterised as ERG positive if a minimum of one tumour focus demonstrated ERG expression. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Overall AS progression was defined as clinical progression: increased clinical tumour category ≥cT2b by digital rectal...

  5. Simulating tumour removal in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzky, A; Rudolph, M

    2001-12-01

    In this article the software system ROBO-SIM is described. ROBO-SIM is a planning and simulation tool for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Different to the most other simulation tools, ROBO-SIM is able to use actual patient's datasets for simulation. Same as in real neurosurgery a planning step, which provides more functionality as up-to-date planning systems on the market, is performed before undergoing the simulated operation. The planning steps include the definition of the trepanation point for entry into the skull and the target point within the depth of the brain, checking the surgical track and doing virtual trepanations (virtual craniotomy). For use with an intra-operative active manipulator, which is guided by the surgeon during real surgery (robotic surgery), go- and non-go-areas can be defined. During operation, the robot restricts the surgeon from leaving these go-areas. After planning, an additional simulation system, which is understood as an extension to the planning step, is used to simulate whole surgical interventions directly on the patient's anatomy basing on the planning data and by using the same instruments as for the real intervention. First tests with ROBO-SIM are performed on a phantom developed for this purpose and on actual patient's datasets with ventricular tumours.

  6. Angiographic appearances of rare renal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Taenzer, V.

    1980-01-01

    Oncocytomas, called oxyphil proximal tubular adenomas in the Anglo Saxon literature, and benign hypernephromas are non-malignant, usually symptomless, rare tumours belonging to the renal adenomas. Oncocytomas have angiographic appearances sufficiently uniform to permit a tentative diagnosis. Histologically benign hypernephromas do not possess characteristic angiographic appearances and, in the presence of tumour in the renal vein or necrotic avascular areas, must be regarded as potentially malignant. (orig.) [de

  7. Metronomic chemotherapy – promising therapeutical approach for recurrent/ refractory high risk tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, L.; Feketeova, J.; Haluskova, V.; Sencakova, I.; Jenco, I.; Oravkinova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a great progress in the treatment of pediatric malignancies, the outcome of children with high risk refractory or relapsed tumours, as are some types of brain tumours or metastatic sarcomas, remain poor. In contrast to dose – intensified chemotherapy, utilizing „maximal tolerated doses“ of chemotherapy, the metronomic chemotherapy (MC) is based on chronic administration of significantly lower doses of chemotherapy in an uninterrupted manner, for prolonged periods. Because of different mechanism of action against conventional chemotherapy and no cross- resistance, this treatment modality is effective also in refractory and recurrent tumours. The predominant mechanism of action of MC is antiangiogenic. In last decades several studies confirmed the efficacy and low toxicity of this new treatment modality. It can be delivered on outpatient basis and is well tolerated even in heavily pretreated patients. The authors present an overview of studies on MC in pediatric oncology and their own experience. (author)

  8. Aromatase inhibitors - a viable option for recurrent granulosa cell tumour of ovary: overview and case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munem, A.A.; Bahrani, B.A.; Mehdi, I.

    2012-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumour of the ovary in adults is a rare tumour of low malignant potential affecting middle aged peri or post menopausal patients. These tumours are often diagnosed at an early stage, due to their hormonally active nature. They, however, have unique distinguishing histologic features and behaviour of frequent and late local or systemic relapses. The diagnosis can be challenging with unusual presentations. There is high association of endometrial carcinoma. Surgery is the mainstay of management in early low risk disease, while radiotherapy and systemic platinum based chemotherapy are employed in higher stage with poor prognostic indices. Survival is good in early stage disease. Recurrent, progressive, and treatment refractory disease is not infrequent and poses management challenge. Endocrine manipulation and hormone treatment are employed in few cases with equivocal results, as reported in literature. We present a case of recurrent and treatment refractory GCT in a postmenopausal patient, managed by aromatase inhibitor Anastrozole with reasonable efficacy. (author)

  9. Comparison of Selected Protein Levels in Tumour and Surgical Margin in a Group of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelczyk, Joanna Katarzyna; Gołąbek, Karolina; Cuber, Piotr; Krakowczyk, Łukasz; Owczarek, Aleksander Jerzy; Fronczek, Martyna; Choręża, Piotr; Hudziec, Edyta; Ostrowska, Zofia

    2017-08-01

    Oral cavity cancer belongs to head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma group. The purpose of the study was to assess the levels of certain proteins in a tumour and surgical margin in a group of patients with oral cavity cancer. The levels of DAPK1, MGMT, CDH1, SFRP1, SFRP2, RORA, TIMP3, p16, APC and RASSF1 proteins were measured by ELISA in tissue homogenates. The protein levels of DAPK1, MGMT, CDH1, SFRP2 and RASSF1 were significantly higher in tumour tissue than in the margin, contrary to TIMP3 which was lower in the tumour itself. DAPK1 level in the tumour was significantly higher in females than in males, the MGMT and p16 levels were lower in the tumours with lymph node metastasis (N1 + N2) than in N0 samples. The CDH1 expression was higher in a group with smoking habits, whereas TIMP3 was lower in this group. Changes in the levels of proteins in tumour and surgical margin may be either reflective of tumour occurrence and development, or they might be also responsible for the progress and reoccurrence of the disease. Levels of the studied proteins might be good prognostic factors; however, further studies are required.

  10. A novel role for autologous tumour cell vaccination in the immunotherapy of the poorly immunogenic B16-BL6 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, J D; Wagner, P D; Shu, S; Chang, A E

    1992-06-01

    The growth of immunogenic tumours stimulates the generation of tumour-sensitized, but not functional, pre-effector T cells in the draining lymph nodes. These pre-effector cells can mature into effector cells upon in-vitro stimulation with anti-CD3 and IL-2. In the current study, using a defined, poorly immunogenic tumour, B16-BL6 melanoma, the pre-effector cell response was not evident during progressive tumour growth but was elicited by vaccination with irradiated tumour cells admixed with Corynebacterium parvum. After anti-CD3/IL-2 activation, these cells were capable of mediating the regression of established pulmonary metastases. The efficacy of the vaccine depended on the doses of both tumour cells and the adjuvant. While higher numbers of tumour cells were more effective, an optimal dose (12.5 micrograms) of C. parvum was required. The dose of irradiation was not a critical factor. After vaccination, kinetic studies revealed that the pre-effector cell response was evident 4 days later and declined after 14 days. These observations illustrate the potential role of active immunization in the cellular therapy of cancer.

  11. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, E.J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Kellie, S.; Uren, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of 201 TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per 201 TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl 3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid 201 TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid 201 TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, 201 TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited number of medulloblastoma and optic gliomas pts studied. Whilst promising, further patient studies and longer follow-up is

  12. Aqp 9 and Brain Tumour Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guri Fossdal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the aquaporins (aqp 1, 4, and 9 in the pathogenesis of malignant brain tumours, suggesting that they contribute to motility, invasiveness, and oedema formation and facilitate metabolism in tumour cells under hypoxic conditions. We have studied the expression of aqp1, 4, and 9 in biopsies from glioblastomas, isolated tumour stem cells grown in a tumoursphere assay and analyzed the progenitor and differentiated cells from these cultures. We have compared these to the situation in normal rat brain, its stem cells, and differentiated cells derived thereof. In short, qPCR in tumour tissue showed presence of aqp1, 4, and 9. In the tumour progenitor population, aqp9 was markedly more highly expressed, whilst in tumour-derived differentiated cells, aqp4 was downregulated. However, immunostaining did not reveal increased protein expression of aqp9 in the tumourspheres containing progenitor cells; in contrast, its expression (both mRNA and protein was high in differentiated cultures. We, therefore, propose that aquaporin 9 may have a central role in the tumorigenesis of glioblastoma.

  13. Modelling of tumour repopulation after chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, Loredana; Bezak, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Full text: While repopulation is a clinically observed phe nomenon after radiotherapy, repopulation of tumour cells between cycles of chemotherapy is usually a neglected factor in cancer treatment. As the effect of both radiotherapy and chemotherapy on tumour cells is the same (attack on cancer cells), the response of the tumour to injury and cell loss from the two treatment methods should be similar, including repopulation. Cell recruitment is known to be a possible mechanism responsible for tumour regrowth after radio therapy. The literature data regarding mechanisms of repopulation after chemotherapy is very limited. The current paper employs a Monte Carlo modelling approach to implement the pharmacokinetics of a widely used drug (cisplatin) into a previously developed vit1ual head and neck tumour and to study the effect of cisplatin on tumour regres sion and regrowth during treatment. The mechanism of cell recruitment was modelled by releasing various percentages (5-50%) of quiescent cells into the mitotic cycle after each chemotherapy cell kill. The onset of repopulation was also simulated, with both immediate onset and late onset of cell recruitment. Repopulation during chemotherapy, if occu ring, is a highly potent phenomenon, similar to drug resis tance, therefore it should not be neglected during treatment.

  14. The role of polyamine catabolism in anti-tumour drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casero, R A; Wang, Y; Stewart, T M; Devereux, W; Hacker, A; Wang, Y; Smith, R; Woster, P M

    2003-04-01

    Interest in polyamine catabolism has increased since it has been directly associated with the cytotoxic response of multiple tumour types to exposure to specific anti-tumour polyamine analogues. Human polyamine catabolism was considered to be a two-step pathway regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) that provides substrate for an acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO). Further, the super-induction of SSAT by several anti-tumour polyamine analogues has been implicated in the cytotoxic response of specific solid-tumour phenotypes to these agents. This high induction of SSAT has been correlated with cellular response to the anti-tumour polyamine analogues in several systems and considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate the analogue-induced expression of SSAT. A polyamine response element has been identified and the transacting transcription factors that bind and stimulate transcription of SSAT have been cloned and characterized. The link between SSAT activity and cellular toxicity is thought to be based on the production of H(2)O(2) by the activity of the constitutive APAO that uses the SSAT-produced acetylated polyamines. The high induction of SSAT and the subsequent activity of APAO are linked to the cytotoxic response of some tumour cell types to specific polyamine analogues. However, we have recently cloned a variably spliced human polyamine oxidase (PAOh1) that is inducible by specific polyamine analogues, efficiently uses unacetylated spermine as a substrate, and also produces toxic H(2)O(2) as a product. The results of studies with PAOh1 suggest that it is an additional enzyme in polyamine catabolism that has the potential to significantly contribute to polyamine homoeostasis and drug response. Most importantly, PAOh1 is induced by specific polyamine analogues in a tumour-phenotype-specific manner in cell lines representative of the major forms of solid tumours, including

  15. Anti-metastatic effects of viral and non-viral mediated Nk4 delivery to tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhles, Alexandra; Collins, Sara A; van Pijkeren, Jan P; Rajendran, Simon; Miles, Michelle; O'Sullivan, Gerald C; O'Hanlon, Deirdre M; Tangney, Mark

    2009-03-09

    The most common cause of death of cancer sufferers is through the occurrence of metastases. The metastatic behaviour of tumour cells is regulated by extracellular growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a ligand for the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant expression/activation of the c-Met receptor is closely associated with metastatic progression. Nk4 (also known as Interleukin (IL)32b) is a competitive antagonist of the HGF c-Met system and inhibits c-Met signalling and tumour metastasis. Nk4 has an additional anti-angiogenic activity independent of its HGF-antagonist function. Angiogenesis-inhibitory as well as cancer-specific apoptosis inducing effects make the Nk4 sequence an attractive candidate for gene therapy of cancer. This study investigates the inhibition of tumour metastasis by gene therapy mediated production of Nk4 by the primary tumour. Optimal delivery of anti-cancer genes is vital in order to achieve the highest therapeutic responses. Non-viral plasmid delivery methods have the advantage of safety and ease of production, providing immediate transgene expression, albeit short-lived in most tumours. Sustained presence of anti-angiogenic molecules is preferable with anti-angiogenic therapies, and the long-term expression mediated by Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) might represent a more appropriate delivery in this respect. However, the incubation time required by AAV vectors to reach appropriate gene expression levels hampers efficacy in many fast-growing murine tumour models. Here, we describe murine trials assessing the effects of Nk4 on the spontaneously metastatic Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) model when delivered to primary tumour via plasmid lipofection or AAV2 vector. Intratumoural AAV-Nk4 administration produced the highest therapeutic response with significant reduction in both primary tumour growth and incidence of lung metastases. Plasmid-mediated therapy also significantly reduced metastatic growth, but with moderate

  16. Perfusion imaging of parotid gland tumours: usefulness of arterial spin labeling for differentiating Warthin's tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki [Philips Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    To assess prospectively the efficacy of arterial spin labelling (ASL) against conventional and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for differentiating parotid gland tumours. We included 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 12 Warthin's tumours, and nine malignant tumours of the parotid glands. Only tumours larger than 10 mm were included in this study. All parotid gland tumours underwent T1-weighted, T2-weighted, DW, and ASL imaging. Tumour-to-parotid gland signal intensity ratios (SIRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of solid components were correlated with these pathologies. SIRs on T2-weighted images and ADCs were higher in pleomorphic adenomas than in Warthin's tumours (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.01). SIRs on ASL were higher in Warthin's tumours than in pleomorphic adenomas (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.05). Az value of SIRs on ASL for differentiating Warthin's tumours from the other pathologies was 0.982. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SIRs on ASL for the diagnosis of Warthin's tumours at an optimal SIR threshold of over 8.70 were 91.7 %, 94.7 %, and 93.5 %, respectively. ASL with SIR measurements could non-invasively evaluate tumour blood flow of parotid gland tumours and differentiate Warthin's tumours from pleomorphic adenomas and malignant tumours. (orig.)

  17. Potential role of TRIM3 as a novel tumour suppressor in colorectal cancer (CRC) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Mei-Yu; Cao, Hai-Long; He, Na-Na; Xu, Meng-Que; Dong, Wen-Xiao; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Bang-Mao; Zhou, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Recent cancer genome-sequencing efforts and complementary functional studies have led to the identification of a collection of candidate 'driver' genes involved in CRC tumorigenesis. Tripartite motif (TRIM3) is recently identified as a tumour suppressor in glioblastoma but this tumour-suppressive function has not been investigated in CRC. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TRIM3 as a tumour suppressor in CRC development by manipulating the expression of TRIM3 in two authentic CRC cell lines, HCT116 and DLD1, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, colony formation, scratch wound healing, soft agar, and invasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour-suppressive properties of TRIM3. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated knockdown of TRIM3 conferred growth advantage in CRC cells. In contrast, overexpression of TRIM3 affected cell survival, cell migration, anchorage independent growth and invasive potential in CRC cells. In addition, TRIM3 was found to be down-regulated in human colon cancer tissues compared with matched normal colon tissues. Overexpression of TRIM3 significantly inhibited tumour growth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that TRIM3 can regulate p53 protein level through its stabilisation. TRIM3 functions as a tumour suppressor in CRC progression. This tumour-suppressive function is exerted partially through regulation of p53 protein. Therefore, this protein may represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of CRC.

  18. Increased FOXP3 expression in tumour-associated tissues of horses affected with equine sarcoid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, K; Hamza, E; Marti, E; Dolf, G; Klukowska, J; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with disease severity and progression in papilloma virus induced neoplasia. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is recognised as the most important aetiological factor in equine sarcoid (ES) disease. The aim of this study was to compare expression levels of Treg markers and associated cytokines in tissue samples of ES-affected equids with skin samples of healthy control horses. Eleven ES-affected, and 12 healthy horses were included in the study. Expression levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), interleukin 10 (IL10), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) mRNA in lesional and tumour-distant samples from ES-affected horses, as well as in dermal samples of healthy control horses were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels were compared between lesional and tumour-distant as well as between tumour-distant and control samples. Furthermore, BPV-1 E5 DNA in samples of ES-affected horses was quantified using quantitative PCR, and possible associations of viral load, disease severity and gene expression levels were evaluated. Expression levels of FOXP3, IL10 and IFNG mRNA and BPV-1 E5 copy numbers were significantly increased in lesional compared to tumour-distant samples. There was no difference in FOXP3 and cytokine expression in tumour-distant samples from ES- compared with control horses. In tumour-distant samples viral load was positively correlated with IL10 expression and severity score. The increased expression of Treg markers in tumour-associated tissues of ES-affected equids indicates a local, Treg-induced immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thymidilate synthase and p53 primary tumour expression as predictive factors for advanced colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, A; Simone, G; Petroni, S; Leone, B; Vallejo, C; Lacava, J; Romero, A; Machiavelli, M; De Lena, M; Allegra, C J; Johnston, P G

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to analyse the ability of p53 and thymidilate synthase (TS) primary tumour expression to retrospectively predict clinical response to chemotherapy and long-term prognosis in patients with advanced colorectal cancers homogeneously treated by methotrexate (MTX)-modulated-5-fluorouracil (5-FU-FA). A total of 108 advanced colorectal cancer patients entered the present retrospective study. Immunohistochemical p53 (pAb 1801 mAb) and TS (TS106 mAb) expression on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tumour specimens was related to probability of clinical response to chemotherapy, time to progression and overall survival. p53 was expressed in 53/108 (49%) tumours, while 54/108 (50%) showed TS immunostaining. No relationship was demonstrated between p53 positivity and clinical response to chemotherapy (objective response (OR): 20% vs 23%, in p53+ and p53- cases respectively) or overall survival. Percent of OR was significantly higher in TS-negative with respect to TS-positive tumours (30% vs 15% respectively; P < 0.04); simultaneous analysis of TS and p53 indicated 7% OR for p53-positive/TS-positive tumours vs 46% for p53-positive/TS-negative tumours (P < 0.03). Logistic regression analysis confirmed a significant association between TS tumour status and clinical response to chemotherapy (hazard ratio (HR): 2.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.34-1.01; two-sided P < 0.05). A multivariate analysis of overall survival showed that only a small number of metastatic sites was statistically relevant (HR 1.89; 95% CI 2.85-1.26; two-sided P < 0.03). Our study suggests that immunohistochemical expression of p53 and TS could assist the clinician in predicting response of colorectal cancer patients to modulated MTX-5-FU therapy.

  20. Pharmacological doses of daily ascorbate protect tumours from radiation damage after a single dose of radiation in an intracranial mouse glioma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole eGrasso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological ascorbate is currently used as an anti-cancer treatment, potentially in combination with radiation therapy, by integrative medicine practitioners. In the acidic, metal-rich tumour environment, ascorbate acts as a pro-oxidant, with a mode of action similar to that of ionising radiation; both treatments kill cells predominantly by free radical-mediated DNA damage. The brain tumour, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, is very resistant to radiation; radiosensitising GBM cells will improve survival of GBM patients. Here we demonstrate that a single fraction (6 Gy of radiation combined with a one hour exposure to ascorbate (5 mM sensitised murine glioma GL261cells to radiation in survival and colony-forming assays in vitro. In addition, we report the effect of a single fraction (4.5 Gy of whole brain radiation combined with daily intra-peritoneal injections of ascorbate (1 mg/kg in an intra-cranial GL261 glioma mouse model. Tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: one group received a single dose of 4.5 Gy to the brain eight days after tumour implantation, a second group received daily intra-peritoneal injections of ascorbate (day 8-45 after implantation, a third group received both treatments and a fourth control group received no treatment. While radiation delayed tumour progression, intra-peritoneal ascorbate alone had no effect on tumour progression. Tumour progression was faster in tumour-bearing mice treated with radiation and daily ascorbate than those treated with radiation alone. Histological analysis showed less necrosis in tumours treated with both radiation and ascorbate, consistent with a radio-protective effect of ascorbate in vivo. Discrepancies between our in vitro and in vivo results may be explained by differences in the tumour micro-environment which determines whether ascorbate remains outside the cell, acting as a pro-oxidant or whether it enters the cells and acts as an anti-oxidant.

  1. Tumour nuclear oestrogen receptor beta 1 correlates inversely with parathyroid tumour weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Felix; Rosin, Gustaf; Nilsson, Inga-Lena; Juhlin, C Christofer; Pernow, Ylva; Norenstedt, Sophie; Dinets, Andrii; Larsson, Catharina; Hartman, Johan; Höög, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrinopathy, frequently caused by a parathyroid adenoma, rarely by a parathyroid carcinoma that lacks effective oncological treatment. As the majority of cases are present in postmenopausal women, oestrogen signalling has been implicated in the tumourigenesis. Oestrogen receptor beta 1 (ERB1) and ERB2 have been recently identified in parathyroid adenomas, the former inducing genes coupled to tumour apoptosis. We applied immunohistochemistry and slide digitalisation to quantify nuclear ERB1 and ERB2 in 172 parathyroid adenomas, atypical adenomas and carcinomas, and ten normal parathyroid glands. All the normal parathyroid glands expressed ERB1 and ERB2. The majority of tumours expressed ERB1 (70.6%) at varying intensities, and ERB2 (96.5%) at strong intensities. Parathyroid carcinomas expressed ERB1 in three out of six cases and ERB2 in five out of six cases. The intensity of tumour nuclear ERB1 staining significantly correlated inversely with tumour weight (P=0.011), and patients whose tumours were classified as ERB1-negative had significantly greater tumour weight as well as higher serum calcium (P=0.002) and parathyroid hormone levels (P=0.003). Additionally, tumour nuclear ERB1 was not expressed differentially with respect to sex or age of the patient. Levels of tumour nuclear ERB2 did not correlate with clinical characteristics. In conclusion, decreased ERB1 immunoreactivity is associated with increased tumour weight in parathyroid adenomas. Given the previously reported correlation with tumour-suppressive signalling, selective oestrogen receptor modulation (SERMs) may play a role in the treatment of parathyroid carcinomas. Future studies of SERMs and oestrogen treatment in PHPT should consider tumour weight as a potential factor in pharmacological responsiveness. © 2015 The authors.

  2. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: correlation with tumour response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preibsch, H.; Wanner, L.; Bahrs, S.D.; Wietek, B.M.; Nikolaou, K.; Wiesinger, B. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Siegmann-Luz, K.C. [Diagnostic Center for Breast Cancer and Screening Mammography Brandenburg Ost, Koenigs Wusterhausen (Germany); Oberlecher, E.; Hahn, M. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tuebingen (Germany); Staebler, A. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    To correlate the decrease in background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and tumour response measured with MRI in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). One hundred and forty-six MRI examinations of 73 patients with 80 biopsy-proven breast cancers who underwent breast MRI before and after NAC were retrospectively analysed. All images were reviewed by two blinded readers, who classified BPE into categories (BEC; 1 = minimal, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = marked) before and after NAC. Histopathological and morphological tumour responses were analysed and compared. The distribution of BEC 1/2/3/4 was 25/46/18/11 % before and 78/20/2/0 % after NAC. On average, BPE decreased by 0.87 BEC. Cohen's kappa showed substantial agreement (k = 0.73-0.77) before and moderate agreement (k = 0.43-0.60) after NAC and moderate agreement (k = 0.62-0.60) concerning the change in BEC. Correlating the change in BPE with tumour response, the average decrease in BEC was 1.3 in cases of complete remission, 0.83 in cases with partial response, 0.85 in cases with stable disease and 0.40 in cases with progressive disease. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the decrease in BEC and tumour response (r = -0.24, p = 0.03). BPE decreased by, on average, 0.87 BEC following NAC for breast cancer. The degree of BPE reduction seemed to correlate with tumour response. (orig.)

  3. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor assays in breast tumours. The Prince Henry's Hospital experience, 1983-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, P T; Myles, K M; Funder, J W

    1993-08-16

    To present and analyse the results of eight years of experience (1983-1990) in breast tumour receptor analysis. All female primary breast tumour samples received (4683) were analysed for seasonal variation, patient age, relative risk index, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, ER and PR status as a function of age, ER and PR levels as a function of age, and ER and PR levels as a function of month of analysis. The assays were done at the Medical Research Centre, Prince Henry's Hospital, Melbourne, as a non-profit service to surgeons, oncologists and pathologists. The numbers of samples referred for assay increased progressively each year, from 473 in 1983 to 1097 in 1990, but the receptor status (ER +/-, PR +/-) appeared not to vary from year to year. ER+PR+ tumours were the most common in all age groups, steadily increasing from between 50% and 60% in premenopausal women to 70% or more in those aged over 80. In postmenopausal women, levels of ER in ER+ tumours were three times those in premenopausal women; PR levels in PR+ tumours, however, were bimodal, with higher levels in the age groups 35-49 and 70-89 years than in women aged 50-69 years. No significant seasonal variation was seen, and the overall patterns of receptor status are similar to those seen in Northern hemisphere studies.

  4. EVALUATION OF BRAIN TUMOURS USING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vinod Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The brain is basically formed by the neurons and the supporting cells. Tumours arising of neurons are almost impossible because the neurons never divide. Tumours arising from the supporting cells are almost frequently seen. The tumour characteristics depend upon the cell of origin. The brain is covered by meninges and the vascular tissue supplies the essential nutrients to all these components of the brain. Unfortunately, the brain is placed in a rigid box called as neurocranium. According to Monro–Kellie principle, if any of the one component increases in a rigid box, the other components will be compensated. So in a limited space if any of the catastrophes occur i.e. space occupying lesions, then the other components will be compensated and as a result the effects will be seen in a very small amount of time. A sincere effort has been put in this study to understand and evaluate the Brain Tumours using a CT scan. This study is intended to be useful to the diagnosing radiologists, internal medicine practitioners and general practitioners and surgeons. METHODS The aim of the study is to evaluate the brain tumours using CT and to confirm the diagnosis by sending to the Histopathology Department. The study is a cross-sectional study and is done in the Department of Radiology, Fathima Medical College, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh. The study was done from December 2014 to May 2016. The study was done using thirty cases who were believed to have brain tumour and were studied in the Department of Radiology after initial clinical evaluation. First, the plain CT was done and was checked for the location, size, characteristics of the lesion and the surrounding characteristics were observed. RESULT In the present study, the most common of all tumours were those of the neuroepithelial groups. Next in frequency were the tumours of meninges of all intracranial tumours. This was followed by tumours of cranial nerves, metastatic tumour, one lymphoma case

  5. Synchronous and Metachronous Malignant Tumours expect the un-expected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdi, I.; Shah, A.H.; Moona, M.S.; Verma, K.; Abussa, A.; Elramih, R.; El-Hashmi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate occurrence of synchronous and metachronous malignant tumours, to find tumour types, age group, and relationship to treatment received. Methods: Previously diagnosed first primary tumour cases experiencing a synchronous or metachronous tumour, seen at AOI from February 2003 to August 2009 (78 months) were included. The cases were analyzed for morphology/histology of first primary tumour, age and gender of patient, treatment received for first tumour, time interval between the first and second primary tumour, morphology/histology of second tumour, and the treatment conferred for second tumour. Results: The second synchronous and metachronous tumours were 46/4025 (1.14%), in 18 males and 28 females (M:F 1:1.6). The age range was 16-75 years (median 43 years). The follow up time was 24-150 months. The time to second primary tumour was 2-132 months. The first primary tumours were breast, ovary, GIT and urinary bladder. The patients received surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy alone or as multi-modality treatment for the first tumours. The frequent second tumours were breast, ovary and Gastro Intestinal tumours. Conclusion: It is imperative that patients with a primary malignant tumour should be thoroughly, closely, and regularly followed. Genetic counseling, risk estimation, cancer screening and hemo prevention must be emphasized. Every subsequent occurring tumour should be biopsied. The effect of first tumour on the second or vice versa are still not fully understood and need exploration. The second primary tumour is usually more aggressive, treatment resistant, and metastasizes early requiring a more aggressive treatment strategy. (author)

  6. Comparison of tumour age response to radiation for cells derived from tissue culture or solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, P.C.; Siemann, D.W.; Rochester Univ., NY; Rochester Univ., NY; Wheeler, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    Direct comparison of the cell age response of 9L and KHT tumour cells derived either from tissue culture or solid tumours was achieved. Cells from dissociated KHT and 9L tumours (the latter implanted either subcutaneously or intracerebrally) and cells from tissue culture were separated into homogenous sized populations by centrifugal elutriation. In both tumour models these homogeneous sized populations correspond to populations enriched at different stages of the cell cycle. The survival of these elutriated cell populations was measured after a single dose of Cs-137 gamma rays. For cells isolated from 9L solid tumours, there was little variation in radiosensitivity throughout the cell cycle; however, a very small but significant increase in resistance was found in late G 1 cells. This lack of a large variation in radiosensitivity through the cell cycle for 9L cells from solid tumours also was seen in 9L cells growing in monolayer tissue culture. When similar experiments were performed using the KHT sarcoma tumour model, the results showed that KHT cells in vitro exhibited a fairly conventional increase in radioresistance in both mid G 1 and late S. However, the cell age response of KHT cells from solid tumours was different; particularly in the late S and G 2 + M phases. (author)

  7. Tumours and tumour-like conditions of the jaw seen in Zaria, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) ameloblastomas; 33 (23.4%) fibrous dysplasia; 31 (22.0%) cemento-osseous dysplasia; 9 (6.4%) myxomas; 8 (5.7%) ameloblastic fibroma; and 3 (2.1%) adenomatoid odontogenic tumours; and 9 (6.4%) unclassified tumours. The benign ...

  8. Haematogenous tumour growth in the inferior vena cava in a patient with a nonseminomatous testicular tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, S J; Koops, H Schraffordt; Sleijfer, D T; Freling, N M; Molenaar, W M

    1991-01-01

    The case history is reported of a patient with an invasion of the inferior vena cava by metastases of a non-seminomatous testicular tumour. He was treated with combination chemotherapy, followed by laparotomy and resection of residual tumour tissue. Fourteen months after this operation he is in good

  9. Tumour resistance to cisplatin: a modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, L; Bezak, E; Olver, I; Doorn, T van

    2005-01-01

    Although chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of haematological tumours, in many common solid tumours the success has been limited. Some of the reasons for the limitations are: the timing of drug delivery, resistance to the drug, repopulation between cycles of chemotherapy and the lack of complete understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a specific agent. Cisplatin is among the most effective cytotoxic agents used in head and neck cancer treatments. When modelling cisplatin as a single agent, the properties of cisplatin only have to be taken into account, reducing the number of assumptions that are considered in the generalized chemotherapy models. The aim of the present paper is to model the biological effect of cisplatin and to simulate the consequence of cisplatin resistance on tumour control. The 'treated' tumour is a squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, previously grown by computer-based Monte Carlo techniques. The model maintained the biological constitution of a tumour through the generation of stem cells, proliferating cells and non-proliferating cells. Cell kinetic parameters (mean cell cycle time, cell loss factor, thymidine labelling index) were also consistent with the literature. A sensitivity study on the contribution of various mechanisms leading to drug resistance is undertaken. To quantify the extent of drug resistance, the cisplatin resistance factor (CRF) is defined as the ratio between the number of surviving cells of the resistant population and the number of surviving cells of the sensitive population, determined after the same treatment time. It is shown that there is a supra-linear dependence of CRF on the percentage of cisplatin-DNA adducts formed, and a sigmoid-like dependence between CRF and the percentage of cells killed in resistant tumours. Drug resistance is shown to be a cumulative process which eventually can overcome tumour regression leading to treatment failure

  10. Tumour resistance to cisplatin: a modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcu, L [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5000 (Australia); Bezak, E [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5000 (Australia); Olver, I [Faculty of Medicine, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5000 (Australia); Doorn, T van [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2005-01-07

    Although chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of haematological tumours, in many common solid tumours the success has been limited. Some of the reasons for the limitations are: the timing of drug delivery, resistance to the drug, repopulation between cycles of chemotherapy and the lack of complete understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a specific agent. Cisplatin is among the most effective cytotoxic agents used in head and neck cancer treatments. When modelling cisplatin as a single agent, the properties of cisplatin only have to be taken into account, reducing the number of assumptions that are considered in the generalized chemotherapy models. The aim of the present paper is to model the biological effect of cisplatin and to simulate the consequence of cisplatin resistance on tumour control. The 'treated' tumour is a squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, previously grown by computer-based Monte Carlo techniques. The model maintained the biological constitution of a tumour through the generation of stem cells, proliferating cells and non-proliferating cells. Cell kinetic parameters (mean cell cycle time, cell loss factor, thymidine labelling index) were also consistent with the literature. A sensitivity study on the contribution of various mechanisms leading to drug resistance is undertaken. To quantify the extent of drug resistance, the cisplatin resistance factor (CRF) is defined as the ratio between the number of surviving cells of the resistant population and the number of surviving cells of the sensitive population, determined after the same treatment time. It is shown that there is a supra-linear dependence of CRF on the percentage of cisplatin-DNA adducts formed, and a sigmoid-like dependence between CRF and the percentage of cells killed in resistant tumours. Drug resistance is shown to be a cumulative process which eventually can overcome tumour regression leading to treatment failure.

  11. Spontaneous transformation of human granulosa cell tumours into an aggressive phenotype: a metastasis model cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Misa; Muraki, Miho; Takamatsu, Kiyoshi; Saito, Hidekazu; Seiki, Motoharu; Takahashi, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) are frequently seen in menopausal women and are relatively indolent. Although the physiological properties of normal granulosa cells have been studied extensively, little is known about the molecular mechanism of GCT progression. Here, we characterise the unique behavioural properties of a granulosa tumour cell line, KGN cells, for the molecular analysis of GCT progression. Population doubling was carried out to examine the proliferation capacity of KGN cells. Moreover, the invasive capacity of these cells was determined using the in vitro invasion assay. The expression level of tumour markers in KGN cells at different passages was then determined by Western blot analysis. Finally, the growth and metastasis of KGN cells injected subcutaneously (s.c.) into nude mice was observed 3 months after injection. During in vitro culture, the advanced passage KGN cells grew 2-fold faster than the early passage cells, as determined by the population doubling assay. Moreover, we found that the advanced passage cells were 2-fold more invasive than the early passage cells. The expression pattern of tumour markers, such as p53, osteopontin, BAX and BAG-1, supported the notion that with passage, KGN cells became more aggressive. Strikingly, KGN cells at both early and advanced passages metastasized to the bowel when injected s.c. into nude mice. In addition, more tumour nodules were formed when the advanced passage cells were implanted. KGN cells cultured in vitro acquire an aggressive phenotype, which was confirmed by the analysis of cellular activities and the expression of biomarkers. Interestingly, KGN cells injected s.c. are metastatic with nodule formation occurring mostly in the bowel. Thus, this cell line is a good model for analysing GCT progression and the mechanism of metastasis in vivo

  12. The contribution of tumour-derived exosomes to the hallmarks of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Katie; Vella, Laura J

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small, biologically active extracellular vesicles and over the last decade, both stromal and tumour-derived exosomes (TDE) have been implicated in cancer onset, progression and metastases. Cancer is a complex disease that is underpinned by several "cancer hallmarks", originally described by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2000 and then revised in 2011. The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities, along with two emerging hallmarks and two enabling characteristics that facilitate tumour growth and metastatic dissemination. Ample evidence supports a clear role for TDE in four of the original biological hallmarks (sustaining proliferative signalling, resisting cell death, inducing angiogenesis and activating invasion and metastases). A less-defined role exists for TDE in evading growth suppressors, and currently, there is no evidence to suggest a role for TDE in enabling replicative immortality. TDE are intimately involved in the newly defined hallmarks of cancer and enabling characteristics, most evidently in immune inhibition and tumour-promoting inflammation, which ultimately enable escape from immune destruction and tumour progression. Herein, we discuss the role of TDE in the context of the hallmarks and enabling characteristics of cancer as defined by Hanahan and Weinberg.

  13. Positron emission tomography (PET) and pancreatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Kerrou, K.; Grahek, D.; Gutman, F.; Beco, V. de; Talbot, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    Neoplasms of the pancreas may originate front both exocrine and endocrine cells but in 90% of the cases, they correspond to ductal adenocarcinomas. For adenocarcinomas, the major indication of FDG-PET corresponds to the pre-operative staging because unexpected distant metastases can be detected by FDG-PET in about 20 to 40% of the cases, which results in avoidance of unnecessary surgical procedures. FDG PET is also useful in evaluation of the treatment effect, monitoring after the operation and detection of recurrent pancreatic cancers. For the characterisation of the pancreatic tumour, the performance of FDG-PET is sometimes limited due to poor cellularity, hyperglycemia or inflammatory processes. especially for large tumours and is indicated only in cases of doubtful results of CT or MRI. For endocrine pancreatic tumours, FDG-PET is useful only in case of poorly-differentiated and aggressive tumours. F-DOPA PET can he useful, complementary to pentetreotide scintigraphy, in well-differentiated endocrine tumours. (authors)

  14. Augmented reality in bone tumour resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. K.; Gupta, S.; Yoon, C.; Han, I.; Kim, H-S.; Choi, H.; Hong, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. Methods We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs). In the conventional group, resection was performed after measuring the distance from the edge of the condyle to the expected resection margin with a ruler as per routine clinical practice. Results The mean error of 164 resections in 82 femurs in the AR group was 1.71 mm (0 to 6). The mean error of 82 resections in 41 femurs in the conventional resection group was 2.64 mm (0 to 11) (p Augmented reality in bone tumour resection: An experimental study. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:137–143. PMID:28258117

  15. The CT diagnose of pleural metastasis tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liqun; Han Kaibin; Pan Heng; Huang Xiaoru; Zhou Bingcao; Huang Yuehua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the CT characteristic of pleural metastasis tumour,enhance the diagnostic level of pleural metastasis tumour. Methods: Review 30 cases which have been performed CT scan in our hospital during March 2002 to June 2003, which have been approved to pleural metastasis tumour by pathology and clinic. Make use of GE Hispeed.zx/i spiral CT,10mm thickness,10mm increment, l.5 pitch, some of them use 10mm or high resolution mode. All cases have been performed normal scan, 25 cases with contrast scan. Results: The CT representation of pleural metastasis tumour are encapsulated pleural effusion with irregular pleural thickening(56.6%), nodular pleural thickening(46.6%), pleural masses (13.3%), pneumothorax (3.3%), etc. Encapsulated pleural effusion and nodular pleural thickening are 76.6%, use contrast mode to scan pleural pathological changes enhance upon middle level, CT value increment > 20HU, there are 66.6% cases with other chest metastasis symptom, 73.3% primary lesion are pulmonary cancer, and 20% no primary lesion are found. Conclusion: Combine primary lesion history and other chest metastasis symptom, Spiral CT examination can differentiate most of pleural metastasis tumour, but it is difficult to differentiate the cases between with a little pleural effusion or light band pleural thickening and reactive alteration. (authors)

  16. [Surgical Management of Peritoneal Surface Malignancy with Respect to Tumour Type, Tumour Stage and Individual Tumour Biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, S; Struller, F; Grischke, E-M; Glatzle, J; Zieker, D; Königsrainer, A; Königsrainer, I

    2016-08-01

    Peritoneal tumour dissemination is still considered as a terminal disease. For the last two decades, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with intraoperative hyperthermic chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been popularised by Paul Sugarbaker almost doubling survival in selected patients compared with systemic chemotherapy alone. Nowadays, this particular treatment protocol is available in comprehensive cancer centres with reasonable mortality and morbidity. However, patient selection is still challenging. In general, CRS and HIPEC is indicated in primary peritoneal tumours such as mesothelioma and pseudomyxoma peritonei as well as in peritoneal metastases derived from gastrointestinal malignancies and ovarian cancers. Since systemic tumour spread is uncommon in patients with peritoneal metastases, peritoneal tumour dissemination was defined as localised disease within the "compartment abdomen". However, CRS and HIPEC are only beneficial as long as complete cytoreduction is achieved (CC-0 or CC-1). Histopathological parameters, the Sugarbaker peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) and general condition of the patient have been established as patient selection criteria. In primary peritoneal cancers, individual tumour biology is the predominant criterium for patient selection as opposed to intraabdominal tumour load in peritoneal metastases derived from gastrointestinal cancers. In gastric cancer, CRS and HIPEC should be restricted to synchronous limited disease because of its biological aggressiveness. In patients with free floating cancer cells without macroscopic signs of peritoneal spread, however, CRS and HIPEC following preoperative "neoadjuvant" chemotherapy preserves chances for cure. So far, there is no general recommendation for CRS and HIPEC by clinical practice guidelines. In the recent S3 guideline for treatment of colorectal cancer, however, CRS and HIPEC have been included as possible treatment options. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Boron uptake measurements in metastatic tumours in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolussi, S.; Altieri, S.; Bruschi, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide; despite the introduction over the last few years of new therapeutic agents, very little progress has been made in terms of survival, and the overall prognosis for these patients remains poor. For these reasons any efforts to find and validate new effective therapeutic procedures for lung cancer are very timely and essential. To study the possibility to apply BNCT in the cure of diffuse pulmonary tumours, we created a BNCT Lung Project in Pavia, supported by Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR), in which Physicists, Medical Doctors and Biologists are involved. The first steps were; 1. development of an animal model for Boron uptake measurements in healthy and tumour lung tissues; 2. evaluation of the possibility to treat patients with epithermal neutron beams (See S. Altieri et al., this Conference); 3. in-vitro study of BNCT efficacy (see A. Zonta et al.). Spatial Boron distribution by neutron radiography in lung metastases from Colon Adenocarcinoma is reported; furthermore we present preliminary results of Boron concentration measures in rat lung tissues. The measures were performed using alpha spectrometry in thin tissue samples. (author)

  18. MRI of intracranial germ cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, M.; Uozumi, T.; Kiya, K.; Mukada, K.; Arita, K.; Kurisu, K.; Sugiyama, K.; Onda, J.; Satoh, H.; Ikawa, F.; Migita, K.

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed MRI findings in proven intracranial germ cell tumours in 22 cases, 12 of whom received Gd-DTPA. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity of the tumour parenchyma was moderately low in 19 cases and isointense in 3; on T2-weighted images, it was high in all cases. Regions of different intensity thought to be cysts were found in 17 (77 %): 7 of 12 patients with germinoma (58 %) and in all other cases. Of the 13 patients with pineal lesions T1-weighted sagittal images showed the aqueduct to be obstructed in 5, stenotic in 7 and normal in 1. Strong contrast enhancement was observed in all 12 cases. Of the 14 patients with suprasellar lesions, 5 were found to have an intrasellar extension, and in 3 of these, the normal pituitary gland, which could be distinguished from the tumour, was displaced anteriorly. Ten patients (45 %) had multiple lesions. (orig.)

  19. Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.; Tam, K.F.; Kam, C.K.; Lui, C.Y.; Siu, C.W.; Lam, H.S.; Mak, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) represents the most common kind of mesenchymal tumour that arises from the alimentary tract. GIST is currently defined as a gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal tumour containing spindle cells (or less commonly epithelioid cells or rarely both) and showing CD117 (c-kit protein) positivity. Targeted molecular therapy of non-resectable GIST using imatinib, a specific tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, represents a real milestone in the management of solid malignancy. Imaging studies, both anatomical and functional, are playing an increasingly important role in management of patients with GIST. This review illustrates the radiological appearance of GISTs and the site-specific roles of each imaging tool. Clinical features and radiological differential diagnosis of GIST are also discussed

  20. Tumour-specific radiosensitizers for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denekamp, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recently Adams and coworkers at the Gray Laboratory have developed a new class of radiosensitizers which act specifically on hypoxic cells by abolishing the protection afforded by low oxygen concentrations. Since most experimental tumours contain a high proportion of oxygen-deprived cells, and most normal tissues are well oxygenated, these drugs are tumour specific radiosensitizers. Based on the hypothesis that sensitization increases with increasing electron affinity, the two nitroimidazoles, metronidazole (Flagyl) and Ro-07/0582 were identified as potent radiosensitizers with low toxicity. These drugs are effective only in the absence of oxygen, and only if the drug is present at the time of irradiation. The degree of sensitization increases with drug concentration rapidly over the range 0.1 to 1.0mg/g body weight for Ro-07-0582, and more gradually for Flagyl. Tumour studies have been performed on at least 12 different experimental tumours, using a variety of end points. Significant sensitization has been observed in every tumour studied, often corresponding to a dose reduction factor of 2.0 for high but non-toxic drug doses. Fractionated studies have also been performed on a few tumour lines. In most cases a useful therapeutic advantage was observed, although the sensitization was smaller. Ro-07-0582 used with X-rays gives a therapeutic gain comparable with that from cyclotron-produced fast neutrons. Neutrons used together with Ro-07-0582 are even more effective. In addition to the radiosensitization there is a specific cytotoxicity to hypoxic cells after prolonged exposure to Ro-07-0582. This cytotoxicity can be greatly enhanced in vitro by moderate hyperthermia. Flagyl and Ro-07-0582 have been used clinically as radiosensitizers, with promising early results. The clinical application is limited to certain dose fractionation patterns because of neurotoxicity. (author)

  1. Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.; Herter, M.; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg

    1983-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours can be very difficult despite numerous non-invasive diagnostic approaches, as is evident from two case reports presented here. The problem appears particularly intricate if two or more masses or space-occupying growths are present at the same time, the diagnostic aspects being different. In the first case, echinococcus alveolaris occurred simultaneously with a cavernous haemangioma and a focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). In the second case, FNH as a pendulating tumour was combined with a second focus in the superior part of the liver. These two examples are used as basis for discussing various diagnostic approaches, such as sonography, computed tomography and scintiscanning. (orig.) [de

  2. Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.; Herter, M.

    1983-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours can be very difficult despite numerous non-invasive diagnostic approaches, as is evident from two case reports presented here. The problem appears particularly intricate if two or more masses or space-occupying growths are present at the same time, the diagnostic aspects being different. In the first case, echinococcus alveolaris occurred simultaneously with a cavernous haemangioma and a focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). In the second case, FNH as a pendulating tumour was combined with a second focus in the superior part of the liver. These two examples are used as basis for discussing various diagnostic approaches, such as sonography, computed tomography and scintiscanning.

  3. How to express tumours using membrane systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A. Gutiérrez-Naranjo; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez; Agustín Riscos-Nú(n)ez; Francisco J. Romero-Campero

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the potential usefulness of membrane systems as tools for modelling tumours. The approach is followed both from a macroscopic and a microscopic point of view. In the first case, one considers the tumour as a growing mass of cells,focusing on its external shape. In the second case, one descends to the microscopic level, studying molecular signalling pathways that are crucial to determine if a cell is cancerous or not. In each of these approaches we work with appropriate variants of membrane systems.

  4. Lymphatic vessels assessment in feline mammary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarli, Giuseppe; Sassi, Francesco; Brunetti, Barbara; Rizzo, Antonio; Diracca, Laura; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatic vessels play a crucial role in a variety of human cancers since tumour cell lymphatic invasion significantly influences prognosis. It is not known if pre-existing lymphatics are enough for tumour dissemination or de novo development is necessary. VEGFR-3 is an angiogenetic mediator for both lymphatic and blood vessels during embryonic development, and only for lymphatics after birth. VEGF is a mediator of both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, regulates the growth of lymphatics in various experimental models, and is produced in many solid tumours. CD44 mediates hyaluronic acid (HA)-dependent cell adhesion: besides promoting invasion, this interaction also supports neoangiogenesis that indirectly stimulates tumour cell proliferation. The expression of VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor – C), its receptor VEGFR-3 and CD44, were studied on feline mammary samples to assess the importance of lymphangiogenesis and lymphangiotrophism in neoplasia. Samples were taken from six normal mammary glands (NMG), ten benign (BT) and 32 malignant (MT) tumours. Immunohistochemical laminin/VEGFR-3 double stain, VEGF-C and CD44 stains were applied to 4 μm-thick sections, and their expression evaluated in intratumoral/extratumoral and intramammary/extramammary fields. All groups revealed a higher number of lymphatics in the extratumoral/extramammary areas. VEGF-C expression in the epithelium paralleled the number of positive vessels in the NMG, BT and MT, whereas VEGF-C higher expression was noted in the intratumoral fields only in infiltrating MT. CD44 score was lower in extratumoral than intratumoral fields in tumours and showed a significant increase in extramammary/extratumoral fields from NMG to MT. Pearson test showed a significant and inversely proportional correlation between CD44 expression and the number of lymphatic vessels with VEGFR-3 in malignant infiltrating tumours. The number of both VEGFR-3 positive and negative lymphatics in the extratumoral

  5. Angiofibroma, a rare cardiac tumour in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gayen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiofibromas, located in any other sites than nasopharynx are unusual. Cardiac angiofibromas are a very rare cardiac tumours in comparison to rhabdomyomas which are the commonest in the children. We report a right ventricular tumour in a10 year old girl which was excised under cardiopulmonary bypass successfully and diagnosed as angiofibroma on histopathology. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-4, 51-54 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i4.8702  

  6. Labelled antibiotics as tumour-localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; McCready, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    The published results of clinical and experimental studies of labelled bleomycins and tetracyclines are reviewed. None of the labelled antibiotics yet studied show anything approaching absolute tumour specificity. Clinical trials suggest that 57 Co-bleomycin is superior to either 111 In- or 99 Tcsup(m)-bleomycin and that it may possess some advantages over 67 Ga-citrate in respect of lower uptake in the abdomen and, possibly, lower uptakes in benign and inflammatory lesions. Radioiodine-labelled or 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled tetracyclines appear to be of little value in tumour localization. (author)

  7. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment

  8. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, K.W. (Queensland Radium Inst., Herston (Australia))

    1981-11-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment.

  9. Increase in the fraction of necrotic, not apoptotic, cells in SiHa xenograft tumours shortly after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, P.L.; Vikse, C.M.; Vanderbyl, S.

    1999-01-01

    Background and purpose: Approximately 18% of the cells recovered by rapid mechanical dissociation of SiHa xenograft tumours contain large numbers of DNA strand breaks. The number of damaged cells increases to 30-40% 4-6 h after exposure to 5 or 15 Gy, returning to normal levels by 12 h. This observation is reminiscent of the rate of production of apoptotic cells in other murine and human xenograft tumours. The nature of this damage, rate of development and relation to cell proliferation rate were therefore examined in detail.Materials and methods: SiHa human cervical carcinoma cells were grown as xenograft tumours in SCID mice. Single-cell suspensions were prepared as a function of time after irradiation of the mouse and examined for DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay. Cell cycle progression was measured by flow cytometry evaluation of anti-bromodeoxyuridine-labelled tumour cells.Results: Significant numbers of apoptotic cells could not be detected in irradiated SiHa tumours using an end-labelling assay, electron microscopy, or histological examination of thin sections. Instead, xenograft cells exhibiting extensive DNA damage in the comet assay were predominantly necrotic cells. The increase in the proportion of heavily damaged cells 4-6 h after irradiation could be the result of an interplay between several factors including loss of viable cells and change in production or loss of necrotic cells. Analysis of the progression of BrdUrd-labelled cells confirmed that while 35% of cells from untreated SiHa tumours had divided and entered G 1 phase by 6 h after BrdUrd injection, none of the labelled cells from tumours exposed to 5 or 15 Gy had progressed to G 1 .Conclusions: The increase in the percentage of SiHa tumour cells with extensive DNA damage 4-6 h after irradiation is attributable to necrosis, not apoptosis. Cell cycle progression and cell loss are likely to influence the kinetics of appearance of both apoptotic and necrotic cells in irradiated tumours

  10. Recent advances and opportunities in proteomic analyses of tumour heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Nicholas W; Conrads, Thomas P

    2018-04-01

    Solid tumour malignancies comprise a highly variable admixture of tumour and non-tumour cellular populations, forming a complex cellular ecosystem and tumour microenvironment. This tumour heterogeneity is not incidental, and is known to correlate with poor patient prognosis for many cancer types. Indeed, non-malignant cell populations, such as vascular endothelial and immune cells, are known to play key roles supporting and, in some cases, driving aggressive tumour biology, and represent targets of emerging therapeutics, such as antiangiogenesis and immune checkpoint inhibitors. The biochemical interplay between these cellular populations and how they contribute to molecular tumour heterogeneity remains enigmatic, particularly from the perspective of the tumour proteome. This review focuses on recent advances in proteomic methods, namely imaging mass spectrometry, single-cell proteomic techniques, and preanalytical sample processing, that are uniquely positioned to enable detailed analysis of discrete cellular populations within tumours to improve our understanding of tumour proteomic heterogeneity. This review further emphasizes the opportunity afforded by the application of these techniques to the analysis of tumour heterogeneity in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tumour tissues, as these represent an invaluable resource for retrospective analyses that is now routinely accessible, owing to recent technological and methodological advances in tumour tissue proteomics. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Response and recovery kinetics of a solid tumour after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.; Hopkins, H.A.; Ritenour, E.R.; Looney, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of local tumour radiation over the dose range 7.5-30 Gy on the growth and cell kinetics of rat hepatoma H-4-II-E have been investigated. A plot of growth delays against log surviving fraction was linear below a fraction of 0.03, but failed to extrapolate to the origin. Following a single dose of 15 Gy to the tumour, DNA-precursor incorporation, labelling and mitotic indices were depressed for 7 days. Tumour cellularity, measured as DNA/g tumour was reduced and the rate of increase of total clonogenic cells slower than after complete tumour recovery. From Day 7 to Day 9 all indices of proliferation recovered to about control levels, clonogenic cell numbers increased more rapidly and tumour cellularity was restored. Repopulation of the tumour therefore appeared to take place mainly after Day 7. Incorporation of [ 3 H]-TdR into tumour DNA reached twice the control values on Day 9. The rate of tumour growth accelerated after the initial decrease, and maximum tumour growth rate was also twice the control values on Day 13. Accelerated growth rates in irradiated tumours, above those of control tumours, occurred 10-16 days after treatment. The effectiveness of sequential therapy may therefore be improved if given during this period of accelerated tumour growth. (author)

  12. Radiation-induced brain tumours: potential late complications of radiation therapy for brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, S.; Morioka, T.; Inamura, T.; Takeshita, I.; Fukui, M.; Sasaki, M.; Nakamura, K.; Wakisaka, S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of neoplasms subsequent to therapeutic cranial irradiation is a rare but serious and potentially fatal complication. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and pathological aspects of 11 patients who underwent cranial irradiation (range, 24-110 cGy) to treat their primary disease and thereafter developed secondary tumours within a span of 13 years. All tumours arose within the previous radiation fields, and satisfied the widely used criteria for the definition of radiation-induced neoplasms. There was no sex predominance (M: 5, F: 6) and the patients tended to be young at irradiation (1.3 - 42 years; median age: 22 years). The median latency period before the detection of the secondary tumour was 14.5 years (range: 6.5 - 24 years). Meningiomas developed in 5 patients, sarcomas in 4, and malignant gliomas in 2. A pre-operative diagnosis of a secondary tumour was correctly obtained in 10 patients based on the neuro-imaging as well as nuclear medicine findings. All patients underwent a surgical removal of the secondary tumour, 3 underwent additional chemotherapy, and one received stereotactic secondary irradiation therapy. During a median of 2 years of follow-up review after the diagnosis of a secondary tumour, 3 patients died related to the secondary tumours (2 sarcomas, 1 glioblastoma), one died of a recurrent primary glioma, while the remaining 7 have been alive for from 10 months to 12 years after being treated for the secondary tumours (median: 3 years). Based on these data, the clinicopathological characteristics and possible role of treatment for secondary tumours are briefly discussed. (author)

  13. DMBT1, a new member of the SRCR superfamily, on chromosome 10q25.3-26.1 is deleted in malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, J; Wiemann, S; Scheurlen, W

    1997-01-01

    Loss of sequences from human chromosome 10q has been associated with the progression of human cancer. Medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme are the most common malignant brain tumours in children and adults, respectively. In glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form, 80% of the tumo......Loss of sequences from human chromosome 10q has been associated with the progression of human cancer. Medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme are the most common malignant brain tumours in children and adults, respectively. In glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form, 80....... Intragenic homozygous deletions has been detected in 2/20 medulloblastomas and in 9/39 glioblastomas multiformes. Lack of DMBT1 expression has been demonstrated in 4/5 brain-tumour cell lines. We suggest that DMBT1 is a putative tumour-suppressor gene implicated in the carcinogenesis of medulloblastoma...

  14. Brain tumour stem cells: implications for cancer therapy and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Martin, Manuel

    2008-09-01

    The cancer relapse and mortality rate suggest that current therapies do not eradicate all malignant cells. Currently, it is accepted that tumorigenesis and organogenesis are similar in many respects, as for example, homeostasis is governed by a distinct sub-population of stem cells in both situations. There is increasing evidence that many types of cancer contain their own stem cells: cancer stem cells (CSC), which are characterized by their self-renewing capacity and differentiation ability. The investigation of solid tumour stem cells has gained momentum particularly in the area of brain tumours. Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumours. Nearly two-thirds of gliomas are highly malignant lesions with fast progression and unfortunate prognosis. Despite recent advances, two-year survival for glioblastoma (GBM) with optimal therapy is less than 30%. Even among patients with low-grade gliomas that confer a relatively good prognosis, treatment is almost never curative. Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a small fraction of glioma cells endowed with features of primitive neural progenitor cells and a tumour-initiating function. In general, this fraction is characterized for forming neurospheres, being endowed with drug resistance properties and often, we can isolate some of them using sorting methods with specific antibodies. The molecular characterization of these stem populations will be critical to developing an effective therapy for these tumours with very dismal prognosis. To achieve this aim, the development of a mouse model which recapitulates the nature of these tumours is essential. This review will focus on glioma stem cell knowledge and discuss future implications in brain cancer therapy and regenerative medicine.

  15. Radiolabelled aptamers for tumour imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.; Missailidis, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The growth in biotechnology has led to new techniques for the design, selection and production of ligands capable of molecular recognition. One promising approach is the production of specific receptor binding molecules based on specific nucleic acid sequences that are capable of recognising a wide array of target molecules. These oligonuclide ligands are known as aptamers. The technology that allows production of aptamer molecules is known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). We have used combinatorial chemistry techniques coupled with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to rapidly select aptamers from degenerate libraries that bind with high affinity and specificity to the protein core of the MUC1 antigen, a tumour marker previously extensively used in tumour imaging and therapy. MUC1 is widely expressed by normal glandular epithelial cells, however this expression is dramatically increased when the cells become malignant. This has been well documented for breast and ovarian cancer, as well as some lung, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Recently it has also been shown that MUC1 is a valuable marker for bladder and has been used for the imaging and targeted therapy of bladder cancer. The aptamer selection process was performed on affinity chromatography matrices. After ten rounds of selection and amplification, aptamers were cloned and sequenced. Post SELEX amino modifications have been used to confer nuclease resistance and coupling potential. The aptamers bound to MUC1 antigen with a Kd of 5nm and high specificity, demonstrated by fluorescent microscopy on MUC1-expressing tumour cells. Using peptide coupling reactions, we have successfully attached chelators for Tc-99m radiolabelling. Two of the constructs tested were based on mono-aptamer chelator complexes, one with commercially available MAG3 and one with a novel designed cyclen-based chelator. The other two constructs were based on the use of multi-aptamer complexes

  16. Abundant Fas expression by gastrointestinal stromal tumours may serve as a therapeutic target for MegaFasL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikhof, B.; van der Graaf, W. T. A.; Meijer, C.; Le, P. T. K.; Meersma, G. J.; de Jong, S.; Fletcher, J. A.; Suurmeijer, A. J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib has been shown to be an active agent in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours ( GIST), complete remissions are almost never seen and most patients finally experience disease progression during their course of treatment. An alternative

  17. Abundant Fas expression by gastrointestinal stromal tumours may serve as a therapeutic target for MegaFasL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikhof, B.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Meijer, C.; Le, P.T.; Meersma, G.J.; Jong, S. de; Fletcher, J.A.; Suurmeijer, A.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib has been shown to be an active agent in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST), complete remissions are almost never seen and most patients finally experience disease progression during their course of treatment. An alternative

  18. Interobserver delineation variation in lung tumour stereotacticbody radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, G. F.; Nygaard, D. E.; Hollensen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    the interobserver delineation variation for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of peripheral lung tumours using a cross-sectional study design. Methods 22 consecutive patients with 26 tumours were included. Positron emission tomography/CT scans were acquired for planning of SBRT. Three oncologists and three......-sectional analysis of delineation variation for peripheral lung tumours referred for SBRT, establishing the evidence that interobserver variation is very small for these tumours....

  19. Supratentorial tumours. Part II: tumors of neurolglial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Tumors arising from neuroglial cells are the most common primary brain tumours, representing approximately 45% of all tumours. A simplified classification of these tumours is given, based on the degree of anaplasia. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of such lesions is presented and the relevance of these techniques in the detection and differential diagnosis of neuroglial cells tumours is discussed. 39 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs

  20. Lack of relationship between TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity, treatment efficacy and prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Christensen, Rikke Kølby; Bartels, Annette; Brünner, Nils; Jakobsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may therefore play an essential role in the progression of a malignant tumour. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate TIMP-1 protein immunoreactivity in tissue from primary ovarian cancer patients and associate these findings with the course of the disease including response to treatment in the individual patient. TIMP-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (in tissue micro arrays) in a total of 163 ovarian cancer specimens obtained from primary debulking surgery during 1991-1994 as part of a randomized clinical protocol. Positive TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was found in 12.3% of the tumours. The median survival time for the 143 patients with TIMP-1 negative tumours was 23.7 months [19.0-29.4] 95% CI, while the median survival time for the 20 patients with TIMP-1 positive tumours was 15.9 months [12.3-27.4] 95% CI. Although a difference of 7.8 months in median overall survival in favor of the TIMP-1 tumour negative patients was found, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.28, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test). Moreover, TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was not associated with CA125 response (p = 0.53) or response at second look surgery (p = 0.72). TIMP-1 immunoreactivity in tumour tissue from patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer did not correlate with patient survival or response to combination platinum/cyclophosphamide therapy

  1. The 2016 revision of the WHO Classification of Central Nervous System Tumours: retrospective application to a cohort of diffuse gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Te Whiti; Toor, Gurvinder; Drummond, Katharine; Love, Craig; Field, Kathryn; Asher, Rebecca; Tsui, Alpha; Buckland, Michael; Gonzales, Michael

    2018-03-01

    The classification of central nervous system tumours has more recently been shaped by a focus on molecular pathology rather than histopathology. We re-classified 82 glial tumours according to the molecular-genetic criteria of the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. Initial diagnoses and grading were based on the morphological criteria of the 2007 WHO scheme. Because of the impression of an oligodendroglial component on initial histological assessment, each tumour was tested for co-deletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q and mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH-1 and 2) genes. Additionally, expression of proteins encoded by alpha-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation (ATRX) and TP53 genes was assessed by immunohistochemistry. We found that all but two tumours could be assigned to a specific category in the 2016 revision. The most common change in diagnosis was from oligoastrocytoma to specifically astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma. Analysis of progression free survival (PFS) for WHO grade II and III tumours showed that the objective criteria of the 2016 revision separated diffuse gliomas into three distinct molecular categories: chromosome 1p/19q co-deleted/IDH mutant, intact 1p/19q/IDH mutant and IDH wild type. No significant difference in PFS was found when comparing IDH mutant grade II and III tumours suggesting that IDH status is more informative than tumour grade. The segregation into distinct molecular sub-types that is achieved by the 2016 revision provides an objective evidence base for managing patients with grade II and III diffuse gliomas based on prognosis.

  2. Thyroid tumours following fractionated irradiation in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vathaire, F. de; Grimaud, E.; Diallo, I.; Shamsaldin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a cohort study designed to evaluate the long term risk of thyroid tumours after fractioned high doses of external beam radiotherapy received by the thyroid are reported. In this cohort study, doses have been estimated for each child. (author)

  3. Standard effective doses for proliferative tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.C.; Hoban, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the treatment schedules used clinically for highly proliferative tumours, particularly with reference to the effects of fraction size, fraction number and treatment duration. The linear quadratic model (with time component) is used here to compare non-standard treatment regimens (e.g. accelerated and hyperfractionated schedules), currently the focus of randomized trials, with each other and some common 'standard regimens'. To ensure easy interpretation of results, two parameters known as proliferative standard effective dose one (PSED 1 ) and proliferative standard effective dose two (PSED 2 ) have been calculated for each regimen. Graphs of PSED 1 and PSED 2 versus potential doubling time (T p ) have been generated for a range of fractionation regimens which are currently under trial in various randomized studies. From these graphs it can be seen that the highly accelerated schedules (such as CHART) only show advantages for tumours with very short potential doubling times. Calculations for most of the schedules considered showed at least equivalent tumour control expected for the trial schedule compared with the control arm used and these values agree quite well with clinical results. These calculations are in good agreement with clinical results available at present. The greater the PSED 1 or PSED 2 for the schedule considered the greater the tumour control, which can be expected. However, as has been seen with clinical trials, this higher cell kill also results in higher acute effects which have proved too great for some accelerated schedules to continue. (author)

  4. Unsuccessful mitosis in multicellular tumour spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Annie; Couvet, Morgane; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2017-04-25

    Multicellular spheroids are very attractive models in oncology because they mimic the 3D organization of the tumour cells with their microenvironment. We show here using 3 different cell types (mammary TSA/pc, embryonic kidney Hek293 and cervical cancer HeLa), that when the cells are growing as spheroids the frequency of binucleated cells is augmented as occurs in some human tumours.We therefore describe mitosis in multicellular spheroids by following mitotic markers and by time-lapse experiments. Chromosomes alignment appears to be correct on the metaphasic plate and the passenger complex is well localized on centromere. Moreover aurora kinases are fully active and histone H3 is phosphorylated on Ser 10. Consequently, the mitotic spindle checkpoint is satisfied and, anaphase proceeds as illustrated by the transfer of survivin on the spindle and by the segregation of the two lots of chromosomes. However, the segregation plane is not well defined and oscillations of the dividing cells are observed. Finally, cytokinesis fails and the absence of separation of the two daughter cells gives rise to binucleated cells.Division orientation is specified during interphase and persists throughout mitosis. Our data indicate that the cancer cells, in multicellular spheroids, lose their ability to regulate their orientation, a feature commonly encountered in tumours.Moreover, multicellular spheroid expansion is still sensitive to mitotic drugs as pactlitaxel and aurora kinase inhibitors. The spheroids thus represent a highly relevant model for studying drug efficiency in tumours.

  5. Total hip arthroplasty for giant cell tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni S

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A 32 month follow up of an uncommon case of a Giant Cell Tumour affecting the proximal end of femur is presented. Following a wide excision, the hip was reconstructed using Charnley type of low friction total hip arthroplasty. At a 32 month review, there was no recurrence and the function was good.

  6. Malignant Appendage Tumours in Zaria | Samaila | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Eccrine sweat gland origin. Conclusion: Malignant appendage tumours showed a higher frequency in middle aged men in this review. A good knowledge and understanding of the pathology, high index of suspicion and immunohistochemical studies should help in making diagnosis. Surgical intervention with wide margin ...

  7. Spermatogenesis and testicular tumours in ageing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M. A.; de rooij, D. G.; Teerds, K. J.; van de Gaag, I.; van Sluijs, F. J.

    2001-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to quantify the changes in canine spermatogenesis that occur during ageing and to study the prevalence of testicular tumours and their effects on spermatogenesis in dogs. Testes from 74 dogs of various breeds without clinically detected testicular disease and from

  8. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour | Ntloko | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions. Surgery with tumour-free resection margins is the gold standard of care of adult and paediatric I-IMFTs. Heightened recognition of I-IMFT, albeit rare, as a cause of intestinal obstruction, including intussusception, is necessary for preoperative suspicion of I-IMFT. SAJS, VOL 49, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2011 ...

  9. pituitary tumours, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of pituitary tumours has advanced considerably over the last decade. A variety of novel dopamine agonists has revolutionised the management of prolactinomas, while the availability of effective somatostatin analogues has raised the possibility of primary medical treatment of acromegaly. Furthermore, the ...

  10. The negative brain scintiscan in brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalke, K.G.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of 53 histologically verified and two histologically unidentified brain tumours, the author examined the reasons for these wrongly negative scintiscans. EEGs and angiographies carried out at about the same time were taken into account and compared with the scintigraphic findings. (orig.) [de

  11. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  12. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  13. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    of the lacrimal gland, displacement of the eyeball, reduced eye motility and diplopia. Pain and symptoms of short duration before the first ophthalmic consultation are characteristic of malignant tumours. The histological diagnosis determines the subsequent treatment regimen and provides important clues regarding...

  14. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma: a rare cutaneous tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfan-ul-Bari; Simeen-ber-Rehman

    2004-01-01

    Multiple familial trichoepithelioma (MFT) is a rare autosomal dominant skin disease that presents as many small tumours predominantly on the face. We report a case of multiple familial trichoepithelioma occurring in three members of a family. They were diagnosed simultaneously. Only one was treated with medium depth chemical peeling with partial response. (author)

  15. Maxillary brown tumour: unusual presentation of parathyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a maxillary brown tumour caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) secondary to parathyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a large swelling in the right maxilla, which caused right-sided nasal obstruction, intermittent bleeding and diplopia. A computed tomography scan demonstrated ...

  16. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2012-08-01

    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  17. Comparison of performance of various tumour response criteria in assessment of regorafenib activity in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagare, Atul B; Jagannathan, Jyothi P; Kurra, Vikram; Urban, Trinity; Manola, Judith; Choy, Edwin; Demetri, George D; George, Suzanne; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2014-03-01

    To compare performance of various tumour response criteria (TRCs) in assessment of regorafenib activity in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) with prior failure of imatinib and sunitinib. Twenty participants in a phase II trial received oral regorafenib (median duration 47 weeks; interquartile range (IQR) 24-88) with computed tomography (CT) imaging at baseline and every two months thereafter. Tumour response was prospectively determined on using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) 1.1, and retrospectively reassessed for comparison per RECIST 1.0, World Health Organization (WHO) and Choi criteria, using the same target lesions. Clinical benefit rate [CBR; complete or partial response (CR or PR) or stable disease (SD)≥16 weeks] and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared between various TRCs using kappa statistics. Performance of TRCs in predicting overall survival (OS) was compared by comparing OS in groups with progression-free intervals less than or greater than 20 weeks by each TRC using c-statistics. PR was more frequent by Choi (90%) than RECIST 1.1, RECIST 1.0 and WHO (20% each), however, CBR was similar between various TRCs (overall CBR 85-90%, 95-100% agreement between all TRC pairs). PFS per RECIST 1.0 was similar to RECIST 1.1 (median 44 weeks versus 58 weeks), and shorter for WHO (median 34 weeks) and Choi (median 24 weeks). With RECIST 1.1, RECIST 1.0 and WHO, there was moderate concordance between PFS and OS (c-statistics 0.596-0.679). Choi criteria had less favourable concordance (c-statistic 0.506). RECIST 1.1 and WHO performed somewhat better than Choi criteria as TRC for response evaluation in patients with advanced GIST after prior failure on imatinib and sunitinib. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-tumour action of 64Cu-bleomycin on Ehrlich ascites tumour cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Hirotoshi; Kawai, Kenichi; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    1979-01-01

    The anti-tumor action of the complex of Bleomycin (BLM) with high specific-radioactivity 64 Cu on Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) was studied in vivo. The 64 Cu-BLM was administered into intraperitoneal cavity of mice from 1 to 4 days after inoculation of EAT cells. The effect of 64 Cu-BLM to suppress the tumour growth as demonstrated by prolonging life span was observed. The amounts of 64 Cu-BLM (800 μCi-8 mg/Kg) were administered at 4, 8 and 16 times separately. Then, the shorter the time interval and the less the amounts of drugs at a time, the higher the suppressing effect for the tumour growth was. It was confirmed that anti-tumour action of 64 Cu-BLM was in all the cases higher than that of BLM alone. (author)

  19. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M.; Kroon, H.M.; Woertler, K.; Anderson, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  20. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M. [The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kroon, H.M. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, C-2-S, P. O Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Woertler, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Anderson, S.E. [Knochentumor- Referenzzentrum der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft fuer Pathologie, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  1. Germ cell tumours in neonates and infants: a distinct subgroup?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, I.M.; Schepens, M.T.M.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Strong, L.C.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Human germ cell tumours (GCTs) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can be classified into four major subgroups. One of these subgroups encompasses (immature) teratomas and yolk sac tumours of patients under the age of 5 years. In this paper we review the various clinical, histological

  2. [Biotherapy of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Knigge, U.

    2008-01-01

    Biotherapy of hormonal symptoms and tumour growth is a mainstay in the therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Symptomatic relief can be achieved by somatostatin analogues and interferon, either alone or in combination. The effect on tumour growth...

  3. Tumours and cancers in Graeco-Roman times | Retief | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Hippocratic literature tumours were mainly classified as karkin6mata, phumata, and oidemata. Phumata included a large variety of tumours, inflammatory and neoplastic in origin, and mostly benign (in modern terms), while oidemata were soft, painless tumours and even included generalised oedema (dropsy). Although ...

  4. Tumours and cancers in Graeco-Roman times | Retief | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Hippocratic literature tumours were mainly classified as karkinômata, phumata and oidêmata. Phumata included a large variety of tumours, inflammatory and neoplastic in origin, and mostly benign (in modern terms), whilst oidêmata were soft, painless tumours and even included generalised oedema (dropsy). Although ...

  5. Primary Malignant Bone Tumours at the University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Primary malignant bone tumours include malignancies arising primarily from bone tissue. This is opposed to secondary bone tumours in which case the neoplastic elements arise primarily from other sites within the body and secondarily spread to bone. Primary malignant bone tumours are generally ...

  6. Histopathological review of breast tumours in children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of all tumours followed by tubular adenoma (n = 11; 8.2%) and adenosis (n = 10; 7.4%). No case of malignancy was recorded in this study. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in children and adolescents in our environment. Key words: Adolescents, breast tumours, childhood, fi broadenoma ...

  7. Primary Central Nervous System Tumours in Children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary CNS tumours are the commonest childhood solid tumours in most developed countries, accounting for 25-30% of cases. In our environment they occur less frequently. These tumours are nonetheless the cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the paediatric age group worldwide. However paediatric CNS ...

  8. Central nervous system tumours in children in Ibadan, Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CNS) tumours are uncommon in black children, these neoplasms are the fourth most common paediatric tumours in Ibadan. Our centre is the major referral centre for CNS tumours in Nigeria. The last major study of paediatric CNS neoplasms from ...

  9. Malignant insulinoma: The problems of tumour localization and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant insulinomas of the pancreas are rare tumours, accounting for 10% of ... Histological examination showed a R-cell malignant tumour of the pancreas with ... Associated vaso-. SA MEDICAL JOURNAL VOLUME 63 23 APRIL 1983 ... 52 cases of pancreatic endocrine malignant tumours, which have similar behaviour.

  10. Malignant Giant Cell Tumour of Bone with Axillary Metastasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-06-06

    Jun 6, 2002 ... SUMMARY. Giant Cell Tumour of bone is a typically benign and solitary tumour. However, multiple lesions have been described and 5-10% of lesions may be malignant. We present a case of a malignant giant cell tumour of the distal radius with metastasis to the ipsilateral axilla (an uncommon location).

  11. Regional tumour glutamine supply affects chromatin and cell identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højfeldt, Jonas W; Helin, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Limited perfusion of solid tumours produces a nutrient-deprived tumour core microenvironment. Low glutamine levels in the tumour core are now shown to lead to reduced levels of α-ketoglutarate and decreased histone demethylase activity, thereby promoting a less differentiated and more therapy-res...

  12. Fas Ligand Expression in Lynch Syndrome-Associated Colorectal Tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, Jan J.; de Jong, Steven; Boersma-van Eck, Wietske; Zwart, Nynke; Hollema, Harry; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.

    Fas Ligand (FasL) expression by cancer cells may contribute to tumour immune escape via the Fas counterattack against tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Whether this plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome was examined studying FasL expression, tumour cell apoptosis and

  13. Relevance of high-dose chemotherapy in solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, P; de Vries, EGE; Mulder, NH; van der Graaf, WTA

    Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of solid tumours. Based on a steep dose-response relationship for especially alkylating agents on tumour cell survival, high-dose chemotherapy was considered of interest for the treatment of solid tumours. Results of phase 1 and 2 studies with

  14. Hepatic Metastases of Granulosa Cell Tumour of the Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Rodríguez García

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of metastatic granulosa cell tumour of the ovary is reported. Investigations revealed a secondary tumour in segment VI and VII of the liver. Right hepatic resection was performed. Microscopic findings revealed a tumour with histological features identical to that removed eleven years before.

  15. Malignant Renal Tumours in Adults in Nnamdi Azikiwe University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is however the urological tumour with the highest mortality/ incidence ratio. OBJECTIVE: To review the frequency, mode of presentation and histological pattern of patients with malignant renal tumours in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital. METHOD: A 7 year retrospective review of all our renal tumour folders in ...

  16. Bilateral ovarian tumour in a young girl | Govindarajan | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral ovarian tumour in a girl presents the dilemma of conservative versus aggressive approach towards these tumours. When faced with suspicious tumour and complete replacement of the ovaries bilaterally, bilateral oophorectomy is a viable option, though the certain possibility of infertility and lifelong hormonal ...

  17. Gene transfer preferentially selects MHC class I positive tumour cells and enhances tumour immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Ulrich T; Schildhauer, Ines; Barroso, Margarita Céspedes; Kofler, David M; Gerner, Franz M; Mysliwietz, Josef; Buening, Hildegard; Hallek, Michael; King, Susan B S

    2006-05-01

    The modulated expression of MHC class I on tumour tissue is well documented. Although the effect of MHC class I expression on the tumorigenicity and immunogenicity of MHC class I negative tumour cell lines has been rigorously studied, less is known about the validity of gene transfer and selection in cell lines with a mixed MHC class I phenotype. To address this issue we identified a C26 cell subline that consists of distinct populations of MHC class I (H-2D/K) positive and negative cells. Transient transfection experiments using liposome-based transfer showed a lower transgene expression in MHC class I negative cells. In addition, MHC class I negative cells were more sensitive to antibiotic selection. This led to the generation of fully MHC class I positive cell lines. In contrast to C26 cells, all transfectants were rejected in vivo and induced protection against the parental tumour cells in rechallenge experiments. Tumour cell specificity of the immune response was demonstrated in in vitro cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity assays. Transfectants expressing CD40 ligand and hygromycin phosphotransferase were not more immunogenic than cells expressing hygromycin resistance alone. We suggest that the MHC class I positive phenotype of the C26 transfectants had a bearing on their immunogenicity, because selected MHC class I positive cells were more immunogenic than parental C26 cells and could induce specific anti-tumour immune responses. These data demonstrate that the generation of tumour cell transfectants can lead to the selection of subpopulations that show an altered phenotype compared to the parental cell line and display altered immunogenicity independent of selection marker genes or other immune modulatory genes. Our results show the importance of monitoring gene transfer in the whole tumour cell population, especially for the evaluation of in vivo therapies targeted to heterogeneous tumour cell populations.

  18. Renal space-occupying solid growth of uncertain tumour status in metastasising tumour of the testicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhard, K.; Sarmiento-Garcia, G.; Worlicek, H.; Krankenhaus Martha-Maria, Nuernberg

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of a particular case of 'atypical' hypernephroma the main differential diagnosis of solid renal masses are described with reference to the basis disease: testicle tumour causing metastasis. The problems of determining the dignity of the disease by methods of sonography, pyelogram and CT are pointed out as well as the differences between those characteristics of the said tumour revealed by X-ray diagnosis and the known characteristics of substantial kidney deformations as described in medical literature. (orig.) [de

  19. Prophylactic Anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, P.A.; Weaver, S.; Fulton, D.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants in brain tumour patients (without prior seizures) reduced seizure frequency. We stopped accrual at 100 patients on the basis of the interim analysis. One hundred newly diagnosed brain tumour patients received anticonvulsants (AC Group) or not (No AC Group) in this prospective randomized unblinded study. Sixty patients had metastatic, and 40 had primary brain tumours. Forty-six (46%) patients were randomized to the AC Group and 54 (54%) to the No AC Group. Median follow-up was 5.44 months (range 0.13 -30.1 months). Seizures occurred in 26 (26%) patients, eleven in the AC Group and 15 in the No AC Group. Seizure-free survivals were not different; at three months 87% of the AC Group and 90% of the No AC Group were seizure-free (log rank test, p=0.98). Seventy patients died (unrelated to seizures) and survival rates were equivalent in both groups (median survival = 6.8 months versus 5.6 months, respectively; log rank test, p=0.50). We then terminated accrual at 100 patients because seizure and survival rates were much lower than expected; we would need ≥900 patients to have a suitably powered study. These data should be used by individuals contemplating a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants are effective in subsets of brain tumour patients (e.g. only anaplastic astrocytomas). When taken together with the results of a similar randomized trial, prophylactic anticonvulsants are unlikely to be effective or useful in brain tumour patients who have not had a seizure. (author)

  20. Prophylactic Anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, P.A. [Depts. of Oncology and Clinical Neurosciences, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Weaver, S. [Depts. of Neurology and Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York (United States); Fulton, D. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute and Dept. of Medicine/Neurology, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    We conducted a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants in brain tumour patients (without prior seizures) reduced seizure frequency. We stopped accrual at 100 patients on the basis of the interim analysis. One hundred newly diagnosed brain tumour patients received anticonvulsants (AC Group) or not (No AC Group) in this prospective randomized unblinded study. Sixty patients had metastatic, and 40 had primary brain tumours. Forty-six (46%) patients were randomized to the AC Group and 54 (54%) to the No AC Group. Median follow-up was 5.44 months (range 0.13 -30.1 months). Seizures occurred in 26 (26%) patients, eleven in the AC Group and 15 in the No AC Group. Seizure-free survivals were not different; at three months 87% of the AC Group and 90% of the No AC Group were seizure-free (log rank test, p=0.98). Seventy patients died (unrelated to seizures) and survival rates were equivalent in both groups (median survival = 6.8 months versus 5.6 months, respectively; log rank test, p=0.50). We then terminated accrual at 100 patients because seizure and survival rates were much lower than expected; we would need {>=}900 patients to have a suitably powered study. These data should be used by individuals contemplating a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants are effective in subsets of brain tumour patients (e.g. only anaplastic astrocytomas). When taken together with the results of a similar randomized trial, prophylactic anticonvulsants are unlikely to be effective or useful in brain tumour patients who have not had a seizure. (author)

  1. Radiolabelled somatostatin analogue treatment in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: factors associated with response and suggestions for therapeutic sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campana, Davide; Nori, Francesca; Cacciari, Giulia; Tomassetti, Paola [University of Bologna, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna (Italy); Capurso, Gabriele; Panzuto, Francesco; Delle Fave, Gianfranco [University of Rome, Digestive and Liver Disease Unit, Rome (Italy); Partelli, Stefano [Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Department of Surgery, Negrar (Italy); University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy); Tamburrino, Domenico; Falconi, Massimo [University of Verona, Department of Surgery, Verona (Italy); Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Pancreas Surgical Unit, Ancona (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a relatively new treatment modality for patients with unresectable or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs). The aim of this study was to determine the time to progression of patients treated with PRRT and to identify the prognostic factors related to treatment response. Patients with sporadic GEP NETs prospectively treated with PRRT were retrospectively analysed. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 69 patients (37 men and 32 women; 45 with pancreatic and 24 with gastrointestinal lesion; 22 NET G1 and 41 NET G2) were treated with {sup 90}Y or {sup 177}Lu. The objective response rate was 27.5 % (partial response, PR), while 50.7 % had stable disease and 23.2 % had progressive disease. Significant differences in PFS were observed in relationship to the stage of the disease (44 months for stage III, 23 months for stage IV), the evidence of a PR 6 months after the end of the PRRT (39 months in patients with a PR, 22 months in patients without a PR) and previous transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, yes 13 months vs no 31 months). Stage IV, NET G2 and previous TACE were found to be significant factors for tumour progression at multivariate analysis. Low tumour burden and a low proliferation index represent independent prognostic factors for long PFS, while previous chemoembolization techniques represent independent prognostic factors for early tumour progression and shorter PFS. Our data suggest that chemoembolization techniques to reduce the hepatic tumour burden should be avoided. (orig.)

  2. Value of skeletal scintiscanning in cases of primary bone tumours and tumourous alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolowski, U.

    1982-01-01

    In the course of an investigation on the storage behaviour of primary bone tumours and tumourous bone alterations the skeletal scintigrams of a total of 26 patients were evaluated. Bone scintiscanning was done according to current practice after injection of an average amount of 10mCi sup(99m)Tc-MDP, followed by a semiquantitative evaluation. In all cases of malignant bone tumours there was fond to be increased storage of radionuclide; with benign bone alterations this was so in 70 per cent of cases. To differentiate between benign and malignant tumours respectively inflammatory bone diseases was not as a rule possible; however, the investigation yielded additional information completing the X-ray findings essentially. Thus very high storage of radioactivity was established for all osteosarcomas, whereas benign bone growths exhibited more circumscribed accumulations of activity. Skeletal scintiscanning for diagnostical purposes is particularly informative as to the early detection of bone foci evading X-ray diagnosis, more accurate delimitation of tumourous processes, and course control of tumours tending to degenerate. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Intramedullary tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2: MRI features associated with a favourable prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennie, A.T.M. [Department of Neuroradiology, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: atmrennie@hotmail.com; Side, L. [Department of Clinical Genetics, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kerr, R.S.C. [Department of Neurosurgery, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Anslow, P.; Pretorius, P. [Department of Neuroradiology, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    Aim: To assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and natural history of intramedullary tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Materials and methods: Eleven NF2 patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumours were identified from the database of the multidisciplinary NF2 clinic. All the imaging studies of these patients were individually reviewed by two neuroradiologists to evaluate the size, number, location, imaging characteristics, and interval growth of the intramedullary tumours. Results: Two of the 11 patients had lesions that required surgery. Both these lesions were in the cervical region, and extended over three and five segments respectively. Nine patients with a mean imaging follow-up period of 77 months had lesions that remained stable, apart from the development of small peritumoral cysts in three. The lesions were well circumscribed, often multiple, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, and were most frequently found in the cervical cord. Conclusion: The majority of intramedullary tumours in NF2 patients are very slow growing and share certain MRI features that differ from those of progressive or symptomatic lesions.

  4. Increased tumour ADC value during chemotherapy predicts improved survival in unresectable pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology and IVR Center, Kashihara-city, Nara (Japan); Marugami, Nagaaki [Nara Medical University, Department of Endoscopy and Ultrasound, Kashihara-city, Nara (Japan); Sho, Masayuki; Akahori, Takahiro; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki [Nara Medical University, Department of Surgery, Kashihara-city, Nara (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate whether changes to the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of primary tumour in the early period after starting chemotherapy can predict progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Subjects comprised 43 patients with histologically confirmed unresectable pancreatic cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy. Minimum ADC values in primary tumour were measured using the selected area ADC (sADC), which excluded cystic and necrotic areas and vessels, and the whole tumour ADC (wADC), which included whole tumour components. Relative changes in ADC were calculated from baseline to 4 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy. Relationships between ADC and both PFS and OS were modelled by Cox proportional hazards regression. Median PFS and OS were 6.1 and 11.0 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, sADC change was the strongest predictor of PFS (hazard ratio (HR), 4.5; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.7-11.9; p = 0.002). Multivariate Cox regression analysis for OS revealed sADC change and CRP as independent predictive markers, with sADC change as the strongest predictive biomarker (HR, 6.7; 95 % CI, 2.7-16.6; p = 0.001). Relative changes in sADC could provide a useful imaging biomarker to predict PFS and OS with chemotherapy for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (orig.)

  5. Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and brain tumour risks in the INTEROCC study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michelle C; Benke, Geza; Bowman, Joseph D; Figuerola, Jordi; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Kincl, Laurel; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; van Tongeren, Martie; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF) is a suspected risk factor for brain tumours, however the literature is inconsistent. Few studies have assessed whether ELF in different time windows of exposure may be associated with specific histologic types of brain tumours. This study examines the association between ELF and brain tumours in the large-scale INTEROCC study. Methods Cases of adult primary glioma and meningioma were recruited in seven countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, New Zealand, United Kingdom) between 2000 and 2004. Estimates of mean workday ELF exposure based on a job exposure matrix assigned. Estimates of cumulative exposure, average exposure, maximum exposure, and exposure duration were calculated for the lifetime, and 1–4, 5–9, and 10+ years prior to the diagnosis/reference date. Results There were 3,761 included brain tumour cases (1,939 glioma, 1,822 meningioma) and 5,404 population controls. There was no association between lifetime cumulative ELF exposure and glioma or meningioma risk. However, there were positive associations between cumulative ELF 1–4 years prior to the diagnosis/reference date and glioma (odds ratio (OR) ≥ 90th percentile vs Occupational ELF exposure may play a role in the later stages (promotion and progression) of brain tumourigenesis. PMID:24935666

  6. Intracapillary HbO2 saturations in murine tumours and human tumour xenografts measured by cryospectrophotometry: relationship to tumour volume, tumour pH and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofstad, E K; Fenton, B M; Sutherland, R M

    1988-05-01

    Frequency distributions for intracapillary HbO2 saturation were determined for two murine tumour lines (KHT, RIF-1) and two human ovarian carcinoma xenograft lines (MLS, OWI) using a cryospectrophotometric method. The aim was to search for possible relationships between HbO2 saturation status and tumour volume, tumour pH and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. Tumour pH was measured by 31P NMR spectroscopy. Hypoxic fractions were determined from cell survival curves for tumours irradiated in vivo and assayed in vitro. Tumours in the volume range 100-4000 mm3 were studied and the majority of the vessels were found to have HbO2 saturations below 10%. The volume-dependence of the HbO2 frequency distributions differed significantly among the four tumour lines; HbO2 saturation status decreased with increasing tumour volume for the KHT, RIF-1 and MLS lines and was independent of tumour volume for the OWI line. The data indicated that the rate of decrease in HbO2 saturation status during tumour growth was related to the rate of development of necrosis. The volume-dependence of tumour pH was very similar to that of the HbO2 saturation status for all tumour lines. Significant correlations were therefore found between HbO2 saturation status and tumour pH, both within tumour lines and across the four tumour lines, reflecting that the volume-dependence of both parameters probably was a compulsory consequence of reduced oxygen supply conditions during tumour growth. Hypoxic fraction increased during tumour growth for the KHT, RIF-1 and MLS lines and was volume-independent for the OWI line, suggesting a relationship between HbO2 saturation status and hypoxic fraction within tumour lines. However, there was no correlation between these two parameters across the four tumour lines, indicating that the hypoxic fraction of a tumour is not determined only by the oxygen supply conditions; other parameters may also be important, e.g. oxygen diffusivity, rate of oxygen

  7. Insulin resistance in vascular endothelial cells promotes intestinal tumour formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X; Häring, M-F; Rathjen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in vascular endothelial cells. Strikingly, these mice had 42% more intestinal tumours than controls, no change in tumour angiogenesis, but increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in primary culture of tumour endothelial cells. Insulin decreased VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte...... adhesion in quiescent tumour endothelial cells with intact insulin receptors and partly prevented increases in VCAM-1 and leukocyte adhesion after treatment with tumour necrosis factor-α. Knockout of insulin receptors in endothelial cells also increased leukocyte adhesion in mesenteric venules...

  8. Anorexia-cachexia syndrome in hepatoma tumour-bearing rats requires the area postrema but not vagal afferents and is paralleled by increased MIC-1/GDF15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Tito; Arnold, Myrtha; Ruud, Johan; Breit, Samuel N; Langhans, Wolfgang; Lutz, Thomas A; Blomqvist, Anders; Riediger, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The cancer-anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively affects survival and therapy success in cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators and tumour-derived factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of CACS. However, the central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to CACS are insufficiently understood. The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarii are two important brainstem centres for the control of eating during acute sickness conditions. Recently, the tumour-derived macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) emerged as a possible mediator of cancer anorexia because lesions of these brainstem areas attenuated the anorectic effect of exogenous MIC-1 in mice. Using a rat hepatoma tumour model, we examined the roles of the AP and of vagal afferents in the mediation of CACS. Specifically, we investigated whether a lesion of the AP (APX) or subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) attenuate anorexia, body weight, muscle, and fat loss. Moreover, we analysed MIC-1 levels in this tumour model and their correlation with tumour size and the severity of the anorectic response. In tumour-bearing sham-operated animals mean daily food intake significantly decreased. The anorectic response was paralleled by a significant loss of body weight and muscle mass. APX rats were protected against anorexia, body weight loss, and muscle atrophy after tumour induction. In contrast, subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation did not attenuate cancer-induced anorexia or body weight loss. Tumour-bearing rats had substantially increased MIC-1 levels, which positively correlated with tumour size and cancer progression and negatively correlated with food intake. These findings demonstrate the importance of the AP in the mediation of cancer-dependent anorexia and body weight loss and support a pathological role of MIC-1 as a tumour-derived factor mediating CACS, possibly via an AP-dependent action. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle

  9. A spatio-temporal simulation model of the response of solid tumours to radiotherapy in vivo: parametric validation concerning oxygen enhancement ratio and cell cycle duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipas, Vassilis P; Stamatakos, Georgios S; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos K; Dionysiou, Dimitra D; Dale, Roger G

    2004-01-01

    Advanced bio-simulation methods are expected to substantially improve radiotherapy treatment planning. To this end a novel spatio-temporal patient-specific simulation model of the in vivo response of malignant tumours to radiotherapy schemes has been recently developed by our group. This paper discusses recent improvements to the model: an optimized algorithm leading to conformal shrinkage of the tumour as a response to radiotherapy, the introduction of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), a realistic initial cell phase distribution and finally an advanced imaging-based algorithm simulating the neovascularization field. A parametric study of the influence of the cell cycle duration T c , OER, OER β for the beta LQ parameter on tumour growth, shrinkage and response to irradiation under two different fractionation schemes has been made. The model has been applied to two glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cases, one with wild type (wt) and another one with mutated (mt) p53 gene. Furthermore, the model has been applied to a hypothetical GBM tumour with α and β values corresponding to those of generic radiosensitive tumours. According to the model predictions, a whole tumour with shorter T c tends to repopulate faster, as is to be expected. Furthermore, a higher OER value for the dormant cells leads to a more radioresistant whole tumour. A small variation of the OER β value does not seem to play a major role in the tumour response. Accelerated fractionation proved to be superior to the standard scheme for the whole range of the OER values considered. Finally, the tumour with mt p53 was shown to be more radioresistant compared to the tumour with wt p53. Although all simulation predictions agree at least qualitatively with the clinical experience and literature, a long-term clinical adaptation and quantitative validation procedure is in progress

  10. 2-d spectroscopic imaging of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, N.J.; Brotchie, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This poster illustrates the use of two-dimensional spectroscopic imaging (2-D SI) in the characterisation of brain tumours, and the monitoring of subsequent treatment. After conventional contrast-enhanced MR imaging of patients with known or suspected brain tumours, 2-D SI is performed at a single axial level. The level is chosen to include the maximum volume of abnormal enhancement, or, in non-enhancing lesions. The most extensive T2 signal abnormality. Two different MR systems have been used (Marconi Edge and GE Signa LX); at each site, a PRESS localisation sequence is employed with TE 128-144 ms. Automated software is used to generate spectral arrays, metabolite maps, and metabolite ratio maps from the spectroscopic data. Colour overlays of the maps onto anatomical images are produced using manufacturer software or the Medex imaging data analysis package. High grade gliomas showed choline levels higher than those in apparently normal brain, with decreases in NAA and creatine. Some lesions showed spectral abnormality extending into otherwise normal appearing brain. This was also seen in a case of CNS lymphoma. Lowgrade lesions showed choline levels similar to normal brain, but with decreased NAA. Only a small number of metastases have been studied, but to date no metastasis has shown spectral abnormality beyond the margins suggested by conventional imaging. Follow-up studies generally show spectral heterogeneity. Regions with choline levels higher than those in normal-appearing brain are considered to represent recurrent high-grade tumour. Some regions show choline to be the dominant metabolite, but its level is not greater than that seen in normal brain. These regions are considered suspicious for residual / recurrent tumour when the choline / creatine ratio exceeds 2 (lower ratios may represent treatment effect). 2-D SI improves the initial assessment of brain tumours, and has potential for influencing the radiotherapy treatment strategy. 2-D SI also

  11. Some aspects of the endocrine tumours of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassolas, G.

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine tumours of digestive tract (GEP) synthesize many hormonal products which are responsible for clinical expression in relation with their nature, amount and biological activity, some of these tumours being non-functioning or silent. Moreover these tumours have some characteristics related to neuroendocrine differentiation, which provide tumour markers in addition to hormonal markers, such as chromogranin. A which is of special interest in non-functioning tumours. Pancreatic tumours are the most frequently recognized tumours in systematic screening procedures performed in MEN 1 patients. They are multi-secreting and multifocal, and they exhibit a loss of heterozygosity in the 11q13 locus. Growth factors such as IGF-1 and PDGF and their specific receptors are expressed in GEP tumours but their role in tumour growth remains to be determined. Somatostatin receptors are present on most endocrine digestive tumours, conditioning the therapeutic effects of somatostatin analogues that reduce hormonal tumoral production and alleviate the related symptoms. In addition, in vivo visualization of somatostatin receptor positive tumours by scintigraphy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is of clinical interest. (author)

  12. Cancer progression: is inhibin alpha from Venus or Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Emma M A; Mellor, Sally L; Risbridger, Gail P

    2004-10-01

    The inhibin field has been perplexed by the information that inhibin alpha is a tumour suppressor in mice yet is elevated in women with ovarian cancer. Furthermore, we have consistently observed a down-regulation or loss of inhibin alpha in prostate cancer patient samples and cell lines. However, our latest data have prompted us to re-evaluate the role of inhibin alpha in prostate and other cancers. Using the analogy of TGF-beta as a springboard for our hypothesis, we offer a unifying model whereby the previously conflicting observations in mice, men and women can be explained. We propose that initially inhibin alpha is tumour-suppressive and is expressed in benign and early-stage primary cancers. Tumour-suppressive inhibin alpha is then silenced as the tumour progresses but is reactivated as a pro-metastatic factor in advanced, aggressive cancers.

  13. Perinatal tumours: the contribution of radiology to management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie; Twomey, Eilish [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-06-15

    A formal classification does not exist and they are probably best classified by their location. Overall the most common neoplasms are - Extracranial teratoma - Neuroblastoma - Soft-tissue tumours - Brain tumours - Leukaemia - Renal tumours - Liver tumours - Retinoblastoma. The prognosis is generally poor, although there are some exceptions such as congenital neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. These tumours have a tendency to regress and have a benign clinical course despite a clear malignant histological picture. Other tumours, though histologically benign, may be fatal because of their size and location. Large benign masses may cause airway or cardiovascular compromise and death. Others may cause significant mass effect preventing normal organ development. As normal embryonic cells have a high mitotic rate it is not surprising that perinatal tumours may have a rapid growth rate and become enormous in size. (orig.)

  14. Pathology of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Brooke E; Kelly, Paul; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2017-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are uncommon or rare at all sites in the female genital tract. The 2014 World Health Organisation (WHO) Classification of neuroendocrine tumours of the endometrium, cervix, vagina and vulva has been updated with adoption of the terms low-grade neuroendocrine tumour and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. In the endometrium and cervix, high-grade neoplasms are much more prevalent than low-grade and are more common in the cervix than the corpus. In the ovary, low-grade tumours are more common than high-grade carcinomas and the term carcinoid tumour is still used in WHO 2014. The term ovarian small-cell carcinoma of pulmonary type is included in WHO 2014 for a tumour which in other organs is termed high small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Neuroendocrine tumours at various sites within the female genital tract often occur in association with other neoplasms and more uncommonly in pure form.

  15. COX-2, VEGF and tumour angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, D P

    2009-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effective of regular NSAID use against developing cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2, a target of NSAIDs, is upregulated in many cancers and has been associated with increased VEGF production and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from existing vasculature and as an essential process for tumour development represents an important therapeutic target. Following an extensive review of the literature this article details the current knowledge on the role of COX-2 in tumorigenesis focusing on its relationship to angiogenesis and VEGF production by tumour cells. While COX-2 is clearly detrimental to prognosis and NSAIDs have a beneficial effect, the possibility of COX-2 independent effects being partly or wholly responsible for this benefit cannot be excluded.

  16. Tumour Debulking for Esophageal Cancer - Thermal Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fleischer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer usually is discovered at a late stage and curative therapy seldom is possible. The prognosis is poor and most therapy is palliative. Endoscopic therapy commonly is employed; two common treatments involve thermal modalities. The Nd:YAG laser has been employed for 10 years and is effective in relieving obstruction in approximately 90% of cases. Re-ohstruction usually occurs in two to three months and repeat treatment may be necessary. Limitations to laser use include the fact that equipment is expensive and there are technical restrictions. An alternative thermal modality is the bipolar coagulation tumour probe which employs bipolar electrocoagulation. It is less expensive and, if the tumour is circumferential, tends to be easier to use. (It should not be used if the cancer is noncircumferential. The advantages and limitations of each modality are addressed.

  17. Special radiation therapy for malignent tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, G.; Bohndorf, W.; Franke, H.D.; Haas, R.; Halama, J.; Hess, F.; Kaercher, K.H.; Gauwerky, F.; Hellriegel, W.

    1980-01-01

    In the section on 'Special radiotherapy of malignant tumours', tumours of various parts of the body are treated in 11 chapters, whereby partly different authors have made even further subdivisions. The following chapters are dealt with: Skin (including lips and anal region) with separate treatment of melanomes, head region (with finer subdivision of eye, orbita, eye lid; ear, auditory meatus and parotis; oropharynx; nasopharynx; nasal cavities and paranasal sinus), neck region (subdivided into larynx and hypopharynx and glands), thorax (split into lungs, mediastinum and oesophagus), digestive organs (summarized together stomach and small intestine, colon and rectum, liver, gall and pancreas), male sex organs (subdivided into testicles, prostate and spermatocyst, penis and urethra), female sex organs (separately treated corpus uteri, collum uteri, vagina, vulva, urethra and ovary), female and male mamma, urinary organs (kidneys and ureter as well as bladder), sarcoma of moving and supporting organs and finally the nervous system. (MG) [de

  18. Synchronous colonic tumours of dual pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S; Selvachandran, S N; Cade, D

    2001-05-01

    Synchronous colonic tumours of dual pathology are extremely rare. A review of the literature revealed that few cases have been reported to date. Because of their rarity and lack of specific symptoms, preoperative diagnosis is not easy and there is no protocol as yet for the ideal management of these cases. We present such a case which was treated by a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.

  19. Robotic versus laparoscopic resection of liver tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Eren; Akyildiz, Hizir Yakup; Aucejo, Federico; Gunasekaran, Ganesh; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Fung, John

    2010-01-01

    Background There are scant data in the literature regarding the role of robotic liver surgery. The aim of the present study was to develop techniques for robotic liver tumour resection and to draw a comparison with laparoscopic resection. Methods Over a 1-year period, nine patients underwent robotic resection of peripherally located malignant lesions measuring <5 cm. These patients were compared prospectively with 23 patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of similar tumours at the same institution. Statistical analyses were performed using Student's t-test, χ2-test and Kaplan–Meier survival. All data are expressed as mean ± SEM. Results The groups were similar with regards to age, gender and tumour type (P = NS). Tumour size was similar in both groups (robotic −3.2 ± 1.3 cm vs. laparoscopic −2.9 ± 1.3 cm, P = 0.6). Skin-to-skin operative time was 259 ± 28 min in the robotic vs. 234 ± 17 min in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.4). There was no difference between the two groups regarding estimated blood loss (EBL) and resection margin status. Conversion to an open operation was only necessary in one patient in the robotic group. Complications were observed in one patient in the robotic and four patients in the laparoscopic groups. The patients were followed up for a mean of 14 months and disease-free survival (DFS) was equivalent in both groups (P = 0.6). Conclusion The results of this initial study suggest that, for selected liver lesions, a robotic approach provides similar peri-operative outcomes compared with laparoscopic liver resection (LLR). PMID:20887327

  20. Targeting Tumour Vasculature as a Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Honstvet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling blood flow and capillary growth in tumours has been the focus of several research groups with the aim of generating theoretical models that can be used to predict biological behaviour within these systems. Since dysfunctional angiogenesis is seen in a wide range of pathological conditions ranging from cardiovascular, to arthritis, to diabetes, it is easy to see how these models may have a far-reaching influence on future therapeutic strategies.

  1. Characterization of tumour virus proteins, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, T.

    1977-01-01

    The structural protein in murine tumour virus P30 has been measured by radioiummunoassay. The titer of each serum was determined by using as antigen the purified Rauscher viral protein labeled with 125 iodine. Standard competition curve was constructed in order to determine the equivalent of protein to inhibit the precipitation reaction under limited antibody concentration. Competition by purified Kirsten virus suspension normal rat kidney cells, transformed-productive and transformed non-productive cells were measured in homologous and heterologous systems [pt

  2. Benign Fibrous Tumour of the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Sreetharan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 44-year-old man with left parotid enlargement that was initially diagnosed as cementifying fibroma is presented. The lesion was found in the deep lobe of the parotid gland and was successfully removed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered well with intact facial nerve function and remained asymptomatic after 1 year. Subsequent histology revealed the mass to be a benign fibrous tumour. The diagnosis and management of this rare entity are discussed.

  3. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K; Healey, John H; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H; Grandgenett, Paul M; Hollingsworth, Michael A; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K; Jarnagin, William R; Brady, Mary S; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J; Bissell, Mina J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Ghajar, Cyrus M; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-11-19

    Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.

  4. Tumour imaging with non specific substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, W.B. van der.

    1978-01-01

    A short introduction concerning tumour imaging in nuclear medicine is given as well as the formulation of the problem treated in this thesis. In a literature review the most important tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals used until now are described together with their clinical significance in the diagnosis of malignancy. The mechanism of uptake and subcellular distribution of most of the radiopharmaceuticals reviewed are discussed in chapter three with special reference to gallium-citrate. An ionic model to explain the distribution patterns of a number of these tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues has been proposed. Evidence for the validity of this model is presented with specific reference to the ionic state of the reagents concerned. EXperimental evidence to support the proposed model is presented, with reference to the biologic behaviour of the radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues. A limited number of selected case reports demonstrate how the results of the earlier described investigations can be applied to explain phenomena observed in clinical studies with ionic substances. The results obtained are discussed and the validity of the data with respect to the proposed model has been investigated. (Auth.)

  5. Diagnostic value of quantitative scintiscanning in tumours and tumour-like lesions of the skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Orlewicz, C.

    1986-01-01

    Following administration of 99mTc phosphate compounds quantitative scintiscanning and, in particular, the 'region of interest' technique were used in 277 patients investigated for tumours and tumour-like lesions of the extremities. The following results were obtained: 1) In primary malignant bone tumours of the extremities tracer accumulation is increased by a factor of more than 2.5 as compared to that observed in normal bone tissue (the only exception here being plasmacytoma and histiocytoma). 2) In metastatic and benign bone tumours this tendency towards increased tracer accumulation generally is less pronounced so that the values calculated here remained below a factor of 2.5. 3) The accumulation behaviour of tumour-like bone changes of the extremities did not follow a uniform pattern. 4) As a general rule, the values measured in the region of the vertebral column were increased by a factor of less than 2.5. Quantitative scintiscanning, even though being a step towards a more sophisticated radiopharmaceutical method of examination, may occasionally not provide all the information required to establish a firm diagnosis or to evaluate the severity of a disease. One important domaine of this technique is the medical surveillance of patients, both before and after treatment. (TRV) [de

  6. Ehrlich and sarcoma 180 tumour characterisation and early detection by 1H NMR-based metabonomics of mice serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandizoli, Caroline W.P. da S.; Simonelli, Fabio; Nagata, Noemi; Barison, Andersson; Carrenho, Luise Z.B.; Francisco, Thais M.G. de; Campos, Francinete R.; Santana Filho, Arquimedes P. de; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; Kreuger, Maria R.O.

    2014-01-01

    The success of cancer treatment is directly related to early detection before symptoms emerge, although nowadays few cancers can be detected early. In this sense, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR)-based metabonomics was used to identify metabolic changes in biofluid as a consequence of tumours growing in mice. Through partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) analysis of 1 H NMR spectra from serum samples it was possible to diagnose Ehrlich ascites and Sarcoma 180 tumours five and ten days after cell inoculation, respectively. Lipids, lipoproteins and lactate were the main biomarkers at onset as well as in the progress of carcinogenic process. Thus, NMR-based metabonomics can be a valuable tool to study the effects of tumour establishment on the chemical composition of biofluids. (author)

  7. Ehrlich and sarcoma 180 tumour characterisation and early detection by {sup 1}H NMR-based metabonomics of mice serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandizoli, Caroline W.P. da S.; Simonelli, Fabio; Nagata, Noemi; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carrenho, Luise Z.B.; Francisco, Thais M.G. de; Campos, Francinete R. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Santana Filho, Arquimedes P. de; Sassaki, Guilherme L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Kreuger, Maria R.O. [Universidade do Vale do Itajai (UNIVALI), (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2014-05-15

    The success of cancer treatment is directly related to early detection before symptoms emerge, although nowadays few cancers can be detected early. In this sense, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR)-based metabonomics was used to identify metabolic changes in biofluid as a consequence of tumours growing in mice. Through partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra from serum samples it was possible to diagnose Ehrlich ascites and Sarcoma 180 tumours five and ten days after cell inoculation, respectively. Lipids, lipoproteins and lactate were the main biomarkers at onset as well as in the progress of carcinogenic process. Thus, NMR-based metabonomics can be a valuable tool to study the effects of tumour establishment on the chemical composition of biofluids. (author)

  8. Upregulated expression of human neutrophil peptides 1, 2 and 3 (HNP 1-3) in colon cancer serum and tumours: a biomarker study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Bøgebo, Rikke; Gammeltoft, Steen; Olsen, Jesper; Winther, Benny; Raskov, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Molecular markers for localized colon tumours and for prognosis following therapy are needed. Proteomics research is currently producing numerous biomarker studies with clinical potential. We investigate the protein composition of plasma and of tumour extracts with the aim of identifying biomarkers for colon cancer. By Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation – Time Of Flight / Mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF/MS) we compare the protein profiles of colon cancer serum with serum from healthy individuals and the protein profiles of colon tumours with normal colon tissue. By size exclusion chromatography, we investigate the binding of HNP 1-3 to high mass plasma proteins. By microflow we investigate the effect of HNP 1-3 on mammalian cells. Human Neutrophil Peptides -1, -2 and -3 (HNP 1-3), also known as alfa-defensin-1, -2 and -3, are present in elevated concentrations in serum from colon cancer patients and in protein extracts from colon tumours. A fraction of HNP 1-3 in serum is bound to unidentified high mass plasma proteins. HNP 1-3 purified from colon tumours are lethal to mammalian cells. HNP 1-3 may serve as blood markers for colon cancer in combination with other diagnostic tools. We propose that HNP 1-3 are carried into the bloodstream by attaching to high mass plasma proteins in the tumour microenvironment. We discuss the effect of HNP 1-3 on tumour progression

  9. Intracranial melanocytic meningeal tumours and melanosis oculi: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doglietto, Francesco; Colosimo, Cesare; Lauriola, Libero; Balducci, Mario; De Bonis, Pasquale; Montano, Nicola; Zadeh, Gelareh; Maira, Giulio; Pallini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Melanocytic meningeal tumours are rare extra-axial neoplasms of the nervous system, with only three reported cases in the cavernous sinus. Herein we describe for the first time the association of ocular melanosis and multiple intracranial melanocytic meningeal tumours, with the presenting lesion being in the cavernous sinus. The importance of this association is discussed together with the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of the case. A 20-year-old man presented with a left sixth cranial nerve deficit; general examination documented only congenital melanosis of the homolateral eye. MRI examination showed a space occupying lesion in the left cavernous sinus, which was followed conservatively for 2 years, until a new space occupying lesion was evident at the level of the right frontal convexity: both lesions presented with neuroradiological characteristics suggestive of melanin content. The frontal convexity lesion was removed: intraoperatively the dura was markedly and diffusely melanotic. Histological examination documented a melanocytic meningeal tumour, with a proliferative index of 3 %. The patient underwent 3D-Conformal Radiation Therapy on the lesion of the cavernous sinus (total dose 5040 cGy), with initial tumour reduction. Three years later, due to a symptomatic growth, he underwent partial removal of the lesion in the cavernous sinus. Histological examination was unchanged. He then received adjuvant Temozolomide with Low Dose Fractionated Radiation Therapy (LD-FRT). Due to further disease progression cisplatin plus fotemustine were administered, concomitant with LD-FRT: after two cycles MRI documented significant disease regression. After a period of apparent disease control, the patient presented with persistent cough and evidence of multiple thoracic metastases, which lead to his death, seven years after presentation. Intracranial melanocytic meningeal tumours are challenging lesions, both from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view; though rare

  10. Slow-neutron capture therapy for malignant tumours: its history and recent development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, H.

    1975-01-01

    Slow-neutron capture therapy was first suggested in 1936. The early clinical trials were performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Massachusetts Institute of Technology reactors. In the last series of treatments in 1960 and 1961, none of the 17 glioblastoma patients lived longer than a year and the clinical trial was discontinued, particularly because the was pathological evidence that normal tissue had been seriously damaged. Hatanaka, who worked first with Sweet between 1964 and 1967, continued intensive basic research and organized a collaborating team of chemists, physicists and physicians in Japan where he resumed treatment of brain tumour patients in 1968. The rationale of the revised therapy included: (1) use of promising compounds such as mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate, which has a high tumour binding property, (2) use of adrenocorticoid to minimize vascular damage, (3) intra-arterial infusion of boron to obtain a higher concentration in the tumour, (4) restriction of excessive neutron intensity, (5) and some technical improvements. New research techniques were also introduced, such as alpha autoradiography, electron microscopy, and immunotherapy. With the mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate compound an absolute concentration of 30 μg per gram of tumour is easily attainable, while the blood level of the isotope can be lowered to at least half of the tumour concentration. Normal dog brains were able to tolerate this therapy. Among the 15 patients so far treated, 13 were treated at the Hitachi Training Reactor. Patients, who had undergone repeated surgery as well as excessive irradiation before they came for the therapy, could not recover their full activities, but proved they could enjoy a significant prolongation of their lives. The only two fresh cases of glioblastoma responded so well to the therapy that one has been working as an engineer and the other as a farmer for 3 years without neurological deficits. Recent progress and future potentials of the

  11. Tumour-derived GM-CSF promotes granulocyte immunosuppression in mesothelioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Swati; Graef, Suzanne; Mussai, Francis; Thomas, Anish; Wali, Neha; Yenidunya, Bahar Guliz; Yuan, Constance M; Morrow, Betsy; Zhang, Jingli; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F; Steinberg, Seth M; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Middleton, Gary; De Santo, Carmela; Hassan, Raffit

    2018-03-30

    The cross talk between tumour cells, myeloid cells, and T cells play a critical role in tumour pathogenesis and response to immunotherapies. Although the aetiology of mesothelioma is well understood the impact of mesothelioma on the surrounding immune microenvironment is less well studied. In this study the effect of the mesothelioma microenvironment on circulating and infiltrating granulocytes and T cells is investigated. Tumour and peripheral blood from mesothelioma patients were evaluated for presence of granulocytes, which were then tested for their T cell suppression. Co-cultures of granulocytes, mesothelioma cells, T cells were used to identify the mechanism of T cell inhibition. Analysis of tumours showed that the mesothelioma microenvironment is enriched in infiltrating granulocytes, which inhibit T cell proliferation and activation. Characterisation of the blood at diagnosis identified similar, circulating, immunosuppressive CD11b+CD15+HLADR- granulocytes at increased frequency compared to healthy controls. Culture of healthy-donor granulocytes with human mesothelioma cells showed that GM-CSF upregulates NOX2 expression and the release of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) from granulocytes, resulting in T cell suppression. Immunohistochemistry and transcriptomic analysis revealed that a majority of mesothelioma tumours express GM-CSF and that higher GM-CSF expression correlated with clinical progression. Blockade of GM-CSF with neutralising antibody, or ROS inhibition, restored T cell proliferation suggesting that targeting of GM-CSF could be of therapeutic benefit in these patients. Our study presents the mechanism behind the cross-talk between mesothelioma and the immune micro-environment and indicates that targeting GM-CSF could be a novel treatment strategy to augment immunotherapy. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Prevention and treatment of colon cancer by peroral administration of HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthia, Manoj; Storm, Petter; Nadeem, Aftab; Hsiung, Sabrina; Svanborg, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    Most colon cancers start with dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signalling and remain a major therapeutic challenge. Examining whether HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells) may be used for colon cancer treatment is logical, based on the properties of the complex and its biological context. To investigate if HAMLET can be used for colon cancer treatment and prevention. Apc(Min)(/+) mice, which carry mutations relevant to hereditary and sporadic human colorectal tumours, were used as a model for human disease. HAMLET was given perorally in therapeutic and prophylactic regimens. Tumour burden and animal survival of HAMLET-treated and sham-fed mice were compared. Tissue analysis focused on Wnt/β-catenin signalling, proliferation markers and gene expression, using microarrays, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Confocal microscopy, reporter assay, immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, ion flux assays and holographic imaging were used to determine effects on colon cancer cells. Peroral HAMLET administration reduced tumour progression and mortality in Apc(Min)(/+) mice. HAMLET accumulated specifically in tumour tissue, reduced β-catenin and related tumour markers. Gene expression analysis detected inhibition of Wnt signalling and a shift to a more differentiated phenotype. In colon cancer cells with APC mutations, HAMLET altered β-catenin integrity and localisation through an ion channel-dependent pathway, defining a new mechanism for controlling β-catenin signalling. Remarkably, supplying HAMLET to the drinking water from the time of weaning also significantly prevented tumour development. These data identify HAMLET as a new, peroral agent for colon cancer prevention and treatment, especially needed in people carrying APC mutations, where colon cancer remains a leading cause of death.

  13. Discovery of a selective catalytic p300/CBP inhibitor that targets lineage-specific tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasko, Loren M; Jakob, Clarissa G; Edalji, Rohinton P

    2017-01-01

    -specific tumour types, including several haematological malignancies and androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer. A-485 inhibited the androgen receptor transcriptional program in both androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer and inhibited tumour growth in a castration-resistant xenograft...... to treat certain cancers, but progress on the development of drug-like histone actyltransferase inhibitors has lagged behind. The histone acetyltransferase paralogues p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) are key transcriptional co-activators that are essential for a multitude of cellular processes, and have...... also been implicated in human pathological conditions (including cancer). Current inhibitors of the p300 and CBP histone acetyltransferase domains, including natural products, bi-substrate analogues and the widely used small molecule C646, lack potency or selectivity. Here, we describe A-485, a potent...

  14. An inflammatory pseudotumour of the larynx: a case report and literature review of an unusual tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dava, Chaido J; Hajiioannou, Jiannis K; Terzis, Anastasios; Bizakis, John

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumour (IPT) is a rare benign pseudoneoplastic proliferation of unknown etiology, often showing locally aggressive behaviour. Conflicting theories about exaggerated response to injury versus true neoplastic origin have been suggested. We report a case of laryngeal pseudotumour in a 73-year-old man presenting with hoarseness and slowly progressive dyspnea and a short review of the English language literature on the subject. Management consisted of midline vertical thyrotomy, excision of the tumour, and a temporary tracheotomy. No recurrence observed eight months postoperatively. Laryngeal IPT is extremely rare, and it may easily be misinterpreted as a malignant tumour. Conservative excision and anti-inflammatory therapy are advocated, since its general behaviour is benign.

  15. INTRACRANIAL AND INTRASPINAL TUMOURS: REVIEW OF MRI FINDINGS IN A RARE NF - 2 CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome, characterized by multiple intracranial and intraspinal tumours associated with ocular abnormalities. The most common tumor associated with the disease is the vestibule cochlear schwannoma, and as many as 10% of patients with this tumor have neurofibromatosis type 2. Based on clinical and imaging findings the diagnostic of neurofibromatosis type 2 can be made. In this report we aim to report a 24 - year - old male who was evaluated for progressive h earing loss, vertigo, ataxic gait and right lower limb weakness. During the workup, cranial CT, Brain and whole s pine MRI was done which showed all the findings in one patient including bilateral vestibulocochlear schwannoma, multiple meningiomas, and intr amedullary and extramedullary tumours in spinal cord.

  16. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, Jonathan G.; Clark, Christopher A.; Saunders, Dawn E.

    2012-01-01

    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. (orig.)

  17. Ovarian tumours in children : A review of 18 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelouhab Ammor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : To review the experience of Children′s Hospital of Rabat in managing ovarian tumours in children. Materials and Methods: There were 18 patients between 2 and 15 years of age who presented with an ovarian tumour at Children′s Hospital of Rabat between January 2000 and December 2008. Data collected from the hospital medical records included age at diagnosis, patient′s history, presenting complaints, radiological examination, tumour markers, management, operative procedure, histopathological examination and outcome of the patients. Results : The most common presenting complaint was abdominal pain in 10 (55% patient. 77% of ovarian tumours were germ cell tumours; 71% of these were teratomas which were benign in 66% of cases. Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was the most common surgical procedure performed in 15 patients (83% through laparotomy. Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy was carried out in 2 (11% patients with benign cystic teratoma. Of the 7 (39% patients with malignant tumours, three received postoperative chemotherapy. Outcome was good in most cases. There were no cases of resistance to treatment, or death. Conclusion : Early diagnosis of ovarian tumours in children and adolescents is important. Since most of these tumours are benign, surgical treatment should be conservative to minimise the risk of subsequent infertility, while the treatment of malignant tumours should include complete staging, resection of the tumour, postoperative chemotherapy when indicated, to give the patient a chance for future childbearing.

  18. Dual prognostic significance of tumour-associated macrophages in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated or untreated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Giuseppe; Cortese, Nina; Castino, Giovanni Francesco; Grizzi, Fabio; Gavazzi, Francesca; Ridolfi, Cristina; Capretti, Giovanni; Mineri, Rossana; Todoric, Jelena; Zerbi, Alessandro; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2016-10-01

    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) play key roles in tumour progression. Recent evidence suggests that TAMs critically modulate the efficacy of anticancer therapies, raising the prospect of their targeting in human cancer. In a large retrospective cohort study involving 110 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we assessed the density of CD68-TAM immune reactive area (%IRA) at the tumour-stroma interface and addressed their prognostic relevance in relation to postsurgical adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX). In vitro, we dissected the synergism of CTX and TAMs. In human PDAC, TAMs predominantly exhibited an immunoregulatory profile, characterised by expression of scavenger receptors (CD206, CD163) and production of interleukin 10 (IL-10). Surprisingly, while the density of TAMs associated to worse prognosis and distant metastasis, CTX restrained their protumour prognostic significance. High density of TAMs at the tumour-stroma interface positively dictated prognostic responsiveness to CTX independently of T-cell density. Accordingly, in vitro, gemcitabine-treated macrophages became tumoricidal, activating a cytotoxic gene expression programme, inhibiting their protumoural effect and switching to an antitumour phenotype. In patients with human PDAC, neoadjuvant CTX was associated to a decreased density of CD206(+) and IL-10(+) TAMs at the tumour-stroma interface. Overall, our data highlight TAMs as critical determinants of prognostic responsiveness to CTX and provide clinical and in vitro evidence that CTX overall directly re-educates TAMs to restrain tumour progression. These results suggest that the quantification of TAMs could be exploited to select patients more likely to respond to CTX and provide the basis for novel strategies aimed at re-educating macrophages in the context of CTX. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. A database survey of equine tumours in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Tremaine, W H; Pearson, G R; Mair, T S

    2016-05-01

    Survey data on equine tumours are sparse compared with other species and may have changed over time. To describe the most frequently diagnosed equine tumours recorded by a diagnostic pathology laboratory over 29 years, to identify background factors associated with tumour type, and to identify any changes in the tumours diagnosed or the background of cases submitted during the study period. Observational; cross-sectional analysis of records of a diagnostic pathology laboratory. The records of all neoplastic equine histology submissions to the University of Bristol (January 1982-December 2010) were accessed from a database, and a list of diagnoses compiled. The 6 most commonly diagnosed tumour types were analysed using logistic regression to identify background factors associated with tumour type. The overall population of equine tumour submissions and the relative frequency of diagnosis of the most common tumour types were compared between decades. There were 964 cases included. The most frequently diagnosed tumours were: sarcoid (24% cases), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (19%), lymphoma (14%), melanoma (6%), gonadal stromal tumour (6%) and mast cell tumour (MCT) (4%). With sarcoid, Thoroughbred/Thoroughbred cross and gelding as reference categories: increasing age was significantly associated with the odds of each of the other tumour types, mares were at reduced risk of SCC, Arab/Arab cross had a higher risk of MCT, Cob/Cob cross had an increased risk of SCC and MCT, and ponies had an increased risk of melanoma. The mean age of submissions increased in each successive decade and the breed composition became broader. Sarcoids and lymphoma formed a smaller proportion of diagnoses in later decades. The types of tumours submitted to this laboratory have changed over the last 3 decades. Current data inform clinicians and researchers and further studies are warranted to follow trends. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  20. TREATMENT OF PROGRESSION OF DIFFUSE ASTROCYTOMA BY HERBAL MEDICINE: CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogrlić, Ivo; Trogrlić, Dragan; Trogrlić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the use of phytotherapy in a 33-year-old woman who, after finishing the oncological treatment of diffuse astrocytoma, had tumour progression. Phytotherapy was introduced after the tumour had progressed. It consisted of 4 types of herbal medicine which the subject was taking in form of tea once a day at regular intervals. The patient started phytotherapy along with temozolomide, which was the only oncological treatment she was under after the tumour had progressed. Following the finished chemotherapy, the patient continued the treatment with herbal medicine only. She regularly took phytotherapy without interruption and to the fullest extent for 30 months, and the results of treatment were monitored by periodic scanning using nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The control scanning that was conducted after the end of combined treatment with temozolomide and phytotherapy showed tumour regression. The patient continued with phytotherapy after finishing chemotherapy and, during the following 24 months, it was the sole treatment option. In that period, the regression of the tumour continued, until a control examination 30 months after the introduction of phytotherapy showed no clinical and radiological signs of tumour. The results presented in this research paper clearly indicate the potential of phytotherapy in the treatment of some types of brain tumours. A complete regression of tumour following the treatment with nothing but herbal medicine offers support for such claim. Future research should demonstrate the effectiveness of phytotherapy, as a supplementary form of brain tumour treatment, and the results of this research should be compared with the existing information on the effectiveness of the protocols currently used in the treatment of these types of tumour.

  1. In-vivo detection of the erythropoietin receptor in tumours using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuge, Felix; Doleschel, Dennis; Rix, Anne; Gremse, Felix; Lederle, Wiltrud; Kiessling, Fabian [RWTH Aachen University, Department for Experimental Molecular Imaging (ExMI), Medical Faculty, Aachen (Germany); Wessner, Axel [Roche Diagnostics GmbH, R and D RPD Protein Chemistry, Penzberg (Germany); Winz, Oliver; Mottaghy, Felix [University Clinic RWTH Aachen, Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-09-09

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEpo) is used clinically to treat anaemia. However, rhuEpo-treated cancer patients show decreased survival rates and erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) expression has been found in patient tumour tissue. Thus, rhuEpo application might promote EpoR{sup +} tumour progression. We therefore developed the positron emission tomography (PET)-probe {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-rhuEpo and evaluated its performance in EpoR{sup +} A549 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenografts. {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-rhuEpo was generated by coupling DOTA-hydrazide to carbohydrate side-chains of rhuEpo. Biodistribution was determined in tumour-bearing mice 0.5, 3, 6, and 9 h after probe injection. Competition experiments were performed by co-injecting {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-rhuEpo and rhuEpo in five-fold excess. Probe specificity was further evaluated histologically using Epo-Cy5.5 stainings. The blood half-life of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-rhuEpo was 2.6 h and the unbound fraction was cleared by the liver and kidney. After 6 h, the highest tumour to muscle ratio was reached. The highest {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-rhuEpo accumulation was found in liver (10.06 ± 6.26%ID/ml), followed by bone marrow (1.87 ± 0.53%ID/ml), kidney (1.58 ± 0.39 %ID/ml), and tumour (0.99 ± 0.16%ID/ml). EpoR presence in these organs was histologically confirmed. Competition experiments showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower PET-signals in tumour and bone marrow at 3 and 6 h. {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-rhuEpo shows favourable pharmacokinetic properties and detects EpoR specifically. Therefore, it might become a valuable radiotracer to monitor EpoR status in tumours and support decision-making in anaemia therapy. (orig.)

  2. Anti-tumour therapeutic efficacy of OX40L in murine tumour model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Selman A; Ahmad, Murrium; Lynam, June; McLean, Cornelia S; Entwisle, Claire; Loudon, Peter; Choolun, Esther; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Li, Geng; Mian, Shahid; Rees, Robert C

    2004-09-09

    OX40 ligand (OX40L), a member of TNF superfamily, is a co-stimulatory molecule involved in T cell activation. Systemic administration of mOX40L fusion protein significantly inhibited the growth of experimental lung metastasis and subcutaneous (s.c.) established colon (CT26) and breast (4T1) carcinomas. Vaccination with OX40L was significantly enhanced by combination treatment with intra-tumour injection of a disabled infectious single cycle-herpes simplex virus (DISC-HSV) vector encoding murine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (mGM-CSF). Tumour rejection in response to OX40L therapy required functional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and correlated with splenocyte cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) activity against the AH-1 gp70 peptide of the tumour associated antigen expressed by CT26 cells. These results demonstrate the potential role of the OX40L in cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Stem cell senescence drives age-attenuated induction of pituitary tumours in mouse models of paediatric craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario Gonzalez-Meljem, Jose; Haston, Scott; Carreno, Gabriela; Apps, John R; Pozzi, Sara; Stache, Christina; Kaushal, Grace; Virasami, Alex; Panousopoulos, Leonidas; Neda Mousavy-Gharavy, Seyedeh; Guerrero, Ana; Rashid, Mamunur; Jani, Nital; Goding, Colin R; Jacques, Thomas S; Adams, David J; Gil, Jesus; Andoniadou, Cynthia L; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2017-11-28

    Senescent cells may promote tumour progression through the activation of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), whether these cells are capable of initiating tumourigenesis in vivo is not known. Expression of oncogenic β-catenin in Sox2+ young adult pituitary stem cells leads to formation of clusters of stem cells and induction of tumours resembling human adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP), derived from Sox2- cells in a paracrine manner. Here, we uncover the mechanisms underlying this paracrine tumourigenesis. We show that expression of oncogenic β-catenin in Hesx1+ embryonic precursors also results in stem cell clusters and paracrine tumours. We reveal that human and mouse clusters are analogous and share a common signature of senescence and SASP. Finally, we show that mice with reduced senescence and SASP responses exhibit decreased tumour-inducing potential. Together, we provide evidence that senescence and a stem cell-associated SASP drive cell transformation and tumour initiation in vivo in an age-dependent fashion.

  4. Intra-Abdominal Localisation of a Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour: Case Presentation and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Wester

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant condyloma acuminatum or Buschke-Lowenstein tumour is a very rare disease which usually is located in the genital, anorectal, and perianal regions. It is regarded as a type of verrucous carcinoma occurring on anogenital mucosal surfaces where it is locally invasive but displays a benign cytology. We describe a case of a 24-year-old woman with persisting condyloma acuminata progressing to a large intra-abdominal Buschke-Lowenstein tumour. To our knowledge such an advanced stage has only been reported once before. The severity and extent of the tumour both determine the treatment and patient outcome. Treatment was impeded by cachexia, an immunosuppressive state after kidney transplantation and difficulties in establishing a reliable diagnose. Interferon treatment was started which initially led to tumour reduction but was complicated by an interferon-induced pancreatitis, pneumonia, and fasciitis necroticans resulting in death. We present a literature overview on the treatment options for a Buschke-Lowenstein tumour, with emphasis on interferon therapy, with all the advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Tumour eradication using synchronous thermal ablation and Hsp90 chemotherapy with protein engineered triblock biopolymer-geldanamycin conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhe; Youn, Pilju; Pysher, Theodore J; Scaife, Courtney L; Furgeson, Darin Y

    2014-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) suffers high tumour recurrence rate after thermal ablation. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) induced post-ablation is critical for tumour survival and progression. A combination therapy of thermal ablation and polymer conjugated Hsp90 chemotherapy was designed and evaluated for complete tumour eradication of HCC. A thermo-responsive, elastin-like polypeptide (ELP)-based tri-block biopolymer was developed and conjugated with a potent Hsp90 inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA). The anti-cancer efficacy of conjugates was evaluated in HCC cell cultures with and without hyperthermia (43 °C). The conjugates were also administered twice weekly in a murine HCC model as a single treatment or in combination with single electrocautery as the ablation method. ELP-GA conjugates displayed enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro and effective heat shock inhibition under hyperthermia. The conjugates alone significantly slowed the tumour growth without systemic toxicity. Four doses of thermo-responsive ELP-GA conjugates with concomitant simple electrocautery accomplished significant Hsp90 inhibition and sustained tumour suppression. Hsp90 inhibition plays a key role in preventing the recurrence of HCC, and the combination of ablation with targeted therapy holds great potential to improve prognosis and survival of HCC patients.

  6. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Soraya I de; Andrade, Luciana NS; Onuchic, Ana C; Nonogaki, Sueli; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Pinheiro, Mônica C; Rohde, Ciro BS; Chammas, Roger; Jancar, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces a suppressor phenotype. Previous data from our group suggested that this occurs via Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-mediated pathways. In the present study, we investigated the impact of apoptotic cell inoculation or induction by a chemotherapeutic agent (dacarbazine, DTIC) on tumour growth, microenvironmental parameters and survival, and the effect of treatment with a PAF-R antagonist (WEB2170). These studies were performed in murine tumours: Ehrlich Ascitis Tumour (EAT) and B16F10 melanoma. Tumour growth was assessed by direct counting of EAT cells in the ascitis or by measuring the volume of the solid tumour. Parameters of the tumour microenvironment, such as the frequency of cells expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 and galectin-3, and microvascular density, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by ELISA, and levels of nitric oxide (NO) by Griess reaction. PAF-R expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Inoculation of apoptotic cells before EAT implantation stimulated tumour growth. This effect was reversed by in vivo pre-treatment with WEB2170. This treatment also reduced tumour growth and modified the microenvironment by reducing PGE2, VEGF and NO production. In B16F10 melanoma, WEB2170 alone or in association with DTIC significantly reduced tumour volume. Survival of the tumour-bearing mice was not affected by WEB2170 treatment but was significantly improved by the combination of DTIC with WEB2170. Tumour microenvironment elements were among the targets of the combination therapy since the relative frequency of COX-2 and galectin-3 positive cells and the microvascular density within the tumour mass were significantly reduced by treatment with WEB2170 or DTIC alone or in combination. Antibodies to PAF-R stained the cells from inside the tumour, but not the

  7. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  8. Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-16

    This report summarizes the annual progress of EPA’s Clean Air Markets Programs such as the Acid Rain Program (ARP) and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR). EPA systematically collects data on emissions, compliance, and environmental effects, these data are highlighted in our Progress Reports.

  9. Fatty degeneration in a Wilms' tumour after chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanes, A.C.; Beese, R.C.; McHugh, K.; Ramsay, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of extensive fatty change in a Wilms' tumour after chemotherapy demonstrated on CT associated with an increase in tumour volume, in a 10-month-old girl with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Changes in tumour characteristics after chemotherapy on imaging usually reflect necrosis, haemorrhage and calcification. Assessment of response to therapy is dependent on a documented reduction in tumour volume. In this case, CT showed an increase in tumour size with development of an extensive fatty component following treatment. Subsequent histological examination on the nephrectomy specimen confirmed an extensive fatty component with no evidence of residual blastema. The development of such an extensive fatty component is very unusual. In this case such fatty change was an indicator of tumour sensitivity and response to treatment. (orig.)

  10. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sahai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

  11. The protein histidine phosphatase LHPP is a tumour suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindupur, Sravanth K; Colombi, Marco; Fuhs, Stephen R; Matter, Matthias S; Guri, Yakir; Adam, Kevin; Cornu, Marion; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Betz, Charles; Liko, Dritan; Quagliata, Luca; Moes, Suzette; Jenoe, Paul; Terracciano, Luigi M; Heim, Markus H; Hunter, Tony; Hall, Michael N

    2018-03-29

    Histidine phosphorylation, the so-called hidden phosphoproteome, is a poorly characterized post-translational modification of proteins. Here we describe a role of histidine phosphorylation in tumorigenesis. Proteomic analysis of 12 tumours from an mTOR-driven hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model revealed that NME1 and NME2, the only known mammalian histidine kinases, were upregulated. Conversely, expression of the putative histidine phosphatase LHPP was downregulated specifically in the tumours. We demonstrate that LHPP is indeed a protein histidine phosphatase. Consistent with these observations, global histidine phosphorylation was significantly upregulated in the liver tumours. Sustained, hepatic expression of LHPP in the hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model reduced tumour burden and prevented the loss of liver function. Finally, in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, low expression of LHPP correlated with increased tumour severity and reduced overall survival. Thus, LHPP is a protein histidine phosphatase and tumour suppressor, suggesting that deregulated histidine phosphorylation is oncogenic.

  12. Syndromes and constitutional chromosomal abnormalities associated with Wilms tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R H; Stiller, C A; Walker, L; Rahman, N

    2006-01-01

    Wilms tumour has been reported in association with over 50 different clinical conditions and several abnormal constitutional karyotypes. Conclusive evidence of an increased risk of Wilms tumour exists for only a minority of these conditions, including WT1 associated syndromes, familial Wilms tumour, and certain overgrowth conditions such as Beckwith‐Wiedemann syndrome. In many reported conditions the rare co‐occurrence of Wilms tumour is probably due to chance. However, for several conditions the available evidence cannot either confirm or exclude an increased risk, usually because of the rarity of the syndrome. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that an increased risk of Wilms tumour occurs only in a subset of individuals for some syndromes. The complex clinical and molecular heterogeneity of disorders associated with Wilms tumour, together with the apparent absence of functional links between most of the known predisposition genes, suggests that abrogation of a variety of pathways can promote Wilms tumorigenesis. PMID:16690728

  13. Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in tumour cell-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ke; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Huafeng; Xu, Pingwei; Liu, Jing; Ma, Jingwei; Lv, Meng; Li, Dapeng; Katirai, Foad; Shen, Guan-Xin; Zhang, Guimei; Feng, Zuo-Hua; Ye, Duyun; Huang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Cellular microparticles are vesicular plasma membrane fragments with a diameter of 100-1,000 nanometres that are shed by cells in response to various physiological and artificial stimuli. Here we demonstrate that tumour cell-derived microparticles can be used as vectors to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs. We show that tumour cells incubated with chemotherapeutic drugs package these drugs into microparticles, which can be collected and used to effectively kill tumour cells in murine tumour models without typical side effects. We describe several mechanisms involved in this process, including uptake of drug-containing microparticles by tumour cells, synthesis of additional drug-packaging microparticles by these cells that contribute to the cytotoxic effect and the inhibition of drug efflux from tumour cells. This study highlights a novel drug delivery strategy with potential clinical application.

  14. Imaging and compartmental classification of solid pelvic tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Nyman, R.; Jacobsson, B.; Jorulf, H.; McDonald, P.; Sackey, K.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-five children aged from 1 day to 16 years (median 5 years) with solid pelvic tumours were investigated with US, CT and MR. All three methods gave similar estimates of tumour size. For defining location of the tumours, the pelvis was divided into three midline compartments (anterior, middle and posterior) and a right and left lateral compartment. CT and MR were accurate and equally reliable in determining the tumour location, US was less accurate. Evaluation of confinement to organ of origin was uncertain, regardless of imaging modality. Tissue characteristics with CT and MR did not contribute to the differentiation of the various tumour types, and contrast medium enhancement did not improve the discrimination. Compartmental localization was equally well assessed by CT and MR and, together with sex, was found to correlate with the tumour type. (orig.). With 7 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Tumour-induced osteomalacia: An emergent paraneoplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Guillermo; Varsavsky, Mariela

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes are distant manifestations of some tumours. An uncommon but increasingly reported form is tumour-induced osteomalacia, a hypophosphatemic disorder associated to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) secretion by tumours. The main biochemical manifestations of this disorder include hypophosphatemia, inappropriately low or normal tubular reabsorption of phosphate, low serum calcitriol levels, increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and elevated or normal serum FGF-23 levels. These tumours, usually small, benign, slow growing and difficult to discover, are mainly localized in soft tissues of the limbs. Histologically, phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours of the mixed connective tissue type are most common. Various imaging techniques have been suggested with variable results. Treatment of choice is total surgical resection of the tumour. Medical treatment includes oral phosphorus and calcitriol supplements, octreotide, cinacalcet, and monoclonal antibodies. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of EXT and growth signalling pathways in osteochondroma and its progression towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameetman, Liesbeth

    2007-01-01

    Osteochondroma is a cartilage capped benign bone tumour, arising at the external surface of bones preformed by endochondral ossification. A small percentage of osteochondromas can progress towards its malignant counterpart, secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. About 15% of osteochondromas occur in

  17. Gamma-enolase: a well-known tumour marker, with a less-known role in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizin, Tjasa; Kos, Janko

    2015-01-01

    Background Gamma-enolase, known also as neuron-specific enolase (NSE), is an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, which is expressed predominantly in neurons and cells of the neuroendocrine system. As a tumour marker it is used in diagnosis and prognosis of cancer; however, the mechanisms enrolling it in malignant progression remain elusive. As a cytoplasmic enzyme gamma-enolase is involved in increased aerobic glycolysis, the main source of energy in cancer cells, supporting cell proliferation. However, different cellular localisation at pathophysiological conditions, proposes other cellular engagements. Conclusions The C-terminal part of the molecule, which is not related to glycolytic pathway, was shown to promote survival of neuronal cells by regulating neuronal growth factor receptor dependent signalling pathways, resulting also in extensive actin cytoskeleton remodelling. This additional function could be important also in cancer cells either to protect cells from stressful conditions and therapeutic agents or to promote tumour cell migration and invasion. Gamma-enolase might therefore have a multifunctional role in cancer progression: it supports increased tumour cell metabolic demands, protects tumour cells from stressful conditions and promotes their invasion and migration. PMID:26401126

  18. Gamma-enolase: a well-known tumour marker, with a less-known role in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizin, Tjasa; Kos, Janko

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-enolase, known also as neuron-specific enolase (NSE), is an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, which is expressed predominantly in neurons and cells of the neuroendocrine system. As a tumour marker it is used in diagnosis and prognosis of cancer; however, the mechanisms enrolling it in malignant progression remain elusive. As a cytoplasmic enzyme gamma-enolase is involved in increased aerobic glycolysis, the main source of energy in cancer cells, supporting cell proliferation. However, different cellular localisation at pathophysiological conditions, proposes other cellular engagements. The C-terminal part of the molecule, which is not related to glycolytic pathway, was shown to promote survival of neuronal cells by regulating neuronal growth factor receptor dependent signalling pathways, resulting also in extensive actin cytoskeleton remodelling. This additional function could be important also in cancer cells either to protect cells from stressful conditions and therapeutic agents or to promote tumour cell migration and invasion. Gamma-enolase might therefore have a multifunctional role in cancer progression: it supports increased tumour cell metabolic demands, protects tumour cells from stressful conditions and promotes their invasion and migration

  19. Malignant tumours of the oral cavity and oropharynx: staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssefzadeh, S.; Pamberger, P.; Baumgartner, W.; Burian, M.; Becherer, A.; Wachter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Staging of malignant tumours of the oral cavity and the oropharynx not only requires far more than a basic knowledge of anatomy and the usual pathways of spread, but also a broad understanding of the diagnostic benefits of current imaging modalities. As radiology should never try to replace histology, the main aim should be precise prediction of tumour margins and differention of tumour from edema and posttherapeutic changes. Only then will imaging studies have a significant clinical impact. (orig.) [de

  20. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  1. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-06-21

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  2. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  3. Automatic tumour volume delineation in respiratory-gated PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubbi, Jayavardhana; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Kanakatte, Aparna; Mani, Nallasamy; Kron, Tomas; Binns, David; Srinivasan, Bala

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a state-of-the-art functional imaging technique used in the accurate detection of cancer. The main problem with the tumours present in the lungs is that they are non-stationary during each respiratory cycle. Tumours in the lungs can get displaced up to 2.5 cm during respiration. Accurate detection of the tumour enables avoiding the addition of extra margin around the tumour that is usually used during radiotherapy treatment planning. This paper presents a novel method to detect and track tumour in respiratory-gated PET images. The approach followed to achieve this task is to automatically delineate the tumour from the first frame using support vector machines. The resulting volume and position information from the first frame is used in tracking its motion in the subsequent frames with the help of level set (LS) deformable model. An excellent accuracy of 97% is obtained using wavelets and support vector machines. The volume calculated as a result of the machine learning (ML) stage is used as a constraint for deformable models and the tumour is tracked in the remaining seven phases of the respiratory cycle. As a result, the complete information about tumour movement during each respiratory cycle is available in relatively short time. The combination of the LS and ML approach accurately delineated the tumour volume from all frames, thereby providing a scope of using PET images towards planning an accurate and effective radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer.

  4. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.; Byrne, H. M.; Chen, T.; Estrella, V.; Alarcó n, T.; Lapin, A.; Gatenby, R. A.; Gillies, R. J.; Lloyd, M. C.; Maini, P. K.; Reuss, M.; Owen, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  5. Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour: Anaplastic Variant with Omental Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anuradha C.K.; Monappa, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour (JGCT) of ovary represents a small fraction of all primary ovarian malignancies. It is a subtype of granulosa cell tumour that is almost always found during the first three decades of life. Histologically, it differs from the typical adult type of granulosa cell tumour. It accounts for 5-15% of all granulosa cell tumours, majority being unilateral. Herein, we describe an unusual histopathological variant of JGCT with numerous large cystic spaces, anaplasia and focal syncytiotrophoblast like giant cells. PMID:27042471

  6. Life history, immunity, Peto's paradox and tumours in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Erritzøe, J; Soler, J J

    2017-05-01

    Cancer and tumours may evolve in response to life-history trade-offs between growth and duration of development on one hand, and between growth and maintenance of immune function on the other. Here, we tested whether (i) bird species with slow developmental rates for their body size experience low incidence of tumours because slow development allows for detection of rapid proliferation of cell lineages. We also test whether (ii) species with stronger immune response during development are more efficient at detecting tumour cells and hence suffer lower incidence of tumours. Finally, we tested Peto's paradox, that there is a positive relationship between tumour incidence and body mass. We used information on developmental rates and body mass from the literature and of tumour incidence (8468 birds) and size of the bursa of Fabricius for 7659 birds brought to a taxidermist in Denmark. We found evidence of the expected negative relationship between incidence of tumours and developmental rates and immunity after controlling for the positive association between tumour incidence and body size. These results suggest that evolution has modified the incidence of tumours in response to life history and that Peto's paradox may be explained by covariation between body mass, developmental rates and immunity. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  8. Tumours of the head and neck induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daal, W.A.J. van.

    1979-01-01

    Reference is made to the cases of two patients who between 20 and 45 years after irradiation for tuberculous lymphomas in the neck developed malignant and benign tumours in the skin, the thyroid and the larynx-hypopharynx. The literature on induction of tumours by ionizing radiation is reviewed. So far, only one patient has been described in whome tumours in three organs may have been induced by irradiation. In the course of the examination of patients who have been irradiated for benign conditions, the possibility of tumours developing in several organs should be kept in mind. (Auth.)

  9. The feasibility of a brain tumour website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, K; Jakobsen, J; Juhler, M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with a high-grade glioma (HGG) and their caregivers have imminent and changing informational and supportive care needs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of a Danish brain tumour website (BTW) in patients with HGG and their caregivers. We...... one overarching theme 'challenges and barriers'. Being newly diagnosed, patients described a chaotic and overwhelming life situation and had difficulties in identifying with their new and changed role. When using the BTW, some patients and caregivers experienced technological challenges, while...

  10. Bone tumours in children and juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, P.

    1978-01-01

    The auther stresses the importance 1) of clinical data (e.g. age of the patient, localisation of the lesion, type and duration of the symptoms), 2) of radiographic findings and 3) of anatomicopathological changes which must all be taken into account especially in the judgment of bone tumours. Radiographic examination is of importance here also as a morphological method as it gives a picture of the 'mosaic' of a bone change. Biopsy material alone may contain only isolated parts with ambiguous histological findings, so that the true nature of the bone lesion can only be recognized by comparsion with the X-ray findings. (orig.) [de

  11. Impact of F DOPA-PET on therapeutic decision in endocrine tumours: digestive tumours, medullary thyroid cancer or pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Kerrou, K.; Gutman, F.; Beco, V. de; Nataf, V.; Balard, M.; Talbot, J.N.

    2006-01-01

    FDOPA-PET has been proposed for a decade in oncology, in particular in endocrine tumours. To the best of our knowledge, only one impact rate has been reported: 31% in 17 patients with digestive carcinoid tumours. We did a questionnaire survey to evaluate this impact reported by the referring clinician in 87 patients who had FDOPA PET due to digestive carcinoid tumour or another type of digestive endocrine tumour or a medullary thyroid cancer or a pheochromocytoma. The response rate to the survey was 87%. The overall impact of FDOPA PET on patient's management was 36%. Its value was greater for digestive carcinoid tumour and for medullary thyroid cancer; the number of patients with pheochromocytoma is still limited. In the other digestive endocrine tumours, a change in patient management was less frequent and FDOPA PET should be performed when the other examinations are inconclusive. (author)

  12. Treatment of progression of diffuse astrocytoma by herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It consisted of 4 types of herbal medicine which the subject was taking in form of tea once a day at regular intervals. The patient started phytotherapy along with temozolomide, which was the only oncological treatment she was under after the tumour had progressed. Following the finished chemotherapy, the patient ...

  13. Gene expression of circulating tumour cells and its correlation with tumour stage in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölke E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC represents one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide. New tools for diagnostic staging and therapeutic monitoring are needed to improve individualized therapies and improve clinical outcome. The analyses of circulating tumour cells may provide important prognostic information in the clinical setting. Materials and methods Circulating tumour cells (CTC of 63 BC patients were isolated from peripheral blood (PB through immunomagnetic separation. Subsequently, RT-PCR or mPCR for the genes ga733.2, muc-1, c-erbB2, mgb-1, spdef and c-erbB2 were performed. Subsequently, expression data were correlated with the tumour stages. Fourteen healthy individuals served as controls. Results Significant correlations with tumour stages were found in single gene analyses of ga733.2, muc-1 and in multi-gene analyses of ga733.2/muc-1/mgb1/spdef. Furthermore, a significant correlation of Ca 15-3 and all studied genes was also observed. Conclusion Herein, we demonstrated a positive correlation of a gene signature consisting of ga733.2, muc-1, mgb1 and spdef and advanced stages of BC. Moreover, all studied genes and gene patterns revealed a significant correlation with Ca 15-3 positive cases.

  14. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney with vena caval and atrial tumour thrombus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Poh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour is an extremely rare malignancy. Case presentation A 21-year-old woman presented with microscopic haematuria, a palpable right loin mass, dyspnoea, dizziness and fatigue. Initial ultrasound scan of the kidneys revealed an 11 cm right renal mass with venous extension into the inferior vena cava. Computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen revealed an extension of the large renal mass into the right renal vein, inferior vena cava and up to the right atrium. A small paracaval lymph node was noted and three small metastatic nodules were identified within the lung parenchyma. The patient underwent a radical nephrectomy and inferior vena caval tumour (level IV thrombectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen showed a highly specific cluster of differentiation (CD 99, thus confirming the diagnosis of a primitive neuroectodermal tumour. Conclusion It is important that a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour be considered, particularly in young patients with a renal mass and extensive thrombus.

  15. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  16. [Transitional tumours of urinary bladder (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumonier, R

    1979-01-01

    An overall survey of the transitional epithelium of the bladder and its carcinomas. This study is based upon the recent literature, in particular the considerable contribution of scanner electron microscopy. a) The transitional epithelium has the reputation of having a simple structure and even behaviour. In fact, it is complex with highly specialised surface cells. It has marked powers of regeneration after aggressions of various types. b) Tumours of the transitional epithelium are defined in relation to rupture of the basal lamina. Invasive carcinomas are classified according to their histological stage of penetration, their pure or partially metaplasic type and their degree defined according to the criteria of Broders. There exists a correlation between these three types of evaluation. Non-invasive carcinomas are either papillary--putting into question the reality of benign bladder papilloma--or flat mucosal and then often associated closely or at a distance with an invasive carcinoma. c) Abnormal regeneration, dysplasia or hyperplasia as a result of aggressions of different types or developing in isolation represent a high risk histologically, implying the need for careful follow-up and surveillance. d) Histopathological study of urothelial or transitional tumours is simple in operative specimens but difficult in biopsies. It requires close cooperation between surgeons and pathologists to ensure correct orientation of the fragments.

  17. Osteopenia in children surviving brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitton, A.C.; Eves, M. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Hay, J. [Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada); Gill, G.J.; Webber, C.E. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University (Canada); Simpson, T. [Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Osteopenia has been reported in children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, apparently as a consequence of therapy. It has been suggested that cranial irradiation may play a crucial role in this disorder. To explore that possibility, survivors of brain tumours in childhood, all of whom had received radiotherapy, were examined for evidence of bone mineral loss. 19 children were assessed, on average at 7 years after treatment. Measurements of growth velocities, plain radiography of the skeleton, bone densitometry, health-related quality of life and physical activity were undertaken. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency had been detected in 6 children and 5 had received GH replacement, for a minimum of more than 3 years. 9 children were radiographically osteopenic (including the 5 who had received GH). Z scores for bone mineral density (BMD) were negative in the majority of children. Health-related quality of life was less and pain more frequent in those with low BMD scores. Pain was correlated negatively with both free-time activity and seasonal activity (P<0.01). Osteopenia is a common sequel of therapy in children with brain tumours. Those with osteopenia have more pain and more compromised, health-related quality of life than those who are not osteopenic, and pain significantly limits physical activity. The pathogenesis of osteopenia in these children is still uncertain, but is likely to be multifactorial. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. MRI of intracranial germ-cell tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, L.; Korogi, Y.; Sugahara, T.; Ikushima, I.; Shigematsu, Y.; Okuda, T.; Takahashi, M.; Kochi, M.; Ushio, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. Our aim was to review the MRI appearances of primary intracranial germ-cell tumours (GCT). We reviewed the MRI studies of 32 patients: 19 with germinomas, five with teratomas, one with an embryonal carcinoma, five with mixed and two with malignant nongerminomatous GCT. Eleven were in the pineal region, 12 suprasellar, five in the both sites, two in the basal ganglia and two in the corpus callosum. Contrast-enhanced images were available for 27 patients. The solid parts of GCT were nearly isointense with grey matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. In seven patients with nongerminomatous GCT high-signal components were found on T1-weighted images, representing haemorrhage, high-protein fluid or fat. Cystic components were detected in 17 of 27 patients; eight germinomas and all nine nongerminomatous GCT had cysts. The solid components of germinomas enhanced homogeneously in eight cases and heterogeneously in 10, while all nongerminomatous GCT showed heterogeneous enhancement. MRI features tumours can facilitate correct diagnosis of GCT, including histological subtypes. (orig.)

  19. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  20. Computer assisted diagnosis of benign bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardziski, M.; Zafiroski, G.; Janevska, V.; Miladinova, D.; Popeska, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) of benign bone tumours (BBT) and their histological type. Patients and method. Altogether 120 patients were included in two groups. The retrospective group comprised 68 patients in whom the histological type of BBT was known prior to computer analysis. The prospective group comprised 52 patients in whom the histological type of BBT was unknown prior to computer analysis. Computer program was efficient and easy to use. Results. Average percent of histological type confirmed with CAD in the retrospective and prospective groups was 72.06% and 76.92%, respectively. Histological confirmation of CAD in specific BBT was 91.42% for enchondroma, 96.15% for osteoid-osteoma, and 98.08% for osteochondroma. Significantly lower percentage of CAD confirmation of fibroma, chondromixoid fibroma, osteoclastoma, desmoplastic fibroma and osteobalstoma due to their adverse biological character or complex anatomic localization is understandable. Conclusions. The results speak in favour of the assumption that computer assisted diagnosis of bone tumours program may improve the diagnostic accuracy of the examiner. (author)

  1. Bile acids destabilise HIF-1α and promote anti-tumour phenotypes in cancer cell models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J. P.; Reen, F. J.; Dunphy, N.; O'Connor, R.; O'Gara, F.

    2016-01-01

    The role of the microbiome has become synonymous with human health and disease. Bile acids, as essential components of the microbiome, have gained sustained credibility as potential modulators of cancer progression in several disease models. At physiological concentrations, bile acids appear to influence cancer phenotypes, although conflicting data surrounds their precise physiological mechanism of action. Previously, we demonstrated bile acids destabilised the HIF-1α subunit of the Hypoxic-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) transcription factor. HIF-1 overexpression is an early biomarker of tumour metastasis and is associated with tumour resistance to conventional therapies, and poor prognosis in a range of different cancers. Here we investigated the effects of bile acids on the cancer growth and migratory potential of cell lines where HIF-1α is known to be active under hypoxic conditions. HIF-1α status was investigated in A-549 lung, DU-145 prostate and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines exposed to bile acids (CDCA and DCA). Cell adhesion, invasion, migration was assessed in DU-145 cells while clonogenic growth was assessed in all cell lines. Intracellular HIF-1α was destabilised in the presence of bile acids in all cell lines tested. Bile acids were not cytotoxic but exhibited greatly reduced clonogenic potential in two out of three cell lines. In the migratory prostate cancer cell line DU-145, bile acids impaired cell adhesion, migration and invasion. CDCA and DCA destabilised HIF-1α in all cells and significantly suppressed key cancer progression associated phenotypes; clonogenic growth, invasion and migration in DU-145 cells. These findings suggest previously unobserved roles for bile acids as physiologically relevant molecules targeting hypoxic tumour progression

  2. Colorectal cancer tumour markers and biomarkers: Recent therapeutic advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gustaw; Słotwiński, Robert; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among females and third among males worldwide. It also contributes significantly to cancer-related deaths, despite the continuous progress in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Biomarkers currently play an important role in the detection and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Risk stratification for screening might be augmented by finding new biomarkers which alone or as a complement of existing tests might recognize either the predisposition or early stage of the disease. Biomarkers have also the potential to change diagnostic and treatment algorithms by selecting the proper chemotherapeutic drugs across a broad spectrum of patients. There are attempts to personalise chemotherapy based on presence or absence of specific biomarkers. In this review, we update review published last year and describe our understanding of tumour markers and biomarkers role in CRC screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Goal of future research is to identify those biomarkers that could allow a non-invasive and cost-effective diagnosis, as well as to recognise the best prognostic panel and define the predictive biomarkers for available treatments. PMID:26855534

  3. Colorectal cancer tumour markers and biomarkers: Recent therapeutic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gustaw; Słotwiński, Robert; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz Wojciech

    2016-02-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among females and third among males worldwide. It also contributes significantly to cancer-related deaths, despite the continuous progress in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Biomarkers currently play an important role in the detection and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Risk stratification for screening might be augmented by finding new biomarkers which alone or as a complement of existing tests might recognize either the predisposition or early stage of the disease. Biomarkers have also the potential to change diagnostic and treatment algorithms by selecting the proper chemotherapeutic drugs across a broad spectrum of patients. There are attempts to personalise chemotherapy based on presence or absence of specific biomarkers. In this review, we update review published last year and describe our understanding of tumour markers and biomarkers role in CRC screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Goal of future research is to identify those biomarkers that could allow a non-invasive and cost-effective diagnosis, as well as to recognise the best prognostic panel and define the predictive biomarkers for available treatments.

  4. Towards personalized computational oncology: from spatial models of tumour spheroids, to organoids, to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Aleksandra; Markov, Dmitry A; McCawley, Lisa J; Rejniak, Katarzyna A

    2018-01-01

    A main goal of mathematical and computational oncology is to develop quantitative tools to determine the most effective therapies for each individual patient. This involves predicting the right drug to be administered at the right time and at the right dose. Such an approach is known as precision medicine. Mathematical modelling can play an invaluable role in the development of such therapeutic strategies, since it allows for relatively fast, efficient and inexpensive simulations of a large number of treatment schedules in order to find the most effective. This review is a survey of mathematical models that explicitly take into account the spatial architecture of three-dimensional tumours and address tumour development, progression and response to treatments. In particular, we discuss models of epithelial acini, multicellular spheroids, normal and tumour spheroids and organoids, and multi-component tissues. Our intent is to showcase how these in silico models can be applied to patient-specific data to assess which therapeutic strategies will be the most efficient. We also present the concept of virtual clinical trials that integrate standard-of-care patient data, medical imaging, organ-on-chip experiments and computational models to determine personalized medical treatment strategies. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Caffeine ameliorates radiation-induced skin reactions in mice but does not influence tumour radiation response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebbar, S.A.; Mitra, A.K.; George, K.C.; Verma, N.C. [Radiation Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)]. E-mail: ncverma@apsara.barc.ernet.in

    2002-03-01

    Intramuscular administration of caffeine at a dose of 80 mg kg{sup -1} body weight to the gastrocnemius muscles of Swiss mice 5 min prior to local irradiation (35 Gy) of the leg delayed the progression of radiation-induced skin reactions in such animals. While 90% epilation with reddening of the skin was noted in animals treated with radiation alone, animals pretreated with caffeine suffered only partial hair loss with slight reddening of the skin on the 16th and 20th days post-irradiation. Beyond the 28th day, damage scores in irradiated feet for both the groups were similar (score 3) and remained unchanged until the 32nd day and then decreased and disappeared completely in both treatment groups by the 40th day after irradiation. In addition, the effect of caffeine on the radiation response of a mouse fibrosarcoma was investigated. Results showed that intratumoral administration of caffeine at a dose of 80 mg kg{sup -1} body weight 5 min prior to local exposure of tumours to 10 Gy of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays did not influence the response of tumours to radiation. The present study thus showed that although caffeine ameliorated radiation-induced skin reactions in the mouse leg, it did not affect the tumour radiation response, indicating its potential application in cancer radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Cancer treatment scheduling and dynamic heterogeneity in social dilemmas of tumour acidity and vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznatcheev, Artem; Vander Velde, Robert; Scott, Jacob G; Basanta, David

    2017-03-14

    Tumours are diverse ecosystems with persistent heterogeneity in various cancer hallmarks like self-sufficiency of growth factor production for angiogenesis and reprogramming of energy metabolism for aerobic glycolysis. This heterogeneity has consequences for diagnosis, treatment and disease progression. We introduce the double goods game to study the dynamics of these traits using evolutionary game theory. We model glycolytic acid production as a public good for all tumour cells and oxygen from vascularisation via vascular endothelial growth factor production as a club good benefiting non-glycolytic tumour cells. This results in three viable phenotypic strategies: glycolytic, angiogenic and aerobic non-angiogenic. We classify the dynamics into three qualitatively distinct regimes: (1) fully glycolytic; (2) fully angiogenic; or (3) polyclonal in all three cell types. The third regime allows for dynamic heterogeneity even with linear goods, something that was not possible in prior public good models that considered glycolysis or growth factor production in isolation. The cyclic dynamics of the polyclonal regime stress the importance of timing for anti-glycolysis treatments like lonidamine. The existence of qualitatively different dynamic regimes highlights the order effects of treatments. In particular, we consider the potential of vascular normalisation as a neoadjuvant therapy before follow-up with interventions like buffer therapy.

  7. Genomancy: predicting tumour response to cancer therapy based on the oracle of genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P D; Lee, J K; Theodorescu, D

    2009-01-01

    Cells are complex systems that regulate a multitude of biologic pathways involving a diverse array of molecules. Cancer can develop when these pathways become deregulated as a result of mutations in the genes coding for these proteins or of epigenetic changes that affect gene expression, or both1,2. The diversity and interconnectedness of these pathways and their molecular components implies that a variety of mutations may lead to tumorigenic cellular deregulation3-6. This variety, combined with the requirement to overcome multiple anticancer defence mechanisms7, contributes to the heterogeneous nature of cancer. Consequently, tumours with similar histology may vary in their underlying molecular circuitry8-10, with resultant differences in biologic behaviour, manifested in proliferation rate, invasiveness, metastatic potential, and unfortunately, response to cytotoxic therapy. Thus, cancer can be thought of as a family of related tumour subtypes, highlighting the need for individualized prediction both of disease progression and of treatment response, based on the molecular characteristics of the tumour.

  8. The importance of radiotherapy in paediatric atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korab - Chrzanowska, E.; Bartoszewska, J.; Drogosiewicz, M.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Skowronska-Gardas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) are very rare children cancers. Approximately 200 cases of ATRT located in the central nervous system have been described in the literature up till now. Aim: The aim of this report was to analyze the results of treatment of 8 children with these very rare neoplasms of the central nervous system, who were treated according to the Polish Paediatric Brain Tumour Group protocol. Material And Methods: Eight children aged from 4 months to 22 years, 5 girls, 3 boys with ATRT of the central nervous system are presented. All children have been operated on and received multidrug chemotherapy; 5 children received radiotherapy as well. In all craniospinal irradiation was applied, in doses of 35 Gy to the whole axis and 55 Gy to tumour boost. Results: Five patients died and 3 children are still alive. The progression-free survival of all 8 patients was 3 to 73 months. The overall survival was 5 to 73 months. All living children received radiotherapy. Two of them had total surgical resection and one partial. Conclusions: We conclude that radiotherapy prolonged survival in ATRT and should be incorporated in all treatment protocols for patients with this diagnosis. (authors)

  9. Next-generation sequencing-based detection of circulating tumour DNA After allogeneic stem cell transplantation for lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Alex F; Kim, Haesook T; Kong, Katherine A; Faham, Malek; Sun, Heather; Sohani, Aliyah R; Alyea, Edwin P; Carlton, Victoria E; Chen, Yi-Bin; Cutler, Corey S; Ho, Vincent T; Koreth, John; Kotwaliwale, Chitra; Nikiforow, Sarah; Ritz, Jerome; Rodig, Scott J; Soiffer, Robert J; Antin, Joseph H; Armand, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) detection is a promising monitoring tool for lymphoid malignancies. We evaluated whether the presence of ctDNA was associated with outcome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in lymphoma patients. We studied 88 patients drawn from a phase 3 clinical trial of reduced-intensity conditioning HSCT in lymphoma. Conventional restaging and collection of peripheral blood samples occurred at pre-specified time points before and after HSCT and were assayed for ctDNA by sequencing of the immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes. Tumour clonotypes were identified in 87% of patients with adequate tumour samples. Sixteen of 19 (84%) patients with disease progression after HSCT had detectable ctDNA prior to progression at a median of 3·7 months prior to relapse/progression. Patients with detectable ctDNA 3 months after HSCT had inferior progression-free survival (PFS) (2-year PFS 58% vs. 84% in ctDNA-negative patients, P = 0·033). In multivariate models, detectable ctDNA was associated with increased risk of progression/death (Hazard ratio 3·9, P = 0·003) and increased risk of relapse/progression (Hazard ratio 10·8, P = 0·0006). Detectable ctDNA is associated with an increased risk of relapse/progression, but further validation studies are necessary to confirm these findings and determine the clinical utility of NGS-based minimal residual disease monitoring in lymphoma patients after HSCT. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Newer Clinical Strategies for Combining Interferon and Cytotoxic Agents Against Solid Tumours and Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wadler

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of interferons in the treatment of cancer continues to evolve. Despite limited single agent activity against solid tumours, interferons now appear to have an important role as modulators of the activity of a variety of cytotoxic drugs. Clinical benefits have been observed for combinations of interferons and alkylating agents against low grade lymphomas, interferons and dacarbazine against malignant melanoma, and interferons and 5-fluorouracil against gastrointestinal and genitourinary malignancies. Further progress will depend on a grealer understanding of the biology of the interaction.

  11. Radio-isotope uptake by tumours. Introduction to their clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchon, P.

    1975-01-01

    Before each group of authors exposes his results, present tendencies and progress in research may be briefly recalled. The object is to make to clinicians, a technique which is both reliable and relatively easy to perform. The improvements are due to ease of recording with the gamma-camera, and, apart from Hg 197, the introduction of new radio-isotopes: Ga 67, bleomycin labelled with Co 57 and Cu 67 without a carrier. Tumours which escape detection have thus become rare and the specificity of the methods is reinforced. But the difficulties due to possible fixation on advanced inflammatory lesions have not yet been totally overcome [fr

  12. Brown tumour in phalanx of the ring finger due to chronic kidney failure. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forigua V, J E; Brunicardi H, R A; Morales V, C A; Archila, M Del P; Chaparro Rivera, D M

    Brown tumours are highly vascular lytic bone lesions found in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The brown term is given due to the red-brown colour of the tissue, which is due to the accumulation of hemosiderin. The case is presented of a 29 year-old male with chronic renal failure, who had a mass in the tip of the ring finger after a trauma of 4 months onset, which had increased progressively in size and pain. He was treated surgically, by amputation, with no recurrence 10 months after the surgery. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Tumour response after hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for locally advanced melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Ida Felbo; Chakera, A H; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg

    2014-01-01

    . Time from ILP to recurrence was a median of seven months (range 1-37 months) for patients with CR or PR. Survival was longer for patients with CR or PR than for patients showing NC or progression. Several patients had mild or moderate local toxicity reactions, two patients developed severe local...... toxicity. CONCLUSION: ILP induces tumour regression in the vast majority of patients. One patient, i.e. 1% of the group, died from surgical complications. Otherwise, ILP treatment had an acceptable morbidity in this group of very sick patients. We are convinced that the treatment should be offered...

  14. Alterations of monocarboxylate transporter densities during hypoxia in brain and breast tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chang; Edin, Nina F Jeppesen; Lauritzen, Knut H

    2012-01-01

    Tumour cells are characterized by aerobic glycolysis, which provides biomass for tumour proliferation and leads to extracellular acidification through efflux of lactate via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Deficient and spasm-prone tumour vasculature causes variable hypoxia, which favours...

  15. Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate efficiently kills breast tumour-initiating cells in a complex II-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bing; Stantic, Marina; Zobalova, Renata; Bezawork-Geleta, Ayenachew; Stapelberg, Michael; Stursa, Jan; Prokopova, Katerina; Dong, Lanfeng; Neuzil, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that breast cancer involves tumour-initiating cells (TICs), which play a role in initiation, metastasis, therapeutic resistance and relapse of the disease. Emerging drugs that target TICs are becoming a focus of contemporary research. Mitocans, a group of compounds that induce apoptosis of cancer cells by destabilising their mitochondria, are showing their potential in killing TICs. In this project, we investigated mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate (MitoVES), a recently developed mitocan, for its in vitro and in vivo efficacy against TICs. The mammosphere model of breast TICs was established by culturing murine NeuTL and human MCF7 cells as spheres. This model was verified by stem cell marker expression, tumour initiation capacity and chemotherapeutic resistance. Cell susceptibility to MitoVES was assessed and the cell death pathway investigated. In vivo efficacy was studied by grafting NeuTL TICs to form syngeneic tumours. Mammospheres derived from NeuTL and MCF7 breast cancer cells were enriched in the level of stemness, and the sphere cells featured altered mitochondrial function. Sphere cultures were resistant to several established anti-cancer agents while they were susceptible to MitoVES. Killing of mammospheres was suppressed when the mitochondrial complex II, the molecular target of MitoVES, was knocked down. Importantly, MitoVES inhibited progression of syngeneic HER2 high tumours derived from breast TICs by inducing apoptosis in tumour cells. These results demonstrate that using mammospheres, a plausible model for studying TICs, drugs that target mitochondria efficiently kill breast tumour-initiating cells. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1394-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  16. Predictive model for functional consequences of oral cavity tumour resections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, M.J.A.; Hageman, T.A.G.; Hageman, Tijmen Antoon Geert; Smeele, L.E.; Balm, Alfonsus Jacobus Maria; Balm, A.J.M.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Lemke, H.U.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of functional consequences after treatment of large oral cavity tumours is mainly based on the size and location of the tumour. However, patient specific factors play an important role in the functional outcome, making the current predictions unreliable and subjective. An objective

  17. A short history of neuroendocrine tumours and their peptide hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Herder, Wouter W; Rehfeld, Jens F; Kidd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas started in 1870, when Rudolf Heidenhain discovered the neuroendocrine cells, which can lead to the development of these tumours. Siegfried Oberndorfer was the first to introduce the term carcinoid in 1907. The panc...

  18. Clinicopathological features of liver tumours: a ten-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahir, S.T.; Aalipour, E.

    2015-01-01

    Various diseases affect the liver, among them, malignant and benign tumours with hepatic nodules are the most important. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological findings related to hepatic tumours and nodules. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out during November 2014 to August 2015 by reviewing the hospital medical records of 164 registered patients with liver biopsies referred to Shahid Sadoughi educational General Hospital, Yazd, Iran, between 2004 and 2014. The samples were selected through the census method. Age, gender, clinical symptoms, initial clinical diagnosis, pathology reports and ultrasound results were considered as variables. Data were analysed by using SPSS-17. Results: There were 87 (53%) men and 77 (47%) women. The mean ages of presentation for malignant and benign tumours were 57.9 ±17.2 and 44.9±19.4 years, respectively. Seventy benign tumours and 147 malignant tumours were recorded. The most frequent chief complaint was abdominal pain (54.9%) in both malignant (56.50%) and benign tumours (41.20%). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hemangioma were the most prevalent malignant and benign hepatic tumours, respectively. In our study, correlation between pathology reports and primary diagnoses was 40.9%, and a significant relationship was found between sonography and pathological findings (p=0.038). Conclusions: We found that only when primary clinical diagnosis and sonography were in favour of malignancy, they were correlated with pathology results. Clinicopathological assessments can help physicians in their diagnosis in order to facilitate the management of hepatic tumours. (author)

  19. Fancf-deficient mice are prone to develop ovarian tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, S.T.; van der Vrugt, H.J.; Visser, J.A.; Delzenne-Goette, E.; van der Wal, A.; Berns, M.A.D.; van de Ven, M.; Oostra, A.B.; de Vries, S.; Kramer, P.; Arwert, F.; van de Valk, M; de Winter, J.P.; te Riele, H.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare recessive disorder marked by developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and a high risk for the development of leukaemia and solid tumours. The inactivation of FA genes, in particular FANCF, has also been documented in sporadic tumours in non-FA patients. To

  20. Incidence of Brain Tumours at an Academic Centre in Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the incidence of brain tumours at King AbdulAziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, over eight year period. Design: Retrospective study. Sitting: King Abdul Aziz University Hospital in Jeddah Saudi Arabia. Subjects: Patients with intracranial tumours. Results: The overall average ...

  1. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Hodson, Pamela; Hua, Bobby; Pyecroft, Stephen; Taylor, Robyn; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine; Madsen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic selection on cancer evolution. Since first observed in 1996, this transmissible cancer has caused local population declines by >90%. So far, four chromosomal DFTD variants (strains) have been described and karyotypic analyses of 253 tumours showed higher levels of tetraploidy in the oldest strain. We propose that increased ploidy in the oldest strain may have evolved in response to effects of genomic decay observed in asexually reproducing organisms. In this study, we focus on the evolutionary response of DFTD to a disease suppression trial. Tumours collected from devils subjected to the removal programme showed accelerated temporal evolution of tetraploidy compared with tumours from other populations where no increase in tetraploid tumours were observed. As ploidy significantly reduces tumour growth rate, we suggest that the disease suppression trial resulted in selection favouring slower growing tumours mediated by an increased level of tetraploidy. Our study reveals that DFTD has the capacity to rapidly respond to novel selective regimes and that disease eradication may result in novel tumour adaptations, which may further imperil the long-term survival of the world's largest carnivorous marsupial.

  2. Surgical Considerations in the Management of Tumours of the Nose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tumours of the nose and paranasal sinuses in sub-Saharan Africa are generally characterised by late presentation posing management challenges to the otorhinolaryngologists in the sub-region. OBJECTIVES: To appraise surgical considerations in the management of tumours of the nose and paranasal ...

  3. GRANULAR CELL TUMOUR OF THE LARYNX – A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... cell tumour involving the right vocal cord diagnosed after direct laryngoscopy and biopsy. She was treated ... She had no associated weight loss, dysphagia, odynophagia or dyspnoea. She occasionally took ... A provisional diagnosis of a right vocal cord tumour was made and patient worked up for direct.

  4. Breast tumours of adolescents in an African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umanah Ivy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumours of the breast are uncommon in childhood and adolescence. Patients in this age group often require a different approach to diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study is to highlight the clinicopathologic features of breast tumours in adolescents in a Nigerian city. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four breast tumour materials from patients aged 10-19 years were analyzed over a 10-year period at the Department of Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH, Benin City, Edo State, Benin City, Nigeria. Results: A majority of the breast tumours were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common tumour with 46 cases (54.8%, followed by fibrocystic changes with 15 cases (17%. Malignancy was extremely rare in this group, with only one case (1.2% of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Histologically, most tumours were indistinguishable from the adult types. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in adolescents in Benin City, Nigeria. Breast cancer and male breast tumours are rare in this age group. Routine complete physical examination of children and adolescents should include breast examination.

  5. The potential role of podoplanin in tumour invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, A; Christofori, G

    2006-01-01

    Podoplanin is a small mucin-like transmembrane protein, widely expressed in various specialised cell types throughout the body. Here, we revisit the mechanism of podoplanin-mediated tumour invasion. We compare molecular pathways leading to single and collective cell invasion and discuss novel distinct concepts of tumour cell invasion. PMID:17179989

  6. Childhood vascular Tumours in Benin City, Nigeria | Igbe | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... The patterns of these tumours in Benin City, however, are not known. ... This comprised 71 benign cases (56 haemangiomas, 15 lymphangiomas), 7 tumours of intermediate grade (5 haemangioendodethelioma and 2 haemangiopericytoma) and 4 malignant cases (Kaposi sarcoma).

  7. Relationship between tumour size and response to neoadjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-16

    Mar 16, 2018 ... Introduction. Efforts to improve response of breast tumours to chemotherapy and maximize the benefit-to-adverse events ratio of chemotherapy include molecular subtyping to classify tumours, combined and cyclical use of chemotherapy and surgical de-bulking to stimulate proliferation. Molecular ...

  8. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF TUMOUR MARKERS: A REvIEw

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... for use in treatment monitoring of colorectal, hepatocellular, prostatic, ovarian and pancreatic carcinomas ... for cancer in the clinical setting (1,3-6). Primary ... presentation is one of the determinants of prognosis in cancer. If a tumour marker concentration is related to the tumour size then it may be useful for.

  9. Neurohypophysis granular cell tumours. Upon neurohypophysis rare tumours; Les tumeurs a cellules granuleuses. Des tumeurs rares de la neurohypophyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrande, G.; Kujas, M.; Gancel, A.; Turpin, G.; Bruckert, E.; Kuhn, J.M.; Luton, J.P. [Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-10-01

    Granular cell tumours of neurohypophysis are rare. These tumours are more often encountered as incidental autopsy findings seen in up to 17 % of unselected adult autopsy cases. There are few reports of para-sellar granular cell tumours large enough to cause symptoms. We present three cases of neurohypophysis granular cell tumour and a review of the literature. In one patient, the asymptomatic granular cell tumour was incidentally discovered at surgical removal of a corticotrophic micro-adenoma. The remaining 2 patients had a symptomatic tumour which caused neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance and headaches and endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism or hyper-prolactinaemia. In these 2 cases, computerized tomography showed a well-circumscribed, contrast-enhanced, intra-sellar and supra-sellar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense gadolinium-enhanced mass in T1-weighted-images. Trans-sphenoidal partial resection was performed and histology was interpreted as a granular cell tumour. The immunohistochemical study was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GEAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in 1 of the 2 tumours and positive for S100 protein and vimentin in both tumours but negative for CD68. The histogenesis of neurohypophysis granular cell tumours is still controversial but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies support the theory that may arise from pituicytes, the glial cells of neurohypophysis. Management of these benign, slow growing, tumours is based mainly on neurosurgical resection. Data from the literature do not support a beneficial effect of post operative radiation therapy on postoperative recurrences. (authors). 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Genomic instability: potential contributions to tumour and normal tissue response, and second tumours, after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Jolyon H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Induced genomic instability generally refers to a type of damage which is transmissible down cell generations, and which results in a persistently enhanced frequency of de novo mutations, chromosomal abnormalities or lethality in a significant fraction of the descendant cell population. The potential contribution of induced genomic instability to tumour and normal tissue response, and second tumours, after radiotherapy, is explored. Results: The phenomenon of spontaneous genomic instability is well known in some rare genetic diseases (e.g. Gorlin's syndrome), and there is evidence in such cases that it can lead to a greater propensity for carcinogenesis (with shortened latency) which is enhanced after irradiation. It is unclear what role induced genomic instability plays in the response of normal individuals, but persistent chromosomal instability has been detected in vivo in lymphocytes and keratinocytes from irradiated normal individuals. Such induced genomic instability might play some role in tumour response in a subset of tumours with specific defects in damage response genes, but again its contribution to radiocurability in the majority of cancer patients is unclear. In normal tissues, genomic instability induced in wild-type cells leading to delayed cell death might contribute to more severe or prolonged early reactions as a consequence of increased cell loss, a longer time required for recovery, and greater residual injury. In tumours, induced genomic instability reflected in delayed reductions in clonogenic capacity might contribute to the radiosensitivity of primary tumours, and also to a lower incidence, longer latency and slower growth rate of recurrences and metastases. Conclusions: The evidence which is reviewed shows that there is little information at present to support these propositions, but what exists is consistent with their expectations. Also, it is not yet clear to what extent mutations associated with genomic instability

  11. VEGF-A promotes lymphoma tumour growth by activation of STAT proteins and inhibition of p27(KIP1) via paracrine mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Berber D.; ter Elst, Arja; Scherpen, Frank J. G.; Meemusen-de Boer, Tiny G. J.; Kamps, Willem A.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.

    Increased levels of circulating VEGF-A have been demonstrated in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and are associated with progressive disease and poor clinical outcome. We investigated the role of VEGF-A in lymphoma tumour growth on a molecular level in order to identify the mechanism of

  12. Giant Cell Tumour of the Distal Ulna: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Jaya Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Giant-cell tumour (GCT of bone, a primary yet locally aggressive benign tumour, commonly affects patients between the ages of 20 and 40 years, with the peak incidence occurring in the third decade. Women are affected slightly more than men. The distal end of the ulna is an extremely uncommon site for primary bone tumours in general and giant cell tumours in particular. Wide resection of the distal ulna is the recommended treatment for GCT in such locations. Radio-ulna convergence and dorsal displacement of the ulna stump are known complications following ulna resection proximal to the insertion of the pronator quadratus. This leads to reduction in grip power and forearm rotatory motion. Stabilization of the ulna stump with extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU tendon after wide resection of the tumour has been described in the literature. We report a case of GCT of distal end of ulna treated with wide resection and stabilization with ECU tendon.

  13. Monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunodetection of tumours and for targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, R.W.; Embleton, M.J.; Pimm, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody 791T/36 prepared against human osteogenic sarcoma has been used to detect primary and metastatic colorectal carcinomas by external imaging of patients following injection of 131 I-labelled antibody. In 10 of 11 patients radiolabelled 791T/36 antibody localized in tumours, the tumour/non tumour ratio of radioactivity ranging from 1.5:1 to 8.1. 791T/36 antibody was also evaluated for its potential for targeting anti-tumour agents including cytotoxic drugs (Vindesine) and immunomodulating agents (interferon). Vindesine-791T/36 conjugates were preferentially cytotoxic in vitro for target cells expressing the 791T/36 anti-body defined antigen. Also interferon conjugated to 791T/36 antibody, like free interferon activated peripheral blood natural killer cell activity. These in vitro tests together with related studies on antibody localization in vivo indicate the potential of monoclonal antibody targeting of anti-tumour agents

  14. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy for odontogenic cysts and tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tsugihama; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Asaka, Daiya; Okushi, Tetsushi; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Odontogenic maxillary cysts and tumours originate from the tooth root and have traditionally been treated through an intraoral approach. Here, we report the efficacy and utility of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for the treatment of odontogenic maxillary cysts and a tumour. We undertook EMMM under general anaesthesia in six patients: four had radicular cysts, one had a dentigerous cyst, and one had a keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The cysts and tumours were completely excised and the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct were preserved in all patients. There were no peri- or postoperative complications, and no incidences of recurrence. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy appears to be an effective and safe technique for treating odontogenic cysts and tumours.

  15. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  16. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Fetal and Maternal Medicine, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-11-15

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  17. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong; Hui, Sze Ki; Ling, Siu Cheung

    2010-01-01

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  18. Irradiation-induced tumours of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aanesen, J P; Olofsson, J [Linkoepings Hoegskola (Sweden)

    1979-09-01

    Though irradiation-induced tumours are uncommon, they represent a well defined entity. At this Hospital, 14 irradiation-induced head and neck tumours were encountered in 11 patients over a 10-year period. The irradiation had been given for tuberculous lymphadenitis in 6 of the patients, for lupus vulgaris in one, and thyrotoxicosis in another; the other 3 patients had received radiotherapy for malignant tumours. The interval between the treatment and the diagnosis of the tumour disease ranged from 9 to 48 years (mean 32). Three of the patients had multiple tumours. In view of the risk of cancer-albeit a small one-associated with radiological diagnosis and radiotherapy, these should be performed only on strict indications, expecially in young patients.

  19. Immunisation of colorectal cancer patients with autologous tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Alice; Stenholm, Anna Catharina Olsen; Kronborg, O

    1998-01-01

    Patients with colorectal cancer were entered into a clinical phase I trial of immunotherapy with an autologous tumour cell/bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine. We attempted to describe the possible effects and side effects of the immunisation, and further to investigate whether expression...... of immune-response-related surface molecules on the tumour cells in the vaccine correlated with survival. The first and second vaccine comprised of 107 irradiated tumour cells mixed with BCG, the third of irradiated tumour cells only. Thirty-nine patients were considered, but only 6 patients fulfilled...... the criteria for inclusion. No serious side effects were observed. With three years of observation time, two patients are healthy, while the rest have had recurrence, and two of them have died. In all vaccines, all tumour cells expressed HLA class I, some expressed HLA class II and none expressed CD80...

  20. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Hui, Sze Ki [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hong Kong (China); Ling, Siu Cheung [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  1. Radiation-induced malignant tumours: a specific cytogenetic profile?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveinc, L.; Gaboriaux, G.; Dutrillaux, A. M.; Dutrillaux, B.; Chauveinc, L.; Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    To date, there is no criterion enabling to determine the spontaneous or radio-induced origin of malignant tumour occurring in a previously irradiated patient. Biological studies are rare. The cytogenetic data which could be found in the literature for eleven radio-induced tumours suggest that aneuploidies and polyclonality are frequent events. We studied, by R-Banding cytogenetic technique, five patients with short-term cultures (3 cases), short and long-term cultures (1 case) and xeno-grafting on nude pattern a high rate of balanced translocations, numerous random break points and a polyclonal evolution (10 clones). All other tumours, including the xeno-grafting sarcoma, had a monoclonal profile with complex karyotypes, hypo-diploid formulas and many deletions. These results show that the mechanism of radiation-induced tumours frequently involves chromosomes losses and deletions. The most likely explanation is that these alterations unmask radiation induced recessive mutations of tumour suppressor genes. (authors)

  2. MR-guided microwave ablation in hepatic tumours: initial results in clinical routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Ruediger; Rempp, Hansjoerg; Kessler, David-Emanuel; Weiss, Jakob; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Clasen, Stephan [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Pereira, Philippe L. [SLK-Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Department of Radiology, Minimally Invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine, Heilbronn (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Evaluation of the technical success, patient safety and technical effectiveness of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided microwave ablation of hepatic malignancies. Institutional review board approval and informed patient consent were obtained. Fifteen patients (59.8 years ± 9.5) with 18 hepatic malignancies (7 hepatocellular carcinomas, 11 metastases) underwent MR-guided microwave ablation using a 1.5-T MR system. Mean tumour size was 15.4 mm ± 7.7 (7-37 mm). Technical success and ablation zone diameters were assessed by post-ablative MR imaging. Technique effectiveness was assessed after 1 month. Complications were classified according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Mean follow-up was 5.8 months ± 2.6 (1-10 months). Technical success and technique effectiveness were achieved in all lesions. Lesions were treated using 2.5 ± 1.2 applicator positions. Mean energy and ablation duration per tumour were 37.6 kJ ± 21.7 (9-87 kJ) and 24.7 min ± 11.1 (7-49 min), respectively. Coagulation zone short- and long-axis diameters were 31.5 mm ± 10.5 (16-65 mm) and 52.7 mm ± 15.4 (27-94 mm), respectively. Two CTCAE-2-complications occurred (pneumothorax, pleural effusion). Seven patients developed new tumour manifestations in the untreated liver. Local tumour progression was not observed. Microwave ablation is feasible under near real-time MR guidance and provides effective treatment of hepatic malignancies in one session. (orig.)

  3. Human α-defensin (DEFA) gene expression helps to characterise benign and malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jochen; Wenghoefer, Matthias; Pantelis, Annette; Kraus, Dominik; Reckenbeil, Jan; Reich, Rudolf; Jepsen, Soeren; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2012-01-01

    Because of the infrequence of salivary gland tumours and their complex histopathological diagnosis it is still difficult to exactly predict their clinical course by means of recurrence, malignant progression and metastasis. In order to define new proliferation associated genes, purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of human α-defensins (DEFA) 1/3 and 4 in different tumour entities of the salivary glands with respect to malignancy. Tissue of salivary glands (n=10), pleomorphic adenomas (n=10), cystadenolymphomas (n=10), adenocarcinomas (n=10), adenoidcystic carcinomas (n=10), and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=10) was obtained during routine surgical procedures. RNA was extracted according to standard protocols. Transcript levels of DEFA 1/3 and 4 were analyzed by quantitative realtime PCR and compared with healthy salivary gland tissue. Additionally, the proteins encoded by DEFA 1/3 and DEFA 4 were visualized in paraffin-embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemical staining. Human α-defensins are traceable in healthy as well as in pathological altered salivary gland tissue. In comparison with healthy tissue, the gene expression of DEFA 1/3 and 4 was significantly (p<0.05) increased in all tumours – except for a significant decrease of DEFA 4 gene expression in pleomorphic adenomas and a similar transcript level for DEFA 1/3 compared to healthy salivary glands. A decreased gene expression of DEFA 1/3 and 4 might protect pleomorphic adenomas from malignant transformation into adenocarcinomas. A similar expression pattern of DEFA-1/3 and -4 in cystadenolymphomas and inflamed salivary glands underlines a potential importance of immunological reactions during the formation of Warthin’s tumour

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with progressive myelopathy following spinal surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Avrahami, E; Tadmor, R; Cohn, D F

    1989-01-01

    Thirty one patients with insidious progressive myelopathy 2 to 8 years following surgery of the cervical spine were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 15 patients operated on for vascular malformations or intramedullary tumours, syringomyelia and cystic lesions of the spinal cord were shown. Seven of these patients also showed a combination of a recurrent tumour and spinal atrophy. Out of 16 patients who had surgery for herniated disc or spinal stenosis of the cervical spine, f...

  5. Cancer nanomedicine: progress, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinjun; Kantoff, Philip W; Wooster, Richard; Farokhzad, Omid C

    2017-01-01

    The intrinsic limits of conventional cancer therapies prompted the development and application of various nanotechnologies for more effective and safer cancer treatment, herein referred to as cancer nanomedicine. Considerable technological success has been achieved in this field, but the main obstacles to nanomedicine becoming a new paradigm in cancer therapy stem from the complexities and heterogeneity of tumour biology, an incomplete understanding of nano-bio interactions and the challenges regarding chemistry, manufacturing and controls required for clinical translation and commercialization. This Review highlights the progress, challenges and opportunities in cancer nanomedicine and discusses novel engineering approaches that capitalize on our growing understanding of tumour biology and nano-bio interactions to develop more effective nanotherapeutics for cancer patients.

  6. Anti-tumour immune effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum to CT26 tumour-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingtao; Wang, Chunfeng; Ye, Liping; Yang, Wentao; Huang, Haibin; Meng, Fei; Shi, Shaohua; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer that shows a high mortality and increasing incidence. There are numerous successful treatment options for CRC, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy; however, their side effects and limitations are considerable. Probiotics may be an effective strategy for preventing and inhibiting tumour growth through stimulation of host innate and adaptive immunity. We investigated and compared potential anti-tumour immune responses induced by two isolated Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus b, by pre-inoculating mice with lactobacilli for 14 days. Subsequently, subcutaneous and orthotopic intestinal tumours were generated in the pre-inoculated mice using CT26 murine adenocarcinoma cells and were assessed for response against the tumour. Our results indicated that oral administration with L. plantarum inhibited CT26 cell growth in BALB/c mice and prolonged the survival time of tumour-bearing mice compared with mice administered L. rhamnosus. L. plantarum produced protective immunity against the challenge with CT26 cells by increasing the effector functions of CD8+ and natural killer (NK) cell infiltration into tumour tissue, up-regulation of IFN-gamma (but not IL-4 or IL-17) production, and promotion of Th1-type CD4+ T differentiation. Consequently, our results suggest that L. plantarum can enhance the anti-tumour immune response and delay tumour formation.

  7. Tumour metastasis as an adaptation of tumour cells to fulfil their phosphorus requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Caramujo, Maria José

    2012-05-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a vital component of nucleotides, membrane phospholipids, and phosphorylated intermediates in cellular signalling. The Growth Rate Hypothesis (GRH) states that fast growing organisms should be richer in phosphorus (relatively low C:P and N:P cell content) than slow developing organisms as a result of high ribosome biogenesis. Cells that proliferate rapidly, such as cancer cells, require a high amount of ribosomes and other P-rich RNA components that are necessary to manufacture proteins. The GRH hypothesis may be applied to cancer predicting that tumour cells are richer in phosphorus than the surrounding tissue, and that they resort to metastasis in order to meet their nutrient demands. Considering that the cells most P-deprived should be located in the inner parts of the tumour we propose that changes in the membrane of these cells favour the detachment of the more peripheral cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Skull base tumours part I: Imaging technique, anatomy and anterior skull base tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Advances in cross-sectional imaging, surgical technique and adjuvant treatment have largely contributed to ameliorate the prognosis, lessen the morbidity and mortality of patients with skull base tumours and to the growing medical investment in the management of these patients. Because clinical assessment of the skull base is limited, cross-sectional imaging became indispensable in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of patients with suspected skull base pathology and the radiologist is increasingly responsible for the fate of these patients. This review will focus on the advances in imaging technique; contribution to patient's management and on the imaging features of the most common tumours affecting the anterior skull base. Emphasis is given to a systematic approach to skull base pathology based upon an anatomic division taking into account the major tissue constituents in each skull base compartment. The most relevant information that should be conveyed to surgeons and radiation oncologists involved in patient's management will be discussed

  9. Perioperative management of patients with pituitary tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of pituitary tumours can be very challenging for the anaesthesiologist. These patients require a thorough pre-operative assessment in view of underlying endocrine disturbances, which could cause anatomic and physiological disturbances. This needs to be optimized prior to surgery and the anaesthetic technique planned accordingly. The main intraoperative problems that could be encountered by the anaesthesiologist are airway problems, haemodynamic disturbances and potential for bleeding during surgery. The postoperative concerns are related to the endocrine system and fluid and water balance and this needs to be monitored closely and managed appropriately. The advent of minimally invasive surgery along with neuroimaging has considerably decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality following pituitary surgery. A team approach and close coordination between the endocrinologist, neurosurgeon and anaesthesiologist is imperative for a favourable outcome in patients undergoing pituitary surgery.

  10. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Applications of accelerators to tumour therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The first lecture is devoted to an historical review of the developments of the teletherapy techniques which make use of hadron beams and are collectively called “hadrontherapy”. The main emphasis is on the use of protons and light ions, but also neutrons, pions and antiprotons are considered. The second lecture reviews the rationale behind the use of carbon ions in the treatment of radioresistant tumours and the results obtained both with proton and carbon ion beams on the 60 000 patients treated worldwide. The numbers of patients who would profit from hadrontherapy are presented together with the current landscape of running and planned hospital based centres. The main technical challenges set by this therapeutic modality are discussed in the third lecture together with the approaches either adopted or suggested to face them. The challenges are the treatment of moving organs, the development of new tools for Quality Assurance, the design of rotating gantries for carbon ions. The last discussed issue con...

  12. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Mørk; Hettwer, Werner H; Grum-Schwensen, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    -day regimen of post-operative antibiotics, in comparison to a 24-hour regimen, decreases surgical site infections in patients undergoing endoprosthetic reconstruction for lower extremity primary bone tumours. METHODS: We performed a pilot international multi-centre RCT. We used central randomisation...... to conceal treatment allocation and sham antibiotics to blind participants, surgeons, and data collectors. We determined feasibility by measuring patient enrolment, completeness of follow-up, and protocol deviations for the antibiotic regimens. RESULTS: We screened 96 patients and enrolled 60 participants......% at one year (the remainder with partial data or pending queries). In total, 18 participants missed at least one dose of antibiotics or placebo post-operatively, but 93% of all post-operative doses were administered per protocol. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to conduct a definitive multi-centre RCT of post...

  13. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the kidney: a rare renal tumour in adolescents with seemingly characteristic radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Winnie C.; Reznikov, Boris; Lee, Edward Y.; Grant, Ronald M.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Babyn, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) constitute a family of neoplasms of presumed neuroectodermal origin that predominantly present as bone or soft-tissue masses in adolescents and young adults. PNET arising in the kidney is rare. To describe the radiological features in three patients with primary renal PNET. The radiological features of primary renal PNET in three adolescent patients (age 10, 14 and 16 years) are described. Tumour thrombus extending into the renal vein and inferior vena cava was noted in all three patients. In addition, further tumour extension into the atrium was seen in two patients with extension into a pulmonary artery in one patient. Neural foraminal and intraspinal extension close to the origin of the tumour was identified in two patients. Liver, bone and lung metastases were identified. While rare, one should consider the diagnosis of PNET when encountering a renal mass with aggressive features such as inferior vena cava tumour thrombus, direct intraspinal invasion and distant metastasis. (orig.)

  14. Anti-tumour activity in RAS-driven tumours by blocking AKT and MEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcher, Anthony W.; Khan, Khurum; Ong, Michael; Banerji, Udai; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Gandara, David R.; Patnaik, Amita; Baird, Richard D.; Olmos, David; Garrett, Christopher R.; Skolnik, Jeffrey M.; Rubin, Eric H.; Smith, Paul D.; Huang, Pearl; Learoyd, Maria; Shannon, Keith A.; Morosky, Anne; Tetteh, Ernestina; Jou, Ying-Ming; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P.; Moreno, Victor; Kaiser, Brianne; Yap, Timothy A.; Yan, Li; de Bono, Johann S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in human tumours. KRAS-mutant cells may exhibit resistance to the allosteric MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244; ARRY-142886) and allosteric AKT inhibitors (such as MK-2206), the combination of which may overcome resistance to both monotherapies. Experimental Design We conducted a dose/schedule-finding study evaluating MK-2206 and selumetinib in patients with advanced treatment-refractory solid tumours. Recommended dosing schedules were defined as MK-2206 135 mg weekly and selumetinib 100 mg once-daily. Results Grade 3 rash was the most common dose-limiting toxicity (DLT); other DLTs included grade 4 lipase increase, grade 3 stomatitis, diarrhoea, and fatigue, and grade 3 and grade 2 retinal pigment epithelium detachment. There were no meaningful pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Clinical anti-tumour activity included RECIST 1.0-confirmed partial responses in non-small cell lung cancer and low-grade ovarian carcinoma. Conclusion Responses in KRAS-mutant cancers were generally durable. Clinical co-targeting of MEK and AKT signalling may be an important therapeutic strategy in KRAS-driven human malignancies (Trial NCT number NCT01021748). PMID:25516890

  15. Utility of Phox2b immunohistochemical stain in neural crest tumours and non-neural crest tumours in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Mikako; Matsuno, Ryosuke; Tran, Henry; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated the utility of Phox2b in paediatric tumours. Previously, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was the most widely utilised sympathoadrenal marker specific for neural crest tumours with neuronal/neuroendocrine differentiation. However, its sensitivity is insufficient. Recently Phox2b has emerged as another specific marker for this entity. Phox2b immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on 159 paediatric tumours, including (group 1) 65 neural crest tumours with neuronal differentiation [peripheral neuroblastic tumours (pNT)]: 15 neuroblastoma undifferentiated (NB-UD), 10 NB poorly differentiated (NB-PD), 10 NB differentiating (NB-D), 10 ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed (GNBi), 10 GNB nodular (GNBn) and 10 ganglioneuroma (GN); (group 2) 23 neural crest tumours with neuroendocrine differentiation [pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PG)]; (group 3) 27 other neural crest tumours including one composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma; and (group 4) 44 non-neural crest tumours. TH IHC was performed on groups 1, 2 and 3. Phox2b was expressed diffusely in pNT (n = 65 of 65), strongly in NB-UD and NB-PD and with less intensity in NB-D, GNB and GN. Diffuse TH was seen in all NB-PD, NB-D, GNB and GN, but nine of 15 NB-UD and a nodule in GNBn did not express TH (n = 55 of 65). PCC/PG expressed diffuse Phox2b (n = 23 of 23) and diffuse TH, except for one tumour (n = 22 of 23). In composite rhabdomyosarcoma, TH was expressed only in neuroblastic cells and Phox2b was diffusely positive in neuroblastic cells and focally in rhabdomyosarcoma. All other tumours were negative for Phox2b (n = none of 44). Phox2b was a specific and sensitive marker for pNT and PCC/PG, especially useful for identifying NB-UD often lacking TH. Our study also presented a composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma of neural crest origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Anti-tumour efficacy of etoposide alone and in combination with piroxicam against canine osteosarcoma in a xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, S M; Saeki, K; Kok, M K; Tanaka, Y; Choisunirachon, N; Yoshitake, R; Nishimura, R; Nakagawa, T

    2017-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) in dogs is locally invasive and highly malignant. Distant metastasis is the most common cause of death. To date, the survival rate in dogs with OSA remains poor. The cytotoxic effects of etoposide against canine OSA cell lines, either alone or in combination with piroxicam, have been previously demonstrated in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumour effect of etoposide alone and in combination with piroxicam on canine OSA using murine models. Etoposide single agent treatment significantly delayed tumour progression with a marked reduction in Ki-67 immunoreactivity in tumour tissue. Concomitant treatment with piroxicam did not enhance the anti-tumour efficacy of etoposide. Etoposide single agent treatment and combination treatment with piroxicam down-regulated survivin expression, but was not followed by increased apoptotic activity. These findings indicate that etoposide might be a promising novel therapeutic for canine OSA. Further investigations into its potential for clinical application in veterinary oncology are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiparametric PET imaging in thyroid malignancy characterizing tumour heterogeneity: somatostatin receptors and glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Putzer, Daniel; Bale, Reto [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Dobrozemsky, Georg; Nilica, Bernhard; Kendler, Dorota; Virgolini, Irene Johanna [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    Radiolabelled somatostatin (SST) analogues have proven useful in diagnosing tumours positive for SST receptor (SSTR). As different subtypes of SSTR are expressed on the tumour cell surface, the choice of appropriate therapeutic SST analogue is crucial. We evaluated the SSTR status of thyroid cancer patients who had signs of progressive disease comparing different SSTR ligands for PET imaging to evaluate possible further therapeutic options. PET with {sup 68}Ga-radiolabelled SSTR ligands DOTA lanreotide (DOTA-LAN), DOTA-Tyr{sup 3} octreotide (DOTA-TOC) and {sup 18}F-FDG was performed in 31 patients with thyroid cancer (TC). These 31 patients comprised 18 with radioiodine non-avid differentiated TC (DTC) including 6 papillary TC (PTC), 8 follicular TC (FTC) and 4 oxyphilic TC (oxyTC), 5 with anaplastic TC (ATC), and 8 with medullary TC (MTC). The PET results were compared in a region-based evaluation. All patients underwent a PET study with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-LAN, 28 patients with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC and 28 patients with {sup 18}F-FDG. A lack of SSTR expression was found in 13 of the 31 patients (42 %) with negative results with both SSTR tracers in 12 patients. Ambiguous results with both SSTR tracers were observed in one patient. High tracer uptake in SSTR PET images was seen in seven DTC patients (39 %; two PTC, three FTC, two oxyTC), in four ATC patients (80 %) and in six MTC patients (75 %). Lesions showing aerobic glycolysis on {sup 18}F-FDG PET were found in 24 of 28 patients (86 %) with corresponding positive results with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-LAN in 35 % and with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC in 29 %. The heterogeneous SSTR profile of TC tumour lesions needs to be evaluated using different SSTR PET tracers to characterize more closely the SSTR subtype affinities in patients with progressive TC in order to further stratify therapy with SSTR therapeutics. (orig.)

  18. RECIST response and variation of circulating tumour cells in phase 1 trials: A prospective multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massard, Christophe; Borget, Isabelle; Farace, Françoise; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Bidard, François-Clement; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Dieras, Veronique; Hofman, Paul; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Ferte, Charles; Lacroix, Ludovic; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2017-09-01

    Circulating tumour cell (CTC) counting could be a new biomarker for better evaluation of tumour response to molecules tested in phase I trials. Consenting patients with advanced metastatic cancer referred to various phase I units were enrolled prospectively in this study. CTCs from 7.5 ml of whole blood drawn at baseline and after starting experimental therapy were counted using the CellSearch system, and tumour response was assessed using RECIST 1.1 criteria at baseline and 2 months after treatment initiation. Between March 2010 and May 2013, a total of 326 patients were enrolled, among whom 214 were evaluable (49% male, median age = 56; main cancer types: lung [28], colon [53], ovarian [18], breast [28]). At baseline, we detected ≥1 CTC/7.5 ml in 113/214 patients (53%), and at day 30, we observed ≥1 CTC/7.5 ml in 103/214 patients (48%). Two months after treatment initiation, 11 (5%) of the 214 patients were classified as having a partial response, with no CTCs in 9 of them or a decrease in the CTC count after therapy. In contrast, among the 104 patients (49%) classified as having progressive disease, 38 patients had a higher CTC count. The remaining 99 patients (49%), 33 of whom (33%) had a lower CTC count, were classified as having stable disease. The sensitivity and specificity of CTC variation for predicting progressive disease were 41% (32-51%) and 80% (73-88%) respectively. An early CTC change following therapy does not correlate with RECIST response in patients with advanced cancer enrolled in phase I trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MRI of intraspinal nerve sheath tumours presenting with sciatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loke, T.K.L.; Chan, C.S.; Ma, H.T.G.; Ward, S.C.; Metreweli, C.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 14 intraspinal nerve sheath tumours (NST) presenting with sciatica were reviewed. The group comprised seven schwannomas, six neurofibromas and one perineuroma. The tumours were either iso- or hypointense with respect to spinal cord on T1-weighted (T1W) images; almost all tumours were hyperintense compared with spinal cord on T2-weighted (T2W) images. The tumours were all detectable on unenhanced T1 W images. Nine NST were scanned following Gadolinium-Diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) injection and all showed intense enhancement. This aids differentiation from sequestrated disc fragments. Tumours were more likely to show homogeneous enhancement unless they were recurrent tumours. Rim enhancement occurs more commonly in schwannomas and this can be used to differentiate these from neurofibromas. It is estimated that on unenhanced images, schwannomas cannot be distinguished from neurofibromas. Four tumours occurred at T1 1-T12. There was poor correlation of the site of the lesion with the clinical findings. It is recommended that the MRI studies in patients with sciatica should include the lower thoracic region especially if no protruded disc was found in the lumbar region. 15 refs., 4 figs

  20. MRI of intraspinal nerve sheath tumours presenting with sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loke, T.K.L.; Chan, C.S. [United Christian Hospital (Hong Kong). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ma, H.T.G. [St Teresa`s Hospital, Kowloon (Hong Kong). MRI and CT scanning Dept.; Ward, S.C.; Metreweli, C. [Prince of wales Hospital, New Territories (Hong Kong). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-08-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 14 intraspinal nerve sheath tumours (NST) presenting with sciatica were reviewed. The group comprised seven schwannomas, six neurofibromas and one perineuroma. The tumours were either iso- or hypointense with respect to spinal cord on T1-weighted (T1W) images; almost all tumours were hyperintense compared with spinal cord on T2-weighted (T2W) images. The tumours were all detectable on unenhanced T1 W images. Nine NST were scanned following Gadolinium-Diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) injection and all showed intense enhancement. This aids differentiation from sequestrated disc fragments. Tumours were more likely to show homogeneous enhancement unless they were recurrent tumours. Rim enhancement occurs more commonly in schwannomas and this can be used to differentiate these from neurofibromas. It is estimated that on unenhanced images, schwannomas cannot be distinguished from neurofibromas. Four tumours occurred at T1 1-T12. There was poor correlation of the site of the lesion with the clinical findings. It is recommended that the MRI studies in patients with sciatica should include the lower thoracic region especially if no protruded disc was found in the lumbar region. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of expo...... significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies.......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced...

  2. SPECTRUM OF NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOURS- A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupuleti Prathima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine tumours occur at various sites in the human body. They are considered as one of the close differentials for many tumours. Various benign and malignant tumours undergo neuroendocrine differentiation. Its incidence is slightly increasing due to advanced imaging modalities. Although rare, they can be seen in breast, gallbladder and skin. The aim of the study is to study the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumours from various sites, their clinical presentation, histomorphological features with immunohistochemistry and review of literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study for a period of 3 years (June 2013-June 2016. Surgical resection specimens were included in the study. Out of the total specimens received, 24 cases were of neuroendocrine tumours. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumours also was considered and a panel of immunohistochemical markers were included to rule out them. Biopsy specimens were excluded from the study. RESULTS Out of the 24 cases, 18 cases were benign lesions. 6 cases were malignant lesions. Female preponderance was noted. Peak incidence was seen in 20-30 years of age group. CONCLUSION Neuroendocrine tumours can occur anywhere in the body and it should be considered in one of the differential diagnosis. Diagnosis must be accurately made.

  3. Review article: Pathogenesis and management of gastric carcinoid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, M D; Pritchard, D M

    2006-11-01

    Gastric carcinoid tumours are rare, but are increasing in incidence. To discuss tumour pathogenesis and outline current approaches to patient management. Review of published articles following a Pubmed search. Although interest in gastric carcinoids has increased since it was recognized that they are associated with achlorhydria, to date there is no definite evidence that humans taking long-term acid suppressing medication are at increased risk. Type I tumours are associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II are associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 and hypergastrinaemia and sporadic type III carcinoids are gastrin-independent and carry the worst prognosis. Careful investigation of these patients is required, particularly to identify the tumour type, the source of hypergastrinaemia and the presence of metastases. Treatment can be directed at the source of hypergastrinaemia if type I or II tumours are still gastrin responsive and not growing autonomously. Type III tumours should be treated surgically. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoids have led to recent improvements in investigation and management. Challenges remain in identifying the genetic and environmental factors, in addition to hypergastrinaemia, that are responsible for tumour development in susceptible patients.

  4. Advanced soft computing diagnosis method for tumour grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, E I; Spyridonos, P P; Stylios, C D; Ravazoula, P; Groumpos, P P; Nikiforidis, G N

    2006-01-01

    To develop an advanced diagnostic method for urinary bladder tumour grading. A novel soft computing modelling methodology based on the augmentation of fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) with the unsupervised active Hebbian learning (AHL) algorithm is applied. One hundred and twenty-eight cases of urinary bladder cancer were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Histopathology, University Hospital of Patras, Greece. All tumours had been characterized according to the classical World Health Organization (WHO) grading system. To design the FCM model for tumour grading, three experts histopathologists defined the main histopathological features (concepts) and their impact on grade characterization. The resulted FCM model consisted of nine concepts. Eight concepts represented the main histopathological features for tumour grading. The ninth concept represented the tumour grade. To increase the classification ability of the FCM model, the AHL algorithm was applied to adjust the weights of the FCM. The proposed FCM grading model achieved a classification accuracy of 72.5%, 74.42% and 95.55% for tumours of grades I, II and III, respectively. An advanced computerized method to support tumour grade diagnosis decision was proposed and developed. The novelty of the method is based on employing the soft computing method of FCMs to represent specialized knowledge on histopathology and on augmenting FCMs ability using an unsupervised learning algorithm, the AHL. The proposed method performs with reasonably high accuracy compared to other existing methods and at the same time meets the physicians' requirements for transparency and explicability.

  5. [Gender differences in the use of tumour markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Campoy, E E; Mérida-De la Torre, F J; Martos-Crespo, F; Plebani, M

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the factors that can influence the use of health resources. The use of tumour markers is widespread, due to the importance of these in monitoring cancer development. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of gender on the use of tumour markers, and to investigate whether there are differences in their use. A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study, with a 2-year follow-up, was conducted in the catchment area of the University Hospital of Padua. An analysis was performed on 23,059 analytical requests for tumour markers. A descriptive and frequency analysis was performed on all variables. The statistical analysis was performed using Chi squared, Student t and Mann-Whitney U to test for significance. The number of requests for women (1.5) was lower than men (1.6). In patients with tumour pathology, the number of requests was higher than in patients without tumour disease. In the analysis by disease and gender, the difference remained significant. As regards the number of tumour markers per request, the difference between genders was also significant: 2.13 in males versus 2.85 in women. Similar results were obtained when requests for tumour markers linked to gender-related diseases were eliminated. There are differences in the use of tumour markers by gender with the number of requests for male patients being higher than for females. However, the number of tumour markers per request is greater in women than in men. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Facial Nerve Morbidity Following Surgery for Benign Parotid Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musani, M. A.; Suhail, Z.; Zafar, A.; Malik, S.; Mirza, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and severity of facial nerve dysfunction following surgery for benign parotid gland tumours. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Ziauddin University Hospital, from 1990 to 2010. Methodology: Data was collected of all patients who were surgically managed for benign parotid tumours from 1990 to 2010. Data was reviewed for presentation of tumour, age and gender of the patient, site of tumour, nature and morphology of the tumour, primary or recurrent, surgical procedure adopted and the complications of the surgery especially the facial nerve dysfunction, its severity, complete or partial paresis and transient or permanent and time of recovery. Results were described as frequency percentages. Results: Out of 235 patients, 159 (67.65%) were female and 76 (32.35%) were male. Age ranged from 18 to 70 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (n=194, 82.6%), followed by Warthin's tumour. Superficial parotidectomy was done in 188 cases and extended parotidectomy in 47 cases. In the immediate postoperative period facial nerve function was normal in 169 (72%) patients and nerve dysfunction was observed in 66 (28%) patients. Complete paresis involving all the branches of facial nerve was seen in 25 (10.6%) patients and 41 (17.4%) patients were having incomplete dysfunction. Of these, 62 (26.3%) recovered and 04 (1.7%) had permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was involved in 57 (86.3%) cases. Conclusion: The frequency of temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunction was 26.3% and 1.7% respectively in 235 consecutive parotidectomies for benign parotid gland tumours. Higher frequency of facial nerve dysfunction was found in recurrent and deep lobe tumours. (author)

  7. Single-hit mechanism of tumour cell killing by radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J D

    2003-02-01

    To review the relative importance of the single-hit mechanism of radiation killing for tumour response to 1.8-2.0 Gy day(-1) fractions and to low dose-rate brachytherapy. Tumour cell killing by ionizing radiation is well described by the linear-quadratic equation that contains two independent components distinguished by dose kinetics. Analyses of tumour cell survival curves that contain six or more dose points usually provide good estimates of the alpha- and beta-inactivation coefficients. Superior estimates of tumour cell intrinsic radiosensitivity are obtained when synchronized populations are employed. The characteristics of single-hit inactivation of tumour cells are reviewed and compared with the characteristics of beta-inactivation. Potential molecular targets associated with single-hit inactivation are discussed along with strategies for potentiating cell killing by this mechanism. The single-hit mechanism of tumour cell killing shows no dependence on dose-rate and, consequently, no evidence of sublethal damage repair. It is uniquely potentiated by high linear-energy-transfer radiation, exhibits a smaller oxygen enhancement ratio and exhibits a larger indirect effect by hydroxyl radicals than the beta-mechanism. alpha-inactivation coefficients vary slightly throughout interphase but mitotic cells exhibit extremely high alpha-coefficients in the range of those observed for lymphocytes and some repair-deficient cells. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that chromatin in compacted form could be a radiation-hypersensitive target associated with single-hit radiation killing. Analyses of tumour cell survival curves demonstrate that it is the single-hit mechanism (alpha) that determines the majority of cell killing after doses of 2Gy and that this mechanism is highly variable between tumour cell lines. The characteristics of single-hit inactivation are qualitatively and quantitatively distinct from those of beta-inactivation. Compacted chromatin in tumour cells

  8. Tirapazamine causes vascular dysfunction in HCT-116 tumour xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huxham, Lynsey A.; Kyle, Alastair H.; Baker, Jennifer H.E.; McNicol, Krista L.; Minchinton, Andrew I.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tirapazamine is a hypoxic cytotoxin currently undergoing Phase II/III clinical evaluation in combination with radiation and chemotherapeutics for the treatment of non-hematological cancers. Tissue penetration studies using multicellular models have suggested that tirapazamine exposure may be limited to cells close to blood vessels. However, animal studies show tirapazamine enhances the anti-tumour activity of radiation and chemotherapy and clinical studies with tirapazamine, so far, are promising. To investigate this apparent paradox we examined the microregional effects of tirapazamine in vivo by mapping drug effects with respect to the position of blood vessels in tumour cryosections. Patients and methods: Tirapazamine was administered i.p. to mice bearing HCT-116 tumours, which were excised at various times after treatment. Images of multiple-stained cryosections were overlaid to provide microregional information on the relative position of proliferating cells, hypoxia, perfusion and vasculature. Results: We observed extensive and permanent vascular dysfunction in a large proportion of tumours from mice treated with tirapazamine. In the affected tumours, blood flow ceased in the centrally located tumour vessels, leaving a rim of functional vessels around the periphery of the tumour. This vascular dysfunction commenced within 24 h after tirapazamine administration and the areas affected appeared to be replaced by necrosis over the following 24-48 h. Conclusions: Because the majority of hypoxic cells are located in the center of tumours we propose that the activity of tirapazamine in vivo may be related to its effects on tumour vasculature and that its activity against hypoxic cells located distal to functional blood vessels may not be as important as previously believed

  9. Tumour response and morphological changes of acoustic neurinomas after radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino, V.; Raimondi, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-seven of the 1560 patients treated by radiosurgery during the period 1984-1993 had acoustic neurinomas. Four cases were excluded from this study because they had a follow-up of less than 2 years. There were 24 neurinomas treated in 23 patients as one patient had a bilateral tumour. Seven patients underwent radiosurgery for a recurrent tumour (already operated on once or twice), while it was the first treatment for 16 patients. The tumour volume ranged from 1.99 cm 3 to 18.30 cm 3 , and the patient follow-up was from 2 to 8 years. To determine the target on CT/NMR for linear accelerator stereotactic irradiation, the Greitz-Bergstroem non-invasive head fixation device was used. It was again adopted for subsequent serial imaging, and for repeat radiosurgery when necessary. The total peripheral tumour dose ranged from 12 to 45 Gy. In 9 patients there was a reduction in tumour volume varying from 39 to 100% , while 14 of the neurinomas appeared stable after an average follow-up of 3 years. In one patient there was an increase in size of the tumour. Variable morphological changes were present in 66% of the neurinomas treated. Radiosurgery is indicated as an alternative to microsurgery for inoperab1e patients and for those who refuse surgery, for recurrent tumours, and as a post-operative complementary treatment for partially removed tumours. A gradual approach to radiosurgery, depending on tumour response, allows a greater efficacy with minimal risk. In the present series no complications were observed. Hearing was preserved at almost the same level as that prior to radiosurgery in all patients. (author)

  10. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Hubbard, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a continuum mathematical model of vascular tumour growth which is based on a multiphase framework in which the tissue is decomposed into four distinct phases and the principles of conservation of mass and momentum are applied to the normal/healthy cells, tumour cells, blood vessels and extracellular material. The inclusion of a diffusible nutrient, supplied by the blood vessels, allows the vasculature to have a nonlocal influence on the other phases. Two-dimensional computational simulations are carried out on unstructured, triangular meshes to allow a natural treatment of irregular geometries, and the tumour boundary is captured as a diffuse interface on this mesh, thereby obviating the need to explicitly track the (potentially highly irregular and ill-defined) tumour boundary. A hybrid finite volume/finite element algorithm is used to discretise the continuum model: the application of a conservative, upwind, finite volume scheme to the hyperbolic mass balance equations and a finite element scheme with a stable element pair to the generalised Stokes equations derived from momentum balance, leads to a robust algorithm which does not use any form of artificial stabilisation. The use of a matrix-free Newton iteration with a finite element scheme for the nutrient reaction-diffusion equations allows full nonlinearity in the source terms of the mathematical model.Numerical simulations reveal that this four-phase model reproduces the characteristic pattern of tumour growth in which a necrotic core forms behind an expanding rim of well-vascularised proliferating tumour cells. The simulations consistently predict linear tumour growth rates. The dependence of both the speed with which the tumour grows and the irregularity of the invading tumour front on the model parameters is investigated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Determination of tumour hypoxia with the PET tracer [18F]EF3: improvement of the tumour-to-background ratio in a mouse tumour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, Nicolas; Bol, Anne; Bast, Marc de; Labar, Daniel; Lee, John; Mahy, Pierre; Gregoire, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    The 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-N-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)acetamide (EF3) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative which undergoes bioreductive activation under hypoxic conditions. Using the PET tracer [ 18 F]EF3 in mice, tumour-to-muscle ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.5 were observed. This study investigated the impact of various interventions aimed at increasing [ 18 F]EF3 elimination, thus potentially increasing the tumour-to-noise ratio in mice, by increasing the renal filtration rate (spironolactone, furosemide), decreasing tubular re-absorption (metronidazole, ornidazole, amino acid solution) or stimulating gastro-intestinal elimination (phenobarbital). C3H mice were injected i.v. with an average of 12.95 MBq of [ 18 F]EF3. Drugs were injected i.v. 15 min before the tracer or daily 4 days prior to the experiment (phenobarbital). Anaesthetised mice were imaged from 30 to 300 min with a dedicated animal PET (Mosaic, Philips). Regions of interest were delineated around the tumour, bladder, heart, liver and leg muscle. Radioactivity was expressed as a percentage of injected activity per gram of tissue. Ornidazole decreased the urinary excretion and increased the liver uptake of [ 18 F]EF3, but without causing any changes in the other organs. Phenobarbital significantly increased the liver concentration and decreased radioactivity in blood and muscle without affecting the tracer uptake in tumour. Consequently, a small but non-significant increase in tumour-to-noise ratio was observed. Although some effects were observed with other drugs, they did not modify the tumour-to-noise ratio. Only phenobarbital induced a trend toward an increased tumour-to-noise ratio that could possibly be tested in the clinical situation. (orig.)

  12. Determination of tumour hypoxia with the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3: improvement of the tumour-to-background ratio in a mouse tumour model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Nicolas; Bol, Anne; Bast, Marc de; Labar, Daniel; Lee, John; Mahy, Pierre; Gregoire, Vincent [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Center for Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    The 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-N-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)acetamide (EF3) is a 2-nitroimidazole derivative which undergoes bioreductive activation under hypoxic conditions. Using the PET tracer [{sup 18}F]EF3 in mice, tumour-to-muscle ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.5 were observed. This study investigated the impact of various interventions aimed at increasing [{sup 18}F]EF3 elimination, thus potentially increasing the tumour-to-noise ratio in mice, by increasing the renal filtration rate (spironolactone, furosemide), decreasing tubular re-absorption (metronidazole, ornidazole, amino acid solution) or stimulating gastro-intestinal elimination (phenobarbital). C3H mice were injected i.v. with an average of 12.95 MBq of [{sup 18}F]EF3. Drugs were injected i.v. 15 min before the tracer or daily 4 days prior to the experiment (phenobarbital). Anaesthetised mice were imaged from 30 to 300 min with a dedicated animal PET (Mosaic, Philips). Regions of interest were delineated around the tumour, bladder, heart, liver and leg muscle. Radioactivity was expressed as a percentage of injected activity per gram of tissue. Ornidazole decreased the urinary excretion and increased the liver uptake of [{sup 18}F]EF3, but without causing any changes in the other organs. Phenobarbital significantly increased the liver concentration and decreased radioactivity in blood and muscle without affecting the tracer uptake in tumour. Consequently, a small but non-significant increase in tumour-to-noise ratio was observed. Although some effects were observed with other drugs, they did not modify the tumour-to-noise ratio. Only phenobarbital induced a trend toward an increased tumour-to-noise ratio that could possibly be tested in the clinical situation. (orig.)

  13. Place of surgery in high-risk tumours of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulie, M.; Rozet, F.; Hennequin, C.; Salomon, L.

    2010-01-01

    Among the different options recommended for high-risk prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy is admitted as radiotherapy, but its role is still controversial in mono-therapy and difficult to evaluate in combined treatments. The results of clinical trials combining an external radiotherapy to a long-term androgen deprivation in locally advanced tumours sustain the principle of a multidisciplinary management in high-risk prostate cancer. The impact of surgery on the risk of progression and local recurrence is important in selected patients with low grade and small tumoral volume. Clinical and histological data associated to the MRI assessment remain essential and enhance the preoperative multidisciplinary decision, especially regarding nodal and distant metastases. Radical prostatectomy with an extended pelvic lymphadenectomy can be considered as a viable alternative to radiotherapy and hormonal therapy in these patients with a long life expectancy but presenting a high risk of local progression and a low risk of metastatic disease. Morbidity of the procedure is similar to radical prostatectomy for organ-confined tumours despite more erectile dysfunction due to non-sparing radical prostatectomy in most of cases. Oncological results from recent compiled series show 10- and 15-year specific survival rates around 85 and 75%, respectively, including adjuvant or salvage treatments with radiotherapy, androgen deprivation or chemotherapy. (authors)

  14. Tumour-associated osteomalacia and hypoglycaemia in a patient with prostate cancer: is Klotho involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifyan, Sofiya Bedo; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Klastersky, Jean

    2014-11-17

    Tumour-associated osteomalacia is a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by renal phosphate wasting, leading to severe hypophosphataemia. Excess of circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is the likely cause, acting via the FGF23/α-Klotho coreceptor, a critical regulator of phosphate metabolism. The other possible effects of that complex in humans are still under investigation. We present a case of an 84-year-old Belgian man, presenting prostate cancer with bone metastases. From June 2010 to March 2013, he presented three episodes of disease progression. From January 2012, the patient developed a progressively marked dorsal kyphosis with significant hypophosphataemia. The calculated TRP (tubular reabsorption of phosphate) was decreased and the FGF23 increased. Mid-March 2013, the patient died after a profound unconsciousness due to hypoglycaemia with hypothermia. We hypothesised that the two paraneoplastic manifestations of this patient (tumour-associated osteomalacia and refractory hypoglycaemia) were due to one cause chain with two main nodes-FGF23 and its coreceptor Klotho.. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. [Occurrence of associated tumours in chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerafin, László; Jakó, János; Varju, Lóránt

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is one of the most common hematologic malignancy. The aim of the authors was to investigate the characteristics of malignancies associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients diagnozed between 2000 and 2015. Data of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who had other associated tumours were analysed using the Leukemia/Lymphoma Registry of the Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Hungary and patient records. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2015, 526 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were diagnosed. 95 patients of the 526 patients (18.06%) were diagnosed as having associated other tumours. In 48/95 patients (50.5%) the first diagnosed tumour was chronic lymphocytic leukemia, in 23/95 patients (24.2%) the first recognized malignancy was the associated tumour, whereas in 24/95 patients (25.3%) synchron tumours were diagnosed. The number of patients with more than one associated tumour was 10/95 (10.5%). The total number of tumours was 107. The incidence of chronic lymphoid leukemia increased in the period between 2000 and 2015 as compared to the period between 1983 and 1999 (3.19 vs 5.65/100 000 person/year). The occurrence of associated malignancies increased as well (8.06% vs 18.06%). In addition to the most common tumours (colorectal, breast, lung, prostate), skin squamous cell carcinoma (17/95 patients; 17.9%) and melanoma (6/95 patients; 6.3%) also frequently occurred. The second malignancies were most frequently discovered after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and synchron tumours accounting for 78.5% (84/107) of all associated tumours. The incidence of second malignancies decreased 10 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The possible reasons for the high frequency of other tumours associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia are elderly age of patients, immunsuppressed state and, presumably, chemotherapy of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. During the follow up

  16. Oral Squamomelanocytic Tumour in a Dog: a Unique Biphasic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, L V; Avallone, G; Benazzi, C; Sarli, G; Porcellato, I; Brachelente, C; Brunetti, B

    2016-01-01

    In human medicine, squamomelanocytic tumour is a malignant cutaneous neoplasm composed of closely intermingled neoplastic squamous cells and melanocytes. A multinodular gingival tumour in a 16-year-old, mixed breed neutered female dog was examined microscopically. Two populations of neoplastic cells, melanocytic and squamous epithelial cells were intermingled. The melanocytic cells were melan-A positive and cytokeratin AE1-AE3 negative and the squamous component was cytokeratin AE1-AE3 positive and melan-A negative. Bovine papillomavirus was not identified by immunohistochemistry or polymerase chain reaction. A diagnosis of squamomelanocytic tumour was made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary brain tumours, meningiomas and brain metastases in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheecke, Magali; Halaska, Michael J; Lok, Christianne A

    2014-01-01

    to obtain better insight into outcome and possibilities of treatment in pregnancy. METHODS: We collected all intracranial tumours (primary brain tumour, cerebral metastasis, or meningioma) diagnosed during pregnancy, registered prospectively and retrospectively by international collaboration since 1973......, respectively. Eight patients (30%) underwent brain surgery, seven patients (26%) had radiotherapy and in three patients (11%) chemotherapy was administered during gestation. Two patients died during pregnancy and four pregnancies were terminated. In 16 (59%) patients elective caesarean section was performed...... were reassuring. CONCLUSION: Adherence to standard protocol for the treatment of brain tumours during pregnancy appears to allow a term delivery and a higher probability of a vaginal delivery....

  18. Results of irradiating brain tumours (1959-1969)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu Eulenburg, G

    1973-01-01

    The results of the radiation treatment of brain tumours were evaluated for 78 patients. The calculated average survival times, as well as the shape of survival curves show, as compared to numerous other authors, that there is no great deviation for any tumour group. The interpretation of the ratio of an amnesis to survival time shows that with fast growing brain tumours as with glioblastoma, the success of radiotherapy is very small. Radiotherapy was well successful in almost all cases of patients with a longer than average anamnesis.

  19. Synchronous Epithelioid Stromal Tumour and Lipoma in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Al-Brahim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old man presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A polypoid lesion of the distal stomach with focal ulceration was seen at endoscopy. This was treated by a partial gastrectomy. The resected stomach contained two separate tumours near the pylorus: a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST and an adjacent lipoma. The literature includes case reports of synchronously occurring GIST and adenocarcinoma, GIST and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and GIST and carcinoid tumour. Herein is the first case report of two distinct mesenchymal tumors coexisting in the stomach.

  20. The role of computed tomography in tumours of the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, C.A.; Chapman, P.; Counter, R.T.; Grundy, A.

    1980-01-01

    A clinical study of computed tomography (CT) was undertaken in 35 patients with tumours involving the larynx. Twenty-seven had primary laryngeal neoplasms, five had tumours arising in adjacent structures but invading the larynx and three who had undergone total laryngectomy were investigated for possible recurrence. The findings were compared with conventional radiological methods and clinical assessment. Confirmation was obtained from laryngectomy specimens in four patients and at autopsy in one. CT provided additional pre-operative information on 14 occasions. This included better delineation of submucosal tumour extent, invasion of the pre-epiglottic space and cartilage displacement or invasion. (author)