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Sample records for tumor thrombus formation

  1. Tumor thrombus formation in two dogs with insulinomas.

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    Hambrook, Lydia E; Kudnig, Simon T

    2012-10-15

    A 9-year-old sexually intact male Staffordshire Bull Terrier and a 9-year-old neutered male Boxer were evaluated for intermittent neurologic signs including muscle tremors, ataxia, episodic collapse, disorientation, and seizures. Both dogs had low blood glucose and high serum insulin concentrations. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were unremarkable for both dogs. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass that extended from the body of the pancreas into the pancreaticoduodenal vein in each dog. Marginal resection of pancreatic masses was performed, and tumor thrombi were removed via venotomy in both dogs. Histologic evaluation indicated the masses were pancreatic islet cell tumors with tumor thrombi. Clinical signs resolved following surgical resection of tumors and tumor thrombi, and the dogs were euglycemic during the follow-up period (17 and 45 months after surgery). Although gross tumor thrombus formation has been identified in humans with insulinomas, tumor thrombi have not been previously reported for dogs with insulinomas. Surgical removal of tumor thrombi via venotomy seemed to be well tolerated by the dogs. Tumor thrombus formation did not seem to adversely affect prognosis for the 2 dogs of this report.

  2. Metastatic Adenocarcinoma Presenting as Extensive Cavoatrial Tumor Thrombus

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    Johari, Bushra; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Krishnasamy, Sivakumar; Looi, Lai Meng; Hashim, Shahrul Amry; Raja Mokhtar, Raja Amin

    2015-01-01

    The presence of tumor thrombus in the right atrium is frequently the result of direct intraluminal extension of infra-diaphragmatic malignancy into the inferior vena cava (IVC) or supradiaphragmatic carcinoma into the superior vena cava (SVC). Right atrial tumor thrombus with extension into both SVC and IVC has not been reported in the literature. We present a patient who presented with symptoms of right atrial and SVC obstruction. Imaging revealed presence of a thrombus in the right atrium, extending to the SVC and IVC, with the additional findings of a left adrenal mass and multiple liver lesions. The histopathological examination of the right atrial mass revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma cells. The patient was given a presumptive diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma, most likely adrenal in origin, with multiple hepatic lesions suspicious for metastasis. The clinical outcome of the patient was not favorable; the patient succumbed before the adrenal mass could be confirmed to be the primary tumor. This case highlights that in patients manifesting with extensive cavoatrial thrombus as, the existence of primary carcinoma should be considered especially in the adrenal cortex or in the lung

  3. Thrombus Formation at High Shear Rates.

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    Casa, Lauren D C; Ku, David N

    2017-06-21

    The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth. The prediction of high-shear thrombosis is a major area of biofluid mechanics in which point-of-care testing and computational modeling are promising future directions for clinically relevant research. Further research in this area will enable identification of patients at high risk for arterial thrombosis, improve prevention and treatment based on shear-dependent biological mechanisms, and improve blood-contacting device design to reduce thrombosis risk.

  4. Computed tomographic and ultrasonographic diagnosis of portal vein tumor thrombus in hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Mori, H; Futagawa, S; Hayashi, K; Amagasaki, Y; Ochi, M [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-04-01

    Nine cases of hepatocellular carcinoma which have invaded the intra- and extrahepatic portal vein were evaluated by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US). The outstanding CT and sonographic features of the portal vein tumor thrombus were described. In CT, contrast opacification of normal portal vein and its major tributaries were not observed, and they were replaced by a soft tissue density mass representing the tumor thrombus. The thrombus measured 35 - 45 Hounsfield units (HU) in precontrast scans and 60 - 80 HU in postcontrast scans. The portal vein tumor thrombus showed a branched pattern of low density in porta hepatis and intrahepatic region due to differences in attenuation coefficients of the thrombus and adjacent noncancerous hepatic parenchyma on postcontrast scans. In ultrasound study, tumor thrombus was recognized as an echogenic solid mass in the porta hepatis obliterating the normal portal venous structures, or as an intraluminal solid mass in the dilated portal vein and its branches. Numerous collateral venous channels surrounding the thrombosed portal vein were also demonstrated on both CT and US. Particular emphasis was placed on the clinical implications of these non-invasive detection of the portal vein tumor thrombosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Radiodiagnostic methods in determining the structure of tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava in kidney cancer

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    N. B. Vikhrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common primary tumor of the renal parenchyma. Venous involvement is one of the most important anatomic characteristics of tumor. It is known that venous spread influences the survival of patients with RCC. Tumor thrombosis of IVC in patients with renal cell carcinoma has been reported in 4–10 %. The reference standard for RCC with tumor thrombus remains surgical resection. The structure of thrombus determines some technical difficulties in the management of tumor. Spongeous thrombus correlate with higher risk of thrombus detachment during surgery resulting in PE. Therefore determination of IVC thrombus consistency is very important part of preoperative radiologic assessment of tumor in patients with RCC.

  6. Novel Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus: Safety and Feasibility

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    Mizandari, Malkhaz [High Technology Medical Center, Tbilisi State Medical University (Georgia); Ao, Guokun [The 309 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Department on Oncology (China); Zhang Yaojun; Feng Xi [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer (United Kingdom); Shen Qiang [The First Minimally Invasive Department of Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital (China); Chen Minshan [Cancer Centre of Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery (China); Lau, Wan Yee [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (Hong Kong); Nicholls, Joanna; Jiao Long; Habib, Nagy, E-mail: nagy.habib@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    We report our experience of the safety of partial recanalization of the portal vein using a novel endovascular radiofrequency (RF) catheter for portal vein tumor thrombosis. Six patients with liver cancer and tumor thrombus in the portal vein underwent percutaneous intravascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using an endovascular bipolar RF device. A 0.035-inch guidewire was introduced into a tributary of the portal vein and through which a 5G guide catheter was introduced into the main portal vein. After manipulation of the guide catheter over the thrombus under digital subtraction angiography, the endovascular RF device was inserted and activated around the thrombus. There were no observed technique specific complications, such as hemorrhage, vessel perforation, or infection. Post-RFA portography showed partial recanalization of portal vein. RFA of portal vein tumor thrombus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma is technically feasible and warrants further investigation to assess efficacy compared with current recanalization techniques.

  7. CT diagnosis of tumor thrombus of the renal vein and inferior vena cava

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    Masuda, Fujio; Chen, Zuicho; Oishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei

    1980-01-01

    We used computed tomography (CT) for diagnosis in 4 cases of renal tumor associated with tumor thrombus of the renal vein and inferior vana cava. The results obtained are described below: A total of 4 cases consisting of 3 cases of renal cell carcinoma and one case of squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis, treated at the Jikei University Hospital during the six months period from January to June of 1979, were studied. The affected side was right in 3 cases and left in one case. In all of the former cases the tumor thrombus was extending from the renal vein to the inferior vena cava, while in the latter case it was confined in the renal vein. All these 4 cases received CT together with renal arteriography and inferior venacavography, followed by nephrectomy, and were confirmed of the presence of tumor thrombus in the renal vein and inferior vena cava operatively. CT findings revealed a pronounced enlargement of the renal vein, and tumor thrombus of the renal vein was diagnosed in all of the 4 cases. In 2 of 3 cases in which tumor thrombus extended to the inferior vena cava, the dilated renal vein was found to be connected to the slightly dilated inferior vena cava, while in the remaining one case the outline of the inferior vena cava was obscure, showing no clear dilatation. After contrast enhancement, a filling defect was seen in the inferior vena cava. CT findings of tumor thrombus in the vein indicated a dilatation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava. In addition, a filling defect was found after contrast enhancement, suggesting that CT is helpful as a diagnostic aid. (author)

  8. PKCalpha regulates platelet granule secretion and thrombus formation in mice.

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    Konopatskaya, Olga; Gilio, Karen; Harper, Matthew T; Zhao, Yan; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Karim, Zubair A; Whiteheart, Sidney W; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Verkade, Paul; Watson, Steve P; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Poole, Alastair W

    2009-02-01

    Platelets are central players in atherothrombosis development in coronary artery disease. The PKC family provides important intracellular mechanisms for regulating platelet activity, and platelets express several members of this family, including the classical isoforms PKCalpha and PKCbeta and novel isoforms PKCdelta and PKCtheta. Here, we used a genetic approach to definitively demonstrate the role played by PKCalpha in regulating thrombus formation and platelet function. Thrombus formation in vivo was attenuated in Prkca-/- mice, and PKCalpha was required for thrombus formation in vitro, although this PKC isoform did not regulate platelet adhesion to collagen. The ablation of in vitro thrombus formation in Prkca-/- platelets was rescued by the addition of ADP, consistent with the key mechanistic finding that dense-granule biogenesis and secretion depend upon PKCalpha expression. Furthermore, defective platelet aggregation in response to either collagen-related peptide or thrombin could be overcome by an increase in agonist concentration. Evidence of overt bleeding, including gastrointestinal and tail bleeding, was not seen in Prkca-/- mice. In summary, the effects of PKCalpha ablation on thrombus formation and granule secretion may implicate PKCalpha as a drug target for antithrombotic therapy.

  9. Resectable hepatoblastoma with tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium after chemotherapy: A case report

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    Kosuke Endo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoblastoma with intraatrial tumor thrombus is relatively rare. We report a case of hepatoblastoma with tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium, which responded well to chemotherapy and was resected using extracorporeal circulation. A 4-year-old girl was referred to our hospital because of abdominal distention and tenderness. A computed tomography (CT scan showed a large tumor occupying the left 3 segments of the liver with tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium. There was also a small intrahepatic metastasis in the right lobe of the liver. She was diagnosed with hepatoblastoma on the basis of the results of open biopsy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with an intense CDDP-based regimen was performed. The tumor responded well to chemotherapy, and intrahepatic metastasis became undetectable on CT scan, although the tumor thrombus remained in the right atrium. After 7 courses of chemotherapy, we performed resection using extracorporeal circulation. The postoperative course was uneventful, and adjuvant chemotherapy was started 10 days after the operation. Her serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level decreased to the normal range, and she was free of disease for 1 year after the operation. Tumor resection using extracorporeal circulation can be performed safely and is justified in patients with intraatrial tumor thrombus.

  10. Platelet size and density affect shear-induced thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles

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    Chesnutt, Jennifer K. W.; Han, Hai-Chao

    2013-10-01

    Thrombosis accounts for 80% of deaths in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients demonstrate tortuous microvessels and larger than normal platelets. Large platelets are associated with increased platelet activation and thrombosis, but the physical effects of large platelets in the microscale processes of thrombus formation are not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the physical effects of mean platelet volume (MPV), mean platelet density (MPD) and vessel tortuosity on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. A computational model of the transport, shear-induced activation, collision, adhesion and aggregation of individual platelets was used to simulate platelet interactions and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. Our results showed that an increase in MPV resulted in a larger number of activated platelets, though MPD and level of tortuosity made little difference on platelet activation. Platelets with normal MPD yielded the lowest amount of mural thrombus. With platelets of normal MPD, the amount of mural thrombus decreased with increasing level of tortuosity but did not have a simple monotonic relationship with MPV. The physical mechanisms associated with MPV, MPD and arteriole tortuosity play important roles in platelet activation and thrombus formation.

  11. Computational Study of Thrombus Formation and Clotting Factor Effects under Venous Flow Conditions

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    2016-04-26

    domain used in our thrombus formation simulations. Fig. 2 B shows the 3D geometry of the flow-chamber section consisting of two channels measuring 250 60...ArticleComputational Study of Thrombus Formation and Clotting Factor Effects under Venous Flow ConditionsVijay Govindarajan,1 Vineet Rakesh,1 Jaques...understanding of thrombus formation as a physicochemical process that has evolved to protect the integrity of the human vasculature is critical to our ability to

  12. Hepatic vein tumor thrombus as a risk factor for excessive pulmonary deposition of microspheres during TheraSphere therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Fleming, Chad J; Andrews, James C; Wiseman, Gregory A; Gansen, Denise N; Roberts, Lewis R

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of identifiable hepatic vein tumor thrombus on the ability to safely deliver TheraSphere (yttrium 90-containing glass microspheres) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A retrospective review was performed of 87 patients (71 men, 16 women; mean age, 64.5 years; age range, 25-83 y) referred for TheraSphere therapy for HCC during a 2-year period between April 2005 and May 2007. Evaluation included contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, selective mesenteric angiography, and radionuclide perfusion scintigraphy to measure the arteriovenous shunting through the tumor. Of the 87 patients, 83 underwent angiography and perfusion scintigraphy; 53 were ultimately treated with 65 glass microsphere infusions. Twelve of 83 were identified as having tumor thrombus in a hepatic vein or extending into the inferior vena cava. The mean lung shunt for the patients with hepatic vein tumor thrombus was 30% (range, 11%-60%), compared with 8.2% (range, 3%-23%) for patients without identifiable tumor thrombus. Two of the 12 patients were treated with reduced doses of glass microspheres, and the remaining 10 were offered alternative therapies. The presence of hepatic vein tumor thrombus is a risk factor for an increased lung shunt that may prohibit delivery of a therapeutic dose of TheraSphere to hepatic tumor.

  13. Deep vein thrombus formation induced by flow reduction in mice is determined by venous side branches.

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    Brandt, Moritz; Schönfelder, Tanja; Schwenk, Melanie; Becker, Christian; Jäckel, Sven; Reinhardt, Christoph; Stark, Konstantin; Massberg, Steffen; Münzel, Thomas; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Wenzel, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between vascular wall abnormalities, inflammatory leukocytes, platelets, coagulation factors and hemorheology in the pathogenesis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is incompletely understood, requiring well defined animal models of human disease. We subjected male C57BL/6 mice to ligation of the inferior vena cava (IVC) as a flow reduction model to induce DVT. Thrombus size and weight were analyzed macroscopically and sonographically by B-mode, pulse wave (pw) Doppler and power Doppler imaging (PDI) using high frequency ultrasound. Thrombus size varied substantially between individual procedures and mice, irrespective of the flow reduction achieved by the ligature. Interestingly, PDI accurately predicted thrombus size in a very robust fashion (r2 = 0.9734, p thrombus weight (r2 = 0.5597, p thrombus formation. Occlusion of side branches prior to ligation of IVC did not increase thrombus size, probably due to patent side branches inaccessible to surgery. Venous side branches influence thrombus size in experimental DVT and might therefore prevent thrombus formation. This renders vessel anatomy and hemorheology important determinants in mouse models of DVT, which should be controlled for.

  14. Giant tumor thrombus in the right atrium clearly detected by /sup 111/In-oxine labeled platelet scintigraphy

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    Takeda, T; Ishikawa, N; Satoh, A; Masuda, Y; Hiramatsu, Y; Akisada, M; Sakakibara, Y

    1985-07-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a 3-month history of progressive dyspnea with coughing. A giant right atrial mass, originating from a hepatocellular carcinoma, was visualized by computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography. The volume if the right atrial mass was increasing rapidly. It was therefore essential to determine whether this giant mass was a tumor thrombus or a multiplication of the hepatocellular carcinoma. /sup 111/In-oxine labeled platelet scintigraphy revealed active accumulation in the right atrium caused by the presence of active platelet deposition, and slight accumulation in the lung fields probably due to embolic showers originating from the tumor thrombus in the right atrium. This is the first case report showing that /sup 111/In-oxine labeled platelet scintigraphy can aid in confirming the nature of a giant tumor thrombus in the right atrium and can clarify the pathogenesis of the respiratory symptoms.

  15. Organizing Thrombus Mimicking a Cardiac Tumor Located at the Mitral-Aortic Intervalvular Fibrosa

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    Ji Seong Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis at the left ventricular outflow tract occurs without any detectable heart disease or predisposing factors only extremely rarely. A 48-year-old male visited Konkuk University Medical Center with loss of consciousness one month prior to presentation. Before he visited our hospital, he had been diagnosed with a cardiac tumor, which was located between the left atrium and posterior aortic root, and which was adjacent to both the aortic and mitral valves. Cardiac transplantation was recommended at the other hospital because of the high risk of cardiac dysfunction induced by both aortic and mitral valvular dysfunction after surgical resection. Based on preoperative transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography, we considered it to be a benign tumor. Complete resection was achieved and the pathology confirmed organizing thrombus. We report a case of organizing thrombus mimicking a cardiac tumor, which was located at the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa of the left ventricular outflow tract without any heart disease.

  16. Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light.

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    Sakota, Daisuke; Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu

    2014-09-01

    Blood coagulation is one of the primary concerns when using mechanical circulatory support devices such as blood pumps. Noninvasive detection and imaging of thrombus formation is useful not only for the development of more hemocompatible devices but also for the management of blood coagulation to avoid risk of infarction. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of near-infrared light for imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump. The optical properties of a thrombus at wavelengths ranging from 600 to 750 nm were analyzed using a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system. A specially designed hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump with a visible bottom area was used. In vitro antithrombogenic testing was conducted five times with the pump using bovine whole blood in which the activated blood clotting time was adjusted to 200 s prior to the experiment. Two halogen lights were used for the light sources. The forward scattering through the pump and backward scattering on the pump bottom area were imaged using the HSI system. HSI showed an increase in forward scattering at wavelengths ranging from 670 to 750 nm in the location of thrombus formation. The time at which the thrombus began to form in the impeller rotating at 2780 rpm could be detected. The spectral difference between the whole blood and the thrombus was utilized to image thrombus formation. The results indicate the feasibility of dynamically detecting and imaging thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of red blood cells on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles

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    Jennifer K. W. Chesnutt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, which can lead to myocardial infarction and stroke. Thrombosis may form in tortuous microvessels, which are often seen throughout the human body, but the microscale mechanisms and processes are not well understood. In straight vessels, the presence of red blood cells (RBCs is known to push platelets toward walls, which may affect platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. However in tortuous vessels, the effects of RBC interactions with platelets in thrombosis are largely unknown. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to determine the physical effects of RBCs, platelet size, and vessel tortuosity on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. A discrete element computational model was used to simulate the transport, collision, adhesion, aggregation, and shear-induced platelet activation of hundreds of individual platelets and RBCs in thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. Results showed that high shear stress near the inner sides of curved arteriole walls activated platelets to initiate thrombosis. RBCs initially promoted platelet activation, but then collisions of RBCs with mural thrombi reduced the amount of mural thrombus and the size of emboli. In the absence of RBCs, mural thrombus mass was smaller in a highly tortuous arteriole compared to a less tortuous arteriole. In the presence of RBCs however, mural thrombus mass was larger in the highly tortuous arteriole compared to the less tortuous arteriole. As well, smaller platelet size yielded less mural thrombus mass and smaller emboli, either with or without RBCs. This study shed light on microscopic interactions of RBCs and platelets in tortuous microvessels, which have implications in various pathologies associated with thrombosis and bleeding.

  18. Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus of Liver Metastasis from Lung Cancer

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    Ryoko Ogawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of liver metastasis of lung carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT. Although the primary lesion of lung tumor remained unchanged, the patient rapidly developed wide-spread metastases and formed PVTT of liver metastasis. The primary lesion showed features of mixed Clara and bronchial surface epithelial cell component type adenocarcinoma with small foci of micropapillary pattern. Micropapillary pattern was observed in the metastatic lesions in the liver and PVTT. Micropapillary pattern lung adenocarcinoma may develop rapid metastases and cause PVTT associated with liver metastasis. We should perform a detailed examination to establish correct diagnosis.

  19. Tumor thrombus of inferior vena cava in patients with renal cell carcinoma – clinical and oncological outcome of 50 patients after surgery

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    Kocot Arkadius

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate oncological and clinical outcome in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC and tumor thrombus involving inferior vena cava (IVC treated with nephrectomy and thrombectomy. Methods We identified 50 patients with a median age of 65 years, who underwent radical surgical treatment for RCC and tumor thrombus of the IVC between 1997 and 2010. The charts were reviewed for pathological and surgical parameters, as well as complications and oncological outcome. Results The median follow-up was 26 months. In 21 patients (42% distant metastases were already present at the time of surgery. All patients underwent radical nephrectomy, thrombectomy and lymph node dissection through a flank (15 patients/30%, thoracoabdominal (14 patients/28% or midline abdominal approach (21 patients/42%, depending upon surgeon preference and upon the characteristics of tumor and associated thrombus. Extracorporal circulation with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB was performed in 10 patients (20% with supradiaphragmal thrombus of IVC. Cancer-specific survival for the whole cohort at 5 years was 33.1%. Survival for the patients without distant metastasis at 5 years was 50.7%, whereas survival rate in the metastatic group at 5 years was 7.4%. Median survival of patients with metastatic disease was 16.4 months. On multivariate analysis lymph node invasion, distant metastasis and grading were independent prognostic factors. There was no statistically significant influence of level of the tumor thrombus on survival rate. Indeed, patients with supradiaphragmal tumor thrombus (n = 10 even had a better outcome (overall survival at 5 years of 58.33% than the entire cohort. Conclusions An aggressive surgical approach is the most effective therapeutic option in patients with RCC and any level of tumor thrombus and offers a reasonable longterm survival. Due to good clinical and oncological outcome we prefer the use of CPB with extracorporal

  20. Elevated plasma factor VIII enhances venous thrombus formation in rabbits: contribution of factor XI, von Willebrand factor and tissue factor.

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    Sugita, Chihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Matsuura, Yunosuke; Iwakiri, Takashi; Okuyama, Nozomi; Matsuda, Shuntaro; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Inoue, Osamu; Harada, Aya; Kitazawa, Takehisa; Hattori, Kunihiro; Shima, Midori; Asada, Yujiro

    2013-07-01

    Elevated plasma levels of factor VIII (FVIII) are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis. The aim of this study is to elucidate how elevated FVIII levels affect venous thrombus formation and propagation in vivo. We examined rabbit plasma FVIII activity, plasma thrombin generation, whole blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and venous wall thrombogenicity before and one hour after an intravenous infusion of recombinant human FVIII (rFVIII). Venous thrombus induced by the endothelial denudation of rabbit jugular veins was histologically assessed. Thrombus propagation was evaluated as indocyanine green fluorescence intensity. Argatroban, a thrombin inhibitor, and neutralised antibodies for tissue factor (TF), factor XI (FXI), and von Willebrand factor (VWF) were infused before or after thrombus induction to investigate their effects on venous thrombus formation or propagation. Recombinant FVIII (100 IU/kg) increased rabbit plasma FVIII activity two-fold and significantly enhanced whole blood coagulation and total plasma thrombin generation, but did not affect initial thrombin generation time, platelet aggregation and venous wall thrombogenicity. The rFVIII infusion also increased the size of venous thrombus 1 hour after thrombus induction. Argatroban and the antibodies for TF, FXI or VWF inhibited such enhanced thrombus formation and all except TF suppressed thrombus propagation. In conclusion, elevated plasma FVIII levels enhance venous thrombus formation and propagation. Excess thrombin generation by FXI and VWF-mediated FVIII recruitment appear to contribute to the growth of FVIII-driven venous thrombus.

  1. Left ventricular thrombus formation after acute myocardial infarction as assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delewi, Ronak; Nijveldt, Robin; Hirsch, Alexander; Marcu, Constantin B.; Robbers, Lourens; Hassell, Marriela E.C.J.; Bruin, Rianne H.A. de; Vleugels, Jim; Laan, Anja M. van der; Bouma, Berto J.; Tio, René A.; Tijssen, Jan G.P.; Rossum, Albert C. van; Zijlstra, Felix; Piek, Jan J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation is a feared complication of myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed the prevalence of LV thrombus in ST-segment elevated MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and compared the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Also, we evaluated the course of LV thrombi in the modern era of primary PCI. Methods: 200 patients with primary PCI underwent TTE and CMR, at baseline and at 4 months follow-up. Studies were analyzed by two blinded examiners. Patients were seen at 1, 4, 12, and 24 months for assessment of clinical status and adverse events. Results: On CMR at baseline, a thrombus was found in 17 of 194 (8.8%) patients. LV thrombus resolution occurred in 15 patients. Two patients had persistence of LV thrombus on follow-up CMR. On CMR at four months, a thrombus was found in an additional 12 patients. In multivariate analysis, thrombus formation on baseline CMR was independently associated with, baseline infarct size (g) (B = 0.02, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001). Routine TTE had a sensitivity of 21–24% and a specificity of 95–98% compared to CMR for the detection of LV thrombi. Intra- and interobserver variation for detection of LV thrombus were lower for CMR (κ = 0.91 and κ = 0.96) compared to TTE (κ = 0.74 and κ = 0.53). Conclusion: LV thrombus still occurs in a substantial amount of patients after PCI-treated MI, especially in larger infarct sizes. Routine TTE had a low sensitivity for the detection of LV thrombi and the interobserver variation of TTE was large.

  2. Left ventricular thrombus formation after acute myocardial infarction as assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

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    Delewi, Ronak [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Nijveldt, Robin [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hirsch, Alexander [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Marcu, Constantin B.; Robbers, Lourens [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hassell, Marriela E.C.J.; Bruin, Rianne H.A. de; Vleugels, Jim; Laan, Anja M. van der; Bouma, Berto J. [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tio, René A. [Thorax Center, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tijssen, Jan G.P. [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossum, Albert C. van [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zijlstra, Felix [Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Piek, Jan J., E-mail: j.j.piek@amc.uva.nl [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Introduction: Left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation is a feared complication of myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed the prevalence of LV thrombus in ST-segment elevated MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and compared the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Also, we evaluated the course of LV thrombi in the modern era of primary PCI. Methods: 200 patients with primary PCI underwent TTE and CMR, at baseline and at 4 months follow-up. Studies were analyzed by two blinded examiners. Patients were seen at 1, 4, 12, and 24 months for assessment of clinical status and adverse events. Results: On CMR at baseline, a thrombus was found in 17 of 194 (8.8%) patients. LV thrombus resolution occurred in 15 patients. Two patients had persistence of LV thrombus on follow-up CMR. On CMR at four months, a thrombus was found in an additional 12 patients. In multivariate analysis, thrombus formation on baseline CMR was independently associated with, baseline infarct size (g) (B = 0.02, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001). Routine TTE had a sensitivity of 21–24% and a specificity of 95–98% compared to CMR for the detection of LV thrombi. Intra- and interobserver variation for detection of LV thrombus were lower for CMR (κ = 0.91 and κ = 0.96) compared to TTE (κ = 0.74 and κ = 0.53). Conclusion: LV thrombus still occurs in a substantial amount of patients after PCI-treated MI, especially in larger infarct sizes. Routine TTE had a low sensitivity for the detection of LV thrombi and the interobserver variation of TTE was large.

  3. Role of presurgical targeted molecular therapy in renal cell carcinoma with an inferior vena cava tumor thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cheng Peng,1,* Liangyou Gu,1,* Lei Wang,2 Qingbo Huang,1 Baojun Wang,1 Gang Guo,1 Yang Fan,1 Yu Gao,1 Xin Ma,1 Xu Zhang1 1Department of Urology, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Chinese PLA Medical Academy, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Urology, Chinese PLA 534 Hospital, Luoyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The clinical benefit of targeted molecular therapy (TMT in renal cell carcinoma (RCC with an inferior vena cava (IVC tumor thrombus remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of presurgical TMT on the heights and levels of IVC thrombi, and to assess its impact on surgical strategy. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from 18 patients with RCC involving IVC tumor thrombi who were treated at our hospital with presurgical TMT followed by an IVC thrombectomy. The changes in heights and levels of the IVC thrombi were compared using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Clinicopathological factors were also evaluated to assess their association with TMT efficacy. Results: The tumor thrombus levels before TMT were stage I in 1 patient (5.6%, II in 12 patients (66.7%, III in 4 patients (22.2%, and IV in 1 patient (5.6%. After a median of two treatment cycles (range: 1–3, the thrombus height decreased measurably in 11 patients (61.1% with an average shrinkage of 17.7%. The thrombus height remained stable in five patients (27.8% and was enlarged in two (11.1%. Downstaging of the thrombus level occurred in four patients (22.2%; the surgical strategy was modified in three patients (16.7% to avoid cardiopulmonary bypass and complicated liver mobilization under robot-assisted laparoscopy. Furthermore, a higher neutrophil count tended to be associated with a worse clinical TMT-associated outcome (P=0.056. Conclusion: Our data suggest a limited influence of presurgical TMT

  4. Particle radiotherapy, a novel external radiation therapy, versus liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus: A matched-pair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Shohei; Kido, Masahiro; Asari, Sadaki; Toyama, Hirochika; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Demizu, Yusuke; Terashima, Kazuki; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Fukumoto, Takumi

    2017-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus carries a dismal prognosis, and the feasibility of local treatment has remained controversial. The present study aimed to compare the outcomes of particle radiotherapy and liver resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. Thirty-one and 19 patients, respectively, underwent particle radiotherapy and liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. A matched-pair analysis was undertaken to compare the short- and long-term outcomes according to tumor stage determined using the tumor-node-metastasis classification. Both stages IIIB and IV (IVA and IVB) patients were well-matched for 12 factors, including treatment policy and patient and tumor characteristics. The median survival time of matched patients with stage IIIB tumors in the particle radiotherapy group was greater than that in the liver resection group (748 vs 272 days, P = .029), whereas no significant difference was observed in the median survival times of patients with stage IV tumors (239 vs 311 days, respectively). There were significantly fewer treatment-related complications of grade 3 or greater in the particle radiotherapy group (0%) than in the liver resection group (26%). Particle radiotherapy is potentially preferable in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with stage IIIB inferior vena cava tumor thrombus and at least equal in efficiency to liver resection in those with stage IV disease, while causing significantly fewer complications. Considering the relatively high survival and low invasiveness of particle radiotherapy when compared to liver resection, this approach may represent a novel treatment modality for hepatocellular carcinoma with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Heparin Administration Reduces Risk for Left Atrial Thrombus Formation during Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Procedures

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    Stefan Asbach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite the use of anticoagulation during left atrial (LA ablation procedures, ischemic cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs are recognized as a serious complication. Heparin is usually given after safe transseptal access has been obtained, resulting in a short unprotected dwell time of catheters within the LA, which may account for CVAs. We investigated the frequency of CVAs and LA thrombus formation as detected by intracardiac ultrasound (ICE depending on the timing of heparin administration. Methods and Results. Sixty LA ablation procedures with the use of ICE were performed in 55 patients. Patients were grouped by heparin administration after (Group I, =13 and before (Group II, =47 transseptal access. Group I patients were younger (56.6±13.7 versus 65.9±9.9 years, =.01; other clinical and echocardiographic characteristics did not differ between groups. Early thrombus formation was observed in 2 (15.4% of group I patients as compared to 0% of group II patients (=.04. One CVA (2.1% occurred in one group II patient without prior thrombus detection, and none occurred in group I patients (=ns. Conclusion. Early administration of heparin reduces the risk of early intracardiac thrombus formation during LA ablation procedures. This did not result in reduced rate of CVAs.

  6. Dynamics of blood flow and thrombus formation in a multi-bypass microfluidic ladder network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; Sylman, Joanna L; Lakshmanan, Hari H S; McCarty, Owen J T; Maddala, Jeevan

    2017-02-01

    The reaction dynamics of a complex mixture of cells and proteins, such as blood, in branched circulatory networks within the human microvasculature or extravascular therapeutic devices such as extracorporeal oxygenation machine (ECMO) remains ill-defined. In this report we utilize a multi-bypass microfluidics ladder network design with dimensions mimicking venules to study patterns of blood platelet aggregation and fibrin formation under complex shear. Complex blood fluid dynamics within multi-bypass networks under flow were modeled using COMSOL. Red blood cells and platelets were assumed to be non-interacting spherical particles transported by the bulk fluid flow, and convection of the activated coagulation factor II, thrombin, was assumed to be governed by mass transfer. This model served as the basis for predicting formation of local shear rate gradients, stagnation points and recirculation zones as dictated by the bypass geometry. Based on the insights from these models, we were able to predict the patterns of blood clot formation at specific locations in the device. Our experimental data was then used to adjust the model to account for the dynamical presence of thrombus formation in the biorheology of blood flow. The model predictions were then compared to results from experiments using recalcified whole human blood. Microfluidic devices were coated with the extracellular matrix protein, fibrillar collagen, and the initiator of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, tissue factor. Blood was perfused through the devices at a flow rate of 2 µL/min, translating to physiologically relevant initial shear rates of 300 and 700 s -1 for main channels and bypasses, respectively. Using fluorescent and light microscopy, we observed distinct flow and thrombus formation patterns near channel intersections at bypass points, within recirculation zones and at stagnation points. Findings from this proof-of-principle ladder network model suggest a specific correlation between

  7. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

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    Lin, Shao Chun; Li, Xue Hua; Sun, Can Hui; Feng, Shi Ting; Peng, Zhen Peng; Huang, Si Yun; Li, Zi Ping [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-10-15

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement.

  8. Cancer cell–derived microparticles bearing P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 accelerate thrombus formation in vivo

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    Thomas, Grace M.; Panicot-Dubois, Laurence; Lacroix, Romaric; Dignat-George, Françoise; Lombardo, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Recent publications have demonstrated the presence of tissue factor (TF)–bearing microparticles (MPs) in the blood of patients suffering from cancer. However, whether these MPs are involved in thrombosis remains unknown. We show that pancreatic and lung cancer cells produce MPs that express active TF and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). Cancer cell–derived MPs aggregate platelets via a TF-dependent pathway. In vivo, cancer cell–derived MPs, but not their parent cells, infused into a living mouse accumulate at the site of injury and reduce tail bleeding time and the time to occlusion of venules and arterioles. This thrombotic state is also observed in mice developing tumors. In such mice, the amount of circulating platelet-, endothelial cell–, and cancer cell–derived MPs is increased. Endogenous cancer cell–derived MPs shed from the growing tumor are able to accumulate at the site of injury. Infusion of a blocking P-selectin antibody abolishes the thrombotic state observed after injection of MPs or in mice developing a tumor. Collectively, our results indicate that cancer cell–derived MPs bearing PSGL-1 and TF play a key role in thrombus formation in vivo. Targeting these MPs could be of clinical interest in the prevention of thrombosis and to limit formation of metastasis in cancer patients. PMID:19667060

  9. Influence of Tumor Thrombus Location on the Outcome of External-beam Radiation Therapy in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Macrovascular Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Jiazhou [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang Jianying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Fan Jia; Zhou Jian [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zeng Mengsu [Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The present study evaluates the influence of portal vein (PV) vs. inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombosis sites on the effectiveness of external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with macrovascular invasion. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 181 HCC patients with PV and/or IVC tumor thrombi who were referred for EBRT at our institution between 2000 and 2009. EBRT was designed to focus on the tumor thrombi with or without primary intrahepatic tumors to deliver a median total conventional dose of 50 Gy (range, 30-60 Gy). Predictors of survival were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The median survival was 10.2, 7.4, 17.4, and 8.5 months for patients with PV branch, PV trunk, IVC, and PV plus IVC tumor thrombosis, respectively. Unfavorable pretreatment predictors were associated by multivariate analysis with lower albumin and higher {alpha}-fetoprotein levels, poorer Child-Pugh liver function classification, multiple intrahepatic foci, lymph node metastases, thrombus location, less chance to receive post-EBRT transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and the two-dimensional EBRT technique. In comparison to patients with PV tumor thrombosis, patients with IVC thrombi had a higher occurrence of solitary intrahepatic lesions (p = 0.027), well-controlled intrahepatic tumors (p < 0.001), and a better response to EBRT (p < 0.001), and they were more likely to receive post-EBRT TACE (p = 0.033). Conclusions: In HCC, patients with IVC thrombus treated with EBRT had a better response rate and longer survival than those with PV thrombus.

  10. The accumulation of a platelet protein, thrombospondin, at the site of arterial thrombus formation: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlman, S.B.; Hammes, R.J.; Besozzi, M.C.; Folts, J.D.; Mosher, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    There are many methods available for the detection of thrombosis, none of which are noninvasive, rapid and accurate. Thrombosponding is a platelet protein that is present in the developing thrombus and may be an effective substance to use for imaging thrombosis. Vascular stenosis and thrombosis were produced in coronary, carotid and femoral arteries in eleven adult mongrel dogs. 131 I labeled thrombosponding was administered to each animal to determine whether the radiotracer accumulated at the site of thrombus formation. The radioactivity per gram of vessels with thrombi was significantly different from the control vessels or whole blood (p=0.0037 and p=0.015, respectively, paired t-test). This preliminary work suggests that iodinated thrombosponding accumulates at the site of thrombus formation. Labeled thrombosponding may be a rapid, safe and accurate method of detecting arterial thrombosis. (orig.)

  11. Vascular Nitric Oxide-Superoxide Balance and Thrombus Formation after Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyborowski, Kamil; Proniewski, Bartosz; Czarny, Joanna; Smeda, Marta; Sitek, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    An acute bout of strenuous exercise in humans results in transient impairment of NO-dependent function, but it remains unknown whether this phenomenon is associated with increased risk of post-exercise thrombotic events. This study aimed to evaluate effects of a single bout of exhaustive running in mice on the balance of vascular nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and on thrombogenicity. At different time-points (0h, 2h and 4h) after exercise and in sedentary C57BL/6 mice the production of NO and superoxide (O2) in aorta was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping and by dihydroethidium (DHE)/HPLC-based method, respectively, while collagen-induced thrombus formation was analyzed in a microchip-based flow-chamber system (T-TAS). We also measured pre- and post-exercise plasma concentration of nitrite/nitrate and 6-keto-PGF1α. An acute bout of exhaustive running in mice resulted in decreased production of NO and increased production of O2 in aorta, with maximum changes 2h after completion of exercise when compared to sedentary mice. However, platelet thrombus formation was not changed by exercise as evidenced by unaltered time to start of thrombus formation (T10) and capillary occlusion (OT), and total thrombogenicity (AUC) as measured in a flow-chamber system. Strenuous exercise increased the plasma concentration of nitrite but did not affect nitrate and 6-keto-PGF1α concentrations. An acute bout of strenuous exercise in mice reduced NO and in parallel increased O2 production in aorta. This response was most pronounced 2h after exercise. Surprisingly, the reduced NO and increased O2 production did not result in increased post-exercise platelet-dependent thrombogenicity. These results show that transient reduction in NO bioavailability, caused by exercise-induced oxidative stress, does not modify post-exercise thromboresistance in healthy mice.

  12. Cathepsin G-dependent modulation of platelet thrombus formation in vivo by blood neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauder Faraday

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are consistently associated with arterial thrombotic morbidity in human clinical studies but the causal basis for this association is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that neutrophils modulate platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo in a cathepsin G-dependent manner. Neutrophils enhanced aggregation of human platelets in vitro in dose-dependent fashion and this effect was diminished by pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G activity and knockdown of cathepsin G expression. Tail bleeding time in the mouse was prolonged by a cathepsin G inhibitor and in cathepsin G knockout mice, and formation of neutrophil-platelet conjugates in blood that was shed from transected tails was reduced in the absence of cathepsin G. Bleeding time was highly correlated with blood neutrophil count in wildtype but not cathepsin G deficient mice. In the presence of elevated blood neutrophil counts, the anti-thrombotic effect of cathepsin G inhibition was greater than that of aspirin and additive to it when administered in combination. Both pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence prolonged the time for platelet thrombus to form in ferric chloride-injured mouse mesenteric arterioles. In a vaso-occlusive model of ischemic stroke, inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence improved cerebral blood flow, reduced histologic brain injury, and improved neurobehavioral outcome. These experiments demonstrate that neutrophil cathepsin G is a physiologic modulator of platelet thrombus formation in vivo and has potential as a target for novel anti-thrombotic therapies.

  13. Therapeutic effect and prognostic analysis of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein and/or inferior vena cava tumor thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Long

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo determine the efficacy and prognostic factors of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with portal vein and/or inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. MethodsTwenty-three HCC patients with portal vein and/or inferior vena cava tumor thrombus received IMRT with an 8 MV linear accelerator at the Cancer Center of General Hospital of Armed Police Forces, Anhui Medical University, from April 2008 to August 2011. A single dose of 3 to 6 Gy was delivered at five fractions per week, with a total dose of 56 to 96 Gy and a median dose of 60 Gy. Survival time was recorded, and adverse reactions were evaluated. Survival rate calculation and survival analysis were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison of categorical between two groups was made by chi-square test. ResultsOne patient did not complete radiotherapy due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Of 22 patients who completed IMRT, 4 achieved complete remission and 10 achieved partial remission, with an overall response rate of 63.7%. Our analysis showed that the type of tumor thrombus and tumor size were associated with tumor response rate and were significant prognostic factors (P<0.05. The median survival time was 13.4 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 59%, 27%, and 18%, respectively. The 22 patients who completed radiotherapy did not experience acute radiation injury or late adverse outcomes such as radiation-induced liver disease. ConclusionThis study suggests IMRT is a safe and effective treatment option for HCC patients with portal vein and/or inferior vena cava tumor thrombus.

  14. Acute failure of a St. Jude's prosthetic aortic valve: large pannus formation masked by a small thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Seth Eric; Waxman, Daniel; Hecht, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Pannus formation and valve thrombus can cause prosthetic valve failure. The authors report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented to the emergency room with decompensated heart failure secondary to mechanical valve dysfunction. On two-dimensional and transesophageal echocardiography, the patient had severe aortic stenosis and regurgitation. A thrombus seen on the valve was felt to be the etiology of her prosthetic valve failure. She underwent emergent cardiac surgery for aortic valve replacement. Pathology revealed that although a small thrombus was present, extensive pannus was the underlying mechanism of valve dysfunction. Differentiation between pannus and thrombus may have important clinical implications, but this case illustrates that distinguishing between these entities by echocardiographic and clinical criteria may not be possible.

  15. Functional divergence of platelet protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in thrombus formation on collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Karen; Harper, Matthew T; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Konopatskaya, Olga; Munnix, Imke C A; Prinzen, Lenneke; Leitges, Michael; Liu, Qinghang; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Poole, Alastair W

    2010-07-23

    Arterial thrombosis, a major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is initiated by activation of blood platelets by subendothelial collagen. The protein kinase C (PKC) family centrally regulates platelet activation, and it is becoming clear that the individual PKC isoforms play distinct roles, some of which oppose each other. Here, for the first time, we address all four of the major platelet-expressed PKC isoforms, determining their comparative roles in regulating platelet adhesion to collagen and their subsequent activation under physiological flow conditions. Using mouse gene knock-out and pharmacological approaches in human platelets, we show that collagen-dependent alpha-granule secretion and thrombus formation are mediated by the conventional PKC isoforms, PKCalpha and PKCbeta, whereas the novel isoform, PKC, negatively regulates these events. PKCdelta also negatively regulates thrombus formation but not alpha-granule secretion. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that individual PKC isoforms differentially regulate platelet calcium signaling and exposure of phosphatidylserine under flow. Although platelet deficient in PKCalpha or PKCbeta showed reduced calcium signaling and phosphatidylserine exposure, these responses were enhanced in the absence of PKC. In summary therefore, this direct comparison between individual subtypes of PKC, by standardized methodology under flow conditions, reveals that the four major PKCs expressed in platelets play distinct non-redundant roles, where conventional PKCs promote and novel PKCs inhibit thrombus formation on collagen.

  16. Functional Divergence of Platelet Protein Kinase C (PKC) Isoforms in Thrombus Formation on Collagen*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Karen; Harper, Matthew T.; Cosemans, Judith M. E. M.; Konopatskaya, Olga; Munnix, Imke C. A.; Prinzen, Lenneke; Leitges, Michael; Liu, Qinghang; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Poole, Alastair W.

    2010-01-01

    Arterial thrombosis, a major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is initiated by activation of blood platelets by subendothelial collagen. The protein kinase C (PKC) family centrally regulates platelet activation, and it is becoming clear that the individual PKC isoforms play distinct roles, some of which oppose each other. Here, for the first time, we address all four of the major platelet-expressed PKC isoforms, determining their comparative roles in regulating platelet adhesion to collagen and their subsequent activation under physiological flow conditions. Using mouse gene knock-out and pharmacological approaches in human platelets, we show that collagen-dependent α-granule secretion and thrombus formation are mediated by the conventional PKC isoforms, PKCα and PKCβ, whereas the novel isoform, PKCθ, negatively regulates these events. PKCδ also negatively regulates thrombus formation but not α-granule secretion. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that individual PKC isoforms differentially regulate platelet calcium signaling and exposure of phosphatidylserine under flow. Although platelet deficient in PKCα or PKCβ showed reduced calcium signaling and phosphatidylserine exposure, these responses were enhanced in the absence of PKCθ. In summary therefore, this direct comparison between individual subtypes of PKC, by standardized methodology under flow conditions, reveals that the four major PKCs expressed in platelets play distinct non-redundant roles, where conventional PKCs promote and novel PKCs inhibit thrombus formation on collagen. PMID:20479008

  17. Renal angiomyolipoma with inferior vena caval thrombus in a 32-year-old male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Christian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal angiomyolipoma (AML rarely presents with evidence of extension into the renal vein, inferior vena cava (IVC or atrium. We report a case of a renal AML with a tumor thrombus to the IVC in a 32-year-old male. The patient subsequently underwent a right radical nephrectomy with IVC tumor thrombectomy. To our knowledge, there are four published cases of renal AML presenting with tumor thrombus in males. This case report describes the management of the youngest male ever to develop a renal AML with IVC tumor thrombus.

  18. A Novel Technique for Endovascular Removal of Large Volume Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, Barbara, E-mail: nickel.ba@gmail.com [US Teleradiology and Quantum Medical Radiology Group (United States); McClure, Timothy, E-mail: tmcclure@gmail.com; Moriarty, John, E-mail: jmoriarty@mednet.ucla.edu [UCLA Medical Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of large volume pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy has been shown to be a successful treatment modality; however, its use somewhat limited due to the risk of hemorrhage and potential for distal embolization in the setting of large mobile thrombi. In patients where either thrombolysis is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and conventional therapies prove inadequate, surgical thrombectomy may be considered. We present a case of percutaneous endovascular extraction of a large mobile mass extending from the inferior vena cava into the right atrium using the Angiovac device, a venovenous bypass system designed for high-volume aspiration of undesired endovascular material. Standard endovascular methods for removal of cancer-associated thrombus, such as catheter-directed lysis, maceration, and exclusion, may prove inadequate in the setting of underlying tumor thrombus. Where conventional endovascular methods either fail or are unsuitable, endovascular thrombectomy with the Angiovac device may be a useful and safe minimally invasive alternative to open resection.

  19. A Novel Technique for Endovascular Removal of Large Volume Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, Barbara; McClure, Timothy; Moriarty, John

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of large volume pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy has been shown to be a successful treatment modality; however, its use somewhat limited due to the risk of hemorrhage and potential for distal embolization in the setting of large mobile thrombi. In patients where either thrombolysis is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and conventional therapies prove inadequate, surgical thrombectomy may be considered. We present a case of percutaneous endovascular extraction of a large mobile mass extending from the inferior vena cava into the right atrium using the Angiovac device, a venovenous bypass system designed for high-volume aspiration of undesired endovascular material. Standard endovascular methods for removal of cancer-associated thrombus, such as catheter-directed lysis, maceration, and exclusion, may prove inadequate in the setting of underlying tumor thrombus. Where conventional endovascular methods either fail or are unsuitable, endovascular thrombectomy with the Angiovac device may be a useful and safe minimally invasive alternative to open resection

  20. Genetic analysis of the role of protein kinase Ctheta in platelet function and thrombus formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie J Hall

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available PKCtheta is a novel protein kinase C isozyme, predominately expressed in T cells and platelets. PKCtheta(-/- T cells exhibit reduced activation and PKCtheta(-/- mice are resistant to autoimmune disease, making PKCtheta an attractive therapeutic target for immune modulation. Collagen is a major agonist for platelets, operating through an immunoreceptor-like signalling pathway from its receptor GPVI. Although it has recently been shown that PKCtheta positively regulates outside-in signalling through integrin alpha(IIbbeta(3 in platelets, the role of PKCtheta in GPVI-dependent signalling and functional activation of platelets has not been assessed.In the present study we assessed static adhesion, cell spreading, granule secretion, integrin alpha(IIbbeta(3 activation and platelet aggregation in washed mouse platelets lacking PKCtheta. Thrombus formation on a collagen-coated surface was assessed in vitro under flow. PKCtheta(-/- platelets exhibited reduced static adhesion and filopodia generation on fibrinogen, suggesting that PKCtheta positively regulates outside-in signalling, in agreement with a previous report. In contrast, PKCtheta(-/- platelets also exhibited markedly enhanced GPVI-dependent alpha-granule secretion, although dense granule secretion was unaffected, suggesting that PKCtheta differentially regulates these two granules. Inside-out regulation of alpha(IIbbeta(3 activation was also enhanced downstream of GPVI stimulation. Although this did not result in increased aggregation, importantly thrombus formation on collagen under high shear (1000 s(-1 was enhanced.These data suggest that PKCtheta is an important negative regulator of thrombus formation on collagen, potentially mediated by alpha-granule secretion and alpha(IIbbeta(3 activation. PKCtheta therefore may act to restrict thrombus growth, a finding that has important implications for the development and safe clinical use of PKCtheta inhibitors.

  1. Development of real-time and quantitative monitoring of thrombus formation in an extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Kosaka, Ryo; Maruyama, Osamu

    2018-02-01

    We developed an optical detector of thrombus formed on the pivot bearing of an extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump (MERA HCF-MP23; Senko Medical Instrument Mfg. Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) which is frequently used for long-term extracorporeal circulation support to bridge to an implantable artificial heart, which in turn is used for bridge to heart transplantation in Japan. In this study, we investigated the quantitative performance of the thrombus formation in acute animal experiments. A total of three experiments of extracorporeal left ventricular assist using Japanese specific pathogen-free pigs were conducted. The optical fibers were set in the pump driver unit. The incident light at nearinfrared wavelength aiming at the pivot bearing and the resulting scattered light were guided to respective fibers. The detected signal was analyzed to obtain thrombus formation level (TFL) calculated by a specially developed software. When the increase in TFL was confirmed, the pump was exchanged and the extracorporeal circulation was restarted. The number of pump exchanges were four times at each experiment so a total of twelve pumps were evaluated. 3-dimentional data surrounding the pivot bearing and the adhered thrombus was captured by a 3-dimantional surface measurement system to calculate the thrombus surface area (TSA) formed on the pivot bearing. As a result, the correlation coefficient between TFL and TSA was 0.878. The accuracy of TSA estimated by the optical detector was 3.6+/-2.3 mm2. This was small enough to not have the pump exchanged in clinical judgement. The developed detector would be useful for optimal anti-coagulation management.

  2. Nicorandil prevents sirolimus-induced production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombus formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Aizawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sirolimus (SRL is widely used to prevent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, its beneficial effect is hampered by complications of thrombosis. Several studies imply that reactive oxygen species (ROS play a critical role in endothelial dysfunction and thrombus formation. The present study investigated the protective effect of nicorandil (NIC, an anti-angina agent, on SRL-associated thrombosis. In human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs, SRL stimulated ROS production, which was prevented by co-treatment with NIC. The preventive effect of NIC on ROS was abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate but not by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. NIC also inhibited SRL-induced up-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox mRNA. Co-treatment with NIC and SRL significantly up-regulated superoxide dismutase 2. NIC treatment significantly improved SRL-induced decrease in viability of HCAECs. The functional relevance of the preventive effects of NIC on SRL-induced ROS production and impairment of endothelial viability was investigated in a mouse model of thrombosis. Pretreatment with NIC inhibited the SRL-induced acceleration of FeCl3-initiated thrombus formation and ROS production in the testicular arteries of mice. In conclusion, NIC prevented SRL-induced thrombus formation, presumably due to the reduction of ROS and to endothelial protection. The therapeutic efficacy of NIC could represent an additional option in the prevention of SRL-related thrombosis.

  3. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Jamiolkowski, Megan A; Wagner, William R; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F

    2017-02-20

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1.5 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.1 mm) with small crevices (125 μm × 75 μm and 125 μm × 137 μm). For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. Based on the success with these two benchmark problems, which have very different flow conditions and biological environments, we believe that the current model will provide useful insight into the genesis of thrombosis in blood-wetted devices, and provide a tool for the design of less thrombogenic devices.

  4. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Jamiolkowski, Megan A.; Wagner, William R.; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1.5 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.1 mm) with small crevices (125 μm × 75 μm and 125 μm × 137 μm). For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. Based on the success with these two benchmark problems, which have very different flow conditions and biological environments, we believe that the current model will provide useful insight into the genesis of thrombosis in blood-wetted devices, and provide a tool for the design of less thrombogenic devices.

  5. Adult Wilms tumor with inferior vena cava thrombus and distal deep vein thrombosis - a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczyk, Krzysztof; Czekaj, Adrian; Rogala, Joanna; Kowal, Pawel

    2018-02-23

    Adult Wilms tumor (WT, nephroblastoma) is a rare, but well-described renal neoplasm. Although inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis is present in up to 10% of Wilms tumors in childhood, only few cases of this clinical manifestation in adults have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of adult WT infiltrating into inferior vena cava (IVC) with concomitant distal deep vein thrombosis. A 28-year-old male patient with gross hematuria and right flank pain was diagnosed with right kidney tumor penetrating to IVC. Preoperatively, acute distal thrombosis in inferior vena cava and lower extremities veins occurred. Right radical nephrectomy with tumor thrombectomy via cavotomy was performed. In order to prevent pulmonary embolism, IVC was ligated below left renal vein level. Histopathological examination revealed a triphasic nephroblastoma without anaplastic features. Postoperatively, patient was diagnosed with metastatic liver disease, which was treated with two lines of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy with achievement of complete response. Adult WT occurs usually in young patients, under 40 years of age. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy proved to be effective in children, resulting with tumor shrinkage and venous tumor thrombus regression. Therefore, percutaneous biopsy should be always considered in young patients presenting with renal tumor invading venous system. IVC ligation is a safe treatment option in the event of complete inferior vena cava occlusion due to distal thrombosis concomitant to tumor thrombus, provided collateral venous pathways are well-developed.

  6. Genetic Analysis of the Role of Protein Kinase Cθ in Platelet Function and Thrombus Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kellie J.; Harper, Matthew T.; Gilio, Karen; Cosemans, Judith M.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Poole, Alastair W.

    2008-01-01

    Background PKCθ is a novel protein kinase C isozyme, predominately expressed in T cells and platelets. PKCθ−/− T cells exhibit reduced activation and PKCθ−/− mice are resistant to autoimmune disease, making PKCθ an attractive therapeutic target for immune modulation. Collagen is a major agonist for platelets, operating through an immunoreceptor-like signalling pathway from its receptor GPVI. Although it has recently been shown that PKCθ positively regulates outside-in signalling through integrin αIIbβ3 in platelets, the role of PKCθ in GPVI-dependent signalling and functional activation of platelets has not been assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study we assessed static adhesion, cell spreading, granule secretion, integrin αIIbβ3 activation and platelet aggregation in washed mouse platelets lacking PKCθ. Thrombus formation on a collagen-coated surface was assessed in vitro under flow. PKCθ−/− platelets exhibited reduced static adhesion and filopodia generation on fibrinogen, suggesting that PKCθ positively regulates outside-in signalling, in agreement with a previous report. In contrast, PKCθ−/− platelets also exhibited markedly enhanced GPVI-dependent α-granule secretion, although dense granule secretion was unaffected, suggesting that PKCθ differentially regulates these two granules. Inside-out regulation of αIIbβ3 activation was also enhanced downstream of GPVI stimulation. Although this did not result in increased aggregation, importantly thrombus formation on collagen under high shear (1000 s−1) was enhanced. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that PKCθ is an important negative regulator of thrombus formation on collagen, potentially mediated by α-granule secretion and αIIbβ3 activation. PKCθ therefore may act to restrict thrombus growth, a finding that has important implications for the development and safe clinical use of PKCθ inhibitors. PMID:18815612

  7. Inhibition of Hb Binding to GP1bα Abrogates Hb-Mediated Thrombus Formation on Immobilized VWF and Collagen under Physiological Shear Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annarapu, Gowtham K; Singhal, Rashi; Peng, Yuandong; Guchhait, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Reports including our own describe that intravascular hemolysis increases the risk of thrombosis in hemolytic disorders. Our recent study shows that plasma Hb concentrations correlate directly with platelet activation in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). The binding of Hb to glycoprotein1bα (GP1bα) increases platelet activation. A peptide AA1-50, designed from N-terminal amino acid sequence of GP1bα significantly inhibits the Hb binding to GP1bα as well as Hb-induced platelet activation. This study further examined if the Hb-mediated platelet activation plays any significant role in thrombus formation on subendothelium matrix under physiological flow shear stresses and the inhibition of Hb-platelet interaction can abrogate the above effects of Hb. Study performed thrombus formation assay in vitro by perfusing whole blood over immobilized VWF or collagen type I in presence of Hb under shear stresses simulating arterial or venous flow. The Hb concentrations ranging from 5 to 10 μM, commonly observed level in plasma of the hemolytic patients including PNH, dose-dependently increased thrombus formation on immobilized VWF under higher shear stress of 25 dyne/cm2, but not at 5 dyne/cm2. The above Hb concentrations also increased thrombus formation on immobilized collagen under both shear stresses of 5 and 25 dyne/cm2. The peptide AA1-50 abrogated invariably the above effects of Hb on thrombus formation. This study therefore indicates that the Hb-induced platelet activation plays a crucial role in thrombus formation on immobilized VWF or collagen under physiological flow shear stresses. Thus suggesting a probable role of this mechanism in facilitating thrombosis under hemolytic conditions.

  8. Importance of Endogenous Fibrinolysis in Platelet Thrombus Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gue, Ying X; Gorog, Diana A

    2017-08-25

    The processes of thrombosis and coagulation are finely regulated by endogenous fibrinolysis maintaining healthy equilibrium. When the balance is altered in favour of platelet activation and/or coagulation, or if endogenous fibrinolysis becomes less efficient, pathological thrombosis can occur. Arterial thrombosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world despite advances in medical therapies. The role endogenous fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of arterial thrombosis has gained increasing attention in recent years as it presents novel ways to prevent and treat existing diseases. In this review article, we discuss the role of endogenous fibrinolysis in platelet thrombus formation, methods of measurement of fibrinolytic activity, its role in predicting cardiovascular diseases and clinical outcomes and future directions.

  9. Long-term survival after liver transplant for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Jie

    2012-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus is considered an aggressive malignancy, and the prognosis of liver transplant for it remains obscure. A 42-year-old man with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma and a history of surgical resection was admitted to our hospital with a 10-day history of yellowish urine and itchy skin. There were 3 lesions in the right lobe with the diameter of 2 cm each. A mass was found in the upper part of common bile duct, and the intrahepatic bile duct was dilated. His serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 2476 μg/L, total bilirubin level was 327 μmol/L, direct bilirubin level was 261 μmol/L, and alanine aminotransferase was 714 U/L. There was no main portal vein thrombus or extrahepatic metastases. Because of his poor liver function, he was listed for a liver transplant. During the wait (30 d), he underwent 9 episodes of plasmapheresis to decrease the serum level of bilirubin. He had an orthotopic liver transplant with the graft from a deceased donor. After the liver transplant, he received 5 cycles of chemotherapy with the regimen of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil. This patient has survived without recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma for more than 82 months and remains in good condition. Liver transplant may have a favorable result for hepatocellular carcinoma patient with a bile duct tumor thrombus, within the Milan criteria.

  10. White Thrombus Formation in Blood Tubing Lines in a Chronic Hemodialysis Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Watnick, Suzanne; Stooksbury, Michael; Winter, Rolf; Riscoe, Michael; Cohen, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Previous reports have described white particulate matter in banked blood components, but no prior public reports describe such matter in blood tubing during the course of routine in-center hemodialysis. This report describes the events, investigations, and preliminary conclusions associated with the spontaneous formation of adherent white thrombus in the venous and arterial blood lines during routine in-center hemodialysis treatments.

  11. Complementary roles of platelets and coagulation in thrombus formation on plaques acutely ruptured by targeted ultrasound treatment: a novel intravital model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, M J E; Gilio, K; Reitsma, S; Nergiz-Unal, R; Prinzen, L; Heeneman, S; Lutgens, E; van Zandvoort, M A M J; Nieswandt, B; Egbrink, M G A Oude; Heemskerk, J W M

    2009-01-01

    Atherothrombosis is a major cause of cardiovascular events. However, animal models to study this process are scarce. We describe the first murine model of acute thrombus formation upon plaque rupture to study atherothrombosis by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Localized rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque in a carotid artery from Apoe(-/-) mice was induced in vivo using ultrasound. Rupture of the plaque and formation of localized thrombi were verified by two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) in isolated arteries, and by immunohistochemistry. The thrombotic reaction was quantified by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Inspection of the ultrasound-treated plaques by histochemistry and TPLSM demonstrated local damage, collagen exposure, luminal thrombus formation as well as intra-plaque intrusion of erythrocytes and fibrin. Ultrasound treatment of healthy carotid arteries resulted in endothelial damage and limited platelet adhesion. Real-time intravital fluorescence microscopy demonstrated rapid platelet deposition on plaques and formation of a single thrombus that remained subocclusive. The thrombotic process was antagonized by thrombin inhibition, or by blocking of collagen or adenosine diphosphate receptor pathways. Multiple thrombi were formed in 70% of mice lacking CD40L. Targeted rupture of murine plaques results in collagen exposure and non-occlusive thrombus formation. The thrombotic process relies on platelet activation as well as on thrombin generation and coagulation, and is sensitive to established and novel antithrombotic medication. This model provides new possibilities to study atherothrombosis in vivo.

  12. Multi-parameter assessment of thrombus formation on microspotted arrays of thrombogenic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Susanne de Witt, Frauke Swieringa, Judith Cosemans & Johan Heemskerk ### Abstract Thrombus formation by adhering and aggregating blood platelets is fundamental to hemostasis and is a prerequisite for vascular occlusion in pathological thrombosis. The parallel-plate flow chamber technique has been extensively used to measure platelet adhesion and activation in vitro at arterial or venous flow conditions. Here, we describe the use of brightfield and confocal fluorescence micros...

  13. Critical role of FcR gamma-chain, LAT, PLCgamma2 and thrombin in arteriolar thrombus formation upon mild, laser-induced endothelial injury in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Neena; Auger, Jocelyn M; Atkinson, Ben; Watson, Steve P

    2008-05-01

    The role of collagen receptor complex GPVI-FcR gamma-chain, PLCgamma2 and LAT in laser-induced thrombosis is unclear. Controversy surrounds whether collagen is exposed in this model or whether thrombosis is dependent on thrombin. This study hypothesized that collagen exposure plays a critical role in thrombus formation in this model, which was tested by investigating contributions of FcR gamma-chain, LAT, PLCgamma2 and thrombin. Thrombi were monitored using intravital microscopy in anesthetized wild-type and FcR gamma-chain, LAT and PLCgamma2 knockout mice. Hirudin (thrombin inhibitor) was administered to wild-type and FcR gamma-chain knockout mice. Significantly reduced thrombus formation was observed in FcR gamma-chain and PLCgamma2 knockouts with a greater decrease observed in LAT knockouts. Dramatic reduction was observed in wild-types treated with hirudin, with abolished thrombus formation only observed in FcR gamma-chain knockouts treated with hirudin. GPVI-FcR gamma-chain, LAT and PLCgamma2 are essential for thrombus generation and stability in this laser-induced model of injury. More importantly, a greater role for LAT was identified, which may reflect a role for it downstream of a second matrix protein receptor. However, inhibition of platelet activation by matrix proteins and thrombin generation are both required to maximally prevent thrombus formation.

  14. Enhanced venous thrombus resolution in plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, S A; Chabasse, C; Mukhopadhyay, S; Hoofnagle, M H; Strickland, D K; Sarkar, R; Antalis, T M

    2014-10-01

    The resolution of deep vein thrombosis requires an inflammatory response and mobilization of proteases, such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), to degrade the thrombus and remodel the injured vein wall. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) with unique immunosuppressive and cell survival properties that was originally identified as an inhibitor of uPA. To investigate the role of PAI-2 in venous thrombus formation and resolution. Venous thrombus resolution was compared in wild-type C57BL/6, PAI-2(-/-) , and PAI-1(-/-) mice using the stasis model of deep vein thrombosis. Formed thrombi were harvested, thrombus weights were recorded, and tissue was analyzed for uPA and MMP activities, PAI-1 expression, and the nature of inflammatory cell infiltration. We found that the absence of PAI-2 enhanced venous thrombus resolution, while thrombus formation was unaffected. Enhanced venous thrombus resolution in PAI-2(-/-) mice was associated with increased uPA activity and reduced levels of PAI-1, with no significant effect on MMP-2 and -9 activities. PAI-1 deficiency resulted in an increase in thrombus resolution similar to PAI-2 deficiency, but additionally reduced venous thrombus formation and altered MMP activity. PAI-2-deficient thrombi had increased levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL2, which was associated with early enhanced neutrophil recruitment. These data identify PAI-2 as a novel regulator of venous thrombus resolution, which modulates several pathways involving both inflammatory and uPA activity mechanisms, distinct from PAI-1. Further examination of these pathways may lead to potential therapeutic prospects in accelerating thrombus resolution. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  15. Non-redundant roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase isoforms alpha and beta in glycoprotein VI-induced platelet signaling and thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Karen; Munnix, Imke C A; Mangin, Pierre; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Feijge, Marion A H; van der Meijden, Paola E J; Olieslagers, Servé; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena B; Lillian, Rivka; Schoenwaelder, Simone; Koyasu, Shigeo; Sage, Stewart O; Jackson, Shaun P; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2009-12-04

    Platelets are activated by adhesion to vascular collagen via the immunoglobulin receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI). This causes potent signaling toward activation of phospholipase Cgamma2, which bears similarity to the signaling pathway evoked by T- and B-cell receptors. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an important role in collagen-induced platelet activation, because this activity modulates the autocrine effects of secreted ADP. Here, we identified the PI3K isoforms directly downstream of GPVI in human and mouse platelets and determined their role in GPVI-dependent thrombus formation. The targeting of platelet PI3Kalpha or -beta strongly and selectively suppressed GPVI-induced Ca(2+) mobilization and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production, thus demonstrating enhancement of phospholipase Cgamma2 by PI3Kalpha/beta. That PI3Kalpha and -beta have a non-redundant function in GPVI-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation was concluded from measurements of: (i) serine phosphorylation of Akt, (ii) dense granule secretion, (iii) intracellular Ca(2+) increases and surface expression of phosphatidylserine under flow, and (iv) thrombus formation, under conditions where PI3Kalpha/beta was blocked or p85alpha was deficient. In contrast, GPVI-induced platelet activation was insensitive to inhibition or deficiency of PI3Kdelta or -gamma. Furthermore, PI3Kalpha/beta, but not PI3Kgamma, contributed to GPVI-induced Rap1b activation and, surprisingly, also to Rap1b-independent platelet activation via GPVI. Together, these findings demonstrate that both PI3Kalpha and -beta isoforms are required for full GPVI-dependent platelet Ca(2+) signaling and thrombus formation, partly independently of Rap1b. This provides a new mechanistic explanation for the anti-thrombotic effect of PI3K inhibition and makes PI3Kalpha an interesting new target for anti-platelet therapy.

  16. Deep venous thrombus characterization: ultrasonography, elastography and scattering operator

    OpenAIRE

    Thibaud Berthomier; Ali Mansour; Luc Bressollette; Frédéric Le Roy; Dominique Mottier

    2017-01-01

    A thrombus or a blood clot is the result of blood coagulation which is a natural process to prevent bleeding. An inappropriate formation of a thrombus in a deep vein is known as Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT). The main complication of a DVT is a Pulmonary Embolism (PE) which occurs when a thrombus breaks loose and travels to the lungs. DVT, PE, or both are also known as Venous thromboembolism (VTE). It affects an estimated 300,000–600,000 Individuals just in the United States per year and can c...

  17. Endovascular treatment of intrahepatic inferior vena cava obstruction from malignant hepatocellular tumor thrombus utilizing Luminexx self-expanding nitinol stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambo, Glenn W.; Leto, John; George, Christopher; Van Epps, Kelly; Woeste, Troy; Berlet, Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction is a well-described clinical entity. Most IVC obstructions from malignant neoplasms are a direct result of tumor compression [Oviedo J, Cerda S. Vascular invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001;125: 454-5; Furui S, Sawada S, et al. Gianturco stent placement in malignant caval obstruction: analysis of factors for predicting the outcome. Radiology 1995;195:147-52; Fletcher WS, Lakin PC, et al. Results of treatment of inferior vena cava syndrome with expandable metallic stents. Arch Surg 1998;133:935-8]. The symptoms of IVC obstruction include progressive ascites, scrotal edema and lower body edema. These constellations of symptoms are described as IVC syndrome and are devastating to a patient with end-stage cancer. We describe a palliative therapy utilizing Luminexx nitinol self-expanding stents to treat intracaval hepatoma thrombus obstructing the IVC. The procedure is rapidly performed, technically reliable, and has essentially no morbidity or mortality. This procedure can be performed in the interventional radiology suite with excellent results resolving the IVC syndrome soon after placement of the stents. We believe endovascular stenting as an excellent palliative therapy for patients with IVC syndrome and should be the treatment of choice for caval obstructions due to intraluminal tumor thrombus

  18. Endovascular treatment of intrahepatic inferior vena cava obstruction from malignant hepatocellular tumor thrombus utilizing Luminexx self-expanding nitinol stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambo, Glenn W. [Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, 4516 North Armenia Avenue, Tampa, FL 33603 (United States)], E-mail: xraydoc2@yahoo.com; Leto, John [Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, 3001 W. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd., Tampa, FL 33607 (United States); George, Christopher [Department of Hematology and Oncology, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, 4301 W. Habana Avenue, Suite 1, Tampa, FL 33607 (United States); Van Epps, Kelly; Woeste, Troy; Berlet, Mathew [Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, 4516 North Armenia Avenue, Tampa, FL 33603 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction is a well-described clinical entity. Most IVC obstructions from malignant neoplasms are a direct result of tumor compression [Oviedo J, Cerda S. Vascular invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001;125: 454-5; Furui S, Sawada S, et al. Gianturco stent placement in malignant caval obstruction: analysis of factors for predicting the outcome. Radiology 1995;195:147-52; Fletcher WS, Lakin PC, et al. Results of treatment of inferior vena cava syndrome with expandable metallic stents. Arch Surg 1998;133:935-8]. The symptoms of IVC obstruction include progressive ascites, scrotal edema and lower body edema. These constellations of symptoms are described as IVC syndrome and are devastating to a patient with end-stage cancer. We describe a palliative therapy utilizing Luminexx nitinol self-expanding stents to treat intracaval hepatoma thrombus obstructing the IVC. The procedure is rapidly performed, technically reliable, and has essentially no morbidity or mortality. This procedure can be performed in the interventional radiology suite with excellent results resolving the IVC syndrome soon after placement of the stents. We believe endovascular stenting as an excellent palliative therapy for patients with IVC syndrome and should be the treatment of choice for caval obstructions due to intraluminal tumor thrombus.

  19. White thrombus formation in blood tubing lines in a chronic hemodialysis unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watnick, Suzanne; Stooksbury, Michael; Winter, Rolf; Riscoe, Michael; Cohen, David M

    2008-03-01

    Previous reports have described white particulate matter in banked blood components, but no prior public reports describe such matter in blood tubing during the course of routine in-center hemodialysis. This report describes the events, investigations, and preliminary conclusions associated with the spontaneous formation of adherent white thrombus in the venous and arterial blood lines during routine in-center hemodialysis treatments. Design setting, participants, & measurements: This investigation occurred at the Portland Veterans Administration Medical Center (PVAMC) Hemodialysis Unit from October 2006 through April 2007. Sixty-eight variables regarding demographics, medical history and dialysis treatments were collected on our 34 chronic hemodialysis outpatients. Over a 5-wk interval, 62% (21 of 34) of the chronic hemodialysis patients unexpectedly developed a white precipitate adhering to the lumenal surface of their dialysis blood tubing, with 73 of 580 chronic dialysis treatments exhibiting the phenomenon. Microscopic and biochemical analyses were consistent with white thrombus, formed by an aggregation of platelets and fibrin. An alert was issued and other in-center hemodialysis units noted similar findings. This was remedied by the removal of specific tubing. Both patient-specific and tubing-specific factors may have been operative. Although patient safety was not adversely affected, assessment of clinical and manufacturing variables potentially affecting platelet activation is warranted.

  20. Protein kinase C mediates platelet secretion and thrombus formation through protein kinase D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopatskaya, Olga; Matthews, Sharon A; Harper, Matthew T; Gilio, Karen; Cosemans, Judith M E M; Williams, Christopher M; Navarro, Maria N; Carter, Deborah A; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Leitges, Michael; Cantrell, Doreen; Poole, Alastair W

    2011-07-14

    Platelets are highly specialized blood cells critically involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family have established roles in regulating platelet function and thrombosis, but the molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In particular, the conventional PKC isoform, PKCα, is a major regulator of platelet granule secretion, but the molecular pathway from PKCα to secretion is not defined. Protein kinase D (PKD) is a family of 3 kinases activated by PKC, which may represent a step in the PKC signaling pathway to secretion. In the present study, we show that PKD2 is the sole PKD member regulated downstream of PKC in platelets, and that the conventional, but not novel, PKC isoforms provide the upstream signal. Platelets from a gene knock-in mouse in which 2 key phosphorylation sites in PKD2 have been mutated (Ser707Ala/Ser711Ala) show a significant reduction in agonist-induced dense granule secretion, but not in α-granule secretion. This deficiency in dense granule release was responsible for a reduced platelet aggregation and a marked reduction in thrombus formation. Our results show that in the molecular pathway to secretion, PKD2 is a key component of the PKC-mediated pathway to platelet activation and thrombus formation through its selective regulation of dense granule secretion.

  1. Evaluation of the thrombus of abdominal aortic aneurysms using contrast enhanced ultrasound - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Adam; Garkowski, Adam; Rutka, Katarzyna; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2016-09-01

    It is hypothesized that the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aortic aneurysms. The presence of neovascularization of the vessel wall and mural thrombus has been confirmed only in histopathological studies. However, no non-invasive imaging technique of qualitative assessment of thrombus and neovascularization has been implemented so far. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as a feasible and minimally invasive technique for in vivo visualization of neovascularization in the evaluation of tumors and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was the evaluation of mural thrombus and AAAs wall with CEUS. CEUS was performed in a group of seventeen patients with AAAs. The mural thrombus enhancement was recognized in 12 cases, yet no significant correlation between the degree of contrast enhancement and AAAs diameter, thrombus width, and thrombus echogenicity was found. We observed a rise in AAAs thrombus heterogeneity with the increase in the aneurysm diameter (r = 0.62, p = 0.017). In conclusion CEUS can visualize small channels within AAAs thrombus, which could be a result of an ongoing angiogenesis. There is a need for further research to find out whether the degree of vascularization of the thrombus may have a significant impact on the rupture of aneurysms.

  2. Deep venous thrombus characterization: ultrasonography, elastography and scattering operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Berthomier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A thrombus or a blood clot is the result of blood coagulation which is a natural process to prevent bleeding. An inappropriate formation of a thrombus in a deep vein is known as Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT. The main complication of a DVT is a Pulmonary Embolism (PE which occurs when a thrombus breaks loose and travels to the lungs. DVT, PE, or both are also known as Venous thromboembolism (VTE. It affects an estimated 300,000–600,000 Individuals just in the United States per year and can cause considerable morbidity and mortality. This multifactorial disease related to advanced age, immobility, surgery or obesity is an important public health issue. Our project is looking to link the VTE epidemiology (risk factors, patient history, PE to the thrombus structure. To reach our goals, we are collecting ultrasonography (echogenicity and elastography (stiffness of human thrombus. This manuscript describes our approach to create and preprocess a database using Toshiba Aplio 500. Our approaches to characterize the thrombus structure with ultrasound images are also described. The feature extraction is made with the scattering operator. Obtained features are then reduced using Principal Component Analysis and are analyzed to evaluate our approach.

  3. Complementary roles of platelets and coagulation in thrombus formation on plaques acutely ruptured by targeted ultrasound treatment: a novel intravital model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M. J. E.; Gilio, K.; Reitsma, S.; Nergiz-Unal, R.; Prinzen, L.; Heeneman, S.; Lutgens, E.; van Zandvoort, M. A. M. J.; Nieswandt, B.; Egbrink, M. G. A. Oude; Heemskerk, J. W. M.

    2009-01-01

    Atherothrombosis is a major cause of cardiovascular events. However, animal models to study this process are scarce. We describe the first murine model of acute thrombus formation upon plaque rupture to study atherothrombosis by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Localized rupture of an

  4. Glaucocalyxin A inhibits platelet activation and thrombus formation preferentially via GPVI signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Platelets play a pivotal role in atherothrombosis and the antiplatelet agents have been proved to be useful in preventing onset of acute clinical events including myocardial infarction and stroke. Increasing number of natural compounds has been identified to be potential antiplatelet agents. Here we report the antiplatelet effect of glaucocalyxin A (GLA, an ent-diterpenoid that we isolated and purified from the aerial parts of Rabdosia japonica (Burm. f. var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, and investigate the molecular mechanisms by which GLA inhibits platelet activation and thrombus formation. The effect of GLA on platelet activation was measured using platelets freshly isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors. Results showed that pretreatment of human platelets with lower concentrations of GLA (0.01 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen (P<0.001 and CRP (P<0.01, a synthetic GPVI ligand, but not by ADP and U46619. Accordingly, GLA inhibited collagen-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, LAT, and phospholipase Cγ2, the signaling events in collagen receptor GPⅥ pathway. GLA also inhibited platelet p-selectin secretion and integrin activation by convulxin, a GPVI selective ligand. Additionally, GLA was found to inhibit low-dose thrombin-induced platelet activation. Using a flow chamber device, GLA was found to attenuate platelet adhesion on collagen surfaces in high shear condition. In vivo studies showed that GLA administration increased the time for complete occlusion upon vascular injury in mice, but did not extend tail-bleeding time when mice were administered with relatively lower doses of GLA. Therefore, the present results provide the molecular basis for the inhibition effect of GLA on platelet activation and its in vivo effect on thrombus formation, suggesting that GLA could potentially be developed as an antiplatelet and antithrombotic agent.

  5. The effect of factor VIII deficiencies and replacement and bypass therapies on thrombus formation under venous flow conditions in microfluidic and computational models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola A Onasoga-Jarvis

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence suggests that individuals with factor VIII (FVIII deficiency (hemophilia A are protected against venous thrombosis, but treatment with recombinant proteins can increase their risk for thrombosis. In this study we examined the dynamics of thrombus formation in individuals with hemophilia A and their response to replacement and bypass therapies under venous flow conditions. Fibrin and platelet accumulation were measured in microfluidic flow assays on a TF-rich surface at a shear rate of 100 s⁻¹. Thrombin generation was calculated with a computational spatial-temporal model of thrombus formation. Mild FVIII deficiencies (5-30% normal levels could support fibrin fiber formation, while severe (1 nM, but too low to support fibrin formation (<10 nM. In the absence of platelets, fibrin formation was not supported even at normal FVIII levels, suggesting platelet adhesion is necessary for fibrin formation. Individuals treated by replacement therapy, recombinant FVIII, showed normalized fibrin formation. Individuals treated with bypass therapy, recombinant FVIIa, had a reduced lag time in fibrin formation, as well as elevated fibrin accumulation compared to healthy controls. Treatment of rFVIIa, but not rFVIII, resulted in significant changes in fibrin dynamics that could lead to a prothrombotic state.

  6. Pancreatic endocrine tumor with neoplastic venous thrombus and bilobar liver metastasis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, L; Turrini, O; Sarran, A; Delpero, J-R

    2010-02-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic 56-year-old woman with a metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumor, fortuitously discovered by abdominal imaging. A CT-scan showed a large mass in the pancreatic tail invading the spleen and stomach; in addition, there was neoplastic thrombus within the spleno-mesentericoportal venous confluence and bilobar liver metastases. Surgical resection was performed in two stages. The first procedure was an extended left pancreatectomy with venous thrombectomy and "clearance" of the left hepatic lobe. During the interval, embolization of the right portal vein was carried out. Right hepatectomy and radiofrequency destruction of residual metastases was then performed. On the basis of completeness of the resection and the histopathological data, the patient did not undergo any adjuvant therapy, in accordance with French guidelines. At 1 year of follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence. (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Successful catheter directed thrombolysis of IVC and renal vein occlusive thrombus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, E

    2011-11-01

    Thrombus formation is a recognised complication of IVC filter placement, however IVC and bilateral renal vein occlusion secondary to thrombus is much less common. We present a case of infrahepatic caval and bilateral renal vein occlusion secondary to thrombosis of a suprarenal IVC filter. With progressive clinical deterioration and failure of conservative medical management the patient underwent successful mechanical disruption and catheter directed thrombolysis.

  8. Motion of left atrial appendage as a determinant of thrombus formation in patients with a low CHADS2 score receiving warfarin for persistent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Koji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to define the independent determinants of left atrial appendage (LAA thrombus among various echocardiographic parameters measured by Velocity Vector Imaging (VVI in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF receiving warfarin, particularly in patients with a low CHADS2 score. Methods LAA emptying fraction (EF and LAA peak longitudinal strain were measured by VVI using transesophageal echocardiography in 260 consecutive patients with nonvalvular persistent AF receiving warfarin. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (n=43 or absence (n=217 of LAA thrombus. Moreover, the patients within each group were further divided into subgroups according to a CHADS2 score ≤1. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that LAAEF was an independent determinant of LAA thrombus in the subgroup of 140 with a low CHADS2 score. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that an LAAEF of 21% was the optimal cutoff value for predicting LAA thrombus. Conclusions LAA thrombus formation depended on LAA contractility. AF patients with reduced LAA contractile fraction (LAAEF ≤21% require strong anticoagulant therapy to avoid thromboembolic events regardless of a low CHADS2 score (≤1.

  9. Frequency of left ventricular thrombus after anterior wall st-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.W.; Fayyaz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) formation is a well known complication seen in patients presenting with acute anterior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In previous studies the incidence of this complication, after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reported to be 4% to 60% in large anterior wall STEMI, depending significantly upon the method as well as time of reperfusion therapy after STEMI. Objective: The objective of this descriptive case series study was to evaluate the frequency of left ventricular thrombus formation in patients after acute anterior wall ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction. Methodology: In this study, 100 patients with anterior wall STEMI presenting to cardiac emergency or coronary care unit (CCU) of Cardiac complex, Gulab Devi Hospital, were selected on non-probability, purposive sampling meeting inclusion criteria, after taking written informed consent. All the patients were treated initially for management of acute STEMI, including use of thrombolytics where indicated. 2-D Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed during the same admission to assess presence of LV thrombus (LVT). Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.3 +- 11.4 years. There were 84(84%) male patients and 16 (16%) female patients. LVT was present in 28 (28%) patients on TTE. Among those, there were 23 (82.1%) male and 5 (17.9%) female patients. However, out of 84 male patients 27.4% develop LVT and among 16 female patients this ratio was 31.3%. The LV thrombus was independent of age and gender. LV thrombus was significantly less in thrombolytic group as compared to those who were not given this therapy, i.e. p value <0.05. Conclusion: Patients with anterior wall acute STEMI not infrequently develop the complication of development of LV thrombus. In this study the frequency of LV thrombus formation after anterior wall acute STEMI was 28%. (author)

  10. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 deficiency misguides venous thrombus resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermair, Joerg; Redwan, Bassam; Alias, Sherin; Jabkowski, Joerg; Panzenboeck, Adelheid; Kellermair, Lukas; Winter, Max P; Weltermann, Ansgar; Lang, Irene M

    2013-11-07

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) is involved in leukocyte migration and angiogenesis, which are key components of venous thrombus resolution. This study investigated the effect of PECAM-1 deficiency on thrombus resolution in FVB/n mice and the extent to which levels of soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) correlate with delayed thrombus resolution in humans after acute symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In a mouse stagnant flow venous thrombosis model Pecam-1(-/-) thrombi were larger, persisted for longer periods of time, and displayed attenuated macrophage invasion and decreased vessel formation in the presence of increased fibrosis. In humans, higher levels of truncated plasma sPECAM-1 possibly cleaved from cell surfaces, were found in patients with delayed thrombus resolution (assessed via duplex-based thrombus scoring) relative to those whose thrombi resolved (median, 25th/75th percentile): 92.5 (87.7/103.4) ng/mL vs 71.5 (51.1/81.0) ng/mL; P deep vein thrombus specimens stained positively with antibodies specific for the extracellular, but not the cytoplasmic domain of PECAM-1, consistent with accumulation of cleaved PECAM-1. Our data suggest a regulatory role of PECAM-1 in venous thrombus resolution and suggest a predictive value of sPECAM-1 for postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) after acute DVT.

  11. Robotic partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinomas with venous tumor thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Ronney; Angell, Jordan

    2013-06-01

    To describe the first report of robotic partial nephrectomies (RPNs) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with venous tumor thrombus (VTT). Partial nephrectomy for RCC extending into the renal vein has been described in limited fashion, but such a complex procedure has not previously been reported in minimally-invasive fashion. We demonstrate the feasibility of robotic nephron-sparing surgery despite vein thrombi and the results of the initial four highly-selected patients to have undergone this novel procedure. Two patients underwent RPN for RCC with VTT involving intraparenchymal vein branches, and 2 others had VTT involving the main renal vein. Mean patient age was 65 years (range 50-74 years). Mean tumor size was 7.75 cm (range 4.3-12.8 cm) with mean RENAL (radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness to collecting system, anterior/posterior, and location) nephrometry score of 9.75 (range 8-12). Mean warm ischemia time was 24.2 minutes (range 19-27 minutes) and mean estimated blood loss was 168.8 mL (range 100-300 mL). No patients required transfusion, and there were no intraoperative complications. No patients required conversion to open or standard laparoscopic surgery. All 4 patients were discharged home on the first postoperative day. A single postoperative complication occurred in 1 patient who was readmitted with an ileus that resolved spontaneously. All patients had negative surgical margins. Two patients developed metastatic disease on surveillance imaging. RPN in patients with VTT is safe and feasible in selected patients. Given the risk of metastatic disease in patients with pathologic stage T3a RCC, the role of nephron sparing requires further evaluation such that radical nephrectomy remains the standard of care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of radiocolloids as thrombus imaging agents. Effect of particle size on thrombus uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, S.N.; Bardfeld, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Thrombus uptake values of several /sup 99m/Tc labeled radiocolloids determined using an experimental rodent model of deep venous thrombosis were correlated with particle size distributions. The thrombus uptake values increased with increasing mean particle size. The /sup 99m/Tc-tin colloid had the highest thrombus uptake value of any of the colloids used in this study.

  13. Analysis of early thrombus dynamics in a humanized mouse laser injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Lindsey, John P; Chen, Jianchun; Diacovo, Thomas G; King, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Platelet aggregation and thrombus formation at the site of injury is a dynamic process that involves the continuous addition of new platelets as well as thrombus rupture. In the early stages of hemostasis (within minutes after vessel injury) this process can be visualized by transfusing fluorescently labeled human platelets and observing their deposition and detachment. These two counterbalancing events help the developing thrombus reach a steady-state morphology, where it is large enough to cover the injured vessel surface but not too large to form a severe thrombotic occlusion. In this study, the spatial and temporal aspects of early stage thrombus dynamics which result from laser-induced injury on arterioles of cremaster muscle in the humanized mouse were visualized using fluorescent microscopy. It was found that rolling platelets show preference for the upstream region while tethering/detaching platelets were primarily found downstream. It was also determined that the platelet deposition rate is relatively steady, whereas the effective thrombus coverage area does not increase at a constant rate. By introducing a new method to graphically represent the real time in vivo physiological shear stress environment, we conclude that the thrombus continuously changes shape by regional growth and decay, and neither dominates in the high shear stress region.

  14. Assessment of mitral annular velocities by Doppler tissue imaging in predicting left ventricular thrombus formation after first anterior acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fathy

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: From our study, we can conclude that TDE can be used for estimation of systolic and diastolic functions of LV and hence identification of patients at high risk for LV thrombus formation after first time acute anterior myocardial infarction and we recommend more studies to support our results about the importance of the role of oral anticoagulant after AMI.

  15. Mural Thrombus in the Normal-Appearing Descending Thoracic Aorta of a Chronic Smoker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Habib; Hsu, Judy; Winchell, Patricia Jo; Daoko, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Thrombus formation in an atherosclerotic or aneurysmal descending thoracic aorta is a well-described, frequently encountered vascular condition. In comparison, thrombus formation in a normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta is reported far less often. We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman who had splenic and renal infarctions secondary to embolic showers from a large, mobile thrombus in a morphologically normal proximal descending thoracic aorta. After the patient underwent anticoagulation, stent-grafting, and surgical bypass to correct an arterial blockage caused by the stent-graft, she resumed a relatively normal life. In contrast with other cases of a thrombotic but normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta, this patient had no known malignancy or systemic coagulative disorders; her sole risk factor was chronic smoking. We discuss our patient's case and review the relevant medical literature, focusing on the effect of smoking on coagulation physiology. PMID:24391341

  16. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sheshagiri Rao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate?

  17. Recent Inferior Myocardial Infarction Complicated with a Right Ventricular Thrombus Detected by Three Cardiac Imaging Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Toshiki; Imaeda, Syohei; Hashimoto, Kenji; Ryuzaki, Toshinobu; Saito, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Tabei, Ryota; Kodaira, Masaki; Hase, Manabu; Numasawa, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old woman diagnosed with recent inferior myocardial infarction complicated with right ventricular infarction and a right ventricular thrombus. Three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging clearly detected a thrombus. We consider cases with a recent right ventricular infarction to require assessment for thrombus formations in the right ventricle. Fortunately, vigorous anticoagulation therapy resolved the thrombi in both the right ventricle and right coronary artery.

  18. Transarterial chemoembolization combined with sorafenib for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatic vein tumor thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yong-Fa Zhang,1–3,* Wei Wei,1–3,* Jia-Hong Wang,1–3,* Li Xu,1–3 Pei-En Jian,1–3 Cheng-Zuo Xiao,4 Xiao-Ping Zhong,1–3 Ming Shi,1–3 Rong-Ping Guo1–3 1Department of Hepatobiliary Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 2State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 3Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, 4Department of General Surgery, Shenzhen Shajing Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To compare the treatment outcomes of sorafenib plus transarterial chemoembolization (TACE vs TACE alone in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and hepatic vein tumor thrombus (HVTT.Methods: Twenty patients who were initially diagnosed with HCC and HVTT and received TACE combined with sorafenib during February 2009 to October 2013 were included in the study. To minimize selection bias, these patients were compared with 60 case-matched controls selected from a pool of 81 patients (in a 1:3 ratio who received TACE alone during the same period. The primary end point was overall survival (OS. The secondary end points were time to progression, disease control rate, and adverse events.Results: After a median follow-up period of 12.5 months (range, 1.03–44.23 months, the OS of the combined group was found to be significantly higher compared with the monotherapy group (14.9 vs 6.1 months, P=0.010. The time to progression was found to be significantly longer in the combined group (4.9 vs 2.4 months, P=0.016. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the treatment allocation was an independent predictor of OS.Conclusion: Sorafenib plus TACE was well tolerated and was more effective in treating patients with advanced HCC and HVTT. Future trials with prospective larger samples are required to validate these results. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic vein tumor thrombus, prognosis

  19. Higher levels of serum fibrin-monomer reflect hypercoagulable state and thrombus formation in the left atrial appendage in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Hidenobu; Hirono, Osamu; Liu, Ling; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2006-08-01

    It is sometimes difficult to make a diagnosis of cardioembolic stroke in the stroke care unit, because of the splashing and vanishing of the intracardiac source of the emboli on transesophageal echocardiography. Serum fibrin-monomer (FM) is a new marker for coagulation activity that is useful for identifying older individuals at increased risk of ischemic stroke. Two hundred and four patients with acute ischemic stroke were examined for serum coagulation and fibrinolytic activity on admission, and underwent transesophageal echocardiography within 7 days of onset. Serum levels of FM was significantly higher in patients with left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus formation (n=24) than in those with no thrombus (88+/-52 vs 14+/-9 microg/ml, pvs 8+/-5 microg/ml, pstroke.

  20. Thrombus aspiration catheter is a Dottering balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshagiri Rao, D; Barik, Ramachandra; Prasad, Akula Siva

    2016-01-01

    Coronary angiogram in a young man with history of STEMI with delayed presentation revealed subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LAD) with large thrombotic filling defect distal to the critical lesion. PCI was preferred without delay because of ongoing chest pain. Several runs of thrombus aspiration failed to detect any visible thrombus. However, the immediate angiogram after thrombus aspiration showed complete distal embolization of the thrombus which could have been achieved by Dottering or balloon dilatation. In contrary to the general perception, does thrombus aspiration push more thrombus than it can aspirate? Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. β2-glycoprotein-1 autoantibodies from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome are sufficient to potentiate arterial thrombus formation in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Ariela; Proulle, Valerie; Furie, Richard A.; Furie, Barbara C.

    2011-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, and the presence of the lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, or anti–β2-glycoprotein-1 (anti–β2-GP1) antibodies. Although anti–β2-GP1 antibodies have been documented as a biomarker for diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome, their direct role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis is unknown. We have demonstrated using intravital microscopy that anti–β2-GP1 autoantibodies purified from the sera of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome complicated by thrombosis greatly amplify thrombus size after laser-induced vessel wall injury in live mice. Anti–β2-GP1 autoantibodies from 3 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome were affinity-purified using human β2-GP1 bound to agarose. The effects of purified anti–β2-GP1 IgG autoantibodies, of anti–β2-GP1–depleted IgG, and of IgG from normal human sera on thrombus formation were measured in mice after arterial injury in the cremaster muscle. Before injury, purified anti–β2-GP1 IgG autoantibodies, anti–β2-GP1 antibody–depleted IgG, or IgG from normal human sera were infused. Increasing amounts of purified anti–β2-GP1 autoantibodies increased thrombus size in a dose-dependent manner, whereas neither anti–β2-GP1 antibody-depleted IgG nor IgG from normal serum affected thrombus size. These results indicate that anti–β2-GP1 IgG autoantibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome patient sera are not only a marker of antiphospholipid syndrome but are directly involved in the pathogenesis of thrombosis. PMID:21245481

  2. Antibody-targeted thrombus imaging and thrombolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guoxin; Ruan Changgeng

    1993-05-01

    In respect of thrombus imaging, the femoral arterial or venous thrombus model was prepared in dogs and imaged with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). After 4 hours of injection of 131 I-SZ-51 the radioactivity ratio between thrombus and blood (T/B) was 18 : 1 and 8 : 1 for arterial and venous thrombus respectively. The result conformed with the T/B ratio of the removed thrombus and blood after 24 hours of injection of radiotracer. It indicates that the McAb SZ-51 has a great potential to bind with thrombus. In respect of thrombolysis, the Fab(fragment, antigen-binding) fragment of McAb SZ-51 was chemically conjugated of urokinase (UK) by the disulfide-linking reagent SPDP and 2-iminothiolane. The resulting conjugate was 3 to 5 times as potent as UK in vitro in human platelet-rich plasma assay. The increase of fibrinolytic potency was accompanied by a decrease of consumption of plasminogen and fibrinogen. It shows that the increase of potency is the result of selectivity increase

  3. Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Bile Duct Tumor Thrombus, Including Cases with Obstructive Jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimo, Tatsuya; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Yokoo, Hideki; Wakayama, Kenji; Shimada, Shingo; Tsuruga, Yosuke; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT), including cases with obstructive jaundice. The study reviewed 42 HCC patients with BDTT, including six patients who needed preoperative biliary drainage due to obstructive jaundice, and 732 HCC patients without BDTT. The authors analyzed the impact of BDTT on the surgical outcomes and assessed the outcomes of hepatectomy for patients presenting with obstructive jaundice. The HCC patients with BDTT, almost all with stage 3 or 4 disease, had increased alpha-fetoprotein expression, larger tumors, and more portal vein invasion status. The survival of the HCC patients with BDTT was significantly inferior to that of the patients without BDTT (p = 0.0003). Survival did not differ significantly between the HCC patients with BDTT and those without BDTT when the two groups were matched by stage (p = 0.3366). The HCC patients with BDTT who presented with obstructive jaundice demonstrated outcomes similar to those for the HCC patients with BDTT who did not present with obstructive jaundice in terms of the overall survival rate (p = 0.5469). The perioperative outcomes for the HCC patients with BDTT did not depend on the presence or absence of preoperative jaundice. No patients in either BDTT group demonstrated 90-day mortality in this study. Hepatectomy should be considered for HCC patients with BDTT, even for patients with obstructive jaundice, because the surgical outcomes equivalent to those for HCC without BDTT can be achieved.

  4. A Therapeutic Challenge: Management of Atrial Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Burc Deser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary cause of atrial thrombi include atrial fibrillation, foreign bodies inside the atrium such as catheters and pacemaker leads, emboli of deep venous thrombus and primary or metastatic tumors of the heart. We review the clinical features, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of nine intriguing cases with atrial thrombus. Methods: This is a retrospective study of nine patients (seven female (78%, two male (33% who were diagnosed with atrial thrombi (average age of 50 ± 12 years and were treated at the Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery from February 2014 to January 2015. Among them, six patients had atrial fibrillation (one male, five female, seven patients were suffering from dispne and orthopnoea, five patients were suffering from leg swelling, seven patients had a history of hypertension and three patients had a history of mitral valve replacement surgery. Results: All patients underwent surgery except one. Four patients recovered uneventfully and discharged with oral anticoagulation (warfarin therapy (adjusted to maintain an international normalized ratio of INR between two and three times. Five of nine patients (55% died after surgery. Conclusion: The response to the thrombolytic therapy is poor, mostly ineffective and unsafe so it is often recommended as a bridge to surgery. In patients diagnosed with mechanical mitral valve thrombosis, medical therapy has the possibility of end organ emboli and also fail to resolve the organised thrombus on the stuck valve. On the other hand surgery does not always give satisfactory results. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7(4: 278-282

  5. Roles of platelet STIM1 and Orai1 in glycoprotein VI- and thrombin-dependent procoagulant activity and thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Karen; van Kruchten, Roger; Braun, Attila; Berna-Erro, Alejandro; Feijge, Marion A H; Stegner, David; van der Meijden, Paola E J; Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Varga-Szabo, David; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2010-07-30

    In platelets, STIM1 has been recognized as the key regulatory protein in store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) with Orai1 as principal Ca(2+) entry channel. Both proteins contribute to collagen-dependent arterial thrombosis in mice in vivo. It is unclear whether STIM2 is involved. A key platelet response relying on Ca(2+) entry is the surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), which accomplishes platelet procoagulant activity. We studied this response in mouse platelets deficient in STIM1, STIM2, or Orai1. Upon high shear flow of blood over collagen, Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets had greatly impaired glycoprotein (GP) VI-dependent Ca(2+) signals, and they were deficient in PS exposure and thrombus formation. In contrast, Stim2(-/-) platelets reacted normally. Upon blood flow in the presence of thrombin generation and coagulation, Ca(2+) signals of Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets were partly reduced, whereas the PS exposure and formation of fibrin-rich thrombi were normalized. Washed Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets were deficient in GPVI-induced PS exposure and prothrombinase activity, but not when thrombin was present as co-agonist. Markedly, SKF96365, a blocker of (receptor-operated) Ca(2+) entry, inhibited Ca(2+) and procoagulant responses even in Stim1(-/-) and Orai1(-/-) platelets. These data show for the first time that: (i) STIM1 and Orai1 jointly contribute to GPVI-induced SOCE, procoagulant activity, and thrombus formation; (ii) a compensating Ca(2+) entry pathway is effective in the additional presence of thrombin; (iii) platelets contain two mechanisms of Ca(2+) entry and PS exposure, only one relying on STIM1-Orai1 interaction.

  6. Defective angiogenesis delays thrombus resolution: a potential pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzenboeck, Adelheid; Winter, Max P; Schubert, Uwe; Voswinckel, Robert; Frey, Maria K; Jakowitsch, Johannes; Alimohammadi, Arman; Hobohm, Lukas; Mangold, Andreas; Bergmeister, Helga; Sibilia, Maria; Wagner, Erwin F; Mayer, Eckhard; Klepetko, Walter; Hoelzenbein, Thomas J; Preissner, Klaus T; Lang, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Restoration of patency is a natural target of vascular remodeling following venous thrombosis that involves vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells as well as leukocytes. Acute pulmonary emboli usually resolve within six months. However, in some instances, thrombi transform into fibrous vascular obstructions, resulting in occlusion of the deep veins, or in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We proposed that dysregulated thrombus angiogenesis may contribute to thrombus persistence. Approach and Results Mice with an endothelial-cell-specific conditional deletion of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2/kinase insert domain protein receptor (VEGF-R2/Kdr) were utilized in a model of stagnant flow venous thrombosis closely resembling human deep vein thrombosis. Biochemical and functional analyses were performed on pulmonary endarterectomy specimens from patients with CTEPH, a human model of non-resolving venous thromboembolism. Endothelial cell-specific deletion of Kdr and subsequent ablation of thrombus vascularization delayed thrombus resolution. In accordance with these findings, organized human CTEPH thrombi were largely devoid of vascular structures. Several vessel-specific genes such as KDR, vascular endothelial cadherin and podoplanin were expressed at lower levels in white CTEPH thrombi than in organizing deep vein thrombi and organizing thrombi from aortic aneurysms. In addition, red CTEPH thrombi attenuated the angiogenic response induced by VEGF. Conclusions In the present work, we propose a mechanism of thrombus non-resolution demonstrating that endothelial cell-specific deletion of Kdr abates thrombus vessel formation, misguiding thrombus resolution. Medical conditions associated with the development of CTEPH may be compromising early thrombus angiogenesis. PMID:24526692

  7. Interobserver Variability in Target Definition for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With and Without Portal Vein Thrombus: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Theodore S., E-mail: tshong1@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kim, Tae K. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital and Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shyn, Paul [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Seong, Jinsil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Haddock, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Cheng, Jason C. [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Feng, Mary U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital/McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Crane, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Defining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gross tumor volume (GTV) requires multimodal imaging, acquired in different perfusion phases. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the variability in contouring and to establish guidelines and educational recommendations for reproducible HCC contouring for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Anonymous, multiphasic planning computed tomography scans obtained from 3 patients with HCC were identified and distributed to a panel of 11 gastrointestinal radiation oncologists. Panelists were asked the number of HCC cases they treated in the past year. Case 1 had no vascular involvement, case 2 had extensive portal vein involvement, and case 3 had minor branched portal vein involvement. The agreement between the contoured total GTVs (primary + vascular GTV) was assessed using the generalized kappa statistic. Agreement interpretation was evaluated using Landis and Koch's interpretation of strength of agreement. The S95 contour, defined using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm consensus at the 95% confidence level, was created for each case. Results: Of the 11 panelists, 3 had treated >25 cases in the past year, 2 had treated 10 to 25 cases, 2 had treated 5 to 10 cases, 2 had treated 1 to 5 cases, 1 had treated 0 cases, and 1 did not respond. Near perfect agreement was seen for case 1, and substantial agreement was seen for cases 2 and 3. For case 2, there was significant heterogeneity in the volume identified as tumor thrombus (range 0.58-40.45 cc). For case 3, 2 panelists did not include the branched portal vein thrombus, and 7 panelists contoured thrombus separately from the primary tumor, also showing significant heterogeneity in volume of tumor thrombus (range 4.52-34.27 cc). Conclusions: In a group of experts, excellent agreement was seen in contouring total GTV. Heterogeneity exists in the definition of portal vein thrombus that may impact treatment

  8. A case of huge colon carcinoma and right renal angiomyolipoma accompanied by proximal deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and tumor thrombus in the renal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kuno, Hirofumi; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Shin; Akasu, Takayuki; Moriya, Yoshihiro

    2008-10-01

    A preoperative inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is reported to be effective in surgical cases with proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or in which pulmonary embolism (PE) has already developed, and considered to be at high risk of developing secondary fatal PE during or after surgery. However, guidelines for using an IVC filter have yet to be established. The patient in the present report had two huge tumors, ascending colon cancer and renal angiomyolipoma, which occupied the entire right half of the abdomen, coexisting PE, DVT and tumor thrombus in the right renal vein. Secondary PE is fatal in the perioperative period, therefore, the vena cava filters were preoperatively inserted into the supra- and the infrarenal IVC. We successfully removed the tumors without complications. The patient is alive without tumor recurrence and PE or recurrent DVT 1 year and 6 months after surgery. The coexistence of two huge abdominal tumors as potential causes of PE and DVT is extremely rare, and we could have safely undergone the operation, using two vena cava filters in the supra- and infrarenal IVC.

  9. A Case of Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes (MELAS) Syndrome with Intracardiac Thrombus [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jung-Chul; Seol, Myung Do; Yoon, Jin Won; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Dong-Keun; Choi, Yong Hoon; Ahn, Hyo Seong; Cho, Wook Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a multisystem clinical syndrome manifested by mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and recurrent stroke-like episodes. A 27-year-old female with MELAS syndrome presented with cerebral infarction. Echocardiography revealed a thrombus attached to the apex of the hypertrophied left ventricle, with decreased systolic function. The embolism of the intracardiac thrombus might have been the cause of stroke. There should be more consideration given to the increased possibility of intracardiac thrombus formation when a MELAS patient with cardiac involvement is encountered.

  10. Measurement of Thrombus Flux Using Transesophageal Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Hirai, Kazuki; Aoki, Masami; Miyagi, Jin; Suzuki, Masahiko; Moriya, Hideshige; Hachiya, Hiroyuki

    2006-05-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) are serious problem of total knee replacement (TKR). These diseases may be caused by a thrombus formed during the TKR operation. Therefore, understanding the flow volume of thrombus is important for curing and preventing PTE. In this paper, we tried to understanding the situation of the flow of thrombus by using transesophageal echocardiography movies. We applied the signal processing technique the FSET to extract the anomalous information from ultrasonic echo image. As a result of processing, the time change of the flow volume of thrombus was confirmed.

  11. Roles of Platelet STIM1 and Orai1 in Glycoprotein VI- and Thrombin-dependent Procoagulant Activity and Thrombus Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Karen; van Kruchten, Roger; Braun, Attila; Berna-Erro, Alejandro; Feijge, Marion A. H.; Stegner, David; van der Meijden, Paola E. J.; Kuijpers, Marijke J. E.; Varga-Szabo, David; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    In platelets, STIM1 has been recognized as the key regulatory protein in store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) with Orai1 as principal Ca2+ entry channel. Both proteins contribute to collagen-dependent arterial thrombosis in mice in vivo. It is unclear whether STIM2 is involved. A key platelet response relying on Ca2+ entry is the surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), which accomplishes platelet procoagulant activity. We studied this response in mouse platelets deficient in STIM1, STIM2, or Orai1. Upon high shear flow of blood over collagen, Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets had greatly impaired glycoprotein (GP) VI-dependent Ca2+ signals, and they were deficient in PS exposure and thrombus formation. In contrast, Stim2−/− platelets reacted normally. Upon blood flow in the presence of thrombin generation and coagulation, Ca2+ signals of Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets were partly reduced, whereas the PS exposure and formation of fibrin-rich thrombi were normalized. Washed Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets were deficient in GPVI-induced PS exposure and prothrombinase activity, but not when thrombin was present as co-agonist. Markedly, SKF96365, a blocker of (receptor-operated) Ca2+ entry, inhibited Ca2+ and procoagulant responses even in Stim1−/− and Orai1−/− platelets. These data show for the first time that: (i) STIM1 and Orai1 jointly contribute to GPVI-induced SOCE, procoagulant activity, and thrombus formation; (ii) a compensating Ca2+ entry pathway is effective in the additional presence of thrombin; (iii) platelets contain two mechanisms of Ca2+ entry and PS exposure, only one relying on STIM1-Orai1 interaction. PMID:20519511

  12. Role of newly formed platelets in thrombus formation in rat after clopidogrel treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuijpers, Marijke J E; Megens, Remco T A; Nikookhesal, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Platelet P2Y₁₂ receptors play an important role in arterial thrombosis by stimulating thrombus growth. Both irreversibly (clopidogrel) and reversibly binding (ticagrelor, AZD6140) P2Y₁₂ antagonists are clinically used for restricted periods, but possible differences in platelet function recovery ...

  13. Measurement of thrombus flux using transesophageal Echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Hirai, Kazuki; Aoki, Masami; Miyagi, Jin; Suzuki, Masahiko; Moriya, Hideshige; Hachiya Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) are serious problem of total knee replacement (TKR). These diseases may be caused by a thrombus formed during the TKR operation. Therefore, understanding the flow volume of thrombus is important for curing and preventing PTE. In this paper, we tried to understanding the situation of the flow of thrombus by using transesophageal echocardiography movies. We applied the signal processing technique the fiber structure extraction technique (FSET) to extract the anomalous information from ultrasonic echo image. As a result of processing, the time change of the flow volume of thrombus was confirmed. (author)

  14. Sixty-Four-Section Cardiac Computed Tomography in Mechanical Prosthetic Heart Valve Dysfunction: Thrombus or Pannus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Sabahattin; Özkan, Mehmet; Kalçik, Macit; Gürsoy, Ozan Mustafa; Astarcioğlu, Mehmet Ali; Karakoyun, Süleyman; Aykan, Ahmet Çağri; Biteker, Murat; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Kaya, Hasan; Yesin, Mahmut; Duran, Nilüfer Ekşi; Sevinç, Deniz; Güneysu, Tahsin

    2015-12-01

    Distinguishing pannus and thrombus in patients with prosthetic valve dysfunction is essential for the selection of proper treatment. We have investigated the utility of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in distinguishing between pannus and thrombus, the latter amenable to thrombolysis. Sixty-two (23 men, mean age 44±14 years) patients with suspected mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction assessed by transesophageal echocardiography were included in this prospective observational trial. Subsequently, MDCT was performed before any treatment was started. Periprosthetic masses were detected by MDCT in 46 patients, and their attenuation values were measured as Hounsfield Units (HU). Patients underwent thrombolysis unless contraindicated, and those with a contraindication or failed thrombolysis underwent surgery. A mass which was completely lysed or surgically detected as a clot was classified as thrombus, whereas a mass which was surgically detected as tissue overgrowth was classified as pannus. A definitive diagnosis could be achieved in 37 patients with 39 MDCT masses (22 thrombus and 17 pannus). The mean attenuation value of 22 thrombotic masses was significantly lower than that in 17 pannus (87±59 versus 322±122; Ppannus from thrombus. Complete lysis was more common for masses with HUpannus overgrowth, whereas a lower value is associated with thrombus formation. A higher attenuation (HU>90) is associated with reduced lysis rates. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Arterial 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake reflects balloon catheter-induced thrombus formation and tissue factor expression via nuclear factor-κB in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Songji

    2013-01-01

    Imaging modalities to assess atherosclerotic plaque thrombogenicity have not been established, so in this study the relationship between [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake and thrombus formation was investigated in rabbit atherosclerotic arteries. Atherosclerotic plaque was induced in the iliacofemoral artery by balloon injury and a 0.5% cholesterol diet. At 3 weeks after the first balloon injury, the arteries were visualized by 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) imaging 2 h after an 18 F-FDG infusion, and then arterial thrombus was induced by a second balloon injury of both iliacofemoral arteries. Imaging with 18 F-FDG-PET revealed significantly more radioactivity along the injured (0.63±0.12 standardized uptake value (SUV)max), than the contralateral non-injured artery (0.34±0.08 SUVmax, n=17, P 18 F-FDG uptake reflects the thrombogenicity of atherosclerotic plaque following balloon injury. (author)

  16. Extensive tumor thrombus of hepatocellular carcinoma in the entire portal venous system detected on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Puranik, Ameya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Detection of thrombus is usually an incidental finding on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies. Nevertheless this is an important finding in terms of disease prognostication and in planning the treatment strategy. We herein report a case of a 50-years-old male, a diagnosed case of hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive hypermetabolic thrombus involving the entire portal venous system. (author)

  17. Superior Venacava Thrombus-A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay Sah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior venacava (SVC thrombus is a condition requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment. SVC thrombus causes obstruction of blood flow through the SVC resulting in severe decrease in venous return from the head, neck and upper extremity to the heart. The presenting symptoms of SVC obstruction include headache, hoarseness of voice, dyspnea, and laryngeal edema, dizziness, swelling of face, neck, and upper extremity. We hereby present a case of SVC thrombus who presented to the casualty department of COMS-TH with features of SVC syndrome which was diagnosed and managed promptly.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:33-5.

  18. Computed tomographic diagnosis of calcified inferior vena cava thrombus in a child with Wilm's tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirks, D R; Ponzi, J W; Korobkin, M

    1980-01-01

    A calcified thrombus in the inferior vena cava of infants and children may be imaged by computed tomography. The precise location of the calcification within the inferior vena cava may be confirmed by computed tomographic scanning during injection of intravenous contrast material.

  19. RhoG protein regulates platelet granule secretion and thrombus formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Harper, Matthew T; Pope, Robert J; Savage, Joshua S; Williams, Christopher M; Mundell, Stuart J; Heesom, Kate J; Bass, Mark; Mellor, Harry; Poole, Alastair W

    2013-11-22

    Rho GTPases such as Rac, RhoA, and Cdc42 are vital for normal platelet function, but the role of RhoG in platelets has not been studied. In other cells, RhoG orchestrates processes integral to platelet function, including actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and membrane trafficking. We therefore hypothesized that RhoG would play a critical role in platelets. Here, we show that RhoG is expressed in human and mouse platelets and is activated by both collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin stimulation. We used RhoG(-/-) mice to study the function of RhoG in platelets. Integrin activation and aggregation were reduced in RhoG(-/-) platelets stimulated by CRP, but responses to thrombin were normal. The central defect in RhoG(-/-) platelets was reduced secretion from α-granules, dense granules, and lysosomes following CRP stimulation. The integrin activation and aggregation defects could be rescued by ADP co-stimulation, indicating that they are a consequence of diminished dense granule secretion. Defective dense granule secretion in RhoG(-/-) platelets limited recruitment of additional platelets to growing thrombi in flowing blood in vitro and translated into reduced thrombus formation in vivo. Interestingly, tail bleeding times were normal in RhoG(-/-) mice, suggesting that the functions of RhoG in platelets are particularly relevant to thrombotic disorders.

  20. CORONARY EMBOLISM WITH FRAGMENTED THROMBUS FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE IN PATIENT WITH POSTINFARCTION ANEURYSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. F. Salakhova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrombus formation in the left ventricle (LV cavity is a frequent complication of myocardial infarction (MI as well as a risk factor for peripheral arterial embolism. Probability of intraventricular thrombus depends on MI location and its therapy. A case of coronary embolism in a patient with anterior MI and thrombus in the LV aneurysm is considered in details. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in the first 90 minutes after admission was performed. Decision to appoint a three-component antithrombotic therapy (acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, warfarin was made on the 4th day of disease onset taking into account the combination of MI, stent placement in the anterior interventricular artery and the presence of left ventricular aneurysm with parietal thrombus. Recurrence of MI developed on the 9th day of disease onset. Aspiration thromboembolectomy was performed taking into account thrombosis of two coronary arteries. Warfarin therapy was discontinued in connection with subsequent clot lysis and development of not intensive nosebleed. Subsequent MI course was uneventful. In conclusion, even in spite of the timely achievement of PCI and early reperfusion, MI course can be complicated by thrombosis of the left ventricle and subsequent development of thromboembolic complications.

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia Leading to Transient Ischemic Attacks due to Intraluminal Carotid Artery Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Z. Batur Caglayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive thrombocytosis secondary to iron-deficiency anemia (IDA is a rare but recognized cause of stroke. We report the case of a patient with iron-deficiency anemia presenting with multiple transient ischemic attacks (TIA due to intraluminal thrombus of an internal carotid artery. The putative mechanisms underlying anemia and stroke syndromes are not completely understood, and it is believed that iron deficiency may cause ischemic stroke by several potential mechanisms. Thrombocytosis is often associated with iron deficiency, and microcytosis produces a reduction in the red cell deformability and could produce a hypercoagulable state. The platelet count and function observed in iron-deficiency anemia could act synergistically to promote thrombus formation, especially in the setting of an underlying atherosclerotic disease. The presence of floating thrombus in a patient with clinical and MRI evidence of stroke represents a significant therapeutic dilemma and requires immediate decision about treatment.

  2. Comparison of the effect of dabigatran and dalteparin on thrombus stability in a murine model of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, S A; Saldanha, L J; Vaezzadeh, N; Zhou, J; Ni, R; Gross, P L

    2016-01-01

    ESSENTIALS: Does thrombus stability alter the presentation of venous thromboembolism and do anticoagulants alter this? In a murine model, we imaged a femoral vein thrombus and quantified emboli in the pulmonary arteries. Dabigatran decreases thrombus stability via factor XIII increasing embolization and pulmonary emboli. This cautions against the unapproved use of dabigatran for acute initial treatment of deep vein thrombosis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a collective term for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Thrombus instability possibly contributes to progression of DVT to PE, and direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) may alter this. To develop a model to assess thrombus stability and its link to PE burden, and identify whether DTIs, in contrast to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), alter this correlation. Twelve minutes after ferric chloride-induced thrombus formation in the femoral vein of female mice, saline, dalteparin (LMWH) or dabigatran (DTI) was administered. Thrombus size and embolic events breaking off from the thrombus were quantified before treatment and at 10-min intervals after treatment for 2 h using intravital videomicroscopy. Lungs were stained for the presence of PE. Thrombus size was similar over time and between treatment groups. Total and large embolic events and pulmonary emboli were highest after treatment with dabigatran. Variations in amounts of pulmonary embolic events were not attributed to variations in thrombus size. Large embolic events correlated with the number of emboli per lung slice independent of treatment. Embolization in factor XIII deficient (FXIII(-/-) ) saline-treated mice was greater than that in wild-type (WT) saline-treated mice, but was similar to WT dabigatran-treated mice. We have developed a mouse model of VTE that can quantify emboli and correlate this with PE burden. Consistent with clinical data, dabigatran, a DTI, acutely decreases thrombus stability and increases PE burden compared with

  3. Detection of extracellular genomic DNA scaffold in human thrombus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oklu, Rahmi; Albadawi, Hassan; Watkins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    into thrombus remodeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten human thrombus samples were collected during cases of thrombectomy and open surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (five samples 1 y old). Additionally, an acute murine hindlimb ischemia model was created to evaluate...... thrombus samples in mice. Human sections were immunostained for the H2A/H2B/DNA complex, myeloperoxidase, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor. Mouse sections were immunostained with the H2A antibody. All samples were further evaluated after hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome staining. RESULTS......: An extensive network of extracellular histone/DNA complex was demonstrated in the matrix of human ex vivo thrombus. This network is present throughout the highly cellular acute thrombus. However, in chronic thrombi, detection of the histone/DNA network was predominantly in regions of low collagen content...

  4. Contemporary management of symptomatic primary aortic mural thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Himanshu; Meda, Narendranadh; Vora, Simit; George, Robbie K; Tripathi, Ramesh K

    2014-12-01

    Primary aortic mural thrombus (PAMT) is an uncommon condition but an important source of noncardiogenic emboli with a difficult diagnosis and a high rate of complications, including high mortality. We report our experience of thromboembolic disease from PAMT and review its contemporary management. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of all patients who presented with acute occlusion of a limb or visceral vessels between January 2011 and September 2013 was performed. A total of 88 patients presented with acute occlusion of the extremities or visceral arteries. All underwent extensive evaluation for the possible source of the embolism. Of these 88 patients, 19 patients (mean age, 41.2 years; male:female ratio, 1:2.1) were found to have aortic mural thrombus as the source of distal embolism. Thrombus was located in the thoracic aorta in 10 patients, in the perivisceral aorta in three patients, and in the infrarenal aorta in six patients. Thrombus in the thoracic aorta was treated with stent grafts in four patients, bare metal stents in three patients, and anticoagulation alone in two patients. In the suprarenal abdominal aorta, all three patients underwent trapdoor aortic thrombectomy. Infrarenal aortic thrombus was managed by aortobifemoral embolectomy in two patients, aortic stenting in two patients, surgical thrombectomy in one patient, and anticoagulation alone in one patient. Successful treatment, defined as freedom from further embolic events or recurrence of thrombus, was achieved in 14 of 19 patients (76.4%) with a mean follow-up period of 16.2 months (range, 2-28 months). There were four (21%) thrombus-related deaths, all due to primary thromboembolic insults. One patient needed a below-knee amputation because of a recurrent thrombotic episode. Symptomatic PAMT is an uncommon but important source of noncardiogenic embolus. It appears to occur more frequently in young women. Endovascular coverage of the aortic thrombus, when feasible

  5. Prediction of thrombus-related mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction using transesophageal echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. S.; Tiong, I. Y.; Asher, C. R.; Murphy, M. T.; Thomas, J. D.; Griffin, B. P.

    2000-01-01

    Identification of thrombus-related mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction (MPVD) has important therapeutic implications. We sought to develop an algorithm, combining clinical and echocardiographic parameters, for prediction of thrombus-related MPVD in a series of 53 patients (24 men, age 52 +/- 16 years) who had intraoperative diagnosis of thrombus or pannus from 1992 to 1997. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed to identify predictors of thrombus and pannus. Prevalence of thrombus and diagnostic yields relative to the number of predictors were determined. There were 22 patients with thrombus, 19 patients with pannus, and 12 patients with both. Forty-two of 53 masses were visualized using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), including 29 of 34 thrombi or both thrombi and panni and 13 of 19 isolated panni. Predictors of thrombus or mixed presentation include mobile mass (p = 0.009), attachment to occluder (p = 0.02), elevated gradients (p = 0.04), and an international normalized ratio of or = 1 predictor. The prevalence of thrombus in the presence of or = 3 predictors is 14%, 69%, and 91%, respectively. Thus, TEE is sensitive in the identification of abnormal mass in the setting of MPVD. An algorithm based on clinical and transesophageal echocardiographic predictors may be useful to estimate the likelihood of thrombus in the setting of MPVD. In the presence of > or = 3 predictors, the probability of thrombus is high.

  6. Large mobile thrombus in non-atherosclerotic thoracic aorta as the source of peripheral arterial embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkovic Zoran

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of thrombi in the atherosclerotic and/or aneurysmatic aorta with peripheral arterial embolism is a common scenario. Thrombus formation in a morphologically normal aorta, however, is a rare event. A 50 years old woman was admitted to the mergency department for pain, coldness, and anesthesia in the the left foot. She had a 25 years history of cigarette smoking, a history of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia. An extensive serologic survey for hypercoagulability, including antiphospholipid antibodies, and vasculitis disorders was negative. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a large, pedunculated and hypermobile thrombus attached to the aortic wall 5 cm distal of the left subclavian artery. The patient was admitted to the surgery department, where a 15 cm long fresh, parietal thrombus could be removed from the aorta showing no macroscopic wall lesions or any other morphologic abnormalities. This case report demonstrates the possibility of evolving a large, pedunculated thrombus in a morphologically intact aorta in a postmenopausal woman with thrombogenic conditions such as hyperfibrinogenemia, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and HRT. For these patients, profiling the individual risk and weighing the benefits against the potential risks is warranted before prescribing HRT.

  7. Mice with deleted multimerin 1 and alpha-synuclein genes have impaired platelet adhesion and impaired thrombus formation that is corrected by multimerin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheman, Adili; Tasneem, Subia; Ni, Heyu; Hayward, Catherine P M

    2010-05-01

    Multimerin 1 is a stored platelet and endothelial cell adhesive protein that shows significant conservation. In vitro, multimerin 1 supports platelet adhesion and it also binds to collagen and enhances von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet adhesion to collagen. As selective, multimerin 1 deficient mice have not been generated, we investigated multimerin 1 effects on platelet adhesion using a subpopulation of C57BL/6J mice with tandem deletion of the genes for multimerin 1 and alpha-synuclein, a protein that inhibits alpha-granule release in vitro. We postulated that multimerin 1/alpha-synuclein deficient mice might show impaired platelet adhesive function from multimerin 1 deficiency and increased alpha-granule release from alpha-synuclein deficiency. Platelet function was assessed by intravital microscopy, after ferric chloride injury, using untreated and human multimerin 1-transfused multimerin 1/alpha-synuclein deficient mice, and by in vitro assays of adhesion, aggregation and thrombin-induced P-selectin release. Multimerin 1/alpha-synuclein deficient mice showed impaired platelet adhesion and their defective thrombus formation at sites of vessel injury improved with multimerin 1 transfusion. Although multimerin 1/alpha-synuclein deficient platelets showed increased P-selectin release at low thrombin concentrations, they also showed impaired adhesion to collagen, and attenuated aggregation with thrombin, that improved with added multimerin 1. Our data suggest that multimerin 1 supports platelet adhesive functions and thrombus formation, which will be important to verify by generating and testing selective multimerin 1 deficient mice. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Incidence of thromboembolism following detection by trans-oesophageal echocardiography of left atrial thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Mahon

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: This is the only study to date that has looked at the incidence of ischemic stroke following a confirmed LAA thrombus, LA thrombus or pre-thrombus state. This single centre study found low stroke rates over a six month follow-up period in patients with a confirmed LAA thrombus, LA thrombus or pre-thrombus state and optimization of OAC. Larger studies would be required to confirm these findings.

  9. Categorization of aortic aneurysm thrombus morphology by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motte, Louise de la, E-mail: louise.de.la.motte@rh.regionh.dk [Department of Vascular Surgery, Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, Mads Møller, E-mail: phd@medit.dk [Department of Radiology, Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Thomsen, Carsten, E-mail: carsten.thomsen@rh.regionh.dk [Department of Radiology, Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Vogt, Katja, E-mail: Vogt@dadlnet.dk [Department of Vascular Surgery, Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Schroeder, Torben V., E-mail: Torben.Veith.schroeder@rh.regionh.dk [Department of Vascular Surgery, Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Lonn, Lars, E-mail: lonn.lars@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery and Department of Radiology, Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-10-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed for qualitative categorization of intraluminal thrombus morphology. We aimed to correlate the qualitative MRI categorization previously described to quantitative measurements of signal intensity and to compare morphological characteristics of intraluminal thrombus specimens to the appearance on magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Thirty-four patients undergoing open surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm had a preoperative MRI obtained with a 1.5 T magnet. Qualitative categorization was performed (blinded and in consensus) and correlated to intraluminal thrombus to muscle signal-intensity ratios. Morphology of intraluminal thrombus specimens collected during surgery were compared to the magnetic resonance imaging categories and specimen weight was correlated to thrombus volume measured on preoperative computer tomography angiography. Results: Blinded MRI categorization resulted in agreement in 22 out of 34 intraluminal thrombi (Kappa value 0.3, p = 0.006). Medians (p = 0.004) and distribution (p = 0.002) of signal-intensity ratios varied significantly across the three MRI categories obtained by consensus. Heterogeneous and homogenous specimen appearance corresponded to similar appearances on MRI in 78% and 55% respectively, resulting in an overall Kappa = 0.4 (p = 0.04). Intraluminal thrombus volume and weight correlated well (r{sub s} 0.831, p < 0.001) with a mean difference of 60 g (95% CI 38–80 g), without proportional bias. Conclusion: Qualitative evaluation of intraluminal thrombus morphology based on MRI can be quantified by measuring signal-intensity ratios. Concurrently a fair agreement to blinded qualitative evaluation of thrombus specimens can be obtained. However, the evaluation is impaired by loss of a large proportion of thrombus during sampling.

  10. Categorization of aortic aneurysm thrombus morphology by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, Louise de la; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Thomsen, Carsten; Vogt, Katja; Schroeder, Torben V.; Lonn, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed for qualitative categorization of intraluminal thrombus morphology. We aimed to correlate the qualitative MRI categorization previously described to quantitative measurements of signal intensity and to compare morphological characteristics of intraluminal thrombus specimens to the appearance on magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Thirty-four patients undergoing open surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm had a preoperative MRI obtained with a 1.5 T magnet. Qualitative categorization was performed (blinded and in consensus) and correlated to intraluminal thrombus to muscle signal-intensity ratios. Morphology of intraluminal thrombus specimens collected during surgery were compared to the magnetic resonance imaging categories and specimen weight was correlated to thrombus volume measured on preoperative computer tomography angiography. Results: Blinded MRI categorization resulted in agreement in 22 out of 34 intraluminal thrombi (Kappa value 0.3, p = 0.006). Medians (p = 0.004) and distribution (p = 0.002) of signal-intensity ratios varied significantly across the three MRI categories obtained by consensus. Heterogeneous and homogenous specimen appearance corresponded to similar appearances on MRI in 78% and 55% respectively, resulting in an overall Kappa = 0.4 (p = 0.04). Intraluminal thrombus volume and weight correlated well (r s 0.831, p < 0.001) with a mean difference of 60 g (95% CI 38–80 g), without proportional bias. Conclusion: Qualitative evaluation of intraluminal thrombus morphology based on MRI can be quantified by measuring signal-intensity ratios. Concurrently a fair agreement to blinded qualitative evaluation of thrombus specimens can be obtained. However, the evaluation is impaired by loss of a large proportion of thrombus during sampling

  11. Development of a real-time and quantitative thrombus sensor for an extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Arai, Hirokuni; Maruyama, Osamu

    2018-01-01

    We developed an optical thrombus sensor for a monopivot extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump. In this study, we investigated its quantitative performance for thrombus detection in acute animal experiments of left ventricular assist using the pump on pathogen-free pigs. Optical fibers were set in the driver unit of the pump. The incident light at the near-infrared wavelength of 810 nm was aimed at the pivot bearing, and the resulting scattered light was guided to the optical fibers. The detected signal was analyzed to obtain the thrombus formation level. As a result, real-time and quantitative monitoring of the thrombus surface area on the pivot bearing was achieved with an accuracy of 3.6 ± 2.3 mm 2 . In addition, the sensing method using the near-infrared light was not influenced by changes in the oxygen saturation and the hematocrit. It is expected that the developed sensor will be useful for optimal anticoagulation management for long-term extracorporeal circulation therapies.

  12. Iodine-125 Seeds Strand for Treatment of Tumor Thrombus in Inferior Vena Cava: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wen; Yan, Zhiping; Luo, Jianjun; Fang, Zhuting; Wu, Linlin; Liu, QingXin; Qu, Xudong; Liu, Lingxiao; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish an animal model of implanted inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (IVCTT) and to evaluate the effect of linear iodine-125 seeds strand in treating implanted IVCTT. Methods: Tumor cell line VX 2 was inoculated subcutaneously into New Zealand rabbit to develop the parent tumor. The tumor strip was inoculated into inferior vena cava (IVC) to establish the IVCTT model. The IVCTT was confirmed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) after 2 weeks. Twelve rabbits with IVCTT were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group (group T; n = 6) underwent Iodine-125 seeds brachytherapy, and the control group (group C; n = 6) underwent blank seeds strand. The blood laboratory examination (including blood routine examination, hepatic and renal function), body weight, survival time, and IVCTT volume by MDCT were monitored. All rabbits were dissected postmortem, and the therapeutic effects were evaluated on the basis of histopathology. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index (PI) and apoptosis index (AI) of IVCTT were compared between two groups. T test, Wilcoxon rank test, and Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis were used. Results: The success rate of establishing IVCTT was 100 %. The body weight loss and cachexia of rabbits in group C appeared earlier than in group T. Body weight in the third week, the mean survival time, PI, AI in groups T and C were 2.23 ± 0.12 kg, 57.83 ± 8.68 days, (16.73 ± 5.18 %), (29.47 ± 7.18 %), and 2.03 ± 0.13 kg, 43.67 ± 5.28 days, (63.01 ± 2.01 %), (6.02 ± 2.93 %), respectively. There were statistically significant differences between group T and group C (P < 0.05). The IVCTT volume of group T was remarkably smaller than that of group C. Conclusions: Injecting and suspensory fixing VX2 tumor strip into IVC is a reliable method to establish IVCTT animal model. The linear Iodine-125 seeds strand brachytherapy was a safe and effective method for treating IVCTT in rabbit model

  13. Iodine-125 Seeds Strand for Treatment of Tumor Thrombus in Inferior Vena Cava: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wen; Yan, Zhiping; Luo, Jianjun; Fang, Zhuting; Wu, Linlin; Liu, QingXin; Qu, Xudong; Liu, Lingxiao; Wang, Jianhua [Fudan University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital (China)

    2013-10-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish an animal model of implanted inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (IVCTT) and to evaluate the effect of linear iodine-125 seeds strand in treating implanted IVCTT. Methods: Tumor cell line VX{sub 2} was inoculated subcutaneously into New Zealand rabbit to develop the parent tumor. The tumor strip was inoculated into inferior vena cava (IVC) to establish the IVCTT model. The IVCTT was confirmed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) after 2 weeks. Twelve rabbits with IVCTT were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group (group T; n = 6) underwent Iodine-125 seeds brachytherapy, and the control group (group C; n = 6) underwent blank seeds strand. The blood laboratory examination (including blood routine examination, hepatic and renal function), body weight, survival time, and IVCTT volume by MDCT were monitored. All rabbits were dissected postmortem, and the therapeutic effects were evaluated on the basis of histopathology. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index (PI) and apoptosis index (AI) of IVCTT were compared between two groups. T test, Wilcoxon rank test, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis were used. Results: The success rate of establishing IVCTT was 100 %. The body weight loss and cachexia of rabbits in group C appeared earlier than in group T. Body weight in the third week, the mean survival time, PI, AI in groups T and C were 2.23 {+-} 0.12 kg, 57.83 {+-} 8.68 days, (16.73 {+-} 5.18 %), (29.47 {+-} 7.18 %), and 2.03 {+-} 0.13 kg, 43.67 {+-} 5.28 days, (63.01 {+-} 2.01 %), (6.02 {+-} 2.93 %), respectively. There were statistically significant differences between group T and group C (P < 0.05). The IVCTT volume of group T was remarkably smaller than that of group C. Conclusions: Injecting and suspensory fixing VX2 tumor strip into IVC is a reliable method to establish IVCTT animal model. The linear Iodine-125 seeds strand brachytherapy was a safe and effective method for treating IVCTT

  14. Split-bolus single-phase cardiac multidetector computed tomography for reliable detection of left atrial thrombus. Comparison to transesophageal echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, W.; Zwaka, P.A.; Sohns, J.M.; Schwarz, A.; Lotz, J. [University Medical Center Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Sohns, C.; Vollmann, D.; Zabel, M.; Hasenfuss, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Pneumology; Schneider, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Statistics

    2014-11-15

    Evaluation of a new cardiac MDCT protocol using a split-bolus contrast injection protocol and single MDCT scan for reliable diagnosis of LA/LAA thrombi in comparison to TEE, optimizing radiation exposure and use of contrast agent. A total of 182 consecutive patients with drug refractory AF scheduled for PVI (62.6% male, mean age: 64.1 ± 10.2 years) underwent routine diagnostic work including TEE and cardiac MDCT for the evaluation of LA/LAA anatomy and thrombus formation between November 2010 and March 2012. Contrast media injection was split into a pre-bolus of 30 ml and main bolus of 70 ml iodinated contrast agent separated by a short time delay. In this study, split-bolus cardiac MDCT identified 14 of 182 patients with filling defects of the LA/LAA. In all of these 14 patients, abnormalities were found in TEE. All 5 of the 14 patients with thrombus formation in cardiac MDCT were confirmed by TEE. MDCT was 100% accurate for thrombus, with strong but not perfect overall results for SEC equivalent on MDCT.

  15. Segmentation, Reconstruction, and Analysis of Blood Thrombus Formation in 3D 2-Photon Microscopy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhiliang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of segmenting, reconstructing, and analyzing the structure growth of thrombi (clots in blood vessels in vivo based on 2-photon microscopic image data. First, we develop an algorithm for segmenting clots in 3D microscopic images based on density-based clustering and methods for dealing with imaging artifacts. Next, we apply the union-of-balls (or alpha-shape algorithm to reconstruct the boundary of clots in 3D. Finally, we perform experimental studies and analysis on the reconstructed clots and obtain quantitative data of thrombus growth and structures. We conduct experiments on laser-induced injuries in vessels of two types of mice (the wild type and the type with low levels of coagulation factor VII and analyze and compare the developing clot structures based on their reconstructed clots from image data. The results we obtain are of biomedical significance. Our quantitative analysis of the clot composition leads to better understanding of the thrombus development, and is valuable to the modeling and verification of computational simulation of thrombogenesis.

  16. An unexpected complication of acute pancreatitis: Intra-cardiac thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; Gümüşdağ, Ayça; Börklü, Edibe Betül; Dayı, Şennur Ünal; Avcı, İlhan İlker; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Güngör, Barış; Karabay, Can Yücel; Kozan, Ömer

    2017-05-01

    Left atrial thrombus after acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare clinical statement. Because of induction of systemic prothrombotic process by AP; some patients with underlying risk factors may develop an intra-cardiac thrombus. We present a 53years-old-woman with moderate mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation. However the patient was under warfarin treatment, she developed a big left atrial big thrombus which was originated from left atrial appendage after she was suffered from AP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of 99Tcm-annexin V distribution in inferior vena cava thrombus models of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dayong; Zhang Wenyan; Bian Yanzhu; Hu Yujing

    2013-01-01

    To study 99 Tc m -Annexin V distribution in inferior vena cava thrombus models of rabbits and uptake of 99 Tc m -Annexin V in fresh and old venous thrombus. Rabbits (n=15) were randomly grouped into 3 groups (the fresh thrombus group, old thrombus group, and control group). The rabbits of two thrombus groups developed inferior vena cava thrombus models by operations. The control group received sham operation. The fresh thrombus group and control group rabbits were injected 99 Tc m -Annexin V after operating 1 d; the old thrombus group 14 d. After 1 h all rabbits were killed by injecting overdose pentobarbital sodium. The thrombus (or the inferior vena cava about 3 cm below inferior pole of right kidney level in the control group rabbits), blood, thrombus area inferior vena cava, head lateral inferior vena cava (except the control group), thigh muscle, stomach, myocardium, pulmonary, liver, kidney, spleen, bone and small intestine were obtained from all group rabbits. The ex tissue and blood were weighed and measured by a Well-type detector. The percentage of the injected dose per gram of ex tissue (or blood) was calculated by the above data. The thrombus to blood, thrombus area inferior vena cava, head lateral inferior vena cava and thigh muscle ratios were calculated by percentage of the injected dose per gram of ex tissue (or blood). The test was used to compare the fresh thrombus group and old thrombus group by SPSS 17.0. The percentage of' the injected dose per gram of thrombi (0.01894± 0.002 16% ID/g) in the fresh thrombus group was higher than the old thrombus group (0.00473±0.001 28% ID/g), P<0.05. The thrombus to blood, thrombus area inferior vena cava, head lateral inferior vena cava and muscle ratios (3.42±1.06, 26.32±13.60, 31.23 ±16.00, 111.62±52.23) in the fresh thrombus group were higher than the old thrombus group (0.98±0.09, 5.12±2.01, 6.25±2.38, 21.82±5.93), P<0.05 for all. All the thrombi of the fresh thrombus group were confirmed

  18. Characterization of an experimental venous thrombus model with MRI, phlebography and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, S.A.; Schiffler, S.; Gust, R.; Winterhalter, S.; Wolf, K.J.; Coupland, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Several magnetic resonance (MR) techniques designed to demonstrate the characteristic signal intensity of blood degeneration products of thrombi have been suggested, but the effect of thrombus organization on the MR display, in particular with regard to its temporal evolution, remains to be determined. It is the purpose of this study to develop a stagnation thrombus model in rabbits and to characterize thrombus at different ages with two (MR) imaging techniques, phlebography and histology. Materials and Methods: Venous stagnation thrombi were induced in the external jugular veins of rabbits using a minimally invasive radiological technique to produce artificial embolic vascular occlusion and hypercoagulability. Twenty-five animals were divided into 5 groups of 5 animals, and each group underwent 1.5 T MR imaging at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days after thrombus induction using a T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo sequence (MP-RAGE: TR 10.4 msec, TE 4.0 msec, FA 15 ) and a T2-weighted fast low-angle shot sequence (FLASH: TR 54 msec, TE 18 msec, FA15 ). The thrombus length was measured on the T1-weighted images. Thrombus conspicuity, signal intensity, and heterogeneity on T2* weighted images were described using visual scales. Radiographic venography and histology served as reference methods. Results: Thrombi were successfully induced in all animals. The overall thrombus length decreased from 43±9 (day 1 after induction) to 23±4 mm (day 9). On 3D-reconstructions of the T1-weighted images, the visible portion of the true thrombus length relative to the overall thrombus length was 0.16±0.3 (day 1), 0.24±0.3 (day 3),0.38±0.5 (day 5), 0.06±0.1 (day 7) and 0.00 (day 9). Sixteen of 25 thrombi were detectable with the T2*-weighted technique. The overall thrombus signal intensity decreased with the age of the thrombus from day 1 to day 9. The histological evaluation showed that the rabbit thrombi closely resemble human thrombi morphologically

  19. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt for Portal Hypertension in Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bin; Li, Kai; Dong, Xiaoqun; Liu, Fu-Quan

    2017-09-01

    In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), limited therapeutic options are available for portal hypertension resulted from portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). We aimed to determine safety and efficacy of TIPS for treatment of symptomatic portal hypertension in HCC with PVTT. We evaluated clinical characteristics of 95 patients with HCC and PVTT out of 992 patients who underwent TIPS. The primary endpoints included success rate, procedural mortality, serious complications, decrease in portosystemic pressure gradient, and symptom relief. The secondary endpoints included recurrence of portal hypertension, overall survival, adverse events related to treatments for HCC, and quality of life measured by Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS). Success rate of TIPS was 95.8% (91/95), with procedural mortality of 1.1%. Serious complications related to TIPS procedure occurred in 2.1% (2/95) of patients. The symptoms of portal hypertension were well relieved. Variceal bleeding was successfully controlled and terminated in 100% of patients, with a recurrence rate of 39.2% in 12 months. Refractory ascites/hydrothorax was controlled partially or completely in 92.9% of patients during 1 month after TIPS, with a recurrence rate of 17.9% in 12 months. Survival rate at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was 75.8, 52.7, 26.4, and 3.3%, respectively. No unexpected adverse event related to treatments for HCC was observed. The KPS score was 49 ± 4.5 and 63 ± 4.7 before and 1 month after TIPS, respectively (p portal hypertension in HCC with PVTT.

  20. Left atrial thrombus following bilobectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Ugur

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Left atrial free floating ball thrombus is a relatively rare event, especially without mitral valve disease. Case presentation A 61-year-old Turkish man was admitted to our hospital with a thrombus mass in his left atrium. Five months earlier, he had undergone right bilobectomy and superior bronchoplasty due to squamous cell carcinoma in the lung. The patient had no evidence of cardiac disease except atrial fibrillation and there were no defined embolizations. The thrombus mass was surgically removed. The patient was discharged from hospital on the sixth postoperative day. Conclusion Surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is a safe method for treatment. The patient should be medicated with warfarin, especially in the presence of atrial fibrillation.

  1. A Left Main Coronary Artery Thrombus Presenting as a Non St Elevation MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, U; Daberkow, D; Delord, T; Guidry, L; Sells, N R

    2017-01-01

    Left main coronary artery (LMCA); thrombus with an acute myocardial infarction identified with coronary angiography is a clinically rare condition with an extremely high mortality rate. We present a case of LMCA thrombus that presented as a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI);. A 45-year-old woman with a history of tobacco use and hyperlipidemia presented with a complaint of 10/10 "hard pain" across her chest radiating to her left shoulder and breast which woke her from sleep. The pain was constant and severe, with no alleviation with rest. She had not experienced anything like this before. Workup revealed an upward trending troponin (1.98.989.79);, and an EKG with some tachycardia but no ST elevation or T wave changes. Her CBC, CMP and coagulation studies were unremarkable. A toxicology screen was positive for opiates and benzodiazepines, medications she was on for pain and anxiety respectively. ACS protocol was started with DAPT, LMWH, Statin, ACEi, and Beta-blocker. An angiogram revealed a large thrombus in the LM coronary artery extending into the aorta with concomitant 99 percent stenosis of distal LAD. 2D Echo w/ bubble contrast was significant for PFO, akinetic apical inferior and anterior wall. The mid antero-septum and apical lateral wall were hypokinetic. Interventional Cardiology and CTS recommended conservative management with medical optimization (Continue DAPT, heparin);, watchful waiting for the thrombus to resorb. Left main coronary artery thrombosis (LMCAT); identified during coronary angiography is a rare and challenging condition. It is a life threatening condition with an approximate incidence rate of 0.8 percent . It is thought to be secondary to plaque rupture with subsequent thrombus formation that is associated with persistent hypercoagulable state, cocaine induced plaque rupture or coronary vasospasm, post-partum state and embolization of intra-cardiac masses. The patient presentation can vary from sudden cardiac death to

  2. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 Regulates Vein Wall Biomechanics in Murine Thrombus Resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh P Nguyen

    Full Text Available Deep venous thrombosis is a common vascular problem with long-term complications including post-thrombotic syndrome. Post-thrombotic syndrome consists of leg pain, swelling and ulceration that is related to incomplete or maladaptive resolution of the venous thrombus as well as loss of compliance of the vein wall. We examine the role of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, a gene important in extracellular remodeling in other vascular diseases, in mediating thrombus resolution and biomechanical changes of the vein wall.The effects of targeted deletion of MMP-9 were studied in an in vivo murine model of thrombus resolution using the FVB strain of mice. MMP-9 expression and activity significantly increased on day 3 after DVT. The lack of MMP-9 impaired thrombus resolution by 27% and this phenotype was rescued by the transplantation of wildtype bone marrow cells. Using novel biomechanical techniques, we demonstrated that the lack of MMP-9 significantly decreased thrombus-induced loss of vein wall compliance. Biomechanical analysis of the contribution of individual structural components showed that MMP-9 affected the elasticity of the extracellular matrix and collagen-elastin fibers. Biochemical and histological analyses correlated with these biomechanical effects as thrombi of mice lacking MMP-9 had significantly fewer macrophages and collagen as compared to those of wildtype mice.MMP-9 mediates thrombus-induced loss of vein wall compliance by increasing stiffness of the extracellular matrix and collagen-elastin fibers during thrombus resolution. MMP-9 also mediates macrophage and collagen content of the resolving thrombus and bone-marrow derived MMP-9 plays a role in resolution of thrombus mass. These disparate effects of MMP-9 on various aspects of thrombus illustrate the complexity of individual protease function on biomechanical and morphometric aspects of thrombus resolution.

  3. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) Regulates Vein Wall Biomechanics in Murine Thrombus Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh P.; McGilvray, Kirk C.; Puttlitz, Christian M.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhradip; Chabasse, Christine; Sarkar, Rajabrata

    2015-01-01

    Objective Deep venous thrombosis is a common vascular problem with long-term complications including post-thrombotic syndrome. Post-thrombotic syndrome consists of leg pain, swelling and ulceration that is related to incomplete or maladaptive resolution of the venous thrombus as well as loss of compliance of the vein wall. We examine the role of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a gene important in extracellular remodeling in other vascular diseases, in mediating thrombus resolution and biomechanical changes of the vein wall. Methods and Results The effects of targeted deletion of MMP-9 were studied in an in vivo murine model of thrombus resolution using the FVB strain of mice. MMP-9 expression and activity significantly increased on day 3 after DVT. The lack of MMP-9 impaired thrombus resolution by 27% and this phenotype was rescued by the transplantation of wildtype bone marrow cells. Using novel biomechanical techniques, we demonstrated that the lack of MMP-9 significantly decreased thrombus-induced loss of vein wall compliance. Biomechanical analysis of the contribution of individual structural components showed that MMP-9 affected the elasticity of the extracellular matrix and collagen-elastin fibers. Biochemical and histological analyses correlated with these biomechanical effects as thrombi of mice lacking MMP-9 had significantly fewer macrophages and collagen as compared to those of wildtype mice. Conclusions MMP-9 mediates thrombus-induced loss of vein wall compliance by increasing stiffness of the extracellular matrix and collagen-elastin fibers during thrombus resolution. MMP-9 also mediates macrophage and collagen content of the resolving thrombus and bone-marrow derived MMP-9 plays a role in resolution of thrombus mass. These disparate effects of MMP-9 on various aspects of thrombus illustrate the complexity of individual protease function on biomechanical and morphometric aspects of thrombus resolution. PMID:26406902

  4. Associations Between Collateral Status and Thrombus Characteristics and Their Impact in Anterior Circulation Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Heitor C; Treurniet, Kilian M; Dutra, Bruna G; Jansen, Ivo G H; Boers, Anna M M; Santos, Emilie M M; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Dippel, Diederik W J; van der Lugt, Aad; van Zwam, Wim H; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Lingsma, Hester F; Roos, Yvo B W E M; Yoo, Albert J; Marquering, Henk A; Majoie, Charles B L M

    2018-02-01

    Thrombus characteristics and collateral score are associated with functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. It has been suggested that they affect each other. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between clot burden score, thrombus perviousness, and collateral score and to determine whether collateral score influences the association of thrombus characteristics with functional outcome. Patients with baseline thin-slice noncontrast computed tomography and computed tomographic angiography images from the MR CLEAN trial (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands) were included (n=195). Collateral score and clot burden scores were determined on baseline computed tomographic angiography. Thrombus attenuation increase was determined by comparing thrombus density on noncontrast computed tomography and computed tomographic angiography using a semiautomated method. The association of collateral score with clot burden score and thrombus attenuation increase was evaluated with linear regression. Mediation and effect modification analyses were used to assess the influence of collateral score on the association of clot burden score and thrombus attenuation increase with functional outcome. A higher clot burden score (B=0.063; 95% confidence interval, 0.008-0.118) and a higher thrombus attenuation increase (B=0.014; 95% confidence interval, 0.003-0.026) were associated with higher collateral score. Collateral score mediated the association of clot burden score with functional outcome. The association between thrombus attenuation increase and functional outcome was modified by the collateral score, and this association was stronger in patients with moderate and good collaterals. Patients with lower thrombus burden and higher thrombus perviousness scores had higher collateral score. The positive effect of thrombus perviousness on clinical outcome was only present in patients with

  5. Intracardiac thrombus in Behçet's disease: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahem Radhia

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intracardiac thrombus in Behçet's disease is an extremely rare manifestation. We report two such cases. A 20-year-old man presented with dyspnoea, cough and haemoptysis. Right heart thrombus associated with pulmonary artery aneurysm and thromboembolism was identified by helical CT and transoesophageal echocardiography. The second case was a 29-year-old male admitted for fever and chest pain. A diagnosis of right atrial thrombosis associated with pulmonary embolism and hyperhomocysteinemia was made. Due to the absence of haemodynamic compromise, medical management consisting of immunosupressive and anticoagulation therapy was adopted which resulted in complete dissolution of the thrombus with dramatic clinical improvement in both cases of clinical status. Conclusion intracardiac thrombus is a rare complication of Behçet's disease. As shown in our patients, medical treatment should be considered as the first line.

  6. ST Elevation Infarction after Heart Transplantation Induced by Coronary Spasms and Mural Thrombus Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Eiskjær, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The case illustrates the possible link between coronary spasms, intraluminal thrombus formation, and widespread organized and layered thrombi in HTx patients. Furthermore, the case underlines the clinical value of OCT as a novel method for high-resolution vessel imaging in heart-transplanted (HTx...

  7. Retrievable Vena Cava Filters in Major Trauma Patients: Prevalence of Thrombus Within the Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrer, Arie; Zippel, Douglas; Garniek, Alexander; Golan, Gil; Bensaid, Paul; Simon, Daniel; Rimon, Uri

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of thrombus within a retrievable vena cava filter inserted prophylactically in major trauma patients referred for filter extraction. Between November 2002 and August 2005, 80 retrievable inferior vena cava filters (68 Optease and 12 Gunther-Tulip) were inserted into critically injured trauma patients (mean injury severity score 33.5). The filters were inserted within 1 to 6 (mean 2) days of injury. Thirty-seven patients were referred for filter removal (32 with Optease and 5 with Gunther-Tulip). The indwelling time was 7 to 22 (mean 13) days. All patients underwent inferior vena cavography prior to filter removal. There were no insertion-related complications and all filters were successfully deployed. Forty-three (54%) of the 80 patients were not referred for filter removal, as these patients continued to have contraindications to anticoagulation. Thirty-seven patients (46%) were referred for filter removal. In eight of them (22%) a large thrombus was seen within the filters and they were left in place, all with the Optease device. The other 29 filters (36%) were removed uneventfully.We conclude that the relatively high prevalence of intrafilter thrombi with the Optease filter may be explained by either spontaneous thrombus formation or captured emboli.

  8. HEMOSTATIC SYSTEM CONDITION AND HEART REMODELING IN PATIENTS WITH Q-WAVE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION WITH ACUTE ANEURYSMS AND LEFT VENTRICLE THROMBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Syvolap

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Worldwide myocardial infarction (MI is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality. Thanks to advances in modern cardiology we achieved a significant reduction in mortality and the incidence of fatal complications of acute Q-wave MI. However, keeping in mind the pathogenetic features of myocardial defeat of the left ventricle (LV cavity dilation and thinning at the focus of myocardial infarction, which increase the risk of left ventricular aneurysm development and parietal thrombus formation, it is impossible to reduce significantly the risk of these serious complications development. Post-infarction left ventricular aneurysm, extremely unfavorable prognostic factor complicates the course of Q-wave myocardial infarction in 30% of cases. The likelihood of parietal clot development in the anterior apical localization of aneurysms is 32%. The reasons of parietal clot formation are varied and are not fully disclosed, that is responsible for the relevance of this study. Aim: to investigate the serum level of protein C, von Willebrand factor, the expression of vascular adhesion molecules sVCAM-1, platelet aggregation properties and to evaluate their relationship with the structural and functional performance of the heart in patients with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction with aneurysm and parietal thrombus of LV. Methods. 110 patients (67 men and 43 women, mean age - 63,2 ± 5,7 years, with a diagnosis of acute Q-wave myocardial infarction were involved into the study. The first group included 72 patients with postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm, the second - 38 patients with postinfarction aneurysm and parietal thrombus of LV. Serum levels of protein C, von Willebrand factor, the expression of vascular adhesion molecules sVCAM-1, platelet aggregation properties were studied and their relationship with the structural and functional performance of the heart were evaluated. Results. There were revealed high activity of the key

  9. Traversing boundaries: thrombus in transit with paradoxical embolism

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    Varun Miriyala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old male is diagnosed with paradoxical embolus after he presented with concurrent deep vein thrombosis, stroke, and multiple arterial emboli in the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO. Paradoxical embolus requires the passage of a thrombus from the venous into the arterial circulation through a right-to-left shunt leading to systemic embolism. But, despite the high incidence of PFO (27.3% across all age groups by autopsy, paradoxical embolism (PDE is uncommon, representing <2% of all arterial emboli. We present a case report where a thrombus has been directly observed passing through the PFO during an echocardiogram study; thus, clearly delineating the true cause of multiple thromboemboli and stoke in our patient. Subsequent Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE also interestingly showed the thrombus in transit in the aorta and pulmonary artery.

  10. Method of cell transplantation promoting the organization of intraarterial thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Koji; Shimono, Takatsugu; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Fujinaga, Kazuya; Kajimoto, Masaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Nishikawa, Masakatsu; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Uchida, Atsumasa; Shimpo, Hideto; Yada, Isao; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2005-08-30

    Endovascular aortic repairs have been developed as less invasive treatments for aortic aneurysms. Some aneurismal cavities, however, remain without organization, causing a re-expansion of the aneurysms. We studied cell transplantation into the aneurismal sac to promote the organization of thrombus for the complete healing of aneurysms. Skin fibroblasts and skeletal myoblasts were isolated from rats for cell transplantation. An intraarterial thrombus model was made by ligation of the carotid artery. Culture medium (medium group, n=11), collagen gel (gel group, n=11), fibroblasts with collagen gel (F group, n=15), myoblasts with collagen gel (M group, n=12), or mixture of fibroblasts and myoblasts with collagen gel (F+M group, n=14) were injected into the thrombus. After 28 days, histologically, the arterial lumens of the F and M groups were partly filled with fibrous tissues, whereas in the F+M group organization was almost completed and luminal sizes diminished. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were more abundantly contained in the organized area of the F+M group than in the other groups. We also analyzed cellular function in vitro with immunofluorescence; coculture of fibroblasts and myoblasts showed that the fraction of alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive fibroblasts increased. This phenomenon accounts for the rapid organization of thrombus in the F+M group in vivo. Cell transplantation accelerated thrombus organization. Especially, myoblasts enhanced differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, contributing to rapid thrombus organization. Cell transplantation into unorganized spaces seems applicable to endovascular treatment of aneurysms.

  11. Transient Ischemic Attack and Ischemic Stroke in Danon Disease with Formation of Left Ventricular Apical Thrombus despite Normal Systolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Tsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant skeletal and cardiac muscle disorder presenting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, skeletal myopathy, and mild intellectual disability. Early morbidity and mortality due to heart failure or sudden death are known in Danon disease, more in males than in females. Here, we present a 17-year-old female adolescent with Danon disease and severe concentric hypertrophy with normal left ventricular (LV systolic function, who has been complaining of intermittent headache and weakness for about 3 years, initially diagnosed with hemiplegic migraine. Subsequently, her neurological manifestation progressed to transient ischemic attack (TIA and eventually to ischemic stroke confirmed by CT scan with 1-day history of expressive aphasia followed by persistent left side weakness and numbness. Detailed echocardiogram for the first time revealed a small LV apical thrombus with unchanged severe biventricular hypertrophy and normal systolic function. This unexpected LV apical thrombus may be associated with a wide spectrum of neurological deficits ranging from TIA to ischemic stroke in Danon disease. Possibility of cerebral ischemic events should be suspected in Danon disease when presenting with neurological deficits even with normal systolic function. Careful assessment for LV apical thrombus is warranted in such cases.

  12. Revisiting the TCA cycle: signaling to tumor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, Nuno; Baysal, Bora E; Shadel, Gerald S

    2011-11-01

    A role for mitochondria in tumor formation is suggested by mutations in enzymes of the TCA cycle: isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH). Although they are all components of the TCA cycle, the resulting clinical presentations do not overlap. Activation of the hypoxia pathway can explain SDH phenotypes, but recent data suggest that FH and IDH mutations lead to tumor formation by repressing cellular differentiation. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the context of both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic components of the TCA cycle, and we propose that extrametabolic roles of TCA cycle metabolites result in reduced cellular differentiation. Furthermore, activation of the pseudohypoxia pathway likely promotes the growth of these neoplasias into tumors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fibrin d-dimer concentration, deep vein thrombosis symptom duration, and venous thrombus volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurklinsky, Andrew K; Kalsi, Henna; Wysokinski, Waldemar E; Mauck, Karen F; Bhagra, Anjali; Havyer, Rachel D; Thompson, Carrie A; Hayes, Sharonne N; McBane, Robert D

    2011-04-01

    To determine the relationship between fibrin D-dimer levels, symptom duration, and thrombus volume, consecutive patients with incident deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were evaluated. In a cross-sectional study design, patient symptom onset was determined by careful patient questioning. Venous thrombosis was confirmed by compression duplex ultrasonography. Thrombus volume was estimated based on patient's femur length using a forensic anthropology method. Fibrin D-dimer was measured by latex immunoassay. 72 consecutive patients with confirmed leg DVT agreed to participate. The median symptom duration at the time of diagnosis was 10 days. The median D-dimer concentration was 1050 ng/dL. The median thrombus volume was 12.92 cm(3). D-Dimer levels correlated with estimated thrombus volume (P venous thrombosis and correlates with thrombus volume.

  14. Saphenous vein graft thrombus findings by scanning electron microscopy in a patient with acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Marcela Dias; Aguillera, André Haraguti [Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Brilhante, José Joaquim; Caixeta, Adriano [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An eighty-year-old male patient with a history of prior (19 years) coronary artery bypass graft surgery was admitted to the hospital with non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). During the hospital stay he was taking acetylsalicylic acid 100mg per day, a loading dose of 600mg clopidogrel, and low molecular weight heparin 1mg/kg twice a day. Twenty-four hours later the patient underwent coronary angiography, which showed a 90% obstruction in the mid portion of the saphenous vein graft to obtuse marginal with signs of degeneration and local thrombus (Figure 1). Thrombus aspiration was performed with a 6-Fr Export{sup ™} catheter (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA, USA), which removed small reddish colored fragments. They were fixed in 2,5% glutaraldehyde in a 0.1M sodium cacodilate buffer. The material was processed following the GOTO protocol in which the fragments were washed with osmium tetroxide and titanic acid, after which they were dried in a critical-point device and a golden bath. Scanning electron microscopy and high definition photos (3,000 to 27,221x magnification) were obtained by the FEI Quanta{sup ™} FEG SEM device (FEI Company, Hillsboro, OR, USA). The images showed that the thrombus was rich in activated platelets, with few erythrocytes or inflammatory cells. Many cholesterol crystals were observed (Figures 2 to). The fibrin networks were sparse and thin, which is compatible with a short ischemic time and recent thrombus formation.

  15. Saphenous vein graft thrombus findings by scanning electron microscopy in a patient with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Marcela Dias; Aguillera, André Haraguti; Brilhante, José Joaquim; Caixeta, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    An eighty-year-old male patient with a history of prior (19 years) coronary artery bypass graft surgery was admitted to the hospital with non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). During the hospital stay he was taking acetylsalicylic acid 100mg per day, a loading dose of 600mg clopidogrel, and low molecular weight heparin 1mg/kg twice a day. Twenty-four hours later the patient underwent coronary angiography, which showed a 90% obstruction in the mid portion of the saphenous vein graft to obtuse marginal with signs of degeneration and local thrombus (Figure 1). Thrombus aspiration was performed with a 6-Fr Export"™ catheter (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA, USA), which removed small reddish colored fragments. They were fixed in 2,5% glutaraldehyde in a 0.1M sodium cacodilate buffer. The material was processed following the GOTO protocol in which the fragments were washed with osmium tetroxide and titanic acid, after which they were dried in a critical-point device and a golden bath. Scanning electron microscopy and high definition photos (3,000 to 27,221x magnification) were obtained by the FEI Quanta"™ FEG SEM device (FEI Company, Hillsboro, OR, USA). The images showed that the thrombus was rich in activated platelets, with few erythrocytes or inflammatory cells. Many cholesterol crystals were observed (Figures 2 to). The fibrin networks were sparse and thin, which is compatible with a short ischemic time and recent thrombus formation

  16. Cell Competition Drives the Formation of Metastatic Tumors in a Drosophila Model of Epithelial Tumor Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichenlaub, Teresa; Cohen, Stephen M; Herranz, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    . The mechanisms that allow for ongoing cell competition during adult life could, in principle, contribute to tumorigenesis. However, direct evidence supporting this hypothesis has been lacking. Here, we provide evidence that cell competition drives tumor formation in a Drosophila model of epithelial cancer. Cells...

  17. Statins improve the resolution of established murine venous thrombosis: reductions in thrombus burden and vein wall scarring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase W Kessinger

    Full Text Available Despite anticoagulation therapy, up to one-half of patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT will develop the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS. Improving the long-term outcome of DVT patients at risk for PTS will therefore require new approaches. Here we investigate the effects of statins--lipid-lowering agents with anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties--in decreasing thrombus burden and decreasing vein wall injury, mediators of PTS, in established murine stasis and non-stasis chemical-induced venous thrombosis (N = 282 mice. Treatment of mice with daily atorvastatin or rosuvastatin significantly reduced stasis venous thrombus burden by 25% without affecting lipid levels, blood coagulation parameters, or blood cell counts. Statin-driven reductions in VT burden (thrombus mass for stasis thrombi, intravital microscopy thrombus area for non-stasis thrombi compared similarly to the therapeutic anticoagulant effects of low molecular weight heparin. Blood from statin-treated mice showed significant reductions in platelet aggregation and clot stability. Statins additionally reduced thrombus plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, tissue factor, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs, and macrophages, and these effects were most notable in the earlier timepoints after DVT formation. In addition, statins reduced DVT-induced vein wall scarring by 50% durably up to day 21 in stasis VT, as shown by polarized light microscopy of picrosirius red-stained vein wall collagen. The overall results demonstrate that statins improve VT resolution via profibrinolytic, anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and anti-vein wall scarring effects. Statins may therefore offer a new pharmacotherapeutic approach to improve DVT resolution and to reduce the post-thrombotic syndrome, particularly in subjects who are ineligible for anticoagulation therapy.

  18. Statins improve the resolution of established murine venous thrombosis: reductions in thrombus burden and vein wall scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessinger, Chase W; Kim, Jin Won; Henke, Peter K; Thompson, Brian; McCarthy, Jason R; Hara, Tetsuya; Sillesen, Martin; Margey, Ronan J P; Libby, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Lin, Charles P; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2015-01-01

    Despite anticoagulation therapy, up to one-half of patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) will develop the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Improving the long-term outcome of DVT patients at risk for PTS will therefore require new approaches. Here we investigate the effects of statins--lipid-lowering agents with anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties--in decreasing thrombus burden and decreasing vein wall injury, mediators of PTS, in established murine stasis and non-stasis chemical-induced venous thrombosis (N = 282 mice). Treatment of mice with daily atorvastatin or rosuvastatin significantly reduced stasis venous thrombus burden by 25% without affecting lipid levels, blood coagulation parameters, or blood cell counts. Statin-driven reductions in VT burden (thrombus mass for stasis thrombi, intravital microscopy thrombus area for non-stasis thrombi) compared similarly to the therapeutic anticoagulant effects of low molecular weight heparin. Blood from statin-treated mice showed significant reductions in platelet aggregation and clot stability. Statins additionally reduced thrombus plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue factor, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and macrophages, and these effects were most notable in the earlier timepoints after DVT formation. In addition, statins reduced DVT-induced vein wall scarring by 50% durably up to day 21 in stasis VT, as shown by polarized light microscopy of picrosirius red-stained vein wall collagen. The overall results demonstrate that statins improve VT resolution via profibrinolytic, anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and anti-vein wall scarring effects. Statins may therefore offer a new pharmacotherapeutic approach to improve DVT resolution and to reduce the post-thrombotic syndrome, particularly in subjects who are ineligible for anticoagulation therapy.

  19. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia (Masson’s Tumor) of the Radial Artery: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Christopher, E-mail: Christopher.stark@uvmhealth.org [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology (United States); Morris, Christopher [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Bertges, Daniel [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Surgery (United States); Najarian, Kenneth [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), often referred to as Masson’s tumor, is a benign non-neoplastic vascular lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Although it is rare, knowledge of the existence of IPEH is important as it can mimic other benign and malignant tumors, most notably angiosarcoma. IPEH remains an incompletely understood entity; however, most consider it to be the result of reactive endothelial proliferation following thrombus formation within a vessel, vascular malformation, or adjacent to a vessel. In this article, we report a case of IPEH arising within an arteriovenous malformation of the radial artery and present accompanying multimodality imaging and pathology figures. We will also describe the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, histology, imaging features, and management of IPEH.

  20. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia (Masson’s Tumor) of the Radial Artery: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, Christopher; Olsen, Daniel; Morris, Christopher; Bertges, Daniel; Najarian, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), often referred to as Masson’s tumor, is a benign non-neoplastic vascular lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Although it is rare, knowledge of the existence of IPEH is important as it can mimic other benign and malignant tumors, most notably angiosarcoma. IPEH remains an incompletely understood entity; however, most consider it to be the result of reactive endothelial proliferation following thrombus formation within a vessel, vascular malformation, or adjacent to a vessel. In this article, we report a case of IPEH arising within an arteriovenous malformation of the radial artery and present accompanying multimodality imaging and pathology figures. We will also describe the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, histology, imaging features, and management of IPEH.

  1. Rivaroxaban attenuates thrombosis by targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway in a rat model of deep venous thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhao; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yang; Yang, Zhenwei; Luo, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is commonly used for the prevention and treatment of patients with deep venous thrombus. Evidence has shown that rivaroxaban is a potential oral anticoagulant drug for the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, the rivaroxaban-mediated molecular mechanism involved in the progression of deep venous thrombosis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of rivaroxaban and the underlying signaling pathways in the prevention and treatment of rats with deep venous thrombosis. A rat model with deep vein thrombus formation was established and received treatment with rivaroxaban or PBS as control. The thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. The progression of thrombosis and stroke was evaluated after treatment with rivaroxaban or PBS. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in venous endothelial cells and in the rat model of deep venous thrombus was assessed. The therapeutic effects of rivaroxaban were evaluated as determined by changes in deep venous thrombosis in the rat model. Our results showed that rivaroxaban markedly inhibited TAFI and PAI-1 expression levels, neutrophils, tissue factor, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), myeloperoxidase and macrophages in venous endothelial cells and in the rat model of deep venous thrombus. Expression levels of ADP, PAIs, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and thromboxane were downregulated in vein endothelial cells and in serum from the experimental rats. Importantly, the incidences of inferior vena cava filter thrombus were protected by rivaroxaban during heparin-induced thrombolysis deep venous thrombosis in the rat model. We observed that activity of the NF-κB signaling pathway was inhibited by rivaroxaban in vein endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, immunohistology indicated that rivaroxaban attenuated deep venous thrombosis and the

  2. Floating arterial thrombus related stroke treated by intravenous thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, P; Cordier, M; Janbieh, J; Federau, C; Michel, P

    2014-01-01

    The effects of intravenous thrombolysis on floating thrombi in cervical and intracranial arteries of acute ischemic stroke patients are unknown. Similarly, the best prevention methods of early recurrences remain controversial. This study aimed to describe the clinical and radiological outcome of thrombolyzed strokes with floating thrombi. We retrospectively analyzed all thrombolyzed stroke patients in our institution between 2003 and 2010 with floating thrombi on acute CT-angiography before the intravenous thrombolysis. The floating thrombus was diagnosed if an elongated thrombus of at least 5 mm length, completely surrounded by contrast on supra-aortic neck or intracerebral arteries, was present on CT-angiography. Demographics, vascular risk factors, and comorbidities were recorded and stroke etiology was determined after a standardized workup. Repeat arterial imaging was performed by CTA at 24 h or before if clinical worsening was noted and then by Doppler and MRA during the first week and at four months. Of 409 thrombolyzed stroke patients undergoing acute CT Angiography, seven (1.7%) had a floating thrombus; of these seven, six had it in the anterior circulation. Demographics, risk factors and stroke severity of these patients were comparable to the other thrombolyzed patients. After intravenous thrombolysis, the floating thrombi resolved completely at 24 h in four of the patients, whereas one had an early recurrent stroke and one developed progressive worsening. One patient developed early occlusion of the carotid artery with floating thrombus and subsequently a TIA. The two patients with a stable floating thrombus had no clinical recurrences. In the literature, only one of four reported cases were found to have a thrombolysis-related early recurrence. Long-term outcome seemed similar in thrombolyzed patients with floating thrombus, despite a possible increase of very early recurrence. It remains to be established whether acute mechanical thrombectomy could be

  3. Safety of primary percutaneous coronary intervention with and without (selective) thrombus aspiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farman, M. T.; Saghir, T.; Rizvi, N. H.; Khan, N.; Zaman, K. S.; Sial, J. A.; Malik, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of selective thrombus aspiration during Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Methods: This observational prospective study was conducted in the catheterization laboratory of a tertiary care cardiovascular centre. A total of 150 consecutive patients who underwent primary PCI were enrolled. Aspiration was done only when thrombus burden was considered significant. After completion of procedure angiographic and electrocardiographic signs were recorded and clinical follow up was documented up to 1 year. Results: No significant difference among the groups was found in age, height, weight and other risk factors like Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus and Smoking. In general, left anterior descending artery was culprit in 65 % of patients and more than 90 % of culprit vessels had visible thrombus. Multivessel disease was present in 38 % of patients and 22.7% had past history of myocardial infarction. Out of 150 patients 117 (78%) underwent thrombus aspiration. No significant difference was found in ST resolution within 60 minutes (72.6 vs 81.8 %; P<0.285) and myocardial blush grade II and III (41.9 vs 27.3 %; P<0.128). No difference in event free survival was observed among the two groups (80.3 vs 84.8 %; P<0.708) at one year. Conclusion: Selective thrombus aspiration in definite thrombus laden arteries and no aspiration in low or negligible thrombus burden vessels may be a safe and effective strategy in patients undergoing primary PCI. Overall poor risk profile of our patients as compared to western population necessitates further evaluation of this matter in randomized studies. (author)

  4. Diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis discontinued with liver tumors in patients with liver cirrhosis and tumors by contrast-enhanced US: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Zezhou; Huang Min [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Jiang Tianan, E-mail: tiananjiang@hzcnc.co [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhao Qiyu [Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Yao Lei; Mou Yun; Zhao Junkang; Ao Jianyang [Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Chen Fen [Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Chen Yan [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2010-08-15

    Aims: We assessed the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients who had liver tumors. Methods: Seventeen consecutive patients who had cirrhosis, liver tumors, and PVT were prospectively studied with CEUS. CEUS was performed at low mechanical index after intravenous administration of a second-generation contrast agent (SonoVue, Bracco, Milan, Italy). Presence or absence of thrombus enhancement on CEUS were considered diagnostic for malignant or benign PVT. Five patients also underwent percutaneous portal vein fine-needle biopsy under US guidance. All patients were followed-up. Shrinkage of the thrombus and/or recanalization of the vessels on CDUS during follow-up were considered definitive evidence of the benign nature of the thrombosis, whereas the enlargement of the thrombus, disruption of the vessel wall, and parenchymal infiltration over follow-up were considered consistent with malignancy. Results: Follow-up showed signs of malignant thrombosis in 14 of 17 patients. CEUS showed early arterial enhancement of the PVT in 14 patients of 14 malignant PVT, 1 patient of 3 benign PVT and the absence of thrombus enhancement in 2 patients of 3 benign PVT. FNB confirmed the results for malignant PVT in four of five patients, for benign granulomatous inflammation PVT in one of five patients in which CEUS showed early arterial enhancement of the PVT. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy is 100%, 66.7% and 93.3% at diagnosis of malignant PVT using CEUS. In one patient with intrahepatic bile duct stone, CEUS were positive for malignant PVT, whereas FNB was negative (benign granulomatous inflammation PVT); follow-up examination confirmed benign PVT. Conclusion: CEUS seems to be the pretty sensitive and specific test for diagnosing malignant portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis and tumors.

  5. Thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT can predict clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mina; Kim, Kyung-eun; Lee, Seung-Koo; Shin, Na-Young; Lim, Soo Mee; Song, Dongbeom; Heo, Ji Hoe; Kim, Jin Woo; Oh, Se Won

    2016-01-01

    The thrombus length may be overestimated on early arterial computed tomography angiography (CTA) depending on the collateral status. We evaluated the value of a grading system based on the thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT in outcome prediction. Forty-eight acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 occlusion were included. Dual-phase CT protocol encompassed non-contrast enhanced CT, CTA with a bolus tracking technique, and delayed contrast enhanced CT (CECT) performed 40s after contrast injection. The thrombus length discrepancy between CTA and CECT was graded by using a three-point scale: G0 = no difference; G1 = no difference in thrombus length, but in attenuation distal to thrombus; G2 = difference in thrombus length. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to define independent predictors of poor clinical outcome at 3 months. The thrombus discrepancy grade showed significant linear relationships with both the collateral status (P = 0.008) and the presence of antegrade flow on DSA (P = 0.010) with good interobserver agreement (κ = 0.868). In a multivariate model, the presence of thrombus length discrepancy (G2) was an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome [odds ratio = 11.474 (1.350-97.547); P =0.025]. The presence of thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT may be a useful predictor of unfavourable clinical outcome in acute M1 occlusion patients. (orig.)

  6. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilie M.M.; Yoo, Albert J.; Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie; Niessen, Wiro J.; Marquering, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  7. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  8. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M. Santos (Emilie M.); A.J. Yoo (Albert J.); L.F.M. Beenen (Ludo); O.A. Berkhemer (Olvert); M.D. Den Blanken (Mark D.); C. Wismans (Carrie); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); C.B. Majoie (Charles); H. Marquering (Henk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by

  9. Recanalization and flow regulate venous thrombus resolution and Matrix metalloproteinases expression in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, Christine; Siefert, Suzanne A.; Chaudry, Mohammed; Hoofnagle, Mark H.; Lal, Brajesh K.; Sarkar, Rajabrata

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the role of thrombus recanalization and ongoing blood flow in the process of thrombus resolution by comparing two murine in vivo models of deep venous thrombosis. Design of study In CD1 mice, we performed surgical inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation (stasis thrombosis), stenosis (thrombosis with recanalization) or sham procedure. We analyzed thrombus weight over time as a measure of thrombus resolution, and quantified the mRNA and protein levels of Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) as well as effectors of the plasmin complex at day 4, 8 and 12 post-surgery. Results Despite similar initial thrombus size, the presence of ongoing blood flow (stenosis model) was associated with a 45.91% subsequent improvement in thrombus resolution at day 8, and 12.57% at day 12, as compared with stasis thrombosis (ligation model). Immunoblot and real-time PCR demonstrated a difference in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity at day 8 between the two models (P=.03 and P=.006 respectively), as well as a difference in MT2-MMP gene expression at day 8 (P=.044) and day 12 (P=0.03) and MT1-MMP protein expression at day 4 (P=.021). Histological analyses revealed distinct areas of recanalization in the thrombi of the stenosis model compared to the ligation model, as well as the recruitment of inflammatory cells, especially macrophages, and a focal pattern of localized expression of MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP proteins surrounding the areas of recanalization in the stenosis model. Conclusions Recanalization and ongoing blood flow accelerate deep venous thrombus resolution in vivo, and are associated with distinct patterns of MT1- and MT3-MMP expression and macrophages localization in areas of intra-thrombus recanalization. PMID:26993683

  10. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Emilie M. M.; Yoo, Albert J.; Beenen, Ludo F.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; den Blanken, Mark D.; Wismans, Carrie; Niessen, Wiro J.; Majoie, Charles B.; Marquering, Henk A.; Fransen, Puck S. S.; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Schonewille, Wouter J.; Vos, Jan Albert; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Wermer, Marieke J. H.; van Walderveen, Marianne A. A.; Staals, Julie; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van Oostayen, Jacques A.; Lycklama à Nijeholt, Geert J.; Boiten, Jelis; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Emmer, Bart J.; de Bruijn, Sebastiaan F.; van Dijk, Lukas C.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Lo, Rob H.; van Dijk, Ewoud J.; de Vries, Joost; de Kort, Paul L. M.; van den Berg, Jan S. P.; A A M van Hasselt, Boudewijn; Aerden, Leo A. M.; Dallinga, René J.; Visser, Marieke C.; Bot, Joseph C. J.; Vroomen, Patrick C.; Eshghi, Omid; Schreuder, Tobien H. C. M. L.; Heijboer, Roel J. J.; Keizer, Koos; Tielbeek, Alexander V.; Hertog, Heleen M. Den; Gerrits, Dick G.; van den Berg-Vos, Renske M.; Karas, Giorgos B.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Flach, H. Zwenneke; Sprengers, Marieke E. S.; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F. M.; van den Berg, René; Koudstaal, Peter J.; van Zwam, Wim H.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; van der Lugt, Aad; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert

  11. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, E.M.; Yoo, A.J.; Beenen, L.F.; Berkhemer, O.A.; Blanken, M.D. den; Wismans, C.; Niessen, W.J.; Majoie, C.B.; Marquering, H.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and

  12. Optical coherence tomography assessment and quantification of intracoronary thrombus: Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Italo; Mattesini, Alessio; Valente, Serafina; Prati, Francesco; Crea, Filippo; Bolognese, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Coronary angiography is the “golden standard” imaging technique in interventional cardiology and it is still widely used to guide interventions. A major drawback of this technique, however, is that it is inaccurate in the evaluation and quantification of intracoronary thrombus burden, a critical prognosticator and predictor of intraprocedural complications in acute coronary syndromes. The introduction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) holds the promise of overcoming this important limitation, as near-infrared light is uniquely sensitive to hemoglobin, the pigment of red blood cells trapped in the thrombus. This narrative review will focus on the use of OCT for the assessment, evaluation and quantification of intracoronary thrombosis. - Highlights: • Thrombotic burden in acute coronary syndromes Is not adequately evaluated by standard coronary angiography, whereas Optical Coherence Tomography is exquisitely sensitive to the hemoglobin contained in red blood cells and can be used to precisely quantify thrombus. • Both research and clinical applications have been developed using the OCT-based evaluation of thrombus. In particular, whereas precise quantification scores are useful for comparing antithrombotic therapies in randomized trials, both pharmacological and mechanical, the most important practical applications for OCT-based assessment of thrombus are the individuation of culprit lesions in the context of diffuse atheromata in acute coronary syndromes, and the so-called “delayed stenting” strategies. • Improvements in 3D rendering techniques are on the verge of revolutionizing OCT-based thrombus assessment, allowing extremely precise quantification of the thrombotic burden

  13. Optical coherence tomography assessment and quantification of intracoronary thrombus: Status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Italo, E-mail: italo.porto@gmail.com [Interventional Cardiology Unit, San Donato Hospital, Arezzo (Italy); Mattesini, Alessio; Valente, Serafina [Interventional Cardiology Unit, Careggi Hospital, Florence (Italy); Prati, Francesco [Interventional Cardiology San Giovanni Hospital, Rome (Italy); CLI foundation (Italy); Crea, Filippo [Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Bolognese, Leonardo [Interventional Cardiology Unit, San Donato Hospital, Arezzo (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Coronary angiography is the “golden standard” imaging technique in interventional cardiology and it is still widely used to guide interventions. A major drawback of this technique, however, is that it is inaccurate in the evaluation and quantification of intracoronary thrombus burden, a critical prognosticator and predictor of intraprocedural complications in acute coronary syndromes. The introduction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) holds the promise of overcoming this important limitation, as near-infrared light is uniquely sensitive to hemoglobin, the pigment of red blood cells trapped in the thrombus. This narrative review will focus on the use of OCT for the assessment, evaluation and quantification of intracoronary thrombosis. - Highlights: • Thrombotic burden in acute coronary syndromes Is not adequately evaluated by standard coronary angiography, whereas Optical Coherence Tomography is exquisitely sensitive to the hemoglobin contained in red blood cells and can be used to precisely quantify thrombus. • Both research and clinical applications have been developed using the OCT-based evaluation of thrombus. In particular, whereas precise quantification scores are useful for comparing antithrombotic therapies in randomized trials, both pharmacological and mechanical, the most important practical applications for OCT-based assessment of thrombus are the individuation of culprit lesions in the context of diffuse atheromata in acute coronary syndromes, and the so-called “delayed stenting” strategies. • Improvements in 3D rendering techniques are on the verge of revolutionizing OCT-based thrombus assessment, allowing extremely precise quantification of the thrombotic burden.

  14. Erythrocyte-rich thrombus aspirated from patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: association with oxidative stress and its impact on myocardial reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yunoki, Kei; Naruko, Takahiko; Sugioka, Kenichi; Inaba, Mayumi; Iwasa, Yoko; Komatsu, Ryushi; Itoh, Akira; Haze, Kazuo; Inoue, Takeshi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Becker, Anton E.; Ueda, Makiko

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that erythrocytes are a potential component in atheromatous lesions and thrombus formation in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of red blood cell (RBC) component of coronary thrombi

  15. Intracardiac thrombus in Behçet’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ben Ghorbel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease (BD is a multisystem inflammatory disorder. Intracardiac thrombus (ICT formation is an uncommon but important complication of BD. Of the cases of Behçet’s disease, we selected those with ICT. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of the International Study Group of Behçet’s disease. The ICT in each case was confirmed by ultrasonography, computed tomography and MRI. Clinical features and laboratory parameters were determined. Among our 518 patients with BD, 8 were diagnosed as having intracardiac thrombus (ICT. All were male; the mean age at the time of the ICT diagnosis was 30.8 years. The main presenting symptoms were hemoptysis, chest pain, and dyspnea. It was associated with pulmonary artery aneurysm and vena cava thrombosis in 3 cases each, pulmonary embolism, and lower limbs deep venous thrombosis in 1 case each. The coexistence of other cardiac complications was as follows: pericarditis in 2 cases, myocarditis, endomyocardial fibrosis, and coronary arteritis with consequent myocardial infarction in one case each. In all cases, echocardiography was sufficient to reach the diagnosis. Chest computed tomography performed in all cases led to the diagnosis of associated pulmonary vasculo-Behçet lesions in 4 cases. All patients received colchicine, anticoagulation, and corticosteroids. Seven patients were on immunosuppressant agents (2 patients received azathioprine and 5 cyclophosphamide. Clinical remission with ICT resolution was observed in 5 cases. Combined immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone and cyclophosphamide might be needed to treat ICT due to BD.

  16. Iliac artery mural thrombus formation. Effect of antiplatelet therapy on 111In-platelet deposition in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, S.R.; Paxton, L.D.; Harker, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    To measure the rate, extent, and time course of arterial mural thrombus formation in vivo and to assess the effects of antiplatelet therapy in that setting, we have studied autologous 111 In-platelet deposition induced by experimental iliac artery aneurysms in baboons. Scintillation camera imaging analyses were performed at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours after implantation of the device. Correction for tissue attenuation was determined by using a small, comparably located 111 In source implanted at the time of surgery. In five animals, 111 In-platelet activity accumulated progressively after device implantation, reaching a maximum after the third day. Repeat image analysis carried out 2 weeks after the surgical procedure also showed progressive accumulation of 111 In-platelets over 3 days but at markedly reduced amounts as compared with the initial study. In five additional animals, treatment with a combination of aspirin and dipyridamole begun 1 hour after surgical implantation reduced 111 In-platelet deposition to negligible levels by the third day. Although platelet survival time was shortened and platelet turnover was reciprocally increased in all operated animals, platelet survival and turnover were not affected by antiplatelet therapy. We conclude that, in contrast to platelet survival and turnover measurements, 111 In-platelet imaging is a reliable and sensitive method for localizing and quantifying focal arterial thrombi and for assessing the effects of antiplatelet therapy

  17. Effect of Adjunctive Thrombus Aspiration on In-Hospital and 3-Year Outcomes in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Large Native Coronary Artery Thrombus Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; Kaya, Adnan; Tatlısu, Mustafa Adem; Uzman, Osman; Börklü, Edibe Betül; Çinier, Göksel; Tekkeşin, Ahmet İlker; Türkkan, Ceyhan; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Kozan, Ömer

    2017-11-15

    Although the long-term clinical benefit of adjunctive thrombus aspiration (TA) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) remains controversial, the impact of TA in patients with large thrombus has not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of adjunctive TA during PPCI on clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and a large thrombus. We assessed the effect of adjunctive TA on in-hospital and 3-year clinical outcomes in 627 patients with STEMI and a large thrombus in the native coronary artery. The cumulative 3-year incidence of all-cause death was not significantly different between the 2 groups (91.5% vs 89.0%, log-rank test p = 0.347). After adjusting for confounders, the risk of all-cause death in the TA group was not significantly lower than that in the non-TA group (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 3.54, p = 0.674). The adjusted risks of target lesion revascularization, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis were also not significantly different between the 2 groups. In conclusion, adjunctive TA during PPCI was not associated with better in-hospital and 3-year all-cause deaths in patients with STEMI and a large coronary artery thrombus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Recurrent right atrial thrombus in a patient with atrial fibrillation and heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elikowski, Waldemar; Wróblewski, Dariusz; Małek-Elikowska, Małgorzata; Mazurek, Andrzej; Foremska-Iciek, Joanna; Łazowski, Stanisław

    2015-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation and heart failure are factors predisposing to locally formed intracardiac thrombosis, which is usually localized in left-sided chambers. A case report. The authors present a case of a 50-year-old male with permanent atrial fibrillation and dilated cardiomyopathy in whom recurrent right atrial thrombus was observed. Initially, the lesion was detected in echocardiography while he was hospitalized due to extensive right-sided pneumonia. The thrombus was successfully treated with heparin, followed by warfarin. Even though the patient continued warfarin use properly, there was recurrence of the thrombus two years later during a new episode of heart failure exacerbation. Because the thrombus was resistant to intensified anticoagulation, cardiac surgery was needed. A large (30 x 25 mm) pedunculated thrombus, as well as two smaller ones (each of 10 x 10 mm) attached closely to the atrial wall and previously not detected either by echocardiography or by magnetic resonance imaging, were excited. A partially organized pattern of the thrombi in histological examination can explain lack of anticoagulation effectiveness. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  19. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis associated with cancer of unknown origin complicated with thrombus in the left auricular appendage: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaga Yukiko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of right lateroabdominal pain. He was diagnosed with metastatic colon cancer, and then developed multiple brain embolic infarctions 7 days after admission. Transesophageal echocardiography showed that mobile, echo-dense masses were attached to the anterior and posterior mitral valve leaflet. Furthermore, there was a thrombus in the left auricular appendage despite sinus rhythm. These findings led to a diagnosis of suspected infectious endocarditis with subsequent multiple brain infarctions. The patient's general condition worsened and he died 13 days after admission. An autopsy was performed, and, while poorly differentiated cancer was observed in multiple organs, no primary tumor could be identified. Histological analysis showed that the masses of the mitral valve consisted mainly of fibrin without bacteria or oncocytes. This patient was therefore diagnosed with nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis associated with cancer of unknown origin complicated with thrombus in the left auricular appendage.

  20. Imaging thrombus with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody to platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutfi, I.; Peters, A.M.; Lavender, J.P.; Epenetos, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Indium-111-hydroxyquinoline labelled platelets, though useful in the detection of thrombus, have not gained widespread use owing to the time and technical skill required for their preparation. A study was therefore conducted evaluating a new method of imaging thrombus with platelets radiolabelled with a 111 In labelled monoclonal antibody, P 256 , directed to the platelet surface glycoprotein complex IIb/IIIa. When the number of receptors occupied by P 256 was less than 3% of the total available on the platelet surface platelet function, as assessed by platelet aggregometry, was undisturbed. P 256 was radiolabelled with 111 In using diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, which achieved a specific activity of 185 MBq (5 mCi)/mg. No impairment of immunoreactivity was detected at this specific activity. Platelets were labelled with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody in vitro in two patients at a receptor occupancy of 6% and in vivo - that is, by direct intravenous injection of P 256 - in six patients at a receptor occupancy of 1%. In vivo recovery and biodistribution kinetics suggested that after in vitro labelling platelets were minimally activated. The 111 In kinetics recorded after intravenous P 256 suggested rapid and efficient radiolabelling of platelets and gave no indication of platelet activation. Of the six patients who received intravenous P 256 , three had documented thrombus, tow of whom gave positive results on P 256 platelet scintigraphy. The third subject had chromic deep venous thrombosis and was scintigraphically negative. Imaging thrombus using a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody directed to platelets appears to offer great potential as a simple, non-invasive approach to the diagnosis of thrombosis. 3 refs. (Author)

  1. Ultrasound active nanoscaled lipid formulations for thrombus lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Andreas; Marxer, Elena; Brüssler, Jana; Hoormann, Anne Sophia; Kuhnt, Daniela; Bakowsky, Udo; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the sonothrombolytic effect of new nanoscaled lipid formulations in human blood clots, using diagnostic ultrasound. Human blood clots of 1 ml were incubated with 1 μl of the different lipid dispersions DPPC/CH, DPPC/PEG40S, DSPC/PEG40S and the commercially available ultrasound contrast agent SonoVue®. Clots were stored for 3 days at 5 °C to obtain maximal clot retraction and lytic resistance. Each clot weight was determined before and after continuous insonation for 1h of insonation at 1.4 MHz. The pressure in the insonation chamber was 80 mm Hg to mimic middle arterial blood pressure. There were no significant differences in thrombus weight before insonation. All nanoscaled formulations and SonoVue® were able to reduce thrombus weight compared to the weight loss of clots that were not insonated but kept under pressure for one hour (p ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis even without thrombolytic drugs. Stable cavitation is a crucial parameter in fragmentation of thrombus architecture. Further studies of physicochemical properties of DSPC/PEG40S are necessary to corroborate our hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Angioplasty of symptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis with intraluminal thrombus: therapeutic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.; Mayol, A. [Seccion de Neurorradiologia Intervencionista, Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Gil-Peralta, A.; Gonzalez-Marcos, J.R. [Servicio de Neurologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Boza, F. [Servicio de Neurofisiologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Ruano, J. [Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain)

    2004-04-01

    Intraluminal thrombus in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is usually found in patients with severe atheromatous stenosis. Having reviewed 300 carotid angioplasties for symptomatic >70% ICA stenosis, we found three patients (1%) with intraluminal thrombus. Conservative treatment with anticoagulants and double antiplatelet coverage can result in lysis of the thrombus without severe risks. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting, preferably with distal protection, can be an excellent alternative to carotid endarterectomy. (orig.)

  3. A thrombus in transit through a patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Khouzam, Rami N; Sharma, Gyanendra; Thornton, John W; Robati, Roshanak; Silverman, David

    2014-10-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a congenital heart defect that may first be diagnosed in adulthood and has a prevalence of 25% to 30%. Although many patients with PFO are asymptomatic and do not require treatment, paradoxical embolism can cause stroke or myocardial infarction. The authors report an unusual case of PFO with a transversing thrombus in an 80-year-old man. The patient's initial presentation appeared clinically as acute coronary syndrome, but he was subsequently diagnosed with a massive thrombus in transit via a PFO and pulmonary embolus leading to right-sided heart failure.

  4. The Use of Fluid Mechanics to Predict Regions of Microscopic Thrombus Formation in Pulsatile VADs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Stephen R; Navitsky, Michael A; Medvitz, Richard B; Paterson, Eric G; Siedlecki, Christopher A; Slattery, Margaret J; Deutsch, Steven; Rosenberg, Gerson; Manning, Keefe B

    2014-03-01

    We compare the velocity and shear obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a pulsatile ventricular assist device (VAD) to further test our thrombus predictive methodology using microscopy data from an explanted VAD. To mimic physiological conditions in vitro , a mock circulatory loop is used with a blood analog that matched blood's viscoelastic behavior at 40% hematocrit. Under normal physiologic pressures and for a heart rate of 75 bpm, PIV data is acquired and wall shear maps are produced. The resolution of the PIV shear rate calculations are tested using the CFD and found to be in the same range. A bovine study, using a model of the 50 cc Penn State V-2 VAD, for 30 days at a constant beat rate of 75 beats per minute (bpm) provides the microscopic data whereby after the 30 days, the device is explanted and the sac surface analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and, after immunofluorescent labeling for platelets and fibrin, confocal microscopy. Areas are examined based on PIV measurements and CFD, with special attention to low shear regions where platelet and fibrin deposition are most likely to occur. Data collected within the outlet port in a direction normal to the front wall of the VAD shows that some regions experience wall shear rates less than 500 s -1 , which increases the likelihood of platelet and fibrin deposition. Despite only one animal study, correlations between PIV, CFD, and in vivo data show promise. Deposition probability is quantified by the thrombus susceptibility potential, a calculation to correlate low shear and time of shear with deposition.

  5. Recanalization and flow regulate venous thrombus resolution and matrix metalloproteinase expression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, Christine; Siefert, Suzanne A; Chaudry, Mohammed; Hoofnagle, Mark H; Lal, Brajesh K; Sarkar, Rajabrata

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role of thrombus recanalization and ongoing blood flow in the process of thrombus resolution by comparing two murine in vivo models of deep venous thrombosis. In CD1 mice, we performed surgical inferior vena cava ligation (stasis thrombosis), stenosis (thrombosis with recanalization), or sham procedure. We analyzed thrombus weight over time as a measure of thrombus resolution and quantified the messenger RNA and protein levels of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs) as well as effectors of the plasmin complex at days 4, 8, and 12 after surgery. Despite similar initial thrombus size, the presence of ongoing blood flow (stenosis model) was associated with a 45.91% subsequent improvement in thrombus resolution at day 8 and 12.57% at day 12 compared with stasis thrombosis (ligation model). Immunoblot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated a difference in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity at day 8 between the two models (P = .03 and P = .006, respectively) as well as a difference in MT2-MMP gene expression at day 8 (P = .044) and day 12 (P = .03) and MT1-MMP protein expression at day 4 (P = .021). Histologic analyses revealed distinct areas of recanalization in the thrombi of the stenosis model compared with the ligation model as well as the recruitment of inflammatory cells, especially macrophages, and a focal pattern of localized expression of MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP proteins surrounding the areas of recanalization in the stenosis model. Recanalization and ongoing blood flow accelerate deep venous thrombus resolution in vivo and are associated with distinct patterns of MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP expression and macrophage localization in areas of intrathrombus recanalization. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Incremental value of contrast echocardiography in the evaluation of a cardiac thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Jose Ricardo F; Tong, Matthew S; Grove, Erica L; Biederman, Robert W W

    2017-02-01

    A 52-year-old man presented with altered mental status and report of prior complaint of chest pain. On electrocardiography, anterolateral ST-segment elevations with Q-waves in the septal leads were seen. Initial echocardiography images demonstrated a thickened anteroseptum. Further imaging showed the presence of a well-attached laminated apical thrombus. Contrast echocardiography images showed that the thrombus had minimal attachment to the endocardial surface. CT head subsequently showed the presence of acute stroke. The case demonstrates the additional value of contrast echocardiography in the evaluation of cardiac masses despite the certainty in the diagnosis of a thrombus. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Negative regulatory role of PI3-kinase in TNF-induced tumor necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschurat, Susanne; Blum, Sabine; Mitnacht-Kraus, Rita; Dijkman, Henry B P M; Kanal, Levent; De Waal, Robert M W; Clauss, Matthias

    2003-10-20

    Tissue factor is the prime initiator of blood coagulation. Expression of tissue factor in tumor endothelial cells leads to thrombus formation, occlusion of vessels and development of hemorrhagic infarctions in the tumor tissue, often followed by regression of the tumor. Tumor cells produce endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which sensitizes endothelial cells for systemically administered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and synergistically enhances the TNF-induced expression of tissue factor. We have analyzed the pathways involved in the induction of tissue factor in human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after combined stimulation with TNF and VEGF. By using specific low molecular weight inhibitors, we demonstrated that protein kinase C (PKC), p44/42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and stress-activated protein kinase (JNK) are essentially involved in the induction of tissue factor. In contrast, the application of wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase, led to strongly enhanced expression of tissue factor in TNF- and VEGF-treated cells, implicating a negative regulatory role for PI3-kinase. In vivo, the application of wortmannin promoted the formation of TNF-induced hemorrhages and intratumoral necroses in murine meth A tumors. The co-injection of wortmannin lowered the effective dose of applied TNF. Therefore, it is conceivable that the treatment of TNF-sensitive tumors with a combination of TNF and wortmannin will ensure the selective damage of the tumor endothelium and minimize the risk of systemic toxicity of TNF. TNF-treatment in combination with specific inhibition of PI3-kinase is a novel concept in anti-cancer therapy. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. FDG-avid portal vein tumor thrombosis from hepatocellular carcinoma in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we aimed to describe the characteristics of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT, complicating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT scan. Methods: In this retrospective study, 9 HCC patients with FDG-avid PVTT were diagnosed by contrast-enhanced fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT, which is a combination of dynamic liver CT scan, multiphase imaging, and whole-body PET scan. PET and CT DICOM images of patients were imported into the PET/CT imaging system for the re-analysis of contrast enhancement and FDG uptake in thrombus, the diameter of the involved portal vein, and characteristics of liver tumors and metastasis. Results: Two patients with previously untreated HCC and 7 cases with previously treated HCC had FDG-avid PVTT in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT scan. During the arterial phase of CT scan, portal vein thrombus showed contrast enhancement in 8 out of 9 patients (88.9%. PET scan showed an increased linear FDG uptake along the thrombosed portal vein in all patients. The mean greatest diameter of thrombosed portal veins was 1.8 ± 0.2 cm, which was significantly greater than that observed in normal portal veins (P<0.001. FDG uptake level in portal vein thrombus was significantly higher than that of blood pool in the reference normal portal vein (P=0.001. PVTT was caused by the direct extension of liver tumors. All patients had visible FDG-avid liver tumors in contrast-enhanced images. Five out of 9 patients (55.6% had no extrahepatic metastasis, 3 cases (33.3% had metastasis of regional lymph nodes, and 1 case (11.1% presented with distant metastasis. The median estimated survival time of patients was 5 months. Conclusion: The intraluminal filling defect consistent with thrombous within the portal vein, expansion of the involved portal vein, contrast enhancement, and linear increased FDG uptake of the thrombus extended from liver tumor are

  9. Effect of hyperthermia on blood flow in VX2 tumor transplanted in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arita, Takeshi

    1994-01-01

    Effect of hyperthermia on blood flow was evaluated using VX 2 rabbit carcinoma in both legs. Microwave energy at 2450 MHz was used to heat tumors for 40 minutes. An outer canula of 18 G Erasta was implanted in the depth of 2 cm in tumor to measure the temperature and to maintain at 43.0degC-44.0degC. The blood flow in tumors was evaluated by color doppler flow imaging and dynamic MRI. Disturbance of blood flow in the depth of surface 0 cm to 2 cm in tumors was showed at 10 minutes starting 43.0degC heating and at almost all sites disappearance of blood flow was showed at 40 minutes using color doppler flow imaging. But the blood flow beyond the depth of 2 cm was not so disturbed at 40 minutes, relatively. After hyperthermia T1WI and T2WI in heated tumor were no difference comparing with those in control tumor, but heated tumor showed no enhancement using dynamic MRI with TURBO-FLASH technique and post-enhanced T1WI. Histologically, there was extensive tumor necrosis and thrombus formation in heated tumor after 3 days and 1 week. Therefore color doppler flow imaging and dynamic MRI were considered to be useful for evaluation of blood flow in tumor after and during hyperthermia. (author)

  10. Covered stent to exclude intravascular thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liistro, Francesco; Stankovic, Goran; Di Mario, Carlo; Montorfano, Matteo; Briguori, Carlo; Colombo, Antonio

    2002-04-01

    To describe the utility of stent-graft implantation to avoid distal embolization from a large thrombus-containing lesion. A 67-year-old man was evaluated for recent onset of disabling left leg claudication. Angiography disclosed a mobile lobular mass occluding the left common iliac artery; irregular staining suggested an atherothrombotic lesion. Through a percutaneous ipsilateral access and an 8-F sheath, a balloon-expandable Jostent peripheral stent-graft was positioned with the distal edge immediately proximal to the internal iliac artery ostium. A prominent "waist" at the center of the balloon confirmed entrapment of the thrombotic mass. Completion angiography showed an optimal result with no residual stenosis or evidence of distal embolization. At 6-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic with angiographically documented luminal patency and no evidence of in-stent stenosis. Stent-graft implantation appears a viable treatment alternative for thrombus-containing lesions, particularly when the thrombotic material is localized or is in a large vessel.

  11. Added value of multiphase CTA imaging for thrombus perviousness assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, E.M.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); D' Esterre, C.D.; Najm, M.; Goyal, M.; Demchuk, A.M.; Menon, B.K. [University of Calgary, Departments of Neurosciences, Radiology and Community Health Sciences, Calgary (Canada); Treurniet, K.M.; Majoie, C.B. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, W.J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, H.A. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mandzia, Jennifer; Fainardi, Enrico; Rubiera, Marta; Khaw, Alexander V.; Zini, Andrea; Shankar, JJ.; Collaboration: PRove-IT investigators

    2018-01-15

    Thrombus perviousness has been associated with favorable functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Measuring thrombus perviousness on CTA may be suboptimal due to potential delay in contrast agent arrival in occluded arteries at the moment of imaging. Dynamic sequences acquired over time can potentially overcome this issue. We investigate if dynamic CTA has added value in assessing thrombus perviousness. Prospectively collected image data of AIS patients with proven occlusion of the anterior or posterior circulation with thin-slice multi-phase CTA (MCTA) and non-contrast CT were co-registered (n = 221). Thrombus attenuation increase (TAI; a perviousness measure) was measured for the arterial, venous, and delayed phase of the MCTA and time-invariant CTAs (TiCTA). Associations with favorable clinical outcome (90-day mRS ≤ 2) were assessed using univariate and multivariable regressions and calculating areas under receiver operating curves (AUC). TAI determined from the arterial phase CTA was superior in the association with favorable outcome with OR = 1.21 per 10 HU increase (95%CI 1.04-1.41, AUC 0.62, p = 0.014) compared to any other phase (venous 1.14(95%CI 1.01-1.30, AUC 0.58, p = 0.033), delayed 1.046(95%CI 0.919-1.19, AUC 0.53, p = 0.50)), and TiCTA 1.15(95%CI 1.02-1.30, AUC 0.60, p = 0.022). In the multivariable model, only TAI on arterial phase was significantly associated with favorable outcome (aOR 1.59, 95%CI 1.04-2.43, p = 0.032). Association between TAI with functional outcome was optimal on arterial-phase CTA such that dynamic CTA imaging has no additional benefits in current thrombus perviousness assessment, thereby suggesting that the delay of contrast arrival at the clot is a key variable for patient functional outcome. (orig.)

  12. [Extracorporeal circulation and hypothermy surgery in tumors with vena cava extension: 20 years experience at the University Clinic of Navarra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja Zuazu, J; Rodríguez-Rubio Cortadillas, F; Zudaire Bergera, J J; Saiz Sansi, A; Rosell Costa, D; Robles García, J E; Rábago, G; Berián Polo, J M

    2008-04-01

    We present our 20 years experience treating patients with vena cava extension in whom an extracorporeal circulation, hypothermia, cardio circulatory arrest (ECC-H-CCA) in order to perform, together with a tumoral resection, a thrombus resection. From 1985 to 2005 a total of 28 retroperitoneal tumor were treated: 25 renal cancers, a Wilms tumor, a paratesticular rabdomiosarcoma, and a pheocromocitoma. All of them had an extension by means of thrombus above the suprahepatics veins. All of them were treated by means of ECC-H-CCA for thrombus extraction. A descriptive study of the serie is performed as well as a Kaplan Meyer survival study. Surgical complications were present within 10 patients (35%), with a surgical mortality of two patients (7%): one intra-operatively because a massive embolism of the lungs and the other because of a lung embolism on the 4th post-operative day. Global actuarial survival was 29.1+/-10% at three years and 17.5+/-8% at five years. Analyzing only who do not have metastatic lesions, nor lymph nodes at diagnosis their three year survival was 50.9+/-16.3% and 32.2+/-16% at five years. Mean while those who have any metastatic lesion at diagnosis their three and five years survival was 20.8+/-12% and 10.4+/-9% respectively. The employ of surgical techniques with ECC-H-CCA with in oncological pathology associated with vena cava thrombus is justified and its employment does not worsen the survival; it is indicated because its results, allowing a complete tumoral resection in a safe and reproducible fashion.

  13. Successful Treatment of Free-Floating Right Ventricular Thrombus with Acute Pulmonary Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism with floating right intra-ventricular thrombus is a rare phenomena associated with poor prognosis. Here, we are presenting a case of 35-year-young male with no co-morbid illness diagnosed to have right ventricular thrombus with bilateral pulmonary embolism, which was managed successfully with thrombolytic therapy.

  14. Left atrial appendage thrombus with resulting stroke post-RF ablation for atrial fibrillation in a patient on dabigatran.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lobo, R

    2015-11-01

    Dabigatran etexilate is licensed for use in prevention of deep venous thromboembolism and in prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). It has also been used in patients for other indications as a substitute for warfarin therapy because it requires no monitoring; one group being patients undergoing radiofrequency (RF), ablation for AF, although there have been no consensus guidelines with regards to dosage and timing of dose. We report the case of a patient with documentary evidence of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus formation and neurological sequelae post-RF ablation despite being on dabigatran. This case highlights the concern that periprocedural dabigatran may not provide adequate protection from development of LAA thrombus and that a standardised protocol will need to be developed and undergo large multicentre trials before dabigatran can be safely used for patients undergoing RF-ablation.

  15. An integrated fluid-chemical model toward modeling the formation of intra-luminal thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Spazzini, Pier Giorgio; Swedenborg, Jesper; Gasser, T Christian

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the presence of an Intra-Luminal Thrombus (ILT) known to influence their evolution biochemically and biomechanically. The ILT progression mechanism is still unclear and little is known regarding the impact of the chemical species transported by blood flow on this mechanism. Chemical agonists and antagonists of platelets activation, aggregation, and adhesion and the proteins involved in the coagulation cascade (CC) may play an important role in ILT development. Starting from this assumption, the evolution of chemical species involved in the CC, their relation to coherent vortical structures (VSs) and their possible effect on ILT evolution have been studied. To this end a fluid-chemical model that simulates the CC through a series of convection-diffusion-reaction (CDR) equations has been developed. The model involves plasma-phase and surface-bound enzymes and zymogens, and includes both plasma-phase and membrane-phase reactions. Blood is modeled as a non-Newtonian incompressible fluid. VSs convect thrombin in the domain and lead to the high concentration observed in the distal portion of the AAA. This finding is in line with the clinical observations showing that the thickest ILT is usually seen in the distal AAA region. The proposed model, due to its ability to couple the fluid and chemical domains, provides an integrated mechanochemical picture that potentially could help unveil mechanisms of ILT formation and development.

  16. Stabilization of beta-catenin induces pancreas tumor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Patrick W; Cano, David A; Landsman, Limor; Kim, Grace E; Kench, James G; Klimstra, David S; Taketo, Maketo M; Biankin, Andrew V; Hebrok, Matthias

    2008-10-01

    beta-Catenin signaling within the canonical Wnt pathway is essential for pancreas development. However, the pathway is normally down-regulated in the adult organ. Increased cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of beta-catenin can be detected in nearly all human solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN), a rare tumor with low malignant potential. Conversely, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) accounts for the majority of pancreatic tumors and is among the leading causes of cancer death. Whereas activating mutations within beta-catenin and other members of the canonical Wnt pathway are rare, recent reports have implicated Wnt signaling in the development and progression of human PDA. Here, we sought to address the role of beta-catenin signaling in pancreas tumorigenesis. Using Cre/lox technology, we conditionally activated beta-catenin in a subset of murine pancreatic cells in vivo. Activation of beta-catenin results in the formation of large pancreatic tumors at a high frequency in adult mice. These tumors resemble human SPN based on morphologic and immunohistochemical comparisons. Interestingly, stabilization of beta-catenin blocks the formation of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) in the presence of an activating mutation in Kras that is known to predispose individuals to PDA. Instead, mice in which beta-catenin and Kras are concurrently activated develop distinct ductal neoplasms that do not resemble PanIN lesions. These results demonstrate that activation of beta-catenin is sufficient to induce pancreas tumorigenesis. Moreover, they indicate that the sequence in which oncogenic mutations are acquired has profound consequences on the phenotype of the resulting tumor.

  17. [Clinical analysis of patients with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis complicated with inferior vena cava thrombus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dian-ning; Wu, Xue-jun; Zhang, Shi-yi; Zhong, Zhen-yue; Jin, Xing

    2013-06-04

    To explore the clinical profiles of patients with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) complicated with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus and summarize their clinical diagnostic and therapeutic experiences. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of 20 hospitalized patients with DVT complicated with inferior vena cava thrombus were analyzed retrospectively. All of them were of proximal DVT. There were phlegmasia cerulea dolens (n = 3), pulmonary embolism (n = 3) and completely occlusion of IVC (n = 5). Clinical manifestations were severe. Retrievable inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) was implanted for 17 cases. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) through ipsilateral popliteal vein was applied for 7 cases and systemic thrombolysis therapy for 8 cases. The effective rate of thrombolysis for fresh IVC thrombus was 100%. Among 5 cases with Cockett Syndrome, 3 cases underwent balloon dilatation angioplasty and endovascular stenting of iliac vein. And 17 IVCFs were retrieved successfully within 3 weeks. IVC thrombus disappeared completely in 15 cases. Systemic or local thrombolysis with protective IVCF is a safe and effective therapy for nonocclusive IVC thrombus in DVT. And CDT is recommended for symptomatic occlusive IVC thrombus.

  18. Quantity of residual thrombus after successful catheter-directed thrombolysis for iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis correlates with recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, F; Comerota, A J

    2012-08-01

    Iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (IFDVT) is an independent risk factor for recurrent DVT. It has been observed that recurrent DVT correlates with residual thrombus. This study evaluates whether risk of recurrence is related to the amount of residual thrombus following catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for IFDVT. Patients who underwent CDT for IFDVT had their degree of lysis quantified by a reader blind to the patients' long-term clinical outcome. Patients were classified into two groups, ≥50% and thrombus. Recurrence was defined as a symptomatic presentation with image verification of new or additional thrombus. A total of 75 patients underwent CDT for IFDVT. Median follow-up was 35.9 months. Sixty-eight patients (91%) had no evidence of recurrence and seven (9%) developed recurrence. Of the patients who had ≥50% (mean 80%) residual thrombus, 50% (4/8) experienced recurrence, but in those with thrombus, only 5% (3/67) had recurrent DVT (P = 0.0014). The burden of residual thrombus at completion of CDT correlates with the risk of DVT recurrence. Patients having CDT for IFDVT had a lower risk of recurrence than expected. Successful clearing of acute clot in IFDVT patients significantly reduces the recurrence risk compared to patients with a large residual thrombus burden. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Molecular imaging of thrombus with microbubbles targeted to alphavbeta3-integrin using an agarose flow chamber model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-quan; Liu, Jian; Yang, Li; Yan, Yi; Wu, Jue-fei; Xie, Jia-jia; Cai, Jing-jing; Ji, Li-jing; Bin, Jian-ping

    2010-03-01

    To assess the binding ability of microbubbles targeted to alphavbeta3-integrin (MBp) for thrombus-targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Targeted microbubbles were prepared by conjugating the monoclonal antibody against alphavbeta3-integrin to lipid shell of the microbubble via the avidin-biotin bridges. Equivalent isotype control microbubbles (MB) or targeted ultrasound microbubbles (MBp) were randomly added into the flow chamber. After a 30-min incubation with the thrombus fixed in an agarose flow chamber model, the thrombus was washed with a continuous flow of PBS solution (15 cm/s) for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min, followed by thrombus imaging using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and measurement of the video intensity (VI) values of the images. The VI of the thrombus in MBp group was reduced by 28%-66%, while that in control MB group was decreased by 87%-94%, and the VI values of the thrombus group were significantly greater in former group at each of the time points (Pevaluation of the thrombus-binding capability of the targeted microbubble (MBp) by simulating the shear stress in vivo can be helpful for predicting the in vivo effects of ultrasonic molecular imaging using MBp.

  20. Slow flow and mural thrombus in aortic diseases: Spin-echo MR findings and their differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate the ability of spin-echo MR imaging to differentiate slow flow from mural thrombus in aortic diseases, we reviewed the spin-echo MR images of 13 patients with intraaortic thrombus documented by CT (N=11) or aortography (N=2). Six patients had aortic aneurysms and seven had aortic dissections. Intraaortic mural thrombi were accompanied by flow-related intraluminal signal of various pattern and extents in all 13 patients. On 10 gated MR studies, slow flow regions showed ever-echo rephasing phenomenon (N=8), interslice variation of signal intensities of the intraluminal signal (N=7) and flow-related ghost artifact (N=2). However, these MR flow phenomena were obscured on two of three non-gated studies. Seven of 13 intraaortic thrombi remained hyperintense on T2-weighted second-echo images. In these circumstance, a hypointense boundary layer between slow flow and mural thrombus, which was caused by either ' boundary layer dephasing phenomenon' of slow flow or 'paramagnetic T2 shortening' of fresh clot at the edge of mural thrombus, was very useful in discriminating the area of slow flow from that of mural thrombus. Proper interpretation of spin-echo MR images may obviate the need for phase display imaging or gradient-echo imaging in differentiating slow flow and mural thrombus

  1. Usefulness of MR angiography in renal tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Toshitsugu; Morimoto, Kouji; Nishimura, Kenji; Tsujimura, Akira; Yasunaga, Yutaka; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Takaha, Minato (Osaka National Hospital (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    MR angiography using a gradient-echo, pulse sequence FLASH (fast, low-angle shot) method during breath-hold with a MAGNETOM H-15 scanner (1.5 Tesla; Siemens Medical System) was performed on 27 patients with renal tumor at our clinic between Feburary 20, 1990 and September 30, 1991 and we studied to evaluate its usefulness. Of these 27 patients, 22 patients including one patient under hemodialysis treatment had renal cell carcinoma and one patient had oncocytoma pathologically proven from the excised specimens. The remaining four patients including two patients associated with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus were clinically diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma based on the result of imaging examinations such as excretory urography, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional angiography. However, they could not be operated on because their tumors were too advanced. By reconstruction of the data of consecutive coronal scans of the abdominal blood vessels such as the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava and renal arteries and veins simultaneously without any intravenous contrast materials. Our present study revealed that MR angiography has some advantages, especially with regard to preoperative angiographic information about the abdomen of patients with renal tumor. That is, MR angiography can delineate many kinds of arteries and veins of the abdomen simultaneously and in a broader range, as well as it can be performed on the patients with hypersensitivity to iodinate contrast materials or renal insufficiency in a usual fashion. Furthermore, our present study suggested that the MR angiography is useful for assessing the presence and extent of inferior vena caval tumor thrombus of renal cell carcinoma and for clearly distinguishing tumor lesion and the surrounding normal renal parenchyma in the patients with renal tumor. (author).

  2. Usefulness of MR angiography in renal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Toshitsugu; Morimoto, Kouji; Nishimura, Kenji; Tsujimura, Akira; Yasunaga, Yutaka; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Takaha, Minato

    1992-01-01

    MR angiography using a gradient-echo, pulse sequence FLASH (fast, low-angle shot) method during breath-hold with a 'MAGNETOM H-15' scanner (1.5 Tesla; Siemens Medical System) was performed on 27 patients with renal tumor at our clinic between Feburary 20, 1990 and September 30, 1991 and we studied to evaluate its usefulness. Of these 27 patients, 22 patients including one patient under hemodialysis treatment had renal cell carcinoma and one patient had oncocytoma pathologically proven from the excised specimens. The remaining four patients including two patients associated with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus were clinically diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma based on the result of imaging examinations such as excretory urography, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional angiography. However, they could not be operated on because their tumors were too advanced. By reconstruction of the data of consecutive coronal scans of the abdominal blood vessels such as the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava and renal arteries and veins simultaneously without any intravenous contrast materials. Our present study revealed that MR angiography has some advantages, especially with regard to preoperative angiographic information about the abdomen of patients with renal tumor. That is, MR angiography can delineate many kinds of arteries and veins of the abdomen simultaneously and in a broader range, as well as it can be performed on the patients with hypersensitivity to iodinate contrast materials or renal insufficiency in a usual fashion. Furthermore, our present study suggested that the MR angiography is useful for assessing the presence and extent of inferior vena caval tumor thrombus of renal cell carcinoma and for clearly distinguishing tumor lesion and the surrounding normal renal parenchyma in the patients with renal tumor. (author)

  3. Right Ventricular Endomyocardial Fibrosis Presenting With Ventricular Tachycardia And Apical Thrombus - An Interesting Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Aggarwal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Endomyocardial fibrosis is a progressive disease of unknown origin affecting children and young adults. It involves inflow portion of right and/or left ventricle and apex. It may be associated with thrombus. Literature regarding right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis with thrombus is scarce. Here we report a rare case of right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis presenting as ventricular tachycardia and echocardiographic evidence of apical thrombus. Interestingly there was no pulmonary involvement or evidence of deep venous thrombosis. This case also underscores the importance of urgent echocardiography in diagnosis of obscure cases of ventricular tachycardia.

  4. Detachment-induced E-cadherin expression promotes 3D tumor spheroid formation but inhibits tumor formation and metastasis of lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powan, Phattrakorn; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; He, Xiaoqing; Rojanasakul, Yon; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2017-11-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is proposed to be a key mechanism responsible for metastasis-related deaths. Similarly, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been proposed to be a key driver of tumor metastasis. However, the link between the two events and their control mechanisms is unclear. We used a three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid assay and other CSC-indicating assays to investigate the role of E-cadherin in CSC regulation and its association to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells. Ectopic overexpression and knockdown of E-cadherin were found to promote and retard, respectively, the formation of tumor spheroids in vitro but had opposite effects on tumor formation and metastasis in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. We explored the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo results and demonstrated, for the first time, that E-cadherin is required as a component of a major survival pathway under detachment conditions. Downregulation of E-cadherin increased the stemness of lung cancer cells but had an adverse effect on their survival, particularly on non-CSCs. Such downregulation also promoted anoikis resistance and invasiveness of lung cancer cells. These results suggest that anoikis assay could be used as an alternative method for in vitro assessment of CSCs that involves dysregulated adhesion proteins. Our data also suggest that agents that restore E-cadherin expression may be used as therapeutic agents for metastatic cancers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Combination of Transarterial Chemoembolization and Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Inferior Vena Cava Tumor Thrombus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Ja Eun; Kim, Jong Hoon; Lim, Young-Suk

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (CRT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (IVCTT). Methods and Materials: A total of 42 consecutive patients who underwent TACE and CRT (TACE+CRT group) for the treatment of HCC with IVCTT were prospectively enrolled from July 2004 to October 2006. As historical controls, 29 HCC patients with IVCTT who received TACE alone (TACE group) between July 2003 and June 2004 were included. CRT was designed to target only the IVCTT and to deliver a median total dose of 45 Gy (range, 28-50 Gy). Results: Most baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar (p > 0.05). The response and progression-free rates of IVCTT were significantly higher in the TACE+CRT group than in the TACE group (42.9% and 71.4% vs. 13.8% and 37.9%, respectively; p < 0.01 for both rates). Overall, patient survival was significantly higher in the TACE+CRT group than in the TACE group (p < 0.01), with a median survival time of 11.7 months and 4.7 months, respectively. Treatment with TACE+CRT (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-0.71), progression of IVCTT (HR = 4.05; 95% CI, 2.00-8.21), Child-Pugh class B (HR = 3.44; 95% CI, 1.79-6.61), and portal vein invasion (HR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.19-4.50) were identified as independent predictors of mortality by multivariable analysis. Conclusions: The combination of TACE and CRT is more effective in the control of IVCTT associated with HCC and improves patient survival compared with TACE alone.

  6. [Stroke due to infective endocarditis diagnosed by the retrieved thrombus: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kaoru; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Amano, Tatsuo; Omori, Yoshihiko; Kanma, Hiroshi; Hirano, Teruyuki

    2018-01-26

    A 80-years-old woman suddenly presented with aphasia, right hemiparesis, and dysesthesia. MRA showed the left middle cerebral artery occlusion. She was diagnosed as hyperacute ischemic stroke. She was treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and underwent endovascular thrombectomy. On admission, she had a fever and high C reactive protein, and was treated with antibiotic therapy. The pathological diagnosis of the retrieved thrombus revealed the cluster of the gram positive cocci. The blood culture was negative and thransthoracic echocardiogram did not detect the vegetation. She was finally diagnosed as cardioembolic stroke due to infective endocarditis based on the pathological diagnosis of the retrieved thrombus. The pathological diagnosis of the retrieved thrombus was quite important to clarify the cause of ischemic stroke.

  7. Assessment of thrombus imaging potency of thrombin-targeting recombinant hirudin in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Tan; Rongjun, Zhang; Weixing, Wan; Gangming, Cai; Huixin, Yu; Mengjun, Jiang; Lianfen, Zhang; Guoping, Sheng; Yijun, Fan; Yonghui, Tao; Jian, Jin [Jiangsu Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi (China)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of recombinant hirudin HV2 (rHHV2) as a thrombus imaging agent. {sup 125}I-rHHV2 and {sup 125}I-Th were prepared with Chloramine method, the labeling rate were 86.64% and 62.20%, with the radioactive purity of 89.70% and 91.22%, with the specific activity of 22.4 TBq/mmol and 94.43 TBq/mmol respectively. The competitive radioassay showed that the Th-fibrin complex formation did not affect the ability of rHHV2 binding with Th. In the complex, the molecular binding ratio of rHHV2 to Th and fibrinogen was 14:14:1. {sup 99m}Tc-rHHV2 was prepared by 2-iminothiolane modified method, the labeled rate was 94%, with the radioactive purity of 93.90%, with the specific activity of 2.30 TBq/mmol. It was used to image fresh thrombi on arteries and veins of dog or rabbit (30 {mu}g/kg). In SPECT images, all thrombin were clearly visible, arterial thrombosis imaging can be seen clearly within 45 min after injection and fade away slowly, venous thrombosis imaging also can be seen within 30 min after injection and quantitative imaging ratios between the thrombus and opposite vessel increased following the time. Biodistribution studies in mouse demonstrated that rHHV2 was excreted from kidneys. These data indicate that Th in Th-fibrin complex could be a potent target for diagnosis of thrombus and {sup 99m}Tc-rHHV2 could be a new thrombotic imaging agent. (authors)

  8. Systematic Review of Treatment for Trapped Thrombus in Patent Foramen Ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Won-Woo; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jun-Hee; Park, Dae-Gyun; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Oh, Dong-Jin

    2017-09-01

    Trapped thrombus in patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a rare complication of pulmonary embolism that may lead to tragic clinical events. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal treatment for different clinical situations in patients with trapped thrombus in a PFO by conducting a literature review. A PubMed database search was conducted from 1991 through 2015, and 194 patients (185 articles) with trapped thrombus in a PFO were identified. Patient characteristics, paradoxical embolic events, and factors affecting 60-day mortality were analyzed retrospectively. Among all patients, 112 (57.7%) were treated with surgery, 28 with thrombolysis, and 54 with anticoagulation alone. Dyspnea (79.4%), chest pain (33.0%), and syncope (17.5%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Pretreatment embolism was found in 37.6% of cases, and stroke (24.7%) was the most common event. Surgery was associated with fewer post-treatment embolic events than were other treatment options (p=0.044). In the multivariate analysis, initial shock or arrest, and thrombolysis were independent predictors of 60-day mortality. Thrombolysis was related with higher 60-day mortality compared with surgery in patients who had no initial shock or arrest. This systematic review showed that surgery was associated with a lower overall incidence of post-treatment embolic events and a lower 60-day mortality in patients with trapped thrombus in a PFO. In patients without initial shock or arrest, thrombolysis was related with a higher 60-day mortality compared with surgery.

  9. GIANT PROSTHETIC VALVE THROMBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valves are predisposed to bleeding, thrombosis & thromboembolic complications. Overall incidence of thromboembolic complications is 1% per year who are on oral anticoagulants, whereas bleeding complications incidence is 0.5% to 6.6% per year. 1, 2 Minimization of Scylla of thromboembolic & Charybdis of bleeding complication needs a balancing act of optimal antithrombotic therapy. We are reporting a case of middle aged male patient with prosthetic mitral valve presenting in heart failure. Patient had discontinued anticoagulants, as he had subdural hematoma in the past. He presented to our institute with a giant prosthetic valve thrombus.

  10. Identification of intraluminal thrombus by ultrasonography in emergency department patients with acute deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ninfa; Schecter, Joshua; Stone, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Traditionally, the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) using duplex ultrasonography (DU) has relied on the absence of venous compressibility. Visualization of an intraluminal thrombus is considered an uncommon finding. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of intraluminal thrombus in emergency department (ED) patients diagnosed with acute DVT. Retrospective chart review of adult ED patients with DU examinations demonstrating acute DVT. Patients with chronic DVT or patients in whom DU did not demonstrate DVT were excluded from data analysis. Study reports and ultrasound images were reviewed and analyzed for the presence of intraluminal thrombus. There were 189 patients who met inclusion criteria, of which 160 (85%) were found to have intraluminal thrombus. Intraluminal thrombi are present in the majority of patients in our ED in whom acute DVT is identified by DU. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of Acute M1 Middle Cerebral Artery Thrombus Location with Endovascular Treatment Success and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavabvash, Seyedmehdi; Taleb, Shayandokht; Majidi, Shahram; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2017-01-01

    The location of the arterial occlusion can help with prognostication and treatment triage of acute stroke patients. We aimed to determine the effects of M1 distance-to-thrombus on angiographic recanalization success rate and clinical outcome following endovascular treatment of acute M1 occlusion. All acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 segment middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion on admission CT angiography (CTA) who underwent endovascular treatment were analyzed. The distance between thrombus origin and internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation was measured on admission CTA. The modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) grades 2 b (>50% of distal branch filling) and 3 (complete) were considered as successful recanalization. Favorable outcome was defined by 3-month follow-up modified Rankin scale (mRs) score ≤2. Successful recanalization was achieved in 24 (71%) of 34 consecutive patients included in this study. The M1 distance-to-thrombus was shorter among patients with successful recanalization (5.4 ± 5.4 mm) versus those without (11.3 ± 7.6 mm, p = 0.015). The successful recanalization rate was higher among patients with M1 distance-to-thrombus ≤6 mm (odds ratio: 8, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-46.81, p = 0.023) compared with those with distance-to-thrombus >6 mm. There was no significant correlation between M1 distance-to-thrombus and 3-month mRs (rho: 0.131, p = 0.461); however, the distance-to-thrombus negatively correlated with admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (rho: -0.350, p=0.043). On the other hand, successful recanalization and admission NIHSS score were the only independent predictors of favorable outcome. Shorter distance of M1 thrombus from ICA bifurcation is associated with higher rate of successful recanalization following endovascular treatment.

  12. Correlation of Acute M1 Middle Cerebral Artery Thrombus Location with Endovascular Treatment Success and Clinical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavabvash, Seyedmehdi; Taleb, Shayandokht; Majidi, Shahram; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The location of the arterial occlusion can help with prognostication and treatment triage of acute stroke patients. We aimed to determine the effects of M1 distance-to-thrombus on angiographic recanalization success rate and clinical outcome following endovascular treatment of acute M1 occlusion. Methods All acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 segment middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion on admission CT angiography (CTA) who underwent endovascular treatment were analyzed. The distance between thrombus origin and internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation was measured on admission CTA. The modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) grades 2b (>50% of distal branch filling) and 3 (complete) were considered as successful recanalization. Favorable outcome was defined by 3-month follow-up modified Rankin scale (mRs) score ≤2. Results Successful recanalization was achieved in 24 (71%) of 34 consecutive patients included in this study. The M1 distance-to-thrombus was shorter among patients with successful recanalization (5.4 ± 5.4 mm) versus those without (11.3 ± 7.6 mm, p = 0.015). The successful recanalization rate was higher among patients with M1 distance-to-thrombus ≤6 mm (odds ratio: 8, 95% confidence interval: 1.37–46.81, p = 0.023) compared with those with distance-to-thrombus >6 mm. There was no significant correlation between M1 distance-to-thrombus and 3-month mRs (rho: 0.131, p = 0.461); however, the distance-to-thrombus negatively correlated with admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (rho: −0.350, p=0.043). On the other hand, successful recanalization and admission NIHSS score were the only independent predictors of favorable outcome. Conclusion Shorter distance of M1 thrombus from ICA bifurcation is associated with higher rate of successful recanalization following endovascular treatment. PMID:28243346

  13. Tumor thrombus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravina, Mudalsha; Hess, Søren; Chauhan, Mahesh Singh

    2014-01-01

    period at the Army Hospital Research and Referral in New Delhi, India, and included all oncology cases with FDG-avid thrombosis in the report. The diagnosis of TT was based on FDG-avid solid masses inside the vessels in patients with known malignancy. The SUVmax was calculated. RESULTS: Twenty...

  14. Percutaneous electrochemotherapy in the treatment of portal vein tumor thrombosis at hepatic hilum in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Luciano; Busto, Giuseppina; Nasto, Aurelio; Fristachi, Raffaele; Cacace, Luigi; Talamo, Maria; Accardo, Catello; Bortone, Sara; Gallo, Paolo; Tarantino, Paolo; Nasto, Riccardo Aurelio; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Ambrosino, Pasquale

    2017-02-07

    To treated with electrochemotherapy (ECT) a prospective case series of patients with liver cirrhosis and Vp3-Vp4- portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in order to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of this new non thermal ablative technique in those patients. Six patients (5 males and 1 female), aged 61-85 years (mean age, 70 years), four in Child-Pugh A and two in Child-Pugh B class, entered our study series. All patients were studied with three-phase computed tomography (CT), contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of the thrombus before ECT. All patients underwent ECT treatment (Cliniporator Vitae ® , IGEA SpA, Carpi, Modena, Italy) of Vp3-Vp4 PVTT in a single session. At the end of the procedure a post-treatment biopsy of the thrombus was performed. Scheduled follow-up in all patients entailed: CEUS within 24 h after treatment; triphasic contrast-enhanced CT and CEUS at 3 mo after treatment and every six months thereafter. Post-treatment CEUS showed complete absence of enhancement of the treated thrombus in all cases. Post-treatment biopsy showed apoptosis and necrosis of tumor cells in all cases. The follow-up ranged from 9 to 20 mo (median, 14 mo). In 2 patients, the follow-up CT and CEUS demonstrated complete patency of the treated portal vein. Other 3 patients showed a persistent avascular non-tumoral shrinked thrombus at CEUS and CT during follow-up. No local recurrence was observed at follow-up CT and CEUS in 5/6 patients. One patient was lost to follow-up because of death from gastrointestinal hemorrage 5 wk after ECT. In patients with cirrhosis, ECT seems effective and safe for curative treatment of Vp3-Vp4 PVTT from HCC.

  15. Bacterial signatures in thrombus aspirates of patients with lower limb arterial and venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhitov, Damir; Tuomisto, Sari; Martiskainen, Mika; Korhonen, Janne; Pessi, Tanja; Salenius, Juha-Pekka; Suominen, Velipekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Karhunen, Pekka J; Oksala, Niku

    2018-06-01

    Increasing data supports the role of bacterial inflammation in adverse events of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In our previous research, DNA of bacterial species found in coronary artery thrombus aspirates and ruptured cerebral aneurysms were mostly of endodontic and periodontal origin, where Streptococcus mitis group DNA was the most common. We hypothesized that the genomes of S mitis group could be identified in thrombus aspirates of patients with lower limb arterial and deep venous thrombosis. Thrombus aspirates and control blood samples taken from 42 patients with acute or acute-on-chronic lower limb ischemia (Rutherford I-IIb) owing to arterial or graft thrombosis (n = 31) or lower limb deep venous thrombosis (n = 11) were examined using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect all possible bacterial DNA and DNA of S mitis group in particular. The samples were considered positive, if the amount of bacterial DNA in the thrombus aspirates was 2-fold or greater in comparison with control blood samples. In the positive samples the mean difference for the total bacterial DNA was 12.1-fold (median, 7.1), whereas the differences for S mitis group DNA were a mean of 29.1 and a median of 5.2-fold. Of the arterial thrombus aspirates, 57.9% were positive for bacterial DNA, whereas bacterial genomes were found in 75% of bypass graft thrombosis with 77.8% of the prosthetic grafts being positive. Of the deep vein thrombus aspirates, 45.5% contained bacterial genomes. Most (80%) of bacterial DNA-positive cases contained DNA from the S mitis group. Previous arterial interventions were significantly associated with the occurrence of S mitis group DNA (P = .049, Fisher's exact test). This is the first study to report the presence of bacterial DNA, predominantly of S mitis group origin, in the thrombus aspirates of surgical patients with lower limb arterial and deep venous thrombosis, suggesting their possible role in the pathogenesis of

  16. Food-grade titanium dioxide exposure exacerbates tumor formation in colitis associated cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Ortega, Ismael M; Garduño-Balderas, Luis G; Delgado-Buenrostro, Norma L; Freyre-Fonseca, Verónica; Flores-Flores, José O; González-Robles, Arturo; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Terrazas, Luis I; van Loveren, Henk; Chirino, Yolanda I

    2016-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth worldwide cause of death and even if some dietary habits are consider risk factors, the contribution of food additives including foodgrade titanium dioxide (TiO2), designated as E171, has been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that oral E171 intake could have impact on the enhancement of colorectal tumor formation and we aimed to investigate if E171 administration could enhance tumor formation in a colitis associated cancer (CAC) model. BALB/c male mice were grouped as follows: a) control, b) E171, c) CAC and d) CAC + E171 group (n = 6). E171 used in this study formed agglomerates of 300 nm in water. E171 intragastric administration (5 mg/kg body weight/5 days/10 weeks) was unable to induce tumor formation but dysplastic alterations were observed in the distal colon but enhanced the tumor formation in distal colon (CAC + E171 group) measured by tumor progression markers. Some E171 particles were internalized in colonic cells of the E171 and CAC + E171 groups and both groups showed a decrease in goblet cells in the distal colon. However the CAC + E171 group showed a higher decrease of these cells that act as protection barrier in colon. These results suggest that E171 could worsen pre-existent intestinal diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Methods of Recanalization in a Model of the Middle Cerebral Artery: Thrombus Aspiration via a 4F Catheter, Thrombus Aspiration via the GP Thromboaspiration Device, and Mechanical Thrombectomy Using the Solitaire Thrombectomy Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Tennuci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper compares different approaches to recanalization in a model of the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Methods. An occlusive thrombus (lamb's blood was introduced into the MCA of a model of the cerebral circulation perfused with Hartmann's solution (80 pulsations/min, mean pressure 90 mm Hg. Three methods of clot retrieval were tested: thrombus aspiration via a 4F catheter (n=26, thrombus aspiration via the GP thrombus aspiration device (GPTAD (n=30, and mechanical thrombectomy via the Solitaire Device (n=30. Results. Recanalization rate was similar for all 3 approaches (62%, 77%, and 85%. Time to recanalization was faster with aspiration devices (41 SD 42 s for 4F and 61 SD 21 s for GPTAD than with the Solitaire (197 SD 64 s P<.05 Kruksal-Wallis. Clot fragmentation was the same in the Solitaire (23% and the GPTAD (23%, but higher with the 4F (53%, P<.05. Conclusion. In this model, thrombus aspiration was faster than mechanical thrombectomy, and similarly effective at recanalization. These results should be confirmed in vivo.

  18. Artificial aortic valve dysfunction due to pannus and thrombus - different methods of cardiac surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Stanisław; Marcinkiewicz, Anna; Kośmider, Anna; Walczak, Andrzej; Zwoliński, Radosław; Jaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 60 000 prosthetic valves are implanted annually in the USA. The risk of prosthesis dysfunction ranges from 0.1% to 4% per year. Prosthesis valve dysfunction is usually caused by a thrombus obstructing the prosthetic discs. However, 10% of prosthetic valves are dysfunctional due to pannus formation, and 12% of prostheses are damaged by both fibrinous and thrombotic components. The authors present two patients with dysfunctional aortic prostheses who were referred for cardiac surgery. Different surgical solutions were used in the treatment of each case. The first patient was a 71-year-old woman whose medical history included arterial hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and hypercholesterolemia; she had previously undergone left-sided mastectomy and radiotherapy. The patient was admitted to the Cardiac Surgery Department due to aortic prosthesis dysfunction. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed complete obstruction of one disc and a severe reduction in the mobility of the second. The mean transvalvular gradient was very high. During the operation, pannus covering the discs' surface was found. A biological aortic prosthesis was reimplanted without complications. The second patient was an 87-year-old woman with arterial hypertension, persistent atrial fibrillation, and COPD, whose past medical history included gastric ulcer disease and ischemic stroke. As in the case of the first patient, she was admitted due to valvular prosthesis dysfunction. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography revealed an obstruction of the posterior prosthetic disc and significant aortic regurgitation. Transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopy confirmed the prosthetic dysfunction. During the operation, a thrombus growing around a minor pannus was found. The thrombus and pannus were removed, and normal functionality of the prosthetic valve was restored. Precise and modern diagnostic methods

  19. Variable effects of radiological contrast media on thrombus growth in a rabbit jugular vein thrombosis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Biemond, B. J.; Sturk, A.; Hoek, J.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the effect of an ionic high osmolar contrast medium (Ioxitalamate), an ionic low osmolar contrast medium (Ioxaglate) and various nonionic low osmolar contrast media (Iopamidol, Iopromide and Iohexol) on thrombus growth in a rabbit jugular vein thrombosis model. Thrombus growth was

  20. Incidência de trombo intracardíaco e de tromboembolismo nos três primeiros meses após o implante de bioprótese valvar Incidence of intracardiac thrombus and thromboembolism in the first three months after bioprosthetic valve implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auristela Isabel de Oliveira Ramos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência de trombo intracardíaco e de tromboembolismo nos três primeiros meses após a troca valvar por bioprótese e identificar fatores de risco para a formação de trombo. MÉTODO:Incluídos 184 pacientes, entre 15 e 75 anos de idade, submetidos a implante de bioprótese e realizados ecocardiogramas transtorácico e transesofágico (ETE na fase hospitalar, média 8,4±3 dias, e três meses após, média 97,4±21,7 dias. RESULTADOS: Incidência de trombo foi significativamente mais elevada nos pacientes com prótese em posição mitral ou mitroaórtica (21,0% do que em posição aórtica (2,8%, pOBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of intracardiac thrombus and thromboembolism in the first 3 months after bioprosthetic valve replacement and to identify the risk factors for thrombus formation. METHODS: The study comprised 184 patients, aged between 15 and 75 years, who underwent bioprosthetic valve implantation. Transthoracic and transesophageal (TEE echocardiographies were performed in the in-hospital phase (mean, 8.4±3 days and after 3 months (mean, 97.4±21.7 days. RESULTS: The incidence of thrombus was significantly greater in patients with a prosthesis in the mitral or mitroaortic position (21.0% than in those with a prosthesis in the aortic position (2.8%, P<0.001. The multiple logistic regression identified the prosthesis in the mitral or mitroaortic position as the only independent variable for thrombus formation. On the 3-month follow-up, TEE showed a thrombus in 35 (20.7% of the 169 patients on echocardiographic assessment, 31.7% in mitral patients and 3.1% in aortic patients, P<0.001. In the third month, the multiple logistic regression also identified the prosthesis in the mitral or mitroaortic position as the only independent variable for thrombus formation. During the 3-month follow-up, 3 (1.6% patients died and 8 (4.3% experienced embolic phenomena, all in the cerebral territory. CONCLUSION: The incidence

  1. Fluoroscopy-Guided Resolution of Ingested Thrombus Leading to Functional Disturbance of a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Garbade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The third generation of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs has been shown to improve outcome and quality of life in patients suffering from acute and chronic heart failure. However, VAD-associated complications are still a challenge in the clinical practice. Here we report the resolution of a mobile thrombus formation in the proximity of the inflow cannula of a third generation of LVADs (HVAD Pump, HeartWare, Inc. in a patient with chronic heart failure 4 months after implantation.

  2. Development of Thrombus in a Systemic Vein after Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimatsu, Rika; Yamagami, Takuji; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Okuda, Kotaro; Hashiba, Mitsuoki

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the frequency and risk factors for developing thrombus in a systemic vein such as the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the iliac vein, in which a balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) catheter was indwelled. Forty-nine patients who underwent B-RTO for gastric varices were included in this study. The B-RTO procedure was performed from the right femoral vein, and the B-RTO catheter was retained overnight in all patients. Pre- and post-procedural CT scans were retrospectively compared in order to evaluate the development of thrombus in the systemic vein in which the catheter was indwelled. Additionally, several variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for thrombus in a systemic vein. In all 49 patients (100%), B-RTO was technically successful, and in 46 patients (94%), complete thrombosis of the gastric varices was achieved. In 6 patients (12%), thrombus developed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the right common-external iliac vein. All thrombi lay longitudinally on the right side of the inferior vena cava or the right iliac vein. One of the aforementioned 6 patients required anticoagulation therapy. No symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism were observed. Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio and the addition of 5% ethanolamine oleate iopamidol, on the second day, were related to the development of thrombus. Development of a thrombus in a systemic vein such as the inferior vena cava or iliac vein, caused by indwelling of the B-RTO catheter, is relatively frequent. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of pulmonary embolism due to iliocaval thrombosis.

  3. Placement and retrieval of a Guenther tulip filter in patients with a free floating thrombus in inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Min Hyun; Kim, Young Hwan; Lee, Sang Kwon; Choi, Jin Soo; Kim, Mi Jeong; Koo, Ja Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Cho, Won Hyun; Seong, Nak Kwan

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to assess the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of the placement and retrieval of a Guenther Tulip filter for the prevention of fatal pulmonary embolism during the management of patients with a free floating thrombus in their inferior vena ca va (IVC). Six patients having a free floating thrombus in their IVC (three patients with an isolated free floating thrombus in the IVC that resulted from immobilization due to traumatic liver injury or cerebral infarction, two patients with coexisting deep vein thrombosis in the left lower extremity that was caused by May-Thurner syndrome, and one patient with coexisting deep vein thrombosis in the right lower extremity that was due to nephrotic syndrome and immobilization after hip joint replacement) underwent placement and retrieval of a Guenther Tulip filter. The placement of the filter was performed through the right internal jugular vein to prevent the risk of detachment of the thrombus during the procedure. Retrieval of filter was performed after the free floating thrombus of the IVC had disappeared on follow-up CT because of anticoagulation therapy, aspiration thrombectomy or catheter directed Urokinase thrombolysis. The Guenther Tulip filter was successfully placed in the IVC in all six patients and it was retrieved after the management of the free floating thrombus. The mean duration of the placement of the filter was 11 days (range:7-25 days). Two patients underwent placement of an iliac vein stent for the management of May-Thurner syndrome. Detachment of the free floating thrombus in the IVC and the subsequent thrombus entrapment in the filter were documented during aspiration thrombectomy or Urokinase thrombolysis in four patients. Recurrent thrombus didn't occur during the follow-up period (range:3-20 months) in five of the six patients. In one patient, a recurrent thrombus due to the discontinuance of anticoagulation therapy was identified at the filter detachment site of the IVC on the follow

  4. Coronary artery stent mimicking intracardiac thrombus on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging due to signal loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Vejlstrup, Niels Grove; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary artery disease, thousands of patients have been treated with the implantation of coronary stents. Moreover, several of the patients with coronary stent undergo cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging every year. This case...... report is of a 77-year-old man who was previously treated with the implantation of a coronary stent in the left circumflex artery. He underwent CMR imaging, which revealed a process 14×21 mm in the left atrium. Cardiac contrast computed tomography did not demonstrate any cardiac pathology. While...... the signal loss on MRI associated with implanted metallic devices is known, we report a case where an implanted coronary stent in the left circumflex artery led to an intracardiac signal loss mimicking intracardiac thrombus/tumor....

  5. Erythrocyte membrane modified janus polymeric motors for thrombus therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Jingxin; Abdelghani, Mona; Shen, Guizhi; Cao, Shoupeng; Williams, David S.; van Hest, Jan C.M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the construction of erythrocyte membrane-cloaked Janus polymeric motors (EM-JPMs) which are propelled by near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation and are successfully applied in thrombus ablation. Chitosan (a natural polysaccharide with positive charge, CHI) and heparin (glycosaminoglycan

  6. CT analysis of intratumoral gas formation after hepatic tumor embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Sook; Ahn, In Oak; Kim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Goo; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and the patterns of sterile gas shown at computed tomography(CT) after transarterial embolization(TAE) for primary hepatic tumor. Among 102 patients who performed TAE for hepatoma, thirty-four in whom follow-up CT was underwent constituted the basis of our study. At CT, we evaluated the patterns and locations of intratumoral gas. We also reviewed the clinical data to exclude an infectious origin of intratumoral gas. Of 34 patients, intratumoral gas was detected in 11 patients(32%), in all of whom Gelfoam was used as an embolic material. The initial tumor size measured at pre-TAE CT was larger in patients with intratumoral gas than in patients without it(p < 0.005). No specific patterns or locations of intratumoral gas were noted on CT scans. No patients had clinical signs and symptoms that suggested infection. Intratumoral gas formation without clinical evidence of infection is not an infrequent finding after TAE for hepatoma, especially when Gelfoam is used and when the tumor is larger in size. This finding may be a part of postinfarction syndrome and should not be misinterpreted as an postprocedural abscess formation

  7. Innate Effector-Memory T-Cell Activation Regulates Post-Thrombotic Vein Wall Inflammation and Thrombus Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Natascha; Shahneh, Fatemeh; Brähler, Melanie; Krebs, Franziska; Jäckel, Sven; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Stanger, Christian; Schönfelder, Tanja; Kleis-Fischer, Bettina; Reinhardt, Christoph; Probst, Hans Christian; Wenzel, Philip; Schäfer, Katrin; Becker, Christian

    2016-12-09

    Immune cells play an important role during the generation and resolution of thrombosis. T cells are powerful regulators of immune and nonimmune cell function, however, their role in sterile inflammation in venous thrombosis has not been systematically examined. This study investigated the recruitment, activation, and inflammatory activity of T cells in deep vein thrombosis and its consequences for venous thrombus resolution. CD4 + and CD8 + T cells infiltrate the thrombus and vein wall rapidly on deep vein thrombosis induction and remain in the tissue throughout the thrombus resolution. In the vein wall, recruited T cells largely consist of effector-memory T (T EM ) cells. Using T-cell receptor transgenic reporter mice, we demonstrate that deep vein thrombosis-recruited T EM receive an immediate antigen-independent activation and produce IFN-γ (interferon) in situ. Mapping inflammatory conditions in the thrombotic vein, we identify a set of deep vein thrombosis upregulated cytokines and chemokines that synergize to induce antigen-independent IFN-γ production in CD4 + and CD8 + T EM cells. Reducing the number of T EM cells through a depletion recovery procedure, we show that intravenous T EM activation determines neutrophil and monocyte recruitment and delays thrombus neovascularization and resolution. Examining T-cell recruitment in human venous stasis, we show that superficial varicose veins preferentially contain activated memory T cells. T EM orchestrate the inflammatory response in venous thrombosis affecting thrombus resolution. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Melanotic Xp11 Translocation Renal Cancer Managed With Radical Nephrectomy and IVC Tumor Thrombectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad S. Khourdaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer is a rarely observed neoplasm primarily affecting adolescents and young adults. Given the paucity of data describing this malignancy, its natural history and subsequent long-term management are not well understood. We report a case of melanotic Xp11 translocation with tumor thrombus extension managed with radical nephrectomy and inferior vena cava (IVC tumor thrombectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to describe use of conventional tumor thrombectomy techniques in a patient with melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer.

  9. Multisite Thrombus Imaging and Fibrin Content Estimation With a Single Whole-Body PET Scan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Francesco; Oliveira, Bruno L; Rietz, Tyson A; Rotile, Nicholas J; Naha, Pratap C; Cormode, David P; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Catana, Ciprian; Caravan, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current diagnostic strategies rely on imaging modalities that are specific for distinct vascular territories, but a thrombus-specific whole-body imaging approach is still missing. Moreover, imaging techniques to assess thrombus composition are underdeveloped, although therapeutic strategies may benefit from such technology. Therefore, our goal was to test whether positron emission tomography (PET) with the fibrin-binding probe (64)Cu-FBP8 allows multisite thrombus detection and fibrin content estimation. Thrombosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=32) by ferric chloride application on both carotid artery and femoral vein. (64)Cu-FBP8-PET/CT imaging was performed 1, 3, or 7 days after thrombosis to detect thrombus location and to evaluate age-dependent changes in target uptake. Ex vivo biodistribution, autoradiography, and histopathology were performed to validate imaging results. Arterial and venous thrombi were localized on fused PET/CT images with high accuracy (97.6%; 95% confidence interval, 92-100). A single whole-body PET/MR imaging session was sufficient to reveal the location of both arterial and venous thrombi after (64)Cu-FBP8 administration. PET imaging showed that probe uptake was greater in younger clots than in older ones for both arterial and venous thrombosis (P<0.0001). Quantitative histopathology revealed an age-dependent reduction of thrombus fibrin content (P<0.001), consistent with PET results. Biodistribution and autoradiography further confirmed the imaging findings. We demonstrated that (64)Cu-FBP8-PET is a feasible approach for whole-body thrombus detection and that molecular imaging of fibrin can provide, noninvasively, insight into clot composition. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Artificial aortic valve dysfunction due to pannus and thrombus – different methods of cardiac surgical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Anna; Kośmider, Anna; Walczak, Andrzej; Zwoliński, Radosław; Jaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 60 000 prosthetic valves are implanted annually in the USA. The risk of prosthesis dysfunction ranges from 0.1% to 4% per year. Prosthesis valve dysfunction is usually caused by a thrombus obstructing the prosthetic discs. However, 10% of prosthetic valves are dysfunctional due to pannus formation, and 12% of prostheses are damaged by both fibrinous and thrombotic components. The authors present two patients with dysfunctional aortic prostheses who were referred for cardiac surgery. Different surgical solutions were used in the treatment of each case. Case study 1 The first patient was a 71-year-old woman whose medical history included arterial hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and hypercholesterolemia; she had previously undergone left-sided mastectomy and radiotherapy. The patient was admitted to the Cardiac Surgery Department due to aortic prosthesis dysfunction. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed complete obstruction of one disc and a severe reduction in the mobility of the second. The mean transvalvular gradient was very high. During the operation, pannus covering the discs’ surface was found. A biological aortic prosthesis was reimplanted without complications. Case study 2 The second patient was an 87-year-old woman with arterial hypertension, persistent atrial fibrillation, and COPD, whose past medical history included gastric ulcer disease and ischemic stroke. As in the case of the first patient, she was admitted due to valvular prosthesis dysfunction. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography revealed an obstruction of the posterior prosthetic disc and significant aortic regurgitation. Transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopy confirmed the prosthetic dysfunction. During the operation, a thrombus growing around a minor pannus was found. The thrombus and pannus were removed, and normal functionality of the prosthetic valve was restored

  11. ‘Mother-in-child’ thrombectomy technique: a novel and effective approach to decrease intracoronary thrombus burden in acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauvergne, Christian; Araya, Mario [Department of Cardiology, Clinica Alemana, Santiago (Chile); Uriarte, Polentzi [Department of Cardiology, Instituto Nacional del Torax, Santiago (Chile); Novoa, Oscar; Novoa, Lilian [Department of Cardiology, Clinica Alemana, Santiago (Chile); Maluenda, Gabriel, E-mail: gabrielmaluenda@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Clinica Alemana, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-01-15

    Background: The presence of large thrombus burden in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is common and associated with poor prognosis. This study aimed to describe the feasibility and safety of the novel ‘mother-in-child’ thrombectomy (MCT) technique in patients presenting with AMI and large thrombus burden undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: We studied 13 patients presenting with AMI who underwent PCI with persistent large intracoronary thrombus after standard thrombectomy. The procedure was performed using a 5 F ‘Heartrail II-ST01’ catheter (Terumo Medical) into a 6 F guiding system. Angiographic assessment of thrombus burden and coronary flow was obtained at baseline, immediately after thrombectomy and at the end of the procedure. Results: The mean age was 55.9 ± 13.0 years and involved mostly males (76.9%). All patients underwent PCI via radial approach. Following MCT Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow improved by 2 or more degrees in 11 patients (84.5%), while visible angiographic thrombus was reduced in 11 patients (84.5%). In the final angiogram, normal TIMI flow was restored in 11 patients (84.5%), with normal myocardial ‘blush’ in 7 patients (53.8%) and total clearance of a visible thrombus in 7 patients (53.8%). Overall, 6 patients received thrombectomy as ‘stand-alone’ procedure. All patients were discharged alive after a mean of 5.6 ± 2 days. Conclusion: This initial report suggests that significant reduction in thrombus burden and improvement of the coronary flow can be safely achieved in patients presenting with AMI and large thrombus burden by using the novel MCT technique.

  12. Wilms′ tumor with right heart extension: Report of a post-chemotherapeutic fatality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vaideeswar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms′ tumor (WT has a strong propensity to invade the vasculature in the form of tumor-thrombus, into the renal veins, and inferior vena cava and even into the right atrium. This cavo-atrial propagation does not alter the prognosis and pre-operative chemotherapy produces shrinkage to the extent of even disappearance of caval or atrial extensions. We present a case of sudden death due to hemorrhagic expansion of the intra-atrial component of WT, immediately after commencement of chemotherapy, an uncommon incident.

  13. Categorization of aortic aneurysm thrombus morphology by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Motte, Louise; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Thomsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed for qualitative categorization of intraluminal thrombus morphology. We aimed to correlate the qualitative MRI categorization previously described to quantitative measurements of signal intensity and to compare morphological characteristics...

  14. Arterial homograft and medical therapy in pseudoaneurysm of infrarenal aorta concomitant with recurrent right ventricular thrombus in Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedian, Jalal; Sadeghapour, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the infrarenal aorta due to Behcet s disease is very rare. We report a case of pseudoaneurysm associated with Behcet s disease in a 17-year-old boy with a recurrent right ventricular thrombus successfully treated with revascularization using arterial homograft patch. Echocardiography examination revealed a right ventricular mass, thought to be a thrombus in an unusual location. Postoperatively, the findings of the pathologic examination confirmed the mass as a thrombus. When the patient was subsequently re-admitted to the emergency unit with complaints of severe abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, sinus tachycardia, and a pulsating and tender abdominal mass, a right ventricular thrombus and a large pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta were found on echocardiography and angiography. The patient underwent resection of the aortic aneurysm and aortoplasty, using arterial homograft patch, and received immunosuppressive and anticoagulation therapy. The thrombus of the right ventricle disappeared 4 months later. This case indicates that a right ventricular thrombosis in Behcet s disease may be managed by medical therapy. (author)

  15. CT of portal vein tumor thrombosis. Usefulness of dynamic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Inoue, Yuichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Nemoto, Yutaka; Nakamura, Kenji [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1983-08-01

    We evaluated CT findings of portal vein tumor thrombosis in 16 hepatomas by plain, contrast and dynamic CT. Plain and contrast CT findings were an enlargement of the portal vein (81%), intraluminal low density area (63%). Dynamic CT enhanced the diagnostic capability of the tumor thrombus as a relatively low density area because of the marked enhancement of the portal vein. In addition, dynamic CT newly demonstrated hyperdense peripheral ring (35%) and arterio portal shunt (35%). It is advisable to select the scan level to include the portal vein when dynamic CT is performed in the patient of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. FTIR spectro-imaging of collagen scaffold formation during glioma tumor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Razia; Chien, Chia-Chi; Chen, Hsiang-Hsin; Bobroff, Vladimir; Moenner, Michel; Javerzat, Sophie; Hwu, Yeukuang; Petibois, Cyril

    2013-11-01

    Evidence has recently emerged that solid and diffuse tumors produce a specific extracellular matrix (ECM) for division and diffusion, also developing a specific interface with microvasculature. This ECM is mainly composed of collagens and their scaffolding appears to drive tumor growth. Although collagens are not easily analyzable by UV-fluorescence means, FTIR imaging has appeared as a valuable tool to characterize collagen contents in tissues, specially the brain, where ECM is normally devoid of collagen proteins. Here, we used FTIR imaging to characterize collagen content changes in growing glioma tumors. We could determine that C6-derived solid tumors presented high content of triple helix after 8-11 days of growth (typical of collagen fibrils formation; 8/8 tumor samples; 91 % of total variance), and further turned to larger α-helix (days 12-15; 9/10 of tumors; 94 % of variance) and β-turns (day 18-21; 7/8 tumors; 97 % of variance) contents, which suggest the incorporation of non-fibrillar collagen types in ECM, a sign of more and more organized collagen scaffold along tumor progression. The growth of tumors was also associated to the level of collagen produced (P < 0.05). This study thus confirms that collagen scaffolding is a major event accompanying the angiogenic shift and faster tumor growth in solid glioma phenotypes.

  17. Discrimination between platelet-mediated and coagulation-mediated mechanisms in a model of complex thrombus formation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadroy, Y.; Horbett, T.A.; Hanson, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    To study mechanisms of complex thrombus formation in vivo, and to compare the relative antithrombotic effects of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, a model was developed in baboons. Segments of collagen-coated tubing followed by two sequentially placed expansion chambers exhibiting disturbed flow patterns were exposed to native blood under laminar flow conditions. The device was incorporated for 1 hour into an exteriorized arteriovenous shunt in baboons under controlled blood flow (20 ml/min). Morphologic evaluation by scanning electron microscopy showed that thrombi associated with collagen were relatively rich in platelets but thrombi in the chambers were rich in fibrin and red cells. Deposition of indium 111-labeled platelets was continuously measured with a scintillation camera. Platelet deposition increased in a linear (collagen-coated segment) or exponential (chambers 1 and 2) fashion over time, with values after 40 minutes averaging 24.1 +/- 3.3 x 10(8) platelets (collagen segment), 16.7 +/- 3.4 x 10(8) platelets (chamber 1), and 8.4 +/- 2.4 x 10(8) platelets (chamber 2). Total fibrinogen deposition after 40 minutes was determined by using iodine 125-labeled baboon fibrinogen and averaged 0.58 +/- 0.14 mg in the collagen segment, 1.51 +/- 0.27 mg in chamber 1, and 0.95 +/- 0.25 mg in chamber 2. Plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin (beta TG), platelet-factor 4 (PF4), and fibrinopeptide A (FPA) increased fourfold to fivefold after 60 minutes of blood exposure to the thrombotic device. Platelet deposition onto the collagen segment, chamber 1, and chamber 2 was linearly dependent on the circulating platelet count. Platelet accumulation in chamber 1 and chamber 2 was also dependent on the presence of the proximal collagen segment

  18. Exogenous modification of platelet membranes with the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA reduces platelet procoagulant activity and thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mark K; Tormoen, Garth W; Weaver, Lucinda J; Luepke, Kristen J; Patel, Ishan A; Hjelmen, Carl E; Ensz, Nicole M; McComas, Leah S; McCarty, Owen J T

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have implicated the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in inhibition of normal platelet function, suggesting a role for platelets in EPA- and DHA-mediated cardioprotection. However, it is unclear whether the cardioprotective mechanisms arise from alterations to platelet-platelet, platelet-matrix, or platelet-coagulation factor interactions. Our previous results led us to hypothesize that EPA and DHA alter the ability of platelets to catalyze the generation of thrombin. We tested this hypothesis by exogenously modifying platelet membranes with EPA and DHA, which resulted in compositional changes analogous to increased dietary EPA and DHA intake. Platelets treated with EPA and DHA showed reductions in the rate of thrombin generation and exposure of platelet phosphatidylserine. In addition, treatment of platelets with EPA and DHA decreased thrombus formation and altered the processing of thrombin precursor proteins. Furthermore, treatment of whole blood with EPA and DHA resulted in increased occlusion time and a sharply reduced accumulation of fibrin under flow conditions. These results demonstrate that EPA and DHA inhibit, but do not eliminate, the ability of platelets to catalyze thrombin generation in vitro. The ability of EPA and DHA to reduce the procoagulant function of platelets provides a possible mechanism behind the cardioprotective phenotype in individuals consuming high levels of EPA and DHA.

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysm calcification and thrombus volume are not associated with outcome following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Divyajeet; Velu, Ramesh; Tosenovsky, Patrik; Quigley, Francis; Wisniowski, Brendan; Walker, Philip J.; Bradshaw, Barbara; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Aortic calcification and thrombus have been postulated to worsen outcome following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). The purpose of this study was to assess the association of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) calcification and thrombus volume with outcome following EVAR using a reproducible, quantifiable computed tomography (CT) assessment protocol. Patients with elective EVAR performed between January 2002 and 2012 at the Townsville Hospital, Mater Private Hospital (Townsville) and Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) were included if preoperative CTAs were available for analysis. AAA calcification and thrombus volume were measured using a semiautomated workstation protocol. Outcomes were assessed in terms of clinical failure, endoleak (type I, type II) and reintervention. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Median follow-up was 1.7 years and the interquartile range 1.0-3.8 years. One hundred thirty-four patients undergoing elective EVAR were included in the study. Rates of primary clinical success and freedom from reintervention were 82.8 % and 88.9 % at the 24-month follow-up. AAA calcification and thrombus volume were not associated with clinical failure, type I endoleak, type II endoleak or reintervention. AAA calcification and thrombus volume were not associated with poorer outcome after EVAR in this study. (orig.)

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm calcification and thrombus volume are not associated with outcome following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Divyajeet; Velu, Ramesh; Tosenovsky, Patrik; Quigley, Francis [James Cook University, Queensland Research Centre for Peripheral Vascular Disease, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); The Townsville Hospital, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Douglas (Australia); Wisniowski, Brendan; Walker, Philip J. [James Cook University, Queensland Research Centre for Peripheral Vascular Disease, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); University of Queensland, School of Medicine and Centre for Clinical Research, Department of Vascular Surgery, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, QLD (Australia); Bradshaw, Barbara [James Cook University, Queensland Research Centre for Peripheral Vascular Disease, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Golledge, Jonathan [James Cook University, Queensland Research Centre for Peripheral Vascular Disease, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); The Townsville Hospital, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Douglas (Australia); University of Queensland, School of Medicine and Centre for Clinical Research, Department of Vascular Surgery, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, QLD (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Aortic calcification and thrombus have been postulated to worsen outcome following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). The purpose of this study was to assess the association of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) calcification and thrombus volume with outcome following EVAR using a reproducible, quantifiable computed tomography (CT) assessment protocol. Patients with elective EVAR performed between January 2002 and 2012 at the Townsville Hospital, Mater Private Hospital (Townsville) and Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) were included if preoperative CTAs were available for analysis. AAA calcification and thrombus volume were measured using a semiautomated workstation protocol. Outcomes were assessed in terms of clinical failure, endoleak (type I, type II) and reintervention. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Median follow-up was 1.7 years and the interquartile range 1.0-3.8 years. One hundred thirty-four patients undergoing elective EVAR were included in the study. Rates of primary clinical success and freedom from reintervention were 82.8 % and 88.9 % at the 24-month follow-up. AAA calcification and thrombus volume were not associated with clinical failure, type I endoleak, type II endoleak or reintervention. AAA calcification and thrombus volume were not associated with poorer outcome after EVAR in this study. (orig.)

  1. Thrombus Size is Associated with Etiology of Deep Venous Thrombosis – A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vučić, Nikša; Magdić, Tihana; Krnić, Anton; Včev, Aleksandar; Božić, Dubravko

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) on thrombus sizes in lower extremities. The size and extent of thrombus was scored according to International Consensus Committee for venous disease classification. After the diagnosis of DVT was established and its size scored, predominant risk factors for DVT in each patient were identified (malignant disease, thrombophilia, postoperative state, hormonal therapy, heredity, limb trauma, immobiliza...

  2. Platelet Glycoprotein lb-1X and Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    initiate coagulation, resulting in the formation of a fibrin - rich tumor cell- platelet emboli (Figure 1). Many of these coagulation factor-tumor cell...the tumor cell in a fibrin - rich web. (13;23;24) During this process, the platelet integrin receptor, aIIb 3, serves as a receptor linking fibrin ... platelets , and tumor cells into a fibrin rich clot normally associated with a thrombus. (25;25) Indeed, it can be speculated the fibrin - rich clot

  3. Imaging thrombus with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody to platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M.; Lavender, J.P.; Needham, S.G.; Loutfi, I.; Snook, D.; Epenetos, A.A.; Lumley, P.; Keery, R.J.; Hogg, N.

    1986-12-13

    A study was conducted evaluating a method of imaging thrombus with platelets radiolabelled with a /sup 111/In labelled monoclonal antibody, P256, directed to the platelet surface glycoprotein complex IIb/IIIa. when the number of receptors occupied by P256 was less than 3% of the total available on the platelet surface, platelet function was undisturbed. P256 was radiolabelled with /sup 111/In using diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, which achieved a specific activity of 185 MBq (5 mCi)/mg. No impairment of immunoreactivity was detected at this specific activity. Platelets were labelled with radiolabelled monoclonal antibody in vitro in two patients at a receptor occupancy of 6% and in vivo in six patients at a receptor occupancy of 1%. In vivo recovery and biodistribution kinetics suggested that after in vitro labelling platelets were minimally activated. The /sup 111/In kinetics recorded after intravenous P256 suggested rapid and efficient radiolabelling of platelets and gave no indication of platelet activation. Of the six patients who received intravenous P256, three had documented thrombus, two of whom gave positive results on P256 platelet scintigraphy. The third had chronic deep venous thrombosis and was scintigraphically negative.

  4. Incidence and Outcomes of Inferior Vena Cava Filter Thrombus during Catheter-directed Thrombolysis for Proximal Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianguang; Tu, Jianfei; Jia, Zhongzhi; Chen, Jiezhong; Cao, Haitao; Meng, Qingli; Fuller, Tyler A; Tian, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence and outcomes of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter thrombus during catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for acute proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT). From October 2006 to June 2015, patients diagnosed with acute proximal DVT and received CDT after a retrievable IVC filter was placed were included. The incidence, treatment, and outcomes of IVC filter thrombus during CDT were recorded and analyzed. A total of 189 patients (91 women, 98 men; mean age, 57.6 ± 9.8 years; range, 24-85 years) were included in this study. Among the 189 cases, the DVTs involved popliteal iliofemoral veins in 54 patients, iliofemoral veins in 113 patients, and iliac veins in 22 patients, of which 18 patients had thrombus extended into the IVC. Of the 189 patients, a total of 8 (4.2%, 8 of 189) patients were identified with IVC filter thrombus during CDT. The IVC filter thrombus was detected on a median of 2 days (range, 2-4 days) of CDT therapy, including small-size (n = 6) and large-size (n = 2) filter thrombus. Of the 8 patients, CDTs were performed with a mean 7.6 ± 1.1 days (range, 6-11 days) after the presence of symptoms for the treatment of proximal DVT, and all the IVC filter thrombi were lysed during CDT for the proximal DVT. All the IVC filters were removed successfully with a mean of 12.8 ± 0.93 days from placement. There were no procedure- or thrombolysis-related major complications, and no symptomatic pulmonary embolism breakthrough was seen in any of the patients after the filter placement. IVC filter thrombus during CDT for the acute proximal DVT is uncommon, and all of them did not need any additional treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative phase imaging characterization of tumor-associated blood vessel formation on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Huang, Jing; Moses, Marsha A.

    2018-02-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is a biological process that has an essential role in solid tumor growth, development, and progression. Recent advances in Lab-on-a-Chip technology has created an opportunity for scientists to observe endothelial cell (EC) behaviors during the dynamic process of angiogenesis using a simple and economical in vitro platform that recapitulates in vivo blood vessel formation. Here, we use quantitative phase imaging (QPI) microscopy to continuously and non-invasively characterize the dynamic process of tumor cell-induced angiogenic sprout formation on a microfluidic chip. The live tumor cell-induced angiogenic sprouts are generated by multicellular endothelial sprouting into 3 dimensional (3D) Matrigel using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By using QPI, we quantitatively measure a panel of cellular morphological and behavioral parameters of each individual EC participating in this sprouting. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate that QPI is a powerful tool that can provide real-time quantitative analysis of biological processes in in vitro 3D biomimetic devices, which, in turn, can improve our understanding of the biology underlying functional tissue engineering.

  6. Thrombus Burden of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Its Association with Thromboprophylaxis and D-Dimer Measurement: Insights from the APEX Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Gerald; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell D; Hernandez, Adrian F; Kerneis, Mathieu; Al Khalfan, Fahad; Cohen, Alexander T; Harrington, Robert A; Gibson, C Michael

    2017-12-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of betrixaban on the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and also the extent of thrombus and to assess the association of baseline D-dimer with subsequent thrombus burden. Methods In the APEX trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01583218), 7,513 acutely ill hospitalized medical patients were randomly assigned to extended-duration betrixaban (35–42 days) or enoxaparin (10 ± 4 days). D-dimer concentration was measured at baseline, and mandatory lower-extremity compression ultrasonography (CUS) was performed at 35 to 42 days. The thrombus burden of DVT was assessed by the number of non-compressible vascular segments in six target proximal veins and compared between treatment groups and D-dimer categories (≥2 × upper limit of normal [ULN] versus thrombus burden (p = 0.012 for any-dose and p = 0.001 for full-dose). Elevated D-dimer at baseline was independently associated with a 2.12-fold increased risk of developing DVT (p thrombus burden was also observed in those with D-dimer ≥ 2 × ULN compared with venous segments with thrombosis at 35 to 42 days compared with enoxaparin. A positive D-dimer was associated with a greater extent of thrombus burden among acutely ill medical patients who developed DVT despite receiving thromboprophylaxis.

  7. Amplification of Mdmx (or Mdm4) directly contributes to tumor formation by inhibiting p53 tumor suppressor activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danovi, Davide; Meulmeester, Erik; Pasini, Diego

    2004-01-01

    has been established. However, a direct contribution of Mdmx to tumor formation remains to be demonstrated. Here we show that retrovirus-mediated Mdmx overexpression allows primary mouse embryonic fibroblast immortalization and leads to neoplastic transformation in combination with HRas(V12...

  8. Synthesis of PEGylated polyglutamic acid peptide dendrimer and its application in dissolving thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Fei; Gao, Chunmei; Lü, Shaoyu; He, Jiujun; Liu, Mingzhu; Wu, Can; Liu, Yijing; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    Nattokinase (NK) has been used as a new generation thrombolytic drug, due to its high safety, low cost and low side effects. However, it is sensitive to external environment and may lose the enzyme activity easily. Peptide dendrimer possesses functional groups on its surface, adjustable sizes, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity, which could be used as ideal carrier for drug protection and delivery. Demonstrated for the first time in this paper, a PEGylated dendrimer (G n -PEG-G n ) composed of polyglutamic acid is designed and synthesized as delivery platform of NK for thrombus treatment. A panel of PEGylated dendrimers with three different generations of 2, 3, 4 was prepared to investigate the effect of dendrimer architecture on the properties and therapeutic efficacy of the resultant NK-loaded delivery systems in terms of the morphology, dimension and enzyme activity. The results demonstrated that the NK-loaded G 3 -PEG-G 3 (G 3 -PEG-G 3 /NK ratio of 6/1), of all the formulations, displayed the optimal enzyme activity for dissolving thrombus in vitro, thus offering great potential for the treatment of thrombus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity of 3D gradient recalled echo susceptibility-weighted imaging technique compared to computed tomography angiography for detection of middle cerebral artery thrombus in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agarwal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at comparing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance (MR susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI with computed tomography angiography (CTA in the detection of middle cerebral artery (MCA thrombus in acute stroke. Seventy-nine patients with acute MCA stroke was selected using our search engine software; only the ones showing restricted diffusion in the MCA territory on diffusion-weighted images were included. We finally selected 35 patients who had done both MRI (including SWI and CTA. Twenty random subjects with completely normal MRI (including SWI exam were selected as control. Two neuroradiologists (blinded to the presence or absence of stroke reviewed the SW images and then compared the findings with CT angiogram (in patients with stroke. The number of MCA segments showing thrombus in each patient was tabulated to estimate the thrombus burden. Thrombus was detected on SWI in one or more MCA segments in 30 out of 35 patients, on the first review. Of the 30, SWI showed thrombus in more than one MCA segments in 7 patients. CTA depicted branch occlusion in 31 cases. Thrombus was seen on both SWI and CTA in 28 patients. Thrombus was noted in two patients on SWI only, with no corresponding abnormality seen on CTA. Two patients with acute MCA showed no vascular occlusion or thrombus on either CTA or SWI. Only two case of false-positive thrombus was reported in normal control subjects. Susceptibility-weighted images had sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 90% respectively, with positive predictive value 94%. Sensitivity was 86% for SWI, compared with 89% for CTA, and this difference was statistically insignificant (P>0.05. Of all the positive cases on CTA (31 corresponding thrombus was seen on SWI in 90% of subjects (28 of 31. Susceptibility-weighted imaging has high sensitivity for detection of thrombus in acute MCA stroke. Moreover, SWI is a powerful technique for estimation of thrombus burden, which can be challenging on CTA.

  10. Fully automatic detection and segmentation of abdominal aortic thrombus in post-operative CTA images using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Linares, Karen; Aranjuelo, Nerea; Kabongo, Luis; Maclair, Gregory; Lete, Nerea; Ceresa, Mario; García-Familiar, Ainhoa; Macía, Iván; González Ballester, Miguel A

    2018-05-01

    Computerized Tomography Angiography (CTA) based follow-up of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) treated with Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) is essential to evaluate the progress of the patient and detect complications. In this context, accurate quantification of post-operative thrombus volume is required. However, a proper evaluation is hindered by the lack of automatic, robust and reproducible thrombus segmentation algorithms. We propose a new fully automatic approach based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN) for robust and reproducible thrombus region of interest detection and subsequent fine thrombus segmentation. The DetecNet detection network is adapted to perform region of interest extraction from a complete CTA and a new segmentation network architecture, based on Fully Convolutional Networks and a Holistically-Nested Edge Detection Network, is presented. These networks are trained, validated and tested in 13 post-operative CTA volumes of different patients using a 4-fold cross-validation approach to provide more robustness to the results. Our pipeline achieves a Dice score of more than 82% for post-operative thrombus segmentation and provides a mean relative volume difference between ground truth and automatic segmentation that lays within the experienced human observer variance without the need of human intervention in most common cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An HTS-compatible 3D colony formation assay to identify tumor-specific chemotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horman, Shane R; To, Jeremy; Orth, Anthony P

    2013-12-01

    There has been increasing interest in the development of cellular behavior models that take advantage of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture. To enable assessment of differential perturbagen impacts on cell growth in 2D and 3D, we have miniaturized and adapted for high-throughput screening (HTS) the soft agar colony formation assay, employing a laser-scanning cytometer to image and quantify multiple cell types simultaneously. The assay is HTS compatible, providing high-quality, image-based, replicable data for multiple, co-cultured cell types. As proof of concept, we subjected colorectal carcinoma colonies in 3D soft agar to a mini screen of 1528 natural product compounds. Hit compounds from the primary screen were rescreened in an HTS 3D co-culture matrix containing colon stromal cells and cancer cells. By combining tumor cells and normal, nontransformed colon epithelial cells in one primary screening assay, we were able to obtain differential IC50 data, thereby distinguishing tumor-specific compounds from general cytotoxic compounds. Moreover, we were able to identify compounds that antagonized tumor colony formation in 3D only, highlighting the importance of this assay in identifying agents that interfere with 3D tumor structural growth. This screening platform provides a fast, simple, and robust method for identification of tumor-specific agents in a biologically relevant microenvironment.

  12. MUC16 provides immune protection by inhibiting synapse formation between NK and ovarian tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migneault Martine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer cells utilize a variety of mechanisms to evade immune detection and attack. Effective immune detection largely relies on the formation of an immune synapse which requires close contact between immune cells and their targets. Here, we show that MUC16, a heavily glycosylated 3-5 million Da mucin expressed on the surface of ovarian tumor cells, inhibits the formation of immune synapses between NK cells and ovarian tumor targets. Our results indicate that MUC16-mediated inhibition of immune synapse formation is an effective mechanism employed by ovarian tumors to evade immune recognition. Results Expression of low levels of MUC16 strongly correlated with an increased number of conjugates and activating immune synapses between ovarian tumor cells and primary naïve NK cells. MUC16-knockdown ovarian tumor cells were more susceptible to lysis by primary NK cells than MUC16 expressing controls. This increased lysis was not due to differences in the expression levels of the ligands for the activating receptors DNAM-1 and NKG2D. The NK cell leukemia cell line (NKL, which does not express KIRs but are positive for DNAM-1 and NKG2D, also conjugated and lysed MUC16-knockdown cells more efficiently than MUC16 expressing controls. Tumor cells that survived the NKL challenge expressed higher levels of MUC16 indicating selective lysis of MUC16low targets. The higher csMUC16 levels on the NKL resistant tumor cells correlated with more protection from lysis as compared to target cells that were never exposed to the effectors. Conclusion MUC16, a carrier of the tumor marker CA125, has previously been shown to facilitate ovarian tumor metastasis and inhibits NK cell mediated lysis of tumor targets. Our data now demonstrates that MUC16 expressing ovarian cancer cells are protected from recognition by NK cells. The immune protection provided by MUC16 may lead to selective survival of ovarian cancer cells that are more efficient in

  13. State of cellular and humoral immune system in women of reproductive age with tumor-like ovary formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Shapoval

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Violations occurring in the immune system in women with ovary tumor-like formations are one of the most important factors in the pathogenesis and development of the disease. In order to study features of immune disorders in 105 women of reproductive age with tumor-like ovary formations determination of cellular and humoral immunity indices was carried out. Methods and results. Variants of immunological reactivity in women with tumor-like ovary formations with different possibilities of reproductive function implementing were established. Conclusion. This indicates that the identification of one of the variants of immunological reactivity disorder in the precurative stage is one of the components of the effective prescribed therapy necessary to select the appropriate tactics of medical correction of homeostasis.

  14. Surgical Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombus: Using Liver Mobilization Technique to Avoid Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawatchai Taweemonkongsap

    2008-04-01

    CONCLUSION: These results support the aggressive surgical removal of RCC with IVC thrombus as the initial treatment. Most of the thrombi can be approached and safely controlled by a transabdominal approach without any form of bypass. Tumour thrombus removal provides a high survival chance and offers improvement in quality of life.

  15. Dissolution of pre-existing platelet thrombus by synergistic administration of low concentrations of bifunctional antibodies against β3 integrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suying Dang

    Full Text Available Most antithrombotic approaches target prevention rather than the more clinically relevant issue of resolution of an existing thrombus. In this study, we describe a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for ex vivo clearance of pre-existing platelet thrombus by the combination of two bifunctional platelet GPIIIa49-66 ligands that target different parts of the arterial thrombus. We produced an additional GPIIIa49-66 agent (named APAC, which homes to activated platelets. Like our previously described SLK (which targets newly deposited fibrin strands surrounding the platelet thrombus, APAC destroys platelet aggregates ex vivo in an identical fashion with 85% destruction of platelet aggregates at 2 hours. The combined application of APAC and SLK demonstrated a ~2 fold greater platelet thrombus dissolution than either agent alone at a low concentration (0.025 µM. Platelet-rich clot lysis experiments demonstrated the time required for 50% platelet-rich fibrin clot lysis (T(50% by APAC (95 ± 6.1 min or SLK (145 ± 7.1 min was much longer than that by combined APAC + SLK (65 ± 7.6 min at the final concentration of 0.025 µM (APAC + SLK vs APAC, p<0.05; APAC + SLK vs SLK, p<0.01. Thus these low concentrations of a combination of both agents are likely to be more effective and less toxic when used therapeutically in vivo.

  16. Failure-to-thrive syndrome associated with tumor formation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in newborn nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinster, Lauren R; Omeir, Romelda L; Foseh, Gideon S; Macauley, Juliete N; Snoy, Philip J; Beren, Joel J; Teferedegne, Belete; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2013-08-01

    Tumors that formed in newborn nude mice that were inoculated with 10(7) Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were associated with a failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndrome consisting of growth retardation, lethargy, weakness, and dehydration. Scoliosis developed in 41% of affected pups. Pups were symptomatic by week 2; severely affected pups became moribund and required euthanasia within 3 to 4 wk. Mice with FTT were classified into categories of mild, moderate, and severe disease by comparing their weight with that of age-matched normal nude mice. The MDCK-induced tumors were adenocarcinomas that invaded adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and bone; 6 of the 26 pups examined had lung metastases. The induction of FTT did not correlate with cell-line aggressiveness as estimated by histopathology or the efficiency of tumor formation (tumor-forming dose 50% endpoint range = 10(2.8) to 10(7.5)); however, tumor invasion of the paravertebral muscles likely contributed to the scoliosis noted. In contrast to the effect of MDCK cells, tumor formation observed in newborn mice inoculated with highly tumorigenic, human-tumor-derived cell lines was not associated with FTT development. We suggest that tumor formation and FTT are characteristics of these MDCK cell inocula and that FTT represents a new syndrome that may be similar to the cachexia that develops in humans with cancer or other diseases.

  17. Frequency of left atrial thrombus detected by transesophageal echocardiography in patients of tight mitral stenosis having negative trans-thoracic echocardiography at gulab devi cardiac complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, A.; Iqbal, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with mitral stenosis (MS) having atrial fibrillation (AF) are more prone to develop left atrial (LA) thrombus. Systemic embolism, related to LA thrombus is a well-known risk of Percutaneous Mitral Balloon Valvotomy (PMBV) of the mitral valve. Therefore presence of LA thrombus is a contraindication to PMBV. Objective: Objective of this study was to detect the frequency of LA thrombus by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients of tight MS in whom transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) could not detect any LA thrombus. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study, we took 100 indoor patients with tight MS on non-probability consecutive sampling. Data was collected after meeting inclusion criteria. Patients were taken in this study after acquiring written informed consent. Symptoms were inquired from all patients and functional status was assessed by New York Heart Association class. Unstable patients were medically managed before the procedure. TEE was done on the same day before undergoing PMBV to look for clot in LA. Results: The mean age of the patients was 32.20 years and SD was 11.3 years. There were 36(36%) male patients and 64(64%) female patients. LA thrombus was present in 40% of patients on TEE out of which 19 were male patients (52.77%) and 21 were female patients (32.81%). Conclusion: Patients with mitral stenosis having AF are more prone to develop LA thrombus. In this study, the frequency of LA thrombus was 40% recorded, which is high. Due to the potential risk of embolization, it is strongly recommended to perform TEE in patients with normal TTE study before undergoing PMBV. The presence of a LA thrombus should be considered a contraindication to the PMBV of the mitral valve. (author)

  18. Thrombus-in-Transit: A Case for a Multidisciplinary Hospital-Based Pulmonary Embolism System of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Anthony J; Knight, Stephen W; McLean, Katherine Zanyk; Bork, Susan; Kurz, Michael C; Sawyer, Kelly N

    2016-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism, including pulmonary embolism (PE), is a common disease identified in the emergency department that carries significant morbidity and mortality. In its most severe form, PE is fulminant and characterized by cardiac arrest and death. In the midst of risk-stratifying PE by using echocardiography to assess right ventricular function, thrombus-in-transit (free-floating clot in the right atrium or ventricle) may be seen. We present a case of a 49-year-old man diagnosed with an acute saddle PE who was incidentally found to have a thrombus-in-transit and patent foramen ovale and required open thrombectomy. Identification of these additional potentially life-threatening features was possible only due to our availability of risk-stratification resources, specifically bedside echocardiography. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Albeit rare, with a reported incidence estimated at 4%, the presence of thrombus-in-transit may change emergent clinical management. A multidisciplinary team of resources should be considered emergently as part of a hospital-based PE system of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Massive Pulmonary Embolism: Treatment with Thrombus Fragmentation and Local Fibrinolysis with Recombinant Human-Tissue Plasminogen Activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Klaus Wilhelm; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Schnabel, Karl Jakob; Bongartz, Georg; Steinbrich, Wolfgang

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To report the results of thrombus fragmentation in combination with local fibrinolysis using recombinant human-tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) in patients with massive pulmonary embolism. Methods: Five patients with massive pulmonary embolism were treated with thrombus fragmentation followed by intrapulmonary injection of rtPA. Clot fragmentation was performed with a guidewire, angiographic catheter, and balloon catheter. Three patients had undergone recent surgery; one of them received a reduced dosage of rtPA. Results: All patients survived and showed clinical improvement with a resultant significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the pulmonary blood pressure (mean systolic pulmonary blood pressure before treatment, 49 mmHg; 4 hr after treatment, 28 mmHg). Angiographic follow-up in three patients revealed a decrease in thrombus material and an increase in pulmonary perfusion. Two patients developed retroperitoneal hematomas requiring transfusion. Conclusion: Clot fragmentation and local fibrinolysis with rtPA was an effective therapy for massive pulmonary embolism. Bleeding at the puncture site was a frequent complication

  20. Mural thrombus and the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a large population-based prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behr-Rasmussen, Carsten; Grøndal, Nikolaj Fibiger; Thomsen, Marie Dahl

    2014-01-01

    diagnosed in men aged 65-74 years. The relative cross-sectional area covered by the mural thrombus was estimated by a semiautomatic method using ultrasound equipment to measure the area of the ellipses, and adapting the inner ellipse (IA) to the luminal border of the thrombus and the outer ellipse...... to the area inside the media border (OA). The relative thrombus area was then calculated as ((OA-IA)/OU) × 100%. Four hundred and sixteen of the patients with AAA were eligible for analysis. RESULTS: The mean size of the AAA was 40.6 mm, and the mean observation time was 1.78 years. In the group with AAAs...... measuring 30-34 mm, 42% had ILT, with a mean relative size of 12% of the outer area. In the group with AAAs measuring >64 mm, the presence of ILT increased to 100%, with a mean relative size of 70% of the outer area. Univariate analysis showed relative ILT size, aortic diameter, smoking history...

  1. Severe reversible dilated cardiomyopathy associated with a large left ventricular thrombus in a young child with middle aortic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ponniah, U; Overholt, E

    2014-01-01

    this article reports a case of a seven-year girl who presented with severe dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) associated with a large thrombus in the left ventricle (LV). She had a long segment stenosis of the lower thoracic descending aorta, possibly due to non-specific aortitis and underwent successful stent angioplasty. The LV thrombus resolved after heparin without sequelae.

  2. Size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis and the significance of patients' age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, A

    1981-01-01

    To determine the significance of patients' age and sex on the size of the thrombus in acute deep vein thrombosis, 420 consecutive phlebograms with acute deep vein thrombosis were studied. A significant correlation between the size of the thrombus and increasing age of the patient as well as the sex of male was noted. It is concluded that older patients and men often are at a high risk of pulmonary embolism at the time of diagnosis.

  3. Ibrutinib Inhibits Platelet Integrin αIIbβ3 Outside-In Signaling and Thrombus Stability But Not Adhesion to Collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Alexander P; Unsworth, Amanda J; Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Stainer, Alexander R; Fry, Michael J; Gibbins, Jonathan M

    2015-11-01

    Ibrutinib is an irreversible Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and mantle cell lymphoma that increases the risk of bleeding among patients. Platelets from ibrutinib-treated patients exhibit deficiencies in collagen-evoked signaling in suspension; however, the significance of this observation and how it relates to bleeding risk is unclear, as platelets encounter immobile collagen in vivo. We sought to clarify the effects of ibrutinib on platelet function to better understand the mechanism underlying bleeding risk. By comparing signaling in suspension and during adhesion to immobilized ligands, we found that the collagen signaling deficiency caused by ibrutinib is milder during adhesion to immobilized collagen. We also found that platelets in whole blood treated with ibrutinib adhered to collagen under arterial shear but formed unstable thrombi, suggesting that the collagen signaling deficiency caused by ibrutinib may not be the predominant cause of bleeding in vivo. However, clot retraction and signaling evoked by platelet adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen were also inhibited by ibrutinib, indicating that integrin αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling is also effected in addition to GPVI signaling. When ibrutinib was combined with the P2Y12 inhibitor, cangrelor, thrombus formation under arterial shear was inhibited additively. These findings suggest that (1) ibrutinib causes GPVI and integrin αIIbβ3 platelet signaling deficiencies that result in formation of unstable thrombi and may contribute toward bleeding observed in vivo and (2) combining ibrutinib with P2Y12 antagonists, which also inhibit thrombus stability, may have a detrimental effect on hemostasis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Surgical Treatment for Thrombus Straddling a Patent Foramen Ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Barboza de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of a 41-year-old female with deep vein thrombosis after abdominal surgery. The patient quickly developed severe pulmonary embolism and stroke representative of paradoxical embolism. Echocardiography showed a thrombus straddling a patent foramen ovale, which was confirmed intraoperatively. An accurate diagnosis and rapid treatment decisions are crucial for preventing patient deterioration in the form of new pulmonary embolisms or stroke.

  5. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Svendsen, M.S.; Salado, J.

    2008-01-01

    thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation...... (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. RESULTS: Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P

  6. Propensity Score Matching Analysis of Changes in Alpha-Fetoprotein Levels after Combined Radiotherapy and Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Jeong

    Full Text Available To investigate the value of changes in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels for the prediction of radiologic response and survival outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT who received combined treatment of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE.A database of 154 HCC patients with PVTT and elevated AFP levels (>20 ng/mL treated with 3D-CRT and TACE as an initial treatment between August 2002 and August 2008 was retrospectively reviewed. AFP levels were determined 1 month after radiotherapy, and AFP response was defined as an AFP level reduction of >20% from the initial level. Radiologic response, overall survival (OS, and progression-free survival (PFS rates were compared between AFP responders and non-responders. Propensity-score based matching analysis was performed to minimize the effect of potential confounding bias.The median follow-up period was 11.1 months (range, 3.1-82.7 months. In the propensity-score matching cohort (92 pairs, a best radiologic response of CR or PR occurred in more AFP responders than AFP non-responders (41.3% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.001. OS and PFS were also longer in AFP responders than in non-responders (median OS 13.2 months vs. 5.6 months, p < 0.001; median PFS 8.7 months vs. 3.5 months, p < 0.001.AFP response is a significant predictive factor for radiologic response. Furthermore, AFP response is significant for OS and PFS outcomes. AFP evaluation after combined radiotherapy and TACE appears to be a useful predictor of clinical outcomes in HCC patients with PVTT.

  7. Incremental Value of Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography over the Two-Dimensional Technique in the Assessment of a Thrombus in Transit through a Patent Foramen Ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thind, Munveer; Ahmed, Mustafa I; Gok, Gulay; Joson, Marisa; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Tuck, Benjamin C; Townsley, Matthew M; Klas, Berthold; McGiffin, David C; Nanda, Navin C

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a right atrial thrombus traversing a patent foramen ovale into the left atrium, where three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography provided considerable incremental value over two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in its assessment. As well as allowing us to better spatially characterize the thrombus, three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography provided a more quantitative assessment through estimation of total thrombus burden. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Influence of Preoperative Aneurysmal Thrombus Quantity and Distribution on the Development of Type II Endoleaks with Aneurysm Sac Enlargement After EVAR of AAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller-Wille, R., E-mail: rene.mueller-wille@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Güntner, O., E-mail: oliverguentner@yahoo.de [Dr. Neumaier MVZ GmBH Castra Regina Center (Germany); Zeman, F., E-mail: florian.zeman@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Center for Clinical Studies (Germany); Dollinger, M., E-mail: Dollinger-M@ukw.de [University Hospital of Würzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Hälg, C., E-mail: haelg@gmx.ch [Kantonsspital Schaffhausen, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Switzerland); Beyer, L. P., E-mail: lukas.beyer@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Pfister, K., E-mail: karin.pfister@ukr.de; Kasprzak, P., E-mail: gefaess.chirurgie@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany); Stroszczynski, C., E-mail: christian.stros@ukr.de; Wohlgemuth, W. A., E-mail: walter.wohlgemuth@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeTo determine the influence of preoperative aneurysmal thrombus quantity and distribution on the development of type II endoleak with aneurysm sac enlargement after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR).Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed the pre- and postoperatively performed CT scans of 118 patients who had follow-up imaging for at least 1 year after EVAR available. We assessed preoperative thrombus perimeter (T{sub Peri}), diameter (T{sub Dia}), cross-sectional area (T{sub CSA}), and volume (T{sub Vol}). The preoperative thrombus distribution was classified into no thrombus, semilunar-shaped (anterior, right side, left side, posterior) thrombus, and circumferential type thrombus. The number of preoperative patent aortic side branches (ASB) was identified. Endpoint was type II endoleak with aneurysm volume (A{sub Vol}) increase of ≥5 % during follow-up.ResultsDuring follow-up (2 years, range 1–9 years), 17 patients with type II endoleak had significant A{sub Vol} increase. Less preoperative T{sub Peri}, T{sub Dia}, T{sub CSA}, and T{sub Vol} were associated with A{sub Vol} increase. A circumferential thrombus distribution significantly protected against aneurysm enlargement (p = 0.028). The variables with the strongest significance for A{sub Vol} increase were preoperative T{sub Vol}/A{sub Vol} ratio (OR 0.95; p = 0.037) and number of patent ASB (OR 3.52; p < 0.001).ConclusionA low preoperative T{sub Vol}/A{sub Vol} ratio and a high number of patent ASB were associated with aneurysm sac enlargement after EVAR.

  9. Platelets Drive Thrombus Propagation in a Hematocrit and Glycoprotein VI-Dependent Manner in an In Vitro Venous Thrombosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marcus; Schoeman, Rogier M; Krohl, Patrick J; Wallbank, Alison M; Samaniuk, Joseph R; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Neeves, Keith B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the role of platelets and red blood cells on thrombus propagation in an in vitro model of venous valvular stasis. A microfluidic model with dimensional similarity to human venous valves consists of a sinus distal to a sudden expansion, where for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers, 2 countercurrent vortices arise because of flow separation. The primary vortex is defined by the points of flow separation and reattachment. A secondary vortex forms in the deepest recess of the valve pocket characterized by low shear rates. An initial fibrin gel formed within the secondary vortex of a tissue factor-coated valve sinus. Platelets accumulated at the interface of the fibrin gel and the primary vortex. Red blood cells at physiological hematocrits were necessary to provide an adequate flux of platelets to support thrombus growth out of the valve sinus. A subpopulation of platelets that adhered to fibrin expose phosphatidylserine. Platelet-dependent thrombus growth was attenuated by inhibition of glycoprotein VI with a blocking Fab fragment or D-dimer. A 3-step process regulated by hemodynamics was necessary for robust thrombus propagation: First, immobilized tissue factor initiates coagulation and fibrin deposition within a low flow niche defined by a secondary vortex in the pocket of a model venous valve. Second, a primary vortex delivers platelets to the fibrin interface in a red blood cell-dependent manner. Third, platelets adhere to fibrin, activate through glycoprotein VI, express phosphatidylserine, and subsequently promote thrombus growth beyond the valve sinus and into the bulk flow. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Piggy-back Hepatic Transplant Technique and Veno-venous Bypass Without Cardiac Arrest: A Multidisciplinary Approach in Borderline T3b/T3c Renal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nechifor-Boila IA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surgery for renal cell carcinomas with tumor thrombus extending in the Inferior Vena Cava (IVC can be particularly challenging, especially in the retrohepatic and intraatrial situations (T3b and T3c. Classically, these tumors require the intraoperative use of cardio-pulmonary by-pass (CPB and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA, that can result in specific complications (stroke, platelet dysfunction, with increased postoperative morbidity rates.

  11. Magnetic resonance venography to assess thrombus resolution with edoxaban monotherapy versus parenteral anticoagulation/warfarin for symptomatic deep vein thrombosis: A multicenter feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Gregory; Mani, Venkatesh; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Grosso, Michael A; Mercuri, Michele; Lanz, Hans J; Schussler, Steven; Hsu, Ching; Chinigo, Amy; Ritchie, Bruce; Nadar, Venkatesh; Cannon, Kevin; Pullman, John; Concha, Mauricio; Schul, Marlin; Fayad, Zahi A

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) for measuring change in thrombus volume with a novel anticoagulation regimen versus standard anticoagulation in patients with symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has not been assessed. Our aim was to study the feasibility of MRV to measure change in thrombus volume in patients with acute symptomatic objectively confirmed proximal DVT in an open-label multicenter trial (edoxaban Thrombus Reduction Imaging Study, eTRIS). We randomized patients in a 2:1 allocation ratio to edoxaban 90 mg/day for 10 days followed by 60 mg/day versus parenteral anticoagulation bridging to warfarin for 3 months. The primary efficacy outcome was a surrogate end point of the relative change in MRV-quantified thrombus volume from baseline to Day 14-21. A total of 85 eligible patients from 26 study sites were randomized to edoxaban monotherapy (n=56) versus parenteral anticoagulation as a 'bridge' to warfarin (n=29). The mean relative change in MRV-quantified thrombus volume from baseline to Day 14-21 was similar in patients treated with edoxaban and parenteral anticoagulation as a 'bridge' to warfarin (-50.1% vs -58.9%; 95% confidence interval of treatment difference, -12.7%, 30.2%). However, thrombus extension was observed in eight patients in the edoxaban monotherapy group and in none in the warfarin group. Rates of recurrent venous thromboembolism (3.6% vs 3.6%, p=0.45) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding (5.4% vs 7.1%, p=0.34) were also similar. No major bleeds occurred in either on-treatment group during the study period. In conclusion, MRV can assess change in thrombus volume in patients with acute DVT randomized to two different anticoagulant regimens.ClinicalTrials.gov IDENTIFIER NCT01662908: INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG IND APPLICATION EDOXABAN IND # 63266. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Relationship between Serum Inflammatory Biomarkers and Thrombus Characteristics in Patients with ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Menozzi, Alberto; Capodanno, Davide; Trani, Carlo; Sirbu, Vasile; Fineschi, Massimo; Zara, Chiara; Crea, Filippo; Trabattoni, Daniela; Saia, Francesco; Ladich, Elena; Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Attizzani, Guilherme; Guagliumi, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    To compare angiographic and optical coherence tomography (OCT) data pertinent to thrombi, along with the histologic characteristics of aspirated thrombi in patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with or without inflammation, as assessed by C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). In the OCTAVIA (Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment of Gender Diversity in Primary Angioplasty) study, 140 patients with STEMI referred for primary percutaneous intervention were enrolled. The patients underwent OCT assessment of the culprit vessel, along with blood sampling of CRP and MPO, and histologic analysis of the thrombus. Biomarkers were available for 129 patients, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the thrombi were available for 78 patients. Comparisons were made using the median thresholds of CRP and MPO (2.08 mg/L and 604.124 ng/mL, respectively). There was no correlation between CRP and MPO levels in the whole population (p = 0.685). Patients with high CRP levels had higher thrombus grades and more frequent TIMI flow 0/1 compared with those with low CRP levels (5 [1st quartile 3; 3rd quartile 5] vs. 3.5 mg/L [1; 5], p = 0.007, and 69.3 vs. 48.5%, p = 0.04, respectively). Patients with high MPO levels more commonly had early thrombi than had those with low MPO levels (42.5 vs. 20.0%, p = 0.04). CRP and MPO were not correlated in STEMI patients, possibly reflecting different pathogenic mechanisms, with CRP more related to thrombus burden and MPO to thrombus age. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [Value of R2(*) in evaluating the biological behavior of primary hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S F; Liu, A L; Liu, J H; Li, Y; Liu, X D; Huang, K; Song, Q W; Xu, M Z; Guo, W Y

    2016-04-19

    To investigate the correlation between R2(*) value of enhanced T2 star-weighted angiography (ESWAN) sequence and primary hepatocellular carcinoma infiltration and tumor thrombus, and investigate the biological behavior of HCC. A total of 221 cases of patients' imaging data with MRI examination(including ESWAN sequence) diagnosed as primary HCC were retrospectively analyzed.All the patients were collected from January 2014 to September 2015 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University.The differences of R2(*) values in different MR types of HCC were analyzed.All patients were divided into infiltration group and non-infiltration group, tumor thrombus group and non-tumor thrombus group, the R2(*) values of the paired groups were compared.The diagnostic efficiency of R2(*) in HCC infiltration and tumor thrombus were evaluated by ROC curve, and to find out the threshold values. The MR types of 221 patients included 90 cases of nodular type, 62 cases of massive type, 69 cases of diffuse type.70 patients had tumor thrombus.The R2(*) values of different MR types were (21.82±8.52), (24.17±8.84)and (34.45±11.73) Hz, respectively.There was no statistically significant difference between the nodular and the massive types (P=0.144), while the difference between the nodular and diffuse type, the massive and diffuse types were statistically significant(P=0.000). The R2(*) values of infiltration group and non-infiltration group were (34.45±11.73) and (22.78±8.70) Hz , the R2(*) values of tumor thrombus group and non-tumor thrombus group were (31.20±12.17) and (24.21±9.90) Hz, the difference also had statistically significant(t=7.397 and 4.534, P=0.000 and 0.000). The AUC of R2(*) values for infiltration and tumor thrombus were 0.804, 0.681. R2(*) ≥24.68 Hz was the threshold value to diagnose the infiltration and tumor thrombus. R2(*) value can be used as a MR non-enhancement quantitative index to evaluate the biological behavior of HCC.

  14. Ultrasound Detection of Superior Vena Cava Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Birch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior vena cava (SVC syndrome is most commonly the insidious result of decreased vascular flow through the SVC due to malignancy, spontaneous thrombus, infections, and iatrogenic etiologies. Clinical suspicion usually leads to computed tomography to confirm the diagnosis. However, when a patient in respiratory distress requires emergent airway management, travel outside the emergency department is not ideal. With the growing implementation of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS, clinicians may make critical diagnoses rapidly and safely. We present a case of SVC syndrome due to extensive thrombosis of the deep venous system cephalad to the SVC diagnosed by POCUS. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(6:715-718

  15. Greenfield filter caval perforation causing an aortic mural thrombus and femoral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, U B; Gutierrez, O H; Azodo, M V

    1997-05-01

    A 32-year-old woman suffered a right femoral artery embolic occlusion from an abdominal aortic mural thrombus associated with caval perforation by a stainless steel Greenfield Filter. The complication required thrombolytic therapy, surgical revascularization, and long-term anticoagulation.

  16. Distribution of Functional Liver Volume in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus in the 1st Branch and Main Trunk Using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography—Application to Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ikoma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the distribution of functional liver volume (FLV in the margin volume (MV surrounding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT before radiation therapy (RT and to verify the safety of single photon emission computed tomography-based three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (SPECT-B3DCRT by exploring the relation of FLV in MV to radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Methods and Materials: Clinical target volume (CTV included main tumor and PVTT, and planning target volume (PTV included CTV with a 10 mm margin. MV was defined as PTV–CTV. FLV ratio in MV was calculated as FLV in MV/MV × 100 (%. The two high-dose beams were planned to irradiate FLV as little as possible. Fifty-seven cases of HCC (26/57, 46%; Child–Pugh grade B with PVTT underwent SPECT-B3DCRT which targeted the CTV to a total dose of 45 Gy/18 fractions. The destructive ratio was defined as radiation induced dysfunctional volume/FLV × 100 (%. Results: We observed a significant negative correlation between FLV ratio in MV and CTV (p < 0.001. Three cases with CTVs of 287, 587 and 1184 cm3 experienced transient RILD. The FLV ratio in MV was highest in patients with RILD: nine patients with CTV of 200–300 cm3, three with CTV of 500–600 cm3, and two with CTV of 1100–1200 cm3. The destructive ratio yielded a mean value of 24.2 ± 1.5%. Conclusions: Radiation planning that takes into account the distribution of FLV appears to result in the least possible RILD.

  17. Preparation and characterization of gadolinium-loaded PLGA particles surface modified with RGDS for the detection of thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu Zhang,1 Jun Zhou,1 Dajing Guo,1 Meng Ao,2 Yuanyi Zheng,2 Zhigang Wang21Department of Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Ultrasound, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Thrombotic disease is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The development of magnetic resonance molecular imaging provides potential promise for early disease diagnosis. In this study, we explore the preparation and characterization of gadolinium (Gd-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA particles surface modified with the Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS peptide for the detection of thrombus. PLGA was employed as the carrier-delivery system, and a double emulsion solvent-evaporation method (water in oil in water was used to prepare PLGA particles encapsulating the magnetic resonance contrast agent Gd diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA. To synthesize the Gd-PLGA/chitosan (CS-RGDS particles, carbodiimide-mediated amide bond formation was used to graft the RGDS peptide to CS to form a CS-RGDS film that coated the surface of the PLGA particles. Blank PLGA, Gd-PLGA, and Gd-PLGA/CS particles were fabricated using the same water in oil in water method. Our results indicated that the RGDS peptide successfully coated the surface of the Gd-PLGA/CS-RGDS particles. The particles had a regular shape, smooth surface, relatively uniform size, and did not aggregate. The high electron density of the Gd-loaded particles and a translucent film around the particles coated with the CS and CS-RGDS films could be observed by transmission electron microscopy. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the Gd-PLGA/CS-RGDS particles could target thrombi and could be imaged using a clinical magnetic resonance scanner. Compared with the Gd-DTPA solution, the longitudinal relaxation time of

  18. Use of an anti-platelet monoclonal antibody F (ab')2 fragment for imaging thrombus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutfi, I.; Stuttle, A.W.J.; Peters, A.M.; George, P.; Lavender, J.P.; Lumley, P.

    1990-01-01

    Ten patients with suspected thrombus have been studied using 111 In-labelled F (ab')2 fragments of P256, a monoclonal antibody which recognizes an epitope on the platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex. The F (ab')2 fragment was radiolabelled with 111 In via diethylenetri-aminepentamacetic acid to give a specific activity of up to 190 MBq (5mCi) mg - 1 without impairment of immunoreactivity. In vitro platelet aggregation studies showed that the F (ab')2 fragment caused less platelet aggregation than the whole antibody on a molar ratio and was without significant effect upon the sensitivity of platelets to a range of aggregating agents. Platalets were labelled in ten patients by intravenous injection of approximately 100 μg P256 F (ab')2. Of the ten patients studies, six showed localization of activity consistent with platelet accumulation. Localization was clearly seen when associated with thrombus of the lower limbs (three patients: deep vein thrombosis; one patient: aortofemoral graft), and was apparent although less marked in two other cases, one of aortic aneurysm and one of carotid stenosis. Use of radiolabelled P256 F (ab')2 offers a means of non-invasive detection of thrombus which, from in vitro studies, would appear to have less direct effect of platelet behaviour than the whole antibody. (author). 9 refs. 8 figs. 1 tab

  19. Intermittent, noncyclic dysfunction of a mechanical aortic prosthesis by pannus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Sylvie K; Labinaz, Marino X; Grisoli, Dominique; Klug, Andrew P; Veinot, John P; Burwash, Ian G

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical aortic prosthesis dysfunction can result from thrombosis or pannus formation. Pannus formation usually restricts systolic excursion of the occluding disk, resulting in progressive stenosis of the aortic prosthesis. Intermittent dysfunction of a mechanical aortic prosthesis is usually ascribed to thrombus formation. We describe an unusual case of intermittent, noncyclic dysfunction of a mechanical aortic prosthesis due to pannus formation in the absence of systolic restriction of disk excursion that presented with intermittent massive aortic regurgitation, severe ischemia, and shock. Pannus formation should be considered as a potential cause of acute intermittent severe aortic regurgitation in a patient with a mechanical aortic prosthesis.

  20. Tumores renais e adrenais com invasão cardíaca: resultados cirúrgicos imediatos em 14 pacientes Tumores renales y adrenales con invasión cardiaca: resultados quirúrgicos inmediatos en 14 pacientes Renal and adrenal tumors with cardiac invasion: immediate surgical results in 14 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagionato Locali

    2009-03-01

    quirúrgicamente para retirada de trombo en VCI y/o AD que transcurre de tumor renal o suprarrenal. De estos, el 64,2% eran del sexo masculino; había el 42,8% de casos de tumor de Wilms (TW, el 28,5% de adenocarcinoma suprarrenal (ACS y el 28,5% de carcinoma de células claras (CC, con edades promedio de 4,5, 60,5 y 2,5 años, respectivamente. Se evaluaron los aspectos epidemiológicos y también los parámetros hospitalarios intra y postoperatorios. RESULTADOS: En todos los casos se encontró trombo tumoral en VCI suprahepática, y en el 62,4% el trombo invadió el AD. Se realizó la trombectomia con el empleo de la circulación extracorpórea asociada a la hipotermia profunda; se verificó paro circulatorio total en el 85,7% de los casos, mientras que se mantuvo moderada en el restante del grupo. Se procedió a la ligadura de la VCI en el 7,1% de los pacientes, y se la reconstruyó por rafia en el 92,9%. Los tiempos de intubación orotraqueal e internación variaron conforme el tipo de tumor. Ocurrieron dos óbitos hospitalarios en el grupo de ACS, provocados por paro cardiorrespiratorio intraoperatorio. CONCLUSIÓN: Existe mayor número de casos de trombo tumoral en VCI y AD que transcurre de TW. Los casos de ACS evolucionan con más complicaciones en el período postoperatorio, mientras que el pronóstico en el postoperatorio hospitalario de los pacientes con TW resulta mejor.BACKGROUND: The resection of tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava (IVC and right atrium (RA increases the survival rate of patients with renal/adrenal cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surgical procedure in cases of IVC and RA in the treatment of renal and adrenal tumors. METHODS: Fourteen patients undergoing surgical intervention (during the period between January 1997 and June 2007, for resection of IVC and/or RA thrombus due to renal or adrenal tumors, were retrospectively evaluated. The patients (64.2% male presented with Wilms' tumor, clear cell carcinoma and adrenal adenocarcinoma

  1. Clinical application of endovascular stent-graft in the treatment of portal stenosis of cancerous thrombus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zaibo; Huang Mingsheng; Wang Jing; Li Zhengran; Qian Jiesheng; Guang Shouhai; Zhu Kangshun; Shan Hong; Zhang Xiongjun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the approach and early effects of endovascular stent-graft deployment in the treatment of portal stenosis of cancerous thrombus. Methods: Six cases with portal vein stenosis of cancerous thrombus, which caused by primary hepatic carcinoma (5 cases) and cholangiocarcinoma (1 case) and the severity of stenosis showed on contrast enhanced CT were more than 75% or occluded, were performed percutaneous transhepatic or transsplenic portography. FLUENCY TM endovascular stent-graft (10 mm diameter) was placed at the position of stenosis after gastroesophageal varices embolization. Portal pressure was measured pre- and post-deployment. Results: Stents were successfully placed in all patients. The average portal pressure decreased from 50.7 em H 2 O (1 cm H 2 O0.098 kPa) to 41.3 cm H 2 O after endovascular stent-graft deployment. The restenosis were found in 2 cases after one month. Haematemesis and refractory ascites appeared in one case respectively, the other 4 cases showed no significant symptoms above caused by portal hypertension. Conclusion: It is safe and feasible for endovascular stent-graft deployment in the treatment of portal stenosis of cancerous thrombus. Selecting the suitable indications, the symptoms of portal hypertension can be controlled effectively. (authors)

  2. A multimodality vascular imaging phantom of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a visible thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Louise; Chayer, Boris; Qin Zhao [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, Research Center, University of Montreal Hospital (CRCHUM), Quebec H2L 2W5 (Canada); Soulez, Gilles [Department of Radiology, University of Montreal Hospital (CHUM), Quebec H2L 2M1 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Roy, David [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Cloutier, Guy [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, Research Center, University of Montreal Hospital (CRCHUM), Quebec H2L 2W5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: With the continuous development of new stent grafts and implantation techniques, it has now become technically feasible to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with challenging anatomy using endovascular repair with standard, fenestrated, or branched stent-grafts. In vitro experimentations are very useful to improve stent-graft design and conformability or imaging guidance for stent-graft delivery or follow-up. Vascular replicas also help to better understand the limitation of endovascular approaches in challenging anatomy and possibly improve surgical planning or training by practicing high risk clinical procedures in the laboratory to improve outcomes in the operating room. Most AAA phantoms available have a very basic anatomy, which is not representative of the clinical reality. This paper presents a method of fabrication of a realistic AAA phantom with a visible thrombus, as well as some mechanical properties characterizing such phantom. Methods: A realistic AAA geometry replica of a real patient anatomy taken from a multidetector computed tomography (CT) scan was manufactured. To demonstrate the multimodality imaging capability of this new phantom with a thrombus visible in magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, CT angiography (CTA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and ultrasound, image acquisitions with all these modalities were performed by using standard clinical protocols. Potential use of this phantom for stent deployment was also tested. A rheometer allowed defining hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of phantom materials. Results: MR imaging measurements of SNR and CNR values on T1 and T2-weighted sequences and MR angiography indicated reasonable agreement with published values of AAA thrombus and abdominal components in vivo. X-ray absorption also lay within normal ranges of AAA patients and was representative of findings observed on CTA, fluoroscopy, and DSA. Ultrasound propagation speeds for developed materials were also in

  3. A multimodality vascular imaging phantom of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a visible thrombus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Louise; Chayer, Boris; Qin Zhao; Soulez, Gilles; Roy, David; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With the continuous development of new stent grafts and implantation techniques, it has now become technically feasible to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with challenging anatomy using endovascular repair with standard, fenestrated, or branched stent-grafts. In vitro experimentations are very useful to improve stent-graft design and conformability or imaging guidance for stent-graft delivery or follow-up. Vascular replicas also help to better understand the limitation of endovascular approaches in challenging anatomy and possibly improve surgical planning or training by practicing high risk clinical procedures in the laboratory to improve outcomes in the operating room. Most AAA phantoms available have a very basic anatomy, which is not representative of the clinical reality. This paper presents a method of fabrication of a realistic AAA phantom with a visible thrombus, as well as some mechanical properties characterizing such phantom. Methods: A realistic AAA geometry replica of a real patient anatomy taken from a multidetector computed tomography (CT) scan was manufactured. To demonstrate the multimodality imaging capability of this new phantom with a thrombus visible in magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, CT angiography (CTA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and ultrasound, image acquisitions with all these modalities were performed by using standard clinical protocols. Potential use of this phantom for stent deployment was also tested. A rheometer allowed defining hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of phantom materials. Results: MR imaging measurements of SNR and CNR values on T1 and T2-weighted sequences and MR angiography indicated reasonable agreement with published values of AAA thrombus and abdominal components in vivo. X-ray absorption also lay within normal ranges of AAA patients and was representative of findings observed on CTA, fluoroscopy, and DSA. Ultrasound propagation speeds for developed materials were also in

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: a hallmark in metastasis formation linking circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książkiewicz, Magdalena; Markiewicz, Aleksandra; Zaczek, Anna J

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of either regional or distant metastases is an indicator of poor prognosis for cancer patients. The mechanism of their formation has not yet been fully uncovered, which limits the possibility of developing new therapeutic strategies. Nevertheless, the discovery of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which are responsible for tumor dissemination, and cancer stem cells (CSCs), required for tumor growth maintenance, shed light on the metastatic cascade. It seems that CTCs and CSCs are not necessarily separate populations of cancer cells, as CTCs generated in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can bear features characteristic of CSCs. This article describes the mechanisms of CTC and CSC formation and characterizes their molecular hallmarks. Moreover, we present different types of EMT occurring in physiological and pathological conditions, and we demonstrate its crucial role in providing CTCs with a CSC phenotype. The article delineates molecular changes acquired by cancer cells undergoing EMT that facilitate metastasis formation. Deeper understanding of those processes is of fundamental importance for the development of new strategies of early cancer detection and effective cancer treatment approaches that will be translated into clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Preventive effect of chemical peeling on ultraviolet induced skin tumor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; Funasaka, Yoko; Kamo, Tsuneyoshi; Ooe, Masahiko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Nishigori, Chikako

    2010-10-01

    Chemical peeling is one of the dermatological treatments available for certain cutaneous diseases and conditions or improvement of cosmetic appearance of photoaged skin. We assessed the photochemopreventive effect of several clinically used chemical peeling agents on the ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin of hairless mice. Chemical peeling was done using 35% glycolic acid dissolved in distilled water, 30% salicylic acid in ethanol, 10% or 35% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in distilled water at the right back of UV-irradiated hairless mice every 2 weeks in case of glycolic acid, salicylic acid, and 10% TCA and every 4 weeks in case of 35% TCA for totally 18 weeks after the establishment of photoaged mice by irradiation with UVA+B range light three times a week for 10 weeks at a total dose of 420 J/cm(2) at UVA and 9.6 J/cm(2) at UVB. Tumor formation was assessed every week. Skin specimens were taken from treated and non-treated area for evaluation under microscopy, evaluation of P53 expression, and mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Serum level of prostaglandin E(2) was also evaluated. All types of chemical peeling reduced tumor formation in treated mice, mostly in the treated area but also non-treated area. Peeling suppressed clonal retention of p53 positive abnormal cells and reduced mRNA expression of COX-2 in treated skin. Further, serum prostaglandin E(2) level was decreased in chemical peeling treated mice. These results indicate that chemical peeling with glycolic acid, salicylic acid, and TCA could serve tumor prevention by removing photodamaged cells. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue factor levels and the fibrinolytic system in thin and thick intraluminal thrombus and underlying walls of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennicka, Aldona; Zuchowski, Marta; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Cnotliwy, Miłosław; Clark, Jeremy Simon; Jastrzębska, Maria

    2018-03-20

    The hemostatic system cooperates with proteolytic degradation in processes allowing abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. In previous studies, it has been suggested that aneurysm rupture depends on intraluminal thrombus (ILT) thickness, which varies across each individual aneurysm. We hypothesized that hemostatic components differentially accumulate in AAA tissue in relation to ILT thickness. Thick (A1) and thin (B1) segments of ILTs and aneurysm wall sections A (adjacent to A1) and B (adjacent to B1) from one aneurysm sac were taken from 35 patients undergoing elective repair. Factor levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of protein extract. Tissue factor (TF) activities were significantly higher in thinner segments of AAA (B1 vs A1, P = .003; B vs A, P thick thrombus-covered wall segments (A) than in B, A1, and B1 (P = .015, P thick ILT (P = .021) and thick ILT (A1; P thick ILT (A1). However, no correlations were found at B sites, except for a correlation between plasmin and TF activities (r = 0.55; P = .004). These results suggest that higher TF activities are present in thinner AAA regions. These parameters and local fibrinolysis may be part of the processes leading to destruction of the aneurysm wall. Copyright © 2018 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy and two-dimensional echocardiography for detection of left ventricular thrombus: influence of clot size and age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabold, J.E.; Schroeder, E.C.; Conrad, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy were performed on 50 dogs to determine the influence of clot age and size on the detection of experimentally induced left ventricular mural thrombus. Thrombus was induced by apical infarction and injection of a sclerosing agent and thrombin. The animals were classified into four groups according to the time of indium-111 platelet injection after thrombus induction: Group I (17 dogs, 1/2 hour after induction; 3 dogs, before induction), Group II (12 dogs, 24 hours after induction) and Group III (12 dogs, 1 week after induction). In Group IV (six control dogs) apical infarction was produced, but thrombin was not injected; indium-111 platelets were injected 1/2 to 1 hour after infarction. The dogs were studied by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy and by two-dimensional echocardiography 1/2 to 5 hours (Group I) and 1 to 5 and up to 72 hours (Groups II to IV) after platelet administration and before death was induced. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed the best overall sensitivity for detection of acute thrombus (97%; 29 of 30). The sensitivity of indium-111 platelet scintigraphy was 86% (18 of 21) for clots greater than or equal to 0.08 ml in size, and 67% (20 of 30) for detection of all clots. Thrombus did not form in 14 dogs of Groups I to III and in 6 of 6 control dogs. The specificity of scintigraphy was 100% (20 of 20) compared with 80% (16 of 20) for echocardiography. Echocardiography was more sensitive than scintigraphy for detecting very small clots in this experimental model

  8. A Behcet’s Disease Patient with Right Ventricular Thrombus, Pulmonary Artery Aneurysms, and Deep Vein Thrombosis Complicating Recurrent Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi Aşker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracardiac thrombus, pulmonary artery aneurysms, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary thromboembolism are rarely seen symptoms of Behcet’s disease. A 20-year-old female patient was admitted for complaints of cough, fever, palpitations, and chest pain. On the dynamic thorax computed tomograms (CT obtained because of significantly enlarged hilar structures seen on chest radiograms, aneurysmal dilatation of the pulmonary artery segments bilaterally, chronic thrombus with collapse, and consolidation substances compatible with pulmonary embolism involving both lower lobes have been observed. It is learned that, four years ago, the patient had been diagnosed with Behcet’s disease and received colchicine treatment but not regularly. The patient was hospitalized. On the transthoracic echocardiogram, a thrombosis with a dimension of 4.2 × 1.6 cm was recognized in the right ventricle. On abdomen CT, aneurysmal iliac veins and deep vein thrombus on Doppler ultrasonograms were diagnosed. At the controls after three months of immunosuppressive and anticoagulant therapies, some clinical and radiological improvements were recognized. The patient suspended the treatment for a month and the thrombus recurred. We present our case in order to show the effectiveness of immunosuppressive and anticoagulant therapies and rarely seen pulmonary thromboembolism in recurrent Behcet’s disease.

  9. Metformin improves defective hematopoiesis and delays tumor formation in Fanconi anemia mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Shuo; Tang, Weiliang; Deater, Matthew; Phan, Ngoc; Marcogliese, Andrea N; Li, Hui; Al-Dhalimy, Muhsen; Major, Angela; Olson, Susan; Monnat, Raymond J; Grompe, Markus

    2016-12-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure disorder associated with a high incidence of leukemia and solid tumors. Bone marrow transplantation is currently the only curative therapy for the hematopoietic complications of this disorder. However, long-term morbidity and mortality remain very high, and new therapeutics are badly needed. Here we show that the widely used diabetes drug metformin improves hematopoiesis and delays tumor formation in Fancd2 -/- mice. Metformin is the first compound reported to improve both of these FA phenotypes. Importantly, the beneficial effects are specific to FA mice and are not seen in the wild-type controls. In this preclinical model of FA, metformin outperformed the current standard of care, oxymetholone, by improving peripheral blood counts in Fancd2 -/- mice significantly faster. Metformin increased the size of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment and enhanced quiescence in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. In tumor-prone Fancd2 -/- Trp53 +/- mice, metformin delayed the onset of tumors and significantly extended the tumor-free survival time. In addition, we found that metformin and the structurally related compound aminoguanidine reduced DNA damage and ameliorated spontaneous chromosome breakage and radials in human FA patient-derived cells. Our results also indicate that aldehyde detoxification might be one of the mechanisms by which metformin reduces DNA damage in FA cells. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. Radiopharmaceuticals for thrombus detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the components of the thrombotic and fibrinolytic systems have at some time been evaluated as a means of carrying a radiolabel specifically to thrombi, although very few have been promising enough to emerge from investigational status to routine clinical use. New approaches are being explored, including improved methods of labeling platelets, chemically modified forms of previously tested plasma proteins, and new biomolecules, including monoclonal antibodies specific for fibrin and platelets. The current goal is to find one or more radiotracers that bind specifically and rapidly to thrombi, and that also have a rapid blood disappearance rate, permitting a clear diagnosis within a few hours after injection. Because this test may be needed to assess the course of therapy in an anticoagulated patient, the ideal radiopharmaceutical should be able to locate thrombi without interference by anticoagulants. Until a suitable thrombus-specific radiopharmaceutical becomes generally available, many hospitals will continue to attempt to make a diagnosis with nonspecific radiopharmaceuticals that can at best provide blood pool images to indicate filling defects. Several of the new approaches seem likely to provide the radiopharmaceutical sought, although clinical trials are at an early stage.137 references

  11. A novel approach for assessing the progression of deep venous thrombosis by area of venous thrombus in ultrasonic elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yuhui; Chen, Ming

    2014-04-01

    Exact age determination of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is important for an appropriate treatment. The purpose of this present study is to assess the age of acute DVT with the area of venous thrombi in elasticity imaging during the thrombosis procession. The thrombus area is obtained from a specially designed program. It was applied to clot specimens induced in human great saphenous (n = 15) at selected time points following the initiation of thrombosis. The relative mean proportion of blood clots was 50.01% ± 12.44% at day 1; 69.94% ± 8.19% at day 3; 81.93% ± 6.15% at day 6; and 92.37% ± 4.06% at day 9. The results indicated that the thrombus area increased significantly over time, while the normalized strain values inside the thrombus changed only a little. The pathological analyses also showed the same results. Therefore, we conclude that the area of venous thrombi in elasticity imaging may be a novel function for acute DVT staging.

  12. Intravascular ultrasound and angiographic demonstration of left main stem thrombus-high-risk presentation in a young adult with anabolic steroid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pankaj; Davis, Gershan; Wilson, John Ian; Sivananthan, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of acute myocardial infarction in a young adult with a history of anabolic steroid abuse. On diagnostic coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound, he was found to have a distal left main stem thrombus extending into the proximal left anterior descending artery and a large intermediate vessel. As he was hemodynamically stable and pain-free, he was managed conservatively with triple antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, and abciximab). This was also to avoid the risk of 'wiring the vessel,' especially if there was underlying dissection. Repeat angiography a few weeks later showed complete thrombus resolution. This is the first reported case of extensive left main stem thrombus in a young patient with anabolic steroid abuse. Management of such cases is not straightforward and our case highlights one approach to both diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Prevention of Human Lymphoproliferative Tumor Formation in Ovarian Cancer Patient-Derived Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Butler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in preclinical drug development for ovarian cancer has stimulated development of patient-derived xenograft (PDX or tumorgraft models. However, the unintended formation of human lymphoma in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV–infected human lymphocytes can be problematic. In this study, we have characterized ovarian cancer PDXs which developed human lymphomas and explore methods to suppress lymphoproliferative growth. Fresh human ovarian tumors from 568 patients were transplanted intraperitoneally in SCID mice. A subset of PDX models demonstrated atypical patterns of dissemination with mediastinal masses, hepatosplenomegaly, and CD45-positive lymphoblastic atypia without ovarian tumor engraftment. Expression of human CD20 but not CD3 supported a B-cell lineage, and EBV genomes were detected in all lymphoproliferative tumors. Immunophenotyping confirmed monoclonal gene rearrangements consistent with B-cell lymphoma, and global gene expression patterns correlated well with other human lymphomas. The ability of rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, to suppress human lymphoproliferation from a patient's ovarian tumor in SCID mice and prevent growth of an established lymphoma led to a practice change with a goal to reduce the incidence of lymphomas. A single dose of rituximab during the primary tumor heterotransplantation process reduced the incidence of CD45-positive cells in subsequent PDX lines from 86.3% (n = 117 without rituximab to 5.6% (n = 160 with rituximab, and the lymphoma rate declined from 11.1% to 1.88%. Taken together, investigators utilizing PDX models for research should routinely monitor for lymphoproliferative tumors and consider implementing methods to suppress their growth.

  14. Short-Term Anticoagulant Therapy and Thrombus Location Are Independent Risk Factors for Delayed Recanalization of Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanlin; Fu, Qining; Zhao, Yu; Mu, Shaoyu; Liu, Liping

    2016-01-21

    Prompt recanalization of the vein containing the thrombus is an important goal during the initial treatment of DVT, and risk factors for delayed recanalization in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities need to be determined. A total of 174 patients with DVT in lower extremities were recruited from June 2014 to March 2015 at our hospital. Duplex ultrasound scanning was conducted for all patients at 1 and 6 months after baseline evaluation. We divided the patients into recanalization and non-recanalization groups and analyzed risk factors for delayed recanalization. The univariate analysis revealed that an oral anticoagulant time of less than 3 months and venous thrombus location were risk factors for delayed recanalization (P0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that patients with an anticoagulant time of less than 3 months had a lower incidence of recanalization than those with an anticoagulant time of more than 3 months (OR=2.358, Pvenous thrombus location are independent risk factors for delayed recanalization of DVT in the lower extremities.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of large and giant intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kenichi; Saito, Akira; Nakasu, Yoko; Matsuda, Masayuki; Handa, Jyoji [Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Todo, Giro

    1990-06-01

    Twelve large or giant intracranial aneurysms were studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and the findings were compared with those from computed tomographic (CT) scanning. Characteristic MR features of such aneurysms are: round, extra-axial mass with hypointensity rim; signal void, paradoxical enhancement, or even-echo rephasing due to blood flow; and laminated, eccentric thrombus with increased signal intensity when fresh, perianeurysmal hemorrhage occurs in the acute or subacute stage after aneurysmal rupture. MR imaging, however, often fails to identify or characterize the area of calcification. For the diagnosis of large or giant intracranial aneurysms, MR imaging is apparently superior to CT scanning in differentiating aneurysms from tumors, delineating the blood flow and intraluminal thrombus, and detecting the exact size of the aneurysm. It may also provide useful information concerning the growth mechanisms of aneurysms with or without thrombus formation. (author).

  16. Left Ventricular Thrombus as a Complication of Clozapine-Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Shahbaz A; Malik, Sarah; Dowsley, Taylor F; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old male with history of schizoaffective disorder on clozapine presented with chest pain, dyspnea, and new left bundle branch block. He underwent coronary angiography, which revealed no atherosclerosis. The patient's workup was unrevealing for a cause for the cardiomyopathy and thus it was thought that clozapine was the offending agent. The patient was taken off clozapine and started on guideline directed heart failure therapy. During the course of hospitalization, he was also discovered to have a left ventricular (LV) thrombus for which he received anticoagulation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of clozapine-induced cardiomyopathy complicated by a LV thrombus.

  17. Left Ventricular Thrombus as a Complication of Clozapine-Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz A. Malik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old male with history of schizoaffective disorder on clozapine presented with chest pain, dyspnea, and new left bundle branch block. He underwent coronary angiography, which revealed no atherosclerosis. The patient’s workup was unrevealing for a cause for the cardiomyopathy and thus it was thought that clozapine was the offending agent. The patient was taken off clozapine and started on guideline directed heart failure therapy. During the course of hospitalization, he was also discovered to have a left ventricular (LV thrombus for which he received anticoagulation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of clozapine-induced cardiomyopathy complicated by a LV thrombus.

  18. Imaging of pannus formation in patients with mechanical heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Sabahattin; Özkan, Mehmet; Yesin, Mahmut

    2015-11-26

    Patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) should be recognized in patients with elevated transprosthetic gradients but without leaflet immobility, since the treatment strategy may differ in either etiology. However, thrombus and/or pannus formation should be excluded before a diagnosis of PPM is made. Particularly, pannus formation may not be diagnosed with 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. Electrocardiographically gated 64-section multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) may be a promising tool in diagnosing or excluding pannus formation. Our report underlines the utility of MDCT in this regard and also emphasizes the importance of recognition of PPM as a differential diagnosis in such patients.

  19. alpha-Lactalbumin species variation, HAMLET formation, and tumor cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Jenny; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina

    2006-06-23

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a tumoricidal complex of apo alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, formed in casein after low pH treatment of human milk. This study examined if HAMLET-like complexes are present in casein from different species and if isolated alpha-lactalbumin from those species can form such complexes with oleic acid. Casein from human, bovine, equine, and porcine milk was separated by ion exchange chromatography and active complexes were only found in human casein. This was not explained by alpha-lactalbumin sequence variation, as purified bovine, equine, porcine, and caprine alpha-lactalbumins formed complexes with oleic acid with biological activity similar to HAMLET. We conclude that structural variation of alpha-lactalbumins does not preclude the formation of HAMLET-like complexes and that natural HAMLET formation in casein was unique to human milk, which also showed the highest oleic acid content.

  20. Late thrombosis of a mitral bioprosthetic valve with associated massive left atrial thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetham R Muskula

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An 84-year-old man presented 5 years after bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement with three months of worsening dyspnea on exertion. A new mitral stenosis murmur was noted on physical examination, and an electrocardiogram revealed newly recognized atrial fibrillation. Severe mitral stenosis (mean gradient = 13 mmHg was confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed markedly thickened mitral bioprosthetic leaflets with limited mobility, and a massive left atrial thrombus (>4 cm in diameter (Fig. 1A, B, C, D and Videos 1, 2, 3 and 4. Intravenous heparin was initiated, and 5 days later, he was taken to the operating room for planned redo mitral valve replacement and left atrial thrombus extraction. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography revealed near-complete resolution of the bioprosthetic leaflet thickening, and a mean mitral gradient of only 3 mmHg (Fig. 2A, B, C and Videos 5, 6 and 7. The patient underwent resection of the massive left atrial thrombus (Fig. 2D but did not require redo mitral valve replacement. He was initiated on heparin (and transitioned to warfarin early in the post-operative period, with complete resolution of dyspnea on exertion at 3-month follow-up. Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis is increasingly recognized as a cause of early prosthetic valve dysfunction (1, 2. This case illustrates that bioprosthetic valve thrombosis may occur years after valve replacement; therefore, any deterioration in a patient’s clinical status (new-onset dyspnea, heart failure or atrial fibrillation warrants a thorough evaluation of the bioprosthetic valve with transesophageal echocardiography. In this case, initiation of anticoagulation obviated the need for redo mitral valve replacement.

  1. A floating right heart thrombus in transit across tricuspid valve causing an endocardial friction rub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Kanjirakadavath

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a 42-year-old lady on combined oral contraceptive pills with deep venous thrombosis and mild pulmonary embolism, who developed shock, while being treated with heparin. On auscultation, there was an unexpected loud, superficial, squeaky, triphasic friction rub over the left lower parasternal area. Simultaneous echocardiogram revealed a large serpiginous, freely floating mass in right atrium, prolapsing freely to right ventricular inlet across the tricuspid valve. The endocardial friction rub persisted for about 24 h as long as the thrombus was intracardiac and disappeared when the thrombus disappeared from right heart, occluding the proximal left pulmonary artery. She died due to shock awaiting surgery. We highlight that such a rub in a patient with deep venous thrombosis, though rare, may be an important clue to impending pulmonary embolism.

  2. Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS) in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Erica M. [Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, New Jersey Medical School-Cancer Center, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States); Barnes, Betsy J., E-mail: barnesbe@njms.rutgers.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, New Jersey Medical School-Cancer Center, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States)

    2014-04-23

    Following the successes of monoclonal antibody immunotherapies (trastuzumab (Herceptin{sup ®}) and rituximab (Rituxan{sup ®})) and the first approved cancer vaccine, Provenge{sup ®} (sipuleucel-T), investigations into the immune system and how it can be modified by a tumor has become an exciting and promising new field of cancer research. Dozens of clinical trials for new antibodies, cancer and adjuvant vaccines, and autologous T and dendritic cell transfers are ongoing in hopes of identifying ways to re-awaken the immune system and force an anti-tumor response. To date, however, few consistent, reproducible, or clinically-relevant effects have been shown using vaccine or autologous cell transfers due in part to the fact that the immunosuppressive mechanisms of the tumor have not been overcome. Much of the research focus has been on re-activating or priming cytotoxic T cells to recognize tumor, in some cases completely disregarding the potential roles that B cells play in immune surveillance or how a solid tumor should be treated to maximize immunogenicity. Here, we will summarize what is currently known about the induction or evasion of humoral immunity via tumor-induced cytokine/chemokine expression and how formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) within the tumor microenvironment may be used to enhance immunotherapy response.

  3. Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M. Pimenta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the successes of monoclonal antibody immunotherapies (trastuzumab (Herceptin® and rituximab (Rituxan® and the first approved cancer vaccine, Provenge® (sipuleucel-T, investigations into the immune system and how it can be modified by a tumor has become an exciting and promising new field of cancer research. Dozens of clinical trials for new antibodies, cancer and adjuvant vaccines, and autologous T and dendritic cell transfers are ongoing in hopes of identifying ways to re-awaken the immune system and force an anti-tumor response. To date, however, few consistent, reproducible, or clinically-relevant effects have been shown using vaccine or autologous cell transfers due in part to the fact that the immunosuppressive mechanisms of the tumor have not been overcome. Much of the research focus has been on re-activating or priming cytotoxic T cells to recognize tumor, in some cases completely disregarding the potential roles that B cells play in immune surveillance or how a solid tumor should be treated to maximize immunogenicity. Here, we will summarize what is currently known about the induction or evasion of humoral immunity via tumor-induced cytokine/chemokine expression and how formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS within the tumor microenvironment may be used to enhance immunotherapy response.

  4. Association of the route of blood flow channel through an intraluminal thrombus with the abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture in imaging diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiernicki, I.; Gutowski, P.; Kownacki, L.; Polanowski, L.; Gorecka-Szyld, B.; Cyrylowski, L.

    2004-01-01

    The location of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture probably influences the patient's morbidity and mortality. No reliable predictors for time and site of the rupture have been found to date. An opinion that intraluminal, parietal thrombus (PT) may play a protective role against the rupture predominates in recent reports. The aim of our study was to evaluate a route of blood flow channel (BFC) through intraluminal PT in AAA. In this prospective study, the thrombus morphology was evaluated in 103 patients with AAA, divided into three groups according to the aneurysm size: group 1 - patients with AAA 30 - 39 mm in maximal diameter, group 2: 40 - 49 mm, and group 3: more than 49 mm. All AAAs were examined with Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Anterior, medial, and posterior BFC was defined on the basis of calculated ratio of anterior wall PT thickness to posterior wall PT thickness. Anterior BFC predominates in AAA in group 1 - 39%, while its frequency in group 3 was 21%. Posterior BFC was significantly more frequent in group 3 - 67% than in group 1 - 24%. Both differences were statistically significant (p = 0.03). PT thickness increases in direct proportion to the size of AAA, and with this increase BFC in the thrombus most frequently shifts backward. A lack of PT or its trace may indicate a site of potential rupture of the weakened wall. Patients with AAA and a parietal route of BFC in the thrombus are of higher risk of rupture despite small aneurysm size. In qualification for surgery, the morphology of the thrombus should be considered, in addition to the maximal diameter of AAA. (author)

  5. Synergistic effect of signaling from receptors of soluble platelet agonists and outside-in signaling in formation of a stable fibrinogen-integrin αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Ivan; Shenkman, Boris; Savion, Naphtali

    2015-01-01

    Thrombus formation in the injured vessel wall is a highly complex process involving various blood-born components that go through specific temporal and spatial changes as observed by intravital videomicroscopy. Platelets bind transiently to the developing thrombus and may either become stably incorporated into or disengage from the thrombus. The aim of the present study was to reveal the processes involved in the formation of a stable thrombus. Platelet-rich plasma and washed platelets were studied by the aggregometer. The aggregate stability was challenged by eptifibatide. Platelet Triton-insoluble fraction was prepared and the actin and αIIb content in the cytoskeleton was analyzed by western blot. Maximal actin polymerization is achieved 1min after platelet activation while maximal αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton association requires 5 to 10min of activation and fibrinogen-mediated platelet-to-platelet bridging. Thus, actin polymerization is dependent on platelet activation and requires neither αIIbβ3 integrin occupation nor platelet aggregation. Formation of a stable aggregate requires platelet activation for more than 1min, complete increase in actin cytoskeleton fraction and partial association of αIIbβ3 with the actin cytoskeleton. However, direct αIIbβ3 activation is not sufficient for cytoskeleton complex formation. Thus, stable αIIbβ3-fibrinogen interaction, representing stable aggregate, is achieved after more than 1min agonist activation, involving inside-out and outside-in signaling but not after direct integrin activation, involving only outside-in signaling. Formation of a stable fibrinogen-αIIbβ3-actin cytoskeleton complex is the result of the combined effect of platelet stimulation by soluble agonists, activation of αIIbβ3, fibrinogen binding and platelet-to-platelet bridging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The blood flow channel index as novel predictor of abdominal aortic aneurysm impending rupture based on the intraluminal thrombus angio-CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiernicki, Ireneusz; Szumilowicz, Pawel; Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz; Falkowski, Aleksander; Rutkowski, Donald; Gutowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study the hypothesis that the thickness of the thinnest part of the thrombus, combined with bleeding into the intraluminal thrombus (ILT), is associated with a possible higher risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture was investigated, independently of aneurysm diameter, by using angio-CT. This article describes blood flow channel index based on the CT imaging findings that may help identify impending rupture prior to complete rupture. Methods: Computed tomographic images of 310 hospitalized patients with infrarenal AAA, were collected over a three-year period. They were divided into two main groups: 125 with bleeding into the ILT and control group 185 without the presence of blood in the thrombus. Patients were also analyzed in subgroups with ruptured, symptomatic and asymptomatic AAAs. A blood flow channel index was formulated as: maximal/minimal thickness ratio of thrombus from the same CT scan. Results: In dissected ILT group blood flow channel index was over a twofold higher than in group with intact ILT (19.0 [1.2–89.3] vs. (9.7 [1.3–38.9]; p < 0.001), respectively. Median thickness at the thinnest part of the ILT in dissected thrombus group was lower (1.3 mm [0.3–16.0]) than in group with intact ILT (1.7 mm [0.2–23.4]; p < 0.003). Conclusion: An association between a high blood flow channel index and bleeding into the ILT based on angio-CT study was demonstrated, and can suggest the aneurysm propensity for rupture

  7. The blood flow channel index as novel predictor of abdominal aortic aneurysm impending rupture based on the intraluminal thrombus angio-CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiernicki, Ireneusz, E-mail: irekwie@wp.eu [Department of Vascular Surgery and Angiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin (Poland); Szumilowicz, Pawel; Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz [Department of Vascular Surgery and Angiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin (Poland); Falkowski, Aleksander; Rutkowski, Donald [Department of Interventional Radiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin (Poland); Gutowski, Piotr [Department of Vascular Surgery and Angiology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    Objective: In this study the hypothesis that the thickness of the thinnest part of the thrombus, combined with bleeding into the intraluminal thrombus (ILT), is associated with a possible higher risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture was investigated, independently of aneurysm diameter, by using angio-CT. This article describes blood flow channel index based on the CT imaging findings that may help identify impending rupture prior to complete rupture. Methods: Computed tomographic images of 310 hospitalized patients with infrarenal AAA, were collected over a three-year period. They were divided into two main groups: 125 with bleeding into the ILT and control group 185 without the presence of blood in the thrombus. Patients were also analyzed in subgroups with ruptured, symptomatic and asymptomatic AAAs. A blood flow channel index was formulated as: maximal/minimal thickness ratio of thrombus from the same CT scan. Results: In dissected ILT group blood flow channel index was over a twofold higher than in group with intact ILT (19.0 [1.2–89.3] vs. (9.7 [1.3–38.9]; p < 0.001), respectively. Median thickness at the thinnest part of the ILT in dissected thrombus group was lower (1.3 mm [0.3–16.0]) than in group with intact ILT (1.7 mm [0.2–23.4]; p < 0.003). Conclusion: An association between a high blood flow channel index and bleeding into the ILT based on angio-CT study was demonstrated, and can suggest the aneurysm propensity for rupture.

  8. Survivin Modulates Squamous Cell Carcinoma-Derived Stem-Like Cell Proliferation, Viability and Tumor Formation in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous Cell Carcinoma-derived Stem-like Cells (SCC-SC originate from alterations in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC gene expression and sustain tumor development, invasion and recurrence. Since survivin, a KSC marker, is highly expressed in SCC-SC, we evaluate its role in SCC-SC cell growth and SCC models. Survivin silencing by siRNA decreases clonal growth of SCC keratinocytes and viability of total, rapidly adhering (RAD and non-RAD (NRAD cells from primary SCC. Similarly, survivin silencing reduces the expression of stem cell markers (OCT4, NOTCH1, CD133, β1-integrin, while it increases the level of differentiation markers (K10, involucrin. Moreover, survivin silencing improves the malignant phenotype of SCC 3D-reconstruct, as demonstrated by reduced epidermal thickness, lower Ki-67 positive cell number, and decreased expression of MMP9 and psoriasin. Furthermore, survivin depletion by siRNA in RasG12V-IκBα-derived tumors leads to smaller tumor formation characterized by lower mitotic index and reduced expression of the tumor-associated marker HIF1α, VEGF and CD51. Therefore, our results indicate survivin as a key gene in regulating SCC cancer stem cell formation and cSCC development.

  9. Thrombus imaging in a primate model with antibodies specific for an external membrane protein of activated platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palabrica, T.M.; Furie, B.C.; Konstam, M.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Connolly, R.; Brockway, B.A.; Ramberg, K.L.; Furie, B.

    1989-01-01

    The activated platelet is a potential target for the localization of thrombi in vivo since, after stimulation and secretion of granule contents, activated platelets are concentrated at sites of blood clot formation. In this study, we used antibodies specific for a membrane protein of activated platelets to detect experimental thrombi in an animal model. PADGEM (platelet activation-dependent granule-external membrane protein), a platelet alpha-granule membrane protein, is translocated to the plasma membrane during platelet activation and granule secretion. Since PADGEM is internal in unstimulated platelets, polyclonal anti-PADGEM and monoclonal KC4 antibodies do not bind to circulating resting platelets but do interact with activated platelets. Dacron graft material incubated with radiolabeled KC4 or anti-PADGEM antibodies in the presence of thrombin-activated platelet-rich plasma bound most of the antibody. Imaging experiments with 123I-labeled anti-PADGEM in baboons with an external arterial-venous Dacron shunt revealed rapid uptake in the thrombus induced by the Dacron graft; control experiments with 123I-labeled nonimmune IgG exhibited minimal uptake. Deep venous thrombi, formed by using percutaneous balloon catheters to stop blood flow in the femoral vein of baboons, were visualized with 123I-labeled anti-PADGEM. Thrombi were discernible against blood pool background activity without subtraction techniques within 1 hr. No target enhancement was seen with 123I-labeled nonimmune IgG. 123I-labeled anti-PADGEM cleared the blood pool with an initial half-disappearance time of 6 min and did not interfere with hemostasis. These results indicate that radioimmunoscintigraphy with anti-PADGEM antibodies can visualize thrombi in baboon models and is a promising technique for clinical thrombus detection in humans

  10. Elderly female with acute abdominal pain presenting with Superior Mesenteric Artery Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassan Ghassemzadeh, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: An 80-year-old female with history of hypertension and atrial fibrillation, presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain after eating at a restaurant. The patient denied any fever, vomiting or diarrhea. She admitted to being noncompliant with medications including warfarin. Initial vital signs were within normal limits. On exam, the patient was very uncomfortable and could not lay still in bed, even after multiple doses of intravenous narcotic pain medications. The patient had generalized abdominal tenderness without rebound or guarding. Labs revealed a white-blood-cell count of 13.8, lactic acid of 3.6, and international normalized ratio (INR of 1.1, with normal renal function. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT angiogram of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a superior mesenteric artery (SMA thrombosis 5 cm from the origin off of the abdominal aorta. As seen in the sagittal view, there does not appear to be any contrast 5 cm past the origin of the SMA. On the axial views, you can trace the SMA until the point that there is no longer any contrast visible which indicates the start of the thrombus. The SMA does not appear to be reconstituted. There was normal flow to the celiac artery. (See annotated images. Discussion: This case involves a classic presentation of acute mesenteric ischemia, which is defined as the sudden onset of abdominal pain due to small intestinal hypo-perfusion secondary to reduction or complete occlusion of arterial blood flow to the intestines. The most common artery affected is the SMA. The main two reasons for this phenomenon are either due to an arterial embolus or from arterial thrombus from underlying atherosclerosis. The ratio of superior mesenteric embolus to thrombus has been shown to be 1.4:1.1 Embolism to the mesenteric arteries is most frequently from a thrombus that breaks off from the left atrium, left ventricle, or proximal aorta, as in this case from underlying atrial

  11. Blood flow and coherent vortices in the normal and aneurysmatic aortas: a fluid dynamical approach to intra-luminal thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Hussain, Fazle; Gasser, T Christian

    2011-10-07

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the development of an intra-luminal thrombus (ILT), which is known to have multiple biochemical and biomechanical implications. Development of the ILT is not well understood, and shear-stress-triggered activation of platelets could be the first step in its evolution. Vortical structures (VSs) in the flow affect platelet dynamics, which motivated the present study of a possible correlation between VS and ILT formation in AAAs. VSs educed by the λ(2)-method using computational fluid dynamics simulations of the backward-facing step problem, normal aorta, fusiform AAA and saccular AAA were investigated. Patient-specific luminal geometries were reconstructed from computed tomography scans, and Newtonian and Carreau-Yasuda models were used to capture salient rheological features of blood flow. Particularly in complex flow domains, results depended on the constitutive model. VSs developed all along the normal aorta, showing that a clear correlation between VSs and high wall shear stress (WSS) existed, and that VSs started to break up during late systole. In contrast, in the fusiform AAA, large VSs developed at sites of tortuous geometry and high WSS, occupying the entire lumen, and lasting over the entire cardiac cycle. Downward motion of VSs in the AAA was in the range of a few centimetres per cardiac cycle, and with a VS burst at that location, the release (from VSs) of shear-stress-activated platelets and their deposition to the wall was within the lower part of the diseased artery, i.e. where the thickest ILT layer is typically observed. In the saccular AAA, only one VS was found near the healthy portion of the aorta, while in the aneurysmatic bulge, no VSs occurred. We present a fluid-dynamics-motivated mechanism for platelet activation, convection and deposition in AAAs that has the potential of improving our current understanding of the pathophysiology of fluid-driven ILT growth.

  12. USP10 Antagonizes c-Myc Transcriptional Activation through SIRT6 Stabilization to Suppress Tumor Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghong Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduced protein expression of SIRT6 tumor suppressor is involved in tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying SIRT6 protein downregulation in human cancers remain unknown. Using a proteomic approach, we have identified the ubiquitin-specific peptidase USP10, another tumor suppressor, as one of the SIRT6-interacting proteins. USP10 suppresses SIRT6 ubiquitination to protect SIRT6 from proteasomal degradation. USP10 antagonizes the transcriptional activity of the c-Myc oncogene through SIRT6, as well as p53, to inhibit cell-cycle progression, cancer cell growth, and tumor formation. To support this conclusion, we detected significant reductions in both USP10 and SIRT6 protein expression in human colon cancers. Our study discovered crosstalk between two tumor-suppressive genes in regulating cell-cycle progression and proliferation and showed that dysregulated USP10 function promotes tumorigenesis through SIRT6 degradation.

  13. The influence of neck thrombus on clinical outcome and aneurysm morphology after endovascular aneurysm repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M.V. Bastos Gonçalves (Frederico); H.J.M. Verhagen (Hence); K. Chinsakchai (Khamin); J.W. van Keulen (Jasper); M.T. Voûte (Michiel); H.J.A. Zandvoort (Herman); F.L. Moll (Frans); J.A. van Herwaarden (Joost)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: This study investigated the influence of significant aneurysm neck thrombus in clinical and morphologic outcomes after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Methods: The patient population was derived from a prospective EVAR database from two university institutions in The

  14. [Ultrasound dynamics lysis apex thrombus as an objective criterion of effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy in venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, R E; Suchkov, I A; Pshennikov, A S; Agapov, A B

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy (ACT) for the treatment of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. The study considered ultrasonic characteristics of lysis of the proximal part of thrombus: localization and nature of venous thrombosis, the length and diameter of the proximal floating part of the thrombus, and duration of the venous thrombosis. Depending on the ACT options patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (18 patients) received rivaroxaban, group 2 (19 patients) received enoxaparin sodium with subsequent transition to warfarin, and 3 group (19 patietns) received enoxaparin sodium, followed by administration of rivaroxaban. Treatment with rivaroxaban was preferable over standard ACT with enoxaparin/warfarin with regards to the lysis of thrombus when duration of thrombosis did not exceed 10 days. In 10.5% of patients who received warfarin flotation of thrombi remained for 14 days; the length of the floating part of the thrombi did not exceed 3 cm. Such circumstances and inability to reach a therapeutic INR value required cava filter placement. Treatment with enoxaparin sodium followed by the administration of rivaroxaban was found to be the most efficient ACT regimen as there was no negative dynamics of ultrasound characteristics of lysis of thrombi at any duration of the disease.

  15. Loss of Serglycin Promotes Primary Tumor Growth and Vessel Functionality in the RIP1-Tag2 Mouse Model for Spontaneous Insulinoma Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hamilton

    Full Text Available The serglycin proteoglycan is mainly expressed by hematopoietic cells where the major function is to retain the content of storage granules and vesicles. In recent years, expression of serglycin has also been found in different forms of human malignancies and a high serglycin expression level has been correlated with a more migratory and invasive phenotype in the case of breast cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Serglycin has also been implicated in the development of the tumor vasculature in multiple myeloma and hepatocellular carcinoma where reduced expression of serglycin was correlated with a less extensive vasculature. To further investigate the contribution of serglycin to tumor development, we have used the immunocompetent RIP1-Tag2 mouse model of spontaneous insulinoma formation crossed into serglycin deficient mice. For the first time we show that serglycin-deficiency affects orthotopic primary tumor growth and tumor vascular functionality of late stage carcinomas. RIP1-Tag2 mice that lack serglycin develop larger tumors with a higher proliferative activity but unaltered apoptosis compared to normal RIP1-Tag2 mice. The absence of serglycin also enhances the tumor vessel functionality, which is better perfused than in tumors from serglycin wild type mice. The presence of the pro-angiogenic modulators vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were decreased in the serglycin deficient mice which suggests a less pro-angiogenic environment in the tumors of these animals. Taken together, we conclude that serglycin affects multiple aspects of spontaneous tumor formation, which strengthens the theory that serglycin acts as an important mediator in the formation and progression of tumors.

  16. Interaction of Munc18c and syntaxin4 facilitates invadopodium formation and extracellular matrix invasion of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, Megan I; Martynowicz, David M; Grafinger, Olivia R; Hucik, Andrea; Shanks-Skinner, Emma; Uniacke, James; Coppolino, Marc G

    2017-09-29

    Tumor cell invasion involves targeted localization of proteins required for interactions with the extracellular matrix and for proteolysis. The localization of many proteins during these cell-extracellular matrix interactions relies on membrane trafficking mediated in part by SNAREs. The SNARE protein syntaxin4 (Stx4) is involved in the formation of invasive structures called invadopodia; however, it is unclear how Stx4 function is regulated during tumor cell invasion. Munc18c is known to regulate Stx4 activity, and here we show that Munc18c is required for Stx4-mediated invadopodium formation and cell invasion. Biochemical and microscopic analyses revealed a physical association between Munc18c and Stx4, which was enhanced during invadopodium formation, and that a reduction in Munc18c expression decreases invadopodium formation. We also found that an N-terminal Stx4-derived peptide associates with Munc18c and inhibits endogenous interactions of Stx4 with synaptosome-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2). Furthermore, expression of the Stx4 N-terminal peptide decreased invadopodium formation and cell invasion in vitro Of note, cells expressing the Stx4 N-terminal peptide exhibited impaired trafficking of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and EGF receptor (EGFR) to the cell surface during invadopodium formation. Our findings implicate Munc18c as a regulator of Stx4-mediated trafficking of MT1-MMP and EGFR, advancing our understanding of the role of SNARE function in the localization of proteins that drive tumor cell invasion. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Lentivirus mediated RNA interference of EMMPRIN (CD147) gene inhibits the proliferation, matrigel invasion and tumor formation of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Rong; Li, Hongjiang; Lv, Qing; Meng, Wentong; Yang, Xiaoqin

    2016-07-08

    Overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) or cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147), a glycoprotein enriched on the plasma membrane of tumor cells, promotes proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and survival of malignant tumor cells. In this study, we sought to examine the expression of EMMPRIN in breast tumors, and to identify the potential roles of EMMPRIN on breast cancer cells. EMMPRIN expression in breast cancer tissues was assessed by immunohistochemistry. We used a lentivirus vector-based RNA interference (RNAi) approach expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knockdown EMMPRIN gene in breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. In vitro, Cell proliferative, invasive potential were determined by Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8), cell cycle analysis and matrigel invasion assay, respectively. In vivo, tumorigenicity was monitored by inoculating tumor cells into breast fat pad of female nude mice. EMMPRIN was over-expressed in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. Down-regulation of EMMPRIN by lentivirus vector-based RNAi led to decreased cell proliferative, decreased matrigel invasion in vitro, and attenuated tumor formation in vivo. High expression of EMMPRIN plays a crucial role in breast cancer cell proliferation, matrigel invasion and tumor formation.

  18. The model of pulmonary embolism caused by autologous thrombus in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jiao Ding; Yang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To establish a model of pulmonary embolism in rabbits by using autologous thrombosis of rabbit ear vein, to study the method of establishing acute pulmonary embolism by using autologous thrombus and to explore the diagnostic value of oxygen partial pressure in acute pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into normal group (n=5), 7 h group, 24h group, 1 week after model establishment Group. The arterial blood gas analysis was performed on th...

  19. An integrated fluid-chemical model towards modeling the formation of intra-luminal thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo eBiasetti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs are frequently characterized by the presenceof an Intra-Luminal Thrombus (ILT known to influence biochemically and biomechanicallytheir evolution. ILT progression mechanism is still unclear and little is known regardingthe impact on this mechanism of the chemical species transported by blood flow.Chemical agonists and antagonists of platelets activation, aggregation, and adhesion andthe proteins involved in the coagulation cascade (CC may play an important role in ILTdevelopment. Starting from this assumption, the evolution of chemical species involvedin the CC, their relation to coherent vortical structures (VSs and their possible effect onILT evolution have been studied. To this end a fluido-chemical model that simulates theCC through a series of convection-diffusion-reaction (CDR equations has been developed.The model involves plasma-phase and surface bound enzymes and zymogens, and includesboth plasma-phase and membrane-phase reactions. Blood is modeled as a non-Newtonianincompressible fluid. VSs convect thrombin in the domain and lead to the high concentration observed in the distal portion of the AAA. This finding is in line with the clinicalobservations showing that the thickest ILT is usually seen in the distal AAA region. Theproposed model, due to its ability to couple the fluid and chemical domains, provides anintegrated mechanochemical picture that potentially could help unveil mechanisms of ILTformation and development.

  20. Rare case of left adrenal cortical carcinoma with level 3 inferior vena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observation: A 21-year-old male, incidentally detected with left supra renal tumor invading the left renal vein and the thrombus extending into the supra diaphragmatic IVC, underwent laparotomy with simultaneous median sternotomy on total cardiac bypass for removal of IVC tumor thrombus and radical excision of the ...

  1. Is Thrombus With Subcutaneous Edema Detected by Ultrasonography Related to Short Peripheral Catheter Failure? A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Murayama, Ryoko; Oe, Makoto; Nakagami, Gojiro; Tanabe, Hidenori; Yabunaka, Koichi; Arai, Rika; Komiyama, Chieko; Uchida, Miho; Sanada, Hiromi

    Short peripheral catheter (SPC) failure is an important clinical problem. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between SPC failure and etiologies such as thrombus, subcutaneous edema, and catheter dislodgment using ultrasonography and to explore the risk factors associated with the etiologies. Two hundred catheters that were in use for infusion, excluding chemotherapy, were observed. Risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. Sixty catheters were removed as the result of SPC failure. Frequency of thrombus with subcutaneous edema in SPC failure cases was significantly greater than in those cases where therapy was completed without complications (P edema. Results suggest that subsurface skin assessment for catheterization could prevent SPC failure.

  2. In vivo distribution of Tc-99m labeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in control and thrombus-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Eriko

    1992-01-01

    In vivo distribution of Tc-99m labeled recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (Tc-99m-rt-PA) was studied in control rats and thrombus-bearing rats. To compare fibrin binding in vivo with that in vitro, Tc-99m-rt-PA binding to fibrin gel in vitro was also imaged. Rapid blood clearance and accumulation into the liver and kidneys were observed in both control and thrombus-bearing rats. Accumulation in the stomach, which indicates instability of labeled rt-PA in vivo, was very low until two hours after injection. Tc-99m-rt-PA accumulation in the clots was higher than that in skeletal and heart muscles, although it was lower than in blood, liver, and kidneys. Administration of aprotinin, an antifibrinolytic agent, significantly prolonged clot accumulation of Tc-99m-rt-PA at 30 minutes after injection. These results suggest that fibrinolysis is responsible for the low rt-PA concentration in the clots. A scintigram of a thrombus-bearing rat demonstrated increased radioactivity at the clot forming site. On the other hand, Tc-99m-labeled human albumin, which was used as a control, was not accumulated in the clot. Tc-99m-rt-PA binding to fibrin gel in vitro was clearly imaged. By comparison, in vivo fibrin binding of Tc-99m-rt-PA was much lower than in vitro. The reasons for low thrombus uptake in vivo may be: (1) biochemical inactivation of extrinsically administered rt-PA by t-PA inhibitor; (2) fibrinolysis by rt-PA activated plasminogen. Overcoming these limitations will enable Tc-99m-rt-PA to reach the stage of clinical trials. (author)

  3. TROMBO GIGANTE DE AURÍCULA DERECHA COMO CAUSA DE ANGINA Y SÍNCOPE / Giant thrombus in right atrium as a cause of angina and syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Aparicio Suárez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas tumoraciones intracardíacas son poco frecuentes, y pueden ser de tipo neoplásicas y no neoplásicas. De estas últimas, los trombos, constituyen las masas más frecuentes. Se presenta un paciente joven, operado en el Cardiocentro "Ernesto Che Guevara" de Villa Clara, Cuba, con antecedentes de trastornos hematológicos desde la infancia, que comienza con episodios de disnea progresiva, angina y síncope; con diagnóstico preoperatorio de tumoración gigante en aurícula derecha que resultó ser un trombo intracardíaco, y se demostró la presencia de un agujero oval permeable. / AbstractIntracardiac tumors are rare, and may be of neoplastic and non-neoplastic types. In the latter, the thrombi are the most frequent masses. This is the case of a young patient operated at the Cardiocentro "Ernesto Che Guevara" of Villa Clara, Cuba, with a history of blood disorders since childhood, starting with episodes of progressive dyspnea, angina and syncope, with pre-operative diagnosis of giant tumor in right atrium which turned out to be an intracardiac thrombus, and the presence of a patent foramen ovale was shown.

  4. X-Ray longitudinal and computed tomography in the diagnosis of peripheral tumor-like formations of the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.A.; Kartashov, V.M.; Piven', A.I.; Krasnoborova, S.Yu.; Blinova, L.V.; Savel'ev, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Fifty eight patients with peripheral tumor-like formations of the lung (33 with cancer and 25 with benign formations) were examined by longitudinal tomography and CT. The potentialities f the two techniques in detecting the major semiotic signs of cancer and malignant formations were compared. The main or major signs, such as the shape of shadow and the pattern of outlines, which make it possible to differentiate bening and malignant formations, are virtually equally imaged by the two techniques. CT is superior to X-ray longitudinal tomography in revealing minor calcifications and microdestructions, hyperplastic intrathoracic lymph nodes. The significance of some symptoms for differential diagnosis calls for further clarification

  5. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging of the evolution of acute deep vein thrombosis of the leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerbeek, R E; Van Rooden, C J; Tan, M; Van Gils, A P G; Kok, S; De Bats, M J; De Roos, A; Huisman, M V

    2008-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is relevant to avoid improper diagnosis and unnecessary life-long anticoagulant treatment. Compression ultrasound has high accuracy for a first episode of DVT, but is often unreliable in suspected recurrent disease. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging (MR DTI) has been shown to accurately detect acute DVT. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the MR signal change during 6 months follow-up in patients with acute DVT. This study was a prospective study of 43 consecutive patients with a first episode of acute DVT demonstrated by compression ultrasound. All patients underwent MR DTI. Follow-up was performed with MR-DTI and compression ultrasound at 3 and 6 months respectively. All data were coded, stored and assessed by two blinded observers. MR direct thrombus imaging identified acute DVT in 41 of 43 patients (sensitivity 95%). There was no abnormal MR-signal in controls, or in the contralateral extremity of patients with DVT (specificity 100%). In none of the 39 patients available at 6 months follow-up was the abnormal MR-signal at the initial acute DVT observed, whereas in 12 of these patients (30.8%) compression ultrasound was still abnormal. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging normalizes over a period of 6 months in all patients with diagnosed DVT, while compression ultrasound remains abnormal in a third of these patients. MR-DTI may potentially allow for accurate detection in patients with acute suspected recurrent DVT, and this should be studied prospectively.

  6. Ischemic Left Ventricular Perforation Covered by a Thrombus in a Patient Presenting with Cerebral Ischemia: Importance of Time-Sensitive Performance and Adequate Interpretation of Bedside Transthoracic Echography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Fischer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available If myocardial infarction remains silent, only clinical signs of complications may unveil its presence. Life-threatening complications include myocardial rupture, thrombus formation, or arterial embolization. In the presented case, a 76-year-old patient was admitted with left-sided hemiparesis. In duplex sonography, a critical stenosis of the right internal carotid artery was identified and initially but retrospectively incorrectly judged as the potential cause for ischemia. During operative thromboendarterectomy, arterial embolism of the right leg occurred coincidentally, more likely pointing towards a cardioembolic origin. Percutaneous interventions remained unsuccessful and local fibrinolysis was applied. Delayed bedside echocardiography by an experienced cardiologist demonstrated a discontinuity of the normal myocardial texture of the left ventricular apex together with an echodense, partly floating structure merely attached by a thin bridge not completely sealing the myocardial defect, accompanied by pericardial effusion. The patient was immediately transferred to emergency cardiac surgery with extirpation of the thrombus, aortocoronary bypass graft placement, and aneurysmectomy. This didactic case reveals decisive structural shortcomings in patient’s admission and triage processes and underlines, if performed timely and correctly, the value of transthoracic echocardiography as a noninvasive and cost-effective tool allowing immediate decision-making, which, in this case, led to the correct but almost fatally delayed diagnosis.

  7. Ischemic Left Ventricular Perforation Covered by a Thrombus in a Patient Presenting with Cerebral Ischemia: Importance of Time-Sensitive Performance and Adequate Interpretation of Bedside Transthoracic Echography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A J; Lebiedz, P; Wiaderek, M; Lichtenberg, M; Böse, D; Martens, S; Breuckmann, F

    2016-01-01

    If myocardial infarction remains silent, only clinical signs of complications may unveil its presence. Life-threatening complications include myocardial rupture, thrombus formation, or arterial embolization. In the presented case, a 76-year-old patient was admitted with left-sided hemiparesis. In duplex sonography, a critical stenosis of the right internal carotid artery was identified and initially but retrospectively incorrectly judged as the potential cause for ischemia. During operative thromboendarterectomy, arterial embolism of the right leg occurred coincidentally, more likely pointing towards a cardioembolic origin. Percutaneous interventions remained unsuccessful and local fibrinolysis was applied. Delayed bedside echocardiography by an experienced cardiologist demonstrated a discontinuity of the normal myocardial texture of the left ventricular apex together with an echodense, partly floating structure merely attached by a thin bridge not completely sealing the myocardial defect, accompanied by pericardial effusion. The patient was immediately transferred to emergency cardiac surgery with extirpation of the thrombus, aortocoronary bypass graft placement, and aneurysmectomy. This didactic case reveals decisive structural shortcomings in patient's admission and triage processes and underlines, if performed timely and correctly, the value of transthoracic echocardiography as a noninvasive and cost-effective tool allowing immediate decision-making, which, in this case, led to the correct but almost fatally delayed diagnosis.

  8. Temporary dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Oboshi

    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT.We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group. Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation.The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet.These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT.

  9. Temporary dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboshi, Makiko; Naito, Yoshiro; Sawada, Hisashi; Hirotani, Shinichi; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Morisawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Fujii, Kenichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT. We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group) or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group). Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation. The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet. These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT.

  10. Infection of a ventricular aneurysm and cardiac mural thrombus. Survival after surgical resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezio, F.R.; Thompson, J.E.; Sullivan, H.; Subramanian, R.; Ritzman, P.; Gunnar, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Infections of cardiac mural thrombi are rare, and because antemortem diagnosis is difficult and antibiotic therapy alone ineffective, the associated mortality has been significant. A patient with gram-negative bacillary infection of a mural thrombus is described. Gallium 67 citrate isotope scanning and two-dimensional echocardiography were helpful adjuncts in establishing the diagnosis. Surgical resection of the infected myocardial tissue and prolonged antimicrobial therapy were necessary for cure

  11. Renal Angiomyolipoma with Fatty Thrombus Extending to the Right Atrium: An Exceptional Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Nouira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the case of 34-year-old woman who presented with bilateral renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs. On the right side, there was a large AML with a fatty thrombus extending to the right atrium. The treatment consisted of right nephrectomy and complete thrombectomy with extracorporeal circulation and right atriotomy. Postoperatively, the patient was septic and died on postoperative day 7 because of septic shock.

  12. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants versus warfarin for the prevention of spontaneous echo-contrast and thrombus in patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter undergoing cardioversion: A trans-esophageal echocardiography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Gi; Choi, Jong-Il; Kim, Mi-Na; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Oh, Suk-Kyu; Kook, Hyungdon; Park, Hee-Soon; Lee, Kwang No; Baek, Yong-Soo; Roh, Seung-Young; Shim, Jaemin; Park, Seong-Mi; Shim, Wan Joo; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous echo-contrast (SEC) and thrombus observed in trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) is known as a strong surrogate marker for future risk of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL). The efficacy of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) compared to warfarin to prevent SEC or thrombus in patients with AF or AFL is currently unknown. AF or AFL patients who underwent direct current cardioversion (DCCV) and pre-DCCV TEE evaluation from January 2014 to October 2016 in a single center were analyzed. The prevalence of SEC and thrombus were compared between patients who received NOAC and those who took warfarin. NOAC included direct thrombin inhibitor and factor Xa inhibitors. Among 1,050 patients who were considered for DCCV, 424 patients anticoagulated with warfarin or NOAC underwent TEE prior to DCCV. Eighty patients who were anticoagulated for less than 21 days were excluded. Finally, 344 patients were included for the analysis (180 warfarin users vs. 164 NOAC users). No significant difference in the prevalence of SEC (44.4% vs. 43.9%; p = 0.919), dense SEC (13.9% vs. 15.2%; p = 0.722), or thrombus (2.2% vs. 4.3%; p = 0.281) was observed between the warfarin group and the NOAC group. In multivariate analysis, there was no association between NOAC and risk of SEC (odds ratio [OR]: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.796-2.297, p = 0.265) or thrombus (OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 0.726-16.039, p = 0.120). In conclusion, effectiveness of NOAC is comparable to warfarin in preventing SEC and thrombus in patients with AF or AFL undergoing DCCV. However, numerical increase in the prevalence of thrombus in NOAC group warrants further evaluation.

  13. Occlusive Hepatic Artery Thrombus in a Deceased-Donor Liver Procured From a Donor With Blunt Abdominal Trauma Following a Road Traffic Collision Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Niaz; Tahir, Wasif; Haque, Ali; Dar, Faisal; Vilca-Melendez, Hector; Srinavasan, Parthi; Heaton, Nigel

    2018-04-09

    Here, we describe a case of occlusive hepatic artery thrombus in a liver procured from an 18-year-old deceased donor after circulatory death. The donor had died of multiple trauma following a road traffic collision. Occlusive thrombus was found at the hepatic artery bifurcation during back-table preparation. Consequently, the liver transplant did not proceed. We suggest careful assessment of hepatic arteries of all donor livers before transplant, particularly those from donors who are involved in deceleration injuries. Transplanting such livers may lead to primary nonfunction.

  14. Nattokinase improves blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang Sei; Park, Sung Kyeong; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2013-12-01

    The effects of nattokinase on the in vitro platelet aggregation and in vivo thrombosis were investigated in comparison with aspirin. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with nattokinase and aggregation inducers collagen and thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Nattokinase significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations. Nattokinase also reduced thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were orally administered with nattokinase for 1 week, and their carotid arteries were exposed. Arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Nattokinase delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 160 mg/kg. In addition, a high dose (500 mg/kg) of nattokinase fully prevented the occlusion, as achieved with aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that nattokinase extracted from fermented soybean inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is suggested that nattokinase could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow.

  15. Thrombus Development on a Transseptal Sheath in the Right Atrium Before Electrical Pulmonary Vein Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Romero-Rodriguez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient who developed a thrombus on the transseptal sheath in the right atrium before transseptal puncture for circumferential pulmonary vein isolation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation treatment. The use of intracardiac echocardiography allowed to its identification and probably prevented the patient from suffering a serious thromboembolic complication.

  16. Role of stem cells in tumor initiation, metastasis formation and their use in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaner, C.; Altanerova, V.

    2010-01-01

    This review considers recent advances in the stem cell field focusing on the challenges and opportunities for their use in clinical practice. Various kinds of stem cells and their roles in the human organism are in the review described. Attention is given to the role of mesenchymal stem cells as a potential tool in regenerative medicine. The origin and consequences of existence of tumor-initiating cells known as cancer stem cells is discussed also in context of metastasis formation. It seems that tumor-initiating cells might be responsible for resistance to many conventional cancer therapies, which might explain the limitations of these therapeutic modalities. Furthermore, the review focuses to tumor homing property of adult mesenchymal (stromal) stem cells. The feasibility of mesenchymal stem cells isolation from human adipose tissue, their genetic modifications with suicide genes together with ability to find tumor in the organism make them an attractive vehicle for cancer therapy without systemic toxicity. Published achievements from our laboratory in stem cell-based gene cancer therapy are shortly summarized. Generally, it is believed that the stem cell therapies might be ideal future treatment modality for inherited, degenerative diseases and in curing human malignancies as well. (author)

  17. Nattokinase improves blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang Sei; Park, Sung Kyeong; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nattokinase on the in vitro platelet aggregation and in vivo thrombosis were investigated in comparison with aspirin. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with nattokinase and aggregation inducers collagen and thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Nattokinase significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations. Nattokinase also reduced thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets in a concentration-depende...

  18. Differential diagnosis and staging of urological tumors by magnetic resonance imaging compared with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Yusaku; Takeuchi, Hideo; Miyakawa, Mieko; Okada, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Osamu; Nishimura, Kazumasa

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 49 urological tumors (11 renal cell carcinomas, 3 renal pelvic cancers, 2 renal angiomyolipomas, 1 renal leiomyosarcoma, 1 large renal cvst, 4 adrenal tumors, 11 bladder cancers, 2 bone metastasis from bladder cancer, 10 prostatic cancers, 1 prostatic sarcoma, 1 urethral cancer, 1 penile cancer and 1 perivesical granuloma) since October 1985 to September 1986. MRI was performed using a Signa (G.E.) with a 1.5 T superconductive magnet and 3 images, including T1 weighted image, T2 weighted image, and proton density image, were obtained. In conclusion MRI is a noninvasive examination and gives more information than computed tomography despite its high cost. In renal cell carcinoma, the chemical shift in MRI and clear visualization of tumor thrombus enable accurate staging. Differential diagnosis from other renal mass lesions may be possible by the T2 weighted image. In adrenal disease, most of the adrenal masses can be differentiated, but in some cases it is impossible. In bladder cancer, wall invasion of tumor may be evaluated in T2 weighted image, and MRI is suitable for staging of locally advanced tumor. In prostatic cancer, visualization of periprostatic plexus and differentiation between internal and external gland may enable local staging and identification of low stage tumors. (author)

  19. Declotting a Thrombosed Brescia-Cimino Fistula by Manual Catheter-Directed Aspiration of the Thrombus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turmel-Rodrigues, Luc A

    2005-01-01

    Acute thrombosis of native fistulae for hemodialysis occurs more rarely than for prosthetic grafts. The vascular access should be reopened as soon as possible in order to resume regular dialysis and to avoid resorting to a temporary central line. Manual aspiration is one of the numerous methods described in this setting. Clinical examination is essential to rule out local infection, which is the only serious contraindication to percutaneous maneuvers. Two introducer-sheaths are placed in a criss-cross fashion in order to gain access to the venous outflow and to the anastomosis. Access to the venous outflow is performed first in order to check the proximal extent of the thrombosis. Heparin and antibiotics are injected systemically. A similar maneuver is then performed in the direction of the anastomosis. The aspiration phase is then initiated. A 7-9 Fr aspiration catheter is pushed through the 'venous' introducer. Manual aspiration is created through a 50 ml syringe while the catheter is progressively removed with back and forth movements. The catheter and the contents of the syringe are flushed through a gauze on the working table to evaluate the amount of thrombus which has been removed and the maneuver is repeated as often as necessary to remove all the thrombus. Once all the clots located downstream from the venous introducer have been removed, any unmasked underlying stenosis is NOT dilated at this stage since it provides protection against major embolism coming from the inflow. The aspiration catheter is then pushed through the 'arterial' introducer down to the anastomosis in order to aspirate the thrombus located between the tip of the introducer and the anastomosis. Dilatation of unmasked stenoses is finally performed using high-pressure balloons. The holes made by the two introducers are closed using a U-shaped suture with interposition of a short piece of plastic and the patient is sent back to the nephrologists for dialysis

  20. Fibrin-Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Allows In Vivo Quantification of Thrombus Fibrin Content and Identifies Thrombi Amenable for Thrombolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Julia; Modarai, Bijan; Wiethoff, Andrea J.; Phinikaridou, Alkystis; Grover, Steven P.; Patel, Ashish S.; Schaeffter, Tobias; Smith, Alberto; Botnar, Rene M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Deep venous thrombosis is a major health problem. Thrombolytic therapies are effective in recanalizing the veins and preventing post-thrombotic complications, but there is no consensus on selection criteria. The aim of this study was to investigate a fibrin-specific MRI contrast agent (EP-2104R) for the accurate quantification of thrombus’ fibrin content in vivo and for the identification of thrombus suitable for thrombolysis. Approach and Results Venous thrombosis was induced in the inferior vena cava of 8- to 10-week-old male BALB/C mice and MRI performed 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days later. Eighteen mice were scanned at each time point pre and 2 hours post injection of EP-2104R (8.0 μmol/kg) with 12 mice at each time point used to correlate fibrin contrast uptake with thrombus’ histological stage and fibrin content. Six mice at each time point were immediately subjected to intravascular thrombolytic therapy (10 mg/kg of tissue-type plasminogen activator). Mice were imaged to assess response to lytic therapy 24 hours after thrombolytic treatment. Two mice at each time point were scanned post injection of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA (gadolinium with diethylenetriaminepentacetate, Magnevist, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) for control purpose. Contrast uptake was correlated positively with the fibrin content of the thrombus measured by Western blotting (R2=0.889; PThrombus relaxation rate (R1) post contrast and the change in visualized thrombus size on late gadolinium enhancement inversion recovery MRI pre–EP-2104R and post–EP-2104R injection were the best predictors for successful thrombolysis (area under the curve, 0.989 [95% confidence interval, 0.97–1.00] and 0.994 [95% confidence interval, 0.98–1.00] respectively). Conclusions MRI with a fibrin-specific contrast agent accurately estimates thrombus fibrin content in vivo and identifies thrombi that are amenable for thrombolysis. PMID:24723557

  1. Percutaneous transfemoral placement of inferior vena cava filter to prevent pulmonary embolism in patients with malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Baoshan; Li Yong; Luo Pengfei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of inserting an inferior vena cava filter to prevent the pulmonary embolism (PE) due to detachment of the thrombus in the lower extremities. Methods: Inferior vena cava filter were placed in 37 patients with malignant tumor and deep venous thrombosis from 1998 to 2004. Malignancy was confirmed by pathological or cellular biological examination in all cases. The episode of pulmonary embolism was monitored during a post-intervention follow-up. Results: All the filters were placed in the inferior vena cava safely via a percutaneous femoral venous access. No serious complications such as pulmonary embolism occurred during the follow-up periods. Conclusion: The inferior vena cava filter placement is an effective and safe procedure in preventing the pulmonary embolism in patients with malignant tumor and deep venous thrombosis. (authors)

  2. Identification and Management of Pump Thrombus in the HeartWare Left Ventricular Assist Device System: A Novel Approach Using Log File Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Ulrich P; Aaronson, Keith D; Najjar, Samer S; Pagani, Francis D; Hayward, Christopher; Zimpfer, Daniel; Schlöglhofer, Thomas; Pham, Duc T; Goldstein, Daniel J; Leadley, Katrin; Chow, Ming-Jay; Brown, Michael C; Uriel, Nir

    2015-11-01

    The study sought to characterize patterns in the HeartWare (HeartWare Inc., Framingham, Massachusetts) ventricular assist device (HVAD) log files associated with successful medical treatment of device thrombosis. Device thrombosis is a serious adverse event for mechanical circulatory support devices and is often preceded by increased power consumption. Log files of the pump power are easily accessible on the bedside monitor of HVAD patients and may allow early diagnosis of device thrombosis. Furthermore, analysis of the log files may be able to predict the success rate of thrombolysis or the need for pump exchange. The log files of 15 ADVANCE trial patients (algorithm derivation cohort) with 16 pump thrombus events treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) were assessed for changes in the absolute and rate of increase in power consumption. Successful thrombolysis was defined as a clinical resolution of pump thrombus including normalization of power consumption and improvement in biochemical markers of hemolysis. Significant differences in log file patterns between successful and unsuccessful thrombolysis treatments were verified in 43 patients with 53 pump thrombus events implanted outside of clinical trials (validation cohort). The overall success rate of tPA therapy was 57%. Successful treatments had significantly lower measures of percent of expected power (130.9% vs. 196.1%, p = 0.016) and rate of increase in power (0.61 vs. 2.87, p file parameters can potentially predict the likelihood of successful tPA treatments and if validated prospectively, could substantially alter the approach to thrombus management. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Liver tumor formation by a mutant retinoblastoma protein in the transgenic mice is caused by an upregulation of c-Myc target genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Hikosaka, Keisuke; Sultana, Nishat; Sharkar, Mohammad Tofael Kabir [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Noritake, Hidenao [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Kimura, Wataru; Wu, Yi-Xin [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshimasa [Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Uezato, Tadayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Miura, Naoyuki, E-mail: nmiura@hama-med.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handa-yama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fifty percent of the mutant Rb transgenic mice produced liver tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the tumor, Foxm1, Skp2, Bmi1 and AP-1 mRNAs were up-regulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No increase in expression of the Myc-target genes was observed in the non-tumorous liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor formation depends on up-regulation of the Myc-target genes. -- Abstract: The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. In order to adapt itself to these biological functions, Rb is subjected to modification cycle, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. To directly determine the effect of phosphorylation-resistant Rb on liver development and function, we generated transgenic mice expressing phosphorylation-resistant human mutant Rb (mt-Rb) under the control of the rat hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 gene promoter/enhancer. Expression of mt-Rb in the liver resulted in macroscopic neoplastic nodules (adenomas) with {approx}50% incidence within 15 months old. Interestingly, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that c-Myc was up-regulated in the liver of mt-Rb transgenic mice irrespective of having tumor tissues or no tumor. In tumor tissues, several c-Myc target genes, Foxm1, c-Jun, c-Fos, Bmi1 and Skp2, were also up-regulated dramatically. We determined whether mt-Rb activated the Myc promoter in the HTP9 cells and demonstrated that mt-Rb acted as an inhibitor of wild-type Rb-induced repression on the Myc promoter. Our results suggest that continued upregulation of c-Myc target genes promotes the liver tumor formation after about 1 year of age.

  4. Combined MR direct thrombus imaging and non-contrast magnetic resonance venography reveal the evolution of deep vein thrombosis: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendichovszky, I.A.; Lomas, D.J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Priest, A.N.; Bowden, D.J.; Hunter, S.; Joubert, I.; Hilborne, S.; Graves, M.J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baglin, T. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Haematology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    Lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common condition with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the temporal evolution of the acute thrombus by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its relationship to venous recanalization in patients with recurrent DVTs. Thirteen patients with newly diagnosed lower limb DVTs underwent MRI with non-contrast MR venography (NC-MRV) and MR direct thrombus imaging (MR-DTI), an inversion-recovery water-selective fast gradient-echo acquisition. Imaging was performed within 7 days of the acute thrombotic event, then at 3 and 6 months. By 3 months from the thrombotic event a third of the thrombi had resolved and by 6 months about half of the cases had resolved on the basis of vein recanalisation using NC-MRV. On the initial MR-DTI acute thrombus was clearly depicted by hyperintense signal, while the remaining thrombi were predominantly low signal at 3 and 6 months. Some residual thrombi contained small and fragmented persisting hyperintense areas at 3 months, clearing almost completely by 6 months. Our study suggests that synergistic venous assessment with combined NC-MRV and MR-DTI is able to distinguish acute venous thrombosis from the established (old) or evolving DVT detected by ultrasound. (orig.)

  5. Combined MR direct thrombus imaging and non-contrast magnetic resonance venography reveal the evolution of deep vein thrombosis: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendichovszky, I.A.; Lomas, D.J.; Priest, A.N.; Bowden, D.J.; Hunter, S.; Joubert, I.; Hilborne, S.; Graves, M.J.; Baglin, T.

    2017-01-01

    Lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common condition with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the temporal evolution of the acute thrombus by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its relationship to venous recanalization in patients with recurrent DVTs. Thirteen patients with newly diagnosed lower limb DVTs underwent MRI with non-contrast MR venography (NC-MRV) and MR direct thrombus imaging (MR-DTI), an inversion-recovery water-selective fast gradient-echo acquisition. Imaging was performed within 7 days of the acute thrombotic event, then at 3 and 6 months. By 3 months from the thrombotic event a third of the thrombi had resolved and by 6 months about half of the cases had resolved on the basis of vein recanalisation using NC-MRV. On the initial MR-DTI acute thrombus was clearly depicted by hyperintense signal, while the remaining thrombi were predominantly low signal at 3 and 6 months. Some residual thrombi contained small and fragmented persisting hyperintense areas at 3 months, clearing almost completely by 6 months. Our study suggests that synergistic venous assessment with combined NC-MRV and MR-DTI is able to distinguish acute venous thrombosis from the established (old) or evolving DVT detected by ultrasound. (orig.)

  6. Extraluminal venous interruption for free-floating thrombus in the deep veins of lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casian, D; Gutsu, E; Culiuc, V

    2010-01-01

    The free-floating thrombus (FFT) represents a particular form of deep vein thrombosis with extremely high potential of fatal pulmonary embolism. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the early results of aggressive surgical approach to FFT. During the period 2005-2008 years FFT was diagnosed in 13 patients. Demographic characteristics of patients: medium age--54.7 years, male--76.9%, significant comorbidity--5 (38.5%) cases. Localization of FFT: superficial femoral vein (SFV)--5 (38.5%), common femoral vein (CFV)--4 (30.7%), external iliac vein (EIV)--2 (15.4%), inferior cava vein (ICV)--2 (15.4%). Manifestations of previous pulmonary embolism were documented preoperatively in 3 (23.1%) cases. The following emergency surgical procedures were performed: ligation--3 (23.1%) or plication--2 (15.4%) of SFV; plication of CFV--5 (38.5%) patients, combined in 4 cases with partial thrombectomy (free-floating part of thrombus); plication of common iliac vein--1 (7.6%); plication of ICV--2 (15.4%) cases. Primary or recurrent cases of clinically significant pulmonary embolism were not detected in the postoperative period. The accumulated experience of surgical management of patients with FFT reveals the important role of deep vein ligation/plication in prevention of fatal pulmonary embolism.

  7. On the Impact of Intraluminal Thrombus Mechanical Behavior in AAA Passive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Fabián; Martufi, Giampaolo; Gasser, T Christian; Rodriguez-Matas, Jose F

    2015-09-01

    Intraluminal thrombus (ILT) is a pseudo-tissue that develops from coagulated blood, and is found in most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) of clinically relevant size. A number of studies have suggested that ILT mechanical characteristics may be related to AAA risk of rupture, even though there is still great controversy in this regard. ILT is isotropic and inhomogeneous and may appear as a soft (single-layered) or stiff (multilayered fibrotic) tissue. This paper aims to investigate how ILT constitution and topology influence the magnitude and location of peak wall stress (PWS). In total 21 patient-specific AAAs (diameter 4.2-5.4 cm) were reconstructed from computer tomography images and biomechanically analyzed using state-of-the-art modeling assumptions. Results indicated that PWS correlated stronger with ILT volume (ρ = 0.44, p = 0.05) and minimum thickness of ILT layer (ρ = 0.73, p = 0.001) than with maximum AAA diameter (ρ = 0.05, p = 0.82). On average PWS was 20% (SD 12%) higher for FE models that used soft instead of stiff ILT models (p AAA diameter and was independent from ILT stiffness. In addition, ILT heterogeneity, i.e., the spatial composition of soft and stiff thrombus tissue, can considerably influence stress in the AAA wall. The present study is limited to identification of influential biomechanical factors, and how its findings translate to an AAA rupture risk assessment remains to be explored by clinical studies.

  8. Radiolabelled anti-human fibrin antibody: a new thrombus-detecting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosnjakovic, V.; Jankovic, B.D.; Horvat, J.; Cvoric, J.

    1977-01-01

    Rabbit anti-human fibrin globulin (A.F.G.) was labelled with iodine ( 131 I) and used as a thrombus-detecting agent. 131 I-A.F.G. labelled thrombi were displayed by means of a gamma scintillation camera. Normal subjects and patients with thrombo-phlebitis of legs, acute fibrin depositions other than thrombi, and chronic varicosities were examined. The 131 I-A.F.G. technique detected both formed thrombi and those that were forming and could discriminate between acute thrombosis and chronic varicosities. Thrombo-phlebitis and extravascular fibrin depositions were best demonstrated between 24 and 72 hours after 131 I-A.F.G. injection. Radiolabelled A.F.G. in normal veins and chronic varicosities was best displayed within 6 hours of injection. (author)

  9. Is IGSF1 involved in human pituitary tumor formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucz, Fabio R; Horvath, Anelia D; Azevedo, Monalisa F; Levy, Isaac; Bak, Beata; Wang, Ying; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Gourgari, Evgenia; Manning, Allison D; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Lodish, Maya; Hofman, Paul; Anderson, Yvonne C; Holdaway, Ian; Oldfield, Edward; Chittiboina, Prashant; Nesterova, Maria; Biermasz, Nienke R; Wit, Jan M; Bernard, Daniel J; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-02-01

    IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary. Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene (on Xq26.2) are associated with X-linked central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement in males. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IGSF1 is involved in the development of pituitary tumors, especially those that produce growth hormone (GH). IGSF1 was sequenced in 21 patients with gigantism or acromegaly and 92 healthy individuals. Expression studies with a candidate pathogenic IGSF1 variant were carried out in transfected cells and immunohistochemistry for IGSF1 was performed in the sections of GH-producing adenomas, familial somatomammotroph hyperplasia, and in normal pituitary. We identified the sequence variant p.N604T, which in silico analysis suggested could affect IGSF1 function, in two male patients and one female with somatomammotroph hyperplasia from the same family. Of 60 female controls, two carried the same variant and seven were heterozygous for other variants. Immunohistochemistry showed increased IGSF1 staining in the GH-producing tumor from the patient with the IGSF1 p.N604T variant compared with a GH-producing adenoma from a patient negative for any IGSF1 variants and with normal control pituitary tissue. The IGSF1 gene appears polymorphic in the general population. A potentially pathogenic variant identified in the germline of three patients with gigantism from the same family (segregating with the disease) was also detected in two healthy female controls. Variations in IGSF1 expression in pituitary tissue in patients with or without IGSF1 germline mutations point to the need for further studies of IGSF1 action in pituitary adenoma formation. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. The postischemic environment differentially impacts teratoma or tumor formation after transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seminatore, Christine; Polentes, Jerome; Ellman, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have...... analyzed the relative effects of the stage of differentiation and the postischemic environment on the formation of adverse structures by transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors....

  11. Early thrombus removal strategies for acute deep venous thrombosis: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Mark H; Gloviczki, Peter; Comerota, Anthony J; Dalsing, Michael C; Eklof, Bo G; Gillespie, David L; Lohr, Joann M; McLafferty, Robert B; Murad, M Hassan; Padberg, Frank; Pappas, Peter; Raffetto, Joseph D; Wakefield, Thomas W

    2012-05-01

    The anticoagulant treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been historically directed toward the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. However, such treatment imperfectly protects against late manifestations of the postthrombotic syndrome. By restoring venous patency and preserving valvular function, early thrombus removal strategies can potentially decrease postthrombotic morbidity. A committee of experts in venous disease was charged by the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum to develop evidence-based practice guidelines for early thrombus removal strategies, including catheter-directed pharmacologic thrombolysis, pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and surgical thrombectomy. Evidence-based recommendations are based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relevant literature, supplemented when necessary by less rigorous data. Recommendations are made according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, incorporating the strength of the recommendation (strong: 1; weak: 2) and an evaluation of the level of the evidence (A to C). On the basis of the best evidence currently available, we recommend against routine use of the term "proximal venous thrombosis" in favor of more precise characterization of thrombi as involving the iliofemoral or femoropopliteal venous segments (Grade 1A). We further suggest the use of early thrombus removal strategies in ambulatory patients with good functional capacity and a first episode of iliofemoral DVT of venous outflow obstruction (Grade 1A). We suggest pharmacomechanical strategies over catheter-directed pharmacologic thrombolysis alone if resources are available and that surgical thrombectomy be considered if thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated (Grade 2C). Most data regarding early thrombus removal strategies are of low quality but do suggest patient-important benefits with respect to reducing postthrombotic morbidity. We

  12. Thrombus imaging with indium-111 and iodine-131-labeled fibrin-specific monoclonal antibody and its F(ab')2 and Fab fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosebrough, S.F.; Grossman, Z.D.; McAfee, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported successful imaging of fresh (2-4 hr old) and aged (1-5 days old) canine thrombi with 131 I-labeled intact monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for fibrin. We now report thrombus imaging with 131 I-labeled F(ab')2 and Fab and 111 In-labeled intact MAb, F(ab')2, and Fab. Indium-111-labeled F(ab')2 proved to be the best imaging agent due to less nonspecific binding in the liver than whole IgG. Image quality was improved by the higher administered dose permissible with 111 In and its better physical characteristics for imaging, compared to 131 I. Immunofluorescence of fresh human histologic sections showed intact MAb and F(ab')2 binding to thrombi, pulmonary emboli, and atherosclerotic plaques, strengthening the feasibility of clinical thrombus imaging

  13. Differentiation of thrombus from pannus as the cause of acquired mechanical prosthetic heart valve obstruction by non-invasive imaging: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanis, Wilco; Habets, Jesse; van den Brink, Renee B A; Symersky, Petr; Budde, Ricardo P J; Chamuleau, Steven A J

    2014-02-01

    For acquired mechanical prosthetic heart valve (PHV) obstruction and suspicion on thrombosis, recently updated European Society of Cardiology guidelines advocate the confirmation of thrombus by transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and fluoroscopy. However, no evidence-based diagnostic algorithm is available for correct thrombus detection, although this is clinically important as fibrinolysis is contraindicated in non-thrombotic obstruction (isolated pannus). Here, we performed a review of the literature in order to propose a diagnostic algorithm. We performed a systematic search in Pubmed and Embase. Included publications were assessed on methodological quality based on the validated Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) II checklist. Studies were scarce (n = 15) and the majority were of moderate methodological quality. In total, 238 mechanical PHV's with acquired obstruction and a reliable reference standard were included for the evaluation of the role of fluoroscopy, echocardiography, or multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). In acquired PHV obstruction caused by thrombosis, mass detection by TEE and leaflet restriction detected by fluoroscopy were observed in the majority of cases (96 and 100%, respectively). In contrast, in acquired PHV obstruction free of thrombosis (pannus), leaflet restriction detected by fluoroscopy was absent in some cases (17%) and mass detection by TEE was absent in the majority of cases (66%). In case of mass detection by TEE, predictors for obstructive thrombus masses (compared with pannus masses) were leaflet restriction, soft echo density, and increased mass length. In situations of inconclusive echocardiography, MDCT may correctly detect pannus/thrombus based on the morphological aspects and localization. In acquired mechanical PHV obstruction without leaflet restriction and absent mass on TEE, obstructive PHV thrombosis cannot be confirmed and consequently, fibrinolysis

  14. Determinates of tumor response to radiation: Tumor cells, tumor stroma and permanent local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wende; Huang, Peigen; Chen, David J.; Gerweck, Leo E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The causes of tumor response variation to radiation remain obscure, thus hampering the development of predictive assays and strategies to decrease resistance. The present study evaluates the impact of host tumor stromal elements and the in vivo environment on tumor cell kill, and relationship between tumor cell radiosensitivity and the tumor control dose. Material and methods: Five endpoints were evaluated and compared in a radiosensitive DNA double-strand break repair-defective (DNA-PKcs −/− ) tumor line, and its DNA-PKcs repair competent transfected counterpart. In vitro colony formation assays were performed on in vitro cultured cells, on cells obtained directly from tumors, and on cells irradiated in situ. Permanent local control was assessed by the TCD 50 assay. Vascular effects were evaluated by functional vascular density assays. Results: The fraction of repair competent and repair deficient tumor cells surviving radiation did not substantially differ whether irradiated in vitro, i.e., in the absence of host stromal elements and factors, from the fraction of cells killed following in vivo irradiation. Additionally, the altered tumor cell sensitivity resulted in a proportional change in the dose required to achieve permanent local control. The estimated number of tumor cells per tumor, their cloning efficiency and radiosensitivity, all assessed by in vitro assays, were used to predict successfully, the measured tumor control doses. Conclusion: The number of clonogens per tumor and their radiosensitivity govern the permanent local control dose

  15. Interventional treatment for old thrombus in iliofemoral deep veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jun; Jiang Hong; Yang Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate interventional management in treating old thrombus in iliofemoral deep veins. Methods: The clinical data and the interventional treatment results of 32 patients with chronic iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Results: Technical success was achieved in 30 patients (93.8%). Twenty-nine endovascular stents were successfully placed in 25 patients. Postoperative therapeutic effects were as follows: grade I was obtained in 4 cases (12.5%), grade II in 16 cases (50.0%), grade III in 10 cases (31.3%) and grade IV in 2 cases (6.3%). Twenty-nine patients were followed-up for a mean period of 13.0 ± 6.8 months, and three patients were lost in touch. The follow-up results were as follows: grade I was seen in 3 cases (10.3%), grade II in 14 cases (48.3%) and grade III in 12 cases (41.4%). Conclusion: Interventional management is a minimally-invasive, safe and effective treatment for chronic iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. (authors)

  16. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of kidney: Our experience in a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, A; Mahapatra, S K; Nayak, B; Saini, A K; Biswas, B

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are rare highly aggressive neoplasms. The diagnosis is made by histopathology with the support of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cytogenetics. The aggressive multimodality treatment is recommended for the management of these tumors. The purpose of our study is to review our experiences in the diagnoses and treatment of PNET of the kidneys. We retrospectively reviewed the data of all the patients, who were treated for the PNET of the kidneys at our institute between April and March 2011 and compared with the available literature. A total of eight patients were treated for PNET of the kidney. Out of the eight patients, four were males and four females. Nearly 50% of our patients had inferior vena caval thrombus at the time of presentation. The diagnosis was made on histopathology supported by IHC. Out of the eight patients, one patient had intraoperative death due to massive pulmonary thromboembolism and another died on the 7th post-operative day due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiorgan failure. Rest six patients were treated with post-operative chemotherapy or a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For these six patients, overall median survival was 45 months with a 3 year disease-free survival of 66% and 5 year survival of 44%. PNET of the kidneys are rare peripheral neuroectodermal tumors with an aggressive clinical course. These tumors carry a very poor prognosis. An aggressive treatment approach using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy is recommended for a reasonable survival in these tumors.

  17. A Rare Complication of the Thyroid Malignancies: Jugular Vein Invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikici, Atilla Süleyman; Yıldırım, Onur; Er, Mehmet Emin; Kılıç, Fahrettin; Tutar, Onur; Kantarcı, Fatih; Mihmanlı, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral invasion of the internal jugular vein (IJV) after subtotal thyroidectomy caused by local recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We report a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma which invades IJV with hypervascular tumor thrombus. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman with a history of previous thyroid operation who presented with a 2-month history of a painless, growing, hard, solitary mass on the left side of the neck. Clinical examination revealed also ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Radiological examination showed a necrotic and cystic mass arising from the operated area extending and invading the left jugular vein wall with hypervascular tumor thrombus. Cytological examination of the mass confirmed a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and enlarged metastatic lymph nodes. Therefore, total thyroidectomy with left neck dissection and segmental resection of the left internal jugular vein were performed, and the tumor thrombus was cleared successfully. Invasion of IJV with hypervascular tumor thrombosis is an extremely rare condition in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thrombosis of IJV is probably underdiagnosed. Early-stage diagnosis is important for long-term survival rates

  18. Biventricular thrombus in hypereosinophilic syndrome presenting with shortness of breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Baqi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 48 years old male presented to clinic with 12 months of low grade fever with shortness of breath which has progressively worsened with no associated weight loss, night sweats or loss of appetite. There was no prior history of chronic illness before the current illness. Laboratory workup revealed a high white blood cell count with predominant eosinophils. Chest X-ray was normal. Transthoracic echocardiography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance showed biventricular thrombi. On further extensive workup the findings were consistent with hypereosinophilic syndrome. The patient was started on oral steroids, hydroxyurea, imatanib mesylate and oral anticoagulation. The patient responded to the treatment with complete resolution of his symptoms over the course of few months. The repeat Echocardiogram after a year showed normal left ventricular systolic and diastolic function with complete resolution of biventricular thrombi. Keywords: Hypereosinophilic syndrome, Thrombus

  19. Histopathologic composition of cerebral thrombi of acute stroke patients is correlated with stroke subtype and thrombus attenuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris M Niesten

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We related composition of cerebral thrombi to stroke subtype and attenuation on non-contrast CT (NCCT to gain more insight in etiopathogenesis and to validate thrombus attenuation as a new imaging biomarker for acute stroke. METHODS: We histopathologically investigated 22 thrombi retrieved after mechanical thrombectomy in acute stroke patients. First, thrombi were classified as fresh, lytic or organized. Second, percentages of red blood cells (RBCs, platelets and fibrin and number of red, white (respectively RBCs or platelets outnumbering other components with ≥ 15% or mixed thrombi were compared between large artery atherosclerosis (LAA, cardioembolism, dissection and unknown subtype. Third, correlation between attenuation and RBCs, platelets and fibrin was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficients (r. RESULTS: Thrombi were fresh in 73% (n = 16, lytic in 18% (n = 4 and organized in 9% (n = 2. The stroke cause was LAA in eight (36%, cardioembolism in six (27%, dissection in three (14%, and unknown in five (23% patients. LAA thrombi showed the highest percentage RBCs (median 50 (range 35-90, followed by dissection (35 (20-40, p = 0.05, cardioembolism (35 (5-45, p = 0.013 and unknown subtype (25 (2-40, p = 0.006. No differences in platelets (p = 0.16 and fibrin (p = 0.52 between subtypes were found. LAA thrombi were classified as red or mixed (both n = 4, cardioembolisms as mixed (n = 5 or white (n = 1 and dissection as mixed (n = 3. There was a moderate positive correlation between attenuation and RBCs (r = 0.401, p = 0.049, and weak negative correlations with platelets (r = -0.368, p = 0.09 and fibrin (r = -0.073, p = 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of cerebral thrombi is fresh. There are no differences in age of thrombi between subtypes. LAA thrombi have highest percentages RBCs, cardioembolism and unknown subtype lowest. No relationship exists between subtype and platelets or fibrin percentages. We found a

  20. Hemorrhagic Cardioembolic Stroke Secondary to a Left Ventricular Thrombus: a Therapeutic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Al-Farsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiogenic embolism is a major cause of stroke and often leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of stroke and its risk factors, diagnosis and therapy; some case scenarios still present a real challenge for the treating physicians. We report a case of a 50 year old male patient presenting with multi-territory cerebral infarctions due to a left ventricular mobile thrombus complicated with hemorrhagic transformation at the time of presentation. Gradual introduction of anticoagulation coupled with a multidisciplinary team approach advocating careful daily clinical assessment of the patient and regular echocardiographic and neuroimaging studies have resulted in a better management and achievement of therapeutic goals.

  1. Rac1 is crucial for Ras-dependent skin tumor formation by controlling Pak1-Mek-Erk hyperactivation and hyperproliferation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z; Pedersen, Esben Ditlev Kølle; Basse, A

    2010-01-01

    that Rac1 is essential for DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor formation. This corresponded to a decreased keratinocyte hyperproliferation, although apoptosis was not detectably altered. Activated Rac1 promoted Erk-dependent hyperproliferation by Pak1-mediated Mek activation independent of Mek1 phosporylation...

  2. Epithelial membrane protein-2 promotes endometrial tumor formation through activation of FAK and Src.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyong Fu

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy diagnosed among women in developed countries. One recent biomarker strongly associated with disease progression and survival is epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2, a tetraspan protein known to associate with and modify surface expression of certain integrin isoforms. In this study, we show using a xenograft model system that EMP2 expression is necessary for efficient endometrial tumor formation, and we have started to characterize the mechanism by which EMP2 contributes to this malignant phenotype. In endometrial cancer cells, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK/Src pathway appears to regulate migration as measured through wound healing assays. Manipulation of EMP2 levels in endometrial cancer cells regulates the phosphorylation of FAK and Src, and promotes their distribution into lipid raft domains. Notably, cells with low levels of EMP2 fail to migrate and poorly form tumors in vivo. These findings reveal the pivotal role of EMP2 in endometrial cancer carcinogenesis, and suggest that the association of elevated EMP2 levels with endometrial cancer prognosis may be causally linked to its effect on integrin-mediated signaling.

  3. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, P I; Svendsen, M S; Salado, J; Bochsen, L; Kristensen, A T

    2008-02-01

    Transfusion based on the Thrombelastograph (TEG) results reduces transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery and in liver transplantation. Taking the pivotal role of thrombin generation in the coagulation process into consideration, the clinical utility of the TEG may, in part, depend on its reflection of the dynamics of thrombin generation. The kinetics of thrombin generation of platelets stored for 2 and 7 days, respectively, was assessed by calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) and the lag time (min), time to peak (ttPeak; min), peak (nm thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P < 0.0001) as did the CAT peak thrombin generation and the TEG MTG (P = 0.0035). No correlation between ETP and TTG was found (P = 0.65). The kinetics of thrombin generation, as evaluated by CAT, correlates with the thrombus generation, as evaluated by thrombelastography and this may in part explain the clinical utility of the TEG in identifying clinically relevant coagulopathies, secondary to impaired thrombin generation.

  4. Integrated imaging (ultrasound, computed tomography, intravenous urography) in diagnosing renal tumors and tumor-like formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drudi, F.M.; Capanna, G.; Poggi, R.; Occhiato, R.; Iannicelli, E.; Nardo, R.; di Passariello, R.

    1994-01-01

    This is an assessment of semiologic imaging criteria based on computerised tomography, ultrasound diagnosis and intravenous urography in renal tumors. The purpose is to obtain differential diagnostic data capable to modify the treatment approach. Over the last three years, a total of 570 cases of kidney tumors are observed. In 490 of them (86%) the imaging patterns obtained by either of the three techniques leads to correct diagnosis. In 62 of the remaining 80 patients, the integration of two techniques allows to unveil the neoplastic nature of the disease (27 cases), or the presence of a benign process (35 cases). In 15 of the remaining 18 cases only integration of the three techniques results in diagnosing renal tumors or tumor-like conditions (3 adeno-carcinomas, 5 abscesses, 3 cases of tuberculosis, 2 - pyeloxanthogranulomatosis, 2 dysmorphisms). In the last three cases definite diagnosis is made on the basis of needle biopsy. The radiological diagnosis is confirmed intraoperatively or during clinical follow-up study. The obtained data underscore the clinical relevance of imaging integration in evaluating renal lesions. This is particularly valid whenever the clinical data are nonspecific or misleading. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs. (orig.)

  5. An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Intramural Thrombus and Moderate Leak in an Asian Man Presenting with Acute Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Khalil

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Missing a leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is common in medical practice because few at-risk patients have a history of AAA and many have an unusual presentation. Background: AAA is less common among Asians than white Caucasians of the same age. Our patient had no significant risk factors apart from age and sex and had an unusual presentation. Patient and Methods: A 67-year-old Asian man presented to the emergency room (ER with a 1-day history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, fever and abdominal pain. He was febrile, dehydrated. and had marked tenderness at the right iliac fossa. Laboratory findings suggested bacterial gastroenteritis but this did not explain the localized tenderness at the right iliac fossa. Result and Discussion: A CT scan of the abdomen revealed an AAA arising above the origins of the renal arteries, an intramural thrombus, a retroperitoneal haematoma and a leak extending to the right iliac fossa. The patient was transferred to another hospital and underwent exploratory laparotomy, surgical repair of the aneurysm, and aortobi-iliac grafting with removal of the thrombus. The patient was discharged in good shape 3 weeks after surgery. Without the CT scan of the abdomen, the AAA could have been missed and the patient treated for severe gastroenteritis.

  6. Promotion of Tumor Invasion by Cooperation of Granulocytes and Macrophages Activated by Anti-tumor Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Barbera-Guillem

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential role of anti-tumor antibodies and tumor antigens in the formation of immune complexes which promote matrix degradation and angiogenesis. B-cell deficient or B-cell depleted mice showed a reduction in tumor invasion and metastasis. In vitro invasion assays and in vivo models of metastasis showed that anti-sTn antibodies and sTn tumor antigens form complexes which induce granulocytes and macrophages together to mediate tumor invasion and metastasis by processes including extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis. These results suggest the existence of a tumor promoting role of a B-cell immune response induced by shed tumor associated antigens of solid, nonlymphoid tumors.

  7. Differentiation of thrombus from pannus as the cause of acquired mechanical prosthetic heart valve obstruction by non-invasive imaging: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Wilco; Habets, Jesse; van den Brink, Renee B. A.; Symersky, Petr; Budde, Ricardo P. J.; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.

    2014-01-01

    For acquired mechanical prosthetic heart valve (PHV) obstruction and suspicion on thrombosis, recently updated European Society of Cardiology guidelines advocate the confirmation of thrombus by transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and fluoroscopy. However, no

  8. Effects of Intraluminal Thrombus on Patient-Specific Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Hemodynamics via Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocity and Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Antón, Raúl; Hung, Ming-yang; Menon, Prahlad; Finol, Ender A.; Pekkan, Kerem

    2014-01-01

    The pathology of the human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and its relationship to the later complication of intraluminal thrombus (ILT) formation remains unclear. The hemodynamics in the diseased abdominal aorta are hypothesized to be a key contributor to the formation and growth of ILT. The objective of this investigation is to establish a reliable 3D flow visualization method with corresponding validation tests with high confidence in order to provide insight into the basic hemodynamic features for a better understanding of hemodynamics in AAA pathology and seek potential treatment for AAA diseases. A stereoscopic particle image velocity (PIV) experiment was conducted using transparent patient-specific experimental AAA models (with and without ILT) at three axial planes. Results show that before ILT formation, a 3D vortex was generated in the AAA phantom. This geometry-related vortex was not observed after the formation of ILT, indicating its possible role in the subsequent appearance of ILT in this patient. It may indicate that a longer residence time of recirculated blood flow in the aortic lumen due to this vortex caused sufficient shear-induced platelet activation to develop ILT and maintain uniform flow conditions. Additionally, two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling codes (Fluent and an in-house cardiovascular CFD code) were compared with the two-dimensional, three-component velocity stereoscopic PIV data. Results showed that correlation coefficients of the out-of-plane velocity data between PIV and both CFD methods are greater than 0.85, demonstrating good quantitative agreement. The stereoscopic PIV study can be utilized as test case templates for ongoing efforts in cardiovascular CFD solver development. Likewise, it is envisaged that the patient-specific data may provide a benchmark for further studying hemodynamics of actual AAA, ILT, and their convolution effects under physiological conditions for clinical applications. PMID:24316984

  9. Effect of cause of iliac vein stenosis and extent of thrombus in the lower extremity on patency of iliac venous stent placed after catheter-directed thrombolysis of acute deep venous thrombosis in the lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Il; Choi, Young Ho; Yoon, Chang Jin; Lee, Min Woo; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung

    2003-01-01

    To assess the CT findings of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in a lower extremity prior to catheter-directed thrombolysis, and to evaluate their relevance to the patency of an iliac venous stent placed with the help of CT after catheter-directed thrombolysis of DVT. Fourteen patients [M:F=3:11; age, 33-68 (mean, 50.1) years] with acute symptomatic DVD of a lower extremity underwent CT before and after catheter-directed thrombolysis using an iliac venous stent. The mean duration of clinical symptoms was 5.0 (range, 1-14 days. The CT findings prior to thrombolysis were evaluated in terms of their anatomic cause and the extent of the thrombus, and in all patients, the patency of the iliac venous stent was assessed at CT performed during a follow-up period lasting 6-31 (mean, 18.9) months. All patients were assigned to the patent stent group (n=9) or the occluded stent group (n=5). In the former, the anatomic cause of patency included typical iliac vein compression (May-Thurner syndrome) (n=9), and a relatively short segmental thrombus occurring between the common iliac and the popliteal vein (n=8). Thrombi occurred in the iliac vein (n=3), between the common iliac and the femoral vein (n=3), and between the common iliac and the popliteal vein (n=2). In one case, a relatively long segmental thrombus occurred between the common iliac vein and the calf vein. In the occluded stent group, anatomic causes included atypical iliac vein compression (n=3) and a relatively long segmental thrombus between the common iliac and the calf vein (n=4). Typical iliac vein compression (May-Thurner syndrome) occurred in two cases, and a relatively short segmental thrombus between the external iliac and the common femoral vein in one. Factors which can affect the patency of an iliac venous stent positioned after catheter-directed thrombolysis are the anatomic cause of the stenosis, and the extent of a thrombus revealed at CT of acute DVT and occurring in a lower extremity prior to

  10. Effect of cause of iliac vein stenosis and extent of thrombus in the lower extremity on patency of iliac venous stent placed after catheter-directed thrombolysis of acute deep venous thrombosis in the lower extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Il; Choi, Young Ho; Yoon, Chang Jin; Lee, Min Woo; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    To assess the CT findings of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in a lower extremity prior to catheter-directed thrombolysis, and to evaluate their relevance to the patency of an iliac venous stent placed with the help of CT after catheter-directed thrombolysis of DVT. Fourteen patients [M:F=3:11; age, 33-68 (mean, 50.1) years] with acute symptomatic DVD of a lower extremity underwent CT before and after catheter-directed thrombolysis using an iliac venous stent. The mean duration of clinical symptoms was 5.0 (range, 1-14 days. The CT findings prior to thrombolysis were evaluated in terms of their anatomic cause and the extent of the thrombus, and in all patients, the patency of the iliac venous stent was assessed at CT performed during a follow-up period lasting 6-31 (mean, 18.9) months. All patients were assigned to the patent stent group (n=9) or the occluded stent group (n=5). In the former, the anatomic cause of patency included typical iliac vein compression (May-Thurner syndrome) (n=9), and a relatively short segmental thrombus occurring between the common iliac and the popliteal vein (n=8). Thrombi occurred in the iliac vein (n=3), between the common iliac and the femoral vein (n=3), and between the common iliac and the popliteal vein (n=2). In one case, a relatively long segmental thrombus occurred between the common iliac vein and the calf vein. In the occluded stent group, anatomic causes included atypical iliac vein compression (n=3) and a relatively long segmental thrombus between the common iliac and the calf vein (n=4). Typical iliac vein compression (May-Thurner syndrome) occurred in two cases, and a relatively short segmental thrombus between the external iliac and the common femoral vein in one. Factors which can affect the patency of an iliac venous stent positioned after catheter-directed thrombolysis are the anatomic cause of the stenosis, and the extent of a thrombus revealed at CT of acute DVT and occurring in a lower extremity prior to

  11. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xi, E-mail: xizheng@rci.rutgers.edu [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Cui, Xiao-Xing [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); DiPaola, Robert S; Goodin, Susan [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Lee, Mao-Jung [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Yang, Chung S [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Kong, Ah-Ng [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Allan H, Conney [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States)

    2011-09-28

    In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors in immunodeficient mice. In the in vitro study, we found that the activity of γ-TmT was stronger than α-tocopherol for inhibiting the growth and stimulating apoptosis in LNCaP cells. In the animal study, treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with dietary γ-TmT inhibited the formation and growth of LNCaP xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that γ-TmT administration inhibited proliferation as reflected by decreased mitosis and stimulated apoptosis as reflected by increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in LNCaP tumors. In addition, dietary administration of γ-TmT increased the levels of α-, γ- and δ- tocopherol in plasma, and increased levels of γ- and δ- tocopherol were also observed in the prostate and in tumors. The present study demonstrated that γ-TmT had strong anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential preventive effect of γ-TmT for prostate cancer in humans.

  12. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xi; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying; DiPaola, Robert S; Goodin, Susan; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Kong, Ah-Ng; Allan H, Conney

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors in immunodeficient mice. In the in vitro study, we found that the activity of γ-TmT was stronger than α-tocopherol for inhibiting the growth and stimulating apoptosis in LNCaP cells. In the animal study, treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with dietary γ-TmT inhibited the formation and growth of LNCaP xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that γ-TmT administration inhibited proliferation as reflected by decreased mitosis and stimulated apoptosis as reflected by increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in LNCaP tumors. In addition, dietary administration of γ-TmT increased the levels of α-, γ- and δ- tocopherol in plasma, and increased levels of γ- and δ- tocopherol were also observed in the prostate and in tumors. The present study demonstrated that γ-TmT had strong anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential preventive effect of γ-TmT for prostate cancer in humans

  13. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of the neurocranium in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J W; Strand, R D

    1982-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumors of the neurocranium are a rare but life-threatening disorder of infancy. 11 previously reported cases are reviewed in terms of clinical presentation, radiological diagnosis, and management. A twelfth case, a 4-month-old infant who developed three discrete sites of tumor unilaterally in the neurocranium is presented. Several hypotheses for the mechanism of formation of these tumors are reviewed. The authors propose that the mechanism of formation involves a dysontogenesis of neural crest tissue and that these tumors form, at least in part, from fragments of melanin-containing arachnoid villi which are displaced during embryonic development.

  14. Managing iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis of pregnancy with a strategy of thrombus removal is safe and avoids post-thrombotic morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Santiago; Comerota, Anthony J; Thakur, Subhash; Sunderji, Shiraz; DiSalle, Robert; Kazanjian, Sahira N; Assi, Zakaria

    2014-02-01

    Extensive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) during pregnancy is usually treated with anticoagulation alone, risking significant post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in young patients. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) and operative venous thrombectomy have been safely and effectively used in nonpregnant patients, demonstrating significant reduction in post-thrombotic morbidity. This report reviews short- and long-term outcomes of 13 patients with extensive DVT of pregnancy treated with a strategy of thrombus removal. From 1999 to 2013, 13 patients with iliofemoral DVT during pregnancy were offered CDT, pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT), and/or venous thrombectomy. Gestational age ranged from 8 to 34 weeks. Fetal monitoring was performed throughout hospitalization. Radiation exposure was minimized with pelvic lead shields, focal fluoroscopy, and limited angiographic runs. Follow-up included objective vein evaluation using venous duplex and PTS assessment using the Villalta scale. CDT and/or PMT were used in 11 patients. Two patients underwent venous thrombectomy alone, and one patient had operative thrombectomy as an adjunct to CDT and PMT. Each patient had complete or near-complete thrombus resolution and rapid improvement in clinical symptoms. Eight of 11 having CDT or PMT underwent venoplasty and stenting of the involved iliac veins. Twelve of the 13 delivered healthy infants at term. One patient opted for termination of her pregnancy. Mean patient and gestational ages were 26 years and 26 weeks, respectively. Mean follow-up was 1.3 years, with only one recurrence. Duplex ultrasonography demonstrated patent veins in all but one patient and normal valve function in 10 patients. Eleven patients had Villalta scores thrombus removal, resulting in a patent venous system, normal valve function in many, prevention of PTS, and reduction in recurrence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  15. Combined MR direct thrombus imaging and non-contrast magnetic resonance venography reveal the evolution of deep vein thrombosis: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendichovszky, I A; Priest, A N; Bowden, D J; Hunter, S; Joubert, I; Hilborne, S; Graves, M J; Baglin, T; Lomas, D J

    2017-06-01

    Lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common condition with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate the temporal evolution of the acute thrombus by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its relationship to venous recanalization in patients with recurrent DVTs. Thirteen patients with newly diagnosed lower limb DVTs underwent MRI with non-contrast MR venography (NC-MRV) and MR direct thrombus imaging (MR-DTI), an inversion-recovery water-selective fast gradient-echo acquisition. Imaging was performed within 7 days of the acute thrombotic event, then at 3 and 6 months. By 3 months from the thrombotic event a third of the thrombi had resolved and by 6 months about half of the cases had resolved on the basis of vein recanalisation using NC-MRV. On the initial MR-DTI acute thrombus was clearly depicted by hyperintense signal, while the remaining thrombi were predominantly low signal at 3 and 6 months. Some residual thrombi contained small and fragmented persisting hyperintense areas at 3 months, clearing almost completely by 6 months. Our study suggests that synergistic venous assessment with combined NC-MRV and MR-DTI is able to distinguish acute venous thrombosis from the established (old) or evolving DVT detected by ultrasound. • MRI can distinguish between acute and evolving or chronic lower limb DVT • Two advanced MRI techniques can follow the evolution of lower limb DVT • MRI could be used to avoid an incorrect diagnosis of recurrent DVT • MRI could help avoid the risks and complications of lifelong anticoagulation therapy.

  16. Intervention radiology for venous thrombosis: early thrombus removal using invasive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanegra, Ana I; McBane, Robert D; Bjarnason, Haraldur

    2017-04-01

    The post thrombotic syndrome is one of the most dreaded complications of proximal deep vein thrombosis. This syndrome leads to pain and suffering with leg swelling, recalcitrant ulceration and venous claudication which greatly impairs mobility and quality of life. The prevalence can be high in patients with iliofemoral venous involvement particularly in the setting of a proximal venous stenosis, such as occurs in May Thurner syndrome. Anticoagulation alone does not reduce the likelihood of this outcome. Compression therapy may be effective but garment discomfort limits its implementation. Pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, which combines catheter-directed thrombolysis with mechanical thrombus dissolution, provides an attractive treatment strategy for such patients. The rationale and delivery of pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, including patient selection and adjunctive antithrombotic therapy, will be reviewed in addition to tips and tricks for managing difficult patient scenarios. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Defective thrombus formation in mice lacking endogenous factor VII activating protease (FSAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Saravanan; Thielmann, Ina; Morowski, Martina; Pragst, Ingo; Sandset, Per Morten; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Etscheid, Michael; Kanse, Sandip M

    2015-04-01

    Factor VII (FVII) activating protease (FSAP) is a circulating protease with a putative function in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. Genetic epidemiological studies have implied a role for FSAP in carotid stenosis, stroke and thrombosis. To date, no in vivo evidence is available to support these claims. We have, for the first time, used FSAP-/- mice to define its role in thrombosis and haemostasis in vivo and to characterise the molecular mechanisms involved. FeCl3-induced arterial thrombosis in carotid and mesenteric artery revealed that the occlusion time was significantly increased in FSAP-/- mice (pendogenous FSAP impaired the formation of stable, occlusive thrombi in mice. The underlying in vivo effect of FSAP is more likely to be related to the modulation of TFPI rather than FVIIa.

  18. Malignant Trigeminal Nerve Sheath Tumor and Anaplastic Astrocytoma Collision Tumor with High Proliferative Activity and Tumor Suppressor P53 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kurdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53 gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa.

  19. Detection of left atrial thrombus in patients with mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation: retrospective comparison of two-phase computed tomography, transoesophageal echocardiography and surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Hwa; Ko, Sung Min [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hweung Kon [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Meong Gun; Shin, Je Kyoun [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Woon Seok; Kim, Tae-Yop [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    This retrospective study aims to assess the accuracy of two-phase computed tomography (CT) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for the detection of left atrial (LA) thrombus in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) and atrial fibrillation (AF), by using intraoperative findings as the reference standard. Preoperative two-phase CT and intraoperative TEE were performed in 106 patients with MS and AF. The ratio (LAA/AA{sub L}) of Hounsfield units (HU) in the LA appendage (LAA) to the ascending aorta (AA) was calculated on the late-phase CT image. LA echodense masses on TEE and LA filling defects on two-phase CT were observed in 29 and 39 patients, respectively. Thirty-five LA thrombi were identified at surgery in 27 patients. Compared with the intraoperative findings, per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of two-phase CT were 100 %, 85 %, 69 % and 100 %, and those by using TEE were 93 %, 95 %, 86 % and 97 % in detecting LAA thrombus. After adopting the cut-off value of 0.5 for the LAA/AA{sub L} HU ratio, the specificity and positive predictive value of two-phase CT were increased to 96 % and 90 %, respectively. Two-phase CT with a cut-off value of LAA/AA{sub L} HU ratio of 0.5 provides high performance for the detection of LAA thrombus. (orig.)

  20. Huge Left Ventricular Thrombus and Apical Ballooning associated with Recurrent Massive Strokes in a Septic Shock Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most feared complication of left ventricular thrombus (LVT is the occurrence of systemic thromboembolic events, especially in the brain. Herein, we report a patient with severe sepsis who suffered recurrent devastating embolic stroke. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed apical ballooning of the left ventricle with a huge LVT, which had not been observed in chest computed tomography before the stroke. This case emphasizes the importance of serial cardiac evaluation in patients with stroke and severe medical illness.

  1. Radiation-induced DNA damage in tumors and normal tissues. III. Oxygen dependence of the formation of strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Wallen, C.A.; Wheeler, K.T.; Joch, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Results from several laboratories, including ours, have suggested that measurements of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) may be used to estimate the hypoxic fraction or fractional hypoxic volume of tumors and normal tissues. This suggestion has been predicated on both published and nonpublished information that (1) the oxygen dependence of the formation of strand breaks in irradiated mammalian cells is similar to the oxygen dependence of radiation-produced cell killing, and (2) the oxygen dependence of the formation of DPCs in irradiated mammalian cells is the mirror image of the oxygen dependence of radiation-induced cell killing. However, the published studies that attempted to determine the relationship between the oxygen dependence of the formation of strand breaks and the radiation sensitivity of mammalian cells were not performed at 37 degrees C, the exact oxygen concentrations were not always known, and the results were conflicting. In addition, most of the data on the oxygen dependence of the formation of DPCs are unpublished. Consequently, we have undertaken a comprehensive investigation of one cell line, 9L/Ro rat brain tumor cells, to determine if the shape of the oxygen dependence curve and the K m value for radiation-induced strand breaks and DPCs were similar when 9L cells were irradiated under both ideal gas-liquid equilibrium conditions at 4 degrees C and nonideal gas-liquid equilibrium conditions at 37 degrees C. At 4 degrees C under ideal gas-liquid equilibrium conditions, the K m for the formation of strand breaks was approximately 0.0045 mM, and Km for radiation sensitivity was approximately 0.005mM. A similar comparison for the formation of DPCs at 4 degrees C could not be made, because the efficiency of the formation of DPC was much lower at 4 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. 30 refs., 3 figs

  2. Expression and role of VEGFA and miR-381 in portal vein tumor thrombi in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Shuzhi; Huang, Tianren

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the expression and role of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and microRNA (miRNA or miR)-381 in tumor thrombi from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). Tumor thrombi and adjacent paired tissues were collected from 39 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with PVTT. VEGFA expression levels were assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. miRNAs that may regulate VEGFA expression were predicted using bioinformatics analysis and confirmed via a dual luciferase reporter assay. The effects of VEGFA and its upstream miRNA on proliferation of the proliferation of EAhy926 human venous endothelial cells were analyzed using an MTT assay. Compared with the paired adjacent tissues, VEGFA was significantly upregulated at both the mRNA and protein level in tumor thrombi (P<0.05). VEGFA was predicted to be a target of miR-381 and this was confirmed experimentally. miR-381 expression was significantly downregulated in tumor thrombi from patients with PVTT compared with paired adjacent tissues (P<0.05). In addition, transfection with antagomirs against miR-381 or short interfering RNA against VEGFA significantly inhibited EAhy926 cell proliferation (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that VEGFA is upregulated in tumor thrombi whereas miR-381 is downregulated. VEGFA is regulated by miR-381 and both may be associated with the development of PVTT.

  3. Diagnosing upper extremity deep vein thrombosis with non-contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Direct Thrombus Imaging: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, C E A; Klok, F A; van Haren, G R; Gleditsch, J; Westerlund, E; Huisman, M V; Kroft, L J M

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosing upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) can be challenging. Compression ultrasonography is often inconclusive because of overlying anatomic structures that hamper compressing veins. Contrast venography is invasive and has a risk of contrast allergy. Magnetic Resonance Direct Thrombus Imaging (MRDTI) and Three Dimensional Turbo Spin-echo Spectral Attenuated Inversion Recovery (3D TSE-SPAIR) are both non-contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences that can visualize a thrombus directly by the visualization of methemoglobin, which is formed in a fresh blood clot. MRDTI has been proven to be accurate in diagnosing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the leg. The primary aim of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of diagnosing UEDVT with these MRI techniques. MRDTI and 3D TSE-SPAIR were performed in 3 pilot patients who were already diagnosed with UEDVT by ultrasonography or contrast venography. In all patients, UEDVT diagnosis could be confirmed by MRDTI and 3D TSE-SPAIR in all vein segments. In conclusion, this study showed that non-contrast MRDTI and 3D TSE-SPAIR sequences may be feasible tests to diagnose UEDVT. However diagnostic accuracy and management studies have to be performed before these techniques can be routinely used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential application of labeled antibodies for thrombus detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezekowitz, M.D.; Coller, B.S.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    Labeling platelets with monoclonal antibodies in whole blood for imaging thrombi is less cumbersome than the established /sup 111/In-oxine method. 7E3, a murine monoclonal antibody directed against glycoprotein IIb and/or IIIa on both human and dog platelets was used to label canine platelets. Thrombi were induced by transcatheter placement of a copper coil followed by electrocoagulation. 7E3 was iodinated with /sup 131/I and labelled with /sup 111/In using 7E3-DTPA conjugate. Whole blood was incubated with 0.5 - 1.0 ..mu..g labeled 7E3/mL blood. In 4/4 dogs, experimental deep vein thrombi were identified using both /sup 131/I-and /sup 111/In-labeled 7E3 within 5-30 min after injection. For both isotopes, 1 h blood clearance was 54 + - 9%. In 1/3 dogs, experimental coronary thrombus could be identified ex vivo at 4 h. Clot to blood ratios ranged between 7 to 13:1. Using the /sup 111/In-oxine method, 0/3 coronary thrombi were seen. Thus, /sup 131/I-and /sup 111/In-labeled 7E3 may be used to readily identify peripheral venous thrombi. For reliable and prompt identification of coronary thrombi, more rapid clearance of the labeled platelets is required.

  5. A rare case with synchronous gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabadzhieva, Elena; Yonkov, Atanas; Bonev, Sasho; Bulanov, Dimitar; Taneva, Ivanka; Vlahova, Alexandrina; Dikov, Tihomir; Dimitrova, Violeta

    2016-11-15

    Although gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, they comprise less than 1% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the gastro-enteropancreatic system are also rare, representing about 2% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Pancreatic localization of NET is extremely uncommon-these tumors are only 1-5% of all pancreatic cancers. We describe an unusual case with triple tumor localization-a gastric tumor, a formation in the pancreas, which involves the retroperitoneal space, and a uterine leiomyoma. The exact diagnosis was confirmed with immunohistochemical study after surgical treatment of the patient. Distal pancreatic resection, splenectomy, partial gastrectomy, omentectomy, and hysterectomy were performed. The histological examination proved an epithelioid type of gastric GIST. Immunostaining showed focal positive expression of c-kit and no mitotic figures per 50 HPF. Histology of the pancreatic and retroperitoneal formation proved a well-differentiated NET with origin from the islets of Langerhans. The immunohistochemical study demonstrated co-expression of chromogranin A and synaptophysin. This is the fourth case published so far of a patient with synchronous pancreatic NET and gastric GIST. The main objective of the study is to present a unique case because we have not found any reports for coexistence of the described three types of neoplasm, as in our patient, and we hope that it will be valuable in the future investigations about the genesis, diagnosis, and treatment of these types of tumors.

  6. Surgical, radio and immunotherapy of syngeneic tumors in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, B.

    1982-01-01

    In untreated DBA/2 and (57 Black 6 mice the growth of and formation of metastases by syngeneic tumors (L 1210, EL 4, P 815 respectively Lewis Lung) was tested to obtain hints regarding the subsequent treatment modalities. In summary it can be said that each tumor type has its specific behaviour as regards the formation of metastases. Tumor-carrying mice were then operated on respectively received radiotherapy at different lengths of time after the tumor cell transplantation. The results led to the conclusion that an early therapy increased the survival rates. These findings were taken as a basis for further experiments in which tumor-carrying mice were exclusively treated 24 hours after the tumor cell transplantation. It was found that tumor-carrying animals, as compared to untreated control animals, were cured by surgical measures. Radiotherapy was successful in cases of L 1210 and EL 4 tumors. Animals carrying P 815 and Lewis Lung tumors that were irradiated 24 hours after the tumor cell transplantation died of progressive tumor growth. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Complete Resolution of a Large Bicuspid Aortic Valve Thrombus with Anticoagulation in Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Jo Rachwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Native aortic valve thrombosis in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS is a rare entity. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neurological symptoms and a cardiac murmur. Transthoracic echocardiography detected a large bicuspid aortic valve thrombus. Laboratory evaluation showed the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Anticoagulation was started, and serial echocardiographic studies showed complete resolution of the aortic valve vegetation after 4 months. The patient improved clinically and had no residual symptoms. This report and review of the literature suggests that vegetations in APLS can be treated successfully with conservative treatment, regardless of their size.

  8. Thrombus aspiration combined with intra-coronary injection of Tirofiban for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: its influence on myocardial reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Da; Zhu Hao; Zhou Xuchen; Huang Rongchong; Zhang Bo; Wang Shaopeng; Zhang Yousheng; Jia Yuqing; Sun Menghan; Cui Hashen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of thrombus aspiration combined with intra-coronary administration of the glycoprotein Ⅱ b/Ⅲ a inhibitor, Tirofiban, on myocardial microcirculation when percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is employed for the treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Methods: During the period from April 2008 to June 2010, percutaneous coronary interventional was performed in 184 consecutive patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The patients were randomly divided into study group (n=78) and control group (n=106). Thrombus aspiration combined with intra-coronary administration of Tirofiban was used in patients of study group, while routine PCI together with intravenous administration of Tirofiban was adopted in patients of control group. Clinical features, TIMI grade, myocardial blush grade, ratio of ST falling >70% at 24 hours after treatment, incidence of massive haemorrhage, hospitalization, days, major adverse cardiac event within 30 days were observed, and the results were compared between two groups. Results: The incidence of no reflow phenomenon in study group was markedly lower than that in control group (5.67% vs. 21.14%, P=0.011), while the myocardial blush grade was much higher in study group than that in control group (2.03±0.32 vs. 1.12±0.47, P=0.021). The ratio of ST falling > 70% at 24 hours after treatment in study group was increased (94% vs. 85%, P=0.003), and the occurrence of perioperative massive haemorrhage was lower (9% vs. 4%, P=0.03). The incidence of major adverse cardiac event within 30 days was distinctly decreased although it was quite similar in both groups (5.5% vs. 6.1%, P=0.786). Conclusion: Thrombus aspiration combined with intra-coronary administration of Tirofiban is superior to conventional PCI in effectively improving the reperfusion of myocardial microcirculation and in reliably reducing perioperative risk. (authors)

  9. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY STROKE NON-HEMORRHAGIC ET CAUSA THROMBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Kristianto Wijaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Stroke is one of the most common cause of death worldwide and the third leading cause of death in the United States. Stroke composed 90,000 deaths of women and 60,000 men each year. In Indonesia, 8 of 1000 people suffered a stroke. Stroke is divided into two, non-hemorrhagic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. Most of them (80% is non-hemorrhagic stroke. Non-hemorrhagic stroke can be caused by thrombi or emboli. Understanding the pathophysiology of non-hemorrhagic stroke caused by a thrombus is very important in regard with providing appropriate patient management. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  10. Dioscin inhibits colon tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis through regulating VEGFR2 and AKT/MAPK signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Qingyi [Regenerative Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Qing, Yong, E-mail: qingyongxy@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Pharmacology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Wu, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Hu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Lei [Department of Pharmacology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Wu, Xiaohua, E-mail: wuxh@scu.edu.cn [Regenerative Medicine Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Dioscin has shown cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but its in vivo effects and the mechanisms have not elucidated yet. The purpose of the current study was to assess the antitumor effects and the molecular mechanisms of dioscin. We showed that dioscin could inhibit tumor growth in vivo and has no toxicity at the test condition. The growth suppression was accompanied by obvious blood vessel decrease within solid tumors. We also found dioscin treatment inhibited the proliferation of cancer and endothelial cell lines, and most sensitive to primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). What's more, analysis of HUVECs migration, invasion, and tube formation exhibited that dioscin has significantly inhibitive effects to these actions. Further analysis of blood vessel formation in the matrigel plugs indicated that dioscin could inhibit VEGF-induced blood vessel formation in vivo. We also identified that dioscin could suppress the downstream protein kinases of VEGFR2, including Src, FAK, AKT and Erk1/2, accompanied by the increase of phosphorylated P38MAPK. The results potently suggest that dioscin may be a potential anticancer drug, which efficiently inhibits angiogenesis induced by VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathways. - Highlights: • Dioscin inhibits tumor growth in vivo and does not exhibit any toxicity. • Dioscin inhibits angiogenesis within solid tumors. • Dioscin inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation of HUVECs. • Dioscin inhibits VEGF–induced blood vessel formation in vivo. • Dioscin inhibits VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathway.

  11. Acute intracranial hematoma formation following excision of a cervical subdural tumor: a report of two cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuexiao; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ting; Li, Guizhi; Zhang, Guoqing; Khan, Hassan; Xiang, Hongfei; Chen, Bohua

    2014-01-01

    An intracranial hematoma is a rare, yet significant, complication following spinal surgery. The authors describe two cases with acute intracranial hematoma formation after excision of a cervical subdural schwannoma. One was a 14-year-old girl who developed bilateral intracranial extradural hematomas immediately following excision of the C4 subdural schwannoma. The other was a 59-year-old woman who had an acute cerebellar hematoma after removal of the C2-C5 subdural schwannoma. During the surgeries of both cases, spinal dura was partially removed together with the tumor and the dural sac could not be repaired, resulting in large amounts of intraoperative CSF loss and persistent postoperative CSF leakage. Both patients failed to regain consciousness from anesthesia after surgery, and a cranial CT scan identified large intracranial hematomas. Urgent hematoma evacuation was ultimately performed to save the patients. Based on the authors' experience and literature review, a conclusion was drawn that considerable CSF leakage and a sharp decrease of CSF pressure are common features during the excision of a spinal subdural tumor, which may lead to acute intracranial hematomas. Continual postoperative monitoring in patients with this condition should be of a very high priority. A CT or MRI should be immediately investigated to exclude intracranial hematomas for any patient with delayed emergence from anesthesia following spinal surgery. Hematoma evacuation is indispensable once an intracranial hematoma is identified in the patient who fails to regain consciousness from anesthesia post surgery. Furthermore, the possible pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the formation of an intracranial hematoma after spinal procedures, particularly after manipulations of a cervical subdural tumor, are discussed.

  12. Industasis, a promotion of tumor formation by nontumorigenic stray cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pajer, Petr; Karafiát, Vít; Pečenka, Vladimír; Průková, Dana; Dudlová, J.; Plachý, Jiří; Kašparová, P.; Dvořák, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 11 (2009), s. 4605-4612 ISSN 0008-5472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/06/1728; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06061; GA AV ČR IAA500520608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumor promotion * lung tumors * Fyn-related kinase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.543, year: 2009

  13. Late Thrombolytic Treatment In A Patient With Ischemic Stroke Caused By Biatrial Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit CINARKA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism is a preventable disease when necessary precautions are taken and it occurs along with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Mortality related to venous thromboembolism may be high in the acute phase of the disease and it may become chronic. Intracardiac thrombus may be detected in some venous thromboemboli cases. Cardiac embolism is responsible for most of the ischemic strokes which can be very mortal or may cause serious morbidity when they are not treated in time. In this report, we aimed to present the results of late antithrombolytic treatment in a 77-year old patient who developed deep vein thrombosis, biatrial thrombosis and ischemic stroke following hydrocephalus shunt operation.   Key words: Venous thromboembolism; ischemic stroke; thrombolytic therapy

  14. Inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity results in promotion of endogenous thrombolysis and inhibition of thrombus extension in models of experimental thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Biemond, B. J.; van Zonneveld, A. J.; ten Cate, J. W.; Pannekoek, H.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effect of inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity by a murine monoclonal anti-human PAI-1 antibody (MAI-12) on in vitro thrombolysis and on in vivo thrombolysis and thrombus extension in an experimental animal model for thrombosis. Thrombolysis, mediated

  15. Diagnostic dilemma: Intracardiac mass in a woman with Behçet's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Cabarcas, Edilberto; López-Ruiz, Nilson; Ramírez-Rincón, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Intracardiac thrombosis is a rare manifestation of cardiac involvement in Behçet's disease, and it may be mistaken for a heart tumor. In this letter we present the case of a patient diagnosed with Behçet's disease who was incidentally found to have a mass in the right atrium suspicious of a cardiac tumor. Nevertheless, cardiac magnetic resonance showed a cardiac thrombus. Immunosuppressive therapy and anticoagulation were effective for thrombus resolution. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Rivaroxaban attenuates thrombosis by targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway in a rat model of deep venous thrombus

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Junhao; Li, Xinxi; Wang, Yang; Yang, Zhenwei; Luo, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is commonly used for the prevention and treatment of patients with deep venous thrombus. Evidence has shown that rivaroxaban is a potential oral anticoagulant drug for the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, the rivaroxaban-mediated molecular mechanism involved in the progression of deep venous thrombosis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of rivaroxaban and the underlying signaling pathways in the prevention and...

  17. S6Ks isoforms contribute to viability, migration, docetaxel resistance and tumor formation of prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Camila L.; Freitas, Lidia B.; Tamura, Rodrigo E.; Tavares, Mariana R.; Pavan, Isadora C. B.; Bajgelman, Marcio C.; Simabuco, Fernando M.

    2016-01-01

    The S6 Kinase (S6K) proteins are some of the main downstream effectors of the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR) and act as key regulators of protein synthesis and cell growth. S6K is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and is correlated to poor prognosis in prostate cancer. Due to the current urgency to identify factors involved in prostate cancer progression, we aimed to reveal the cellular functions of three S6K isoforms–p70-S6K1, p85-S6K1 and p54-S6K2–in prostate cancer, as well as their potential as therapeutic targets. In this study we performed S6K knockdown and overexpression and investigated its role in prostate cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, viability, migration and resistance to docetaxel treatment. In addition, we measured tumor growth in Nude mice injected with PC3 cells overexpressing S6K isoforms and tested the efficacy of a new available S6K1 inhibitor in vitro. S6Ks overexpression enhanced PC3-luc cell line viability, migration, resistance to docetaxel and tumor formation in Nude mice. Only S6K2 knockdown rendered prostate cancer cells more sensitive to docetaxel. S6K1 inhibitor PF-4708671 was particularly effective for reducing migration and proliferation of PC3 cell line. These findings demonstrate that S6Ks play an important role in prostate cancer progression, enhancing cell viability, migration and chemotherapy resistance, and place both S6K1 and S6K2 as a potential targets in advanced prostate cancer. We also provide evidence that S6K1 inhibitor PF-4708671 may be considered as a potential drug for prostate cancer treatment. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2629-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  18. Platelet thrombosis in cardiac-valve prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of platelets and clotting factors in thrombosis on cardiovascular prostheses had been quantified with several tracers. Thrombus formation in vivo could be measured semiquantitatively in animal models and patients with indium-111, Technetium-99m labeled platelets, iodine-123, iodine-131 labeled fibrinogen, and In-111 and Tc-99m labeled antibody to the fibrinogen-receptor on the platelet- membrane, or fibrin. The early studies demonstrated that certain platelet-inhibitors, e.g. sulfinpyrazone, aspirin or aspirin- persantine increased platelet survival time with mechanical valves implanted in the baboon model and patients. Thrombus localization by imaging is possible for large thrombus on thrombogenic surface of prosthesis in the acute phase. The majority of thrombus was found in the sewing ring (Dacron) in the acute phase in both the mechanical and tissue valves. The amount of retained thrombus in both mechanical and tissue valves in our one-day study in the dog model was similar (< 1% if injected In-111 platelets = 5 billion platelets). As the fibrous ingrowth covered the sewing ring, the thrombus formation decreased significantly. Only a small amount of thrombus was found on the leaflets at one month in both the dog and calf models. 38 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Platelet thrombosis in cardiac-valve prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of platelets and clotting factors in thrombosis on cardiovascular prostheses had been quantified with several tracers. Thrombus formation in vivo could be measured semiquantitatively in animal models and patients with indium-111, Technetium-99m labeled platelets, iodine-123, iodine-131 labeled fibrinogen, and In-111 and Tc-99m labeled antibody to the fibrinogen-receptor on the platelet- membrane, or fibrin. The early studies demonstrated that certain platelet-inhibitors, e.g. sulfinpyrazone, aspirin or aspirin- persantine increased platelet survival time with mechanical valves implanted in the baboon model and patients. Thrombus localization by imaging is possible for large thrombus on thrombogenic surface of prosthesis in the acute phase. The majority of thrombus was found in the sewing ring (Dacron) in the acute phase in both the mechanical and tissue valves. The amount of retained thrombus in both mechanical and tissue valves in our one-day study in the dog model was similar (< 1% if injected In-111 platelets = 5 billion platelets). As the fibrous ingrowth covered the sewing ring, the thrombus formation decreased significantly. Only a small amount of thrombus was found on the leaflets at one month in both the dog and calf models. 38 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. An investigation on platelet transport during thrombus formation at micro-scale stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tovar-Lopez

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of mass transport of blood cells at micro-scale stenosis where local strain-rate micro-gradients trigger platelet aggregation. Using a microfluidic flow focusing platform we investigate the blood flow streams that principally contribute to platelet aggregation under shear micro-gradient conditions. We demonstrate that relatively thin surface streams located at the channel wall are the primary contributor of platelets to the developing aggregate under shear gradient conditions. Furthermore we delineate a role for red blood cell hydrodynamic lift forces in driving enhanced advection of platelets to the stenosis wall and surface of developing aggregates. We show that this novel microfluidic platform can be effectively used to study the role of mass transport phenomena driving platelet recruitment and aggregate formation and believe that this approach will lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying shear-gradient dependent discoid platelet aggregation in the context of cardiovascular diseases such as acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke.

  1. [Desmoid tumors in three patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohos, E; Kovács, T; Brittig, F; Nagy, A

    2001-12-01

    Desmoids are rare tumors of the connective tissue. It develops about 1:1000 times more in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, Gardner syndrome) compared to normal population. It has been shown in molecular genetic examinations, that different mutations of the APC gene are responsible for desmoid tumors in FAP. It means, that this disease is one of the extraintestinal manifestations of Gardner syndrome. This tumor has high recurrence rate and is growing rapidly, and as a result it is the second most common cause of death in FAP patients. That is why genetic examination for FAP patients is advised to decide if the patient has higher risk for desmoid formation. If the result of the genetic test is positive, it is advisable to try to slow the progression of polyposis with medical treatment, and so to delay the date of the colectomy because the surgical intervention--and connective tissue damage--can induce desmoid formation in these patients. At the same time it is reasonable to examine and regularly control patients with sporadic desmoid tumors searching for other manifestations of Gardner syndrome (colon, stomach and duodenum polyposis, tumor of papilla Vateri, retinopathy, etc.). Palliative surgery is not indicated in patients with inoperable intraabdominal desmoid tumors, because partial resections (R1, R2, debulking) result in further tumor progression. In these patients medical treatment (sulindac, tamoxifen), chemotherapy (doxorubicin, dacarbazin) and radiotherapy or combination of them can result tumor remission. We describe our three patients (an abdominal wall desmoid four years following Cesarean section; a desmoid tumor in the retroperitoneum and in the pelvis diagnosed three years after total colectomy; and a retroperitoneal and abdominal wall desmoid one year after total colectomy) and etiology, diagnosis and therapy of desmoid tumors are discussed.

  2. Multiparametric classification links tumor microenvironments with tumor cell phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Gligorijevic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which

  3. Use of multidetector-row computed tomography scan to detect pannus formation in prosthetic mechanical aortic valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladmawi, Mohamed A; Pragliola, Claudio; Vriz, Olga; Galzerano, Domenico

    2017-04-01

    Obstruction of a mechanical aortic valve by pannus formation at the subvalvular level is a major long-term complication of aortic valve replacement (AVR). In fact, pannus is sometime difficult to differentiate from patient-prosthesis mismatch or valve thrombosis. In most cases cine-angiography and echocardiography, either transthoracic or transesophageal, cannot correctly visualize the complication when the leaflets show a normal mobility. Recent technological refinements made this difficult diagnosis possible by ECG-gated computed tomography (CT) scan which shows adequate images in 90% of the cases and can differentiate pannus from fresh and organized thrombus.

  4. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered “killer” transfer RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dong-hui; Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey; Geslain, Renaud; Rosner, Marsha; Pan, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► tRNA with anti-cancer effects. ► tRNA induced protein misfolding. ► tRNA as anti-tumor agent. -- Abstract: A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA Ser (AAU) is an engineered human tRNA Ser with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA Ser (AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA Ser (AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA Ser (AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA Ser (AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA Ser (AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA Ser (AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA Ser (AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent.

  5. Angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis: Perspectives for the treatment of solid tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Collen, A.; Koolwijk, P.

    1999-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting ones. Many solid tumors depend on an extensive newly formed vascular network to become nourished and to expand. Tumor cells induce the formation of an extensive but aberrant vascular network by the secretion of angiogenic factors. A

  6. Black-blood thrombus imaging (BTI): a contrast-free cardiovascular magnetic resonance approach for the diagnosis of non-acute deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxi; Chen, Hanwei; He, Xueping; Liang, Jianke; Deng, Wei; He, Zhuonan; Ye, Yufeng; Yang, Qi; Bi, Xiaoming; Liu, Xin; Li, Debiao; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-18

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common but elusive illness that can result in long-term disability or death. Accurate detection of thrombosis and assessment of its size and distribution are critical for treatment decision-making. In the present study, we sought to develop and evaluate a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) black-blood thrombus imaging (BTI) technique, based on delay alternating with nutation for tailored excitation black-blood preparation and variable flip angle turbo-spin-echo readout, for the diagnosis of non-acute DVT. METHODS: This prospective study was approved by institutional review board and informed consent obtained from all subjects. BTI was first conducted in 11 healthy subjects for parameter optimization and then conducted in 18 non-acute DVT patients to evaluate its diagnostic performance. Two clinically used CMR techniques, contrast-enhanced CMR venography (CE-MRV) and three dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE), were also conducted in all patients for comparison. All images obtained from patients were analyzed on a per-segment basis. Using the consensus diagnosis of CE-MRV as the reference, the sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), and accuracy (ACC) of BTI and MPRAGE as well as their diagnostic agreement with CE-MRV were calculated. Besides, diagnostic confidence and interreader diagnostic agreement were evaluated for all three techniques. BTI with optimized parameters effectively nulled the venous blood flow signal and allowed directly visualizing the thrombus within the black-blood lumen. Higher SE (90.4% vs 67.6%), SP (99.0% vs. 97.4%), PPV (95.4% vs. 85.6%), NPV (97.8% vs 92.9%) and ACC (97.4% vs. 91.8%) were obtained by BTI in comparison with MPRAGE. Good diagnostic confidence and excellent diagnostic and interreader agreements were achieved by BTI, which were superior to MPRAGE on detecting the chronic thrombus. BTI allows

  7. Inhibition of Tumor Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth by the DSL Domain of Human Delta-Like 1 Targeted to Vascular Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xing-Cheng; Dou, Guo-Rui; Wang, Li; Liang, Liang; Tian, Deng-Mei; Cao, Xiu-Li; Qin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Chun-Mei; Zhang, Ping; Han, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The growth of solid tumors depends on neovascularization. Several therapies targeting tumor angiogenesis have been developed. However, poor response in some tumors and emerging resistance necessitate further investigations of newdrug targets. Notch signal pathway plays a pivotal role in vascular development and tumor angiogenesis. Either blockade or forced activation of this pathway can inhibit angiogenesis. As blocking Notch pathway results in the formation of vascular neoplasm, activation o...

  8. Ischemic Stroke: What Does the Histological Composition Tell Us About the Origin of the Thrombus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Peter B; Hanning, Uta; Schwindt, Wolfram; Velasco, Aglaé; Minnerup, Jens; Zoubi, Tarek; Heindel, Walter; Jeibmann, Astrid; Niederstadt, Thomas Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of stent retrievers allows for a complete extraction and histological analysis of human thrombi. Ischemic stroke is a major health issue, and differentiation of underlying causes is highly relevant to prevent recurrent stroke. Therefore, histopathologic analysis of the embolic clots after removal may provide valuable information about underlying pathologies. This study analyzes histological clot composition and aims to identify specific patterns that might help to distinguish causes of ischemic stroke. Patients with occlusion of the carotid-T or middle cerebral artery who underwent thrombectomy at our university medical center between December 2013 and February 2016 were included. Samples were histologically analyzed (hematoxylin and eosin, Elastica van Gieson, and Prussian blue), additionally immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD20, and CD68/KiM1P was performed. These data, along with additional clinical and interventional parameters, were compared for different stroke subtypes, as defined by the TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. One hundred eighty-seven patients were included, of these, in 77 patients, cardioembolic; in 46 patients, noncardioembolic; and in 64 patients, cryptogenic pathogenesis was determined. Cardioembolic thrombi had higher proportions of fibrin/platelets ( P =0.027), less erythrocytes ( P =0.005), and more leucocytes ( P =0.026) than noncardioembolic thrombi. We observed a strong overlap of cryptogenic strokes and cardioembolic strokes concerning thrombus histology. The immunohistochemical parameters CD3, CD20, and CD68/KiM1P showed no statistically noticeable differences between stroke subtypes. Histological thrombus features vary significantly according to the underlying cause and may help to differentiate between cardioembolic and noncardioembolic stroke. In addition, our study supports the hypothesis that most cryptogenic strokes have a cardioembolic cause. © 2017 American Heart Association

  9. Long-term clinical outcomes of the left ventricular thrombus in patients with ST elevation anterior myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ebrahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the size of left ventricular thrombus (LVT, risk of systemic embolization and response to medical treatment during 18 months of follow up in the patients with anterior-ST elevation myocardial infarction (aSTEMI. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on thirty-five patients with anterior myocardial infarction (MI, in Emam Reza Hospital and Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, from August 2008 to January 2011. Warfarin was prescribed for all the patients. Transthoracic echocardiographic study was performed on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 12th and 18th months. Outcomes included rate of death, MI, stroke, systemic embolization, major bleeding and change in thrombus size following treatment. RESULTS: The resolve rate of clot on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 12th and 18th months was 64.7, 86.6, 81.4, 81.4 and 100 percent, respectively. In five patients with complete clot resolution, clot reformation occurred after warfarin discontinuation. In these patients, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF improvement was poor. During the study period, five patients died due to severe heart failure. One patient developed hematuria whereas non-experienced thromboembolic events. The mean LVEF at study initiation was 30.8 ± 0.92%, which improved to 42 ± 0.84% (P < 0.05 at the end. CONCLUSION: All LVT was resolved with a combination therapy of antiplatelet and warfarin without any thromboembolic event. In patients with a poor improvement in the LV function, due to the risk of LVT reformation, lifelong warfarin therapy was recommended. 

  10. Aneuploidy theory explains tumor formation, the absence of immune surveillance, and the failure of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnick, David

    2002-07-01

    The autocatalyzed progression of aneuploidy accounts for all cancer-specific phenotypes, the Hayflick limit of cultured cells, carcinogen-induced tumors in mice, the age distribution of human cancer, and multidrug-resistance. Here aneuploidy theory addresses tumor formation. The logistic equation, phi(n)(+1) = rphi(n) (1 - phi(n)), models the autocatalyzed progression of aneuploidy in vivo and in vitro. The variable phi(n)(+1) is the average aneuploid fraction of a population of cells at the n+1 cell division and is determined by the value at the nth cell division. The value r is the growth control parameter. The logistic equation was used to compute the probability distribution for values of phi after numerous divisions of aneuploid cells. The autocatalyzed progression of aneuploidy follows the laws of deterministic chaos, which means that certain values of phi are more probable than others. The probability map of the logistic equation shows that: 1) an aneuploid fraction of at least 0.30 is necessary to sustain a population of cancer cells; and 2) the most likely aneuploid fraction after many population doublings is 0.70, which is equivalent to a DNA(index)=1.7, the point of maximum disorder of the genome that still sustains life. Aneuploidy theory also explains the lack of immune surveillance and the failure of chemotherapy.

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm, arterial stiffening and the role of the intraluminal thrombus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck Hansen, Maria; Dahl Thomsen, Marie; Melholt Rasmussen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: PWV and PWA were measured in male patients with AAA from an ongoing Danish AAA screening trial. Information on blood pressure, medications, BMI and smoking status was obtained at inclusion. RESULTS: In total, 157 patients were included. Mean age was 73 years. Mean AAA size...... was 42.2 mm. Fifty-six of the patients had an intraluminal thrombus, and patients with AAA and ILT had a significantly higher Aix75 than patients with AAA but without ILT (Mean = 28.3 ± 1.4 SEM vs. 24.9 ± 0.81, p=0.027), a difference that was also significant when adjusting for AAA size, blood pressure...... and age. There was no difference in PWV between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Haemodynamic properties of the aorta are affected by the presence of ILT in patients with AAA that is not explained by aortic size. Alternatively, these findings could be explained by associations between ILT and properties...

  12. Enhancing Tumor Drug Delivery by Laser-Activated Vascular Barrier Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    diabetic retinopathy . Therefore, se- lectively targeting existing blood vessels (vascular- disrupting therapy) and/or inhibiting the forma- tion of new...adhesion led to the formation of thrombi that can occlude blood vessels, causing vascular shutdown. However, viable tumor cells were often detected at...tumor sections (Fig. 4). However, viable tumor cells were commonly detected at tumor periphery. Because of the existence of viable peripheral tumor cells

  13. Inhibition of Tumor Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth by the DSL Domain of Human Delta-Like 1 Targeted to Vascular Endothelial Cells12

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xing-Cheng; Dou, Guo-Rui; Wang, Li; Liang, Liang; Tian, Deng-Mei; Cao, Xiu-Li; Qin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Chun-Mei; Zhang, Ping; Han, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The growth of solid tumors depends on neovascularization. Several therapies targeting tumor angiogenesis have been developed. However, poor response in some tumors and emerging resistance necessitate further investigations of new drug targets. Notch signal pathway plays a pivotal role in vascular development and tumor angiogenesis. Either blockade or forced activation of this pathway can inhibit angiogenesis. As blocking Notch pathway results in the formation of vascular neoplasm, activation ...

  14. Importance of hyaluronan biosynthesis and degradation in cell differentiation and tumor formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heldin P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan is an important connective tissue glycosaminoglycan. Elevated hyaluronan biosynthesis is a common feature during tissue remodeling under both physiological and pathological conditions. Through its interactions with hyaladherins, hyaluronan affects several cellular functions such as cell migration and differentiation. The activities of hyaluronan-synthesizing and -degrading enzymes have been shown to be regulated in response to growth factors. During tumor progression hyaluronan stimulates tumor cell growth and invasiveness. Thus, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms which regulate the activities of hyaluronan-synthesizing and -degrading enzymes during tumor progression is highly desired.

  15. Circular RNA alterations are involved in resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup-J-induced tumor formation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinheng; Yan, Yiming; Lei, Xiaoya; Li, Aijun; Zhang, Huanmin; Dai, Zhenkai; Li, Xinjian; Chen, Weiguo; Lin, Wencheng; Chen, Feng; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei

    2017-05-23

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup (ALV-J) is an oncogenic neoplasm-inducing retrovirus that causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent studies have demonstrated circular RNAs (circRNAs) are implicated in pathogenic processes; however, no research has indicated circRNAs are involved in resistance to disease. In this study, over 1800 circRNAs were detected by circRNA sequencing of liver tissues from ALV-J-resistant (n = 3) and ALV-J-susceptible chickens (n = 3). 32 differentially expressed circRNAs were selected for analyzing including 12 upregulated in ALV-J-resistant chickens and 20 upregulated in ALV-J-susceptible chickens, besides, the top five microRNAs (miRNAs) for 12 upregulated circRNAs in ALV-J-resistant chickens were analyzed. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses were performed for miRNA target genes, the predicted genes were mainly involved in immune pathways. This study provides the first evidence that circRNA alterations are involved in resistance to ALV-J-induced tumor formation. We propose circRNAs may help to mediate tumor induction and development in chickens.

  16. The short-term prognostic value of thrombus precursor protein in patients with unstable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yanbo; Yu Yan; Tang Jianzhong; Yuan Dingshan; Cai Danlei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the short-term prognostic value of thrombus precursor protein (TpP) in patients with unstable angina (UA). Methods: One hundred and ten cases of UA were selected. The TpP was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cardiovascular events were observed in 6 months. Results: In the 100 cases of UA, the cardiovascular events were observed in 17 cases. There was an significant difference in three levels of TpP (P<0.05). The risk level was increasing as the increasing of the plasma level of TpP. Conclusion: The level of TpP has certain reference value and plays a role in forecasting of the short-term prognosis of the patients with UA. When the plasma level of TpP increases there is also an increase in OR. (authors)

  17. Impact of short-term hemodialysis catheters on the central veins: a catheter venographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzkurt, Levent E-mail: loguzkurt@yahoo.com; Tercan, Fahri; Torun, Dilek; Yildirim, Tuelin; Zuemruetdal, Ayseguel; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2004-12-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of pericatheter sleeve formation, thrombus formation, and stenosis of the central veins in hemodialysis patients with temporary catheters. Methods and material: In this prospective study, 57 patients (40 males, 17 females) with temporary dialysis catheters had catheter venography by pulling back the catheter just before removal. Patient's age range was 25-87 years (mean age, 51 years). The venographic studies were evaluated for pericatheter sleeve formation, thrombus formation, and stenosis of the brachiocephalic vein (BCV) and the superior vena cava (SVC). The IJV could only be evaluated if there was adequate filling during contrast administration. In a subgroup of patients who had had only right IJV or only right SCV catheters, impact of these catheters on the central veins was compared. Results: The catheter location was right internal jugular vein (IJV) in 26 cases, right subclavian vein (SCV) in 27 cases, left IJV in 1 case, and left SCV in 3 cases. Thirty-two patients (56%) had had only one temporary catheter and the rest had had more than one inserted. The mean dwell time for the catheters was 21 days (range 7-59 days). A pericatheter sleeve was detected on venography in 32 (56%) patients and thrombus formation was noted in 16 patients (28%). A total of 41 patients (72%) exhibited pericatheter sleeve and/or thrombus formation. While 19 of the 32 patients (59%) without previous catheterization had a sleeve around the catheter, only 13 (52%) of 25 patients who had had multiple catheters inserted had a sleeve (P>0.05). Of the eight patients (14%) with BCV stenosis, two had >50% stenosis. Only one patient (2%) had mild stenosis of the SVC. Three patients out of 15 (20%) who had diagnostic venography for the IJV had severe stenosis of the vein. Pericatheter sleeve formation was more frequent in women (P<0.05). However, there were no statistical differences with respect to pericatheter sleeve formation, luminal filling

  18. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered 'killer' transfer RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dong-hui [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey [Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Geslain, Renaud, E-mail: rgeslain@depaul.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Department of Biology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60614 (United States); Rosner, Marsha, E-mail: m-rosner@uchicago.edu [Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pan, Tao, E-mail: taopan@uchicago.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA with anti-cancer effects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA induced protein misfolding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA as anti-tumor agent. -- Abstract: A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) is an engineered human tRNA{sup Ser} with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent.

  19. CS2164, a novel multi-target inhibitor against tumor angiogenesis, mitosis and chronic inflammation with anti-tumor potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Shan, Song; Li, Zhi-Bin; Xin, Li-Jun; Pan, De-Si; Yang, Qian-Jiao; Liu, Ying-Ping; Yue, Xu-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Rong; Gao, Ji-Zhou; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Ning, Zhi-Qiang; Lu, Xian-Ping

    2017-03-01

    Although inhibitors targeting tumor angiogenic pathway have provided improvement for clinical treatment in patients with various solid tumors, the still very limited anti-cancer efficacy and acquired drug resistance demand new agents that may offer better clinical benefits. In the effort to find a small molecule potentially targeting several key pathways for tumor development, we designed, discovered and evaluated a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, CS2164. CS2164 inhibited the angiogenesis-related kinases (VEGFR2, VEGFR1, VEGFR3, PDGFRα and c-Kit), mitosis-related kinase Aurora B and chronic inflammation-related kinase CSF-1R in a high potency manner with the IC 50 at a single-digit nanomolar range. Consequently, CS2164 displayed anti-angiogenic activities through suppression of VEGFR/PDGFR phosphorylation, inhibition of ligand-dependent cell proliferation and capillary tube formation, and prevention of vasculature formation in tumor tissues. CS2164 also showed induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and suppression of cell proliferation in tumor tissues through the inhibition of Aurora B-mediated H3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, CS2164 demonstrated the inhibitory effect on CSF-1R phosphorylation that led to the suppression of ligand-stimulated monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and reduced CSF-1R + cells in tumor tissues. The in vivo animal efficacy studies revealed that CS2164 induced remarkable regression or complete inhibition of tumor growth at well-tolerated oral doses in several human tumor xenograft models. Collectively, these results indicate that CS2164 is a highly selective multi-kinase inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activities against tumor angiogenesis, mitosis and chronic inflammation, which may provide the rationale for further clinical assessment of CS2164 as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  20. Tumor-Triggered Geometrical Shape Switch of Chimeric Peptide for Enhanced in Vivo Tumor Internalization and Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Weiyun; Wang, Shibo; Xu, Luming; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Xianzheng; Han, Heyou

    2017-03-28

    Geometrical shape of nanoparticles plays an important role in cellular internalization. However, the applicability in tumor selective therapeutics is still scarcely reported. In this article, we designed a tumor extracellular acidity-responsive chimeric peptide with geometrical shape switch for enhanced tumor internalization and photodynamic therapy. This chimeric peptide could self-assemble into spherical nanoparticles at physiological condition. While at tumor extracellular acidic microenvironment, chimeric peptide underwent detachment of acidity-sensitive 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride groups. The subsequent recovery of ionic complementarity between chimeric peptides resulted in formation of rod-like nanoparticles. Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that this acidity-triggered geometrical shape switch endowed chimeric peptide with accelerated internalization in tumor cells, prolonged accumulation in tumor tissue, enhanced photodynamic therapy, and minimal side effects. Our results suggested that fusing tumor microenvironment with geometrical shape switch should be a promising strategy for targeted drug delivery.

  1. Recent advances of bispecific antibodies in solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer immunotherapy is the most exciting advancement in cancer therapy. Similar to immune checkpoint blockade and chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T, bispecific antibody (BsAb is attracting more and more attention as a novel strategy of antitumor immunotherapy. BsAb not only offers an effective linkage between therapeutics (e.g., immune effector cells, radionuclides and targets (e.g., tumor cells but also simultaneously blocks two different oncogenic mediators. In recent decades, a variety of BsAb formats have been generated. According to the structure of Fc domain, BsAb can be classified into two types: IgG-like format and Fc-free format. Among these formats, bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs and triomabs are commonly investigated. BsAb has achieved an exciting breakthrough in hematological malignancies and promising outcome in solid tumor as showed in various clinical trials. In this review, we focus on the preclinical experiments and clinical studies of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER family, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA related BsAbs in solid tumors, as well as discuss the challenges and corresponding approaches in clinical application.

  2. Targeting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition for Identification of Inhibitors for Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion and Tumor Spheres Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Polireddy

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has an enrichment of stem-like cancer cells (CSCs that contribute to chemoresistant tumors prone to metastasis and recurrence. Drug screening assays based on cytotoxicity cannot identify specific CSC inhibitors, because CSCs comprise only a small portion of cancer cell population, and it is difficult to propagate stable CSC populations in vitro for high-throughput screening (HTS assays. Based on the important role of cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in promoting CSCs, we hypothesized that inhibition of EMT can be a useful strategy for inhibiting CSCs, and therefore a feasible approach for HTS can be built for identification of CSC inhibitors, based on assays detecting EMT inhibition.An immunofluorescent assay was established and optimized for HTS to identify compounds that enhance E-cadherin expression, as a hallmark of inhibition of EMT. Four chemical libraries containing 41,472 compounds were screened in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell line. Positive hits were validated for EMT and CSC inhibition in vitro using sphere formation assay, western blotting, immune fluorescence, and scratch assay.Initial hits were refined to 73 compounds with a secondary screening, among which 17 exhibited concentration dependent induction of E-cadherin expression. Six compounds were selected for further study which belonged to 2 different chemical structural clusters. A novel compound 1-(benzylsulfonyl indoline (BSI, Compound #38 significantly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion. BSI inhibited histone deacetylase, increased histone 4 acetylation preferably, resulting in E-cadherin up-regulation. BSI effectively inhibited tumor spheres formation. Six more analogues of BSI were tested for anti-migration and anti-CSC activities.This study demonstrated a feasible approach for discovery of agents targeting EMT and CSCs using HTS, and identified a class of novel chemicals that could be developed as anti-EMT and

  3. Mast cells mediate malignant pleural effusion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannou, Anastasios D; Marazioti, Antonia; Spella, Magda; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I; Apostolopoulou, Hara; Psallidas, Ioannis; Prijovich, Zeljko M; Vreka, Malamati; Zazara, Dimitra E; Lilis, Ioannis; Papaleonidopoulos, Vassilios; Kairi, Chrysoula A; Patmanidi, Alexandra L; Giopanou, Ioanna; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Aidinis, Vassilis; Spyratos, Dionisios; Teliousi, Stamatia; Papadaki, Helen; Taraviras, Stavros; Snyder, Linda A; Eickelberg, Oliver; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Blackwell, Timothy S; Agalioti, Theodora; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2015-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) have been identified in various tumors; however, the role of these cells in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we quantified MCs in human and murine malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and evaluated the fate and function of these cells in MPE development. Evaluation of murine MPE-competent lung and colon adenocarcinomas revealed that these tumors actively attract and subsequently degranulate MCs in the pleural space by elaborating CCL2 and osteopontin. MCs were required for effusion development, as MPEs did not form in mice lacking MCs, and pleural infusion of MCs with MPE-incompetent cells promoted MPE formation. Once homed to the pleural space, MCs released tryptase AB1 and IL-1β, which in turn induced pleural vasculature leakiness and triggered NF-κB activation in pleural tumor cells, thereby fostering pleural fluid accumulation and tumor growth. Evaluation of human effusions revealed that MCs are elevated in MPEs compared with benign effusions. Moreover, MC abundance correlated with MPE formation in a human cancer cell-induced effusion model. Treatment of mice with the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited effusion precipitation by mouse and human adenocarcinoma cells. Together, the results of this study indicate that MCs are required for MPE formation and suggest that MC-dependent effusion formation is therapeutically addressable.

  4. A novel thromboxane receptor antagonist, nstpbp5185, inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiu-Wen; Kuo, Heng-Lan; Hsu, Ming-Tsung; Tseng, Yufeng Jane; Lin, Shu-Wha; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Peng, Hui-Chin; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2016-08-01

    A novel benzimidazole derivative, nstpbp5185, was discovered through in vitro and in vivo evaluations for antiplatelet activity. Thromaboxane receptor (TP) is important in vascular physiology, haemostasis and pathophysiological thrombosis. Nstpbp5185 concentration-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation caused by collagen, arachidonic acid and U46619. Nstpbp5185 caused a right-shift of the concentration-response curve of U46619 and competitively inhibited the binding of 3H-SQ-29548 to TP receptor expressed on HEK-293 cells, with an IC50 of 0.1 µM, indicating that nstpbp5185 is a TP antagonist. In murine thrombosis models, nstpbp5185 significantly prolonged the latent period in triggering platelet plug formation in mesenteric and FeCl3-induced thrombi formation, and increased the survival rate in pulmonary embolism model with less bleeding than aspirin. This study suggests nstpbp5185, an orally selective anti-thrombotic agent, acting through blockade of TXA2 receptor, may be efficacious for prevention or treatment of pathologic thrombosis.

  5. Effects of low dose radiation on tumor growth and changes of erythrocyte immune function and activity of SOD in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongsheng; Lu Yanda

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of low dose radiation on tumor growth and changes of erythrocyte immune function and activity of SOD in the tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Kunming strain male mice were implanted with S 180 sarcoma cells in the right inguen subcutaneously as an experimental in situ animal model. Six hours before implantation the mice were given 75 mG whole-body X-ray irradiation and tumor-formation rate was counted 5 days late. From then, every two days the tumor volume was measured to draw a tumor growth curve. Fifteen days later, all mice were killed to measure the tumor weight, observe the necrosis area and the tumor-infiltration lymphoreticular cells (TIL) in the tumor pathologically. At the same time, erythrocyte immune function and activity of SOD were tested. Results: (1) The mice pre-exposed to low dose radiation had a lower tumor formation rate than those without a pre-exposed (P < 0.05). (2) The tumor growth slowed down significantly in mice receiving a low does irradiation; The average tumor weight in mice receiving a low dose irradiation was lighter too (P < 0.05). (3) The tumor necrosis areas were larger and TILs were more in the irradiation group than those of the control group. (4) The erythrocyte immune function and activity of SOD in the irradiation group were all higher significantly than those of the control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: Low dose radiation could markedly increase anti-tumor ability of the organism and improve the erythrocyte immune function and activity of SOD in red cells, suggesting it could be useful in clinical cancer treatment

  6. Clinical effect of selective thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-wei LIU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess impact of selective thrombus aspiration (TA during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI on long-term prognosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Methods  Between Jan. 2008 and Jan. 2014, a total of 2357 STEMI patients [429 in thrombus aspiration (TA group and 1928 in routine percutaneous coronsry intorventim (PCI group (control group] were eligible for the study criteria and candidates for pPCI were enrolled in this study. The reflow of the involved vessel in pPCI procedure, stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiac events (MACE were comparatively analyzed in the two groups during hospital stay and 12-month follow-up period. Results Although the success rate of TA procedure was significantly lower in TA group compared with that in control group (P<0.001, both the TIMI flow grade ≥2 after TA procedure and stent implantation occurred more frequently in TA group than in control group (P<0.05. The rates of MACE and stent thrombosis showed no difference between two groups during in-hospital and 12-month follow-up period (P>0.05. But the rates of total MACE and target vessel revascularization were significantly higher in control group than in TA group (P=0.04. Conclusion Selective TA procedure before primary PCI could improve final myocardial reperfusion, reduce the incidence of MACE and improve the 1-year clinical result for STEMI patients. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.04.04

  7. Assessment of the role of circulating breast cancer cells in tumor formation and metastatic potential using in vivo flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Derrick; Boutrus, Steven; Greiner, Cherry; Dimeo, Theresa; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2011-04-01

    The identification of breast cancer patients who will ultimately progress to metastatic disease is of significant clinical importance. The quantification and assessment of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been proposed as one strategy to monitor treatment effectiveness and disease prognosis. However, CTCs have been an elusive population of cells to study because of their small number and difficulties associated with isolation protocols. In vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) can overcome these limitations and provide insights in the role these cells play during primary and metastatic tumor growth. In this study, we used two-color IVFC to examine, for up to ten weeks following orthotopic implantation, changes in the number of circulating human breast cells expressing GFP and a population of circulating hematopoietic cells with strong autofluorescence. We found that the number of detected CTCs in combination with the number of red autofluorescent cells (650 to 690 nm) during the first seven days following implantation was predictive in development of tumor formation and metastasis eight weeks later. These results suggest that the combined detection of these two cell populations could offer a novel approach in the monitoring and prognosis of breast cancer progression, which in turn could aid significantly in their effective treatment.

  8. Functional genomics in zebrafish permits rapid characterization of novel platelet membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Marie N; Salles, Isabelle I; Cvejic, Ana; Watkins, Nicholas A; Walker, Adam; Garner, Stephen F; Jones, Chris I; Macaulay, Iain C; Steward, Michael; Zwaginga, Jaap-Jan; Bray, Sarah L; Dudbridge, Frank; de Bono, Bernard; Goodall, Alison H; Deckmyn, Hans; Stemple, Derek L; Ouwehand, Willem H

    2009-05-07

    In this study, we demonstrate the suitability of the vertebrate Danio rerio (zebrafish) for functional screening of novel platelet genes in vivo by reverse genetics. Comparative transcript analysis of platelets and their precursor cell, the megakaryocyte, together with nucleated blood cell elements, endothelial cells, and erythroblasts, identified novel platelet membrane proteins with hitherto unknown roles in thrombus formation. We determined the phenotype induced by antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-based knockdown of 5 of these genes in a laser-induced arterial thrombosis model. To validate the model, the genes for platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb and the coagulation protein factor VIII were targeted. MO-injected fish showed normal thrombus initiation but severely impaired thrombus growth, consistent with the mouse knockout phenotypes, and concomitant knockdown of both resulted in spontaneous bleeding. Knockdown of 4 of the 5 novel platelet proteins altered arterial thrombosis, as demonstrated by modified kinetics of thrombus initiation and/or development. We identified a putative role for BAMBI and LRRC32 in promotion and DCBLD2 and ESAM in inhibition of thrombus formation. We conclude that phenotypic analysis of MO-injected zebrafish is a fast and powerful method for initial screening of novel platelet proteins for function in thrombosis.

  9. Interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Hendrik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent advances in tumor biology have revealed that a detailed analysis of the complex interactions of tumor cells with their adjacent microenvironment (tumor stroma is mandatory in order to understand the various mechanisms involved in tumor growth and the development of metastasis. The mutual interactions between tumor cells and cellular and non-cellular components (extracellular matrix = ECM of the tumor microenvironment will eventually lead to a loss of tissue homeostasis and promote tumor development and progression. Thus, interactions of genetically altered tumor cells and the ECM on the one hand and reactive non-neoplastic cells on the other hand essentially control most aspects of tumorigenesis such as epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT, migration, invasion (i.e. migration through connective tissue, metastasis formation, neovascularisation, apoptosis and chemotherapeutic drug resistance. In this mini-review we will focus on these issues that were recently raised by two review articles in CCS.

  10. Targeting sarcoma tumor-initiating cells through differentiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I down-regulation has been reported in many human cancers to be associated with poor clinical outcome. However, its connection to tumor-initiating cells (TICs remains unknown. In this study, we report that HLA-I is down-regulated in a subpopulation of cells that have high tumor initiating capacity in different types of human sarcomas. Detailed characterization revealed their distinct molecular profiles regarding proliferation, apoptosis and stemness programs. Notably, these TICs can be induced to differentiate along distinct mesenchymal lineages, including the osteogenic pathway. The retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway is overexpressed in HLA-1 negative TICs. All-trans retinoic acid treatment successfully induced osteogenic differentiation of this subpopulation, in vitro and in vivo, resulting in significantly decreased tumor formation. Thus, our findings indicate down-regulated HLA-I is a shared feature of TICs in a variety of human sarcomas, and differentiation therapy strategies may specifically target undifferentiated TICs and inhibit tumor formation.

  11. Coronary thrombus in 34-year-old female patient with 4G/4G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Varol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors and hypofibrinolytic state may contribute to the likelihood of developing in myocardial infarction (MI in young women rather than traditional risk factors. High plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 level and PAI-1 gene polymorphism have been shown to be associated with thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction, deep venous thrombosis, and stroke. We determined 4G/4G polymorphism in a 34-year-old female patient with subacute anterior myocardial infarction and coronary thrombus in left anterior descending artery on coronary angiogram.

  12. Left atrial appendage myxofibrosarcoma: A rare masquerader of myxoma and thrombus-"all that glitters is not gold".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shoaib; Reddy, Sahadev; Lombardi, Richard; Isabel, Pitti; Mcgregor, Walter E; Tang, Bang; Gabriel, George; Biederman, Robert W

    2018-02-01

    Left atrial appendage mass can occasionally pose a serious challenge to physicians to identify the nature of the mass with the aid of imaging techniques. We present a case of 67-year-old man, who was evaluated for suspected left atria myxoma. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a heterogeneous density originating from left atrial appendage, thought to be most consistent with a myxoma. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, uncharacteristically, gave an equivocal picture, suggesting the mass to be a myxoma on initial imaging and a thrombus with evidence of liquefaction necrosis following postcontrast enhancement. Surprisingly, histopathology of the mass following its surgical excision yielded a rare diagnosis of myxofibrosarcoma. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Thrombotic Occlusion in Tortuous Arterioles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Gang; Cortina, Miguel; Chesnutt, Jennifer KW; Han, Hai-Chao

    2017-01-01

    Tortuous microvessels alter blood flow and stimulate thrombosis but the physical mechanisms are poorly understood. Both tortuous microvessels and abnormally large platelets are seen in diabetic patients. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the physical effects of arteriole tortuosity and platelet size on the microscale processes of thrombotic occlusion in microvessels. A new lattice-Boltzmann method-based discrete element model was developed to simulate the fluid flow field with fluid-platelet coupling, platelet interactions, thrombus formation, and thrombotic occlusion in tortuous arterioles. Our results show that vessel tortuosity creates high shear stress zones that activate platelets and stimulate thrombus formation. The growth rate depends on the level of tortuosity and the pressure and flow boundary conditions. Once thrombi began to form, platelet collisions with thrombi and subsequent activations were more important than tortuosity level. Thrombus growth narrowed the channel and reduced the flow rate. Larger platelet size leads to quicker decrease of flow rate due to larger thrombi that occluded the arteriole. This study elucidated the important roles that tortuosity and platelet size play in thrombus formation and occlusion in arterioles. PMID:29327739

  14. Imaging Reporters for Proteasome Activity Identify Tumor- and Metastasis-Initiating Cells

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    Amanda C. Stacer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-initiating cells, also designated as cancer stem cells, are proposed to constitute a subpopulation of malignant cells central to tumorigenesis, metastasis, and treatment resistance. We analyzed the activity of the proteasome, the primary organelle for targeted protein degradation, as a marker of tumor- and metastasis-initiating cells. Using human and mouse breast cancer cells expressing a validated fluorescent reporter, we found a small subpopulation of cells with low proteasome activity that divided asymmetrically to produce daughter cells with low or high proteasome activity. Breast cancer cells with low proteasome activity had greater local tumor formation and metastasis in immunocompromised and immunocompetent mice. To allow flexible labeling of cells, we also developed a new proteasome substrate based on HaloTag technology. Patient-derived glioblastoma cells with low proteasome activity measured by the HaloTag reporter show key phenotypes associated with tumor-initiating cells, including expression of a stem cell transcription factor, reconstitution of the original starting population, and enhanced neurosphere formation. We also show that patient-derived glioblastoma cells with low proteasome activity have higher frequency of tumor formation in mouse xenografts. These studies support proteasome function as a tool to investigate tumor- and metastasis-initiating cancer cells and a potential biomarker for outcomes in patients with several different cancers.

  15. Histopathological features of aspirated thrombi after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

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    Miranda C Kramer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plaque disruption with superimposed thrombus is the predominant mechanism responsible for the onset of acute coronary syndromes. Studies have shown that plaque disruption and thrombotic occlusion are frequently separated in time. We established the histopathological characteristics of material aspirated during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in a large consecutive ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thrombus aspiration during primary PCI was performed in 1,362 STEMI patients. Thrombus age was classified as fresh (5 day. Further, the presence of plaque was documented. The histopathological findings were related to the clinical, angiographic, and procedural characteristics. Material could be aspirated in 1,009 patients (74%. Components of plaque were found in 395 of these patients (39%. Fresh thrombus was found in 577 of 959 patients (60% compared to 382 patients (40% with lytic or organized thrombi. Distal embolization was present in 21% of patients with lytic thrombus compared to 12% and 15% of patients with fresh or organized thrombus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Material could be obtained in 74% of STEMI patients treated with thrombus aspiration during primary PCI. In 40% of patients thrombus age is older than 24 h, indicating that plaque disruption and thrombus formation occur significantly earlier than the onset of symptoms in many patients.

  16. Modified model of VX2 tumor overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Florentina; Ghegediban, Saida-Homayra; Bonneau, Michel; Bedouet, Laurent; Namur, Julien; Verret, Valentin; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Wassef, Michel; Laurent, Alexandre

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in VX2 cells can increase vessel density (VD) and reduce tumor necrosis. The VX2 cell line was transfected with expression vectors containing cDNA for rabbit VEGF. Stable clones producing rabbit VEGF (VEGF-VX2) were selected. VEGF-VX2 cells (n = 5 rabbits) or nontransfected VX2 cells (controls; n = 5 rabbits) were implanted into leg muscle of 10 rabbits. The animals were sacrificed at day 21. Tumor volume, percentage of necrosis, VD, and VEGF concentration in tumor protein extract were quantified. Overexpression of VEGF by VX2 cells augmented tumor implantation efficiency 100% and favored cyst formation. The tumor volume was significantly larger for VEGF-VX2 transfected tumors versus controls (P = .0143). Overexpression of VEGF in VX2 cells significantly increased the VD of the tumors (P = .0138). The percentage of necrosis was reduced in VEGF-VX2 tumors versus controls (19.5% vs 38.5 %; P = .002). VEGF concentration in VEGF-VX2 tumors was significantly higher than in control tumors (P = .041) and was correlated with tumor volume (ρ = .883, P = .012). The overexpression of VEGF increased tumor growth and vascularization, favored cyst formation, and reduced tumor necrosis. This new phenotype of the VX2 tumor may offer some advantages over classic models of VX2 tumor for evaluating anticancer therapies. Copyright © 2012 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Capabilities of diffusion-weighted and fresh blood imaging in depicting fresh thrombus. Presidential award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Ritsuko; Manabe, Tsutomu; Tazawa, Satoru

    2007-01-01

    We examined the capabilities of diffusion-weighted (DWI) and fresh-blood imaging (FBI) in depicting thrombus. A paper-clay phantom holding test syringes of various sizes filled with either contrast medium or fresh human blood were scanned using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and signal intensities on DWI and FBI of the specimens were obtained. FBI depicted all the specimens regardless of syringe diameter, but DWI failed to image the syringe measuring 0.5 cm in diameter. B-factors and/or number of acquisitions (NAQ) seemed responsible for DWI's depiction capability. ADC values and signal intensities on DWI and FBI correlated with the viscosity of the contrast medium samples. Clotted blood, the most viscous of the samples, had the smallest ADC value and no relationship with signal intensities on DWI and FBI. Larger b-factors reduced signal intensity in contrast medium on DWI, but signals decreased only minimally in clotted blood. The result suggested that although viscosity was the influential factor for signal intensities on DWI in contrast medium, other factors, such as particle sizes of fibrin and hemoglobin, accounted for the low ADC values in clotting blood. T 2 relaxation time seemed to play a significant role in making signal intensities on DWI irrelevant to b-factors. Despite lapsed time, the clots were persistently hyperintense on FBI with a tendency to decrease only gradually. On DWI, there was a certain period when signal intensities were high and ADC values were low. The signal intensities on DWI and ADC values were considered to be influenced by the process of clot formation, and disappearance of signal seemed likely attributable to degeneration of protein and organization of the clot. (author)

  18. Role of vitamin D3 in modulation of ΔNp63α expression during UVB induced tumor formation in SKH-1 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha T Hill

    Full Text Available ΔNp63α, a proto-oncogene, is up-regulated in non-melanoma skin cancers and directly regulates the expression of both Vitamin D receptor (VDR and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN. Since ΔNp63α has been shown to inhibit cell invasion via regulation of VDR, we wanted to determine whether dietary Vitamin D3 protected against UVB induced tumor formation in SKH-1 mice, a model for squamous cell carcinoma development. We examined whether there was a correlation between dietary Vitamin D3 and ΔNp63α, VDR or PTEN expression in vivo in SKH-1 mice chronically exposed to UVB radiation and fed chow containing increasing concentrations of dietary Vitamin D3. Although we observed differential effects of the Vitamin D3 diet on ΔNp63α and VDR expression in chronically irradiated normal mouse skin as well as UVB induced tumors, Vitamin D3 had little effect on PTEN expression in vivo. While low-grade papillomas in mice exposed to UV and fed normal chow displayed increased levels of ΔNp63α, expression of both ΔNp63α and VDR was reduced in invasive tumors. Interestingly, in mice fed high Vitamin D3 chow, elevated levels of ΔNp63α were observed in both local and invasive tumors but not in normal skin suggesting that oral supplementation with Vitamin D3 may increase the proliferative potential of skin tumors by increasing ΔNp63α levels.

  19. Biochemomechanical poroelastic theory of avascular tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-Lei; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2016-09-01

    Tumor growth is a complex process involving genetic mutations, biochemical regulations, and mechanical deformations. In this paper, a thermodynamics-based nonlinear poroelastic theory is established to model the coupling among the mechanical, chemical, and biological mechanisms governing avascular tumor growth. A volumetric growth law accounting for mechano-chemo-biological coupled effects is proposed to describe the development of solid tumors. The regulating roles of stresses and nutrient transport in the tumor growth are revealed under different environmental constraints. We show that the mechano-chemo-biological coupling triggers anisotropic and heterogeneous growth, leading to the formation of layered structures in a growing tumor. There exists a steady state in which tumor growth is balanced by resorption. The influence of external confinements on tumor growth is also examined. A phase diagram is constructed to illustrate how the elastic modulus and thickness of the confinements jointly dictate the steady state of tumor volume. Qualitative and quantitative agreements with experimental observations indicate the developed model is capable of capturing the essential features of avascular tumor growth in various environments.

  20. Vessel wall and indium-111-labelled platelet response to carotid endarterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusby, R.J.; Ferrell, L.D.; Englestad, B.L.; Price, D.C.; Lipton, M.J.; Stoney, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Postendarterectomy platelet deposition and thrombus formation may play an important role not only in vessel wall healing but also in the small incidence of postoperative cerebral ischemia and postoperative stenosis. A study has been performed using a canine model to investigate the healing response to carotid endarterectomy and the validity of an in vivo indium-111 (In-111) radiotracer technique in the assessment of postendarterectomy deposition of autologous labelled platelets. Sixteen endarterectomized carotid arteries showed uptake of autologous In-111 platelets immediately after infusion, reaching a maximum by 1 hour with little increase at 24 or 48 hours. No uptake was seen in ten control vessels following platelet infusion (P less than 0.05). At autopsy, seven vessels were demonstrated to have In-111 platelet deposition immediately prior to sacrifice of the animals. Postmortem scanning confirmed the localization to the vessel lumens, and microscopy revealed thrombus formation with or without partial endothelialization. Complete reendothelialization had occurred in the vessels that failed to show platelet deposition. Delayed healing was associated with continuing platelet deposition, excessive thrombus formation, and luminal stenosis. Arteriotomy closure with a vein patch altered the healing characteristics of the vessel with segmental thrombus formation over the vein patch. A preliminary study of the postendarterectomy in vivo In-111 platelet response in humans demonstrated platelet deposition that was not influenced by the administration of antiplatelet drugs at currently prescribed levels

  1. The programmed nursing care for lower extremity deep venous thrombus patients receiving interventional thrombolysis: its effect on living quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Cuiyun; Wang Zhujun; Lan Guiyun; Liang Zhiqiang; Shi Yonmin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Tu study the effect of comprehensive programmed nursing intervention on the living quality in patients with lower extremity deep venous thrombus who receive interventional thrombolysis therapy. Methods: A total of 60 patients receiving interventional thrombolysis due to lower extremity deep venous thrombus were randomly and equally divided into two groups. Patients in study group (n=30) was treated with comprehensive programmed nursing intervention in addition to the conventional therapy and routine nursing care, while patients in control group (n=30) was treated with the conventional therapy and routine nursing care only. The conventional therapy and routine nursing care included the nursing assessment before the operation, observation of the vital signs and the cooperation psychological care during the operation, the performance of medication according to the doctor's orders after the operation, etc. The comprehensive programmed nursing intervention included the nursing assessment of the patient before operation and the scientifically making of the nursing plan, which mainly referred to the cognitive behavior, the psychological care and the health education. They were systematically carried out during the perioperative period. One month after discharge the patients were asked to pay a return visit. The living quality was evaluated with relevant standards, and the results were compared between the two groups. Results: The score of living quality in the study group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: The comprehensive programmed nursing intervention can significantly improve the living quality of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis patients who receive interventional thrombolysis therapy. (authors)

  2. Role of ADAMs in cancer formation and progression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) comprise a family of multidomain transmembrane and secreted proteins. One of their best-established roles is the release of biologically important ligands, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, and amphiregulin. Because these ligands have been implicated in the formation and progression of tumors, it might be expected that the specific ADAMs involved in their release would also be involved in malignancy. Consistent with this hypothesis, emerging data from model systems suggest that ADAMs, such as ADAM-9, ADAM-12, ADAM-15, and ADAM-17, are causally involved in tumor formation\\/progression. In human cancer, specific ADAMs are up-regulated, with levels generally correlating with parameters of tumor progression and poor outcome. In preclinical models, selective ADAM inhibitors against ADAM-10 and ADAM-17 have been shown to synergize with existing therapies in decreasing tumor growth. The ADAMs are thus a new family of potential targets for the treatment of cancer, especially malignancies that are dependent on human epidermal growth factor receptor ligands or tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

  3. Desmoid tumor of bone with enchondromatous nodules, mistaken for chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Musculoskeletal Oncology Study Group, Catholic University of Korea (Korea); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Uijongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, 65-1 Geumohdong, Uijongbu, Gyunggido, 480-130 (Korea); Kang, Yong-Koo; Lee, An-Hee [Musculoskeletal Oncology Study Group, Catholic University of Korea (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthpaedic Oncology, Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Desmoid tumor of bone, also termed desmoplastic fibroma or aggressive fibromatosis, is a rare, locally aggressive fibroblastic tumor. We present a 16-year-old male with a huge desmoid tumor involving the iliac wing. It was associated with enchondromatous nodules mimicking malignancy. The tumor in this patient was mistaken for chondrosarcoma and hemipelvectomy was performed. To our knowledge, such a case has not previously been documented fully in the English literature. The radiographic and pathologic findings and a possible mechanism of enchondromatous nodule formation in fibrous bone tumors are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Replacement of E-cadherin by N-cadherin in the mammary gland leads to fibrocystic changes and tumor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Ahmed M; Hierholzer, Andreas; Kemler, Rolf

    2011-10-26

    E-cadherin (E-cad; cadherin 1) and N-cadherin (N-cad; cadherin 2) are the most prominent members of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules. Although they share many structural and functional features, they are expressed in an almost mutually exclusive manner in vivo. To explore functional differences between the two cadherins in vivo, we recently generated a knock-in line in which N-cad is expressed from the E-cad locus. In combination with a conditional gene inactivation approach, we expressed N-cad in the absence of E-cad (referred to as Ncadk.i.) in alveolar epithelial cells of the mammary gland starting in late pregnancy. We found that the sole presence of N-cad induces constitutively active fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling and a precocious involution resulting in massive apoptosis of alveolar cells. To block apoptosis, we conditionally deleted one allele of p53 in Ncadk.i. mice and observed a temporal rescue of alveolar morphology and function. However, an accumulation of fibrotic tissue and cysts with increasing age and lactation cycles was observed. This phenotype closely resembled fibrocystic mastopathy (FM), a common disorder in humans, which is thought to precede breast cancer. Concordantly, 55% of Ncadk.i. mice harboring a heterozygous p53 deletion developed malignant and invasive tumors. Our results demonstrate a possible role for N-cad in the formation of fibrosis and cysts in the mammary gland. Moreover, we show that these lesions precede the development of malignant tumors. Thus, we provide a new mouse model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of fibrocystic mastopathy and the transition from benign to malignant tumors.

  5. [Tumor-like bone lesions of the forearm after karate training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, H; Oldenburg, M; Klinger, H M; Schultz, W

    2005-03-01

    Differentiation between malignant bone tumors and tumor-like lesions after repetitive microtrauma following sport activities can be difficult just using radiographic methods. We present the case of a fifteen year old karate fighter, who was examined by imaging diagnostics because of a progressive swelling and pain in the distal right forearm. A tumor-like appearance with bone mass formation in the x-ray, an enhancement in the surrounding tissue shown in the MRI and an increased activity in the bone scintigraphy made the diagnosis of an osteosarcoma very likely. Blood tests were not helpful. Only the evaluation of a bone biopsy could demonstrate hypertrophic reparative bone formation after multiple osseous microtrauma. Cast immobilisation reduced the osseous alteration. With the start of the training the swelling reappeared again but then finally vanished after modifying the training technique. The case demonstrates that even modern imaging techniques cannot always distinguish between tumor and tumor-like lesions caused by sports. It also stresses the importance of a correct technique in sports like karate.

  6. Occurrence of mammary tumors in beagls given radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.; Huth, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    A total of 128 primary mammary tumors (66 of them malignant) occurred in 35 female beagles injected with 226 Ra at eight dose levels ranging from 0.2 to 440 kBq/kg body mass as young adults, while a total of 156 mammary tumors (57 of them malignant) were seen in 46 female control beagles not given any radioactivity. Sixty-three of 65 control dogs and 59 of 61 dogs given 226 Ra survived the minimum age for diagnosis of mammary tumors of 3.75 years. Based on the observed age-dependent tumor incidence rates in the controls and on the corresponding number of dog-years at risk, the total number of observed malignant tumors in the radium group was statistically greater than the number of expected malignant tumors (66 observed vs 34 expected, P < 0.005). There was no such difference for the benign tumors. Cox regression analysis indicated no increased risk for the first tumor occurrence in irradiated dogs. Cox regression analysis of the multivariate risk sets showed no significantly increased risk for the occurrence of benign tumors but a statistically higher risk of 1.66 with a confidence interval of 1.15-2.40 for the occurrence of malignant tumors. The increased risk was dependent on dose, but a dependence on the frequency of previous occurrence of mammary tumors could not be confirmed. Censoring ovariectomized dogs at time of surgery decreased the relative risks slightly but did not alter the significance. Exposure to diagnostic X rays with cumulative exposures below 0.2 Gy had no effect on tumor formation. It is unknown whether the increased risk for malignant mammary tumors was due to some initial deposition of radium in sensitive tissue, a possible irradiation of fatty mammary tissue from transient radon → polonium deposition, or a general effect of the overall radium deposition on the immune system of the dogs that lowered their resistance to formation of mammary tumors. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  7. An experimental study on MR imaging of jugular venous thrombosis in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Hyuk; Choi, Sin Eun; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jae Seung; Lee, Sun Gyu; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the potential application of MRI in differentiating static blood from thrombus, age-related changes of thrombus and the signal differences of the intravascular thrombus in various pulse sequences. External jugular vein was ligated at both upper and lower ends to from a static blood column, and thrombin was injected into the column to cause venous thrombosis in a total of 15 mongrel dogs. The MR images were obtained with T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and gradient echo techniques, lmmediately after the formation of static blood and after 2 hour, 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks of the formation of thrombus at a 2.0 T MR unit. The signal intensities of the thrombus and adjacent muscles were compared subjectively, and the signal intensity ratio was compared objectively by the measurement of the signal intensities using a cursor. The MRI findings were compared with histologic findings. The signal intensities of static blood were hyperintense in all pulse sequences, and those of 2 hour, 1 day and 1 week old thrombi were hyperintense in all pulse sequence. The number of experimental thrombi which showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted image, and hyperintensity on gradient echo image increased as thrombi aged. The signal intensities of 2 week old thrombus were isointense on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image, and hyperintense on gradient echo image, while those of 4 week old thrombus were isointense on T1-weighted and T2-weighted image, and hypointense on gradient echo image in most experimental thrombi. There was a tendency to decrease in a signal intensity ratio as thrombi aged on T1-weighted, T2-weighted and gradient echo images(p<0.01). Histologically, thrombus was not formed and lumen was filled with many red blood cells(RBCs) in 2 hour old specimen, but fibrin mesh was visible and RBCs decreased in number in 1 day old specimen. In 1 week old specimen, vessel was contrasted and lumen was filled with thrombus

  8. Chondrosarcoma of the femur with histology-imaging correlation of tumor growth--preliminary observations concerning periosteal new bone formation and soft tissue extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, German C; Schweitzer, Mark E; Kenan, Samuel; Abdelwahab, Ibrahim F

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was, in chondrosarcoma (CHS) of the femur, to evaluate by radiologic-pathologic correlation, the degree of tumor growth, cortical destruction, periosteal reaction, and soft tissue extension present. Eight cases of histologically proven CHS of the femur were studied. All cases were resected, evaluated histologically with coronal slabs, and compared with radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In two resected specimens, the tumors were studied in more detail; along with coronal slabs, axial sections of the remaining anterior and posterior halves of both tumors were taken, and the bone specimens were X-rayed and examined histologically. CHS initially involved the medullary cavity and subsequently destroyed the cortex; first, by endosteal scalloping and, second, by subsequent invasion and destruction of the cortex. During this process, there was periosteal new bone formation (PNBF), with increased cortical thickness, the degree of which often correlated with the degree of cortical destruction. In the areas of cortical thickening of three cases, a "grey line" was seen on MRI that separated the cortex from the periosteal new bone; the line, in reality,is a space between the two structures. The presence of this line suggests that the tumor does not extend beyond the cortex. PNBF occurred in all cases and varied in thickness. It frequently developed independent of direct periosteal tumor involvement. The periosteum of one case contained porotic bone with interposed marrow fat, which was easily misinterpreted as tumor extension on MRI. Expansion and remodeling of the femoral diaphysis in CHS, with widening of the medullary cavity, is usually due to extensive cortical destruction with PNBF. Soft tissue extension was present in five cases and apparently occurred by two different mechanisms: direct tumor destruction of the cortex and periosteum, with extension into the soft tissues; and subtle MRI occult tumor permeation through the

  9. AngioVac Aspiration for Paradoxical Emboli Protection through a Fenestrated Fontan During Central Venous Thrombus Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey, E-mail: ralhakim@mednet.ucla.edu [University of California, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Patel, Komal, E-mail: kdpatel@mednet.ucla.edu [University of California, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology (United States); Moriarty, John M., E-mail: jmoriarty@mednet.ucla.edu [University of California, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This case reports describes a 39-year-old female with a history of surgically repaired hypoplastic left heart syndrome who presented with a left peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) with associated large volume subclavian and brachiocephalic vein thrombus. Due to the presence of a right-to-left shunt via a fenestrated Fontan, there was clinical concern for a paradoxical embolism during removal of the PICC. The AngioVac aspiration system was successfully utilized to aspirate thromboemboli from the level of the proximal Glenn shunt during manipulation and removal of the PICC. This is the first reported case to demonstrate the safe and effective use of the AngioVac aspiration system for protection of paradoxical emboli through a cardiac right-to-left shunt during a procedure at high risk for thromboembolism.

  10. Neutrophils responsive to endogenous IFN-beta regulate tumor angiogenesis and growth in a mouse tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Jadwiga; Leschner, Sara; Westphal, Kathrin; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried

    2010-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant neoplasias, as the formation of new blood vessels is required for tumors to acquire oxygen and nutrients essential for their continued growth and metastasis. However, the signaling pathways leading to tumor vascularization are not fully understood. Here, using a transplantable mouse tumor model, we have demonstrated that endogenous IFN-beta inhibits tumor angiogenesis through repression of genes encoding proangiogenic and homing factors in tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. We determined that IFN-beta-deficient mice injected with B16F10 melanoma or MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells developed faster-growing tumors with better-developed blood vessels than did syngeneic control mice. These tumors displayed enhanced infiltration by CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils expressing elevated levels of the genes encoding the proangiogenic factors VEGF and MMP9 and the homing receptor CXCR4. They also expressed higher levels of the transcription factors c-myc and STAT3, known regulators of VEGF, MMP9, and CXCR4. In vitro, treatment of these tumor-infiltrating neutrophils with low levels of IFN-beta restored expression of proangiogenic factors to control levels. Moreover, depletion of these neutrophils inhibited tumor growth in both control and IFN-beta-deficient mice. We therefore suggest that constitutively produced endogenous IFN-beta is an important mediator of innate tumor surveillance. Further, we believe our data help to explain the therapeutic effect of IFN treatment during the early stages of cancer development.

  11. Physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of interaction between C-type lectin-like receptor 2 and podoplanin: partners from in utero to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Inoue, K; Osada, M; Ozaki, Y

    2017-02-01

    A platelet activation receptor, C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2), has been identified as a receptor for a platelet-activating snake venom, rhodocytin. CLEC-2 protein is highly expressed in platelets/megakaryocytes, and at lower levels in liver Kupffer cells. Recently, podoplanin has been revealed as an endogenous ligand for CLEC-2. Podoplanin is expressed in certain types of tumor cells, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) in lymph nodes, kidney podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells, but not in vascular endothelial cells. CLEC-2 in platelets cannot have access to podoplanin under normal conditions, but they interact with each other under pathologic conditions or during developmental stages, and play various pathophysiologic roles. CLEC-2 facilitates hematogenous metastasis of podoplanin-expressing tumors. During development, the interaction between CLEC-2 and podoplanin in lymphatic endothelial cells or neuroepithelial cells facilitates blood-lymphatic vessel separation and cerebrovascular patterning and integrity, respectively. In adulthood, platelet CLEC-2 binding to FRCs is crucial for maintenance of the integrity of high endothelial venules in lymph nodes. Podoplanin-expressing FRC-like cells have recently been identified in the bone marrow, and facilitate megakaryocyte proliferation and proplatelet formation by binding to megakaryocyte CLEC-2. Podoplanin is inducibly expressed in liver monocytes and keratinocytes during Salmonella infection and wound healing, and regulates thrombus formation in the liver and controlled wound healing, respectively. By binding to unknown ligands, platelet CLEC-2 regulates the maintenance of vascular integrity during inflammation, thrombus stability under flow, and maintenance of quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells. Podoplanin is expressed in various cells, and additional roles of the CLEC-2-podoplanin interaction will be revealed in the future. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) triggers autophagic tumor cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aits, Sonja; Gustafsson, Lotta; Hallgren, Oskar; Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Mattias; Trulsson, Maria; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Mograbi, Baharia; Svanborg, Catharina

    2009-03-01

    HAMLET, a complex of partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, kills a wide range of tumor cells. Here we propose that HAMLET causes macroautophagy in tumor cells and that this contributes to their death. Cell death was accompanied by mitochondrial damage and a reduction in the level of active mTOR and HAMLET triggered extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization and the formation of double-membrane-enclosed vesicles typical of macroautophagy. In addition, HAMLET caused a change from uniform (LC3-I) to granular (LC3-II) staining in LC3-GFP-transfected cells reflecting LC3 translocation during macroautophagy, and this was blocked by the macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. HAMLET also caused accumulation of LC3-II detected by Western blot when lysosomal degradation was inhibited suggesting that HAMLET caused an increase in autophagic flux. To determine if macroautophagy contributed to cell death, we used RNA interference against Beclin-1 and Atg5. Suppression of Beclin-1 and Atg5 improved the survival of HAMLET-treated tumor cells and inhibited the increase in granular LC3-GFP staining. The results show that HAMLET triggers macroautophagy in tumor cells and suggest that macroautophagy contributes to HAMLET-induced tumor cell death.

  13. Successful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention through a Severely Bent Artificial Ascending Aorta Using the DIO Thrombus Aspiration Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Fujikake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old man was admitted to our institute because of chest pain. He had undergone replacement of the ascending aorta due to aortic dissection 9 years previously. We made a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, and coronary artery angiography was performed. Although the right coronary artery was successfully cannulated, a severe bend of the artificial aorta made it very difficult to advance the catheter into the left coronary artery. Ultimately, a DIO thrombus aspiration catheter was used to enter the left coronary artery, and a stent was implanted successfully. The DIO catheter is very useful when the selection of a guiding catheter is complicated, such as in the case of severe vessel tortuosity or a bend of the ascending aorta.

  14. Testicular germ cell tumors: Molecular genetic and clinicomorphological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nemtsova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Testicular tumors are the most common form of solid cancer in young men. According to the 2004 WHO classification, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT may present with different histological types. Embryonic cells of varying grade may be a source of TGCT and the occurrence of this type of tumors is directly related to the formation of a pool of male sex cells and gametogenesis. The paper gives information on mo- lecular stages for the process of formation of male sex cells in health, as well as ways of their impairments leading to TGCT. An investigation of the profiles of gene expression and the spectrum of molecular damages revealed genes responsible for a predisposition to the sporadic and hereditary forms of TGCT. The paper presents the current molecular genetic and clinicomorphological characteristics of TGCT. 

  15. [Isolation and identification of brain tumor stem cells from human brain neuroepithelial tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia-sheng; Deng, Yong-wen; Li, Ming-chu; Chen, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yan-jin; Lu, Ming; Fang, Fang; Wu, Jun; Yang, Zhuan-yi; Zhou, Xang-yang; Wang, Fei; Chen, Cheng

    2007-01-30

    To establish a simplified culture system for the isolation of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) from the tumors of human neuroepithelial tissue, to observe the growth and differentiation pattern of BTSCs, and to investigate their expression of the specific markers. Twenty-six patients with brain neuroepithelial tumors underwent tumor resection. Two pieces of tumor tissues were taken from each tumor to be dissociated, triturated into single cells in sterile DMEM-F12 medium, and then filtered. The tumor cells were seeded at a concentration of 200,000 viable cells per mL into serum-free DMEM-F12 medium simply supplemented with B27, human basic fibroblast growth factor (20 microg/L), human epidermal growth factor (20 microg /L), insulin (4 U/L), L-glutamine, penicillin and streptomycin. After the primary brain tumor spheres (BTSs) were generated, they were triturated again and passed in fresh medium. Limiting dilution assay was performed to observe the monoclone formation. 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation test was performed to observe the proliferation of the BTS. The BTSCs were cultured in mitogen-free DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum to observe their differentiation. Immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of CD133 and nestin, specific markers of BTSC, and the rate of CD133 positive cells. Only a minority of subsets of cells from the tumors of neuroepithelial tissue had the capacity to survive, proliferate, and generate free-floating neurosphere-like BTSs in the simplified serum-free medium. These cells attached to the poly-L-lysine coated coverslips in the serum-supplemented medium and differentiated. The BTSCs were CD133 and nestin positive. The rate of CD133 positive cells in the tumor specimens was (21 +/- 6.2)% - (38 +/- 7.0)%. A new simplified culture system for the isolation of BTSCs is established. The tumors of human neuroepithelial tissue contain CD133 and nestin positive tumor stem cells which can be isolated

  16. Rivaroxaban as an Antithrombotic Agent in a Patient With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Left Ventricular Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Seecheran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of left ventricular (LV thrombi in the setting of an anterior myocardial infarction has declined significantly since the advent of primary percutaneous coronary intervention coupled with contemporary antithrombotic strategies in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STE-ACS. Despite oral anticoagulation with the currently accepted, standard-of-care vitamin K antagonist, warfarin, major bleeding complications still arise. Rivaroxaban is a novel, direct oral factor X anticoagulant that has several advantageous properties, which can attenuate bleeding risk. We present a case in which a patient successfully underwent a 3-month course of rivaroxaban in addition to his dual antiplatelet regimen of aspirin and ticagrelor for his STE-ACS and LV thrombus with resultant complete dissolution.

  17. Comparative evaluation of direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors with antiplatelet agents under flow and static conditions: an in vitro flow chamber model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Hosokawa

    Full Text Available Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are novel oral anticoagulants that specifically inhibit thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. The aim of this study is to elucidate antithrombotic properties of these anticoagulant agents under arterial and venous shear conditions. Whole blood samples treated with dabigatran or rivaroxaban at 250, 500, and 1000 nM, with/without aspirin and AR-C66096, a P2Y12 antagonist, were perfused over a microchip coated with collagen and tissue thromboplastin at shear rates of 240 and 600 s(-1. Fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation was quantified by monitoring flow pressure changes. Dabigatran at higher concentrations (500 and 1000 nM potently inhibited thrombus formation at both shear rates, whereas 1000 nM of rivaroxaban delayed, but did not completely inhibit, thrombus formation. Dual antiplatelet agents weakly suppressed thrombus formation at both shear rates, but intensified the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban. The anticoagulant effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban were also evaluated under static conditions using thrombin generation (TG assay. In platelet-poor plasma, dabigatran at 250 and 500 nM efficiently prolonged the lag time (LT and moderately reduce peak height (PH of TG, whereas rivaroxaban at 250 nM efficiently prolonged LT and reduced PH of TG. In platelet-rich plasma, however, both anticoagulants efficiently delayed LT and reduced PH of TG. Our results suggest that dabigatran and rivaroxaban may exert distinct antithrombotic effects under flow conditions, particularly in combination with dual antiplatelet therapy.

  18. Antiangiogenic Effects of Noscapine Enhance Radioresponse for GL261 Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, Elizabeth W.; Lukyanov, Yevgeniy; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Esencay, Min; Smirnova, Iva; Schnee, Tona; Shao Yongzhao; Devitt, Mary Louise; Zagzag, David; McBride, William; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of noscapine, a tubulin-binding drug, in combination with radiation in a murine glioma model. Methods and Materials: The human T98G and murine GL261 glioma cell lines treated with noscapine, radiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival. Mice with established GL261 hind limb tumors were treated with noscapine, radiation, or both to evaluate the effect of noscapine on radioresponse. In a separate experiment with the same treatment groups, 7 days after radiation, tumors were resected and immunostained to measure proliferation rate, apoptosis, and angiogenic activity. Results: Noscapine reduced clonogenic survival without enhancement of radiosensitivity in vitro. Noscapine combined with radiation significantly increased tumor growth delay: 5, 8, 13, and 18 days for control, noscapine alone, radiation alone, and the combination treatment, respectively (p < 0.001). To assess the effect of the combination of noscapine plus radiation on the tumor vasculature, tubule formation by the murine endothelial 2H11 cells was tested. Noscapine with radiation significantly inhibited tubule formation compared with radiation alone. By immunohistochemistry, tumors treated with the combination of noscapine plus radiation showed a decrease in BrdU incorporation, an increase in apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling, and a decrease in tumor vessel density compared with tumors treated with radiation alone. Conclusion: Noscapine enhanced the sensitivity of GL261 glioma tumors to radiation, resulting in a significant tumor growth delay. An antiangiogenic mechanism contributed to the effect. These findings are clinically relevant, particularly in view of the mild toxicity profile of this drug

  19. Negative brain scintigrams in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalke, K.G.

    1978-01-01

    With 53 histologically verified and 2 histologically not identified brain tumors, that showed a negative scintigram, it was tried to find reasons for the wrong and negative dropout of these scintigrams. The electroencephalograms and angiograms, that were made simultaneously were taken into consideration with respect to their propositional capability and were compared with the scintigram findings. For the formation of the negative brain scintigrams there could be found no unique cause or causal constellation. The scintigraphic tumor representation is likely based on a complex process. Therefore the reasons for the negativity of the brain scintigrams can be a manifold of causes. An important role plays the vascularisation of the tumor, but not in a sole way. As well the tumor localisation gains some importance; especially in the temporal lobe or in the deeper structures situated tumors can be negative in the scintigram. To hold down the rate of wrong-negative quote in the case of intracranial tumor search, one is advised to continue with an further exposure after 2 to 4 hours besides the usual exposures, unless a sequential scintigraphy was made from the beginning. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Mena deficiency delays tumor progression and decreases metastasis in polyoma middle-T transgenic mouse mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Evanthia T; Wang, Yarong; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Sellers, Rani S; Wang, Weigang; Li, Jiufeng; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Gertler, Frank B; Condeelis, John S

    2010-01-01

    The actin binding protein Mammalian enabled (Mena), has been implicated in the metastatic progression of solid tumors in humans. Mena expression level in primary tumors is correlated with metastasis in breast, cervical, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Cells expressing high Mena levels are part of the tumor microenvironment for metastasis (TMEM), an anatomical structure that is predictive for risk of breast cancer metastasis. Previously we have shown that forced expression of Mena adenocarcinoma cells enhances invasion and metastasis in xenograft mice. Whether Mena is required for tumor progression is still unknown. Here we report the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression, metastasis and on normal mammary gland development. To investigate the role of Mena in tumor progression and metastasis, Mena deficient mice were intercrossed with mice carrying a transgene expressing the polyoma middle T oncoprotein, driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus. The progeny were investigated for the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression via staging of primary mammary tumors and by evaluation of morbidity. Stages of metastatic progression were investigated using an in vivo invasion assay, intravital multiphoton microscopy, circulating tumor cell burden, and lung metastases. Mammary gland development was studied in whole mount mammary glands of wild type and Mena deficient mice. Mena deficiency decreased morbidity and metastatic dissemination. Loss of Mena increased mammary tumor latency but had no affect on mammary tumor burden or histologic progression to carcinoma. Elimination of Mena also significantly decreased epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced in vivo invasion, in vivo motility, intravasation and metastasis. Non-tumor bearing mice deficient for Mena also showed defects in mammary gland terminal end bud formation and branching. Deficiency of Mena decreases metastasis by slowing tumor progression and reducing tumor cell invasion and intravasation. Mena

  1. Novel microspheres reduce the formation of deep venous thrombosis and repair the vascular wall in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bingyang; Li, Lan; Li, Qiangqiang; Song, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Dongyang; Dai, Jin; Yao, Yao; Yan, Wenjin; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Fang; Xu, Zhihong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-07-01

    : L-Arginine (L-arg), widely known as a substrate for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis, can improve endothelial function associated with the vasculature, inhibit platelet aggregation, and alter the activity of vascular smooth muscle cells. P-selectin is a membrane component of the platelet alpha-granule and the endothelial cell-specific Wiebel-Palade body that plays a central role in mediating interactions between platelets and both leukocytes and the endothelium. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of novel microspheres with L-arg targeting P-selectin on the formation of deep vein thrombosis and repair of vascular wall in a rat model. Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava was induced by applying a piece of filter paper (5 mm × 10 mm) saturated with 10% FeCl3 solution for 5 min. Targeted microspheres with L-arg, targeted microspheres with water, and saline were injected into the tail veins of the rats after 30 min of applying the filter paper saturated with 10% FeCl3 solution. The dry weight and length of the thrombus isolated from the inferior vena cava were significantly decreased in the group with L-arg in microsphere after 24 h. No significant differences in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen among the groups were indicated. Images revealed that apoptosis in the vascular wall was less in the group injected with targeted microspheres with L-arg than in the other two groups at 1 and 8 d postsurgery. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was considerably excessive in the group injected with L-arg wrapped in targeted microspheres. Therefore, these novel microspheres could decrease the formation of thrombus in the early stages and in the subsequent periods of thrombosis. The microspheres can also enhance the vitality of impaired endothelial cells and reduce cell apoptosis.

  2. Selective inhibition by a synthetic hirudin peptide of fibrin-dependent thrombosis in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadroy, Y.; Hanson, S.R.; Harker, L.A.; Maraganore, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the importance of the thrombin substrate recognition exosite for fibrinogen binding in the formation of both arterial and venous thrombi the authors evaluated the antithrombotic effects of the tyrosine-sulfated dodecapeptide from residues 53-64 of hirudin (H peptide) in a nonhuman primate model. This peptide was studied because it inhibits thrombin cleavages of fibrinogen by simple competition without blocking enzyme catalytic-site function. When an exteriorized arteriovenous access shunt model was used in baboons (Papio anubis), thrombus formation was induced by placing a thrombogenic device made of (i) a segment of tubing coated covalently with type I collagen, which generated platelet-rich thrombi under arterial flow conditions, and (ii) two subsequent annular regions of flow expansion that produced fibrin-rich thrombi typically associated with venous valves and veins. Thrombus formation was quantified by measurements of 111 In-labeled platelet and 125 I-labeled fibrinogen deposition in both arterial-flow and venous-flow portions of the device. These finding suggest that, by competitive inhibition of fibrinogen binding to thrombin, fibrin-rich venous-type thrombus formation may be selectively prevented. This strategy may be therapeutically attractive for preserving normal platelet function when conventional anticoagulant therapy is contraindicated

  3. The kunitz protease inhibitor domain of protease nexin-2 inhibits factor XIa and murine carotid artery and middle cerebral artery thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenman; Li, Hongbo; Navaneetham, Duraiswamy; Reichenbach, Zachary W.; Tuma, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    Coagulation factor XI (FXI) plays an important part in both venous and arterial thrombosis, rendering FXIa a potential target for the development of antithrombotic therapy. The kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain of protease nexin-2 (PN2) is a potent, highly specific inhibitor of FXIa, suggesting its possible role in the inhibition of FXI-dependent thrombosis in vivo. Therefore, we examined the effect of PN2KPI on thrombosis in the murine carotid artery and the middle cerebral artery. Intravenous administration of PN2KPI prolonged the clotting time of both human and murine plasma, and PN2KPI inhibited FXIa activity in both human and murine plasma in vitro. The intravenous administration of PN2KPI into WT mice dramatically decreased the progress of FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in the carotid artery. After a similar initial rate of thrombus formation with and without PN2KPI treatment, the propagation of thrombus formation after 10 minutes and the amount of thrombus formed were significantly decreased in mice treated with PN2KPI injection compared with untreated mice. In the middle cerebral artery occlusion model, the volume and fraction of ischemic brain tissue were significantly decreased in PN2KPI-treated compared with untreated mice. Thus, inhibition of FXIa by PN2KPI is a promising approach to antithrombotic therapy. PMID:22674803

  4. Thioredoxin Inhibitors Attenuate Platelet Function and Thrombus Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Clive; Ramasubramoni, Anjana; Pula, Giordano; Harper, Matthew T; Mundell, Stuart J; Coxon, Carmen H

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase with important physiological function. Imbalances in the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system are associated with a number of pathologies, particularly cancer, and a number of clinical trials for thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase inhibitors have been carried out or are underway. Due to the emerging role and importance of oxidoreductases for haemostasis and the current interest in developing inhibitors for clinical use, we thought it pertinent to assess whether inhibition of the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system affects platelet function and thrombosis. We used small molecule inhibitors of Trx (PMX 464 and PX-12) to determine whether Trx activity influences platelet function, as well as an unbiased proteomics approach to identify potential Trx substrates on the surface of platelets that might contribute to platelet reactivity and function. Using LC-MS/MS we found that PMX 464 and PX-12 affected the oxidation state of thiols in a number of cell surface proteins. Key surface receptors for platelet adhesion and activation were affected, including the collagen receptor GPVI and the von Willebrand factor receptor, GPIb. To experimentally validate these findings we assessed platelet function in the presence of PMX 464, PX-12, and rutin (a selective inhibitor of the related protein disulphide isomerase). In agreement with the proteomics data, small molecule inhibitors of thioredoxin selectively inhibited GPVI-mediated platelet activation, and attenuated ristocetin-induced GPIb-vWF-mediated platelet agglutination, thus validating the findings of the proteomics study. These data reveal a novel role for thioredoxin in regulating platelet reactivity via proteins required for early platelet responses at sites of vessel injury (GPVI and GPIb). This work also highlights a potential opportunity for repurposing of PMX 464 and PX-12 as antiplatelet agents.

  5. Thioredoxin Inhibitors Attenuate Platelet Function and Thrombus Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Metcalfe

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin (Trx is an oxidoreductase with important physiological function. Imbalances in the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system are associated with a number of pathologies, particularly cancer, and a number of clinical trials for thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase inhibitors have been carried out or are underway. Due to the emerging role and importance of oxidoreductases for haemostasis and the current interest in developing inhibitors for clinical use, we thought it pertinent to assess whether inhibition of the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system affects platelet function and thrombosis. We used small molecule inhibitors of Trx (PMX 464 and PX-12 to determine whether Trx activity influences platelet function, as well as an unbiased proteomics approach to identify potential Trx substrates on the surface of platelets that might contribute to platelet reactivity and function. Using LC-MS/MS we found that PMX 464 and PX-12 affected the oxidation state of thiols in a number of cell surface proteins. Key surface receptors for platelet adhesion and activation were affected, including the collagen receptor GPVI and the von Willebrand factor receptor, GPIb. To experimentally validate these findings we assessed platelet function in the presence of PMX 464, PX-12, and rutin (a selective inhibitor of the related protein disulphide isomerase. In agreement with the proteomics data, small molecule inhibitors of thioredoxin selectively inhibited GPVI-mediated platelet activation, and attenuated ristocetin-induced GPIb-vWF-mediated platelet agglutination, thus validating the findings of the proteomics study. These data reveal a novel role for thioredoxin in regulating platelet reactivity via proteins required for early platelet responses at sites of vessel injury (GPVI and GPIb. This work also highlights a potential opportunity for repurposing of PMX 464 and PX-12 as antiplatelet agents.

  6. Targeting Autophagy in the Tumor Stroma to Eradicate Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    initiated. One potential caveat that has arisen is that fibroblast specific protein (FSP) may be expressed at low levels in late stage PyMT tumor...digestion solution per 5g of tumor tissue) 1.5 mg/ml Collagenase (from 100X stock solution) 125 U/ml Hyaluronidase (from 100X stock solution) MMF media...g. Determine the latency period to the onset of primary tumor formation and metastasis for recipient mice generated in subtask 1f. At selected

  7. Tumor associated osteoclast-like giant cells promote tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yu; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Morita, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • M-CSF and RANKL expressing HeLa cells induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • We established OGC-containing tumor model in vivo. • OGC-containing tumor became larger independent of M-CSF or RANKL effect. • VEGF-C secreted from OGCs was a one of candidates for OGC-containing tumor growth. - Abstract: Tumors with osteoclast-like giant cells (OGCs) have been reported in a variety of organs and exert an invasive and prometastatic phenotype, but the functional role of OGCs in the tumor environment has not been fully clarified. We established tumors containing OGCs to clarify the role of OGCs in tumor phenotype. A mixture of HeLa cells expressing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, HeLa-M) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, HeLa-R) effectively supported the differentiation of osteoclast-like cells from bone marrow macrophages in vitro. Moreover, a xenograft study showed OGC formation in a tumor composed of HeLa-M and HeLa-R. Surprisingly, the tumors containing OGCs were significantly larger than the tumors without OGCs, although the growth rates were not different in vitro. Histological analysis showed that lymphangiogenesis and macrophage infiltration in the tumor containing OGCs, but not in other tumors were accelerated. According to quantitative PCR analysis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C mRNA expression increased with differentiation of osteoclast-like cells. To investigate whether VEGF-C expression is responsible for tumor growth and macrophage infiltration, HeLa cells overexpressing VEGF-C (HeLa-VC) were established and transplanted into mice. Tumors composed of HeLa-VC mimicked the phenotype of the tumors containing OGCs. Furthermore, the vascular permeability of tumor microvessels also increased in tumors containing OGCs and to some extent in VEGF-C-expressing tumors. These results suggest that macrophage infiltration and vascular permeability are possible mediators in these tumors. These

  8. Role of HIF-1α and CASPASE-3 in cystogenesis of odontogenic cysts and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Natacha M M; de Siqueira, Adriane S; Ribeiro, André L R; da Silva Kataoka, Maria S; Jaeger, Ruy G; de Alves-Júnior, Sérgio M; Smith, Andrew M; de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, João

    2018-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts and tumors are the most relevant lesions that affect the gnathic bones. These lesions have in common the formation of cystic areas and this common feature may suggest involvement of similar mechanisms. The hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α), a responsive protein to hypoxia and caspase-3, an irreversible apoptosis marker, may contribute to cyst formation. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the immunoexpression of these proteins in odontogenic cysts and tumors. Twenty cases of ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) (n = 20), radicular cyst (RC) (n = 18), dentigerous cyst (DC) (n = 11), calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (n = 8), and dental follicle (DF) (n = 10) were used to investigate HIF-1α and caspase-3 expression in sequential serial cuts by immunohistochemistry. HIF-1α was overexpressed in RC, DC, and ameloblastoma when compared with DF. The basal and sometimes the lower suprabasal layer showed no or very low expression in DC, KOT, and ameloblastoma, the last also showing strong expression in solid epithelial areas and initial cystic formation regions. Caspase-3 was found to be overexpressed in all lesions, with the highest expression in odontogenic cysts compared to tumors. HIF-1α and caspase-3 were localized in similar areas of the same lesions, especially in the epithelium surrounding cystic formations. This study showed distinct immunoexpression of HIF-1α and caspase-3 in odontogenic cyst and tumors, with higher expression observed in odontogenic cysts. These findings suggest a possible correlation between hypoxia, apoptosis, and cystogenesis, leading to understand the mechanisms responsible to cystic formation in odontogenic lesions.

  9. A case of dilated cardiomyopathy with massive left ventricular thrombus after use of a sibutramine-containing slimming product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Seung Hye; Kang, Min-Ho

    2013-09-01

    Sibutramine, which acts as an anti-obesity drug by inhibiting reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine, has now been banned due to cardiovascular adverse effects. However, despite being banned, it is not uncommon for people to purchase products with sibutramine or its analogues used as adulterants in non-prescription slimming products or health foods available on the internet. Sibutramine has been associated with rare but serious adverse reactions such as cardiac arrhythmia including QT interval prolongation, myocardial infarction, and cardiomyopathy, as well as increases in blood pressure and pulse rate. Here, we report a case of a 32-year-old male who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy with massive left ventricular thrombus after taking unauthorized sibutramine-containing slimming pills sold over the internet.

  10. Fate of the dissecting lumen by CT study following surgical repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Ando, Taizo; Kawazoe, Kohei; Tomino, Tetsuo; Fujita, Takeshi; Naito, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    1983-03-01