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Sample records for tumor lysate processing

  1. FRET microscopy autologous tumor lysate processing in mature dendritic cell vaccine therapy

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    Ridolfi Ruggero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen processing by dendritic cells (DC exposed to specific stimuli has been well characterized in biological studies. Nonetheless, the question of whether autologous whole tumor lysates (as used in clinical trials are similarly processed by these cells has not yet been resolved. Methods In this study, we examined the transfer of peptides from whole tumor lysates to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II in mature dendritic cells (mDC from a patient with advanced melanoma. Tumor antigenic peptides-MHC II proximity was revealed by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET measurements, which effectively extends the application of fluorescence microscopy to the molecular level ( Results We detected significant energy transfer between donor and acceptor-labelled antibodies against HLA-DR at the membrane surface of mDC. FRET data indicated that fluorescent peptide-loaded MHC II molecules start to accumulate on mDC membranes at 16 hr from the maturation stimulus, steeply increasing at 22 hr with sustained higher FRET detected up to 46 hr. Conclusions The results obtained imply that the patient mDC correctly processed the tumor specific antigens and their display on the mDC surface may be effective for several days. These observations support the rationale for immunogenic efficacy of autologous tumor lysates.

  2. Optimization of dendritic cell loading with tumor cell lysates for cancer immunotherapy.

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    Hatfield, Paul; Merrick, Alison E; West, Emma; O'Donnell, Dearbhaile; Selby, Peter; Vile, Richard; Melcher, Alan A

    2008-09-01

    The immune response to cancer is critically determined by the way in which tumor cells die. As necrotic, stress-associated death can be associated with activation of antitumor immunity, whole tumor cell antigen loading strategies for dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination have commonly used freeze-thaw "necrotic" lysates as an immunogenic source of tumor-associated antigens. In this study, the effect of such lysates on the ability of DCs to mature in response to well-established maturation stimuli was examined, and methods to enhance lysate-induced DC activation explored. Freeze-thaw lysates were prepared from murine tumor cell lines and their effects on bone marrow-derived DC maturation and function examined. Unmodified freeze-thaw tumor cell lysates inhibited the toll-like receptor-induced maturation and function of bone marrow-derived DCs, preventing up-regulation of CD40, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex class II, and reducing secretion of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12 p70, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6]. Although IL-10 secretion was increased by lysate-pulsed DCs, this was not responsible for the observed suppression of IL-12. Although activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway remained intact, the kinase activity of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was inhibited in lysate-pulsed DCs. Lysate-induced DC suppression was partially reversed in vitro by induction of tumor cell stress before lysis, and only DCs loaded with stressed lysates afforded protection against tumor challenge in vivo. These data suggest that ex vivo freeze-thaw of tumor cells does not effectively mimic in vivo immunogenic necrosis, and advocates careful characterization and optimization of tumor cell-derived vaccine sources for cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed with Allogeneic Tumor Cell Lysate in Mesothelioma: From Mouse to Human.

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    Aerts, Joachim G J V; de Goeje, Pauline L; Cornelissen, Robin; Kaijen-Lambers, Margaretha E H; Bezemer, Koen; van der Leest, Cor H; Mahaweni, Niken M; Kunert, André; Eskens, Ferry A L M; Waasdorp, Cynthia; Braakman, Eric; van der Holt, Bronno; Vulto, Arnold G; Hendriks, Rudi W; Hegmans, Joost P J J; Hoogsteden, Henk C

    2018-02-15

    Purpose: Mesothelioma has been regarded as a nonimmunogenic tumor, which is also shown by the low response rates to treatments targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. Previously, we demonstrated that autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy increased T-cell response toward malignant mesothelioma. However, the use of autologous tumor material hampers implementation in large clinical trials, which might be overcome by using allogeneic tumor cell lines as tumor antigen source. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether allogeneic lysate-pulsed DC immunotherapy is effective in mice and safe in humans. Experimental Design: First, in two murine mesothelioma models, mice were treated with autologous DCs pulsed with either autologous or allogeneic tumor lysate or injected with PBS (negative control). Survival and tumor-directed T-cell responses of these mice were monitored. Results were taken forward in a first-in-human clinical trial, in which 9 patients were treated with 10, 25, or 50 million DCs per vaccination. DC vaccination consisted of autologous monocyte-derived DCs pulsed with tumor lysate from five mesothelioma cell lines. Results: In mice, allogeneic lysate-pulsed DC immunotherapy induced tumor-specific T cells and led to an increased survival, to a similar extent as DC immunotherapy with autologous tumor lysate. In the first-in-human clinical trial, no dose-limiting toxicities were established and radiographic responses were observed. Median PFS was 8.8 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.1-20.3] and median OS not reached (median follow-up = 22.8 months). Conclusions: DC immunotherapy with allogeneic tumor lysate is effective in mice and safe and feasible in humans. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 766-76. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Vaccination with OK-432 followed by TC-1 tumor lysate leads to significant antitumor effects.

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    Chen, I-Ju; Yen, Chih-Feng; Lin, Kun-Ju; Lee, Chyi-Long; Soong, Yung-Kuei; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Lin, Cheng-Tao

    2011-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infects large numbers of women worldwide and is present in more than 99% of all cervical cancer. TC-1 cell is a cell line with high expression of E7 antigen of HPV type 16 and its cell lysate has been demonstrated as an ideal inducer of E7-specific, antitumor immunity. OK-432 (Picibanil), a penicillin-killed Streptococcus pyogenes, has been reported with potent immunomodulation properties in cancer treatment by stimulating the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and secretion of Th-1 type cytokines. The current study demonstrated that a protocol to immunize the C57BL/6 mice with OK-432 followed by treatment with TC-1 lysate can generate markedly increased immune responses of E7-specific CD4(+) T cells and a moderate increase of natural killer (NK) cell, as well as a satisfactorily protective and therapeutic antitumor effect by triggering the DCs to prime T cells. Depletion of lymphocyte subset in vivo suggested that the antitumor effects could be dominantly executed by CD8+ T cells and followed by NK cells, and both of these reactions were induced by the generation of robust E7-specific CD4(+) T helper cell response. These findings warrant OK-432 combination with tumor-lysate as an effective and safe vaccine in future clinical application of cervical cancer.

  5. Detection of circulating tumor lysate-reactive CD4+ T cells in melanoma patients

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    Ladekarl, Morten; Agger, Ralf; Fleischer, Charlotte C

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: We wanted to study whether an allogeneic melanoma lysate would be a feasible stimulatory antigen source for detection of a peripheral CD4+ T-cell immune response in patients with medically untreated malignant melanoma. The lysate was produced from a melanoma cell line (FM3.29) which...... was found in 1 of 4 patients radically operated for localized disease, whereas no responders were seen among 7 healthy donors. The fraction of circulating lysate-activated T cells ranged from 0.0037% to 0.080% of the CD4+ population. A negative result of the assay was found occasionally, especially...... expresses high amounts of melanoma antigens. METHODS: Fresh peripheral blood was incubated with and without lysate for 6 h in the presence of anti-CD28/anti-CD49d MoAb (for costimulation). After flow cytometric estimation of the frequency of CD69+/IFN-gamma+ cells in the CD4+ population, the response...

  6. Optimizing parameters for clinical-scale production of high IL-12 secreting dendritic cells pulsed with oxidized whole tumor cell lysate

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    Chiang Cheryl L-L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs are the most potent antigen-presenting cell population for activating tumor-specific T cells. Due to the wide range of methods for generating DCs, there is no common protocol or defined set of criteria to validate the immunogenicity and function of DC vaccines. Methods Monocyte-derived DCs were generated during 4 days of culture with recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4, and pulsed with tumor lysate produced by hypochlorous acid oxidation of tumor cells. Different culture parameters for clinical-scale DC preparation were investigated, including: 1 culture media; 2 culture surface; 3 duration of activating DCs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and interferon (IFN-gamma; 4 method of DC harvest; and 5 cryomedia and final DC product formulation. Results DCs cultured in CellGenix DC media containing 2% human AB serum expressed higher levels of maturation markers following lysate-loading and maturation compared to culturing with serum-free CellGenix DC media or AIM-V media, or 2% AB serum supplemented AIM-V media. Nunclon™Δ surface, but not Corning® tissue-culture treated surface and Corning® ultra-low attachment surface, were suitable for generating an optimal DC phenotype. Recombinant trypsin resulted in reduced major histocompatibility complex (MHC Class I and II expression on mature lysate-loaded DCs, however presentation of MHC Class I peptides by DCs was not impaired and cell viability was higher compared to cell scraping. Preservation of DCs with an infusible cryomedia containing Plasma-Lyte A, dextrose, sodium chloride injection, human serum albumin, and DMSO yielded higher cell viability compared to using human AB serum containing 10% DMSO. Finally, activating DCs for 16 hours with LPS and IFN-γ stimulated robust mixed leukocyte reactions (MLRs, and high IL-12p70 production in vitro that continued for 24 hours after the cryopreserved DCs were thawed and

  7. Development and validation of a production process of platelet lysate for autologous use.

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    Plöderl, Karin; Strasser, Cornelia; Hennerbichler, Simone; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja; Gabriel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Growth factors (GF) contained in platelets are a potential source to improve wound healing by the stimulation and acceleration of soft tissue and bone healing. This resulted in the idea that autologous platelet-rich plasma or platelet lysate (PL) containing high levels of GF might improve healing processes. Today platelet products are already applied in bone and maxillofacial surgery. In recent years, cosmetic surgery and facial rejuvenation procedures are growing steadily. New methods including platelet products aiming to induce non-surgical reduction of wrinkles upon topical injection and to minimize surgical risks in general are developed. Several point-of-care devices are already available on the market. However, the amount of PL obtained by these kits is far too high for certain applications in cosmetic surgery and they offer no possibility of storing the remaining material in a sterile manner. Therefore we developed a procedure for the sterile production of smaller amounts of PL in a closed system that can also be split into several products for repeated administration. The closed system was determined to be a bag system designed for an autologous blood donation of 100 ml whole blood. We set a special focus on the validation of the production procedure, mainly regarding sterility and platelet recovery. For validation 22 healthy volunteers were asked for a blood donation, which was centrifuged twice to obtain concentrated platelets (CP). A freeze-thaw cycle caused lysis of the CP to get approximately 8.48 ± 1.36 ml PL. We yielded satisfying results of 100% sterility and a platelet recovery of 36.92% ± 18.71%. We therefore conclude that the PL obtained is ready for studies comparing it with traditional treatments.

  8. Immune Response Generated With the Administration of Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed With an Allogenic Tumoral Cell-Lines Lysate in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

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    Daniel Benitez-Ribas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectiveDiffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG is a lethal brainstem tumor in children. Dendritic cells (DCs have T-cell stimulatory capacity and, therefore, potential antitumor activity for disease control. DCs vaccines have been shown to reactivate tumor-specific T cells in both clinical and preclinical settings. We designed a phase Ib immunotherapy (IT clinical trial with the use of autologous dendritic cells (ADCs pulsed with an allogeneic tumors cell-lines lysate in patients with newly diagnosed DIPG after irradiation (radiation therapy.MethodsNine patients with newly diagnosed DIPG met enrollment criteria. Autologous dendritic cell vaccines (ADCV were prepared from monocytes obtained by leukapheresis. Five ADCV doses were administered intradermally during induction phase. In the absence of tumor progression, patients received three boosts of tumor lysate every 3 months during the maintenance phase.ResultsVaccine fabrication was feasible in all patients included in the study. Non-specific KLH (9/9 patients and specific (8/9 patients antitumor response was identified by immunologic studies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Immunological responses were also confirmed in the T lymphocytes isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of two patients. Vaccine administration resulted safe in all patients treated with this schema.ConclusionThese preliminary results demonstrate that ADCV preparation is feasible, safe, and generate a DIPG-specific immune response detected in PBMC and CSF. This strategy shows a promising backbone for future schemas of combination IT.

  9. Phase 1/2 study of immunotherapy with dendritic cells pulsed with autologous tumor lysate in patients with refractory bone and soft tissue sarcoma.

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    Miwa, Shinji; Nishida, Hideji; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Kaneko, Shuichi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    There are limited options for the curative treatment of refractory bone and soft tissue sarcomas. The purpose of this phase 1/2 study was to assess the immunological and clinical effects of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with autologous tumor lysate (TL) in patients with advanced bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Thirty-seven patients with metastatic or recurrent sarcomas were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from the patients were suspended in media containing interleukin 4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Subsequently, these cells were treated with TL, tumor necrosis factor α, and OK-432. The DCs were injected into the inguinal or axillary region. One treatment course comprised 6 weekly DC injections. The toxicity, clinical response (tumor volume, serum interferon-γ [IFN-γ], and serum IL-12), and oncological outcomes were observed. In total, 47 courses of DC therapy were performed in 37 patients. No severe adverse events or deaths associated with the DC injections were observed in the study patients. Increased serum IFN-γ and IL-12 levels were observed 1 month after the DC injection. Among the 37 patients, 35 patients were assessed for clinical responses: 28 patients showed tumor progression, 6 patients had stable disease, and 1 patient showed a partial response 8 weeks after the DC injection. The 3-year overall and progression-free survival rates of the patients were 42.3% and 2.9%, respectively. Although DC therapy appears safe and resulted in an immunological response in patients with refractory sarcoma, it resulted in an improvement of the clinical outcome in only a small number of patients. Cancer 2017;123:1576-1584. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Scalability and process transfer of mesenchymal stromal cell production from monolayer to microcarrier culture using human platelet lysate.

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    Heathman, Thomas R J; Stolzing, Alexandra; Fabian, Claire; Rafiq, Qasim A; Coopman, Karen; Nienow, Alvin W; Kara, Bo; Hewitt, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    The selection of medium and associated reagents for human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) culture forms an integral part of manufacturing process development and must be suitable for multiple process scales and expansion technologies. In this work, we have expanded BM-hMSCs in fetal bovine serum (FBS)- and human platelet lysate (HPL)-containing media in both a monolayer and a suspension-based microcarrier process. The introduction of HPL into the monolayer process increased the BM-hMSC growth rate at the first experimental passage by 0.049 day and 0.127/day for the two BM-hMSC donors compared with the FBS-based monolayer process. This increase in growth rate in HPL-containing medium was associated with an increase in the inter-donor consistency, with an inter-donor range of 0.406 cumulative population doublings after 18 days compared with 2.013 in FBS-containing medium. Identity and quality characteristics of the BM-hMSCs are also comparable between conditions in terms of colony-forming potential, osteogenic potential and expression of key genes during monolayer and post-harvest from microcarrier expansion. BM-hMSCs cultured on microcarriers in HPL-containing medium demonstrated a reduction in the initial lag phase for both BM-hMSC donors and an increased BM-hMSC yield after 6 days of culture to 1.20 ± 0.17 × 10(5) and 1.02 ± 0.005 × 10(5) cells/mL compared with 0.79 ± 0.05 × 10(5) and 0.36 ± 0.04 × 10(5) cells/mL in FBS-containing medium. This study has demonstrated that HPL, compared with FBS-containing medium, delivers increased growth and comparability across two BM-hMSC donors between monolayer and microcarrier culture, which will have key implications for process transfer during scale-up. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical and Immunological Effects in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung-Cancer after Vaccination with Dendritic Cells Exposed to an Allogeneic Tumor Cell Lysate*

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    Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Kvistborg, Pia; Zocca, Mai-Britt

    2013-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the clinical and immunological effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination of patients with NSCLC. Autologous DCs were pulsed with a MAGE containing allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MelCancerVac®, Dandrit Biotech, Copenhagen, Denmark). Imiquimod cream, proleukin and celeco......Background: We evaluated the clinical and immunological effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination of patients with NSCLC. Autologous DCs were pulsed with a MAGE containing allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MelCancerVac®, Dandrit Biotech, Copenhagen, Denmark). Imiquimod cream, proleukin...... and celecoxib were used as adjuvants to the vaccines. The objective of the study was to evaluate specific T cell response in vitro by IFN EliSpot. Secondary objec- tives were overall survival, response and quality of life (QoL). Results: Twenty-two patients initiated the vaccination program consisting of ten...

  12. Compaction agent clarification of microbial lysates

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    DeWalt, Brad W.; Murphy, Jason C.; Fox, George E.; Willson, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are often purified from microbial lysates containing high concentrations of nucleic acids. Pre-purification steps such as nuclease addition or precipitation with polyethyleneimine or ammonium sulfate are normally required to reduce viscosity and to eliminate competing polyanions before anion exchange chromatography. We report that small polycationic compaction agents such as spermine selectively precipitate nucleic acids during or after Escherichia coli lysis, allowing DNA and RNA to be pelleted with the insoluble cell debris. Analysis by spectrophotometry and protein assay confirmed a significant reduction in the concentration of nucleic acids present, with preservation of protein. Lysate viscosity is greatly reduced, facilitating subsequent processing. We have used 5mM spermine to remove nucleic acids from E. coli lysate in the purification of a hexahistidine-tagged HIV reverse transcriptase.

  13. A high-throughput 2D-analytical technique to obtain single protein parameters from complex cell lysates for in silico process development of ion exchange chromatography.

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    Kröner, Frieder; Elsäßer, Dennis; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-11-29

    The accelerating growth of the market for biopharmaceutical proteins, the market entry of biosimilars and the growing interest in new, more complex molecules constantly pose new challenges for bioseparation process development. In the presented work we demonstrate the application of a multidimensional, analytical separation approach to obtain the relevant physicochemical parameters of single proteins in a complex mixture for in silico chromatographic process development. A complete cell lysate containing a low titre target protein was first fractionated by multiple linear salt gradient anion exchange chromatography (AEC) with varying gradient length. The collected fractions were subsequently analysed by high-throughput capillary gel electrophoresis (HT-CGE) after being desalted and concentrated. From the obtained data of the 2D-separation the retention-volumes and the concentration of the single proteins were determined. The retention-volumes of the single proteins were used to calculate the related steric-mass action model parameters. In a final evaluation experiment the received parameters were successfully applied to predict the retention behaviour of the single proteins in salt gradient AEC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain's tumor image processing using shearlet transform

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    Cadena, Luis; Espinosa, Nikolai; Cadena, Franklin; Korneeva, Anna; Kruglyakov, Alexey; Legalov, Alexander; Romanenko, Alexey; Zotin, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Brain tumor detection is well known research area for medical and computer scientists. In last decades there has been much research done on tumor detection, segmentation, and classification. Medical imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of brain tumors and nowadays uses methods non-invasive, high-resolution techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. Edge detection is a fundamental tool in image processing, particularly in the areas of feature detection and feature extraction, which aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image has discontinuities. Shearlets is the most successful frameworks for the efficient representation of multidimensional data, capturing edges and other anisotropic features which frequently dominate multidimensional phenomena. The paper proposes an improved brain tumor detection method by automatically detecting tumor location in MR images, its features are extracted by new shearlet transform.

  15. Removal process of prion and parvovirus from human platelet lysates used as clinical-grade supplement for ex vivo cell expansion.

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    Kao, Yu-Chun; Bailey, Andy; Samminger, Bernhard; Tanimoto, Junji; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    Pooled human platelet lysate (HPL) is becoming the new gold standard as supplement for ex vivo cell culture for clinical protocols. However, the risk of pathogen contamination of HPL increases with the platelet pool size. We hypothesized that hollow fiber anion exchange membrane chromatography using QyuSpeed D (QSD) could remove resistant and untested bloodborne pathogens, such as parvoviruses and prions, from HPL-supplemented growth media without substantially affecting their capacity to support ex vivo cell expansion. Frozen or thawed platelet concentrates were serum-converted and centrifuged for obtaining HPL that was added to various growth media (ca. 100 mL), filtered through a 0.6-mL QSD membrane and characterized for proteins, growth factors and chemical composition. Capacity to expand Chinese hamster ovary, periodontal ligament, gingival fibroblast cells and Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells was studied. Removal of porcine parvovirus (PPV) and of the 263K prion strain of hamster-adapted scrapie was studied by spiking experiments following international guidelines. QSD had minimal impact on HPL-supplemented medium composition in proteins, growth factors and chemical content, nor capacity to expand and differentiate cells. In addition, QSD could remove ≥5.58 log10 [TCID50/mL] and ≥3.72 log10 of PPV and the 263K prion, respectively. QSD hollow fiber chromatography can be used to improve the virus and prion safety of HPL-supplemented media to safely expand cells for clinical protocols. These data bring new perspectives for increasingly safer use of pooled HPL in cell therapy and regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early skin tumor detection from microscopic images through image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.A.; Narejo, G.B.; Khan, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The research is done to provide appropriate detection technique for skin tumor detection. The work is done by using the image processing toolbox of MATLAB. Skin tumors are unwanted skin growth with different causes and varying extent of malignant cells. It is a syndrome in which skin cells mislay the ability to divide and grow normally. Early detection of tumor is the most important factor affecting the endurance of a patient. Studying the pattern of the skin cells is the fundamental problem in medical image analysis. The study of skin tumor has been of great interest to the researchers. DIP (Digital Image Processing) allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple task, and the implementation of methods which would be impossibly by analog means. It allows much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as build up of noise and signal distortion during processing. The study shows that few works has been done on cellular scale for the images of skin. This research allows few checks for the early detection of skin tumor using microscopic images after testing and observing various algorithms. After analytical evaluation the result has been observed that the proposed checks are time efficient techniques and appropriate for the tumor detection. The algorithm applied provides promising results in lesser time with accuracy. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) that is generated for the algorithm makes the system user friendly. (author)

  17. The effect of lysate of spleen cells after low dose radiation (LDR) on NK activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Duicai; Su Liaoyuan

    2003-01-01

    To find effect of lysate of spleen cells after LDR on NK activity of CD 57 cells or non-CD 57 cells, lysate of spleen cells after LDR were extracted. McAb (anti CD 57 cells) was used to separate CD 57 cells from human peripheral blood by Panning direct method. The CD 57 cells and non-CD 57 cells were used as effective cells. K 562 cells labelled by 3 H-TdR were used as target cells. The ratio of effect cells to target cells was 10:1. NK activity of CD 57 cells or non-CD 5 -7 cells with the lysate of spleen cells after LDR was reflected by the efficiency of anti tumor cells. The 3 H-TdR incorporation in K 562 cells cultured with non-CD 57 cells was significantly lower than that with CD 57 cells. After use of the lysate of spleen cells after LDR, NK activities of CD 57 cells and non-CD 57 cells were 1.24 and 1.58 respectively. They were both increased obviously compared with control groups. The effect of anti K 562 cells of non-CD 57 cells is even greater than that of CD 57 cells. The lysate of spleen cells after LDR can enhance the effect of both non-CD 57 cells and CD 57 cells

  18. Non tumoral intracranial expansive processes: clinical tomographic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, P.; Herrera, G.; Valneica, F.

    1991-01-01

    Presentation of clinical-tomographic correlation in 111 cases of non tumoral intracranial expansive processes seen between 1984-1988 in the Hospital Cayetano Heredia (Lima, Peru). Emphasis is given fundamentally to: the importance of establishing the organicity of partial and late epilepsy; the high incidence rate of inflammatory infectious processes with CNS compromise in under developing countries; the necessity of making public the importance of two parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of non tumoral intracranial expansive processes: free living amebiasis, and toxoplasmosis (especially in association with AIDS). (author)

  19. PDGF-AB rich-trombocyte lysate supplementation from breast cancer patients increased the proliferation of breast cancer stem cells

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    Wiwi A. Kartolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytosis in breast cancer (BC patient was thought to play a role in the invasiveness of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs. Modification of tumor microenvironment was proposed to increase the efficacy of anticancer therapy. This study was aimed to analyze the effect of platelet lysate (PL as well as its PDGF-AB content as a tumor microenvironment on (CD24-/CD44+ BCSC proliferation.Methods: This was an experimental study that treated culture of BCSCs with PL from breast cancer (BC patients or healthy donors. Venous blood from all subjects were subjected to prior hematology test and then processed to obtain platelet rich plasma  (PRP. Platelet counts in PRP were determined. PRP was processed to obtain PL. PDGF-AB contents in PL were measured. PL at concentrations of 0.01% (v/v was supplemented into DMEM-F12 medium and used for culturing BCSCs (CD24-/CD44+ cells. After 48 hours, total cell count, population doubling time (PDT, and cell viability were calculated and their correlation with platelet count and PDGF-AB levels were analyzed.Results: BC patients (n=5 had higher platelet counts and PDGF-AB levels in PL compared to healthy donors (n=15, (p=0.02. PL from BC patients could stimulate the proliferation of BCSCs higher than healthy donors (p<0.001 and showed lower PDT value (p=0.001. Cell proliferation and PDT showed strong correlation with PDGF-AB level. This observation suggests that PDGF-AB has a role on BCSCs proliferation. PL showed no effect on BCSCs viability.Conclusion: Breast cancer patient platelet lysate stimulated BCSC proliferation.

  20. Culture of human cell lines by a pathogen-inactivated human platelet lysate.

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    Fazzina, R; Iudicone, P; Mariotti, A; Fioravanti, D; Procoli, A; Cicchetti, E; Scambia, G; Bonanno, G; Pierelli, L

    2016-08-01

    Alternatives to the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) have been investigated to ensure xeno-free growth condition. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of human platelet lysate (PL) as a substitute of FBS for the in vitro culture of some human cell lines. PL was obtained by pools of pathogen inactivated human donor platelet (PLT) concentrates. Human leukemia cell lines (KG-1, K562, JURKAT, HL-60) and epithelial tumor cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7) were cultured with either FBS or PL. Changes in cell proliferation, viability, morphology, surface markers and cell cycle were evaluated for each cell line. Functional characteristics were analysed by drug sensitivity test and cytotoxicity assay. Our results demonstrated that PL can support growth and expansion of all cell lines, although the cells cultured in presence of PL experienced a less massive proliferation compared to those grown with FBS. We found a comparable percentage of viable specific marker-expressing cells in both conditions, confirming lineage fidelity in all cultures. Functionality assays showed that cells in both FBS- and PL-supported cultures maintained their normal responsiveness to adriamycin and NK cell-mediated lysis. Our findings indicate that PL is a feasible serum substitute for supporting growth and propagation of haematopoietic and epithelial cell lines with many advantages from a perspective of process standardization, ethicality and product safety.

  1. Porcine platelet lysate as a supplement for animal cell culture

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    Aldén, Anna; Gonzalez, Lorena; Persson, Anna; Christensson, Kerstin; Holmqvist, Olov

    2007-01-01

    A novel supplementation of cell growth media based on a porcine platelet lysate was developed for culture of animal-derived cells. The platelet lysate was produced from porcine blood and contained lysate of platelets and plasma components. It showed satisfactory microbiological integrity and it carried only low amount of endotoxins (platelet lysate supported well proliferation of Vero (African green monkey transformed kidney epithelial cells), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and hybridoma cells comparable to fetal bovine serum (FBS). Platelet lysate shows promise as a viable choice over FBS as it can be produced in large quantities, high lot-to-lot consistency and with an attractive price structure. Furthermore it is a strong alternative to FBS for ethical reasons. It is expected that it can be used as a general supplementation for most animal cells for research studies on the proliferation of cells and their expression of products. PMID:19002989

  2. Modulation of Autophagy-Like Processes by Tumor Viruses

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    Karl Munger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway for long-lived proteins and organelles. This process is activated above basal levels upon cell intrinsic or environmental stress and dysregulation of autophagy has been linked to various human diseases, including those caused by viral infection. Many viruses have evolved strategies to directly interfere with autophagy, presumably to facilitate their replication or to escape immune detection. However, in some cases, modulation of autophagy appears to be a consequence of the virus disturbing the cell’s metabolic signaling networks. Here, we summarize recent advances in research at the interface of autophagy and viral infection, paying special attention to strategies that human tumor viruses have evolved.

  3. Platelet lysate embedded scaffolds for skin regeneration.

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    Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Mori, Michela; Cervio, Marila; Riva, Federica; Liakos, Ioannis; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Saporito, Francesca; Marini, Lara; Caramella, Carla

    2015-04-01

    The work presents the development of acellular scaffolds extemporaneously embedded with platelet lysate (PL), as an innovative approach in the field of tissue regeneration/reparation. PL embedded scaffolds should have a tridimensional architecture to support cell migration and growth, in order to restore skin integrity. For this reason, chondroitin sulfate (CS) was associated with sodium alginate (SA) to prepare highly porous systems. The developed scaffolds were characterized for chemical stability to γ-radiation, morphology, hydration and mechanical properties. Moreover, the capability of fibroblasts and endothelial cells to populate the scaffold was evaluated by means of proliferation test 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy study. The scaffolds, not altered by sterilization, were characterized by limited swelling and high flexibility, by foam-like structure with bubbles that formed a high surface area and irregular texture suitable for cell adhesion. Cell growth and scaffold population were evident on the bubble surface, where the cells appeared anchored to the scaffold structure. Scaffold network based on CS and SA demonstrated to be an effective support to enhance and to allow fibroblasts and endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, HUVEC) adhesion and proliferation. In particular, it could be hypothesized that cell adhesion was facilitated by the synergic effect of PL and CS. Although further in vivo evaluation is needed, on the basis of in vitro results, PL embedded scaffolds seem promising systems for skin wound healing.

  4. Platelet lysate obtained via plateletpheresis performed in standing and awake equine donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Scarlett M; Naskou, Maria C; Thoresen, Merrilee; Copland, Ian; Peroni, John F

    2017-07-01

    Platelet preparations containing growth factors, attachment factors, and enzymes are appealing to enhance healing of injured tissues and as an alternative to xenogenic serum in cell culture media. Plateletpheresis is commonly used to collect platelets in human medicine but has not been validated in horses. Plateletpheresis to collect platelet concentrate was performed on six female, mixed breed, chemically restrained horses using commercially available apheresis equipment. Before and immediately after plateletpheresis, we performed physical examinations and collected blood for chemistry and coagulation panels and then again at 8, 16, 24, and 48 hours after the procedure. To produce platelet lysate, the platelet concentrate underwent two freeze-thaw cycles followed by centrifugation and filtration processing. The platelet lysate was then analyzed for cellular debris, fibrinogen, and growth factors. The collected platelet concentration contained a mean platelet yield of 390 × 10 3 /μL. Donor platelet count decreased from a mean of 193 × 10 3 /μL to 138 × 10 3 /μL after plateletpheresis, but no individual was at risk for hemorrhage. Pooled platelet lysate had minimal cellular residue and contained growth factor concentrations at 6.1 ng/mL for transforming growth factor-β1, at 3.5 ng/mL for platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and at 13.8 ng/mL for vascular endothelial growth factor-A. Plateletpheresis using commercially available apheresis equipment is a feasible option for collecting platelet concentrate from equine donors. The lysate generated from the apheresis product contains growth factors and has potential to be used as a fetal bovine serum substitute for cell culture. © 2017 AABB.

  5. Purification-Free, Target-Selective Immobilization of a Protein from Cell Lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaehyun; Kwon, Inchan

    2018-02-27

    Protein immobilization has been widely used for laboratory experiments and industrial processes. Preparation of a recombinant protein for immobilization usually requires laborious and expensive purification steps. Here, a novel purification-free, target-selective immobilization technique of a protein from cell lysates is reported. Purification steps are skipped by immobilizing a target protein containing a clickable non-natural amino acid (p-azidophenylalanine) in cell lysates onto alkyne-functionalized solid supports via bioorthogonal azide-alkyne cycloaddition. In order to achieve a target protein-selective immobilization, p-azidophenylalanine was introduced into an exogenous target protein, but not into endogenous non-target proteins using host cells with amber codon-free genomic DNAs. Immobilization of superfolder fluorescent protein (sfGFP) from cell lysates is as efficient as that of the purified sfGFP. Using two fluorescent proteins (sfGFP and mCherry), the authors also demonstrated that the target proteins are immobilized with a minimal immobilization of non-target proteins (target-selective immobilization). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Implementation of a Multiplex and Quantitative Proteomics Platform for Assessing Protein Lysates Using DNA-Barcoded Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinho; Geiss, Gary K; Demirkan, Gokhan; Vellano, Christopher P; Filanoski, Brian; Lu, Yiling; Ju, Zhenlin; Yu, Shuangxing; Guo, Huifang; Bogatzki, Lisa Y; Carter, Warren; Meredith, Rhonda K; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Ding, Zhiyong; Beechem, Joseph M; Mills, Gordon B

    2018-06-01

    Molecular analysis of tumors forms the basis for personalized cancer medicine and increasingly guides patient selection for targeted therapy. Future opportunities for personalized medicine are highlighted by the measurement of protein expression levels via immunohistochemistry, protein arrays, and other approaches; however, sample type, sample quantity, batch effects, and "time to result" are limiting factors for clinical application. Here, we present a development pipeline for a novel multiplexed DNA-labeled antibody platform which digitally quantifies protein expression from lysate samples. We implemented a rigorous validation process for each antibody and show that the platform is amenable to multiple protocols covering nitrocellulose and plate-based methods. Results are highly reproducible across technical and biological replicates, and there are no observed "batch effects" which are common for most multiplex molecular assays. Tests from basal and perturbed cancer cell lines indicate that this platform is comparable to orthogonal proteomic assays such as Reverse-Phase Protein Array, and applicable to measuring the pharmacodynamic effects of clinically-relevant cancer therapeutics. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential clinical utility of the platform with protein profiling from breast cancer patient samples to identify molecular subtypes. Together, these findings highlight the potential of this platform for enhancing our understanding of cancer biology in a clinical translation setting. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Measuring O-GlcNAc cleavage by OGA and cell lysates on a peptide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Suhela; Shi, Jie; Bourakba, Mostafa; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Pieters, Roland J

    2017-09-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a post-translational modification resulting from the addition of an N-acetylglucosamine moiety to the hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. In addition, O-GlcNAcylated proteins can be phosphorylated, which suggests the possibility for crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation. Dysregulation of O-GlcNAcylation affects cell signaling, transcriptional regulation, cell cycle control and can e.g. lead to tumorigenesis and tumor metastasis. There is a strong demand for efficient analytical techniques to better detect and investigate this abundant modification and its role in cancer. Herein we demonstrated the utility of an O-GlcNAcylated peptide array to examine O-GlcNAcase (OGA) activity and substrate specificity of both purified protein as well cell lysates of different cancer cell lines. Using this microarray, we clearly observed OGA activity and also inhibition thereof by OGA inhibitor thiamet G. Interestingly, different levels of OGA activity were observed of lysates derived from different cancer cell lines. This suggests that the tool may be useful in cancer research and biomarker development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Platelet lysate: a replacement for fetal bovine serum in animal cell culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Liselott; Klinth, Jeanna; Holmqvist, Olov; Ohlson, Sten

    2003-01-01

    A new cell culture supplement, platelet lysate, was evaluated with reference to fetal bovine serum (FBS), an established industrial medium for animal cell culture. Chemical and bacteriological profiles were conducted including the presence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). PDGF was detected in the platelet lysate but it was not present in FBS. The platelet lysate medium demonstrated lack of microorganisms, mycoplasma and endotoxins. The platelet lysate was investigated in culture stud...

  9. Application of Image Processing Algorithms for Brain Tumor Analysis in 2D and 3D Leading to Tumor’s Positioning in Skull: Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYESHA AMIR SIDDIQI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of brain tumors has been found challenging throughout in the field of image processing. Different algorithms have been applied to the segmentation of solid or cystic tumors individually but little work has been done for solid cum cystic tumor. The papers reviewed in this article only deal with the case study of patients suffering from solid cum cystic brain tumor as this type of tumor is rarely found for the purpose of research. The research work conducted so far on this topic has been reviewed. The study begins with 2D (Two Dimensional segmentation of tumor using MATLAB. It is then extended to study of slices of tumor and its volume calculation using open source software named 3D Slicer which represents the tumor in 3D. This software can intake the 2D slices and process them to give a combined 3D view. Various techniques are available in the software. According to the particular requirement an appropriate algorithm can be chosen. This paper gives a promising hierarchy for volume calculation of tumor and the three dimensional view. Further we can also find the position of tumor in the skull using the same software. This piece of work is a valuable guideline for the researchers interested in segmentation and three dimensional representations of different areas of human body. The models extracted out using the given algorithms can also be treated for matching and comparison of any future research. This will also aid surgeons and physicians in efficient analysis and reporting techniques.

  10. Diffusion processes in tumors: A nuclear medicine approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya, Helman

    2016-01-01

    The number of counts used in nuclear medicine imaging techniques, only provides physical information about the desintegration of the nucleus present in the the radiotracer molecules that were uptaken in a particular anatomical region, but that information is not a real metabolic information. For this reason a mathematical method was used to find a correlation between number of counts and "1"8F-FDG mass concentration. This correlation allows a better interpretation of the results obtained in the study of diffusive processes in an agar phantom, and based on it, an image from the PETCETIX DICOM sample image set from OsiriX-viewer software was processed. PET-CT gradient magnitude and Laplacian images could show direct information on diffusive processes for radiopharmaceuticals that enter into the cells by simple diffusion. In the case of the radiopharmaceutical "1"8F-FDG is necessary to include pharmacokinetic models, to make a correct interpretation of the gradient magnitude and Laplacian of counts images.

  11. Diffusion processes in tumors: A nuclear medicine approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, Helman, E-mail: haamayae@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    The number of counts used in nuclear medicine imaging techniques, only provides physical information about the desintegration of the nucleus present in the the radiotracer molecules that were uptaken in a particular anatomical region, but that information is not a real metabolic information. For this reason a mathematical method was used to find a correlation between number of counts and {sup 18}F-FDG mass concentration. This correlation allows a better interpretation of the results obtained in the study of diffusive processes in an agar phantom, and based on it, an image from the PETCETIX DICOM sample image set from OsiriX-viewer software was processed. PET-CT gradient magnitude and Laplacian images could show direct information on diffusive processes for radiopharmaceuticals that enter into the cells by simple diffusion. In the case of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}F-FDG is necessary to include pharmacokinetic models, to make a correct interpretation of the gradient magnitude and Laplacian of counts images.

  12. Platelet lysate as a serum replacement for skin cell culture on biomimetic PCL nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovkova, Vera; Vocetkova, Karolina; Rampichova, Michala; Mickova, Andrea; Buzgo, Matej; Lukasova, Vera; Dankova, Jana; Filova, Eva; Necas, Alois; Amler, Evzen

    2018-06-01

    Platelets are a popular source of native growth factors for tissue engineering applications. The aim of the study was to verify the use of platelet lysate as a fetal bovine serum (FBS) replacement for skin cell culture. The cytokine content of the platelet lysate was characterized using the Bio-Plex system. The cells (fibroblasts, melanocytes, and keratinocytes) were cultured on PCL nanofibrous scaffolds to mimic their natural microenvironment. The cytokine content of the platelet lysate was determined, and to the cells, a medium containing platelet lysate or platelet lysate in combination with FBS was added. The results showed that 7% (v/v) platelet lysate was sufficient to supplement 10% (v/v) FBS in the culture of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. The combination of platelet lysate and FBS had a rather inhibitory effect on fibroblasts, in contrary to keratinocytes, where the effect was synergic. Platelet lysate did not sufficiently promote proliferation in melanocytes; however, the combination of FBS and platelet lysate yielded a better outcome and resulted in bipolar morphology of the cultured melanocytes. The data indicated that platelet lysate improved cell proliferation and metabolic activity and may be used as an additive to the cell culture media.

  13. Dendritic Cells Loaded with Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) Lysates Induce Antitumor Immune Killing Effect In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Shi, Pengfei; Gou, Shanmiao; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Chunyou

    2014-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cells (CSCs) theory, malignant tumors may be heterogeneous in which a small population of CSCs drive the progression of cancer. Because of their intrinsic abilities, CSCs may survive a variety of treatments and then lead to therapeutic resistance and cancer recurrence. Pancreatic CSCs have been reported to be responsible for the malignant behaviors of pancreatic cancer, including suppression of immune protection. Thus, development of immune strategies to eradicate pancreatic CSCs may be of great value for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we enriched pancreatic CSCs by culturing Panc-1 cells under sphere-forming conditions. Panc-1 CSCs expressed low levels of HLA-ABC and CD86, as measured by flow cytometry analysis. We further found that the Panc-1 CSCs modulate immunity by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation which is promoted by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies. The monocyte derived dendritic cells (DCs) were charged with total lysates generated from Panc-1 CSCs obtained from tumor sphere culturing. After co-culturing with lymphocytes at different ratios, the Panc-1 CSCs lysates modified DC effectively promoted lymphocyte proliferation. The activating efficiency reached 72.4% and 74.7% at the ratios of 1∶10 and 1∶20 with lymphocytes. The activated lymphocytes secreted high levels of INF-γ and IL-2, which are strong antitumor cytokines. Moreover, Panc-1 CSCs lysates modified DC induced significant cytotoxic effects of lymphocytes on Panc-1 CSCs and parental Panc-1 cells, respectively, as shown by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Our study demonstrates that the development of CSCs-based vaccine is a promising strategy for treating pancreatic cancer. PMID:25521461

  14. Dendritic cells loaded with pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs lysates induce antitumor immune killing effect in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yin

    Full Text Available According to the cancer stem cells (CSCs theory, malignant tumors may be heterogeneous in which a small population of CSCs drive the progression of cancer. Because of their intrinsic abilities, CSCs may survive a variety of treatments and then lead to therapeutic resistance and cancer recurrence. Pancreatic CSCs have been reported to be responsible for the malignant behaviors of pancreatic cancer, including suppression of immune protection. Thus, development of immune strategies to eradicate pancreatic CSCs may be of great value for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we enriched pancreatic CSCs by culturing Panc-1 cells under sphere-forming conditions. Panc-1 CSCs expressed low levels of HLA-ABC and CD86, as measured by flow cytometry analysis. We further found that the Panc-1 CSCs modulate immunity by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation which is promoted by phytohemagglutinin (PHA and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies. The monocyte derived dendritic cells (DCs were charged with total lysates generated from Panc-1 CSCs obtained from tumor sphere culturing. After co-culturing with lymphocytes at different ratios, the Panc-1 CSCs lysates modified DC effectively promoted lymphocyte proliferation. The activating efficiency reached 72.4% and 74.7% at the ratios of 1∶10 and 1∶20 with lymphocytes. The activated lymphocytes secreted high levels of INF-γ and IL-2, which are strong antitumor cytokines. Moreover, Panc-1 CSCs lysates modified DC induced significant cytotoxic effects of lymphocytes on Panc-1 CSCs and parental Panc-1 cells, respectively, as shown by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay. Our study demonstrates that the development of CSCs-based vaccine is a promising strategy for treating pancreatic cancer.

  15. Human Platelet Lysate as a Replacement for Fetal Bovine Serum in Limbal Stem Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Kunal; Gong, Hwee K; Yuan, Ching; Kaufman, Stephen C

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the use of human platelet lysate (HPL) as an alternative supplement for limbal explant culture. Culture media were prepared using either 10% pooled HPL (PHPL), single donor HPL, or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Limbal tissues, obtained from the Minnesota Lions Eye Bank, were cultured in each medium on plastic plates or on denuded amniotic membrane (AM). Immunofluorescence staining was performed for ABCG2, tumor protein p63α, and cytokeratin 3 (K3). Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of ABCG2 and p63. Limbal explants grown in each medium were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to assess the proliferative capacity in each medium. Concentration of growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) in HPL and PHPL was compared to that in human serum (HS). Immunofluorescence staining on AM showed prominent expression of ABCG2, p63α but sparse expression of K3 in HPL and PHPL supplemented medium. Real time-PCR showed 1.7 fold higher expression of ABCG2 in PHPL supplemented medium (p = 0.03), and similar expression of p63 in HPL and PHPL supplemented medium compared to FBS medium. The proliferation assay showed that LSCs retained their proliferative potential in HPL supplemented medium. Higher concentration of growth factors were found in HPL, compared to HS. Human platelet lysate has higher concentration of grown factors and is effective in maintaining growth and stem cell phenotype of corneal limbal explant cultures.

  16. Real-time PCR analysis of genes encoding tumor antigens in esophageal tumors and a cancer vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinert, Brian T.; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.; Milano, Francesca; Pedersen, Ayako W.; Claesson, Mogens H.; Zocca, Mai-Britt

    2009-01-01

    Tumor antigens are the primary target of therapeutic cancer vaccines. We set out to define and compare the expression pattern of tumor antigen genes in esophagus carcinoma biopsies and in an allogeneic tumor lysate-based cancer vaccine, MelCancerVac. Cells used for vaccine production were treated

  17. Role of computed tomography in the integral diagnostic process of paranasal cavities tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarova, I.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported of computed tomographic examination of 129 patients from 3 to 74 years of age, on clinical grounds suspected of having, or histologically verified, tumors of the paranasal cavities. Axial and/or coronary scanning (depending on the case) was performed on computed tomograph Tomoscan-310, according to previously selected programs. Computed tomography was evaluated with regard to the possibility for diagnosing tumors of the paranasal sinuses and its role in furnishing additional information in these diseases. The clearcut differentiation on the computed tomograms both of the bone structures and of the soft tissue - muscles, vessels, connective tissue and fatty tissue spaces - is emphasized. The clinical significance of this special X-ray method of examination in the preoperative period by demonstrating the different directions in which the tumors spread and the possibility for adequate planning of the radiotherapeutic field and posttherapeutic follow-up the pathologic process are pointed out. 5 figs., 5 refs

  18. Platelet Lysate: The Better Choice for Jaw Periosteal Cell Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Wanner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated a high quality of minerals formed by serum-free cultured jaw periosteal cells (JPCs by Raman spectroscopy but the mineralization extent was not satisfactory. In the present study, we analyzed the proliferation and mineralization potential of human platelet lysate- (hPL- cultured JPCs in comparison to that of FCS-cultured JPCs. By cell impedance measurements, we detected significantly higher population doubling times of PL-cultured JPCs in comparison to FCS-cultured JPCs. However, this result was not based on lower proliferation activities but on diminished cell sizes which JPCs develop under PL cultivation. The measurements of the metabolic activities clearly showed significantly higher cell proliferation rates under PL culturing. Equivalent levels of the mesenchymal cell markers CD29, CD45, CD73, CD90, and CD105 were detected, but there were significantly increased MSCA-1 levels under PL cultivation. While JPCs only occasionally mineralize under FCS culture conditions, the mineralization potential was significantly stronger under PL cultivation. Moreover, in 4 of 5 analyzed patient cells, the addition of dexamethasone was proved no longer necessary for strong mineralization of PL-cultured JPCs. We conclude that in vitro cultivation of JPCs with platelet lysate is a suitable alternative to FCS culture conditions and a powerful tool for the development of high-quality TE constructs using jaw periosteal cells.

  19. Platelet Lysate: The Better Choice for Jaw Periosteal Cell Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Yvonne; Umrath, Felix; Waidmann, Marc; Reinert, Siegmar; Alexander, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated a high quality of minerals formed by serum-free cultured jaw periosteal cells (JPCs) by Raman spectroscopy but the mineralization extent was not satisfactory. In the present study, we analyzed the proliferation and mineralization potential of human platelet lysate- (hPL-) cultured JPCs in comparison to that of FCS-cultured JPCs. By cell impedance measurements, we detected significantly higher population doubling times of PL-cultured JPCs in comparison to FCS-cultured JPCs. However, this result was not based on lower proliferation activities but on diminished cell sizes which JPCs develop under PL cultivation. The measurements of the metabolic activities clearly showed significantly higher cell proliferation rates under PL culturing. Equivalent levels of the mesenchymal cell markers CD29, CD45, CD73, CD90, and CD105 were detected, but there were significantly increased MSCA-1 levels under PL cultivation. While JPCs only occasionally mineralize under FCS culture conditions, the mineralization potential was significantly stronger under PL cultivation. Moreover, in 4 of 5 analyzed patient cells, the addition of dexamethasone was proved no longer necessary for strong mineralization of PL-cultured JPCs. We conclude that in vitro cultivation of JPCs with platelet lysate is a suitable alternative to FCS culture conditions and a powerful tool for the development of high-quality TE constructs using jaw periosteal cells.

  20. USE OF BACTERIAL LYSATES IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF RHINOSINUSITIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinosinusitis is a common term that means inflammation of the mucosa of paranasal and nasal cavities. In the last 10 years there was a three-fold increase in rhinosinusitis’ morbidity rates and annual increase of hospital admissions on the average of 1,5–2%. The prevalence of various forms of rhinosinusitidis among adult population is 5 to 15% and 5% among children. Such ubiquitous spreading is one of the leading factors that stipulate socio-economic burden of the disease. According to various studies, rhinosinusitidis dramatically decrease quality of life: these patients show more inferior results in tests upon pain sensitivity and social activity in comparison with patients with coronary heart disease and COPD; in approximately 26% of patients rhinosinusitidis are followed by development or progression of depression. Rhinosinusitis treatment is one of the hottest issues in modern otorhinolaryngology, that demand more financial support with every year. Achievments in immunology have become grounds for immunocorrection as part of complex treatment of such patients. Bacterial lysates are used as preventive medications.Key words: rhinosinusitidis, immunomodulators, bacterial lysates. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 157–161

  1. Electrospun Gelatin–Chondroitin Sulfate Scaffolds Loaded with Platelet Lysate Promote Immature Cardiomyocyte Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Saporito

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was the development of heart patches based on gelatin (G and chondroitin sulfate (CS to be used as implants to improve heart recovery after corrective surgery for critical congenital heart defects (CHD. Patches were prepared by means of electrospinning to obtain nanofibrous scaffolds and they were loaded with platelet lysate (PL as a source of growth factors to further enhance the repair process. Scaffolds were characterized for morphology and mechanical properties and for the capability to support in vitro adhesion and proliferation of dermal fibroblasts in order to assess the system’s general biocompatibility. Adhesion and proliferation of endothelial cells and cardiac cells (cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts from rat fetuses onto PL-loaded patches was evaluated. Patches presented good elasticity and high stiffness suitable for in vivo adaptation to heart contraction. CS improved adhesion and proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as proof of their biocompatibility. Moreover, they enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of endothelial cells, a crucial mediator of cardiac repair. Cell adhesion and proliferation could be related to elastic properties, which could favor cell motility. The presence of platelet lysate and CS was crucial for the adhesion and proliferation of cardiac cells and, in particular, of cardiomyocytes: G/CS scaffold embedded with PL appeared to selectively promote proliferation in cardiomyocytes but not cardiac fibroblasts. In conclusion, G/CS scaffold seems to be a promising system to assist myocardial-repair processes in young patient, preserving cardiomyocyte viability and preventing cardiac fibroblast proliferation, likely reducing subsequent uncontrolled collagen deposition by fibroblasts following repair.

  2. Platelet lysate-based pro-angiogenic nanocoatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara M; Pirraco, Rogério P; Marques, Alexandra P; Santo, Vítor E; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2016-03-01

    Human platelet lysate (PL) is a cost-effective and human source of autologous multiple and potent pro-angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF A), fibroblast growth factor b (FGF b) and angiopoietin-1. Nanocoatings previously characterized were prepared by layer-by-layer assembling incorporating PL with marine-origin polysaccharides and were shown to activate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Within 20 h of incubation, the more sulfated coatings induced the HUVECS to the form tube-like structures accompanied by an increased expression of angiogenic-associated genes, such as angiopoietin-1 and VEGF A. This may be a cost-effective approach to modify 2D/3D constructs to instruct angiogenic cells towards the formation of neo-vascularization, driven by multiple and synergistic stimulations from the PL combined with sulfated polysaccharides. The presence, or fast induction, of a stable and mature vasculature inside 3D constructs is crucial for new tissue formation and its viability. This has been one of the major tissue engineering challenges, limiting the dimensions of efficient tissue constructs. Many approaches based on cells, growth factors, 3D bioprinting and channel incorporation have been proposed. Herein, we explored a versatile technique, layer-by-layer assembling in combination with platelet lysate (PL), that is a cost-effective source of many potent pro-angiogenic proteins and growth factors. Results suggest that the combination of PL with sulfated polyelectrolytes might be used to introduce interfaces onto 2D/3D constructs with potential to induce the formation of cell-based tubular structures. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Automated Processing of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: Correlation of Advanced Pharmacokinetic Metrics with Tumor Grade in Pediatric Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajapeyam, S; Stamoulis, C; Ricci, K; Kieran, M; Poussaint, T Young

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging have proved useful for differentiating brain tumor grades in adults. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion data from children with newly diagnosed brain tumors and analyzed the pharmacokinetic parameters correlating with tumor grade. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging data from 38 patients were analyzed by using commercially available software. Subjects were categorized into 2 groups based on pathologic analyses consisting of low-grade (World Health Organization I and II) and high-grade (World Health Organization III and IV) tumors. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between the 2 groups by using linear regression models. For parameters that were statistically distinct between the 2 groups, sensitivity and specificity were also estimated. Eighteen tumors were classified as low-grade, and 20, as high-grade. Transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extracellular extravascular space (K trans ), rate constant from extracellular extravascular space back into blood plasma (K ep ), and extracellular extravascular volume fraction (V e ) were all significantly correlated with tumor grade; high-grade tumors showed higher K trans , higher K ep , and lower V e . Although all 3 parameters had high specificity (range, 82%-100%), K ep had the highest specificity for both grades. Optimal sensitivity was achieved for V e , with a combined sensitivity of 76% (compared with 71% for K trans and K ep ). Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging can effectively discriminate low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. Involvement of the Warburg effect in non-tumor diseases processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Meiqing; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Linxi

    2018-04-01

    Warburg effect, as an energy shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, is extensively found in various cancers. Interestingly, increasing researchers show that Warburg effect plays a crucial role in non-tumor diseases. For instance, inhibition of Warburg effect can alleviate pulmonary vascular remodeling in the process of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Interference of Warburg effect improves mitochondrial function and cardiac function in the process of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Additionally, the Warburg effect induces vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and contributes to atherosclerosis. Warburg effect may also involve in axonal damage and neuronal death, which are related with multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, Warburg effect significantly promotes cell proliferation and cyst expansion in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Besides, Warburg effect relieves amyloid β-mediated cell death in Alzheimer's disease. And Warburg effect also improves the mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Finally, we also introduce some glycolytic agonists. This review focuses on the newest researches about the role of Warburg effect in non-tumor diseases, including PH, tuberculosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), failing heart, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, and PKD. Obviously, Warburg effect may be a potential therapeutic target for those non-tumor diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Improving abdomen tumor low-dose CT images using a fast dictionary learning based processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yang; Shi Luyao; Shu Huazhong; Luo Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Yin Xindao; Toumoulin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In abdomen computed tomography (CT), repeated radiation exposures are often inevitable for cancer patients who receive surgery or radiotherapy guided by CT images. Low-dose scans should thus be considered in order to avoid the harm of accumulative x-ray radiation. This work is aimed at improving abdomen tumor CT images from low-dose scans by using a fast dictionary learning (DL) based processing. Stemming from sparse representation theory, the proposed patch-based DL approach allows effective suppression of both mottled noise and streak artifacts. The experiments carried out on clinical data show that the proposed method brings encouraging improvements in abdomen low-dose CT images with tumors. (paper)

  6. Effect of platelet lysate on human cells involved in different phases of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Maria Chiara; Chiara Barsotti, Maria; Losi, Paola; Briganti, Enrica; Sanguinetti, Elena; Magera, Angela; Al Kayal, Tamer; Feriani, Roberto; Di Stefano, Rossella; Soldani, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are rich in mediators able to positively affect cell activity in wound healing. Aim of this study was to characterize the effect of different concentrations of human pooled allogeneic platelet lysate on human cells involved in the different phases of wound healing (inflammatory phase, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix secretion and epithelialization). Platelet lysate effect was studied on endothelial cells, monocytes, fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in terms of viability and proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, tissue repair pathway activation (ERK1/2) and inflammatory response evaluation (NFκB). Results were compared both with basal medium and with a positive control containing serum and growth factors. Platelet lysate induced viability and proliferation at the highest concentrations tested (10% and 20% v/v). Whereas both platelet lysate concentrations increased cell migration, only 20% platelet lysate was able to significantly promote angiogenic activity (pplatelet lysate concentrations activated important inflammatory pathways such as ERK1/2 and NFκB with the same early kinetics, whereas the effect was different for later time-points. These data suggest the possibility of using allogeneic platelet lysate as both an alternative to growth factors commonly used for cell culture and as a tool for clinical regenerative application for wound healing.

  7. Effect of platelet lysate on human cells involved in different phases of wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Barsotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets are rich in mediators able to positively affect cell activity in wound healing. Aim of this study was to characterize the effect of different concentrations of human pooled allogeneic platelet lysate on human cells involved in the different phases of wound healing (inflammatory phase, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix secretion and epithelialization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Platelet lysate effect was studied on endothelial cells, monocytes, fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in terms of viability and proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, tissue repair pathway activation (ERK1/2 and inflammatory response evaluation (NFκB. Results were compared both with basal medium and with a positive control containing serum and growth factors. Platelet lysate induced viability and proliferation at the highest concentrations tested (10% and 20% v/v. Whereas both platelet lysate concentrations increased cell migration, only 20% platelet lysate was able to significantly promote angiogenic activity (p<0.05 vs. control, comparably to the positive control. Both platelet lysate concentrations activated important inflammatory pathways such as ERK1/2 and NFκB with the same early kinetics, whereas the effect was different for later time-points. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest the possibility of using allogeneic platelet lysate as both an alternative to growth factors commonly used for cell culture and as a tool for clinical regenerative application for wound healing.

  8. Tumor image signatures and habitats: a processing pipeline of multimodality metabolic and physiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Daekeun; Kim, Michelle M; Aryal, Madhava P; Parmar, Hemant; Piert, Morand; Lawrence, Theodore S; Cao, Yue

    2018-01-01

    To create tumor "habitats" from the "signatures" discovered from multimodality metabolic and physiological images, we developed a framework of a processing pipeline. The processing pipeline consists of six major steps: (1) creating superpixels as a spatial unit in a tumor volume; (2) forming a data matrix [Formula: see text] containing all multimodality image parameters at superpixels; (3) forming and clustering a covariance or correlation matrix [Formula: see text] of the image parameters to discover major image "signatures;" (4) clustering the superpixels and organizing the parameter order of the [Formula: see text] matrix according to the one found in step 3; (5) creating "habitats" in the image space from the superpixels associated with the "signatures;" and (6) pooling and clustering a matrix consisting of correlation coefficients of each pair of image parameters from all patients to discover subgroup patterns of the tumors. The pipeline was applied to a dataset of multimodality images in glioblastoma (GBM) first, which consisted of 10 image parameters. Three major image "signatures" were identified. The three major "habitats" plus their overlaps were created. To test generalizability of the processing pipeline, a second image dataset from GBM, acquired on the scanners different from the first one, was processed. Also, to demonstrate the clinical association of image-defined "signatures" and "habitats," the patterns of recurrence of the patients were analyzed together with image parameters acquired prechemoradiation therapy. An association of the recurrence patterns with image-defined "signatures" and "habitats" was revealed. These image-defined "signatures" and "habitats" can be used to guide stereotactic tissue biopsy for genetic and mutation status analysis and to analyze for prediction of treatment outcomes, e.g., patterns of failure.

  9. Application of magnetic resonance to the diagnosis of tumorous processes in soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzberg, B.

    1998-01-01

    The methodology and results of MR examination of 22 patients with soft tissue tumors (STT) are summarized, and the findings of nine histologically confirmed results are demonstrated. Discussion of the results concentrates on the reliability of the specific diagnosis (which is relatively low) and reliability of discrimination between non-malignant and malignant processes (which is relatively high). The reliability of the examination is enhanced by the intravenous administration of the paramagnetic contrast substance. It is concluded that the examination is of great value for the surgeon and his decision making, in particular with respect to staging. MR completes the set of imaging methods in the diagnosis of STT

  10. Exosomes: novel effectors of human platelet lysate activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Torreggiani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the popularity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet lysate (PL in orthopaedic practice, the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these therapeutic tools are still controversial. So far, the activity of PRP and PL has been associated with different growth factors (GF released during platelet degranulation. This study, for the first time, identifies exosomes, nanosized vesicles released in the extracellular compartment by a number of elements, including platelets, as one of the effectors of PL activity. Exosomes were isolated from human PL by differential ultracentrifugation, and analysed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC treated with three different exosome concentrations (0.6 μg, 5 μg and 50 μg showed a significant, dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control. In addition, osteogenic differentiation assays demonstrated that exosome concentration differently affected the ability of MSC to deposit mineralised matrix. Finally, the analysis of exosome protein content revealed a higher amount of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 as compared to PL. In regards to RNA content, an enrichment of small RNAs in exosomes as compared to donor platelets has been found. These results suggest that exosomes consistently contribute to PL activity and could represent an advantageous nanodelivery system for cell-free regeneration therapies.

  11. Platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates support growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mjoll Jonsdottir-Buch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells are promising candidates in regenerative cell therapy. Conventional culture methods involve the use of animal substances, specifically fetal bovine serum as growth supplement. Since the use of animal-derived products is undesirable for human applications, platelet lysates produced from human platelets are an attractive alternative. This is especially true if platelet lysates from already approved transfusion units at blood banks can be utilized. The purpose of this study was to produce human platelet lysates from expired, blood bank-approved platelet concentrates and evaluate their use as growth supplement in the culture of mesenchymal stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured with one of three culture supplements; fetal bovine serum, lysates from freshly prepared human platelet concentrates, or lysates from expired human platelet concentrates. The effects of these platelet-derived culture supplements on basic mesenchymal stem cell characteristics were evaluated. All cultures maintained the typical mesenchymal stem cell surface marker expression, trilineage differentiation potential, and the ability to suppress in vitro immune responses. However, mesenchymal stem cells supplemented with platelet lysates proliferated faster than traditionally cultured cells and increased the expression of the osteogenic marker gene RUNX-2; yet no difference between the use of fresh and expired platelet concentrates was observed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that human platelet lysates produced from expired platelet concentrates can be used as an alternative to fetal bovine serum for mesenchymal stem cell culture to the same extent as lysates from fresh platelets.

  12. Platelet lysate 3D scaffold supports mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis: an improved approach in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Andrei; Bittencourt, Renata Aparecida Camargo; Almeida, Renan Padron; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis; Deffune, Elenice

    2013-01-01

    Articular lesions are still a major challenge in orthopedics because of cartilage's poor healing properties. A major improvement in therapeutics was the development of autologous chondrocytes implantation (ACI), a biotechnology-derived technique that delivers healthy autologous chondrocytes after in vitro expansion. To obtain cartilage-like tissue, 3D scaffolds are essential to maintain chondrocyte differentiated status. Currently, bioactive 3D scaffolds are promising as they can deliver growth factors, cytokines, and hormones to the cells, giving them a boost to attach, proliferate, induce protein synthesis, and differentiate. Using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiated into chondrocytes, one can avoid cartilage harvesting. Thus, we investigated the potential use of a platelet-lysate-based 3D bioactive scaffold to support chondrogenic differentiation and maintenance of MSCs. The MSCs from adult rabbit bone marrow (n = 5) were cultivated and characterized using three antibodies by flow cytometry. MSCs (1 × 10(5)) were than encapsulated inside 60 µl of a rabbit platelet-lysate clot scaffold and maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium Nutrient Mixture F-12 supplemented with chondrogenic inductors. After 21 days, the MSCs-seeded scaffolds were processed for histological analysis and stained with toluidine blue. This scaffold was able to maintain round-shaped cells, typical chondrocyte metachromatic extracellular matrix deposition, and isogenous group formation. Cells accumulated inside lacunae and cytoplasm lipid droplets were other observed typical chondrocyte features. In conclusion, the usage of a platelet-lysate bioactive scaffold, associated with a suitable chondrogenic culture medium, supports MSCs chondrogenesis. As such, it offers an alternative tool for cartilage engineering research and ACI.

  13. Comparison between mixed lysate antigen and α-actinin antigen in ELISA for serodiagnosis of trichomoniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Ryong; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Park, Soon-Jung; Lee, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Suk; Kim, Yu-Mi; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify an antigen suitable for ELISA for serodiagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) infection. Mixed lysate antigen (Ag) from eight strains of T. vaginalis and recombinant α-actinin protein was compared. The sera of three groups were examined by ELISA: 73 women infected with trichomoniasis served as a positive control, 31 male volunteers as a negative control, and 424 women attending an outpatient health screening at Hanyang University Guri Hospital. Based on the cutoff optical density for each Ag obtained with a negative control, the serosensitivity of the mixed lysate Ag (79.5%) was significantly higher than that of the α-actinin (52.1%) in the 73 patients with trichomoniasis. The specificity using lysate Ag and α-actinin was 100% and 96.8%, respectively. On the other hand, the positivity rate in 424 outpatients was 39.2% and 11.8% with mixed lysate and α-actinin Ag, respectively. Taken together, mixed lysate Ag showed higher sensitivity and specificity than α-actinin. Therefore, mixed lysate may be a better Ag than α-actinin for ELISA for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of platelet lysate supplementation of a dextran-based hydrogel on cartilage formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira Teixeira, Liliana S; Leijten, Jeroen C H; Wennink, Jos W H; Chatterjea, Anindita G; Feijen, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Dijkstra, Pieter J; Karperien, Marcel

    2012-05-01

    In situ gelating dextran-tyramine (Dex-TA) injectable hydrogels have previously shown promising features for cartilage repair. Yet, despite suitable mechanical properties, this system lacks intrinsic biological signals. In contrast, platelet lysate-derived hydrogels are rich in growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, but mechanically unstable. We hypothesized that the advantages of these systems may be combined in one hydrogel, which can be easily translated into clinical settings. Platelet lysate was successfully incorporated into Dex-TA polymer solution prior to gelation. After enzymatic crosslinking, rheological and morphological evaluations were performed. Subsequently, the effect of platelet lysate on cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation was determined. Finally, we evaluated the integration potential of this gel onto osteoarthritis-affected cartilage. The mechanical properties and covalent attachment of Dex-TA to cartilage tissue during in situ gel formation were successfully combined with the advantages of platelet lysate, revealing the potential of this enhanced hydrogel as a cell-free approach. The addition of platelet lysate did not affect the mechanical properties and porosity of Dex-TA hydrogels. Furthermore, platelet lysate derived anabolic growth factors promoted proliferation and triggered chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative analyses of industrial-scale human platelet lysate preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jan; Benedetti, Eric; Preslar, Amber; Jacobson, Pam; Jin, Ping; Stroncek, David F; Reems, Jo-Anna

    2017-12-01

    Efforts are underway to eliminate fetal bovine serum from mammalian cell cultures for clinical use. An emerging, viable replacement option for fetal bovine serum is human platelet lysate (PL) as either a plasma-based or serum-based product. Nine industrial-scale, serum-based PL manufacturing runs (i.e., lots) were performed, consisting of an average ± standard deviation volume of 24.6 ± 2.2 liters of pooled, platelet-rich plasma units that were obtained from apheresis donors. Manufactured lots were compared by evaluating various biochemical and functional test results. Comprehensive cytokine profiles of PL lots and product stability tests were performed. Global gene expression profiles of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) cultured with plasma-based or serum-based PL were compared to MSCs cultured with fetal bovine serum. Electrolyte and protein levels were relatively consistent among all serum-based PL lots, with only slight variations in glucose and calcium levels. All nine lots were as good as or better than fetal bovine serum in expanding MSCs. Serum-based PL stored at -80°C remained stable over 2 years. Quantitative cytokine arrays showed similarities as well as dissimilarities in the proteins present in serum-based PL. Greater differences in MSC gene expression profiles were attributable to the starting cell source rather than with the use of either PL or fetal bovine serum as a culture supplement. Using a large-scale, standardized method, lot-to-lot variations were noted for industrial-scale preparations of serum-based PL products. However, all lots performed as well as or better than fetal bovine serum in supporting MSC growth. Together, these data indicate that off-the-shelf PL is a feasible substitute for fetal bovine serum in MSC cultures. © 2017 AABB.

  16. Rapid and simple purification of elastin-like polypeptides directly from whole cells and cell lysates by organic solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VerHeul, Ross; Sweet, Craig; Thompson, David H

    2018-03-26

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) are a well-known class of proteins that are being increasingly utilized in a variety of biomedical applications, due to their beneficial physicochemical properties. A unifying feature of ELP is their demonstration of a sequence tunable inverse transition temperature (Tt) that enables purification using a simple, straightforward process called inverse transition cycling (ITC). Despite the utility of ITC, the process is inherently limited to ELP with an experimentally accessible Tt. Since the underlying basis for the ELP Tt is related to its high overall hydrophobicity, we anticipated that ELP would be excellent candidates for purification by organic extraction. We report the first method for rapidly purifying ELP directly from whole E. coli cells or clarified lysates using pure organic solvents and solvent mixtures, followed by aqueous back extraction. Our results show that small ELP and a large ELP-fusion protein can be isolated in high yield from whole cells or cell lysates with greater than 95% purity in less than 30 min and with very low levels of LPS and DNA contamination.

  17. Real-time PCR analysis of genes encoding tumor antigens in esophageal tumors and a cancer vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; Milano, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    Tumor antigens are the primary target of therapeutic cancer vaccines. We set out to define and compare the expression pattern of tumor antigen genes in esophagus carcinoma biopsies and in an allogeneic tumor lysate-based cancer vaccine, MelCancerVac. Cells used for vaccine production were treated...... in the production of the vaccine. Quantitative PCR was used to assay 74 tumor antigen genes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. 81% (13/16) of tumors expressed more than five cancer/testis (CT) antigens. A total of 96 genes were assayed in the tumor cell clone (DDM1.7) used to make tumor cell...

  18. Evaluation of human platelet lysate and dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectants for the cryopreservation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xiao, Ran; Cao, Yi-Lin; Yin, Hong-Yu

    2017-09-09

    Cryopreservation provides an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) are frequently used as cryoprotectants for this purpose. However, the use of DMSO can result in adverse effects and toxic reactions and FBS can introduce risks of viral, prion, zoonose contaminations and evoke immune responses after injection. It is therefore crucial to reduce DMSO concentrations and use serum-free solution in the cryopreservation process. Human platelet lysate (PL) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative to DMSO and FBS. Therefore, in this study, with an aim to identify a cryoprotective agent for ASC cryopreservation, we determined the viability, proliferation potential, phenotype, and differentiation potential of fresh ASCs and ASCs cryopreserved using different combinations of three cryoprotective agents: fetal bovine serum (FBS), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and human platelet lysate (PL). The viability of the ASCs cryopreserved with 90% FBS and 10% DMSO, 95% FBS and 5% DMSO, and 97% PL and 3% DMSO was >80%, and the proliferation potentials, cell phenotypes, and differentiation potentials of these groups were similar to those of fresh ASCs. Together, our findings suggest that a combination of 97% PL and 3% DMSO is an ideal cryoprotective agent for the efficient cryopreservation of human ASCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification analysis of the expression of tumor-associated proteins in serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and those with other tumor location. Possibilities of their use in the diagnosis and estimation of the extent of a tumorous process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Bobrova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific features of the expression of tumor-associated proteins (TAP were immunologically studied in the sera of patients with ovarian cancer (OC and other tumor location by means of immune sera (As or monoclonal antibodies (MAb to find out whether they could be used to diagnose and estimate the extent of a tumorous process.MAb 1 (to HEp-2 cell membrane proteins, larynx cancer, Ac4 (to a pool of two ovarian cystadenocarcinomas, and MAb 3 (to affinity-pu- rified proteins of the apparently intact human gastric mucosa were used to examine the sera of patients with OC and other tumor location and positive responsiveness was detected in 82, ~100, and 77 % of cases, respectively. The differences in the expression of TAP in the patients versus healthy donors were shown to be statistically significant (p = 0.0001; p = 0.015; p = 0.01, respectively.The sensitivity of quantifying ELISA in detecting TAP was 78 and 85 % in patients with Stages I–II and III–IV OC, respectively; ~100 and 89 % in patients with breast cancer and in those with gastrointestinal tract cancer, respectively; and 60 and 14 % in patients with lymphopro- liferative diseases and healthy donors, respectively. Comparison of TAP detection rates in the authors’ test systems with multiplex testing with a biochip array of 12 tumor markers has shown that these test systems are at the world standard level.

  20. Distribution of AAV8 particles in cell lysates and culture media changes with time and is dependent on the recombinant vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A Piras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With clinical trials ongoing, efficient clinical production of adeno-associated virus (AAV to treat large numbers of patients remains a challenge. We compared distribution of AAV8 packaged with Factor VIII (FVIII in cell culture media and lysates on days 3, 5, 6, and 7 post-transfection and found increasing viral production through day 6, with the proportion of viral particles in the media increasing from 76% at day 3 to 94% by day 7. Compared to FVIII, AAV8 packaged with Factor IX and Protective Protein/Cathepsin A vectors demonstrated a greater shift from lysate towards media from day 3 to 6, implying that particle distribution is dependent on recombinant vector. Larger-scale productions showed that the ratio of full-to-empty AAV particles is similar in media and lysate, and that AAV harvested on day 6 post-transfection provides equivalent function in mice compared to AAV harvested on day 3. This demonstrates that AAV8 production can be optimized by prolonging the duration of culture post-transfection, and simplified by allowing harvest of media only, with disposal of cells that contain 10% or less of total vector yield. Additionally, the difference in particle distribution with different expression cassettes implies a recombinant vector-dependent processing mechanism which should be taken into account during process development.

  1. Comparative Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma, Platelet Lysate, and Fetal Calf Serum on Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, A P; Bondarenko, N A; Surovtseva, M A; Kim, I I; Poveshchenko, O V; Pokushalov, E A; Konenkov, V I

    2017-10-01

    We studied the effects of human platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate on proliferation, migration, and colony-forming properties of rat mesenchymal stem cells. Platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate stimulated the proliferation, migration, and colony formation of mesenchymal stem cells. A real-time study showed that platelet-rich plasma produces the most potent stimulatory effect, while both platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate stimulated migration of cells.

  2. Isolation of RNA for dot hybridization by heparin-DNase I treatment of whole cell lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Z; Wu, C

    1987-08-15

    We have developed a new procedure for the rapid preparation of undegraded total RNA from cultured cells for specific quantitation by dot blotting analysis. Pelleted cells are resuspended in hypotonic solution containing a ribonuclease inhibitor and heparin and disrupted by freeze-thaw. Heparin is employed as an agent for nuclear lysis, dissociation of chromosomal protein, and release of mRNA from rough endoplasmic reticulum. We eliminate chromosomal DNA by digestion with DNase I and denature the RNA in the lysate with formaldehyde. After centrifugation to remove debris, the supernatant is used directly for dot blotting. All manipulations are performed in the same microfuge tube and recovery of RNA is quantitative. The procedure is especially useful for processing large numbers of samples. We illustrate its versatility by analysis of specific RNAs in Drosophila, rat, and human cell lines. In reconstruction experiments, less than 80 molecules per cell of a small RNA (beta-globin) can be detected under highly stringent hybridization conditions, using only moderately labeled double-stranded plasmid DNA probes and short film exposures.

  3. Topical gel formulation and stability assessment of platelet lysate based on turbidimetric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman Mohammadi Samani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich growth factors have attracted attentions of scientists and clinical practitioners who are involved in wound healing and regenerative medicine extensively, according to their unprecedented potential of promoting and catalyzing healing process. Platelet-rich growth factors are cost-benefit, available and more stable than recombinant human growth factors. These appealing characteristics have converted PRGF to one of the popular candidates for treatment of variety of wounds. According to these valuable properties, we decided to formulate and assess the effect of different excipients on the stability of such valuable protein based formulations. Different excipients have been chosen according to their effective ness on the stability of proteins and their application in other similar formulations. The stabilizing effect of excipients was evaluated by measuring heat-induced aggregation of growth factors by turbidimetric assay. Glycerol, glycine and dextrose were chosen as stabilizing excipients for these formulations. The results show that dextrose has more stabilizing effect on prevention of heat induced aggregation of the platelet lysate growth factors than glycerol and glycine. All of the formulations also contained antioxidant, chelating agents, preservative and carbopol934 in order to form appropriate gel.

  4. Platelet Lysate-Modified Porous Silicon Microparticles for Enhanced Cell Proliferation in Wound Healing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Flavia; Mori, Michela; Riva, Federica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Liu, Dongfei; Salonen, Jarno; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Hirvonen, Jouni; Caramella, Carla; Santos, Hélder A

    2016-01-13

    The new frontier in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds is the use of micro- and nanoparticles to deliver drugs or growth factors into the wound. Here, we used platelet lysate (PL), a hemoderivative of platelets, consisting of a multifactorial cocktail of growth factors, to modify porous silicon (PSi) microparticles and assessed both in vitro and ex vivo the properties of the developed microsystem. PL-modified PSi was assessed for its potential to induce proliferation of fibroblasts. The wound closure-promoting properties of the microsystem were then assessed in an in vitro wound healing assay. Finally, the PL-modified PSi microparticles were evaluated in an ex vivo experiment over human skin. It was shown that PL-modified PSi microparticles were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell proliferation in different experimental settings. In addition, this microsystem promoted the closure of the gap between the fibroblast cells in the wound healing assay, in periods of time comparable with the positive control, and induced a proliferation and regeneration process onto the human skin in an ex vivo experiment. Overall, our results show that PL-modified PSi microparticles are suitable microsystems for further development toward applications in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds.

  5. Advanced 3D image processing techniques for liver and hepatic tumor location and volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemouny, Stephane; Joyeux, Henri; Masson, Bruno; Borne, Frederic; Jaeger, Marc; Monga, Olivier

    1999-05-01

    To assist radiologists and physicians in diagnosing, and in treatment planning and evaluating in liver oncology, we have developed a fast and accurate segmentation of the liver and its lesions within CT-scan exams. The first step of our method is to reduce spatial resolution of CT images. This will have two effects: obtain near isotropic 3D data space and drastically decrease computational time for further processing. On a second step a 3D non-linear `edge- preserving' smoothing filtering is performed throughout the entire exam. On a third step the 3D regions coming out from the second step are homogeneous enough to allow a quite simple segmentation process, based on morphological operations, under supervisor control, ending up with accurate 3D regions of interest (ROI) of the liver and all the hepatic tumors. On a fourth step the ROIs are eventually set back into the original images, features like volume and location are immediately computed and displayed. The segmentation we get is as precise as a manual one but is much faster.

  6. Role of hormonal factor in development of primary and secondary tumorous process in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2016-01-01

    .The present study was aimed at comparing the level of certain some hormones in tissue of glioblastomes, metastases of breast cancer into the brain and meningiomas, as well as the respective peritumoral zones.Materials and methods. Examined were samples of tissue obtained from a total of 56 patients admitted for operative treatment to our Department. Of these, 24 glioblastomas, 19 breast cancer metastases to the brain, 13 meningiomes without peritumoral edema. The histological control was carried out in all cases. The patients’ age varied form 35 to 72 years. During operative interventions we carried out removed neoplasms of the brain followed by biochemical study of the samples of tumor tissue and immediately adjoining to the tumorous foci tissue (perifocal zone. In 10 % of cytozolic fractions of tissue prepared on the potassium-phosphate buffer of pH 7.4 containing 0.15 of Tween-20 and 1 % of bovine serum albumin by means of immunoenzymatic assay (IEA using standard test systems we determined the level of steroid hormones – cortisole, testosterone, progesterone, estradiole, estriole, prolactine (IEA, HEMA, Russia estrone (IEA, DBC, Canada as well as sex-steroid-binding globulin (IEA, Alcor-Bio, Russia and hormones of adrenohypophysis – adrenocorticotropine (ACTH and somatotropic hormone (STH.Results. The obtained findings showed that the most hormonally saturated were metastases of breast cancer. In them along with elevated levels of cortisole, prolactine ACTH and STH concentrations whose concentrations increased virtually in any proliferative process we determined growth of saturation of tissues with estrone and free testosterone on the background of decrease level of active metabolite of estrogens – estriole. Besides, disorders of the steroid metabolism also touched the perifocal zone. Presence of glioblastoma turned out characteristic of identity of tumorous tissue and the perifocal zone by the level of cortizole, which is not found observed if tumors of other

  7. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  8. Platelet lysate formulations based on mucoadhesive polymers for the treatment of corneal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Mori, Michela; Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Scudeller, Luigia; Caramella, Carla

    2011-02-01

    Growth factors contained in platelet α-granules initiate and modulate tissue repair and are proposed for the treatment of soft and hard-tissue surgical conditions and in the management of non-healing wounds. Platelet lysate is a hemoderivative obtained from platelet-rich plasma and is capable of releasing a pool of growth factors. Many medical and surgical techniques have been proposed for the treatment of corneal lesions; management of these conditions remains problematic and healing with standard protocols is unattainable. The aim of this study was to develop formulations suitable for prolonging the contact of platelet lysate with the damaged cornea for the time necessary to exert a therapeutic effect. Two vehicles, one based on polyacrylic acid and one based on chitosan, were autoclaved and loaded with platelet lysate and the resultant formulations were characterized for rheology, mucoadhesion, vehicle compatibility and stability. The proliferation effect was tested on two cell culture types (rabbit corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts). An in-vitro wound-healing test was performed on fibroblasts. In both cases the formulations were compared with platelet lysate diluted with saline at the same concentration. Both formulations maintained the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of the vehicles and the proliferative activity of platelet lysate. The chitosan formulation was able to significantly enhance epithelial cell growth even after storage of up to 2 weeks (in-use conditions), while the polyacrylic acid formulation was less efficient, probably due to the characteristics of the cell model used. The in-vitro wound-healing test performed on fibroblasts confirmed the differences between the two vehicles. The effect induced by the platelet lysate and chitosan formulation was faster than that of the polyacrylic acid formulation and complete in-vitro wound repair was achieved within 48 h. © 2010 The Authors. JPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Human platelet lysate as a promising growth-stimulating additive for culturing of stem cells and other cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanskii, Ya D; Sergeeva, N S; Sviridova, I K; Kirakozov, M S; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Antokhin, A I; Chissov, V I

    2013-11-01

    We compared the composition and biological activity of fetal calf serum and platelet lysate from donor platelet concentrate. In platelet lysate, the concentrations of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, and mineral metabolism parameters were lower, while parameters of lipid and protein metabolism were higher than in fetal calf serum. The concentrations of growth factors (platelet-derived (AA, AB, BB), vascular endothelial, insulin-like, and transforming growth factor β) in platelet lysate 1.7-148.7-fold surpassed the corresponding parameters in fetal calf serum. After replacement of fetal calf serum with platelet lysate in the culture medium (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%), the count of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells on day 7 (in comparison with day 1) increased by 154.8, 206.6, 228.2, 367.7, and 396.5%, respectively. Thus, platelet lysate can be an adequate non-xenogenic alternative for fetal calf serum.

  10. Innate immune responses of equine monocytes cultured in equine platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskou, Maria C; Norton, Natalie A; Copland, Ian B; Galipeau, Jacques; Peroni, John F

    2018-01-01

    Platelet lysate (PL) has been extensively used for the laboratory expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in order to avoid fetal bovine serum (FBS) which has been associated with immune-mediated host reactions and transmission of bovine-origin microbial contaminants. Before suggesting the routine use of PL for MSC culture, we wanted to further investigate whether PL alone might trigger inflammatory responses when exposed to reactive white blood cells such as monocytes. Our objectives were to evaluate the inflammatory profile of equine monocytes cultured with equine PL (ePL) and to determine if ePL can modulate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes. In a first experiment, equine monocytes were isolated and incubated with donor horse serum (DHS), FBS, six individual donors ePL or pooled ePL from all horses. In a second experiment, monocytes were stimulated with E. coli LPS in the presence of 1, 5 or 10% DHS and/or pooled ePL. After 6h of incubation, cell culture supernatants were assayed via ELISA for production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) as well as for the anti-inflammatory Interleukin 10 (IL-10). Equine monocytes incubated with pooled ePL produced significantly less TNF-α and significantly more IL-10 than monocytes incubated in FBS. A statistically significant difference was not identified for the production of IL-1β. The second experiment showed that pooled ePL added to LPS-stimulated equine monocytes resulted in a significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-1β production. IL-10 production was not significantly upregulated by the addition of ePL to LPS-stimulated monocytes. Finally, the addition of ePL to LPS-stimulated monocytes in the presence of various concentrations of DHS resulted to statistically significant decrease of TNF-α and IL-1β compared to the control groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that ePL suppresses

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Lysate Increases Re-Epithelialization of Keratinocyte Scratch Assays by Promoting Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedsaeed, Walaa; Cruickshank, Sheena; McBain, Andrew J; O'Neill, Catherine A

    2015-11-05

    A limited number of studies have investigated the potential of probiotics to promote wound healing in the digestive tract. The aim of the current investigation was to determine whether probiotic bacteria or their extracts could be beneficial in cutaneous wound healing. A keratinocyte monolayer scratch assay was used to assess re-epithelialization; which comprises keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Primary human keratinocyte monolayers were scratched then exposed to lysates of Lactobacillus (L) rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, L. plantarum or L. fermentum. Re-epithelialization of treated monolayers was compared to that of untreated controls. Lysates of L. rhamnosus GG and L. reuteri significantly increased the rate of re-epithelialization, with L. rhamnosus GG being the most efficacious. L. reuteri increased keratinocyte proliferation while L. rhamnosus GG lysate significantly increased proliferation and migration. Microarray analysis of L. rhamnosus GG treated scratches showed increased expression of multiple genes including the chemokine CXCL2 and its receptor CXCR2. These are involved in normal wound healing where they stimulate keratinocyte proliferation and/or migration. Increased protein expression of both CXCL2 and CXCR2 were confirmed by ELISA and immunoblotting. These data demonstrate that L. rhamnosus GG lysate accelerates re-epithelialization of keratinocyte scratch assays, potentially via chemokine receptor pairs that induce keratinocyte migration.

  12. The effect of platelet lysate supplementation of a dextran-based hydrogel on cartilage formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Teixeira, Liliana; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Wennink, J.W.H.; Ganguly, Anindita; Feijen, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In situ gelating dextran-tyramine (Dex-TA) injectable hydrogels have previously shown promising features for cartilage repair. Yet, despite suitable mechanical properties, this system lacks intrinsic biological signals. In contrast, platelet lysate-derived hydrogels are rich in growth factors and

  13. Platelet lysate as an autologous alternative for fetal bovine serum in cardiovascular tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riem Vis, P.W.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Sluijter, J.P.G.; Herwerden, van L.A.; Kluin, J.

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing search for alternative tissue culture sera to engineer autologous tissues, since use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) is limited under Good Tissue Practice (GTP) guidelines. We compared FBS with human Platelet-lysate (PL) in media for in vitro cell culture. A threefold increase in

  14. Platelet lysate and chondroitin sulfate loaded contact lenses to heal corneal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Delfino, Alessio; Riva, Federica; Icaro Cornaglia, Antonia; Marrubini, Giorgio; Musitelli, Giorgio; Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Caramella, Carla; Ferrari, Franca

    2016-07-25

    Hemoderivative tear substitutes contain various ephiteliotrophic factors, such as growth factors (GF), involved in ocular surface homeostasis without immunogenic properties. The aim of the present work was the loading of platelet lysate into contact lenses to improve the precorneal permanence of platelet lysate growth factors on the ocular surface to enhance the treatment of corneal lesions. To this purpose, chondroitin sulfate, a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, which is normally present in the extracellular matrix, was associated with platelet lysate. In fact, chondroitin sulfate is capable of electrostatic interaction with positively charged growth factors, in particular, with bFGF, IGF, VEGF, PDGF and TGF-β, resulting in their stabilization and reduced degradation in solution. In the present work, various types of commercially available contact lenses have been loaded with chondroitin sulfate or chondroitin sulfate in association with platelet lysate to achieve a release of growth factors directly onto the corneal surface lesions. One type of contact lenses (PureVision(®)) showed in vitro good proliferation properties towards corneal cells and were able to enhance cut closure in cornea constructs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human platelet lysate supplementation of mesenchymal stromal cell delivery: issues of xenogenicity and species variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ashley B; Butts, Emily B; Copland, Ian B; Stevens, Hazel Y; Guldberg, Robert E

    2017-10-01

    Immunogenicity of fetal bovine serum (FBS) poses a problem for its use in the propagation of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy. Human platelet lysate (hPL), an enriched growth factor solution containing mitogenic and angiogenic cues, has potential utility in replacing FBS for human MSC (hMSC) delivery strategies. Despite its potentiation of hMSC number in vitro, little is known concerning its capacity to supplement implanted hMSC-seeded constructs and promote tissue regeneration in vivo. In this study, we tested the effects of incorporating hPL in cell-seeded constructs implanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised rats, investigated in vitro interactions between hPL and rat MSCs (rMSCs) and determined interspecies variability in the PL product [hPL vs rat PL (rPL)] and its effect on cultured MSCs (hPL/hMSCs vs rPL/rMSCs). The overarching aim was to determine the utility of hPL to foster MSC survival in preclinical rodent models. Exposure to hPL-supplemented media resulted in rMSC death, by a process attributable to heat-labile proteins, but not membrane attack complex formation. In the in vitro syngeneic model, the rodent product proved fundamentally distinct from the human product, with rPL having substantially lower growth factor content than hPL. Moreover, contrary to the positive effects of hPL on hMSC expansion, rPL did not reduce rMSC doubling time for the serum concentrations examined. When tested in vivo, hPL did not improve cell survival within hydrogel constructs through 2 weeks postimplantation. In summary, this study highlights the many facets of xenogenicity and interspecies variability that must be considered in the preclinical evaluation of hPL. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Platelet lysate induces chondrogenic differentiation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghmkin; Bahjat, Mohammad; Kasem, Issam; Soukkarieh, Chadi; Aljamali, Majd

    2018-01-01

    Articular cartilage has a poor capacity for self-repair, and thus still presents a major challenge in orthopedics. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells with the potential to differentiate into chondrocytes in the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Platelet lysate (PL) contains a relatively large number of growth factors, including TGF-β, and has been shown to ameliorate cartilage repair. Here, we investigated the ability of PL to direct chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs along with other standard differentiation components in a pellet culture system. We isolated and expanded MSCs from human umbilical cords using a PL-supplemented medium and characterized the cells based on immunophenotype and potential for differentiation to adipocytes and osteocytes. We further cultured MSCs as pellets in a chondrogenic-differentiation medium supplemented with PL. After 21 days, the pellets were processed for histological analysis and stained with alician blue and acridine orange. The expression of SOX9 was investigated using RT-PCR. MSCs maintained their stemness characteristics in the PL-supplemented medium. However, the distribution of cells in the pellets cultured in the PL-supplemented chondrogenic differentiation medium had a greater similarity to cartilage tissue-derived chondrocytes than to the negative control. The intense alician blue staining indicated an increased production of mucopolysaccharides in the differentiated pellets, which also showed elevated expression of SOX9 . Our data suggest that MSCs could be differentiated to chondrocytes in the presence of PL and absence of exogenous TGF-β. Further research needs to be conducted to understand the exact role and potential of PL in chondrogenic differentiation and chondrocyte regeneration.

  17. Purification of CD47-streptavidin fusion protein from bacterial lysate using biotin-agarose affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Nasrin; Peng, Ching-An

    2016-07-08

    CD47 is a widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that modulates the activity of a plethora of immune cells via its extracellular domain. Therefore, CD47 plays important roles in the regulation of immune responses and may serve as targets for the development of immunotherapeutic agents. To make sure CD47 functionality is intact under the process of protein conjugation, CD47-streptavidin fusion protein was expressed and purified because it can easily bind to biotin-tagged materials via the unique biotin-streptavidin affinity. In this study, gene sequences of CD47 extracellular domain (CD47ECD) and core streptavidin (coreSA) with a total 834 bp were inserted into pET20b plasmid to construct recombinant plasmid encoding CD47-SA fusion gene. After bacteria transformation, the CD47-SA fusion protein was expressed by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. The collected bacteria lysate was loaded on biotinylated agarose to proceed the purification of CD47-SA fusion protein. Due to the unexpected high affinity between biotin and coreSA, standard washing and elution approaches (e.g., varying pH, using biotin, and applying guanidine hydrochloride) reported for biotin-streptavidin affinity chromatography were not able to separate the target fusion protein. Instead, using low concentration of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 followed with alkaline buffer could efficiently weaken the binding between biotin and coreSA, thereby eluting out CD47-SA fusion protein from the biotin agarose column. The purified CD47-SA fusion protein was further characterized by molecular biology methods and its antiphagocytic functionality was confirmed by the phagocytosis assay. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:949-958, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Phosphotyrosine-based-phosphoproteomics scaled-down to biopsy level for analysis of individual tumor biology and treatment selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labots, Mariette; van der Mijn, Johannes C; Beekhof, Robin; Piersma, Sander R; de Goeij-de Haas, Richard R; Pham, Thang V; Knol, Jaco C; Dekker, Henk; van Grieken, Nicole C T; Verheul, Henk M W; Jiménez, Connie R

    2017-06-06

    Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics of cancer cell and tissue lysates provides insight in aberrantly activated signaling pathways and potential drug targets. For improved understanding of individual patient's tumor biology and to allow selection of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in individual patients, phosphoproteomics of small clinical samples should be feasible and reproducible. We aimed to scale down a pTyr-phosphopeptide enrichment protocol to biopsy-level protein input and assess reproducibility and applicability to tumor needle biopsies. To this end, phosphopeptide immunoprecipitation using anti-phosphotyrosine beads was performed using 10, 5 and 1mg protein input from lysates of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line HCT116. Multiple needle biopsies from 7 human CRC resection specimens were analyzed at the 1mg-level. The total number of phosphopeptides captured and detected by LC-MS/MS ranged from 681 at 10mg input to 471 at 1mg HCT116 protein. ID-reproducibility ranged from 60.5% at 10mg to 43.9% at 1mg. Per 1mg-level biopsy sample, >200 phosphopeptides were identified with 57% ID-reproducibility between paired tumor biopsies. Unsupervised analysis clustered biopsies from individual patients together and revealed known and potential therapeutic targets. This study demonstrates the feasibility of label-free pTyr-phosphoproteomics at the tumor biopsy level based on reproducible analyses using 1mg of protein input. The considerable number of identified phosphopeptides at this level is attributed to an effective down-scaled immuno-affinity protocol as well as to the application of ID propagation in the data processing and analysis steps. Unsupervised cluster analysis reveals patient-specific profiles. Together, these findings pave the way for clinical trials in which pTyr-phosphoproteomics will be performed on pre- and on-treatment biopsies. Such studies will improve our understanding of individual tumor biology and may enable future p

  19. Molecular profiling of circulating tumor cells links plasticity to the metastatic process in endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Alconada, Lorena; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Madissoo, Kadri; Diaz-Lopez, Antonio; Krakstad, Camilla; Trovik, Jone; Wik, Elisabeth; Hapangama, Dharani; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Cano, Amparo; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Chiva, Luis; Cueva, Juan; Vieito, Maria; Ortega, Eugenia; Mariscal, Javier; Colas, Eva; Castellvi, Josep; Cusido, Maite; Dolcet, Xavier; Nijman, Hans W.; Bosse, Tjalling; Green, John A.; Romano, Andrea; Reventos, Jaume; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Salvesen, Helga B.; Amant, Frederic; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Abal, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Background: About 20% of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer (EC) are considered high-risk with unfavorable prognosis. In the framework of the European Network for Individualized Treatment in EC (ENITEC), we investigated the presence and phenotypic features of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in

  20. Analysis of Reparative Activity of Platelet Lysate: Effect on Cell Monolayer Recovery In Vitro and Skin Wound Healing In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, N S; Shanskii, Ya D; Sviridova, I K; Karalkin, P A; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Kaprin, A D

    2016-11-01

    Platelet lysate prepared from donor platelet concentrate and pooled according to a developed technique stimulates migration of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of the human adipose tissue and promotes healing of the monolayer defect in cultures of human fibroblasts and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro in concentrations close those of fetal calf serum (5-10%). Lysate of platelets from platelet-rich rat blood plasma stimulated healing of the skin defect by promoting epithelialization and granulation tissue formation. The regenerative properties of platelet lysate in vivo increased with increasing its concentration.

  1. MICROFLUIDIC MODULES FOR ISOLATION OF RECOMBINANT CYTOKINE FROM BACTERIAL LYSATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The portability and personalization of health-care diagnostics and treatments benefits from advancements and applications of micro and nanotechnology. Modularization and miniaturization of standardized biochemical processes and tests facilitates the advancement and customization of analyte detection and diagnosis on-chip. The goal of our work here is to develop modular platforms for on-chip biochemical processing of synthesized biologics for a range of on-demand applications. Our report focuses on the initial development, characterization and application of microfluidic size exclusion/gel filtration and ion exchange protein concentration modules for cytokine isolation from spiked cell extracts.

  2. Evolution of Tumor Metabolism might Reflect Carcinogenesis as a Reverse Evolution process (Dismantling of Multicellularity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O., E-mail: Alfarouk@Hala-alfarouk.org [Department of Evolution of Tumor Metabolism and Pharmacology, Hala Alfarouk Cancer Center, Khartoum 11123 (Sudan); Shayoub, Mohammed E.A. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111 (Sudan); Muddathir, Abdel Khalig [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111 (Sudan); Elhassan, Gamal O. [General Directorate of Pharmacy, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum 11111 (Sudan); Bashir, Adil H.H. [Department of Evolution of Tumor Metabolism and Pharmacology, Hala Alfarouk Cancer Center, Khartoum 11123 (Sudan); Al Jawda Medical Hospital, Khartoum 11111 (Sudan)

    2011-07-22

    Carcinogenesis occurs through a series of steps from normal into benign and finally malignant phenotype. This cancer evolutionary trajectory has been accompanied by similar metabolic transformation from normal metabolism into Pasteur and/or Crabtree-Effects into Warburg-Effect and finally Cannibalism and/or Lactate-Symbiosis. Due to lactate production as an end-product of glycolysis, tumor colonies acquire new phenotypes that rely on lactate as energetic fuel. Presence of Warburg-Effect indicates that some tumor cells undergo partial (if not complete) de-endosymbiosis and so cancer cells have been become unicellular microorganism (anti-Dollo's Law) specially when they evolve to develop cannibalism as way of metabolism while oxidative types of cells that rely on lactate, as their energetic fuel, might represent extra-endosymbiosis. Thus, at the end, the cancer colony could be considered as integrated metabolic ecosystem. Proper understanding of tumor metabolism will contribute to discover potential anticancer agents besides conventional chemotherapy.

  3. Combinations of SPR and MS for Characterizations of Native and Recombinant Proteins in Cell Lysates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jonas; Roepstorff, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance and mass spectrometry (SPR-MS) has been combined for quality check of recombinant 6xHis-tagged 14-3-3 proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. Lysates were injected over an SPR sensorchip with immobilized Ni2+ for SPR analysis of the specific Ni2+ binding response...... and stability. To validate the identity, intactness and homogeneity of the captured proteins were eluted for mass spectrometric analysis of intact molecular weight and peptide mass mapping. Additionally, the captured recombinant proteins were investigated for specific binding to known phosphorylated ligands...... of 14-3-3 proteins in order to test their activity. Specific binding of recombinant and native 14-3-3 proteins in complex mixtures to immobilized phosphopeptides and subsequent elution was also tested by SPR-MS. Ammonium sulfate precipitate fractions from lysates of E. coli expressing 14-3-3 protein...

  4. Human platelet lysate: Replacing fetal bovine serum as a gold standard for human cell propagation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnouf, Thierry; Strunk, Dirk; Koh, Mickey B C; Schallmoser, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The essential physiological role of platelets in wound healing and tissue repair builds the rationale for the use of human platelet derivatives in regenerative medicine. Abundant growth factors and cytokines stored in platelet granules can be naturally released by thrombin activation and clotting or artificially by freeze/thaw-mediated platelet lysis, sonication or chemical treatment. Human platelet lysate prepared by the various release strategies has been established as a suitable alternative to fetal bovine serum as culture medium supplement, enabling efficient propagation of human cells under animal serum-free conditions for a multiplicity of applications in advanced somatic cell therapy and tissue engineering. The rapidly increasing number of studies using platelet derived products for inducing human cell proliferation and differentiation has also uncovered a considerable variability of human platelet lysate preparations which limits comparability of results. The main variations discussed herein encompass aspects of donor selection, preparation of the starting material, the possibility for pooling in plasma or additive solution, the implementation of pathogen inactivation and consideration of ABO blood groups, all of which can influence applicability. This review outlines the current knowledge about human platelet lysate as a powerful additive for human cell propagation and highlights its role as a prevailing supplement for human cell culture capable to replace animal serum in a growing spectrum of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  6. Wound Healing Activity of a New Formulation from Platelet Lysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Jamshidzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is an attractive preparation in regenerative medicine due to its potential role in the healing process in different experimental models. This study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity of a new formulation of PRP. Different gel-based formulations of PRP were prepared. Open excision wounds were made on the back of male Sprague-Dawley rats, and PRP gel was administered topically once daily until the wounds healed completely (12 days. The results revealed that the tested PRP formulation significantly accelerated the wound healing process by increasing the wound contraction, tissue granulization, vascularization, and collagen regeneration. Interestingly, this study showed that there were no significant differences between the PRP and its gel-based formulation in all the above mentioned parameters. Although this investigation showed that PRP formulation had significant wound healing effects, the PRP gel-based formulation also had significant wound healing properties. This might indicate the wound healing properties of the PRP gel ingredients in the current investigation.

  7. Allogeneic effector/memory Th-1 cells impair FoxP3+ regulatory T lymphocytes and synergize with chaperone-rich cell lysate vaccine to treat leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikashvili, Nona; LaCasse, Collin J; Larmonier, Claire; Trad, Malika; Herrell, Amanda; Bustamante, Sara; Bonnotte, Bernard; Har-Noy, Michael; Larmonier, Nicolas; Katsanis, Emmanuel

    2011-02-03

    Therapeutic strategies combining the induction of effective antitumor immunity with the inhibition of the mechanisms of tumor-induced immunosuppression represent a key objective in cancer immunotherapy. Herein we demonstrate that effector/memory CD4(+) T helper-1 (Th-1) lymphocytes, in addition to polarizing type-1 antitumor immune responses, impair tumor-induced CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg) immunosuppressive function in vitro and in vivo. Th-1 cells also inhibit the generation of FoxP3(+) Tregs from naive CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(-) T cells by an interferon-γ-dependent mechanism. In addition, in an aggressive mouse leukemia model (12B1), Th-1 lymphocytes act synergistically with a chaperone-rich cell lysate (CRCL) vaccine, leading to improved survival and long-lasting protection against leukemia. The combination of CRCL as a source of tumor-specific antigens and Th-1 lymphocytes as an adjuvant has the potential to stimulate efficient specific antitumor immunity while restraining Treg-induced suppression.

  8. 3D-CT imaging processing for qualitative and quantitative analysis of maxillofacial cysts and tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, Marcelo de Gusmao Paraiso; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate spiral-computed tomography (3D-CT) images of 20 patients presenting with cysts and tumors in the maxillofacial complex, in order to compare the surface and volume techniques of image rendering. The qualitative and quantitative appraisal indicated that the volume technique allowed a more precise and accurate observation than the surface method. On the average, the measurements obtained by means of the 3D volume-rendering technique were 6.28% higher than those obtained by means of the surface method. The sensitivity of the 3D surface technique was lower than that of the 3D volume technique for all conditions stipulated in the diagnosis and evaluation of lesions. We concluded that the 3D-CT volume rendering technique was more reproducible and sensitive than the 3D-CT surface method, in the diagnosis, treatment planning and evaluation of maxillofacial lesions, especially those with intra-osseous involvement. (author)

  9. 3D-CT imaging processing for qualitative and quantitative analysis of maxillofacial cysts and tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Marcelo de Gusmao Paraiso [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odotologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate spiral-computed tomography (3D-CT) images of 20 patients presenting with cysts and tumors in the maxillofacial complex, in order to compare the surface and volume techniques of image rendering. The qualitative and quantitative appraisal indicated that the volume technique allowed a more precise and accurate observation than the surface method. On the average, the measurements obtained by means of the 3D volume-rendering technique were 6.28% higher than those obtained by means of the surface method. The sensitivity of the 3D surface technique was lower than that of the 3D volume technique for all conditions stipulated in the diagnosis and evaluation of lesions. We concluded that the 3D-CT volume rendering technique was more reproducible and sensitive than the 3D-CT surface method, in the diagnosis, treatment planning and evaluation of maxillofacial lesions, especially those with intra-osseous involvement. (author)

  10. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for locally advanced paranasal sinus tumors: incorporating clinical decisions in the optimization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsien, Christina; Eisbruch, Avraham; McShan, Daniel; Kessler, Marc; Marsh, Robin C.; Fraass, Benedick

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans require decisions about priorities and tradeoffs among competing goals. This study evaluates the incorporation of various clinical decisions into the optimization system, using locally advanced paranasal sinus tumors as a model. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with locally advanced paranasal sinus tumors were retrospectively replanned using inverse planning. Two clinical decisions were assumed: (1) Spare both optic pathways (OP), or (2) Spare only the contralateral OP. In each case, adequate tumor coverage (treated to 70 Gy in 35 fractions) was required. Two beamlet IMRT plans were thus developed for each patient using a class solution cost function. By altering one key variable at a time, different levels of risk of OP toxicity and planning target volume (PTV) compromise were compared in a systematic manner. The resulting clinical tradeoffs were analyzed using dosimetric criteria, tumor control probability (TCP), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), and normal tissue complication probability. Results: Plan comparisons representing the two clinical decisions (sparing both OP and sparing only the contralateral OP), with respect to minimum dose, TCP, V 95 , and EUD, demonstrated small, yet statistically significant, differences. However, when individual cases were analyzed further, significant PTV underdosage (>5%) was present in most cases for plans sparing both OP. In 6/13 cases (46%), PTV underdosage was between 5% and 15%, and in 3 cases (23%) was greater than 15%. By comparison, adequate PTV coverage was present in 8/13 cases (62%) for plans sparing only the contralateral OP. Mean target EUD comparisons between the two plans (including 9 cases where a clinical tradeoff between PTV coverage and OP sparing was required) were similar: 68.6 Gy and 69.1 Gy, respectively (p=0.02). Mean TCP values for those 9 cases were 56.5 vs. 61.7, respectively (p=0.006). Conclusions: In IMRT plans for paranasal sinus tumors

  11. Effect of Different Adjuvants on Protection and Side-Effects Induced by Helicobacter suis Whole-Cell Lysate Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Bosschem

    Full Text Available Helicobacter suis (H. suis is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin, administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.

  12. White matter and information processing speed following treatment with cranial-spinal radiation for pediatric brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Nadia; Bouffet, Eric; Laughlin, Suzanne; Strother, Douglas; McConnell, Dina; Hukin, Juliette; Fryer, Christopher; Laperriere, Normand; Montour-Proulx, Isabelle; Keene, Daniel; Fleming, Adam; Jabado, Nada; Liu, Fang; Riggs, Lily; Law, Nicole; Mabbott, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    We compared the structure of specific white matter tracts and information processing speed between children treated for posterior fossa tumors with cranial-spinal radiation (n = 30), or with surgery +/- focal radiation (n = 29), and healthy children (n = 37). Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was used to delineate the inferior longitudinal fasciculi, optic radiation, inferior frontal occipital fasciculi, and uncinate fasciculi bilaterally. Information processing speed was measured using the coding and symbol search subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, and visual matching, pair cancellation, and rapid picture naming subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Ability, 3rd revision. We examined group differences using repeated measures MANOVAs and path analyses were used to test the relations between treatment, white matter structure of the tracts, and information processing speed. DTI indices of the optic radiations, the inferior longitudinal fasciculi, and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi differed between children treated with cranial-spinal radiation and children treated with surgery +/- focal radiation, and healthy controls (p = .045). Children treated with cranial-spinal radiation also exhibited lower processing speed scores relative to healthy control subjects (p = .002). Notably, we observed that group differences in information processing speed were related to the structure of the right optic radiation (p = .002). We show that cranial-spinal radiation may have a negative impact on information processing speed via insult to the right optic radiations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Is buffer a good proxy for a crowded cell-like environment? A comparative NMR study of calmodulin side-chain dynamics in buffer and E. coli lysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Latham

    Full Text Available Biophysical studies of protein structure and dynamics are typically performed in a highly controlled manner involving only the protein(s of interest. Comparatively fewer such studies have been carried out in the context of a cellular environment that typically involves many biomolecules, ions and metabolites. Recently, solution NMR spectroscopy, focusing primarily on backbone amide groups as reporters, has emerged as a powerful technique for investigating protein structure and dynamics in vivo and in crowded "cell-like" environments. Here we extend these studies through a comparative analysis of Ile, Leu, Val and Met methyl side-chain motions in apo, Ca(2+-bound and Ca(2+, peptide-bound calmodulin dissolved in aqueous buffer or in E. coli lysate. Deuterium spin relaxation experiments, sensitive to pico- to nano-second time-scale processes and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion experiments, reporting on millisecond dynamics, have been recorded. Both similarities and differences in motional properties are noted for calmodulin dissolved in buffer or in lysate. These results emphasize that while significant insights can be obtained through detailed "test-tube" studies, experiments performed under conditions that are "cell-like" are critical for obtaining a comprehensive understanding of protein motion in vivo and therefore for elucidating the relation between motion and function.

  14. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The...

  15. Comparative Analysis of Click Chemistry Mediated Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Cell Lysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Activity-based protein profiling uses chemical probes that covalently attach to active enzyme targets. Probes with conventional tags have disadvantages, such as limited cell permeability or steric hindrance around the reactive group. A tandem labeling strategy with click chemistry is now widely used to study enzyme targets in situ and in vivo. Herein, the probes are reacted in live cells, whereas the ensuing detection by click chemistry takes place in cell lysates. We here make a comparison of the efficiency of the activity-based tandem labeling strategy by using Cu(I-catalyzed and strain-promoted click chemistry, different ligands and different lysis conditions.

  16. Attention, processing speed, and executive functioning in pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with proton beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Tanya N; Ris, M Douglas; Grosshans, David R; Mahajan, Anita; Okcu, M Fatih; Chintagumpala, Murali; Paulino, Arnold; Child, Amanda E; Orobio, Jessica; Stancel, Heather H; Kahalley, Lisa S

    2017-07-01

    This study examines attention, processing speed, and executive functioning in pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT). We examined 39 survivors (age 6-19years) who were 3.61years post-PBRT on average. Craniospinal (CSI; n=21) and focal (n=18) subgroups were analyzed. Attention, processing speed, and executive functioning scores were compared to population norms, and clinical/demographic risk factors were examined. As a group, survivors treated with focal PBRT exhibited attention, processing speed, and executive functioning that did not differ from population norms (all p>0.05). Performance in the CSI group across attention scales was normative (all p>0.05), but areas of relative weakness were identified on one executive functioning subtest and several processing speed subtests (all pexecutive functioning remained intact and within normal limits for survivors treated with focal PBRT. Among survivors treated with CSI, a score pattern emerged that was suggestive of difficulties in underlying component skills (i.e., processing speed) rather than true executive dysfunction. No evidence of profound cognitive impairment was found in either group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of input parameters of supra-threshold stochastic resonance image processing algorithm for the detection of abdomino-pelvic tumors on PET/CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Anil Kumar; Saroha, Kartik; Patel, C.D.; Bal, C.S.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Administration of diuretics increases the urine output to clear radioactive urine from kidneys and bladder. Hence post-diuretic pelvic PET/CT scan enhances the probability of detection of abdomino-pelvic tumor. However, it causes discomfort in patients and has some side effects also. Application of supra threshold stochastic resonance (SSR) image processing algorithm on Pre-diuretic PET/CT scan may also increase the probability of detection of these tumors. Amount of noise and threshold are two variable parameters that effect the final image quality. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of these two variable parameters on the detection of abdomen-pelvic tumor

  18. The effect of Platelet Lysate on osteoblast proliferation associated with a transient increase of the inflammatory response in bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiu, Alessandra; Ulivi, Valentina; Sanguineti, Francesca; Cancedda, Ranieri; Descalzi, Fiorella

    2013-12-01

    Platelet Lysate (PL) contains a cocktail of growth factors and cytokines, which actively participates in tissue repair and its clinical application has been broadly described. The aim of this study was to assess the regenerative potential of PL for bone repair. We demonstrated that PL stimulation induces a transient increase of the inflammatory response in quiescent human osteoblasts, via NF-kB activation, COX-2 induction, PGE2 production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, we showed that long-term PL stimulation enhances proliferation of actively replicating osteoblasts, without affecting their differentiation potential, along with changes of cell morphology, resulting in increased cell density at confluence. In confluent resting osteoblasts, PL treatment induced resumption of proliferation, change in cell morphology and increase of cell density at confluence. A burst of PL treatment (24-h) was sufficient to trigger such processes in both conditions. These results correlated with up-regulation of the proliferative and survival pathways ERKs and Akt and with cell cycle re-activation via induction of CyclinD1 and phosphorylation of Rb, following PL stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that PL treatment results in activation and expansion of resting osteoblasts, without affecting their differentiation potential. Therefore PL represents a good therapeutic candidate in regenerative medicine for bone repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary photochemical processes for Pt(iv) diazido complexes prospective in photodynamic therapy of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushakov, Anton A; Pozdnyakov, Ivan P; Grivin, Vjacheslav P; Plyusnin, Victor F; Vasilchenko, Danila B; Zadesenets, Andrei V; Melnikov, Alexei A; Chekalin, Sergey V; Glebov, Evgeni M

    2017-07-25

    Diazide diamino complexes of Pt(iv) are considered as prospective prodrugs in oxygen-free photodynamic therapy (PDT). Primary photophysical and photochemical processes for cis,trans,cis-[Pt(N 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 (NH 3 ) 2 ] and trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 (NH 3 ) 2 ] complexes were studied by means of stationary photolysis, nanosecond laser flash photolysis and ultrafast kinetic spectroscopy. The process of photolysis is multistage. The first stage is the photosubstitution of an azide ligand to a water molecule. This process was shown to be a chain reaction involving redox stages. Pt(iv) and Pt(iii) intermediates responsible for the chain propagation were recorded using ultrafast kinetic spectroscopy and nanosecond laser flash photolysis. The mechanism of photosubstitution is proposed.

  20. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  1. Microvesicle Cargo of Tumor-Associated MUC1 to Dendritic Cells Allows Cross-presentation and Specific Carbohydrate Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rughetti, Aurelia; Rahimi, Hassan; Belleudi, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-associated glycoproteins are a group of antigens with high immunogenic interest: The glycoforms generated by the aberrant glycosylation are tumor-specific and the novel glycoepitopes exposed can be targets of tumor-specific immune responses. The MUC1 antigen is one of the most relevant tumo...

  2. Precision cancer immunotherapy: optimizing dendritic cell-based strategies to induce tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses against individual patient tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Nagaoka, Koji; Takahara, Masashi; Yang, Xiao Yi; Liu, Cong-Xiao; Guo, Hongtao; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Hobeika, Amy; Hartman, Zachary; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2015-05-01

    Most dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines have loaded the DC with defined antigens, but loading with autologos tumor-derived antigens would generate DCs that activate personalized tumor-specific T-cell responses. We hypothesized that DC matured with an optimized combination of reagents and loaded with tumor-derived antigens using a clinically feasible electroporation strategy would induce potent antitumor immunity. We first studied the effects on DC maturation and antigen presentation of the addition of picibanil (OK432) to a combination of zoledronic acid, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2. Using DC matured with the optimized combination, we tested 2 clinically feasible sources of autologous antigen for electroloading, total tumor mRNA or total tumor lysate, to determine which stimulated more potent antigen-specific T cells in vitro and activated more potent antitumor immunity in vivo. The combination of tumor necrosis factor-α/prostaglandin E2/zoledronic acid/OK432 generated DC with high expression of maturation markers and antigen-specific T-cell stimulatory function in vitro. Mature DC electroloaded with tumor-derived mRNA [mRNA electroporated dendritic cell (EPDC)] induced greater expansion of antigen-specific T cells in vitro than DC electroloaded with tumor lysate (lysate EPDC). In a therapeutic model of MC38-carcinoembryonic antigen colon cancer-bearing mice, vaccination with mRNA EPDC induced the most efficient anti-carcinoembryonic antigen cellular immune response, which significantly suppressed tumor growth. In conclusion, mature DC electroloaded with tumor-derived mRNA are a potent cancer vaccine, especially useful when specific tumor antigens for vaccination have not been identified, allowing autologous tumor, and if unavailable, allogeneic cell lines to be used as an unbiased source of antigen. Our data support clinical testing of this strategy.

  3. [The lysate and recombinant antigens in ELISA-test-systems for diagnostic of herpes simplex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganova, L A; Kovtoniuk, G V; Korshun, L N; Kiseleva, E K; Tereshchenko, M I; Vudmaska, M I; Moĭsa, L N; Shevchuk, V A; Spivak, N Ia

    2014-08-01

    The lysate and recombinant antigens of various production included informula of ELISA-test-systems were analyzed. The ELISA-test-systems are used for detection of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I and II. For testing the panel of serums PTH 201 (BBI Inc.) were used. The samples of this panel contain antibodies to Herpes simplex virus type I and II in mixed titers. The 69 serums of donors were used too (17 samples had IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I, 23 samples to Herpes simplex virus type II and 29 samples had no antibodies to Herpes simplex virus). The diagnostic capacity of mixture of recombinant antigens gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I and gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II (The research-and-production complex "DiaprofMed") was comparable with mixture of lysate antigen Herpes simplex virus type I and II (Membrane) EIE Antigen ("Virion Ltd."). In the test-systems for differentiation of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I the recombinant antigen gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I proved to be comparable with commercial analogue Herpes simplex virus-1 gG1M ("Viral Therapeutics Inc."'). At the same time, capacity to detect IgG to Herpes simplex virus type II in recombinant protein gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II is significantly higher than in its analogue Herpes simplex virus-2 gG2c ("Viral Therapeutics Inc.").

  4. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Fea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM. Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT. A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n=20 patients mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n=10 patients. The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p<0.05. Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications.

  5. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Antonio M; Aragno, Vittoria; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications.

  6. Rosiglitazone inhibits metastasis development of a murine mammary tumor cell line LMM3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magenta, Gabriela; Borenstein, Ximena; Rolando, Romina; Jasnis, María Adela

    2008-01-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) induces diverse effects on cancer cells. The thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as troglitazone and ciglitazone, are PPARγ agonists exhibiting antitumor activities; however, the underlying mechanism remains inconclusive. Rosiglitazone (RGZ), a synthetic ligand of PPARγ used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes, inhibits growth of some tumor cells and is involved in other processes related to cancer progression. Opposing results have also been reported with different ligands on tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to determine if RGZ and 15d-PGJ 2 induce antitumor effects in vivo and in vitro on the murine mammary tumor cell line LMM3. The effect on LMM3 cell viability and nitric oxide (NO) production of different doses of RGZ, 15-dPGJ 2 , BADGE and GW9662 were determined using the MTS colorimetric assay and the Griess reaction respectively. In vivo effect of orally administration of RGZ on tumor progression was evaluated either on s.c. primary tumors as well as on experimental metastasis. Cell adhesion, migration (wound assay) and invasion in Transwells were performed. Metalloproteinase activity (MMP) was determined by zymography in conditioned media from RGZ treated tumor cells. PPARγ expression was detected by inmunohistochemistry in formalin fixed tumors and by western blot in tumor cell lysates. RGZ orally administered to tumor-bearing mice decreased the number of experimental lung metastases without affecting primary s.c. tumor growth. Tumor cell adhesion and migration, as well as metalloproteinase MMP-9 activity, decreased in the presence of 1 μM RGZ (non-cytotoxic dose). RGZ induced PPARγ protein expression in LMM3 tumors. Although metabolic activity -measured by MTS assay- diminished with 1–100 μM RGZ, 1 μM-treated cells recovered their proliferating capacity while 100 μM treated cells died. The PPARγ antagonist Biphenol A diglicydyl ether (BADGE) did not affect RGZ activity

  7. Proposal for future diagnosis and management of vascular tumors by using automatic software for image processing and statistic prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M D; Draghici, L; Secheli, I; Secheli, M; Codrescu, M; Draghici, I

    2015-01-01

    Infantile Hemangiomas (IH) are the most frequent tumors of vascular origin, and the differential diagnosis from vascular malformations is difficult to establish. Specific types of IH due to the location, dimensions and fast evolution, can determine important functional and esthetic sequels. To avoid these unfortunate consequences it is necessary to establish the exact appropriate moment to begin the treatment and decide which the most adequate therapeutic procedure is. Based on clinical data collected by a serial clinical observations correlated with imaging data, and processed by a computer-aided diagnosis system (CAD), the study intended to develop a treatment algorithm to accurately predict the best final results, from the esthetical and functional point of view, for a certain type of lesion. The preliminary database was composed of 75 patients divided into 4 groups according to the treatment management they received: medical therapy, sclerotherapy, surgical excision and no treatment. The serial clinical observation was performed each month and all the data was processed by using CAD. The project goal was to create a software that incorporated advanced methods to accurately measure the specific IH lesions, integrated medical information, statistical methods and computational methods to correlate this information with that obtained from the processing of images. Based on these correlations, a prediction mechanism of the evolution of hemangioma, which helped determine the best method of therapeutic intervention to minimize further complications, was established.

  8. Tumor-Derived Microvesicles Modulate Antigen Cross-Processing via Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Alkalinization of Phagosomal Compartment in Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Battisti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are the only antigen-presenting cells able to prime naïve T cells and cross-prime antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Their functionality is a requirement for the induction and maintenance of long-lasting cancer immunity. Albeit intensively investigated, the in vivo mechanisms underlying efficient antigen cross-processing and presentation are not fully understood. Several pieces of evidence indicate that antigen transfer to DCs mediated by microvesicles (MVs enhances antigen immunogenicity. This mechanism is also relevant for cross-presentation of those tumor-associated glycoproteins such as MUC1 that are blocked in HLA class II compartment when internalized by DCs as soluble molecules. Here, we present pieces of evidence that the internalization of tumor-derived MVs modulates antigen-processing machinery of DCs. Employing MVs derived from ovarian cancer ascites fluid and established tumor cell lines, we show that MV uptake modifies DC phagosomal microenvironment, triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation and early alkalinization. Indeed, tumor MVs carry radical species and the MV uptake by DCs counteracts the chemically mediated acidification of the phagosomal compartment. Further pieces of evidence suggest that efficacious antigen cross-priming of the MUC1 antigen carried by the tumor MVs results from the early signaling induced by MV internalization and the function of the antigen-processing machinery of DCs. These results strongly support the hypothesis that tumor-derived MVs impact antigen immunogenicity by tuning the antigen-processing machinery of DCs, besides being carrier of tumor antigens. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for the exploitation of MVs as antigenic cell-free immunogen for DC-based therapeutic strategies.

  9. Diagnostic Value of Processing Cytologic Aspirates of Renal Tumors in Agar Cell (Tissue) Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedts, F.; Schrik, M.; Horn, T.

    2010-01-01

    smears were prepared after each aspiration for conventional cytology and the remaining aspirate was processed for the improved agar microbiopsy (AM) method. Conventional cytology slides, AM slides and surgical specimens were diagnosed separately, after which the diagnoses were compared....... Immunohistochemistry was performed as required on the AM sections. Surgical specimens served as the gold standard. Results In 53% of conventional cytologic smears, the cellular yield was sufficient to render a correct diagnosis. In 12% the diagnosis was incorrect, in 21% only a differential diagnosis could be fin......-initiated, and in 14% too few diagnostic cells were present in the conventional smears for cytologic diagnosis. It was, however, possible to correctly diagnose histologic sections from 97% of AM tissue blocks. In 11 cases this was facilitated with immunochemistry. In only 1 case did the AM tissue block contain too few...

  10. Right parietal cortex and calculation processing: intraoperative functional mapping of multiplication and addition in patients affected by a brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; d'Avella, Elena; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Munari, Marina; Saladini, Marina; Salillas, Elena; Scienza, Renato; Semenza, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    The role of parietal areas in number processing is well known. The significance of intraoperative functional mapping of these areas has been only partially explored, however, and only a few discordant data are available in the surgical literature with regard to the right parietal lobe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of simple calculation in cortical electrostimulation of right-handed patients affected by a right parietal brain tumor. Calculation mapping in awake surgery was performed in 3 right-handed patients affected by high-grade gliomas located in the right parietal lobe. Preoperatively, none of the patients presented with calculation deficits. In all 3 cases, after sensorimotor and language mapping, cortical and intraparietal sulcus areas involved in single-digit multiplication and addition calculations were mapped using bipolar electrostimulation. In all patients, different sites of the right parietal cortex, mainly in the inferior lobule, were detected as being specifically related to calculation (multiplication or addition). In 2 patients the intraparietal sulcus was functionally specific for multiplication. No functional sites for language were detected. All sites functional for calculation were spared during tumor resection, which was complete in all cases without postoperative neurological deficits. These findings provide intraoperative data in support of an anatomofunctional organization for multiplication and addition within the right parietal area. Furthermore, the study shows the potential clinical relevance of intraoperative mapping of calculation in patients undergoing surgery in the right parietal area. Further and larger studies are needed to confirm these data and assess whether mapped areas are effectively essential for function.

  11. Histologic processing artifacts and inter-pathologist variation in measurement of inked margins of canine mast cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Patti K; Löhr, Christiane V; Meritet, Danielle; Spagnoli, Sean T; Milovancev, Milan; Russell, Duncan S

    2018-05-01

    Although quantitative assessment of margins is recommended for describing excision of cutaneous malignancies, there is poor understanding of limitations associated with this technique. We described and quantified histologic artifacts in inked margins and determined the association between artifacts and variance in histologic tumor-free margin (HTFM) measurements based on a novel grading scheme applied to 50 sections of normal canine skin and 56 radial margins taken from 15 different canine mast cell tumors (MCTs). Three broad categories of artifact were 1) tissue deformation at inked edges, 2) ink-associated artifacts, and 3) sectioning-associated artifacts. The most common artifacts in MCT margins were ink-associated artifacts, specifically ink absent from an edge (mean prevalence: 50%) and inappropriate ink coloring (mean: 45%). The prevalence of other artifacts in MCT skin was 4-50%. In MCT margins, frequency-adjusted kappa statistics found fair or better inter-rater reliability for 9 of 10 artifacts; intra-rater reliability was moderate or better in 9 of 10 artifacts. Digital HTFM measurements by 5 blinded pathologists had a median standard deviation (SD) of 1.9 mm (interquartile range: 0.8-3.6 mm; range: 0-6.2 mm). Intraclass correlation coefficients demonstrated good inter-pathologist reliability in HTFM measurement (κ = 0.81). Spearman rank correlation coefficients found negligible correlation between artifacts and HTFM SDs ( r ≤ 0.3). These data confirm that although histologic artifacts commonly occur in inked margin specimens, artifacts are not meaningfully associated with variation in HTFM measurements. Investigators can use the grading scheme presented herein to identify artifacts associated with tissue processing.

  12. Heat inactivation of a norovirus surrogate in cell culture lysate, abalone meat, and abalone viscera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Young; Bae, San-Cheong; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-03-01

    The current study examined the effects of temperature and heat treatment duration on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) from both viral cell culture lysate (7-8 log10 PFU) and experimentally contaminated abalone meat and viscera (5-6 log10 PFU) as a model of human norovirus (NoV). MNV-1 titers in cell culture lysate, abalone meat, and abalone viscera were gradually reduced to 1.93-4.55, 1.79-3.00, and 2.26-3.26 log10 PFU/ml, respectively, after treatment at 70 °C for 1-10 min. Treatment at 85 °C for 1-5 min gradually reduced MNV-1 titers in abalone meat to 2.71-4.15 log10 PFU/ml. MNV-1 titers in abalone viscera were gradually reduced to 2.91-3.46 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 85 °C for 1-3 min. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in MNV-1 titers in the abalone meat and viscera among treatment groups (70 °C for 5 min, 70 °C for 3 min, and 85 °C for 1 min). Complete inactivation of MNV-1 in cell culture lysate was determined at 85 °C for ≥1 min and 100 °C for ≥0.5 min. Complete inactivation of MNV-1 in abalone was determined at 100 °C for ≥0.5 min for meat, and 85 °C for 5 min and 100 °C for ≥0.5 min for viscera. At treatments at 70 °C, the Td-values (3 log reduction time) were significantly lower (P abalone meat (6.07) and viscera (10.73). Td = 3 values were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between abalone meat (1.78) and abalone viscera (1.33) at treatments at 85 °C. This study suggests that 100 °C for ≥0.5 min could potentially be used to inactivate NoV in molluscan shellfishes, including viscera.

  13. Tumor heterogeneity is an active process maintained by a mutant EGFR-induced cytokine circuit in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Maria-del-Mar; Bonavia, Rudy; Mukasa, Akitake; Narita, Yoshitaka; Sah, Dinah W Y; Vandenberg, Scott; Brennan, Cameron; Johns, Terrance G; Bachoo, Robert; Hadwiger, Philipp; Tan, Pamela; Depinho, Ronald A; Cavenee, Webster; Furnari, Frank

    2010-08-15

    Human solid tumors frequently have pronounced heterogeneity of both neoplastic and normal cells on the histological, genetic, and gene expression levels. While current efforts are focused on understanding heterotypic interactions between tumor cells and surrounding normal cells, much less is known about the interactions between and among heterogeneous tumor cells within a neoplasm. In glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) amplification and mutation (EGFRvIII/DeltaEGFR) are signature pathogenetic events that are invariably expressed in a heterogeneous manner. Strikingly, despite its greater biological activity than wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR), individual GBM tumors expressing both amplified receptors typically express wtEGFR in far greater abundance than the DeltaEGFR lesion. We hypothesized that the minor DeltaEGFR-expressing subpopulation enhances tumorigenicity of the entire tumor cell population, and thereby maintains heterogeneity of expression of the two receptor forms in different cells. Using mixtures of glioma cells as well as immortalized murine astrocytes, we demonstrate that a paracrine mechanism driven by DeltaEGFR is the primary means for recruiting wtEGFR-expressing cells into accelerated proliferation in vivo. We determined that human glioma tissues, glioma cell lines, glioma stem cells, and immortalized mouse Ink4a/Arf(-/-) astrocytes that express DeltaEGFR each also express IL-6 and/or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) cytokines. These cytokines activate gp130, which in turn activates wtEGFR in neighboring cells, leading to enhanced rates of tumor growth. Ablating IL-6, LIF, or gp130 uncouples this cellular cross-talk, and potently attenuates tumor growth enhancement. These findings support the view that a minor tumor cell population can potently drive accelerated growth of the entire tumor mass, and thereby actively maintain tumor cell heterogeneity within a tumor mass. Such interactions between genetically

  14. BACTERIAL LYSATES FOR TOPICAL APPLICATION IN PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Garashchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have carried on the research of the influence Imudon exerts (during topical application on the run of chronic tonsillitis among 48 children aged between 5 and 10 years old, being dispensary registrants. The sublingual application of a medicine 6 pills daily within 20 days demonstrated the frequency reduction of chronic tonsillitis acerbations by 2.9 times, as well as the reduction of total need in systemic antibacterial treatment by 10 times. Apart from that, the frequency of S. pyogenes group a exposure reduced by 3 times. The researchers noticed the tendency to normalization of pharynx biocenosis. Thus, Imudon may be recommended for the daily courses of treatment to the people, suffering from chronic tonsillitis, palatine tonsil auxesis and recurrent tonsillo-pharyngites.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, children, prevention, bacterial lysates.

  15. Increased efficiency of exogenous messenger RNA translation in a Krebs ascites cell lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metafora, S; Terada, M; Dow, L W; Marks, P A; Bank, A

    1972-05-01

    Addition of a 0.5 M KCl wash fraction from rabbit reticulocyte ribosomes causes a 3- to 10-fold increase in the extent of translation of natural mRNAs by Krebs-cell lysates. In the presence of the wash fraction, 1 pmol of rabbit or mouse 10S RNA directs the incorporation of 80 pmol of leucine into rabbit globin. The addition of human 10S RNA results in the synthesis of equal amounts of human alpha and beta chains, identified by column chromatography. The stimulation by the wash fraction is almost completely dependent on added mammalian tRNA. In contrast to the wash fraction from rabbit reticulocytes, the wash fraction isolated from Krebs-cell ribosomes is inhibitory to both endogenous and exogenous mRNA translation. The stimulation by the wash fraction from rabbit ribosomes is not specific for globin mRNAs, but also increases endogenous, phage Qbeta, and viral RNA-directed protein synthesis.

  16. Autologous platelet lysate local injections for the treatment of refractory lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xun-xiang; Ju, Hai-yang; Yan, Wei; Jiang, Hong-jiang; Su, Jin-ping; Dong, Hua-jun; Wang, Ling-shuang; Zou, De-bao

    2016-01-25

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of autologous platelet lysate (APL) local injections in reducing pain and improving function in patients with refractory lateral epicondylitis. A total of 56 patients with refractory lateral epicondylitis were enrolled in this study. All the patients received three injections in one course of treatment. Subjective assessments include visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and Mayo elbow score before injection (baseline) and at 1, 6, and 12 months after injection. Significant differences were observed in VAS and Mayo scores at baseline and at 1, 6, and 12 months after injection. Overall, the injections of APL improved local symptoms and all the patients recovered to normal elbow function with 12 months follow-up. Local injections of APL resulted in favorable clinical outcomes for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. APL could be clinically effective in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

  17. Platelet lysate gel and endothelial progenitors stimulate microvascular network formation in vitro: tissue engineering implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Tiago M; Beltrami, Cristina; Emanueli, Costanza; De Bank, Paul A; Pula, Giordano

    2016-05-04

    Revascularisation is a key step for tissue regeneration and complete organ engineering. We describe the generation of human platelet lysate gel (hPLG), an extracellular matrix preparation from human platelets able to support the proliferation of endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) in 2D cultures and the formation of a complete microvascular network in vitro in 3D cultures. Existing extracellular matrix preparations require addition of high concentrations of recombinant growth factors and allow only limited formation of capillary-like structures. Additional advantages of our approach over existing extracellular matrices are the absence of any animal product in the composition hPLG and the possibility of obtaining hPLG from patients to generate homologous scaffolds for re-implantation. This discovery has the potential to accelerate the development of regenerative medicine applications based on implantation of microvascular networks expanded ex vivo or the generation of fully vascularised organs.

  18. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  19. Overcoming the bottleneck of platelet lysate supply in large-scale clinical expansion of adipose-derived stem cells: A comparison of fresh versus three types of platelet lysates from outdated buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glovinski, Peter V; Herly, Mikkel; Mathiasen, Anders B; Svalgaard, Jesper D; Borup, Rehannah; Talman, Maj-Lis M; Elberg, Jens J; Kølle, Stig-Frederik T; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Platelet lysates (PL) represent a promising replacement for xenogenic growth supplement for adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) expansions. However, fresh platelets from human blood donors are not clinically feasible for large-scale cell expansion based on their limited supply. Therefore, we tested PLs prepared via three methods from outdated buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates (PCs) to establish an efficient and feasible expansion of ASCs for clinical use. PLs were prepared by the freeze-thaw method from freshly drawn platelets or from outdated buffy coat-derived PCs stored in the platelet additive solution, InterSol. Three types of PLs were prepared from outdated PCs with platelets suspended in either (1) InterSol (not manipulated), (2) InterSol + supplemented with plasma or (3) plasma alone (InterSol removed). Using these PLs, we compared ASC population doubling time, cell yield, differentiation potential and cell surface markers. Gene expression profiles were analyzed using microarray assays, and growth factor concentrations in the cell culture medium were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the three PL compositions produced from outdated PCs, removal of Intersol and resuspension in plasma prior to the first freezing process was overall the best. This specific outdated PL induced ASC growth kinetics, surface markers, plastic adherence and differentiation potentials comparable with PL from fresh platelets. ASCs expanded in PL from fresh versus outdated PCs exhibited different expressions of 17 overlapping genes, of which 10 were involved in cellular proliferation, although not significantly reflected by cell growth. Only minor differences in growth factor turnover were observed. PLs from outdated platelets may be an efficient and reliable source of human growth supplement allowing for large-scale ASC expansion for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Identification and expression of troponin T, a new marker on the surface of cultured tumor endothelial cells by aptamer ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ara, Mst Naznin; Hyodo, Mamoru; Ohga, Noritaka; Akiyama, Kosuke; Hida, Kyoko; Hida, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The identification of a specific biomarker involves the development of new clinical diagnostic tools, and an in-depth understanding of the disease at the molecular level. When new blood vessels form in tumor cells, endothelial cell production is induced, a process that plays a key role in disease progression and metastasis to distinct organs for solid tumor types. The present study reports on the identification of a new biomarker on primary cultured mouse tumor endothelial cells (mTECs) using our recently developed high-affinity DNA aptamer AraHH001 (K d = 43 nmol/L) assisted proteomics approach. We applied a strategy involving aptamer-facilitated biomarker discovery. Biotin-tagged AraHH001 was incubated with lysates of mTECs and the aptamer-proteins were then conjugated with streptavidin magnetic beads. Finally, the bound proteins were separated by sodiumdodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with silver staining. We identified troponin T via matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, the molecular target of aptamer AraHH001, and its presence was confirmed by measuring mRNA, protein levels, western blot, immunostaining, a gel shift assay of AraHH001 with troponin T. We first report here on the discovery of troponin T on mTECs, a promising and interesting diagnostic tool in the development of antiangiogenic therapy techniques the involves the targeting of the tumor vasculature

  1. Tailor-made purified human platelet lysate concentrated in neurotrophins for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Li; Wu, Joe-Wei; Gouel, Flore; Jonneaux, Aurélie; Timmerman, Kelly; Renn, Ting-Yi; Laloux, Charlotte; Chang, Hung-Ming; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Devedjian, Jean-Christophe; Devos, David; Burnouf, Thierry

    2017-10-01

    Human platelet lysates (PLs), which contain multiple neurotrophins, have been proposed for treating neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, current PLs suspended in plasma have high protein content and contain fibrinogen/fibrin and, following activation, also proteolytic and thrombogenic enzymes. Upon brain administration, such PLs may saturate the cerebrospinal fluid and exert neurotoxicity. We assessed whether purified PLs, concentrated in neurotrophins, protected dopaminergic neurons in PD models. Platelet concentrates were collected by apheresis and centrifuged to eliminate plasma and recover the platelets. Platelets were lysed by freeze-thaw cycles, and the 10-fold concentrated platelet pellet lysates (PPLs) were heat-treated (at 56 °C for 30 min). The heat-treated PPLs were low in total proteins, depleted in both plasma and platelet fibrinogen, and devoid of thrombogenic and proteolytic activities. They exerted very high neuroprotective activity when non-oncogenic, Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cells that had differentiated into dopaminergic neurons were exposed to the MPP + neurotoxin. Heat treatment improved the neuroprotection and inactivated the neurotoxic blood-borne hepatitis C virus. PPL did not induce inflammation in BV2 microglial cells and inhibited COX-2 expression upon lipopolysaccharide exposure. Intranasal administration in mice revealed (a) diffusion of neurotrophins in the striatum and cortex, and (b) MPTP intoxication neuroprotection in the substantia nigra and striatum and the absence of neuroinflammation. These dedicated heat-treated PPLs can be a safe and valuable candidate for a therapeutic strategy for PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adjuvant treatment with the bacterial lysate (OM-85 improves management of atopic dermatitis: A randomized study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bodemer

    Full Text Available Environmental factors play a major role on atopic dermatitis (AD which shows a constant rise in prevalence in western countries over the last decades. The Hygiene Hypothesis suggesting an inverse relationship between incidence of infections and the increase in atopic diseases in these countries, is one of the working hypothesis proposed to explain this trend.This study tested the efficacy and safety of oral administration of the bacterial lysate OM-85 (Broncho-Vaxom®, Broncho-Munal®, Ommunal®, Paxoral®, Vaxoral®, in the treatment of established AD in children.Children aged 6 months to 7 years, with confirmed AD diagnosis, were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to receive, in addition to conventional treatment with emollients and topical corticosteroids, 3.5mg of the bacterial extract OM-85 or placebo daily for 9 months. The primary end-point was the difference between groups in the occurrence of new flares (NF during the study period, evaluated by Hazard Ratio (HR derived from conditional Cox proportional hazard regression models accounting for repeated events.Among the 179 randomized children, 170 were analysed, 88 in the OM-85 and 82 in the placebo group. As expected most children in both treatment groups experienced at least 1 NF during the study period (75 (85% patients in the OM-85 group and 72 (88% in the placebo group. Patients treated with OM-85 as adjuvant therapy had significantly fewer and delayed NFs (HR of repeated flares = 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.67-0.96, also when potential confounding factors, as family history of atopy and corticosteroids use, were taken into account (HR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69-0.98. No major side effect was reported, with comparable and good tolerability for OM-85 and placebo.Results show an adjuvant therapeutic effect of a well standardized bacterial lysate OM-85 on established AD.

  3. Rapid and sensitive detection of multiple microRNAs in cell lysate by low-fouling surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaisocherová, Hana; Šípová, Hana; Víšová, Ivana; Bocková, Markéta; Špringer, Tomáš; Ermini, Maria Laura; Chadtová Song, Xue; Krejčík, Z.; Chrastinová, L.; Pastva, O.; Pimková, K.; Merkerová-Dostálová, M.; Dyr, J. E.; Homola, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, August 05 (2015), s. 226-231 ISSN 0956-5663 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Erythrocyte lysate * Polymer brushes * DNA array Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 7.476, year: 2015

  4. Platelet lysate mucohadesive formulation to treat oral mucositis in graft versus host disease patients: a new therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Sandri, Giuseppina; Ferrari, Franca; Scudeller, Luigia; Caramella, Carla Marcella

    2011-09-01

    Optimal treatment of oral mucositis (OM) due to graft versus host disease (GvHD) is currently not available. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) have high capability for tissue healing and may play a role in repairing the mucosal barrier. The aim of the present work was to develop a mucoadhesive formulation to administer platelet lysate to oral cavity prolonging contact time of platelet lysate with oral mucosa. The mucoadhesive formulation was characterized for in vitro properties (PDGF-AB concentration, mucoadhesive properties, cytotoxicity, fibroblast proliferation, wound healing). Moreover, a preliminary clinical study on seven GvHD patients with OM refractory to other therapies was conducted, to evaluate feasibility, safety, and efficacy. GVPL (mucoadhesive gel vehicle mixed with platelet lysate)showed good mucoadhesive properties; additionally, it was characterized by good biocompatibility in vitro on fibroblasts and it was able to enhance fibroblast proliferation and wound healing, maintaining the efficacy for up to 14 days following storage at 2-8°C. In vivo, clinical response was good-to-complete in five, fair in one, none in the remaining one. The in vitro results indicate that GVPL has optimal mucoadhesive and healing enhancer properties, maintained over time (up to 14 days); preliminary clinical results suggest that oral application of platelet lysate-loaded mucoadhesive formulation is feasible, safe, well tolerated, and effective. A larger controlled randomized study is needed.

  5. Evaluation of a platelet lysate bilayered system for periodontal regeneration in a rat intrabony three-wall periodontal defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babo, P.S.; Cai, X; Plachokova, A.S.; Reis, R.L.; Jansen, J.A.; Gomes, M.E.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2018-01-01

    With currently available therapies, full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues after periodontitis cannot be achieved. In this study, a combined compartmentalized system was tested, composed of (a) a platelet lysate (PL)-based construct, which was placed along the root aiming to regenerate the

  6. Decreased mechanical properties of heart valve tissue constructs cultured in platelet lysate as compared to fetal bovine serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geemen, van D.; Riem Vis, P.W.; Soekhradj - Soechit, R.S.; Sluijter, J.P.G.; Liefde - van Beest, de M.; Kluin, J.; Bouten, C.V.C.

    2011-01-01

    In autologous heart valve tissue engineering, there is an ongoing search for alternatives of fetal bovine serum (FBS). Human platelet-lysate (PL) might be a promising substitute. In the present article, we aimed to examine the tissue formation, functionality, and mechanical properties of engineered

  7. Activation of NO and cytokines by low-molecular weight fractions of lysates from G+ and G bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmoníčková, Eva; Dusilová, Adéla; Kostecká, Petra; Kverka, Miloslav; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 157, Suppl.1 (2013), S51-S55 ISSN 1213-8118 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/12/0535 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : bacteria * lysate * immunomodulation Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry; EC - Immunology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.661, year: 2013

  8. Platelet lysate activates quiescent cell proliferation and reprogramming in human articular cartilage: Involvement of hypoxia inducible factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Descalzi, Fiorella

    2018-03-01

    The idea of rescuing the body self-repair capability lost during evolution is progressively gaining ground in regenerative medicine. In particular, growth factors and bioactive molecules derived from activated platelets emerged as promising therapeutic agents acting as trigger for repair of tissue lesions and restoration of tissue functions. Aim of this study was to assess the potential of a platelet lysate (PL) for human articular cartilage repair considering its activity on progenitor cells and differentiated chondrocytes. PL induced the re-entry in the cell cycle of confluent, growth-arrested dedifferentiated/progenitor cartilage cells. In a cartilage permissive culture environment, differentiated cells also resumed proliferation after exposure to PL. These findings correlated with an up-regulation of the proliferation/survival pathways ERKs and Akt and with an induction of cyclin D1. In short- and long-term cultures of articular cartilage explants, we observed a release of proliferating chondroprogenitors able to differentiate and form an "in vitro" tissue with properties of healthy articular cartilage. Moreover, in cultured cartilage cells, PL induced a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) alpha increase, its nuclear relocation and the binding to HIF-1 responsive elements. These events were possibly related to the cell proliferation because the HIF-1 inhibitor acriflavine inhibited HIF-1 binding to HIF-1 responsive elements and cell proliferation. Our study demonstrates that PL induces quiescent cartilage cell activation and proliferation leading to new cartilage formation, identifies PL activated pathways playing a role in these processes, and provides a rationale to the application of PL for therapeutic treatment of damaged articular cartilage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A novel whole-cell lysate kinase assay identifies substrates of the p38 MAPK in differentiating myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight James DR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK is a critical mediator of myoblast differentiation, and does so in part through the phosphorylation and regulation of several transcription factors and chromatin remodelling proteins. However, whether p38α is involved in processes other than gene regulation during myogenesis is currently unknown, and why other p38 isoforms cannot compensate for its loss is unclear. Methods To further characterise the involvement of p38α during myoblast differentiation, we developed and applied a simple technique for identifying relevant in vivo kinase substrates and their phosphorylation sites. In addition to identifying substrates for one kinase, the technique can be used in vitro to compare multiple kinases in the same experiment, and we made use of this to study the substrate specificities of the p38α and β isoforms. Results Applying the technique to p38α resulted in the identification of seven in vivo phosphorylation sites on six proteins, four of which are cytoplasmic, in lysate derived from differentiating myoblasts. An in vitro comparison with p38β revealed that substrate specificity does not discriminate these two isoforms, but rather that their distinguishing characteristic appears to be cellular localisation. Conclusion Our results suggest p38α has a novel cytoplasmic role during myogenesis and that its unique cellular localisation may be why p38β and other isoforms cannot compensate for its absence. The substrate-finding approach presented here also provides a necessary tool for studying the hundreds of protein kinases that exist and for uncovering the deeper mechanisms of phosphorylation-dependent cell signalling.

  10. Manufacture of endothelial colony-forming progenitor cells from steady-state peripheral blood leukapheresis using pooled human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Georg; Fleck, Erika; Elser, Stefanie; Hermanutz-Klein, Ursula; Waidmann, Marc; Northoff, Hinnak; Seifried, Erhard; Schäfer, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Endothelial colony-forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) are promising candidates for cell therapies. However, ECFC translation to the clinic requires optimized isolation and manufacture technologies according to good manufacturing practice (GMP). ECFCs were manufactured from steady-state peripheral blood (PB) leukapheresis (11 donors), using GMP-compliant technologies including pooled human platelet (PLT) lysate, and compared to human umbilical cord endothelial cells, human aortic endothelial cells, and human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. Specific variables assessed were growth kinetics, phenotype, trophic factors production, stimulation of tube formation, and Dil-AcLDL uptake. ECFCs could be isolated from PB leukapheresis units with mean processed volume of 5411 mL and mean white blood cell (WBC) concentration factor of 8.74. The mean frequency was 1.44 × 10 -8 ECFCs per WBC, corresponding to a mean of 177.8 ECFCs per apheresis unit. Expandable for up to 12 cumulative population doublings, calculated projection showed that approximately 730 × 10 3 ECFCs could be manufactured from 1 apheresis unit. ECFCs produced epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, PLT-derived growth factor-B, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, featured high potential for capillary-like tubes formation, and showed no telomerase activity. They were characterized by CD29, CD31, CD44, CD105, CD117, CD133, CD144, CD146, and VEGF-R2 expression, with the most common subpopulation CD34+CD117-CD133-. Compared to controls, ECFCs featured greater Dil-AcLDL uptake and higher expression of CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD144, and VEGF-R2. Here we show that isolation of ECFCs with proangiogenic profile from steady-state PB leukapheresis is feasible, marking a first step toward ECFC product manufacture according to GMP. © 2018 AABB.

  11. Assessment of bone healing ability of calcium phosphate cements loaded with platelet lysate in rat calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Carvalho, Pedro P; Santo, Vítor E; Faria, Susana; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L

    2016-11-01

    Injectable calcium phosphate cements have been used as a valid alternative to autologous bone grafts for bone augmentation with the additional advantage of enabling minimally invasive implantation procedures and for perfectly fitting the tissue defect. Nevertheless, they have low biodegradability and lack adequate biochemical signaling to promote bone healing and remodeling. In previous in vitro studies, we observed that the incorporation of platelet lysate directly into the cement paste or loaded in hyaluronic acid microspheres allowed to modulate the cement degradation and the in vitro expression of osteogenic markers in seeded human adipose derived stem cells. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of this system in new bone formation when implanted in calvarial bilateral defects in rats. Different formulations were assessed, namely plain calcium phosphate cements, calcium phosphate cements loaded with human platelet lysate, hybrid injectable formulations composed of the calcium phosphate cement incorporating hyaluronin acid non-loaded microparticles (20% hyaluronin acid) or with particles loaded with platelet lysate. The degradability and new bone regrowth were evaluated in terms of mineral volume in the defect, measured by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis upon 4, 8 and 12 weeks of implantation. We observed that the incorporation of hyaluronin acid microspheres induced an overly rapid cement degradation, impairing the osteoconductive properties of the cement composites. Moreover, the incorporation of platelet lysate induced higher bone healing than the materials without platelet lysate, up to four weeks after surgery. Nevertheless, this effect was not found to be significant when compared to the one observed in the sham-treated group. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Intranasal Coadministration of the Cry1Ac Protoxin with Amoebal Lysates Increases Protection against Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Rodríguez-Monroy, Marco A.; López-Revilla, Rubén; Reséndiz-Albor, Aldo A.; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2004-01-01

    Cry1Ac protoxin has potent mucosal and systemic adjuvant effects on antibody responses to proteins or polysaccharides. In this work, we examined whether Cry1Ac increased protective immunity against fatal Naegleria fowleri infection in mice, which resembles human primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) than IgA anti-N. fowleri responses were elicited in the serum and tracheopulmonary fluids of mice immunized by the intranasal or intraperitoneal route with N. fowleri lysates either alone or with Cry1Ac or cholera toxin. Superior protection against a lethal challenge with 5 × 104 live N. fowleri trophozoites was achieved for immunization by the intranasal route. Intranasal immunization of N. fowleri lysates coadministered with Cry1Ac increased survival to 100%; interestingly, immunization with Cry1Ac alone conferred similar protection to that achieved with amoebal lysates alone (60%). When mice intranasally immunized with Cry1Ac plus lysates were challenged with amoebae, both IgG and IgA mucosal responses were rapidly increased, but only the increased IgG response persisted until day 60 in surviving mice. The brief rise in the level of specific mucosal IgA does not exclude the role that this isotype may play in the early defense against this parasite, since higher IgA responses were detected in nasal fluids of mice intranasally immunized with lysates plus either Cry1Ac or cholera toxin, which, indeed, were the treatments that provided the major protection levels. In contrast, serum antibody responses do not seem to be related to the protection level achieved. Both acquired and innate immune systems seem to play a role in host defense against N. fowleri infection, but further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms involved in protective effects conferred by Cry1Ac, which may be a valuable tool to improve mucosal vaccines. PMID:15271892

  13. Platelet lysate as a novel serum-free media supplement for the culture of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskou, Maria C; Sumner, Scarlett M; Chocallo, Anna; Kemelmakher, Hannah; Thoresen, Merrilee; Copland, Ian; Galipeau, Jacques; Peroni, John F

    2018-03-22

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) produced for clinical purposes rely on culture media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) which is xenogeneic and has the potential to significantly alter the MSC phenotype, rendering these cells immunogenic. As a result of bovine-derived exogenous proteins expressed on the cell surface, MSCs may be recognized by the host immune system as non-self and be rejected. Platelet lysate (PL) may obviate some of these concerns and shows promising results in human medicine as a possible alternative to FBS. Our goal was to evaluate the use of equine platelet lysate (ePL) pooled from donor horses in place of FBS to culture equine MSCs. We hypothesized that ePL, produced following apheresis, will function as the sole media supplement to accelerate the expansion of equine bone marrow-derived MSCs without altering their phenotype and their immunomodulatory capacity. Platelet concentrate was obtained via plateletpheresis and ePL were produced via freeze-thaw and centrifugation cycles. Population doublings (PD) and doubling time (DT) of bone marrow-derived MSCs (n = 3) cultured with FBS or ePL media were calculated. Cell viability, immunophenotypic analysis, and trilineage differentiation capacity of MSCs were assessed accordingly. To assess the ability of MSCs to modulate inflammatory responses, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes were cocultured with MSCs cultured in the two different media formulations, and cell culture supernatants were assayed for the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Our results showed that MSCs cultured in ePL media exhibited similar proliferation rates (PD and DT) compared with those cultured in FBS at individual time points. MSCs cultured in ePL showed a statistically significant increased viability following a single washing step, expressed similar levels of MSC markers compared to FBS, and were able to differentiate towards the three lineages. Finally, MSCs cultured in ePL efficiently suppressed

  14. Identifying and Prioritizing Gaps in Neuroendocrine Tumor Research: A Modified Delphi Process With Patients and Health Care Providers to Set the Research Action Plan for the Newly Formed Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelov, Eva; Chan, David; Lawrence, Ben; Pavlakis, Nick; Kennecke, Hagen F; Jackson, Christopher; Law, Calvin; Singh, Simron

    2017-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. The Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration (CommNETS) was established in 2015 to enhance outcomes for patients with NETs in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Patient/advocate and health care provider/researcher expert panels undertook Round 1, which canvassed 17 research priorities and 42 potential topics; in Round 2, these priorities were ranked. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. The Delphi groups consisted of 203 participants in Round 1 (64% health care providers/researchers, 36% patient/advocates; 52% Canadian, 32% Australian, and 17% New Zealander), of whom 132 participated in Round 2. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. Two major areas were ranked significantly higher by patients/advocates: early diagnosis and curative surgery. Six CommNETS working parties were established. This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans reflect unmet needs and priorities in the field.

  15. Identifying and Prioritizing Gaps in Neuroendocrine Tumor Research: A Modified Delphi Process With Patients and Health Care Providers to Set the Research Action Plan for the Newly Formed Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segelov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. The Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration (CommNETS was established in 2015 to enhance outcomes for patients with NETs in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. Methods: A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Patient/advocate and health care provider/researcher expert panels undertook Round 1, which canvassed 17 research priorities and 42 potential topics; in Round 2, these priorities were ranked. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. Results: The Delphi groups consisted of 203 participants in Round 1 (64% health care providers/researchers, 36% patient/advocates; 52% Canadian, 32% Australian, and 17% New Zealander, of whom 132 participated in Round 2. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. Two major areas were ranked significantly higher by patients/advocates: early diagnosis and curative surgery. Six CommNETS working parties were established. Conclusion: This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans

  16. A novel platelet lysate hydrogel for endothelial cell and mesenchymal stem cell-directed neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Scott T; Douglas, Alison M; Chadid, Tatiana; Kuo, Katie; Rajabalan, Ajai; Li, Haiyan; Copland, Ian B; Barker, Thomas H; Galipeau, Jacques; Brewster, Luke P

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) hold promise in promoting vascular regeneration of ischemic tissue in conditions like critical limb ischemia of the leg. However, this approach has been limited in part by poor cell retention and survival after delivery. New biomaterials offer an opportunity to localize cells to the desired tissue after delivery, but also to improve cell survival after delivery. Here we characterize the mechanical and microstructural properties of a novel hydrogel composed of pooled human platelet lysate (PL) and test its ability to promote MSC angiogenic activity using clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo models. This PL hydrogel had comparable storage and loss modulus and behaved as a viscoelastic solid similar to fibrin hydrogels despite having 1/4-1/10th the fibrin content of standard fibrin gels. Additionally, PL hydrogels enabled sustained release of endogenous PDGF-BB for up to 20days and were resistant to protease degradation. PL hydrogel stimulated pro-angiogenic activity by promoting human MSC growth and invasion in a 3D environment, and enhancing endothelial cell sprouting alone and in co-culture with MSCs. When delivered in vivo, the combination of PL and human MSCs improved local tissue perfusion after 8days compared to controls when assessed with laser Doppler perfusion imaging in a murine model of hind limb ischemia. These results support the use of a PL hydrogel as a scaffold for MSC delivery to promote vascular regeneration. Innovative strategies for improved retention and viability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are needed for cellular therapies. Human platelet lysate is a potent serum supplement that improves the expansion of MSCs. Here we characterize our novel PL hydrogel's desirable structural and biologic properties for human MSCs and endothelial cells. PL hydrogel can localize cells for retention in the desired tissue, improves cell viability, and augments MSCs' angiogenic activity. As a result of these unique traits, PL

  17. Electrospun silk fibroin fibers for storage and controlled release of human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, Cataldo; Perotto, Giovanni; Nardini, Marta; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2018-04-17

    Human platelet lysate (hPL) is a pool of growth factors and cytokines able to induce regeneration of different tissues. Despite its good potentiality as therapeutic tool for regenerative medicine applications, hPL has been only moderately exploited in this field. A more widespread adoption has been limited because of its rapid degradation at room temperature that decreases its functionality. Another limiting factor for its extensive use is the difficulty of handling the hPL gels. In this work, silk fibroin-based patches were developed to address several points: improving the handling of hPL, enabling their delivery in a controlled manner and facilitating their storage by creating a device ready to use with expanded shelf life. Patches of fibroin loaded with hPL were synthesized by electrospinning to take advantage of the fibrous morphology. The release kinetics of the material was characterized and tuned through the control of fibroin crystallinity. Cell viability assays, performed with primary human dermal fibroblasts, demonstrated that fibroin is able to preserve the hPL biological activity and prolong its shelf-life. The strategy of storing and preserving small active molecules within a naturally-derived, protein-based fibrous scaffold was successfully implemented, leading to the design of a biocompatible device, which can potentially simplify the storage and the application of the hPL on a human patient, undergoing medical procedures such as surgery and wound care. Human platelets lysate (hPL) is a mixture of growth factors and cytokines able to induce the regeneration of damaged tissues. This study aims at enclosing hPL in a silk fibroin electrospun matrix to expand its utilization. Silk fibroin showed the ability to preserve the hPL activity at temperature up to 60 °C and the manipulation of fibroin's crystallinity provided a tool to modulate the hPL release kinetic. This entails the possibility to fabricate the hPL silk fibroin patches in advance and

  18. Pathogen-free, plasma-poor platelet lysate and expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudicone, Paola; Fioravanti, Daniela; Bonanno, Giuseppina; Miceli, Michelina; Lavorino, Claudio; Totta, Pierangela; Frati, Luigi; Nuti, Marianna; Pierelli, Luca

    2014-01-27

    Supplements to support clinical-grade cultures of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are required to promote growth and expansion of these cells. Platelet lysate (PL) is a human blood component which may replace animal serum in MSC cultures being rich in various growth factors. Here, we describe a plasma poor pathogen-free platelet lysate obtained by pooling 12 platelet (PLT) units, to produce a standardized and safe supplement for clinical-grade expansion of MSC. PL lots were obtained by combining 2 6-unit PLT pools in additive solution (AS) following a transfusional-based procedure including pathogen inactivation (PI) by Intercept technology and 3 cycles of freezing/thawing, followed by membrane removal. Three PI-PL and 3 control PL lots were produced to compare their ability to sustain bone marrow derived MSC selection and expansion. Moreover, two further PL, subjected to PI or not, were also produced starting from the same initial PLT pools to evaluate the impact of PI on growth factor concentration and capacity to sustain cell growth. Additional PI-PL lots were used for comparison with fetal bovine serum (FBS) on MSC expansion. Immunoregulatory properties of PI-PL-generated MSC were documented in vitro by mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) mitogen induced proliferation. PI-PL and PL control lots had similar concentrations of 4 well-described growth factors endowed with MSC stimulating ability. Initial growth and MSC expansion by PI-PL and PL controls were comparable either using different MSC populations or in head to head experiments. Moreover, PI-PL and PL control sustained similar MSC growth of frozen/thawed MSC. Multilineage differentiation of PI-derived and PI-PL-derived MSC were maintained in any MSC cultures as well as their immunoregulatory properties. Finally, no direct impact of PI on growth factor concentration and MSC growth support was observed, whereas the capacity of FBS to sustain MSC expansion in basic

  19. Immune response in the lungs following oral immunization with bacterial lysates of respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, C; Frühwirth, M; Wick, G; Wolf, H

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated the local immune response of the BALB/c mouse respiratory tract after oral immunization with a bacterial lysate of seven common respiratory pathogens. After two immunization on five consecutive days, we examined the immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G [IgG], IgM, and IgA) secretion rates of cells isolated from the lungs and compared them with those of spleen cells of orally immunized and nonimmunized animals by using a new test system based on time-resolved fluorescence. The procedure followed the principle of the classical ELISPOT test with nitrocellulose-bottomed microtiter plates, but europium (Eu3+)-linked streptavidin rather than enzyme-conjugated streptavidin was used, with the advantage of quantifying secreted immunoglobulins instead of detecting single antibody-secreting cells. Lymphocytes isolated from the lungs of treated animals revealed significant increases in total and antigen-specific IgA synthesis compared with the rates of the controls, whereas IgG and IgM production rates showed no remarkable differences. In addition, the sera of treated mice revealed higher antigen-specific IgA titers but not increased IgM and IgG levels. We conclude that priming the gut-associated lymphoid tissue with bacterial antigens of pneumotropic microorganisms can elicit an enhanced IgA response in a distant mucosal effector site, such as the respiratory tract, according to the concept of a common mucosa-associated immune system.

  20. Immunological Characterization of Whole Tumour Lysate-Loaded Dendritic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottobrini, Luisa; Biasin, Mara; Borelli, Manuela; Lucignani, Giovanni; Trabattoni, Daria; Clerici, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dendritic cells play a key role as initiators of T-cell responses, and even if tumour antigen-loaded dendritic cells can induce anti-tumour responses, their efficacy has been questioned, suggesting a need to enhance immunization strategies. Matherials & Methods We focused on the characterization of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with whole tumour lysate (TAA-DC), as a source of known and unknown antigens, in a mouse model of breast cancer (MMTV-Ras). Dendritic cells were evaluated for antigen uptake and for the expression of MHC class I/II and costimulatory molecules and markers associated with maturation. Results Results showed that antigen-loaded dendritic cells are characterized by a phenotypically semi-mature/mature profile and by the upregulation of genes involved in antigen presentation and T-cell priming. Activated dendritic cells stimulated T-cell proliferation and induced the production of high concentrations of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ but only low levels of IL-10, indicating their ability to elicit a TH1-immune response. Furthermore, administration of Antigen loaded-Dendritic Cells in MMTV-Ras mice evoked a strong anti-tumour response in vivo as demonstrated by a general activation of immunocompetent cells and the release of TH1 cytokines. Conclusion Data herein could be useful in the design of antitumoral DC-based therapies, showing a specific activation of immune system against breast cancer. PMID:26795765

  1. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (Pminoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (Pminoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Platelet-Rich Fibrin Lysate Can Ameliorate Dysfunction of Chronically UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirohadidjojo, Yohanes Widodo; Budiyanto, Arief; Soebono, Hardyanto

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether platelet-rich fibrin lysate (PRF-L) could restore the function of chronically ultraviolet-A (UVA)-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), we isolated and sub-cultured HDFs from six different human foreskins. HDFs were divided into two groups: those that received chronic UVA irradiation (total dosages of 10 J cm⁻²) and those that were not irradiated. We compared the proliferation rates, collagen deposition, and migration rates between the groups and between chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in control and PRF-L-treated media. Our experiment showed that chronic UVA irradiation significantly decreased (p<0.05) the proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition of HDFs, compared to controls. Compared to control media, chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L had significantly increased proliferation rates, migration rates, and collagen deposition (p<0.05), and the migration rates and collagen deposition of chronically UVA-irradiated HDFs in 50% PRF-L were equal to those of normal fibroblasts. Based on this experiment, we concluded that PRF-L is a good candidate material for treating UVA-induced photoaging of skin, although the best method for its clinical application remains to be determined.

  3. GMP-grade platelet lysate enhances proliferation and migration of tenon fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Augusto; Scafetta, Gaia; Siciliano, Camilla; Carnevale, Roberto; Rosa, Paolo; Coccia, Andrea; Mangino, Giorgio; Bordin, Antonella; Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Pierelli, Luca; Lendaro, Eugenio; Ragona, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo; De Falco, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Tenon's fibroblasts (TFs), widely employed as in vitro model for many ophthalmological studies, are routinely cultured with FBS. Platelet Lysate (PL), a hemoderivate enriched with growth factors and cytokines has been largely tested in several clinical applications and as substitute of FBS in culture. Here, we investigate whether PL can exert biological effects on TF populations similarly to other cell types. Results show that PL significantly enhances cell proliferation and migration vs. FBS, without influencing cell size/granularity. Upregulation of EGF, VEGF, KDR, MMP2-9, FAK mRNA levels also occurs and phosphorylation of AKT but not of ERK1/2 is significantly enhanced. The inhibition of the PI3kinase/AKT pathway with the specific inhibitor wortmannin, decreases PL-induced cell migration but not proliferation. Condition supernatants containing PL show increased bioavailability of Nitric Oxide and reduced levels of 8-Iso-PGF2-alpha, correlating with cell proliferation and migration. Pro-angiogenic/inflammatory soluble factors (GRO, Angiogenin, EGF, I-309, PARC) are exclusively or greater expressed in media containing PL than FBS. GMP-grade PL preparations positively influence in vitro biological effects of TFs representing a suitable and safer alternative to FBS.

  4. Engineering Enriched Microenvironments with Gradients of Platelet Lysate in Hydrogel Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Vítor E; Babo, Pedro; Amador, Miguel; Correia, Cláudia; Cunha, Bárbara; Coutinho, Daniela F; Neves, Nuno M; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2016-06-13

    Gradients of physical and chemical cues are characteristic of specific tissue microenvironments and contribute toward morphogenesis and tissue regeneration upon injury. Recent advances on microfluidics and hydrogel manipulation raised the possibility of generating biomimetic biomaterials enriched with bioactive factors and encapsulating cells following designs specifically tailored for a target application. The novelty of this work relies on the combination of methacrylated gellan gum (MeGG) with platelet lysate (PL), aiming to generate novel advanced 3D PL-enriched photo-cross-linkable hydrogels and overcoming the lack of adhesion sites provided by the native MeGG hydrogels. This combination takes advantage of the availability, enriched growth factor composition, and potential autologous application of PL while simultaneously preserving the ability provided by MeGG to tailor mechanical properties, protein release kinetics, and shape of the construct according to the desired goal. Incorporation of PL in the hydrogels significantly improved cellular adhesion and viability in the constructs. The use of microfluidic tools allowed the design of a fiber-like hydrogel incorporating a gradient of PL along the length of the fiber. These spatial protein gradients led to the viability and cell number gradients caused by maintenance of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) survival in the fibers toward the PL-enriched sections in comparison with the nonloaded MeGG sections of the fibers. Altogether, we propose a proof of concept strategy to design a PL gradient biomaterial with potential in tissue engineering approaches and analysis of cell-microenvironment interactions.

  5. Layer-by-layer assembled cell instructive nanocoatings containing platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara M; Santo, Vítor E; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2015-04-01

    Great efforts have been made to introduce growth factors (GFs) onto 2D/3D constructs in order to control cell behavior. Platelet lysate (PL) presents itself as a cost-effective source of multiple GFs and other proteins. The instruction given by a construct-PL combination will depend on how its instructive cues are presented to the cells. The content, stability and conformation of the GFs affect their instruction. Strategies for a controlled incorporation of PL are needed. Herein, PL was incorporated into nanocoatings by layer-by-layer assembling with polysaccharides presenting different sulfation degrees (SD) and charges. Heparin and several marine polysaccharides were tested to evaluate their PL and GF incorporation capability. The consequent effects of those multilayers on human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) were assessed in short-term cultures. Both nature of the polysaccharide and SD were important properties that influenced the adsorption of PL, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor b (FGFb) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). The sulfated polysaccharides-PL multilayers showed to be efficient in the promotion of morphological changes, serum-free adhesion and proliferation of high passage hASCs (P > 5). These biomimetic multilayers promise to be versatile platforms to fabricate instructive devices allowing a tunable incorporation of PL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Absence of micronucleus formation in CHO-K1 cells cultivated in platelet lysate enriched medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Martina; Adami, Valentina; Albiero, Elena; Madeo, Domenico; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Astori, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Human platelet lysate (PL) represents an effective substitute of fetal bovine serum (FBS) for mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) cultivation. Compared to FBS, PL favors MSC proliferation significantly shortening the population doubling time and avoiding the risks related to the use of animal derivatives. Growth factors contained in the platelets are released upon platelet disruption following freezing/thawing cycles or as we have recently described by using ultrasound. We have investigated whether the increased cell proliferation achieved by using PL could induce mitotic stress and whether the potential formation of free radicals during PL production by ultrasound could cause chromosomal instability in mammalian cells. We have applied an image analysis assisted high content screening (HCS) in vitro micronucleus assay in the Chinese Hamster Ovarian K1 (CHO-K1) rodent mammalian cell line. PL was produced by sonication; for the micronucleus assay, CHO-K1 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of PL. Cytokinesis was blocked by cytochalasin B, nuclei were stained with bisbenzimide and images were acquired and analyzed automatically using an HCS system, both with a 20× and a 10× objective. Our results suggest that growth stimulus induced by the use of PL did not significantly increase micronucleus formation in CHO-K1 cells compared to negative control. Micronucleus testing in conjunction with HCS could represent a valid tool to evaluate the safety of ancillary materials used in the production of cell-based medicinal products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of lumbar epidural injection of platelet lysate for treatment of radicular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Christopher; Markle, Jason; Dodson, Ehren; Stemper, Ian; Hyzy, Matthew; Williams, Christopher; Freeman, Michael

    2017-11-25

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are the most common pain management procedure performed in the US, however evidence of efficacy is limited. In addition, there is early evidence that the high dose of corticosteroids used can have systemic side effects. We describe the results of a case series evaluating the use of platelet lysate (PL) epidural injections for the treatment of lumbar radicular pain as an alternative to corticosteroids. Registry data was obtained for patients (N = 470) treated with PL epidural injections presenting with symptoms of lumbar radicular pain and MRI findings that were consistent with symptoms. Collected outcomes included numeric pain score (NPS), functional rating index (FRI), and a modified single assessment numeric evaluation (SANE) rating. Patients treated with PL epidurals reported significantly lower (p < .0001) NPS and FRI change scores at all time points compared to baseline. Post-treatment FRI change score means exceeded the minimal clinically important difference beyond 1 month. Average modified SANE ratings showed 49.7% improvement at 24 months post-treatment. Twenty-nine (6.3%) patients reported mild adverse events related to treatment. Patients treated with PL epidurals reported significant improvements in pain, exceeded the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for FRI, and reported subjective improvement through 2-year follow-up. PL may be a promising substitute for corticosteroid.

  8. Heparin concentration is critical for cell culture with human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeda, Hatim; Kalz, Jana; Walenda, Gudrun; Lohmann, Michael; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    Culture media for mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are generally supplemented with fetal bovine serum. Human platelet lysate (hPL) has been proven to be a very effective alternative without the risk of xenogeneic infections or immune reactions. In contrast to fetal bovine serum, hPL comprises plasma, and anticoagulants-usually unfractionated heparin (UFH)-need to be added to prevent gel formation. Cultures of MSCs in hPL media with various concentrations of UFH and enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), were systematically compared with regard to proliferation, fibroblastoid colony-forming unit frequency, immunophenotype and in vitro differentiation. At least 0.61 IU/mL UFH or 0.024 mg/mL LMWH was necessary for reliable prevention of coagulation of hPL pools used in this study. Higher concentrations impaired cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner even without benzyl alcohol, which is commonly added to heparins as a bacteriostatic agent. Colony-forming unit frequency was also reduced at higher heparin concentrations, particularly with LMWH, whereas no significant effect was observed on cellular morphology or immunophenotype. High concentrations of heparins reduced the in vitro differentiation toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Heparin concentration is critical for culture of MSCs in hPL media; this is of particular relevance for cellular therapy where cell culture procedures need to be optimized and standardized. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human platelet lysate supports the formation of robust human periodontal ligament cell sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bei-Min; Wu, Rui-Xin; Bi, Chun-Sheng; He, Xiao-Tao; Yin, Yuan; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2018-04-01

    The use of stem cell-derived sheets has become increasingly common in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Although substantial evidence has demonstrated that human platelet lysate (PL) can be used for therapeutic cell expansion, either as a substitute for or as a supplement to xenogeneic fetal bovine serum (FBS), its impact on cell sheet production remains largely unexplored. In this study, we manufactured periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) sheets in vitro by incubating PDLSCs in sheet-induction media supplemented with various ratios of PL and FBS, i.e. 10% PL without FBS, 7.5% PL + 2.5% FBS, 5% PL + 5% FBS, 2.5% PL + 7.5% FBS or 10% FBS without PL. Cultures with the addition of all the designed supplements led to successful cell sheet production. In addition, all the resultant cellular materials exhibited similar expression profiles of matrix-related genes and proteins, such as collagen I, fibronectin and integrin β1. Interestingly, the cell components within sheets generated by media containing both PL and FBS exhibited improved osteogenic potential. Following in vivo transplantation, all sheets supported significant new bone formation. Our data suggest that robust PDLSC sheets can be produced by applying PL as either an alternative or an adjuvant to FBS. Further examination of the relevant influences of human PL that benefit cell behaviour and matrix production will pave the way towards optimized and standardized conditions for cell sheet production. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Global phenotypic characterisation of human platelet lysate expanded MSCs by high-throughput flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Monica; McDonald, David; Nicholson, Lindsay; Godthardt, Kathrin; Knobel, Sebastian; Dickinson, Anne M; Filby, Andrew; Wang, Xiao-Nong

    2018-03-02

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source to develop cell therapy for many diseases. Human platelet lysate (PLT) is increasingly used as an alternative to foetal calf serum (FCS) for clinical-scale MSC production. To date, the global surface protein expression of PLT-expended MSCs (MSC-PLT) is not known. To investigate this, paired MSC-PLT and MSC-FCS were analysed in parallel using high-throughput flow cytometry for the expression of 356 cell surface proteins. MSC-PLT showed differential surface protein expression compared to their MSC-FCS counterpart. Higher percentage of positive cells was observed in MSC-PLT for 48 surface proteins, of which 13 were significantly enriched on MSC-PLT. This finding was validated using multiparameter flow cytometry and further confirmed by quantitative staining intensity analysis. The enriched surface proteins are relevant to increased proliferation and migration capacity, as well as enhanced chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation properties. In silico network analysis revealed that these enriched surface proteins are involved in three distinct networks that are associated with inflammatory responses, carbohydrate metabolism and cellular motility. This is the first study reporting differential cell surface protein expression between MSC-PLT and MSC-FSC. Further studies are required to uncover the impact of those enriched proteins on biological functions of MSC-PLT.

  11. Platelet lysate as replacement for fetal bovine serum in mesenchymal stromal cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieback, Karen

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) emerged as highly attractive in cell-based regenerative medicine. Initially thought to provide cells capable of differentiation towards mesenchymal cell types (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes etc.), by and by potent immunoregulatory and pro-regenerative activities have been discovered, broadening the field of potential applications from bone and cartilage regeneration to wound healing and treatment of autoimmune diseases. Due to the limited frequency in most tissue sources, ex vivo expansion of MSC is required compliant with good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines to yield clinically relevant cell doses. Though, still most manufacturing protocols use fetal bovine serum (FBS) as cell culture supplement to isolate and to expand MSC. However, the high lot-to-lot variability as well as risk of contamination and immunization call for xenogenic-free culture conditions. In terms of standardization, chemically defined media appear as the ultimate achievement. Since these media need to maintain all key cellular and therapy-relevant features of MSC, the development of chemically defined media is still - albeit highly investigated - only in its beginning. The current alternatives to FBS rely on human blood-derived components: plasma, serum, umbilical cord blood serum, and platelet derivatives like platelet lysate. Focusing on quality aspects, the latter will be addressed within this review.

  12. Limulus amoebocyte lysate test via an open-microcavity optical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Jonathan; Ye, Jing Yong

    2018-02-01

    Almost since its discovery, Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) testing has been an important part of the pharmaceutical quality control toolkit. It allows for in vitro endotoxin testing, which has replaced tests using animals, such as using rabbits' thermal response to judge pyrogenicity of test samples, thus leading to a less expensive and faster test of parenteral pharmaceuticals and medical devices that contact blood or cerebrospinal fluid. However, limited by the detection mechanisms of the LAL assays currently used in industry, further improvement in their performance is challenging. To address the growing demand on optimizing LAL assays for increased test sensitivity and reduced assay time, we have developed an LAL assay approach based on a detection mechanism that is different from those being used in industry, namely, gel-clot, turbidimetric, and chromogenic detection. Using a unique open-microcavity photonic-crystal biosensor to monitor the change in the refractive index due to the reaction between LAL regents and endotoxins, we have demonstrated that this approach has improved the LAL assay sensitivity by 200 times compared with the commercial standard methods, reduced the time needed for the assay by more than half, and eliminated the necessity to incubate the test samples. This study opens up the possibility of using the significantly improved LAL assays for a wide range of applications.

  13. Rapid and specific purification of Argonaute-small RNA complexes from crude cell lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Jasso, C Fabián; Salomon, William E; Zamore, Phillip D

    2013-02-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct Argonaute proteins, the core components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to cleave complementary target RNAs. Here, we describe a method to purify active RISC containing a single, unique small RNA guide sequence. We begin by capturing RISC using a complementary 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotide tethered to beads. Unlike other methods that capture RISC but do not allow its recovery, our strategy purifies active, soluble RISC in good yield. The method takes advantage of the finding that RISC partially paired to a target through its siRNA guide dissociates more than 300 times faster than a fully paired siRNA in RISC. We use this strategy to purify fly Ago1- and Ago2-RISC, as well as mouse AGO2-RISC. The method can discriminate among RISCs programmed with different guide strands, making it possible to deplete and recover specific RISC populations. Endogenous microRNA:Argonaute complexes can also be purified from cell lysates. Our method scales readily and takes less than a day to complete.

  14. Clinical Benefit of Allogeneic Melanoma Cell Lysate-Pulsed Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine in MAGE-Positive Colorectal Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toh, Han Chong; Wang, Who-Whong; Chia, Whay Kuang

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical benefit of an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MCL)-pulsed autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine in advanced colorectal cancer patients expressing at least one of six MAGE-A antigens overexpressed by the cell line source of the lysate. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: DCs...... were cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), pulsed with the allogeneic MCL, and matured using cytokines that achieved high CD83- and CCR7-expressing DCs. Each patient received up to 10 intradermal vaccinations (3-5 x 10(6) cells per dose) at biweekly intervals. RESULTS: Twenty......-free for >27 and >37 months, respectively. This result is particularly meaningful as all patients had progressive disease before treatment. Overall, DC vaccination was associated with a serial decline in regulatory T cells. Using an antibody array, we characterized plasma protein profiles in responding...

  15. Lysate of engineered Escherichia coli supports high-level conversion of glucose to 2,3-butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jennifer E; Jewett, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Cell-free metabolic engineering (CFME) is emerging as a powerful approach for the production of target molecules and pathway debugging. Unfortunately, high cofactor costs, limited cofactor and energy regeneration, and low volumetric productivities hamper the widespread use and practical implementation of CFME technology. To address these challenges, we have developed a cell-free system that harnesses ensembles of catalytic proteins prepared from crude lysates, or extracts, of cells to fuel highly active heterologous metabolic conversions. As a model pathway, we selected conversion of glucose to 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), a medium level commodity chemical with many industrial applications. Specifically, we engineered a single strain of Escherichia coli to express three pathway enzymes necessary to make meso-2,3-BD (m2,3-BD). We then demonstrated that lysates from this strain, with addition of glucose and catalytic amounts of cofactors NAD+ and ATP, can produce m2,3-BD. Endogenous glycolytic enzymes convert glucose to pyruvate, the starting intermediate for m2,3-BD synthesis. Strikingly, with no strain optimization, we observed a maximal synthesis rate of m2,3-BD of 11.3 ± 0.1 g/L/h with a theoretical yield of 71% (0.36 g m2,3-BD/g glucose) in batch reactions. Titers reached 82 ± 8 g/L m2,3-BD in a 30 h fed-batch reaction. Our results highlight the ability for high-level co-factor regeneration in cell-free lysates. Further, they suggest exciting opportunities to use lysate-based systems to rapidly prototype metabolic pathways and carry out molecular transformations when bioconversion yields (g product/L), productivities (g product/L/h), or cellular toxicity limit commercial feasibility of whole-cell fermentation. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A midgut lysate of the Riptortus pedestris has antibacterial activity against LPS O-antigen-deficient Burkholderia mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ho Am; Seo, Eun Sil; Seong, Min Young; Lee, Bok Luel

    2017-02-01

    Riptortus pedestris, a common pest in soybean fields, harbors a symbiont Burkholderia in a specialized posterior midgut region of insects. Every generation of second nymphs acquires new Burkholderia cells from the environment. We compared in vitro cultured Burkholderia with newly in vivo colonized Burkholderia in the host midgut using biochemical approaches. The bacterial cell envelope of in vitro cultured and in vivo Burkholderia differed in structure, as in vivo bacteria lacked lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen. The LPS O-antigen deficient bacteria had a reduced colonization rate in the host midgut compared with that of the wild-type Burkholderia. To determine why LPS O-antigen-deficient bacteria are less able to colonize the host midgut, we examined in vitro survival rates of three LPS O-antigen-deficient Burkholderia mutants and lysates of five different midgut regions. The LPS O-antigen-deficient mutants were highly susceptible when cultured with the lysate of a specific first midgut region (M1), indicating that the M1 lysate contains unidentified substance(s) capable of killing LPS O-antigen-deficient mutants. We identified a 17 kDa protein from the M1 lysate, which was enriched in the active fractions. The N-terminal sequence of the protein was determined to be a soybean Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. These data suggest that the 17 kDa protein, which was originated from a main soybean source of the R. pedestris host, has antibacterial activity against the LPS O-antigen deficient (rough-type) Burkholderia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition of growth factors and cytokines in lysates obtained from fresh versus stored pathogen-inactivated platelet units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellberg, Felix; Berglund, Erik; Ronaghi, Martin; Strandberg, Gabriel; Löf, Helena; Sommar, Pehr; Lubenow, Norbert; Knutson, Folke; Berglund, David

    2016-12-01

    Platelet lysate is a readily available source of growth factors, and other mediators, which has been used in a variety of clinical applications. However, the product remains poorly standardized and the present investigation evaluates the composition of platelet lysate obtained from either fresh or stored pathogen-inactivated platelet units. Platelet pooled units (n = 10) were obtained from healthy blood donors and tested according to standard procedures. All units were pathogen inactivated using amotosalen hydrochloride and UVA exposure. Platelet lysate was subsequently produced at two separate time-points, either from fresh platelet units or after 5 days of storage, by repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The following mediators were determined at each time-point: EGF, FGF-2, VEGF, IGF-1, PDGF-AB/BB, BMP-2, PF4, TGF-β isoform 1, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, 1L-17A, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. The concentration of growth factors and cytokines was affected by time in storage. Notably, TGF-β, PDGF-AB/BB, and PF4 showed an increase of 27.2% (p product, which potentially may influence the clinical effects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Association of Alpha Tocopherol and Ag Sulfadiazine Chitosan Oleate Nanocarriers in Bioactive Dressings Supporting Platelet Lysate Application to Skin Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sandri, Giuseppina; Rossi, Silvia; Dellera, Eleonora; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Boselli, Cinzia; Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Vigani, Barbara; Riva, Federica; Caramella, Carla; Ferrari, Franca

    2018-02-09

    Chitosan oleate was previously proposed to encapsulate in nanocarriers some poorly soluble molecules aimed to wound therapy, such as the anti-infective silver sulfadiazine, and the antioxidant α tocopherol. Because nanocarriers need a suitable formulation to be administered to wounds, in the present paper, these previously developed nanocarriers were loaded into freeze dried dressings based on chitosan glutamate. These were proposed as bioactive dressings aimed to support the application to wounds of platelet lysate, a hemoderivative rich in growth factors. The dressings were characterized for hydration capacity, morphological aspect, and rheological and mechanical behavior. Although chitosan oleate nanocarriers clearly decreased the mechanical properties of dressings, these remained compatible with handling and application to wounds. Preliminary studies in vitro on fibroblast cell cultures demonstrated good compatibility of platelet lysate with nanocarriers and bioactive dressings. An in vivo study on a murine wound model showed an accelerating wound healing effect for the bioactive dressing and its suitability as support of the platelet lysate application to wounds.

  19. Association of Alpha Tocopherol and Ag Sulfadiazine Chitosan Oleate Nanocarriers in Bioactive Dressings Supporting Platelet Lysate Application to Skin Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Bonferoni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan oleate was previously proposed to encapsulate in nanocarriers some poorly soluble molecules aimed to wound therapy, such as the anti-infective silver sulfadiazine, and the antioxidant α tocopherol. Because nanocarriers need a suitable formulation to be administered to wounds, in the present paper, these previously developed nanocarriers were loaded into freeze dried dressings based on chitosan glutamate. These were proposed as bioactive dressings aimed to support the application to wounds of platelet lysate, a hemoderivative rich in growth factors. The dressings were characterized for hydration capacity, morphological aspect, and rheological and mechanical behavior. Although chitosan oleate nanocarriers clearly decreased the mechanical properties of dressings, these remained compatible with handling and application to wounds. Preliminary studies in vitro on fibroblast cell cultures demonstrated good compatibility of platelet lysate with nanocarriers and bioactive dressings. An in vivo study on a murine wound model showed an accelerating wound healing effect for the bioactive dressing and its suitability as support of the platelet lysate application to wounds.

  20. Modeling tumor growth in the presence of a therapy with an effect on rate growth and variability by means of a modified Gompertz diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Román, Patricia; Román-Román, Sergio; Serrano-Pérez, Juan José; Torres-Ruiz, Francisco

    2016-10-21

    In experimental studies on tumor growth, whenever the time evolution of the relative volume of a tumor in an untreated (control) group can be fitted by a Gompertz diffusion process there is a possibility that an antiproliferative therapy, which modifies the growth rate of the process that fits the treated group, may also affect its variability. The present paper proposes several procedures for the estimation of the time function included in the infinitesimal variance of the new process, as well as the time function affecting the growth rate (which is included in the infinitesimal mean). Also, a hypothesis testing is designed to confirm or refute the need for including such a time-dependent function in the infinitesimal variance. In order to validate and compare the proposed procedures a simulation study has been carried out. In addition, a proposal is made for a strategy aimed at finding the optimal combination of procedures for each case. A real data application concerning the effects of cisplatin on a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor model showcases the advantages of this model over others that have been used in the past. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ubiquitinated proteins enriched from tumor cells by a ubiquitin binding protein Vx3(A7) as a potent cancer vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldarouish, Mohanad; Wang, Huzhan; Zhou, Meng; Hu, Hong-Ming; Wang, Li-Xin

    2015-04-16

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that autophagosome-enriched vaccine (named DRibbles: DRiPs-containing blebs) induce a potent anti-tumor efficacy in different murine tumor models, in which DRibble-containing ubiquitinated proteins are efficient tumor-specific antigen source for the cross-presentation after being loaded onto dendritic cells. In this study, we sought to detect whether ubiquitinated proteins enriched from tumor cells could be used directly as a novel cancer vaccine. The ubiquitin binding protein Vx3(A7) was used to isolate ubiquitinated proteins from EL4 and B16-F10 tumor cells after blocking their proteasomal degradation pathway. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with different doses of Ub-enriched proteins via inguinal lymph nodes or subcutaneous injection and with DRibbles, Ub-depleted proteins and whole cell lysate as comparison groups, respectively. The lymphocytes from the vaccinated mice were re-stimulated with inactivated tumor cells and the levels of IFN-γ in the supernatant were detected by ELISA. Anti-tumor efficacy of Ub-enriched proteins vaccine was evaluated by monitoring tumor growth in established tumor mice models. Graphpad Prism 5.0 was used for all statistical analysis. We found that after stimulation with inactivated tumor cells, the lymphocytes from the Ub-enriched proteins-vaccinated mice secreted high level of IFN-γ in dose dependent manner, in which the priming vaccination via inguinal lymph nodes injection induced higher IFN-γ level than that via subcutaneous injection. Moreover, the level of secreted IFN-γ in the Ub-enriched proteins group was markedly higher than that in the whole cell lysate and Ub-depleted proteins. Interestingly, the lymphocytes from mice vaccinated with Ub-enriched proteins, but not Ub-depleted proteins and whole cell lysates, isolated from EL4 or B16-F10 tumor cells also produced an obvious level of IFN-γ when stimulated alternately with inactivated B16-F10 or EL4 tumor cells. Furthermore, Ub

  2. Role of Immunomodulators in Tumor Regression in Mice Exposed to Fractionated Low Dose of Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokaya Elsayed Maaroaf Elsayed

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy is one of the most promising approaches of cancer treatment. The present study was designed to examine the role of irradiated tumor cell lysate vaccine, IFNα-2b and low dose of gamma irradiation as immunomodulators either alone or combined in tumor regression. Ehrlich ascite carcinoma (EAC) cells and 9 groups of female mice were used. Mice were immunized intramuscularly by tumor cell lysate vaccine one time/week for 3 weeks in the right thigh of mice. After two weeks from last immunization, all mice were challenged with normal viable EAC cells at count of 2.5 ×10 6 /mouse in the opposite left thigh for Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) production. Mice were subcutaneously injected with 10.000 units of IFNα-2b 3 times/week for 4 weeks and others were exposed to fractionated dose of γ- radiation (0.5 Gy/day x 4, day after day). Tumor size, serum tumor markers (TNF-α and CEA), tumor DNA fragmentation and Caspase-3 were evaluated. Oxidative stress (MDA and NO) markers and antioxidants (GSH, GPX and SOD) were determined in spleen and tumor tissues. Histopathological examinations, apoptosis and necrosis in spleen and tumor tissues were also examined. The results revealed significant inhibition in tumor size throughout the observation period either for treatments with vaccine or IFNα-2b either alone or combined with γ-irradiation. DNA fragmentation and Caspase-3 enzyme activities were significantly elevated in immunized mice as compared with EC group along with diminished tumor size while, tumor markers were significantly decreased. MDA and NO were significantly increased in tumor tissue.while, tumor GSH content, GPX and SOD activities were significantly decreased. Combined treatments of female mice bearing EC with IFN-α-2b, tumor cell lysate vaccine and low dose of γ-radiation cause a highly significant decrease in serum TNF-α and CEA levels, increase in Cas-3 activity, no DNA fragmentation, significant increase in MDA, decrease in SOD activity and decreased

  3. Graphics Processing Unit-Accelerated Nonrigid Registration of MR Images to CT Images During CT-Guided Percutaneous Liver Tumor Ablations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Plishker, William; Torabi, Meysam; Olubiyi, Olutayo I; Zaki, George; Tatli, Servet; Silverman, Stuart G; Shekher, Raj; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2015-06-01

    Accuracy and speed are essential for the intraprocedural nonrigid magnetic resonance (MR) to computed tomography (CT) image registration in the assessment of tumor margins during CT-guided liver tumor ablations. Although both accuracy and speed can be improved by limiting the registration to a region of interest (ROI), manual contouring of the ROI prolongs the registration process substantially. To achieve accurate and fast registration without the use of an ROI, we combined a nonrigid registration technique on the basis of volume subdivision with hardware acceleration using a graphics processing unit (GPU). We compared the registration accuracy and processing time of GPU-accelerated volume subdivision-based nonrigid registration technique to the conventional nonrigid B-spline registration technique. Fourteen image data sets of preprocedural MR and intraprocedural CT images for percutaneous CT-guided liver tumor ablations were obtained. Each set of images was registered using the GPU-accelerated volume subdivision technique and the B-spline technique. Manual contouring of ROI was used only for the B-spline technique. Registration accuracies (Dice similarity coefficient [DSC] and 95% Hausdorff distance [HD]) and total processing time including contouring of ROIs and computation were compared using a paired Student t test. Accuracies of the GPU-accelerated registrations and B-spline registrations, respectively, were 88.3 ± 3.7% versus 89.3 ± 4.9% (P = .41) for DSC and 13.1 ± 5.2 versus 11.4 ± 6.3 mm (P = .15) for HD. Total processing time of the GPU-accelerated registration and B-spline registration techniques was 88 ± 14 versus 557 ± 116 seconds (P processing time. The GPU-accelerated volume subdivision technique may enable the implementation of nonrigid registration into routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimized human platelet lysate as novel basis for a serum-, xeno-, and additive-free corneal endothelial cell and tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Daniel; Reuland, Lynn; Lindl, Toni; Kruse, Friedrich; Fuchsluger, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of donor-derived corneal endothelial cells (ECs) is a promising approach for regenerative therapies in corneal diseases. To achieve the best Good Manufacturing Practice standard the entire cultivation process should be devoid of nonhuman components. However, so far, there is no suitable xeno-free protocol for clinical applications. We therefore introduce a processed variant of a platelet lysate for the use in corneal cell and tissue culture based on a Good Manufacturing Practice-grade thrombocyte concentrate. This processed human platelet lysate (phPL), free of any animal components and of anticoagulants such as heparin with a physiological ionic composition, was used to cultivate corneal ECs in vitro and ex vivo in comparison to standard cultivation with fetal calf serum (FCS). Human donor corneas were cut in quarters while 2 quarters of each cornea were incubated with the respective medium supplement. Three fields of view per quarter were taken into account for the analysis. Evaluation of phPL as a medium supplement in cell culture of immortalized EC showed a superior viability compared with FCS control with reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, the viability during the expansion of primary cells is significantly (3-fold ±0.5) increased with phPL compared with FCS standard medium. Quartering donor corneas was traumatic for the endothelium and therefore resulted in increased EC loss. Interestingly, however, cultivation of the quartered pieces for 2 weeks in 0.1-mg/ml pHPL in Biochrome I showed a 21 (±10) % EC loss compared with 67 (±12) % EC loss when cultivated in 2% FCS in Biochrome I. The cell culture protocol with pHPL as FCS replacement seems to be superior to the standard FCS protocols with respect to EC survival. It offers a xeno-free and physiological environment for corneal endothelial cells. This alternative cultivation protocol could facilitate the use of EC for human corneal cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Pharmacological inhibition of radiation induced in vitro tumor cell/endothelium cell interactions and in vivo metastasis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of endothelial cells with ionizing radiation (IR) or treatment with inflammatory cytokines (e. g. TNFα) induces a Rho-GTPase and NF-κB dependent activation of the expression of various cell adhesion molecules, including E-selectin. E-selectin mediates the adhesion of tumor cells (TC) to endothelial cells and is probably involved in the extravasation step of circulating tumor cells. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (e. g. lovastatin) inhibit the function of Rho-GTPases and thus are anticipated to attenuate Rho-regulated cell-cell-adhesion as well. This study focuses on the influence of IR and TNFα on the expression of endothelial- and/or tumor cell-specific pro-adhesive factors and whether these effects are influenced by lovastatin. To this end, the effect of IR and TNFα on cell-cell-interactions between human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was investigated using an ELISA-based cell adhesion-assay. Moreover, the influence of pre-treatment with lovastatin and other types of inhibitors on HUVEC-HT29 adhesion was monitored. Additionally, we investigated the effect of lovastatin on mRNA expression level of different cell adhesion molecules, metastatic factors and DNA-repair genes upon radiation exposure by qRT-PCR. To scrutinize the in vivo relevance of the data obtained, we investigated the effect of total body irradiation (TBI) on the mRNA expression of pro-adhesive factors in BALB/c mice. To analyze tumor cell extravasation, tumor cells were injected into the lateral tail vein of immundeficient mice, followed by total body irradiation (TBI, 4 Gy). After four weeks a large increase of lung metastases was monitored, which could be blocked by preatreatment of the mice with lovastatin, the Rac1-specific small-molecule inhibitor NSC23766 as well as the sLe x -mimetic glycyrrhizin. Summarizing, we provide evidence, that irradiation promotes upregulation of different cell adhesion molecules in vitro and stimulates

  6. Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) based magnetic nanoparticles for plasmid DNA purification from Escherichia coli lysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percin, Is Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I k [Department of Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Karakoc, Veyis [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Akgoel, Sinan [Department of Biochemistry, Ege University, Izmir (Turkey); Aksoez, Erol [Department of Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil, E-mail: denizli@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-histidine) [PHEMAH] magnetic nanoparticles for plasmid DNA (pDNA) purification from Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell lysate. Magnetic nanoparticles were produced by surfactant free emulsion polymerization. mPHEMAH nanoparticles were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), electron spin resonance (ESR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface area, average particle size and size distribution were also performed. Specific surface area of the mPHEMAH nanoparticles was found to be 1180 m{sup 2}/g. Elemental analysis of MAH for nitrogen was estimated as 0.18 mmol/g polymer. The amount of pDNA adsorbed onto the mPHEMAH nanoparticles first increased and then reached a saturation value at around 1.0 mg/mL of pDNA concentration. Compared with the mPHEMA nanoparticles (50 {mu}g/g polymer), the pDNA adsorption capacity of the mPHEMAH nanoparticles (154 mg/g polymer) was improved significantly due to the MAH incorporation into the polymeric matrix. The maximum pDNA adsorption was achieved at 25 Degree-Sign C. The overall recovery of pDNA was calculated as 92%. The mPHEMAH nanoparticles could be used six times without decreasing the pDNA adsorption capacity significantly. The results indicate that the PHEMAH nanoparticles promise high selectivity for pDNA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic nanoparticles have several advantages over conventional adsorbents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAH acted as the pseudospecific ligand, ligand immobilization step was eliminated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer pDNA adsorption amount was 154 mg/g. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fifty-fold capacity increase was obtained when compared to conventional matrices.

  7. Purification of two high molecular weight proteases from rabbit reticulocyte lysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, R.; Pratt, G.; Rechsteiner, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have purified two large proteases from rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The enzymes are so similar in their chromatographic behavior that each is the only significant contaminant of the other during the final stages of purification. At pH 7.8, both hydrolyze 125 I-α-casein and 4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (MCA) derivatives with tyrosine, phenylalanine or arginine at the P 1 position. The larger, ATP-dependent enzyme degrades ubiquitin-lysozyme conjugates, but it does not degrade unmodified lysozyme. Hydrolysis of Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-MCA by this enzyme is also stimulated two-fold in the presence of ATP. The protease has a molecular weight of 950,000 based on sedimentation, gel filtration and non-denaturing PAGE. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the protease is composed of a number of subunits with molecular masses between 32 and 110 kDa. Densitometric analysis showed equivalent amounts of the two larger chains, and the presence of one copy of each in the native enzyme would be consistent with an M/sub r/ of 950,000. The smaller protease has a molecular weight of 700,000 and is composed of 8 to 10 subunits ranging from 21,000 to 32,000. It cleaves ubiquitin-lysozyme conjugates only slightly, and hydrolysis of conjugates or fluorogenic peptide substrates is not stimulated by ATP. This protease appears similar, if not identical, to the multicatalytic protease complex first purified by Wilk and Orlowski

  8. Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) based magnetic nanoparticles for plasmid DNA purification from Escherichia coli lysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perçin, Işık; Karakoç, Veyis; Akgöl, Sinan; Aksöz, Erol; Denizli, Adil

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-histidine) [PHEMAH] magnetic nanoparticles for plasmid DNA (pDNA) purification from Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell lysate. Magnetic nanoparticles were produced by surfactant free emulsion polymerization. mPHEMAH nanoparticles were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), electron spin resonance (ESR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface area, average particle size and size distribution were also performed. Specific surface area of the mPHEMAH nanoparticles was found to be 1180 m 2 /g. Elemental analysis of MAH for nitrogen was estimated as 0.18 mmol/g polymer. The amount of pDNA adsorbed onto the mPHEMAH nanoparticles first increased and then reached a saturation value at around 1.0 mg/mL of pDNA concentration. Compared with the mPHEMA nanoparticles (50 μg/g polymer), the pDNA adsorption capacity of the mPHEMAH nanoparticles (154 mg/g polymer) was improved significantly due to the MAH incorporation into the polymeric matrix. The maximum pDNA adsorption was achieved at 25 °C. The overall recovery of pDNA was calculated as 92%. The mPHEMAH nanoparticles could be used six times without decreasing the pDNA adsorption capacity significantly. The results indicate that the PHEMAH nanoparticles promise high selectivity for pDNA. - Highlights: ► Magnetic nanoparticles have several advantages over conventional adsorbents. ► MAH acted as the pseudospecific ligand, ligand immobilization step was eliminated. ► pDNA adsorption amount was 154 mg/g. ► Fifty-fold capacity increase was obtained when compared to conventional matrices.

  9. Mineralization by mesenchymal stromal cells is variously modulated depending on commercial platelet lysate preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraldi, Federica; Burns, Jorge S; Bartolomeo, Angelica; Dominici, Massimo; Quaglino, Daniela

    2018-03-01

    Numerous cellular models have been developed to investigate calcification for regenerative medicine applications and for the identification of therapeutic targets in various complications associated with age-related diseases. However, results have often been contradictory due to specific culture conditions, cell type ontogeny and aging status. Human platelet lysate (hPL) has been recently investigated as valuable alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell culture and bone regeneration. A parallel comparison of how all these multiple factors may converge to influence mineralization has yet to be reported. To compare mineralization of human mesenchymal cell types known to differ in extracellular matrix calcification potency, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and dermal fibroblasts from neonatal and adult donors, at both low and high passages, were investigated in an ex vivo experimental model by supplementing the osteogenic induction medium with FBS or with hPL. Four commercial hPL preparations were profiled by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight spectrometry, and mineralization was visualized by von Kossa staining and quantified by morphometric evaluations after 9, 14 and 21 days of culture. Data demonstrate that (i) commercial hPL preparations differ according to mass spectra profiles, (ii) hPL variously influences mineral deposition depending on cell line and possibly on platelet product preparation methods, (iii) donor age modifies mineral deposition in the presence of the same hPL and (iv) reduced in vitro proliferative capacity affects osteogenic induction and response to hPL. Despite the standardized procedures applied to obtain commercial hPL, this study highlights the divergent effects of different preparations and emphasizes the importance of cellular ontology, donor age and cell proliferative capacity to optimize the osteogenic induction capabilities of mesenchymal stromal cells and design more effective

  10. Evaluation of human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum for culture of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeda, Hatim; Giebel, Bernd; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-02-01

    Culture media for therapeutic cell preparations-such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-usually comprise serum additives. Traditionally, fetal bovine serum is supplemented in basic research and in most clinical trials. Within the past years, many laboratories adapted their culture conditions to human platelet lysate (hPL), which further stimulates proliferation and expansion of MSCs. Particularly with regard to clinical application, human alternatives for fetal bovine serum are clearly to be preferred. hPL is generated from human platelet units by disruption of the platelet membrane, which is commonly performed by repeated freeze and thaw cycles. Such culture supplements are notoriously ill-defined, and many parameters contribute to batch-to-batch variation in hPL such as different amounts of plasma, a broad range of growth factors and donor-specific effects. The plasma components of hPL necessitate addition of anticoagulants such as heparins to prevent gelatinization of hPL medium, and their concentration must be standardized. Labels for description of hPL-such as "xenogen-free," "animal-free" and "serum free"-are not used consistently in the literature and may be misleading if not critically assessed. Further analysis of the precise composition of relevant growth factors, attachment factors, microRNAs and exosomes will pave the way for optimized and defined culture conditions. The use of hPL has several advantages and disadvantages: they must be taken into account because the choice of cell culture additive has major impact on cell preparations. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Donor age of human platelet lysate affects proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lohmann

    Full Text Available The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1, but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years. Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal. HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1 or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3 were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation.

  12. The effects of platelet lysate patches on the activity of tendon-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Almeida, Raquel; Franco, Albina R; Pesqueira, Tamagno; Oliveira, Mariana B; Babo, Pedro S; Leonor, Isabel B; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

    2018-03-01

    Platelet-derived biomaterials are widely explored as cost-effective sources of therapeutic factors, holding a strong potential for endogenous regenerative medicine. Particularly for tendon repair, treatment approaches that shift the injury environment are explored to accelerate tendon regeneration. Herein, genipin-crosslinked platelet lysate (PL) patches are proposed for the delivery of human-derived therapeutic factors in patch augmentation strategies aiming at tendon repair. Developed PL patches exhibited a controlled release profile of PL proteins, including bFGF and PDGF-BB. Additionally, PL patches exhibited an antibacterial effect by preventing the adhesion, proliferation and biofilm formation by S. aureus, a common pathogen in orthopaedic surgical site infections. Furthermore, these patches supported the activity of human tendon-derived cells (hTDCs). Cells were able to proliferate over time and an up-regulation of tenogenic genes (SCX, COL1A1 and TNC) was observed, suggesting that PL patches may modify the behavior of hTDCs. Accordingly, hTDCs deposited tendon-related extracellular matrix proteins, namely collagen type I and tenascin C. In summary, PL patches can act as a reservoir of biomolecules derived from PL and support the activity of native tendon cells, being proposed as bioinstructive patches for tendon regeneration. Platelet-derived biomaterials hold great interest for the delivery of therapeutic factors for applications in endogenous regenerative medicine. In the particular case of tendon repair, patch augmentation strategies aiming at shifting the injury environment are explored to improve tendon regeneration. In this study, PL patches were developed with remarkable features, including the controlled release of growth factors and antibacterial efficacy. Remarkably, PL patches supported the activity of native tendon cells by up-regulating tenogenic genes and enabling the deposition of ECM proteins. This patch holds great potential towards

  13. Platelet lysate enhances synovial fluid multipotential stromal cells functions: Implications for therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaie, Ala; Baboolal, Thomas G; Wall, Owen; Jones, Elena; McGonagle, Dennis

    2018-03-01

    Although intra-articular injection of platelet products is increasingly used for joint regenerative approaches, there are few data on their biological effects on joint-resident multipotential stromal cells (MSCs), which are directly exposed to the effects of these therapeutic strategies. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of platelet lysate (PL) on synovial fluid-derived MSCs (SF-MSCs), which in vivo have direct access to sites of cartilage injury. SF-MSCs were obtained during knee arthroscopic procedures (N = 7). Colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F), flow-cytometric phenotyping, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester-based immunomodulation for T-cell and trilineage differentiation assays were performed using PL and compared with standard conditions. PL-enhanced SF-MSC (PL-MSC) proliferation as CFU-F colonies was 1.4-fold larger, and growing cultures had shorter population-doubling times. PL-MSCs and fetal calf serum (FCS)-MSCs had the same immunophenotype and similar immunomodulation activities. In chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation assays, PL-MSCs produced 10% more sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and 45% less Ca ++ compared with FCS-MSCs, respectively. Replacing chondrogenic medium transforming growth factor-β3 with 20% or 50% PL further increased sGAG production of PL-MSCs by 69% and 95%, respectively, compared with complete chondrogenic medium. Also, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium high glucose (HG-DMEM) plus 50% PL induced more chondrogenesis compared with HG-DMEM plus 10% FCS and was comparable to complete chondrogenic medium. This is the first study to assess SF-MSC responses to PL and provides biological support to the hypothesis that PL may be capable of modulating multiple functional aspects of joint resident MSCs with direct access to injured cartilage. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Umbilical Cord Blood Platelet Lysate as Serum Substitute in Expansion of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Negin; Bordbar, Sima; Goodarzi, Alireza; Mohammad, Monire; Khosravani, Pardis; Sayahpour, Froughazam; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    The diverse clinical applications for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine warrant increased focus on developing adequate culture supplements devoid of animal-derived products. In the present study, we have investigated the feasibility of umbilical cord blood-platelet lysate (UCB-PL) as a standard substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) and human peripheral blood-PL (PB-PL). In this experimental study, platelet concentrates (PC) from UCB and human PB donors were frozen, melted, and sterilized to obtain PL. Quality control included platelet cell counts, sterility testing (viral and microbial), total protein concentrations, growth factor levels, and PL stability. The effects of UCB-PL and PB-PL on hMSCs proliferation and differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes were studied and the results compared with FBS. UCB-PL contained high levels of protein content, platelet-derived growth factor- AB (PDGF-AB), and transforming growth factor (TGF) compared to PB-PL. All growth factors were stable for at least nine months post-storage at -70˚C. hMSCs proliferation enhanced following treatment with UCB-PL. With all three supplements, hMSCs could differentiate into all three lineages. PB-PL and UCB-PL both were potent in hMSCs proliferation. However, PB promoted osteoblastic differentiation and UCB-PL induced chondrogenic differentiation. Because of availability, ease of use and feasible standardization of UCB-PL, we have suggested that UCB-PL be used as an alternative to FBS and PB-PL for the cultivation and expansion of hMSCs in cellular therapy. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of platelet lysate for bone regeneration - are we ready for clinical translation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaie, Ala; Owston, Heather; Jones, Elena

    2016-02-26

    Current techniques to improve bone regeneration following trauma or tumour resection involve the use of autograft bone or its substitutes supplemented with osteoinductive growth factors and/or osteogenic cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Although MSCs are most commonly grown in media containing fetal calf serum, human platelet lysate (PL) offers an effective alternative. Bone marrow - derived MSCs grown in PL-containing media display faster proliferation whilst maintaining good osteogenic differentiation capacity. Limited pre-clinical investigations using PL-expanded MSCs seeded onto osteoconductive scaffolds indicate good potential of such constructs to repair bone in vivo. In an alternative approach, nude PL-coated scaffolds without seeded MSCs have been proposed as novel regenerative medicine devices. Even though methods to coat scaffolds with PL vary, in vitro studies suggest that PL allows for MSC adhesion, migration and differentiation inside these scaffolds. Increased new bone formation and vascularisation in comparison to uncoated scaffolds have also been observed in vivo. This review outlines the state-of-the-art research in the field of PL for ex vivo MSC expansion and in vivo bone regeneration. To minimise inconsistency between the studies, further work is required towards standardisation of PL preparation in terms of the starting material, platelet concentration, leukocyte depletion, and the method of platelet lysis. PL quality control procedures and its "potency" assessment are urgently needed, which could include measurements of key growth and attachment factors important for MSC maintenance and differentiation. Furthermore, different PL formulations could be tailor-made for specific bone repair indications. Such measures would undoubtedly speed up clinical translation of PL-based treatments for bone regeneration.

  16. Potency testing of mesenchymal stromal cell growth expanded in human platelet lysate from different human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzina, R; Iudicone, P; Fioravanti, D; Bonanno, G; Totta, P; Zizzari, I G; Pierelli, L

    2016-08-25

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been largely investigated, in the past decade, as potential therapeutic strategies for various acute and chronic pathological conditions. MSCs isolated from different sources, such as bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord tissue (UCT) and adipose tissue (AT), share many biological features, although they may show some differences on cumulative yield, proliferative ability and differentiation potential. The standardization of MSCs growth and their functional amplification is a mandatory objective of cell therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative yield and the ex vivo amplification potential of MSCs obtained from various sources and different subjects, using defined culture conditions with a standardized platelet lysate (PL) as growth stimulus. MSCs isolated from BM, UCT and AT and expanded in human PL were compared in terms of cumulative yield and growth potential per gram of starting tissue. MSCs morphology, phenotype, differentiation potential, and immunomodulatory properties were also investigated to evaluate their biological characteristics. The use of standardized PL-based culture conditions resulted in a very low variability of MSC growth. Our data showed that AT has the greater capacity to generate MSC per gram of initial tissue, compared to BM and UCT. However, UCT-MSCs replicated faster than AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs, revealing a greater proliferation capacity of this source irrespective of its lower MSC yield. All MSCs exhibited the typical MSC phenotype and the ability to differentiate into all mesodermal lineages, while BM-MSCs showed the most prominent immunosuppressive effect in vitro. The adoption of standardized culture conditions may help researchers and clinicians to reveal particular characteristics and inter-individual variability of MSCs sourced from different tissues. These data will be beneficial to set the standards for tissue collection and MSCs clinical-scale expansion both for cell banking

  17. Platelet lysate supports the in vitro expansion of human periodontal ligament stem cells for cytotherapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui-Xin; Yu, Yang; Yin, Yuan; Zhang, Xi-Yu; Gao, Li-Na; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Human platelet lysate (PL) produced under optimal conditions of standardization and safety has been increasingly suggested as the future 'gold standard' supplement to replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) for the ex vivo propagation of mesenchymal stem cells for translational medicine and cell therapy applications. However, the multifaceted effects of PL on tissue-specific stem cells remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the stem cell behaviours of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in media with or without PL. Our data indicate that human PL, either as an adjuvant for culture media or as a substitute for FBS, supports the proliferation and expansion of human PDLSCs derived from either 'young' or 'old' donors to the same extent as FBS, without interfering with their immunomodulatory capacities. Although PL appears to inhibit the in vitro differentiation of 'young' or 'old' PDLSCs, their decreased osteogenic potential may be restored to similar or higher levels compared with FBS-expanded cells. PL- and FBS-expanded PDLSCs exhibited a similar potential to form mineralized nodules and expressed similar levels of osteogenic genes. Our data indicate that large clinically relevant quantities of PDLSCs may be yielded by the use of human PL; however, further analysis of its precise composition and function will pave the way for determining optimized, defined culture conditions. In addition to the potential increase in patient safety, our findings highlight the need for further research to develop the potential of PL-expanded PDLSCs for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Donor Age of Human Platelet Lysate Affects Proliferation and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Michael; Walenda, Gudrun; Hemeda, Hatim; Joussen, Sylvia; Drescher, Wolf; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Zenke, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL). In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old) were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1), but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years). Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal). HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f) frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1) or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3) were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation. PMID:22662236

  19. Mapping of arithmetic processing by navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with parietal brain tumors and correlation with postoperative outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ille, Sebastian; Drummer, Katharina; Giglhuber, Katrin; Conway, Neal; Maurer, Stefanie; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2018-03-26

    Preserving functionality is of significant importance during neurosurgical resection of brain tumors. Specialized centers also map further brain functions apart from motor and language functions, such as arithmetic processing (AP). The mapping of AP by navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (nrTMS) in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated. The present study aimed to correlate the results of mapping AP with functional patient outcomes. We included 26 patients with parietal brain tumors. Due to preoperative impairment of AP, mapping was not possible in 8 patients (31%). We stimulated 52 cortical sites by nrTMS while patients performed a calculation task. Pre- and postoperatively, patients underwent a standardized number-processing and calculation test (NPCT). Tumor resection was blinded to nrTMS results, and the change in NPCT performance was correlated to resected AP-positive spots as identified by nrTMS. The resection of AP-positive sites correlated with a worsening of the postoperative NPCT result in 12 cases. In 3 cases, no AP-positive sites were resected and the postoperative NPCT result was similar to or better than preoperatively. Also, in 3 cases, the postoperative NPCT result was better than preoperatively, although AP-positive sites were resected. Despite only presenting a low number of cases, nrTMS might be a useful tool for preoperative mapping of AP. However, the reliability of the present results has to be evaluated in a larger series and by intraoperative mapping data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  1. Interleukin-34 promotes tumor progression and metastatic process in osteosarcoma through induction of angiogenesis and macrophage recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségaliny, Aude I; Mohamadi, Amel; Dizier, Blandine; Lokajczyk, Anna; Brion, Régis; Lanel, Rachel; Amiaud, Jérôme; Charrier, Céline; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine; Heymann, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-34 (IL-34) was recently characterized as the M-CSF "twin" cytokine, regulating the proliferation/differentiation/survival of myeloid cells. The implication of M-CSF in oncology was initially suspected by the reduced metastatic dissemination in knock-out mice, due to angiogenesis impairment. Based on this observation, our work studied the involvement of IL-34 in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. The in vivo effects of IL-34 were assessed on tissue vasculature and macrophage infiltration in a murine preclinical model based on a paratibial inoculation of human osteosarcoma cells overexpressing or not IL-34 or M-CSF. In vitro investigations using endothelial cell precursors and mature HUVEC cells were performed to analyse the involvement of IL-34 in angiogenesis and myeloid cell adhesion. The data revealed that IL-34 overexpression was associated with the progression of osteosarcoma (tumor growth, lung metastases) and an increase of neo-angiogenesis. In vitro analyses demonstrated that IL-34 stimulated endothelial cell proliferation and vascular cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells by chondroitinases/heparinases reduced the formation of vascular tubes and abolished the associated cell signalling. In addition, IL-34 increased the in vivo recruitment of M2 tumor-associated macrophages into the tumor tissue. IL-34 increased in vitro monocyte/CD34(+) cell adhesion to activated HUVEC monolayers under physiological shear stress conditions. This work also demonstrates that IL-34 is expressed by osteosarcoma cells, is regulated by TNF-α, IL-1β, and contributes to osteosarcoma growth by increasing the neo-angiogenesis and the recruitment of M2 macrophages. By promoting new vessel formation and extravasation of immune cells, IL-34 may play a key role in tumor development and inflammatory diseases. © 2014 UICC.

  2. Enhanced target-specific signal detection using an Escherichia coli lysate in multiplex microbead immunoassays with E. coli-derived recombinant antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Sandra; Leitolis, Amanda; Lima, Lucianna Freitas Oliveira; Krieger, Marco A; Foti, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    Diverse techniques have been developed to analyze antibody-mediated responses to infections. However, the most common tests, i.e., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, require separate reactions for each antigen and consequently necessitate large sample volumes. Luminex technology allows the detection of multiple antibodies in a single experiment, but nonspecific binding can impair the results. Therefore, we examined the use of Escherichia coli lysates to reduce nonspecific binding and improve the results of liquid microarrays based on Luminex technology. Anti-bacteria antibodies were detected in human serum samples, as evidenced by high median fluorescence intensity (MFI) in assays performed with paramagnetic microspheres coupled with E. coli lysates. Moreover, the addition of an E. coli lysate as a blocker reduced the nonspecific binding of antigens produced by E. coli in a concentration-dependent manner. Tris-HCl reduced MFI values in negative samples, but did not affect MFI for positive samples. For microspheres coupled with different antigens, an E. coli lysate blocker significantly improved the fluorescence signals from positive samples. The addition of Tris-HCl and the E. coli lysate induced antigen-specific differences in MFI. This combination of the E. coli lysate blocker and Tris-HCl yielded a statistically significant improvement in MFI in the assays for Chagas disease and hepatitis C virus samples. However, for the Treponema pallidum p47 antigen improvement in MFI was only observed for the preparation with the E. coli blocker at a concentration of 3%. In conclusion, the addition of an E. coli lysate and Tris-HCl to the microarray assay reduced the nonspecific binding of human anti-bacteria antibodies and, therefore, increased the specific MFI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sinus Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Sinus Tumors Adult Sinusitis Pediatric ... and they vary greatly in location, size and type. Care for these tumors is individualized to each ...

  4. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  5. Wilms tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggested. Alternative Names Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor - Wilms Images Kidney anatomy Wilms tumor References Babaian KN, Delacroix SE, Wood CG, Jonasch E. Kidney cancer. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  6. Tumor Vessel Development and Expansion in Ewing's Sarcoma: A Review of the Vasculogenesis Process and Clinical Trials with Vascular-Targeting Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Keri S.; Kleinerman, Eugenie S.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma accounts for a disproportionately high portion of the overall pediatric mortality rate compared to its rare incidence in the pediatric population. Little progress has been made since the introduction of traditional chemotherapies, and understanding the biology of the tumor is critical for developing new therapies. Ewing's sarcomas rely on a functional vascular supply, which is formed by a combination of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Recent insights into the molecular regulation of bone marrow (BM) cell participation in vascular development have identified VEGF, SDF-1α, and DLL4 as critical players in the vasculogenesis process. Clinical trials using vascular targeting agents, specifically targeting VEGF or DLL4, are underway. PMID:21785569

  7. Comparison of clinical grade human platelet lysates for cultivation of mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Morten; Tratwal, Josefine; Follin, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    be devoid of any animal derived components. We have evaluated whether human Platelet Lysate (hPL) could be an attractive alternative to animal supplements. METHODS: MSCs from bone marrow (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) obtained from three donors were culture expanded in three...... culture conditions with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cell morphology, proliferation, phenotype, genomic stability, and differentiation potential were analyzed. RESULTS: Regardless of manufacturer, BMSCs and ASCs cultured in hPL media showed a significant increase in proliferation capacity compared to FBS...

  8. Data from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with Withaferin A (WA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Malathi; Seeley, Kent W; Jinwal, Umesh K

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry data collected in a study analyzing the effect of withaferin A (WA) on a mouse microglial (N9) cell line is presented in this article. Data was collected from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with either WA or DMSO vehicle control. This article reports all the proteins that were identified in this analysis. The data presented here is related to the published research article on the effect of WA on the differential regulation of proteins in mouse microglial cells [1]. Mass spectrometry data has also been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD003032.

  9. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  10. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  11. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  12. DNA Electrochemistry Shows DNMT1 Methyltransferase Hyperactivity in Colorectal Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Ariel L; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2015-07-23

    DNMT1, the most abundant human methyltransferase, is responsible for translating the correct methylation pattern during DNA replication, and aberrant methylation by DNMT1 has been linked to tumorigenesis. We have developed a sensitive signal-on electrochemical assay for the measurement of DNMT1 activity in crude tissue lysates. We have further analyzed ten tumor sets and have found a direct correlation between DNMT1 hyperactivity and tumorous tissue. In the majority of samples analyzed, the tumorous tissue has significantly higher DNMT1 activity than the healthy adjacent tissue. No such correlation is observed in measurements of DNMT1 expression by qPCR, DNMT1 protein abundance by western blotting, or DNMT1 activity using a radiometric DNA labeling assay. DNMT1 hyperactivity can result from both protein overexpression and enzyme hyperactivity. DNMT1 activity measured electrochemically provides a direct measure of activity in cell lysates and, as a result, provides a sensitive and early indication of cancerous transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Back to basics: the untreated rabbit reticulocyte lysate as a competitive system to recapitulate cap/poly(A) synergy and the selective advantage of IRES-driven translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Décimo, Didier; Moncorgé, Olivier; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2007-01-01

    Translation of most eukaryotic mRNAs involves the synergistic action between the 5' cap structure and the 3' poly(A) tail at the initiation step. The poly(A) tail has also been shown to stimulate translation of picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites (IRES)-directed translation. These effects have been attributed principally to interactions between eIF4G and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) but also to the participation of PABP in other steps during translation initiation. As the rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) does not recapitulate this cap/poly(A) synergy, several systems based on cellular cell-free extracts have been developed to study the effects of poly(A) tail in vitro but they generally exhibit low translational efficiency. Here, we describe that the non-nuclease-treated RRL (untreated RRL) is able to recapitulate the effects of poly(A) tail on translation in vitro. In this system, translation of a capped/polyadenylated RNA was specifically inhibited by either Paip2 or poly(rA), whereas translation directed by HCV IRES remained unaffected. Moreover, cleavage of eIF4G by FMDV L protease strongly stimulated translation directed by the EMCV IRES, thus recapitulating the competitive advantage that the proteolytic processing of eIF4G confers to IRES-driven RNAs.

  14. Cell-Free Systems Based on CHO Cell Lysates: Optimization Strategies, Synthesis of "Difficult-to-Express" Proteins and Future Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Thoring

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biotechnological processes play a pivotal role in target protein production. In this context, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells are one of the most prominent cell lines for the expression of recombinant proteins and revealed as a safe host for nearly 40 years. Nevertheless, the major bottleneck of common in vivo protein expression platforms becomes obvious when looking at the production of so called "difficult-to-express" proteins. This class of proteins comprises in particular several ion channels and multipass membrane proteins as well as cytotoxic proteins. To enhance the production of "difficult-to-express" proteins, alternative technologies were developed, mainly based on translationally active cell lysates. These so called "cell-free" protein synthesis systems enable an efficient production of different classes of proteins. Eukaryotic cell-free systems harboring endogenous microsomal structures for the synthesis of functional membrane proteins and posttranslationally modified proteins are of particular interest for future applications. Therefore, we present current developments in cell-free protein synthesis based on translationally active CHO cell extracts, underlining the high potential of this platform. We present novel results highlighting the optimization of protein yields, the synthesis of various "difficult-to-express" proteins and the cotranslational incorporation of non-standard amino acids, which was exemplarily demonstrated by residue specific labeling of the glycoprotein Erythropoietin and the multimeric membrane protein KCSA.

  15. Tumour cell lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccine induces biochemical and memory immune response in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D; Salazar, L; Espinoza, E; Pereda, C; Castellón, E; Valdevenito, R; Huidobro, C; Inés Becker, M; Lladser, A; López, M N; Salazar-Onfray, F

    2013-09-17

    Recently, we produced a tumour antigen-presenting cells (TAPCells) vaccine using a melanoma cell lysate, called TRIMEL, as an antigen source and an activation factor. Tumour antigen-presenting cells induced immunological responses and increased melanoma patient survival. Herein, we investigated the effect of TAPCells loaded with prostate cancer cell lysates (PCCL) as an antigen source, and TRIMEL as a dendritic cell (DC) activation factor; which were co-injected with the Concholepas concholepas haemocyanin (CCH) as an adjuvant on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. The lysate mix capacity, for inducing T-cell activation, was analysed by flow cytometry and Elispot. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction against PCCL, frequency of CD8(+) memory T cells (Tm) in blood and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum were measured in treated patients. The lysate mix induced functional mature DCs that were capable of activating PCCL-specific T cells. No relevant adverse reactions were observed. Six out of 14 patients showed a significant decrease in levels of PSA. DTH(+) patients showed a prolonged PSA doubling-time after treatment. Expansion of functional central and effector CD8(+) Tm were detected. Treatment of CRPC patients with lysate-loaded TAPCells and CCH as an adjuvant is safe: generating biochemical and memory immune responses. However, the limited number of cases requires confirmation in a phase II clinical trial.

  16. Cultivation and irradiation of human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with platelet lysate for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, the use of culture medium, enriched with bovine serum, and murines fibroblasts, with the rate of proliferation controlled by irradiation or by share anticarcinogenic drugs, has been playing successfully its role in assisting in the development of keratinocytes in culture, for clinical purposes. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and animals viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, the present work aims to cultivate human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with human platelets lysate and determine the irradiation dose of these cells, for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture. For carrying out the proposed objective, platelets lysis has standardized, this lysate was used for human fibroblasts cultivation and the irradiation dose enough to inhibit its duplication was evaluated. Human keratinocytes were cultivated in these feeder layers, in culture medium enriched with the lysate. With these results we conclude that the 10% platelets lysate promoted a better adhesion and proliferation of human fibroblasts and in all dose levels tested (60 to 300 Gy), these had their mitotic activity inactivated by ionizing irradiation, being that the feeder layers obtained with doses from 70 to 150 Gy were those that provided the best development of keratinocytes in medium containing 2.5% of human platelet lysate. Therefore, it was possible to standardize both the cultivation of human fibroblasts as its inactivation for use as feeder layer in culture of keratinocytes, so as to eliminate xenobiotics components. (author)

  17. Changes in tumor vascularity precede microbubble contrast accumulation deficit in the process of dedifferentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masanori; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Okabe, Shinichiro; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate the changes in tumor vascularity and microbubble accumulation on contrast-enhanced sonograms, in relation to the dedifferentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: This prospective study enrolled 10 patients with histologically proven HCC (14.4-39.0 mm, 26.1 ± 7.4) showing nodule-in-nodule appearance upon contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed by harmonic imaging under a low mechanical index (0.22-0.25) during the vascular phase (agent injection to 1 min) and late phase (15 min) following the injection of Sonazoid TM (0.0075 ml/kg). Contrast enhancement in the inner and outer nodules was assessed in comparison with that in adjacent liver parenchyma as hyper-, iso-, or hypo-enhanced. Results: Vascular-phase enhancement of all 10 inner nodules was hyper-enhanced, and that of outer nodules was hyper-enhanced in 3, iso-enhanced in 2, and hypo-enhanced in 5. Late-phase enhancement of inner nodules was hypo-enhanced in 8 and iso-enhanced in 2. Furthermore, late-phase enhancement of outer nodules was iso-enhanced in the 7 lesions that showed iso- or hypo-enhancement in the vascular phase, and hypo-enhanced in the 3 with hyper-enhancement in the vascular phase. Late-phase hypo-enhancement was significantly more frequent in the nodules showing early-phase hyper-enhancement (11/13) than in the nodules showing early-phase iso- or hypo-enhancement (0/7) in both the inner and outer nodules. Conclusion: Dedifferentiation of HCC may be accompanied by changes in tumor vascularity prior to a reduction in microbubble accumulation. Observation of the vascular phase may be more useful than late-phase imaging for the early recognition of HCC dedifferentiation when using contrast-enhanced ultrasound with Sonazoid.

  18. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  19. High DNA stability in white blood cells and buffy coat lysates stored at ambient temperature under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Fabre

    Full Text Available Conventional storage of blood-derived fractions relies on cold. However, lately, ambient temperature preservation has been evaluated by several independent institutions that see economic and logistic advantages in getting rid of the cold chain. Here we validated a novel procedure for ambient temperature preservation of DNA in white blood cell and buffy coat lysates based on the confinement of the desiccated biospecimens under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere in original hermetic minicapsules. For this validation we stored encapsulated samples either at ambient temperature or at several elevated temperatures to accelerate aging. We found that DNA extracted from stored samples was of good quality with a yield of extraction as expected. Degradation rates were estimated from the average fragment size of denatured DNA run on agarose gels and from qPCR reactions. At ambient temperature, these rates were too low to be measured but the degradation rate dependence on temperature followed Arrhenius' law, making it possible to extrapolate degradation rates at 25°C. According to these values, the DNA stored in the encapsulated blood products would remain larger than 20 kb after one century at ambient temperature. At last, qPCR experiments demonstrated the compatibility of extracted DNA with routine DNA downstream analyses. Altogether, these results showed that this novel storage method provides an adequate environment for ambient temperature long term storage of high molecular weight DNA in dehydrated lysates of white blood cells and buffy coats.

  20. High DNA stability in white blood cells and buffy coat lysates stored at ambient temperature under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Aurélie; Colotte, Marthe; Tuffet, Sophie; Bonnet, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Conventional storage of blood-derived fractions relies on cold. However, lately, ambient temperature preservation has been evaluated by several independent institutions that see economic and logistic advantages in getting rid of the cold chain. Here we validated a novel procedure for ambient temperature preservation of DNA in white blood cell and buffy coat lysates based on the confinement of the desiccated biospecimens under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere in original hermetic minicapsules. For this validation we stored encapsulated samples either at ambient temperature or at several elevated temperatures to accelerate aging. We found that DNA extracted from stored samples was of good quality with a yield of extraction as expected. Degradation rates were estimated from the average fragment size of denatured DNA run on agarose gels and from qPCR reactions. At ambient temperature, these rates were too low to be measured but the degradation rate dependence on temperature followed Arrhenius’ law, making it possible to extrapolate degradation rates at 25°C. According to these values, the DNA stored in the encapsulated blood products would remain larger than 20 kb after one century at ambient temperature. At last, qPCR experiments demonstrated the compatibility of extracted DNA with routine DNA downstream analyses. Altogether, these results showed that this novel storage method provides an adequate environment for ambient temperature long term storage of high molecular weight DNA in dehydrated lysates of white blood cells and buffy coats. PMID:29190767

  1. The virion N protein of infectious bronchitis virus is more phosphorylated than the N protein from infected cell lysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaram, Jyothi; Youn, Soonjeon; Collisson, Ellen W.

    2005-01-01

    Because phosphorylation of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) nucleocapsid protein (N) may regulate its multiple roles in viral replication, the dynamics of N phosphorylation were examined. 32 P-orthophosphate labeling and Western blot analyses confirmed that N was the only viral protein that was phosphorylated. Pulse labeling with 32 P-orthophosphate indicated that the IBV N protein was phosphorylated in the virion, as well as at all times during infection in either chicken embryo kidney cells or Vero cells. Pulse-chase analyses followed by immunoprecipitation of IBV N proteins using rabbit anti-IBV N polyclonal antibody demonstrated that the phosphate on the N protein was stable for at least 1 h. Simultaneous labeling with 32 P-orthophosphate and 3 H-leucine identified a 3.5-fold increase in the 32 P: 3 H counts per minute (cpm) ratio of N in the virion as compared to the 32 P: 3 H cpm ratio of N in the cell lysates from chicken embryo kidney cells, whereas in Vero cells the 32 P: 3 H cpm ratio of N from the virion was 10.5-fold greater than the 32 P: 3 H cpm ratio of N from the cell lysates. These studies are consistent with the phosphorylation of the IBV N playing a role in assembly or maturation of the viral particle

  2. Vaccination with melanoma lysate-pulsed dendritic cells, of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma: report from a phase I study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, S K; Fischer, A; Claesson, M H

    2006-01-01

    Immune therapy have shown new and exciting perspectives for cancer treatment. Aim of our study was to evaluate toxicity and possible adverse effects from vaccination of patients with advanced colorectal cancer with autologous dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with lysate from a newly developed melanoma...... contained 3-5 x 10(6) DCs. Five of the six patients received all five vaccines. The treatment was well tolerated in all patients without any observed vaccine-correlated adverse effects. Treatment with this DC-based cancer vaccine proved safe and non-toxic.......Immune therapy have shown new and exciting perspectives for cancer treatment. Aim of our study was to evaluate toxicity and possible adverse effects from vaccination of patients with advanced colorectal cancer with autologous dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with lysate from a newly developed melanoma...... and selected melanoma cell line enriched in expression of MAGE-A antigens and deficient in expression of melanoma differentiation antigens: tyrosinase, MART-1 and gp100. Vaccinations were administered intradermally on the proximal thigh with a total of five given vaccines at 2 weeks intervals. Each vaccine...

  3. Strain-dependent augmentation of tight-junction barrier function in human primary epidermal keratinocytes by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Reshma; McBain, Andrew J; O'Neill, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we investigated whether probiotic lysates can modify the tight-junction function of human primary keratinocytes. The keratinocytes were grown on cell culture inserts and treated with lysates from Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. With the exception of L. fermentum (which decreased cell viability), all strains markedly enhanced tight-junction barrier function within 24 h, as assessed by measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). However, B. longum and L. rhamnosus GG were the most efficacious, producing dose-dependent increases in resistance that were maintained for 4 days. These increases in TEER correlated with elevated expression of tight-junction protein components. Neutralization of Toll-like receptor 2 abolished both the increase in TEER and expression of tight-junction proteins induced by B. longum, but not L. rhamnosus GG. These data suggest that some bacterial strains increase tight-junction function via modulation of protein components but the different pathways involved may vary depending on the bacterial strain.

  4. The effects of platelet lysate on maturation, fertilization and embryo development of NMRI mouse oocytes at germinal vesicle stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazoki, Hassan; Eimani, Hussein; Farokhi, Farah; Shahverdi, Abdol-Hossein; Tahaei, Leila Sadat

    2016-04-01

    Improving in vitro maturation could increase the rate of pregnancy from oocytes matured in vitro. Consequently, patients will be prevented from using gonadotropin with its related side effects. In this study, the maturation medium was enriched by platelet lysate (PL), then maturation and subsequent developments were monitored. Oocytes at germinal vesicle stage with cumulus cells (cumulus-oocyte complex) and without cumulus cells (denuded oocytes) were obtained from mature female mice. The maturation medium was enriched by 5 and 10 % PL and 5 % PL + 5 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) as experimental groups; the control groups' media consisted of 5 and 10 % FBS. After 18 h, the matured oocytes were collected and, after fertilization, subsequent development was monitored. The rates of maturation, fertilization and 2-cell embryo development for the denuded oocyte groups in experimental media 5 % PL and 5 % PL + 5 % FBS were significantly higher than those of the control groups ( P platelet lysate could improve the maturation rate in the absence of granulosa cells compared to media with FBS. This extract also had positive effects on fertilization and embryo development.

  5. A contribution to the study of pyrogenic substances in radiopharmaceutical preparations. Comparison between methods using Rabbit and those using Limulus amebocytes lysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneau, Jacky.

    1982-10-01

    We have studied two methods for pyrogenic substances detection. We used: the hyperthermic action of these substances after injection in Rabbit, and the gelation reaction of a Limulus amebocytes lysate. To apply these two methods of pyrogenic substances detection to the radiopharmaceutical preparations, we have conceived and designed a material allowing their handling in compliance with the radioactive safety norms. We have compared the sensitivity, reliability and reproducibility of these methods, one based on gelation of Limulus amebocytes lysate in presence of endotoxins, the other on the hyperthermic action of these same endotoxins in the rabbit when injected intravenously or through the suboccipital route. The discussion of the results obtained, shows that the method using the Limulus amebocytes lysate is more sensitive, less expansive and less dangerous. This method particulary well adapted to the control of radiopharmaceutical preparations, brings an additional security to the patients for whom these products are destined [fr

  6. TAILS N-Terminomics and Proteomics Show Protein Degradation Dominates over Proteolytic Processing by Cathepsins in Pancreatic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Prudova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deregulated cathepsin proteolysis occurs across numerous cancers, but in vivo substrates mediating tumorigenesis remain ill-defined. Applying 8-plex iTRAQ terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrates (TAILS, a systems-level N-terminome degradomics approach, we identified cathepsin B, H, L, S, and Z in vivo substrates and cleavage sites with the use of six different cathepsin knockout genotypes in the Rip1-Tag2 mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumorigenesis. Among 1,935 proteins and 1,114 N termini identified by TAILS, stable proteolytic products were identified in wild-type tumors compared with one or more different cathepsin knockouts (17%–44% of 139 cleavages. This suggests a lack of compensation at the substrate level by other cathepsins. The majority of neo-N termini (56%–83% for all cathepsins was consistent with protein degradation. We validated substrates, including the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 associated with the Warburg effect, the ER chaperone GRP78, and the oncoprotein prothymosin-alpha. Thus, the identification of cathepsin substrates in tumorigenesis improves the understanding of cathepsin functions in normal physiology and cancer.

  7. Detection of endotoxins in radiopharmaceutical preparations. II. Comparison of the sensitivity of methods using the rabbit and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate for the detection of endotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, J; Cohen, Y; Merlin, L; Peysson, S

    1986-01-01

    The rise of the rabbit internal temperature after i.v. injection of an endotoxin solution is proportional to concentration. Gelation of Limulus amoebocyte, when in presence of an endotoxin solution, is also related to concentration. We compared the sensitivity of these two methods. With our experimental procedure, the rabbit is sensitive to a 0.40 ng/mL solution and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate to a 0.14 ng/mL solution. The rabbit sensitivity increase is related to the per kilogramme injected volume, whereas sensitivity is not related to the volume to check in the case of the lysate.

  8. Development of large-scale manufacturing of adipose-derived stromal cells for clinical applications using bioreactors and human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Juhl, Morten; Follin, Bjarke; Harary Søndergaard, Rebekka; Kirchhoff, Maria; Kastrup, Jens; Ekblond, Annette

    2018-04-17

    In vitro expanded adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are a useful resource for tissue regeneration. Translation of small-scale autologous cell production into a large-scale, allogeneic production process for clinical applications necessitates well-chosen raw materials and cell culture platform. We compare the use of clinical-grade human platelet lysate (hPL) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) as growth supplements for ASC expansion in the automated, closed hollow fibre quantum cell expansion system (bioreactor). Stromal vascular fractions were isolated from human subcutaneous abdominal fat. In average, 95 × 10 6 cells were suspended in 10% FBS or 5% hPL medium, and loaded into a bioreactor coated with cryoprecipitate. ASCs (P0) were harvested, and 30 × 10 6 ASCs were reloaded for continued expansion (P1). Feeding rate and time of harvest was guided by metabolic monitoring. Viability, sterility, purity, differentiation capacity, and genomic stability of ASCs P1 were determined. Cultivation of SVF in hPL medium for in average nine days, yielded 546 × 10 6 ASCs compared to 111 × 10 6 ASCs, after 17 days in FBS medium. ASCs P1 yields were in average 605 × 10 6 ASCs (PD [population doublings]: 4.65) after six days in hPL medium, compared to 119 × 10 6 ASCs (PD: 2.45) in FBS medium, after 21 days. ASCs fulfilled ISCT criteria and demonstrated genomic stability and sterility. The use of hPL as a growth supplement for ASCs expansion in the quantum cell expansion system provides an efficient expansion process compared to the use of FBS, while maintaining cell quality appropriate for clinical use. The described process is an obvious choice for manufacturing of large-scale allogeneic ASC products.

  9. Specifically activated memory T cell subsets from cancer patients recognize and reject xenotransplanted autologous tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhove, Philipp; Feuerer, Markus; Dolenc, Mathias; Schuetz, Florian; Choi, Carmen; Sommerfeldt, Nora; Schwendemann, Jochen; Ehlert, Katrin; Altevogt, Peter; Bastert, Gunther; Schirrmacher, Volker; Umansky, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Bone marrow of breast cancer patients was found to contain CD8+ T cells specific for peptides derived from breast cancer–associated proteins MUC1 and Her-2/neu. Most of these cells had a central or effector memory phenotype (CD45RA–CD62L+ or CD45RA–CD62L–, respectively). To test their in vivo function, we separated bone marrow–derived CD45RA+ naive or CD45RA–CD45RO+ memory T cells, stimulated them with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate, and transferred them into NOD/SCID mice bearing autologous breast tumors and normal skin transplants. CD45RA– memory but not CD45RA+ naive T cells infiltrated autologous tumor but not skin tissues after the transfer. These tumor-infiltrating cells had a central or effector memory phenotype and produced perforin. Many of them expressed the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 and were found around P-selectin+ tumor endothelium. Tumor infiltration included cluster formation in tumor tissue by memory T cells with cotransferred dendritic cells. It was associated with the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor reduction. We thus demonstrate selective homing of memory T cells to human tumors and suggest that tumor rejection is based on the recognition of tumor-associated antigens on tumor cells and dendritic cells by autologous specifically activated central and effector memory T cells. PMID:15232613

  10. Design and optimization of the production process of radiopharmaceutical 177Lu-DOTA-Nal3-Octreotide for the treatment of gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez G, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    The radiolabel peptides are molecules of interest in nuclear medicine for their therapeutic and diagnostic application in cancer. Among an impressing group of relevant peptides, those similar of the somatostatin, as the Nal 3 -Octreotide (NOC), have established as potential radiopharmaceuticals when presenting significant affinity for the receptors of this peptide hormone that are over expressed and broadly distributed in tumors of neuroendocrine origin, as the gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors. On the other hand, the Lutetium-177 ( 177 Lu) is an ideal candidate for the peptides radiolabel and has favorable characteristics to be used in radionuclide therapy. The objective of this work was designing, optimizing and to document the production process of the radiopharmaceutical 177 Lu-DOTA-Nal 3 -Octreotide ( 177 Lu-DOTANOC) for the solicitude of its sanitary registration before the Comision Federal contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). For the optimization of the production process a factorial design of three variables was evaluated with mixed levels (18 combinations), where the dependent variable is the radiochemical purity and the analytic method used to determine this parameter (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) was validated. Later on, by means of the production of 3 lots of the optimized formula of the radiopharmaceutical 177 Lu-DOTANOC the production process was validated and the stability long term study to determine the period of useful life was carried out. The following pharmaceutical formulation was adopted as good: 1.85 GBq (0.5μg) of 177 Lu, 250 μg of DOTANOC and 150 μL of acetates Buffer 1 M ph 5 in 5 m L of the medium. The analytic method used to determine the radiochemical purity of the formulation satisfied the requirements for the wished analytic application. We can conclude that the 3 validation lots prepared under protocols of Good Production Practices, in the Plant of Radiopharmaceuticals Production of the Instituto Nacional de

  11. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  12. DNA hybrids suggesting a recombination process repairing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in Ehrlich Ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The results presented suggest the possibility of repair of DNA double-strand breaks by recombination, at least in the S and G 2 -phases of the cell cycle, in mammalian cells. Further experiments with synchronized cell cultures will have to show whether this process may also occur in the G 1 -phase of the cell cycle. (orig./AJ) [de

  13. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  14. Photodynamic therapy-generated vaccines prevent tumor recurrence after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbelik, M.; Sun, J.

    2003-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an established clinical modality for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases, inflicts photoreactive drug-mediated oxidative stress that prompts the engagement of host inflammatory and immune responses which contribute to the therapy outcome. Recently, it has become evident that in vitro PDT-treated tumor cells or their lysates can be utilized as an effective vaccine against established tumors of the same origin. The mechanism underlying the vaccine action appears to be based on eliciting immune recognition of the tumor and developing an efficient immune response even against poorly immunogenic tumors. This study examined whether PDT-generated vaccines can be effectively combined with radiotherapy. Subcutaneous SCCVII tumors (squamous cell carcinomas) growing in syngeneic C3H/HeN mice were treated by radiotherapy (60 Gy x-ray dose). PDT-vaccine treatment, done by peritumoral injection of in vitro PDT-treated SCCVII cells (20 million/mouse), was performed either immediately after radiotherapy or ten days later. The mice were then observed for tumor regression/recurrence. The tumors treated with radiotherapy alone shrunk and became impalpable for a brief period after which they all recurred. In contrast, vaccination performed at 10 days post radiotherapy delayed tumor recurrence and prevented it in one of six mice. Even better results were obtained with mice vaccinated immediately after radiotherapy, with mice showing not only a delayed tumor recurrence but also no sign of tumor in 50% of mice. The PDT-vaccine treatment without radiotherapy produced in this trial a significant tumor growth retardation but no complete regressions. These results indicate that PDT-generated vaccines can ensure immune rejection of cancer once the lesion size is reduced by radiotherapy. Even without obtaining a systemic immunity for the elimination of disseminated malignant deposits, these findings suggest that PDT-vaccines can improve local control

  15. Process of Care for Patients With Benign Cysts and Tumors: Consensus Document of the Andalusian Regional Section of the Spanish Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (AEDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramírez, D; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; de Troya, M; Reyes-Alcázar, V; Alcalde, M; Galán, M; García-Lora, E; García, E I; Linares, M; Martínez, L; Pulpillo, Á; Suárez, C; Vélez, A; Torres, A

    2016-06-01

    Benign skin lesions are a common reason for visits to primary care physicians and dermatologists. However, access to diagnosis and treatment for these lesions varies considerably between users, primarily because no explicit or standardized criteria for dealing with these patients have been defined. Principally with a view to reducing this variability in the care of patients with benign cysts or tumors, the Andalusian Regional Section of the Spanish Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (AEDV) has created a Process of Care document that describes a clinical pathway and quality-of-care characteristics for each action. This report also makes recommendations for decision-making with respect to lesions of this type. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  17. Ubiquitinated Proteins Isolated From Tumor Cells Are Efficient Substrates for Antigen Cross-Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangjie; Moudgil, Tarsem; Cui, Zhihua; Mou, Yongbin; Wang, Lixin; Fox, Bernard A; Hu, Hong-Ming

    2017-06-01

    We have previously shown that inhibition of the proteasome causes defective ribosomal products to be shunted into autophagosomes and subsequently released from tumor cells as defective ribosomal products in Blebs (DRibbles). These DRibbles serve as an excellent source of antigens for cross-priming of tumor-specific T cells. Here, we examine the role of ubiquitinated proteins (Ub-proteins) in this pathway. Using purified Ub-proteins from tumor cells that express endogenous tumor-associated antigen or exogenous viral antigen, we tested the ability of these proteins to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell responses, by activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells generated from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compared with total cell lysates, we found that purified Ub-proteins from both a gp100-specific melanoma cell line and from a lung cancer cell line expressing cytomegalovirus pp65 antigen produced a significantly higher level of IFN-γ in gp100- or pp65-specific T cells, respectively. In addition, Ub-proteins from an allogeneic tumor cell line could be used to stimulate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes isolated and expanded from non-small cell lung cancer patients. These results establish that Ub-proteins provide a relevant source of antigens for cross-priming of antitumor immune responses in a variety of settings, including endogenous melanoma and exogenous viral antigen presentation, as well as antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, ubiquitin can be used as an affinity tag to enrich for unknown tumor-specific antigens from tumor cell lysates to stimulate tumor-specific T cells ex vivo or to be used as vaccines to target short-lived proteins.

  18. Mechanism of SOS PR-domain autoinhibition revealed by single-molecule assays on native protein from lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Kwang; Low-Nam, Shalini T; Chung, Jean K; Hansen, Scott D; Lam, Hiu Yue Monatrice; Alvarez, Steven; Groves, Jay T

    2017-04-28

    The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Son of Sevenless (SOS) plays a critical role in signal transduction by activating Ras. Here we introduce a single-molecule assay in which individual SOS molecules are captured from raw cell lysate using Ras-functionalized supported membrane microarrays. This enables characterization of the full-length SOS protein, which has not previously been studied in reconstitution due to difficulties in purification. Our measurements on the full-length protein reveal a distinct role of the C-terminal proline-rich (PR) domain to obstruct the engagement of allosteric Ras independently of the well-known N-terminal domain autoinhibition. This inhibitory role of the PR domain limits Grb2-independent recruitment of SOS to the membrane through binding of Ras·GTP in the SOS allosteric binding site. More generally, this assay strategy enables characterization of the functional behaviour of GEFs with single-molecule precision but without the need for purification.

  19. Gut-targeted immunonutrition boosting natural killer cell activity using Saccharomyces boulardii lysates in immuno-compromised healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yasuhiro; Marotta, Francesco; Kantah, Makoto K; Zerbinati, Nicola; Kushugulova, Almagul; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Illuzzi, Nicola; Sapienza, Chiara; Takadanohara, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Riyichi; Catanzaro, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effect of KC-1317 (a symbiotic mixture containing Saccharomyces boulardii lysate in a cranberry, colostrum-derived lactoferrin, fragaria, and lactose mixture) supplementation in immune-compromised but otherwise healthy elderly subjects. A liquid formulation of KC-1317 was administered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) fashion to healthy volunteers (65-79 years) previously selected for low natural killer (NK) cell activity, and this parameter was checked at the completion of the study. A significant improvement in NK cell activity of KC-1317 consumers was observed as compared to placebo at the end of 2 months. Although preliminary, these beneficial immune-modulatory effects of KC-1317 in aged individuals might indicate its employment within a wider age-management strategy.

  20. Data from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with Withaferin A (WA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathi Narayan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry data collected in a study analyzing the effect of withaferin A (WA on a mouse microglial (N9 cell line is presented in this article. Data was collected from SILAC-based quantitative analysis of lysates from mouse microglial cells treated with either WA or DMSO vehicle control. This article reports all the proteins that were identified in this analysis. The data presented here is related to the published research article on the effect of WA on the differential regulation of proteins in mouse microglial cells [1]. Mass spectrometry data has also been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the identifier http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD003032.

  1. Human Platelet Lysate versus Fetal Calf Serum: These Supplements Do Not Select for Different Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo; Mentrup, Birgit; Ebert, Regina; Franzen, Julia; Abagnale, Giulio; Sieben, Torsten; Ostrowska, Alina; Hoffmann, Per; Roux, Pierre-François; Rath, Björn; Goodhardt, Michele; Lemaitre, Jean-Marc; Bischof, Oliver; Jakob, Franz; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2017-07-11

    Culture medium of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is usually supplemented with either human platelet lysate (HPL) or fetal calf serum (FCS). Many studies have demonstrated that proliferation and cellular morphology are affected by these supplements - it is therefore important to determine if they favor outgrowth of different subpopulations and thereby impact on the heterogeneous composition of MSCs. We have isolated and expanded human bone marrow-derived MSCs in parallel with HPL or FCS and demonstrated that HPL significantly increases proliferation and leads to dramatic differences in cellular morphology. Remarkably, global DNA-methylation profiles did not reveal any significant differences. Even at the transcriptomic level, there were only moderate changes in pairwise comparison. Furthermore, the effects on proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and focal adhesions were reversible by interchanging to opposite culture conditions. These results indicate that cultivation of MSCs with HPL or FCS has no systematic bias for specific cell types.

  2. His-tag ELISA for the detection of humoral tumor-specific immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disis Mary L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of high throughput molecular techniques such as SEREX are resulting in the identification of a multitude of tumor associated antigens. As newly identified antigens are incorporated into a variety of clinical trials, standardization of immunologic monitoring methods becomes increasingly important. We questioned whether mammalian cell expression of a histadine-linked human protein could be used to produce antigen suitable for detecting tumor-specific humoral immunity and whether such an assay could be amenable to standardization for clinical use. Methods We designed a his-tagged capture ELISA based on lysate from genetically engineered CHO cells for detection of antibodies to insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, a novel tumor antigen. We performed technical and preliminary clinical validation studies, including comparison to a standard indirect ELISA based on commercially prepared recombinant antigen. Results The his-tagged capture ELISA could be standardized. Precision experiments resulted in CVs 2 values of 0.99. In comparison to Western blot analysis, his-tag and indirect ELISA accurately identified 88% and 93% of samples, respectively. Sample concordance between capture and indirect assays was highly significant (p = 0.003. Furthermore, significantly greater levels of IGFBP-2 antibody immunity were found in cancer patients compared to normal controls (p = 0.008. Conclusion A genetically engineered cell lysate based ELISA can be amenable to standardization and can detect increased levels of antibody immunity to tumor-associated antigen in cancer patients compared to non tumor-bearing healthy controls.

  3. Tobacco BY-2 cell-free lysate: an alternative and highly-productive plant-based in vitro translation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntru, Matthias; Vogel, Simon; Spiegel, Holger; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-05-03

    Cell-free protein synthesis is a rapid and efficient method for the production of recombinant proteins. Usage of prokaryotic cell-free extracts often leads to non-functional proteins. Eukaryotic counterparts such as wheat germ extract (WGE) and rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RLL) may improve solubility and promote the correct folding of eukaryotic multi-domain proteins that are difficult to express in bacteria. However, the preparation of WGEs is complex and time-consuming, whereas RLLs suffer from low yields. Here we report the development of a novel cell-free system based on tobacco Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cells harvested in the exponential growth phase. The highly-productive BY-2 lysate (BYL) can be prepared quickly within 4-5 h, compared to 4-5 d for WGE. The efficiency of the BYL was tested using three model proteins: enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and two versions of luciferase. The added mRNA was optimized by testing different 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). The protein yield in batch and dialysis reactions using BYL was much higher than that of a commercial Promega WGE preparation, achieving a maximum yield of 80 μg/mL of eYFP and 100 μg/mL of luciferase, compared to only 45 μg/mL of eYFP and 35 μg/mL of luciferase in WGEs. In dialysis reactions, the BYL yielded about 400 μg/mL eYFP, representing up to 50% more of the target protein than the Promega WGE, and equivalent to the amount using 5Prime WGE system. Due to the high yield and the short preparation time the BYL represents a remarkable improvement over current eukaryotic cell-free systems.

  4. Virally inactivated human platelet concentrate lysate induces regulatory T cells and immunosuppressive effect in a murine asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Lun; Lee, Lin-Wen; Su, Chen-Yao; Hsiao, George; Yang, Yi-Yuan; Leu, Sy-Jye; Shieh, Ying-Hua; Burnouf, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Platelet concentrate lysates (PCLs) are increasingly used in regenerative medicine. We have developed a solvent/detergent (S/D)-treated PCL. The functional properties of this preparation should be unveiled. We hypothesized that, due to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) content, PCLs may exert immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory functions. PCL was prepared by S/D treatment, oil extraction, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The content of TGF-β in PCL was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cultured CD4+ T cells were used to investigate the effects of PCL on expression of transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), the inhibition of T-cell proliferation, and cytokine production. The regulatory function of PCL-converted CD4+ T cells was analyzed by suppressive assay. The BALB/c mice were given PCL-converted CD4+ T cells before ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge using an asthma model. Inflammatory parameters, such as the level of immunoglobulin E (IgE), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), bronchial lavage fluid eosinophils, and cytokines were assayed. Recombinant human (rHu) TGF-β1 was used as control. PCL significantly enhanced the development of CD4+Foxp3+-induced regulatory T cells (iTregs). Converted iTregs produced neither Th1 nor Th2 cytokines and inhibited normal T-cell proliferation. PCL- and rHuTGF-β-converted CD4+ T cells prevented OVA-induced asthma. PCL- and rHuTGF-β-modified T cells both significantly reduced expression levels of OVA-specific IgE and significantly inhibited the development of AHR, airway eosinophilia, and Th2 responses in mice. S/D-treated PCL promotes Foxp3+ iTregs and exerts immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. This finding may help to understand the clinical properties of platelet lysates. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Serum-converted platelet lysate can substitute for fetal bovine serum in human mesenchymal stromal cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Jacobson, Pam; Morris, Julie; Kelley, Linda; Pierce, Jan; Boyer, Michael; Reems, Jo-Anna

    2013-12-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used as a serum supplement for culturing human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). However, human cells grown in FBS, especially for extended periods, risk potential exposure to bovine immunogenic proteins and infectious agents. To address this issue, we investigated the ability of a novel human platelet serum supplement to substitute for FBS in hMSC cultures. Platelet lysate-serum (PL-serum) was converted from platelet lysate-plasma (PL-plasma) that was manufactured from pooled platelet-rich plasma (PRP) apheresis units. Growth factor levels and the number of residual intact platelets in PL-serum and PL-plasma were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Proliferation responses of hMSCs cultured in PL-serum, PL-plasma, or FBS were assessed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the immunophenotype of harvested hMSCs was evaluated by flow cytometry and tri-lineage differentiation potential was evaluated by assessing adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic development. Selected growth factor levels in PL-serum were not significantly different from PL-plasma (P > 0.05). hMSC cultures supplemented with PL-serum had comparable growth kinetics to PL-plasma, and hMSC yields were consistently greater than with FBS. hMSCs harvested from cultures supplemented with PL-serum, PL-plasma or FBS had similar cell surface phenotypes and maintained tri-lineage differentiation potential. PL-serum, similar to PL-plasma, can substitute for FBS in hMSC cultures. Use of PL-serum, in contrast to PL-plasma, has an added advantage of not requiring addition of a xenogeneic source of heparin, providing a completely xeno-free culture medium. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification of Proteins From Cell-Culture Medium or Cell-Lysate by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Using Cross-Axis Coil Planet Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibusawa, Yoichi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    This review describes protein purifications from cell culture medium or cell-lysate by high speed counter-current chromatography using the cross-axis coil planet centrifuge. Purifications were performed using aqueous two phase systems composed of polyethylene glycols and dextrans. PMID:25360182

  7. CNS tumors: postoperative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayanir, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Imaging assessment of brain tumors following surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including the location of the tumor, the surgical procedure and the disease process for which it was performed. Depending upon these factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities may be required to demonstrate any clinically relevant situation, to assist the surgeon in deciding if repeat surgery is necessary. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show the shape, size, signal intensity, and enhancement of a brain tumor. It has been widely used to diagnose and differentiate brain tumors and to assess the surgery outcomes. Longitudinal MRI scans have also been applied for the assessment of treatment and response to surgery. The newly developed MRI techniques, including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), have the potential to provide the molecular, functional and metabolic information of preoperative and postoperative brain tumors. Postoperative diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging are especially useful in predicting early functional recovery from new deficits after brain tumor surgery.This lecture will stress the principles, applications, and pitfalls of conventional as well as newly developing functional imaging techniques following operation of brain tumors

  8. Production of human platelet lysate by use of ultrasound for ex vivo expansion of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Martina; Albiero, Elena; Alghisi, Alberta; Chieregato, Katia; Lievore, Chiara; Madeo, Domenico; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Astori, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    A medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) is of common use for the expansion of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, its use is discouraged by regulatory authorities because of the risk of zoonoses and immune reactions. Human platelet lysate (PL) obtained by freezing/thawing disruption of platelets has been proposed as a possible substitute of FBS. The process is time-consuming and not well standardized. A new method for obtaining PL that is based on the use of ultrasound is proposed. Platelet sonication was performed by submerging platelet-containing plastic bags in an ultrasonic bath. To evaluate platelet lysis we measured platelet-derived growth factor-AB release. PL efficiency was tested by expanding bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, measuring population doubling time, differentiation capacity and immunogenic properties. Safety was evaluated by karyotyping expanded cells. After 30 minutes of sonication, 74% of platelet derived growth factor-AB was released. PL enhanced BM-MSC proliferation rate compared with FBS. The mean cumulative population doubling (cPD) of cells growth in PL at 10%, 7.5% and 5% was better compared with cPD obtained with 10% FBS. PD time (hours) of MSCs with PL obtained by sonication was shorter than for cPD with PL obtained by freezing/thawing (18.9 versus 17.4, P < 0.01). BM mononucleated cells expressed MSC markers and were able to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. When BM-MSCs and T cells were co-cultured in close contact, immunosuppressive activity of BM-MSCs was maintained. Cell karyotype showed no genetic alterations. The proposed method for the production of PL by sonication could be a safe, efficient and fast substitute of FBS, without the potential risks of FBS. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel biotransformation process of podophyllotoxin to 4 β-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivates with anti-tumor activity by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J-K; Zhao, W; Li, H-M; Tang, Y-J

    2012-01-01

    According to the structure-function relationship of podophyllotoxin (PTOX) and its analogue of 4'- demethylepipodophyllotoxin (DMEP), the 4 β-substitution of sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds with a carbon-sulfur bond at 4 position of PTOX or DMEP is an essential modification direction for improving the anti-tumor activity. So, four novel 4 β-sulfursubstituted podophyllum derivatives (i.e., 4β -(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MT-PTOX), 4β-(1,3,4- thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MTD-PTOX), 4β-(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4' -demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MT-DMEP), and 4β-(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MTD-DMEP)) were designed and then successfully biosynthesized in this work. In the novel sulfur-substituted biotransformation processes, PTOX and DMEP was linked with sulfur-containing compounds (i.e., 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (MT) and 2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MTD)) at 4 position of cycloparaffin to produce 4-MT-PTOX (1), 4-MTD-PTOX (2), 4-MT-DMEP (3), and 4-MTD-DMEP (4) by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang, respectively, which was screened out from Diphylleia sinensis Li (Hubei, China). All the novel compounds exhibited promising in vitro bioactivity, especially 4-MT-PTOX (1). Compared with etoposide (i.e., a 50 % effective concentration [EC(50)] of 25.72, 167.97, and 1.15 M), the EC(50) values of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against tumor cell line BGC-823, A549 and HepG2 (i.e., 0.28, 0.76, and 0.42 M) were significantly improved by 91, 221 and 2.73 times, respectively. Moreover, the EC(50) value of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against the normal human cell line HK-2 (i.e., 182.4 μM) was 19 times higher than that of etoposide (i.e., 9.17 μM). Based on the rational design, four novel 4 β-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivatives with superior in vitro anti-tumor activity were obtained for the first time. The correctness of structure-function relationship and rational drug

  10. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association (ABTA) International RadioSurgery Association National Brain Tumor Society National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ... Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  11. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the brain to reduce spinal fluid pressure. Risks of radiation therapy include damage to healthy brain cells when tumor cells are destroyed. Common side effects from chemotherapy include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue.

  12. Processing of high-molecular-weight form adrenocorticotropin in human adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cell line (DMS-79) after transfection of prohormone convertase 1/3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, T; Kato, M; Tani, Y; Yoshimoto, T; Oki, Y; Hirata, Y

    2010-02-01

    Ectopic ACTH-producing tumors preferentially secrete biologically inactive ACTH precursors and ACTH-related fragments. DMS-79 is known to secrete unprocessed high-molecular-weight (HMW) form ACTH. To determine whether prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 is involved in the abnormal processing of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), we studied whether PC1/3 and 2 genes are expressed in DMS-79, and whether overexpression of PC1/3 gene affects POMC processing pattern. Steady-state mRNA levels of PC1/3 and 2 were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Molecular weights of ACTH-related peptides were determined by chromatographical analyses coupled with ACTH and beta-endorphin (beta-END) radioimmunoassays. PC1/3 gene was transfected into DMS-79 by retrovirus transduction using pMX-IP vector encoding PC1/3 cDNA. The steady-state mRNA levels of PC1/3 and 2 in DMS-79 were lower than those in ACTH-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary tumors. DMS-79 predominantly secreted HMW form with both ACTH and beta-END immunoreactivities by size-exclusion chromatography. After purification by immunoaffinity chromatography with anti-ACTH antibody, the apparent molecular weight of HMW form ACTH was estimated to be 16 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with silver staining. After retroviral transfection of PC1/3 cDNA into DMS-79 and puromycin selection, PC1/3 stably-expressing cell line (DMS-79T) secreted two immunoreactive ACTH components, a major one coeluting with ACTH(1-39) and a minor one as a HMW form as well as two beta- END immunoreactive components coeluting with beta-lipotropic hormone and beta-END, respectively. Thus, we have established PC1/3 stably-expressing cell line (DMS-79T) capable of proteolytically processing ACTH precursor molecule(s) into mature ACTH and beta-END.

  13. The processing and fate of antibodies and their radiolabels bound to the surface of tumor cells in vitro: A comparison of nine radiolabels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, L.B.; Thorpe, S.R.; Griffiths, G.L.; Diril, H.; Ong, G.L.; Hansen, H.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.; Mattes, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Processing radiolabeled degradation products is the key factor affecting retention of antibodies within the cell. In this study, the authors have analyzed the processing of antibodies labeled in nine different ways. Antibodies were labeled with three different radioisotopes and seven different forms of 125 I. Eight of the radiolabels (except 188 Re) were conjugated to the same antibody, MA103, and tested on the renal carcinoma cell line SK-RC-18 and/or the ovarian carcinoma cell line SK-OV-6. Rhenium conjugation utilized the antibody RS7, the target cell line ME180 and three of the other radiolabels were also tested with this antibody-target cell combination for comparison. Iodine conjugated to antibodies by conventional methods was rapidly released from the cell after antibody catabolism. In contrast, iodinated moieties, such as dilactitol-tyramine and inulin-tyramine were retained within cells four to five times longer. The use of radiolabels that are trapped within cells after antibody catabolism can potentially increase the dose of radiation delivered to the tumor, from the same amount of radioactivity deposited by a factor of four or five. The prolonged retention of 111 In relative to 125 I is not due to deiodination of iodine conjugates, but rather to intracellular retention of catabolic products containing 111 In, perhaps within lysosomes. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May cause excessive secretion of hormones Common among men and women in their 50s-80s Accounts for about 13 percent of all brain tumors Symptoms Headache Depression Vision loss Nausea or vomiting Behavioral and cognitive ...

  15. Analysis of the results on the use of frozen sections and smears-imprints in express diagnosis of tumoral processes in children and adolescents in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyritsky, V.G.; Bogdanova, T.I.; Voskoboinik, L.G.; Bragarnik, M.N.; Komissarenko, I.V.; Rybakov, S.I.; Kovalenko, A.Ye.; Demchenko, N.P.; Tronko, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    It has been carried out a comparative analysis of the conformity of the results of instant diagnosis made on frozen sections (152 biopsies), with the final conclusion on fixed preparations of thyroid tumors in children and adolescents of Ukraine. The nodular and multi nodular hyperplastic processes on frozen slices are verified in 100% of observations (48 cases). In case of follicular adenoma the coincidence in diagnosis made 90.1% (55 cases), in case of papillary carcinoma it made 91.1% (45 cases). In case of follicular (3 cases) and medullary (1 case) thyroid carcinomas, presence of carcinoma was suspected but the accurate diagnosis was made on fixed preparations. Thus, instant diagnosis on frozen sections of thyroid tumors allows, in more than 90%, to make the accurate diagnosis of a tumoral process in the course of operation and to choose adequate tactics of surgical treatment

  16. Tumor immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Lise, Mario; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Advances in tumor immunology are supporting the clinical implementation of several immunological approaches to cancer in the clinical setting. However, the alternate success of current immunotherapeutic regimens underscores the fact that the molecular mechanisms underlying immune-mediated tumor rejection are still poorly understood. Given the complexity of the immune system network and the multidimensionality of tumor/host interactions, the comprehension of tumor immunology might greatly benefit from high-throughput microarray analysis, which can portrait the molecular kinetics of immune response on a genome-wide scale, thus accelerating the discovery pace and ultimately catalyzing the development of new hypotheses in cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of microarray technology in tumor immunology studies has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to an effective immune response against cancer. Although the general principles of microarray-based gene profiling have rapidly spread in the scientific community, the need for mastering this technique to produce meaningful data and correctly interpret the enormous output of information generated by this technology is critical and represents a tremendous challenge for investigators, as outlined in the first section of this book. In the present Chapter, we report on some of the most significant results obtained with the application of DNA microarray in this oncology field.

  17. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors; Peptic ulcer - islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell tumor ... stomach acid. Symptoms may include: Abdominal pain Diarrhea ... and small bowel Vomiting blood (occasionally) Glucagonomas make ...

  18. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensler, E.H.L.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  19. Imaging of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaensler, E H.L. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.).

  20. What is a pediatric tumor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaume Mora1,21Department of Oncology, 2Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Fundacio Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Working together with medical oncologists, the question of whether a Ewing sarcoma in a 25-year-old is a pediatric tumor comes up repeatedly. Like Ewing's, some tumors present characteristically at ages that cross over what has been set as the definition of pediatrics (15 years, 18 years, or 21 years?. Pediatric oncology textbooks, surprisingly, do not address the subject of defining a pediatric tumor. They all begin with an epidemiology chapter defining the types of tumors appearing at distinct stages of childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Describing the epidemiology of tumors in relation to age, it becomes clear that the disease is related to the phenomenon of aging. The question, however, remains: is there a biological definition of what pediatric age is? And if so, will tumors occurring during this period of life have anything to do with such biological definition? With the aim of finding an objective definition, the fundamental concepts of what defines "pediatrics" was reviewed and then the major features of tumors arising during development were analyzed. The tumors were explored from the perspective of a host immersed in the normal process of growth and development. This physiological process, from pluripotential and undifferentiated cells, makes possible the differentiation, maturation, organization, and function of tissues, organs, and apparatus. A biological definition of pediatric tumors and the infancy–childhood–puberty classification of developmental tumors according to the infancy–childhood–puberty model of normal human development are proposed.Keywords: growth and development, pediatric tumor, infant, childhood and adolescence, pubertal tumors

  1. Microfluidic systems and methods for transport and lysis of cells and analysis of cell lysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Christopher T [Oak Ridge, TN; Jacobson, Stephen C [Knoxville, TN; McClain, Maxine A [Knoxville, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-02

    Microfluidic systems and methods are disclosed which are adapted to transport and lyse cellular components of a test sample for analysis. The disclosed microfluidic systems and methods, which employ an electric field to rupture the cell membrane, cause unusually rapid lysis, thereby minimizing continued cellular activity and resulting in greater accuracy of analysis of cell processes.

  2. A comparative study of Mono Mac 6 cells, isolated mononuclear cells and Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay in pyrogen testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Jensen, S; Hansen, E W

    1999-01-01

    ) and Staphylococcus aureus was comparable to that of MNC. Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans induced IL-6 in isolated MNC, but not in MM6. The detection limit for Salmonella typhimurium in the MM6 assay was comparable to that of the LAL assay. As expected, S. aureus and C. albicans did not show any LAL activity......Pyrogen induced secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells was measured. The ability of the MM6 cell culture to detect pyrogens was compared to the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test and isolated mononuclear cells (MNC). The detection limit of MM6 for lipopolysaccharide (LPS....... A. niger and Influenza virus showed some activity in the LAL test, but could not be detected by MM6 cells. In conclusion, the MM6 assay is a good supplement to the current pyrogen assays for detection of LPS, S. aureus and S. typhimurium, but the MM6 assay could not detect A. niger, C. albicans...

  3. Disposable Amperometric Immunosensor for the Determination of Human P53 Protein in Cell Lysates Using Magnetic Micro-Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pedrero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for the determination of human p53 protein is described in this work using a sandwich configuration involving the covalent immobilization of a specific capture antibody onto activated carboxylic-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs and incubation of the modified MBs with a mixture of the target protein and horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibody (HRP-anti-p53. The resulting modified MBs are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE and the amperometric responses are measured at −0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudo-reference electrode, upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ as a redox mediator and H2O2 as the enzyme substrate. The magnetoimmunosensing platform was successfully applied for the detection of p53 protein in different cell lysates without any matrix effect after a simple sample dilution. The results correlated accurately with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit, thus confirming the immunosensor as an attractive alternative for rapid and simple determination of this protein using portable and affordable instrumentation.

  4. A versatile coupled cell-free transcription-translation system based on tobacco BY-2 cell lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntru, Matthias; Vogel, Simon; Stoff, Katrin; Spiegel, Holger; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis is a powerful method for the high-throughput production of recombinant proteins, especially proteins that are difficult to express in living cells. Here we describe a coupled cell-free transcription-translation system based on tobacco BY-2 cell lysates (BYLs). Using a combination of fractional factorial designs and response surface models, we developed a cap-independent system that produces more than 250 μg/mL of functional enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and about 270 μg/mL of firefly luciferase using plasmid templates, and up to 180 μg/mL eYFP using linear templates (PCR products) in 18 h batch reactions. The BYL contains actively-translocating microsomal vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, promoting the formation of disulfide bonds, glycosylation and the cotranslational integration of membrane proteins. This was demonstrated by expressing a functional full-size antibody (∼ 150 μg/mL), the model enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) (∼ 7.3 U/mL), and a transmembrane growth factor (∼ 25 μg/mL). Subsequent in vitro treatment of GOx with peptide-N-glycosidase F confirmed the presence of N-glycans. Our results show that the BYL can be used as a high-throughput expression and screening platform that is particularly suitable for complex and cytotoxic proteins. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Different Platelet Lysates and Platelet Rich Preparations to Stimulate Tendon Cell Biology: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Klatte-Schulz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The poor healing potential of tendons is still a clinical problem, and the use of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP was hypothesized to stimulate healing. As the efficacy of PRPs remains unproven, platelet lysate (PL could be an alternative with its main advantages of storage and characterization before use. Five different blood products were prepared from 16 male donors: human serum, two PRPs (Arthrex, (PRP-ACP; RegenLab (PRP-BCT, platelet concentrate (apheresis, PC, and PL (freezing-thawing destruction of PC. Additionally, ten commercial allogenic PLs (AlloPL from pooled donors were tested. The highest concentration of most growth factors was found in AlloPL, whereas the release of growth factors lasted longer in the other products. PRP-ACP, PRP-BCT, and PC significantly increased cell viability of human tenocyte-like cells, whereas PC and AlloPL increased Col1A1 expression and PRP-BCT increased Col3A1 expression. MMP-1, IL-1β, and HGF expression was significantly increased and Scleraxis expression decreased by most blood products. COX1 expression significantly decreased by PC and AlloPL. No clear positive effects on tendon cell biology could be shown, which might partially explain the weak outcome results in clinical practice. Pooled PL seemed to have the most beneficial effects and might be the future in using blood products for tendon tissue regeneration.

  6. Evaluation of a platelet lysate bilayered system for periodontal regeneration in a rat intrabony three-wall periodontal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Cai, Xinjie; Plachokova, Adelina S; Reis, Rui L; Jansen, John; Gomes, Manuela E; Walboomers, X Frank

    2018-02-01

    With currently available therapies, full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues after periodontitis cannot be achieved. In this study, a combined compartmentalized system was tested, composed of (a) a platelet lysate (PL)-based construct, which was placed along the root aiming to regenerate the root cementum and periodontal ligament, and (b) a calcium phosphate cement composite incorporated with hyaluronic acid microspheres loaded with PL, aiming to promote the regeneration of alveolar bone. This bilayered system was assessed in a 3-wall periodontal defect in Wistar rats. The periodontal healing and the inflammatory response of the materials were scored for a period up to 6 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, histomorphometrical measurements were performed to assess the epithelial downgrowth, the formation of alveolar bone, and the formation of new connective tissue attachment. Our data showed that the stabilization of platelet-origin proteins on the root surface increased the overall periodontal healing score and restricted the formation of long epithelial junctions. Nevertheless, the faster degradation of the cement component with incorporated hyaluronic acid microspheres compromised the stability of the system, which hampered the periodontal regeneration. Overall, in this work, we proved the positive therapeutic effect of the immobilization of a PL-based construct over the root surface in a combined compartmentalized system to assist predictable healing of functional periodontium. Therefore, after optimization of the hard tissue analogue, the system should be further elaborated in (pre)clinical validation studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Highly Efficient In Vitro Reparative Behaviour of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured with Standardised Platelet Lysate Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Marrazzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp is an accessible source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. The perspective role of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs in regenerative medicine demands an in vitro expansion and in vivo delivery which must deal with the safety issues about animal serum, usually required in cell culture practice. Human platelet lysate (PL contains autologous growth factors and has been considered as valuable alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS in cell cultures. The optimum concentration to be added of such supplement is highly dependent on its preparation whose variability limits comparability of results. By in vitro experiments, we aimed to evaluate a standardised formulation of pooled PL. A low selected concentration of PL (1% was able to support the growth and maintain the viability of the DPSCs. The use of PL in cell cultures did not impair cell surface signature typically expressed by MSCs and even upregulated the transcription of Sox2. Interestingly, DPSCs cultured in presence of PL exhibited a higher healing rate after injury and are less susceptible to toxicity mediated by exogenous H2O2 than those cultured with FBS. Moreover, PL addition was shown as a suitable option for protocols promoting osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Taken together, our results indicated that PL is a valid substitute of FBS to culture and differentiate DPSCs for clinical-grade use.

  8. Development of an Injectable Calcium Phosphate/Hyaluronic Acid Microparticles System for Platelet Lysate Sustained Delivery Aiming Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Santo, Vítor E; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L

    2016-11-01

    Despite the biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties of calcium phosphate (CaP) cements their low biodegradability hampers full bone regeneration. Herein the incorporation of CaP cement with hyaluronic acid (HAc) microparticles loaded with platelet lysate (PL) to improve the degradability and biological performance of the cements is proposed. Cement formulations incorporating increasing weight ratios of either empty HAc microparticles or microparticles loaded with PL (10 and 20 wt%) are developed as well as cements directly incorporating PL. The direct incorporation of PL improves the mechanical properties of the plain cement, reaching values similar to native bone. Morphological analysis shows homogeneous particle distribution and high interconnectivity between the HAc microparticles. The cements incorporating PL (with or without the HAc microparticles) present a sustained release of PL proteins for up to 8 d. The sustained release of PL modulates the expression of osteogenic markers in seeded human adipose tissue derived stem cells, thus suggesting the stimulatory role of this hybrid system toward osteogenic commitment and bone regeneration applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Differentiation of Rat bone marrow Mesenchymal stem cells into Adipocytes and Cardiomyocytes after treatment with platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni Moghadam, Farshad; Tayebi, Tahereh; Barzegar, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotential cells and their therapeutic potency is under intense investigation. Studying the effect of different induction factors on MSCs could increase our knowledge about the differentiation potency of these cells. One of the most important sources of these factors in mammalian body is platelet. Platelet lysate (PL) contains many growth factors and therefore, it can be used as a differentiation inducer. In the present study, the effect of PL on differentiation of rat bone marrow MSCs into cardiomyocytes was studied. To study the differentiation-inducing effect of PL, MSCs were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10% PL. Early results of this study showed that PL in high concentrations (10%) induces adipogenic differentiation of MSCs. Therefore, to evaluate differentiation to cardiomyocytes, MSCs were cultured in media containing lower levels of PL (2.5% and 5%) and then cardiomyogenic differentiation was induced by treatment with 5-azacytidine. Differentiation of MSCs was evaluated using direct observation of beating cells, immunostaining and real-time PCR techniques. The results of qPCR showed that treatment with PL alone increased the expression of cardiac alpha actinin (CAA) being predictable by earlier observation of beating cells in PL-treated groups. The results of staining assays against cardiac alpha actinin also showed that there were stained cells in PL-treated groups. The results of the present study showed that PL is a powerful induction factor for differentiation of MSCs into different cell lines such as cardiomyocytes and adipocytes.

  10. HEMOXCell, a New Oxygen Carrier Usable as an Additive for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture in Platelet Lysate-Supplemented Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Fiona; Cosnuau-Kemmat, Lucie; Richard, Gaëlle; Dubrana, Frédéric; Férec, Claude; Zal, Franck; Leize, Elisabeth; Delépine, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for therapeutic applications such as tissue engineering. However, one of the main challenges is to improve oxygen supply to hypoxic areas to reduce oxygen gradient formation while preserving MSC differentiation potential and viability. For this purpose, a marine hemoglobin, HEMOXCell, was evaluated as an oxygen carrier for culturing human bone marrow MSCs in vitro for future three-dimensional culture applications. Impact of HEMOXCell on cell growth and viability was assessed in human platelet lysate (hPL)-supplemented media. Maintenance of MSC features, such as multipotency and expression of MSC specific markers, was further investigated by biochemical assays and flow cytometry analysis. Our experimental results highlight its oxygenator potential and indicate that an optimal concentration of 0.025 g/L HEMOXCell induces a 25%-increase of the cell growth rate, preserves MSC phenotype, and maintains MSC differentiation properties; a two-fold higher concentration induces cell detachment without altering cell viability. Our data suggest the potential interest of HEMOXCell as a natural oxygen carrier for tissue engineering applications to oxygenate hypoxic areas and to maintain cell viability, functions and "stemness." These features will be further tested within three-dimensional scaffolds. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Calcium alginate particles for the combined delivery of platelet lysate and vancomycin hydrochloride in chronic skin ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Michela; Rossi, Silvia; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Ferrari, Franca; Sandri, Giuseppina; Riva, Federica; Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Caramella, Carla

    2014-01-30

    The aim of the present work was the development of a powder formulation for the combined delivery of platelet lysate and of a model antibiotic drug, vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM), in chronic skin ulcers. Calcium alginate particles were prepared by freeze-drying beads obtained by ionic gelation method. The experimental conditions adopted permitted the complete loading of VCM and of PDGF AB, the growth factor chosen as representative of those contained in PL. Such particles where able to absorb PBS (mimicking wound exudate), to form a gel and to modulate the release of VCM and of PDGF AB. They are characterized by enhancement properties of human fibroblast proliferation due to PL presence. In particular, PL, when loaded in alginate particles, was able not only to increase the number of viable cells, but also the number of cells in proliferative phase. Such properties were comparable to those of fresh PL indicating the capability of calcium alginate particles to load PL bioactive substances without altering their activity. The formulation developed is characterized by an easier and a less painful administration with respect to traditional gauzes and semisolid preparations and permits the loading in the same dosage form of active substances of different nature avoiding eventual incompatibility problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly Efficient In Vitro Reparative Behaviour of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured with Standardised Platelet Lysate Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzo, Pasquale; Paduano, Francesco; Palmieri, Francesca; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Dental pulp is an accessible source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The perspective role of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in regenerative medicine demands an in vitro expansion and in vivo delivery which must deal with the safety issues about animal serum, usually required in cell culture practice. Human platelet lysate (PL) contains autologous growth factors and has been considered as valuable alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell cultures. The optimum concentration to be added of such supplement is highly dependent on its preparation whose variability limits comparability of results. By in vitro experiments, we aimed to evaluate a standardised formulation of pooled PL. A low selected concentration of PL (1%) was able to support the growth and maintain the viability of the DPSCs. The use of PL in cell cultures did not impair cell surface signature typically expressed by MSCs and even upregulated the transcription of Sox2. Interestingly, DPSCs cultured in presence of PL exhibited a higher healing rate after injury and are less susceptible to toxicity mediated by exogenous H 2 O 2 than those cultured with FBS. Moreover, PL addition was shown as a suitable option for protocols promoting osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Taken together, our results indicated that PL is a valid substitute of FBS to culture and differentiate DPSCs for clinical-grade use.

  13. Long-term safety and efficacy of autologous platelet lysate drops for treatment of ocular GvHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotta, S; Del Fante, C; Scudeller, L; Rossi, G C; Perotti, C; Bianchi, P E; Antoniazzi, E

    2017-01-01

    Current ocular GvHD (oGvHD) treatments are suboptimal. We investigated the safety and efficacy of long-term continuous treatment with autologous platelet lysate (PL) drops in patients with oGvHD Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) score 2-3 refractory to topical conventional therapy. Ophthalmic evaluation was performed at 6 month intervals. Symptoms were assessed using the Glaucoma Symptom Scale (GSS). Patients were defined 'responders' when showing a reduction at least one grade on National Institutes of Health Eye Score from baseline at the 6 month visit. Thirty-one patients were included, and 16 (51%) completed 36 months of follow-up (range 6.5-72.7). At 6 months all patients were classified as responders: median GSS symptom score decreased from 70 to 41 (33 at 36 months), median GSS function score reduced from 68 to 46 (33 at 36 months) (all P<0.001). Median Tear Break Up Time improved from 3 to 6 s after 6 months and was maintained over time. All signs improved at 6 and 36 months (clinical and statistical significance). No severe adverse events occurred. Long-term treatment with PL drops is secure and effective for oGvHD and can be an efficient therapy option from initial stages of oGvHD to prevent permanent ocular impairment and improving quality of life.

  14. Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple reaction monitoring from 100 pg of RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Li, Yihan; Champion, Matthew M; Zhu, Guijie; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J

    2013-06-07

    Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple/single reaction monitoring (CZE-MRM/SRM), which employed an electrokinetically driven sheath-flow electrospray interface, was used for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of protein analytes in complex tryptic digests. MRM channels were developed against a commercial exponential mixture of bovine proteins. Five proteins spanning four orders of magnitude concentration range were confidently detected from only 2.5 ng of the digest mixture; the mass detection limits (S/N = 3) of two detected proteins, alpha-casein and glutamate dehydrogenase were about 600 zmol and 30 amol, respectively. This technique was then applied to a RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest. Three proteins were confidently and reproducibly detected from 100 pg of this digest. The sample amount corresponds to the approximate protein content from a single cell, which suggests that CZE-MRM may be a useful analytical tool in chemical cytometry. In addition to providing highly sensitive detection of proteins in complex mixtures, this system is highly rapid; migration time of the protein digests was less than 10 min.

  15. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood and Cord Blood Platelet Lysates in Isolation and Expansion of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Christou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The in vitro isolation and expansion of MSCs involve the use of foetal bovine serum (FBS. However, many concerns have been raised regarding the safety of this product. In this study, alternative additives derived either from peripheral or cord blood were tested as an FBS replacement. Methods: Platelet lysates (PL from peripheral and cord blood were used for the expansion of MSCs. The levels of growth factors in peripheral blood (PB and cord blood (CB PLs were determined using the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM. Finally, the cell doubling time (CDT, tri-lineage differentiation and phenotypic characterization of the MSCs expanded with FBS and PLs were determined. Results: MSCs treated with culture media containing FBS and PB-PL, were successfully isolated and expanded, whereas MSCs treated with CB-PL could not be maintained in culture. Furthermore, the MRM analysis yielded differences in growth factor levels between PB-PL and CB-PL. In addition, the MSCs were successfully expanded with FBS and PB-PL and exhibited tri-lineage differentiation and stable phenotypic characteristics. Conclusion: PB-PL could be used as an alternative additive for the production of MSCs culture medium applied to xenogeneic-free expansion and maintenance of MSCs in large scale clinical studies.

  16. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  17. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a child's general health and to detect any adverse side effects (such as low red or white blood cell ... medicine needed, which helps reduce long-term side effects. The most common ... can be completely removed by surgery. About 41% of all Wilms tumors are stage ...

  18. Nephrogenic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Nephroblastomas are the most common malignant renal tumors in childhood. According to the guidelines of the SIOP (Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique) and GPOH (Gesellschaft fuer Paediatrische Onkologie und Haematologie) pre-operative chemotherapy can be started without histological confirmation and thus initial imaging studies, in particular ultrasound, play an outstanding role for diagnostic purposes

  19. BACTERIAL LYSATES IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN FREQUENTLY SICK CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Lupan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review analyzes the results of Imudon administration in pediatrics. The drug contains a mixture of purified lyzates of bacteria which are the most frequent causative agents of pathologic processes in oral cavity and throat. Presented data show high efficacy and safety of a drug.Key words: frequently sick children, respiratory infections, topical immunocorrector, clinical studies.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 41–46

  20. Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoszuk, Michael; Kanakubo, Emi; Chan, John K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors

  1. Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakubo Emi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. Methods We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Results Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Conclusion Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors.

  2. Analyzing Protein Changes in Guinea Pig Tissue Lysates Using Non-guinea Pig Specific Antibodies: Procedures for Western Blotting and Examples Using 16 Individual Antibodies for Common CNS Proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Erik A; Daugherty, Kelly S

    2006-01-01

    ... behavioral and protein changes due to the absence of guinea pig-specific antibodies. We have developed a procedure to determine the specificity of commercially available, non-guinea pig-specific antibodies in guinea pig lysates...

  3. Tumor cell-derived microparticles polarize M2 tumor-associated macrophages for tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruihua; Ji, Tiantian; Chen, Degao; Dong, Wenqian; Zhang, Huafeng; Yin, Xiaonan; Ma, Jingwei; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yi; Shen, Guanxin; Qin, Xiaofeng; Huang, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Despite identification of macrophages in tumors (tumor-associated macrophages, TAM) as potential targets for cancer therapy, the origin and function of TAM in the context of malignancy remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that microparticles (MPs), as a by-product, released by tumor cells act as a general mechanism to mediate M2 polarization of TAM. Taking up tumor MPs by macrophages is a very efficient process, which in turn results in the polarization of macrophages into M2 type, not only leading to promoting tumor growth and metastasis but also facilitating cancer stem cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that the underlying mechanism involves the activation of the cGAS/STING/TBK1/STAT6 pathway by tumor MPs. Finally, in addition to murine tumor MPs, we show that human counterparts also possess consistent effect on human M2 polarization. These findings provide new insights into a critical role of tumor MPs in remodeling of tumor microenvironment and better understanding of the communications between tumors and macrophages.

  4. Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

  5. "Cancer tumor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  6. A Simple and Rapid Method for Preparing a Cell-Free Bacterial Lysate for Protein Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan Krinsky

    Full Text Available Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3 and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa. This system was able to produce 40-150 μg-protein/ml, with variations depending on the plasmid type, expressed protein and E. coli strain. Interestingly, the BL21-based CFPS exhibited stability and increased activity at 40 and 45°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most rapid and affordable lab-scale protocol for preparing a cell-free protein synthesis system, with high thermal stability and efficacy in producing therapeutic proteins.

  7. A Simple and Rapid Method for Preparing a Cell-Free Bacterial Lysate for Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduri, Maya; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Goldfeder, Mor; Ivanir, Eran; Benhar, Itai; Shoham, Yuval; Schroeder, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3) and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa). This system was able to produce 40–150 μg-protein/ml, with variations depending on the plasmid type, expressed protein and E. coli strain. Interestingly, the BL21-based CFPS exhibited stability and increased activity at 40 and 45°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most rapid and affordable lab-scale protocol for preparing a cell-free protein synthesis system, with high thermal stability and efficacy in producing therapeutic proteins. PMID:27768741

  8. Microarray R-based analysis of complex lysate experiments with MIRACLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Markus; Block, Ines; Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Christiansen, Helle; Schmidt, Steffen; Thomassen, Mads; Tan, Qihua; Baumbach, Jan; Mollenhauer, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Reverse-phase protein arrays (RPPAs) allow sensitive quantification of relative protein abundance in thousands of samples in parallel. Typical challenges involved in this technology are antibody selection, sample preparation and optimization of staining conditions. The issue of combining effective sample management and data analysis, however, has been widely neglected. This motivated us to develop MIRACLE, a comprehensive and user-friendly web application bridging the gap between spotting and array analysis by conveniently keeping track of sample information. Data processing includes correction of staining bias, estimation of protein concentration from response curves, normalization for total protein amount per sample and statistical evaluation. Established analysis methods have been integrated with MIRACLE, offering experimental scientists an end-to-end solution for sample management and for carrying out data analysis. In addition, experienced users have the possibility to export data to R for more complex analyses. MIRACLE thus has the potential to further spread utilization of RPPAs as an emerging technology for high-throughput protein analysis. Project URL: http://www.nanocan.org/miracle/. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Geometrical approach to tumor growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Tumor growth has a number of features in common with a physical process known as molecular beam epitaxy. Both growth processes are characterized by the constraint of growth development to the body border, and surface diffusion of cells/particles at the growing edge. However, tumor growth implies an approximate spherical symmetry that makes necessary a geometrical treatment of the growth equations. The basic model was introduced in a former article [C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. E 73, 020902(R) (200...

  10. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  11. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  12. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  13. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  14. Determination of Immunogenic Relevant Antigens in the Excretory-Secretory (ES Products and the Lysates of Ascaridia galli Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saffi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ascaridia galli, the largest nematode of small intestine of birds, especially the native poultry, may give rise to serious illness, pathological defects and economical losses even in modern poultry production systems. Although various measures have been undertaken to vaccinate poultry against A.galli, no satisfactory results were obtained so far. However, there is no report on the efficacy of excretory-secretory (ES proteins of A.galli larvae in immunization of poultry. Thus, the aim of the present research project was based on the use of the ES products of the larvae, in order to find the protective anti­gens.Methods: Five hundred native poultry were autopsied and adult A.galli was removed form their intestines. The eggs were harvested form the uterus of female worms and cultured at 25 ˚C in water containing 0.1 N sulphuric acid for almost a fort­night. The larvae were then freed mechanically and kept in Earl's salt solution for a few days. The supernatant solution of alive larvae containing the ES products of the larvae, as well as the sonicated alive and dead larvae, was analyzed by SDS-PAGE.Result: Many protein fractions of 15 kDa up to 200 kDa were demonstrated in lysate of these larvae. Using the serum of a hen, infected with a high numbers of A.galli, an immunogenic antigen was identified between 55 kDa to 72 kDa by Western blotting procedure.Conclusion: Finding the protein band between 55 and 72 kDa can be promising for preparation of vaccine, though more investigations are needed to prove the protective ability of this antigen.

  15. Evaluation of intra-articular injection of autologous platelet lysate (PL) in horses with osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrnenopoulou, Panagiota; Diakakis, Nikolaos; Karayannopoulou, Maria; Savvas, Ioannis; Koliakos, Georgios

    2016-06-01

    Regenerative medicine has become one of the most promising therapies of equine osteoarthritis. Platelet lysate (PL) is rich in bioactive proteins and growth factors that play a crucial role in tissue healing. To evaluate the efficacy of intra-articularly injected autologous PL in equine athletes with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Fifteen warmblood geldings aged 8-19 years with osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups; 10 horses received intra-articular injections of PL and 5 of normal saline (controls). Before treatment, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) levels in basal plasma and prepared PL were estimated. Each joint was injected twice within a three-week period. Lameness was evaluated using the American Association of Equine Practitioners grading system, before treatment and 10 days after each intra-articular injection. Horses were examined fortnightly for one year. Radiographic examination was performed six months post-treatment. The generalized estimating equation test was used for statistical analysis. Acceptable levels of PDGF were detected in PLs (mean ± SD: 258.0 ± 52.3 pg/ml). The majority of horses (9/10) responded positively to PL treatment presenting lower lameness grades (p < 0.0005) compared to controls 10 days after the second injection, and returned to normal athletic activity. Radiographs revealed no changes in osteoarthritis lesions six months after treatment. One year post-injections, however, all horses relapsed to their initial degree of lameness. Intra-articularly injected autologous PL is an efficient method for temporarily managing osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in athletic horses.

  16. Human platelet lysate improves human cord blood derived ECFC survival and vasculogenesis in three dimensional (3D) collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Prasain, Nutan; Vemula, Sasidhar; Ferkowicz, Michael J; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Yoder, Mervin C

    2015-09-01

    Human cord blood (CB) is enriched in circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) that display high proliferative potential and in vivo vessel forming ability. Since diminished ECFC survival is known to dampen the vasculogenic response in vivo, we tested how long implanted ECFC survive and generate vessels in three-dimensional (3D) type I collagen matrices in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that human platelet lysate (HPL) would promote cell survival and enhance vasculogenesis in the 3D collagen matrices. We report that the percentage of ECFC co-cultured with HPL that were alive was significantly enhanced on days 1 and 3 post-matrix formation, compared to ECFC alone containing matrices. Also, co-culture of ECFC with HPL displayed significantly more vasculogenic activity compared to ECFC alone and expressed significantly more pro-survival molecules (pAkt, p-Bad and Bcl-xL) in the 3D collagen matrices in vitro. Treatment with Akt1 inhibitor (A-674563), Akt2 inhibitor (CCT128930) and Bcl-xL inhibitor (ABT-263/Navitoclax) significantly decreased the cell survival and vasculogenesis of ECFC co-cultured with or without HPL and implicated activation of the Akt1 pathway as the critical mediator of the HPL effect on ECFC in vitro. A significantly greater average vessel number and total vascular area of human CD31(+) vessels were present in implants containing ECFC and HPL, compared to the ECFC alone implants in vivo. We conclude that implantation of ECFC with HPL in vivo promotes vasculogenesis and augments blood vessel formation via diminishing apoptosis of the implanted ECFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Implantation in Combination with Platelet Lysate Product Is Safe for Reconstruction of Human Long Bone Nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labibzadeh, Narges; Emadedin, Mohsen; Fazeli, Roghayeh; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Seyedeh Esmat; Moghadasali, Reza; Mardpour, Soura; Azimian, Vajiheh; Ghorbani Liastani, Maede; Mirazimi Bafghi, Ali; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Aghdami, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Nonunion is defined as a minimum of 9 months since injury without any visible progressive signs of healing for 3 months. Recent literature has shown that the application of mesenchymal stromal cells is safe, in vitro and in vivo, for treating long bone nonunion. The present study was performed to investigate the safety of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) implantation in combination with platelet lysate (PL) product for treating human long bone nonunion. In this case series clinical trial, orthopedic surgeons visited eighteen patients with long bone nonunion, of whom 7 complied with the eligibility criteria. These patients received mesenchymal stromal cells (20 million cells implanted once into the nonunion site using a fluoroscopic guide) in combination with PL product. For evaluation of the effects of this intervention all the patients were followed up by taking anterior-posterior and lateral X-rays of the affected limb before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the implantation. All side effects (local or systemic, serious or non-serious, related or unrelated) were observed during this time period. From a safety perspective the MSC implantation in combination with PL was very well tolerated during the 12 months of the trial. Four patients were healed; based on the control Xray evidence, bony union had occurred. Results from the present study suggest that the implantation of bone marrow-derived MSCs in combination with PL is safe for the treatment of nonunion. A double blind, controlled clinical trial is required to assess the efficacy of this treatment (Registration Number: NCT01206179).

  18. Senescence and quiescence in adipose-derived stromal cells: Effects of human platelet lysate, fetal bovine serum and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Rebekka Harary; Follin, Bjarke; Lund, Lisbeth Drozd; Juhl, Morten; Ekblond, Annette; Kastrup, Jens; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are attractive sources for cell-based therapies. The hypoxic niche of ASCs in vivo implies that cells will benefit from hypoxia during in vitro expansion. Human platelet lysate (hPL) enhances ASC proliferation rates, compared with fetal bovine serum (FBS) at normoxia. However, the low proliferation rates of FBS-expanded ASCs could be signs of senescence or quiescence. We aimed to determine the effects of hypoxia and hPL on the expansion of ASCs and whether FBS-expanded ASCs are senescent or quiescent. ASCs expanded in FBS or hPL at normoxia or hypoxia until passage 7 (P7), or in FBS until P5 followed by culture in hPL until P7, were evaluated by proliferation rates, cell cycle analyses, gene expression and β-galactosidase activity. hPL at normoxia and hypoxia enhanced proliferation rates and expression of cyclins, and decreased G0/G1 fractions and expression of p21 and p27, compared with FBS. The shift from FBS to hPL enhanced cyclin levels, decreased p21 and p27 levels and tended to decrease G0/G1 fractions. Hypoxia does not add to the effect of hPL during ASC expansion with regard to proliferation, cell cycle regulation and expression of cyclins, p21 and p27. hPL rejuvenates FBS-expanded ASCs with regard to cell cycle regulation and expression of cyclins, p21 and p27. This indicates a reversible arrest. Therefore, we conclude that ASCs expanded until P7 are not senescent regardless of culture conditions. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human platelet lysate is a successful alternative serum supplement for propagation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švajger, Urban

    2017-04-01

    Clinical protocols for dendritic cell (DC) generation from monocytes require the use of animal serum-free supplements. Serum-free media can also require up to 1% of serum supplementation. In addition, recommendations based on the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction, Replacement) principle also recommend the use of non-animal sera in in vitro studies. The aim of this study was to explore the potential use of platelet lysate (PL) for generation of optimally differentiated DCs from monocytes. Cells were isolated from buffy coats from healthy volunteers using immunomagnetic selection. DCs were differentiated in RPMI1640 supplemented with either 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% AB serum or 10% PL with the addition of granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4. Generated DCs were assessed for their morphology, viability, endocytotic capacity, surface phenotype (immature, mature and tolerogenic DCs) and activation of important signaling pathways. DC function was evaluated on the basis of their allostimulatory capacity, cytokine profile and ability to induce different T-helper subsets. DCs generated with PL displayed normal viability, morphology and endocytotic capacity. Their differentiation and maturation phenotype was comparable to FBS-cultured DCs. They showed functional plasticity and up-regulated tolerogenic markers in response to their environment. PL-cultured mature DCs displayed unhindered allostimulatory potential and the capacity to induce Th1 responses. The use of PL allowed for activation of crucial signaling proteins associated with DC differentiation and maturation. This study demonstrates for the first time that human PL represents a successful alternative to FBS in differentiation of DCs from monocytes. DCs display the major phenotypic and functional characteristics compared with existing culture protocols. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of human platelet lysate on the expansion and chondrogenic capacity of cultured human chondrocytes for cartilage cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, J G; Kuiper, J H; Richardson, J B; Roberts, S; Wright, K T; Kuiper, N J

    2018-05-01

    High hopes have been pinned on regenerative medicine strategies in order to prevent the progression of cartilage damage to osteoarthritis, particularly by autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The loss of chondrocyte phenotype during in vitro monolayer expansion, a necessary step to obtain sufficient cell numbers, may be a key limitation in ACI. In this study, it was determined whether a shorter monolayer expansion approach could improve chondrogenic differentiation. The effects of two supplement types, foetal bovine serum (FBS) and Stemulate™ (a commercial source of human platelet lysate), on the expansion and re-differentiation potential of human chondrocytes, isolated from five individuals, were compared. Chondrocytes were expanded with 10 % FBS or 10 % Stemulate™. Pellets were cultured for 28 d in chondrogenic differentiation medium and assessed for the presence of cartilage matrix molecules and genes associated with chondrogenicity. Stemulate™ significantly enhanced the proliferation rate [average population doubling times: FBS, 25.07 ± 6.98 d (standard error of the mean, SEM) vs. Stemulate™, 13.10 ± 2.57 d (SEM)]. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), total collagen and qRT-PCR analyses of cartilage genes showed that FBS-expanded chondrocytes demonstrated significantly better chondrogenic capacity than Stemulate™-expanded chondrocytes. Histologically, FBS-expanded chondrocyte pellets appeared to be more stable, with a more intense staining for toluidine blue, indicating a greater chondrogenic capacity. Although Stemulate™ positively influenced chondrocyte proliferation, it had a negative effect on chondrogenic differentiation potential. This suggested that, in the treatment of cartilage defects, Stemulate™ might not be the ideal supplement for expanding chondrocytes (which maintained a chondrocyte phenotype) and, hence, for cell therapies (including ACI).

  1. Treatment with platelet lysate induces endothelial differentation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells under fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni Moghadam, Farshad; Tayebi, Tahereh; Moradi, Alireza; Nadri, Hamid; Barzegar, Kazem; Eslami, Gilda

    2014-01-01

    By considering stem cell-based therapies as a new hope for the treatment of some tragic diseases, marrow stromal cells or marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were considered as a suitable and safe multipotential cell source for this new therapeutic approach. For this purpose, many investigations have been performed on differentiation of MSCs toward specific cell lines to overcome the demand for providing the organ specific cells for cell therapy or preparation of engineered tissues. In the present study, differentiation of MSCs to endothelial cells (ECs) by mechanical and chemical stimulation was evaluated. Fluid shear stress (FSS) was used as mechanical inducer, while platelet lysate (PL) and estradiol (E) were used as chemical induction factors. MSCs were placed under FSS with different forces (2, 5 and 10dyn/cm(2)) for different periods (6, 12 and 24 hours). In some groups, PL and E were added to the culture media to evaluate their effect on expression of EC specific markers. This investigation revealed that FSS with low tension (2.5-5 dyn/cm(2)) for a long time (24 hours) or high tension (10 dyn/cm(2)) in short time (6 hours) in the presence of PL could differentiate MSCs toward ECs. The presence of PL was necessary for initiation of endothelial differentiation, and in the absence of PL, there was not any expression of CD34 and Cadherin5 (Cdh5) among cells. Adding E to the culture medium did not change the rate of endothelial differentiation under FSS. Generated endothelial progenitors could produce von Willebrand factor (vWF) after two weeks culture and also they formed tubular structures after culture on matrigel.

  2. Impact of human platelet lysate on the expansion and chondrogenic capacity of cultured human chondrocytes for cartilage cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Sykes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High hopes have been pinned on regenerative medicine strategies in order to prevent the progression of cartilage damage to osteoarthritis, particularly by autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI. The loss of chondrocyte phenotype during in vitro monolayer expansion, a necessary step to obtain sufficient cell numbers, may be a key limitation in ACI. In this study, it was determined whether a shorter monolayer expansion approach could improve chondrogenic differentiation. The effects of two supplement types, foetal bovine serum (FBS and Stemulate™ (a commercial source of human platelet lysate, on the expansion and re-differentiation potential of human chondrocytes, isolated from five individuals, were compared. Chondrocytes were expanded with 10 % FBS or 10 % Stemulate™. Pellets were cultured for 28 d in chondrogenic differentiation medium and assessed for the presence of cartilage matrix molecules and genes associated with chondrogenicity. Stemulate™ significantly enhanced the proliferation rate [average population doubling times: FBS, 25.07 ± 6.98 d (standard error of the mean, SEM vs. Stemulate™, 13.10 ± 2.57 d (SEM]. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG, total collagen and qRT-PCR analyses of cartilage genes showed that FBS-expanded chondrocytes demonstrated significantly better chondrogenic capacity than Stemulate™-expanded chondrocytes. Histologically, FBS-expanded chondrocyte pellets appeared to be more stable, with a more intense staining for toluidine blue, indicating a greater chondrogenic capacity. Although Stemulate™ positively influenced chondrocyte proliferation, it had a negative effect on chondrogenic differentiation potential. This suggested that, in the treatment of cartilage defects, Stemulate™ might not be the ideal supplement for expanding chondrocytes (which maintained a chondrocyte phenotype and, hence, for cell therapies (including ACI.

  3. Human platelet lysate in mesenchymal stromal cell expansion according to a GMP grade protocol: a cell factory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherucci, Valentina; Piccini, Luisa; Casamassima, Serena; Bisin, Silvia; Gori, Valentina; Gentile, Francesca; Ceccantini, Riccardo; De Rienzo, Elena; Bindi, Barbara; Pavan, Paola; Cunial, Vanessa; Allegro, Elisa; Ermini, Stefano; Brugnolo, Francesca; Astori, Giuseppe; Bambi, Franco

    2018-05-02

    The use of platelet lysate (PL) for the ex-vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) was initially proposed by Doucet et al. in 2005, as an alternative to animal serum. Moreover, regulatory authorities discourage the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or other animal derivatives, to avoid risk of zoonoses and xenogeneic immune reactions. Even if many studies investigated PL composition, there still are some open issues related to its use in ex-vivo MSC expansion, especially according to good manufacturing practice (GMP) grade protocols. As an authorized cell factory, we report our experience using standardized PL produced by Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Meyer Transfusion Service for MSC expansion according to a GMP grade clinical protocol. As suggested by other authors, we performed an in-vitro test on MSCs versus MSCs cultured with FBS that still represents the best way to test PL batches. We compared 12 MSC batches cultured with DMEM 5% PL with similar batches cultured with DMEM 10% FBS, focusing on the MSC proliferation rate, MSC surface marker expression, MSC immunomodulatory and differentiation potential, and finally MSC relative telomere length. Results confirmed the literature data as PL increases cell proliferation without affecting the MSC immunophenotype, immunomodulatory potential, differentiation potential and relative telomere length. PL can be considered a safe alternative to FBS for ex-vivo expansion of MSC according to a GMP grade protocol. Our experience confirms the literature data: a large number of MSCs for clinical applications can be obtained by expansion with PL, without affecting the MSC main features. Our experience underlines the benefits of a close collaboration between the PL producers (transfusion service) and the end users (cell factory) in a synergy of skills and experiences that can lead to standardized PL production.

  4. Human platelet lysate stimulates high-passage and senescent human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell growth and rejuvenation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sarah; Baraniak, Priya R; Copland, Ian B; Nerem, Robert M; McDevitt, Todd C

    2013-12-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are clinically useful because of their immunomodulatory and regenerative properties, but MSC therapies are limited by the loss of self-renewal and cell plasticity associated with ex vivo expansion culture and, on transplantation, increased immunogenicity from xenogen exposure during culture. Recently, pooled human platelet lysate (hPL) has been used as a culture supplement to promote MSC growth; however, the effects of hPL on MSCs after fetal bovine serum (FBS) exposure remain unknown. MSCs were cultured in medium containing FBS or hPL for up to 16 passages, and cell size, doubling time and immunophenotype were determined. MSC senescence was assessed by means of a fluorometric assay for endogenous β-galactosidase expression. MSCs cultured with FBS for different numbers of passages were switched to hPL conditions to evaluate the ability of hPL to "rescue" the proliferative capacity of MSCs. hPL culture resulted in more rapid cell proliferation at earlier passages (passage 5 or earlier) than remove FBS; by day 4, hPL (5%) yielded an MSC doubling time of 1.28 days compared with 1.52 days in 16% FBS. MSCs cultured first in FBS and switched to hPL proliferated more and demonstrated less β-galactosidase production and smaller cell sizes than remove MSCs continuously propagated in FBS. hPL enables rapid expansion of MSCs without adversely affecting immunophenotype. hPL culture of aged and senescent MSCs demonstrated cellular rejuvenation, reflected by decreased doubling time and smaller cell size. These results suggest that expansion of MSCs in hPL after FBS exposure can enhance cell phenotype and proliferative capacity. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of human platelet lysate alternatives using expired and freshly isolated platelet concentrates for adipose-derived stromal cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessels, Carla; Durandt, Chrisna; Pepper, Michael S

    2018-03-19

    Pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) has been used to expand adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) and can be formulated using fresh or expired buffy coats (BCs) which are then resuspended in either plasma or an additive solution. Not much is known about the effects that expired products and additive solutions have on ASC expansion, and the need for quality control and release criteria has been expressed. This pilot study compared proliferation, cell size, morphology and immunophenotype of ASCs expanded in the different pHPL alternatives versus foetal bovine serum (FBS). Quality control criteria were assessed prior to and during the manufacture of the pHPL alternatives. ASCs were then expanded in 1%, 2.5%, 5% or 10% of the different pHPL alternatives or in 10% FBS. Cell size, morphology, cell number and immunophenotype were measured using microscopy and flow cytometry. The majority of the pHPL alternatives were within the recommended ranges for the quality control criteria. ASCs expanded in the pHPL alternatives were smaller in size, displayed a tighter spindle-shaped morphology, increased cell growth and had a similar immunophenotype (with the exception of CD34 and CD36) when compared to ASCs expanded in FBS. Here we report on the effects that expired BC products and additive solutions have on ASC expansion. When taken together, our findings indicate that all of the pHPL alternatives can be considered to be suitable replacements for FBS for ASC expansion, and that expired BC products can be used as an alternative to fresh BC products.

  6. Angiography in tumors of cartilaginous genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Angiography was used for 122 patients with tumors and tumor-like processes of the cartilage. Angiography was carried out by the S. Seldinger method. Normal angioarchitecture was observed in 16 patients with benign tumors (20 patients), characters of malignant tumor are determined in 4 patients. Normal angioarchitecture is determined in 9.4% of patients with chondrosarcoma (102 patients). The examination carried out showed that angiographic symptotics in chondrosarcomas varied depending on the stage, localization and the degree of morphologic differentiation

  7. Testis tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Maier, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical trials are evaluating new combinations of drugs with the goal of diminishing the toxicity associated with the current regimens while not compromising the chance for cure. The evolution of information and staging studies such as tumor markers, CT scanning and MR scanning has made possible the detection of residual metastatic disease while obviating the need for surgical staging procedures. This has made less treatment possible for a large number of patients. The regularity of follow-up studies has made early detection of recurrences a possibility, so that effective and curative treatment is generally possible

  8. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  9. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  10. Spinal dual-energy computed tomography: improved visualisation of spinal tumorous growth with a noise-optimised advanced monoenergetic post-processing algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Mareen; Weiss, Jakob; Selo, Nadja; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Bamberg, Fabian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Othman, Ahmed E. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of advanced monoenergetic post-processing (MEI+) on the visualisation of spinal growth in contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT (DE-CT). Twenty-six oncologic patients (age, 61 ± 17 years) with spinal tumorous growth were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT on a third-generation dual-source CT scanner. Image acquisition was in dual-energy mode (100/Sn150kV), and scans were initiated 90 s after contrast agent administration. Virtual monoenergetic images (MEI+) were reconstructed at four different kiloelectron volts (keV) levels (40, 60, 80, 100) and compared to the standard blended portal venous computed tomography (CT{sub pv}). Image quality was assessed qualitatively (conspicuity, delineation, sharpness, noise, confidence; two independent readers; 5-point Likert scale; 5 = excellent) and quantitatively by calculating signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNR). For a subgroup of 10 patients with MR imaging within 4 months of the DE-CT, we compared the monoenergetic images to the MRIs qualitatively. Highest contrast of spinal growth was observed in MEI+ at 40 keV, with significant differences to CT{sub pv} and all other keV reconstructions (60, 80, 100; p < 0.01). Highest conspicuity, delineation and sharpness were observed in MEI+ at 40 keV, with significant differences to CT{sub pv} (p < 0.001). Similarly, MEI+ at 40 keV yielded highest diagnostic confidence (4.6 ± 0.6), also with significant differences to CT{sub pv} (3.45 ± 0.9, p < 0.001) and to high keV reconstructions (80, 100; p ≤ 0.001). Similarly, CNR calculations revealed highest scores for MEI+ at 40 keV followed by 60 keV and CT{sub pv}, with significant differences to high keV MEI+ reconstructions. Qualitative analysis scores peaked for MR images followed by the MEI+ 40-keV reconstructions. MEI+ at low keV levels can significantly improve image quality and delineation of spinal growth in patients with portal

  11. Dendritic-cell-based immunotherapy evokes potent anti-tumor immune responses in CD105+ human renal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Weng, De-Sheng; Pan, Ke; Zhou, Zi-Qi; Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Tang, Yan; Jiang, Shan-Shan; Chen, Chang-Long; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Chang, Alfred E; Wicha, Max S; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Li, Qiao; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and resistance to therapeutic agents; they are usually less sensitive to conventional cancer therapies, and could cause tumor relapse. An ideal therapeutic strategy would therefore be to selectively target and destroy CSCs, thereby preventing tumor relapse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with antigen derived from CD105+ human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) CSCs against renal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified "stem-like" characteristics of CD105+ cells in two human RCC cell lines: A498 and SK-RC-39. Loading with cell lysates did not change the characteristics of the DCs. However, DCs loaded with lysates derived from CD105+ CSCs induced more functionally specific active T cells and specific antibodies against CSCs, and clearly depressed the tumor growth in mice. Our results could form the basis for a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy for human RCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. WE-H-BRA-03: Development of a Model to Include the Evolution of Resistant Tumor Subpopulations Into the Treatment Optimization Process for Schedules Involving Targeted Agents in Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model that includes the process of resistance development into the treatment optimization process for schedules that include targeted therapies. Further, to validate the approach using clinical data and to apply the model to assess the optimal induction period with targeted agents before curative treatment with chemo-radiation in stage III lung cancer. Methods: Growth of the tumor and its subpopulations is modeled by Gompertzian growth dynamics, resistance induction as a stochastic process. Chemotherapy induced cell kill is modeled by log-cell kill dynamics, targeted agents similarly but restricted to the sensitive population. Radiation induced cell kill is assumed to follow the linear-quadratic model. The validation patient data consist of a cohort of lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors that had longitudinal imaging data available. Results: The resistance induction model was successfully validated using clinical trial data from 49 patients treated with targeted agents. The observed recurrence kinetics, with tumors progressing from 1.4–63 months, result in tumor growth equaling a median volume doubling time of 92 days [34–248] and a median fraction of pre-existing resistance of 0.035 [0–0.22], in agreement with previous clinical studies. The model revealed widely varying optimal time points for the use of curative therapy, reaching from ∼1m to >6m depending on the patient’s growth rate and amount of pre-existing resistance. This demonstrates the importance of patient-specific treatment schedules when targeted agents are incorporated into the treatment. Conclusion: We developed a model including evolutionary dynamics of resistant sub-populations with traditional chemotherapy and radiation cell kill models. Fitting to clinical data yielded patient specific growth rates and resistant fraction in agreement with previous studies. Further application of the model demonstrated how proper timing of chemo

  13. WE-H-BRA-03: Development of a Model to Include the Evolution of Resistant Tumor Subpopulations Into the Treatment Optimization Process for Schedules Involving Targeted Agents in Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a model that includes the process of resistance development into the treatment optimization process for schedules that include targeted therapies. Further, to validate the approach using clinical data and to apply the model to assess the optimal induction period with targeted agents before curative treatment with chemo-radiation in stage III lung cancer. Methods: Growth of the tumor and its subpopulations is modeled by Gompertzian growth dynamics, resistance induction as a stochastic process. Chemotherapy induced cell kill is modeled by log-cell kill dynamics, targeted agents similarly but restricted to the sensitive population. Radiation induced cell kill is assumed to follow the linear-quadratic model. The validation patient data consist of a cohort of lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors that had longitudinal imaging data available. Results: The resistance induction model was successfully validated using clinical trial data from 49 patients treated with targeted agents. The observed recurrence kinetics, with tumors progressing from 1.4–63 months, result in tumor growth equaling a median volume doubling time of 92 days [34–248] and a median fraction of pre-existing resistance of 0.035 [0–0.22], in agreement with previous clinical studies. The model revealed widely varying optimal time points for the use of curative therapy, reaching from ∼1m to >6m depending on the patient’s growth rate and amount of pre-existing resistance. This demonstrates the importance of patient-specific treatment schedules when targeted agents are incorporated into the treatment. Conclusion: We developed a model including evolutionary dynamics of resistant sub-populations with traditional chemotherapy and radiation cell kill models. Fitting to clinical data yielded patient specific growth rates and resistant fraction in agreement with previous studies. Further application of the model demonstrated how proper timing of chemo

  14. Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organ...

  15. Gene expression profiling of chicken cecal tonsils and ileum following oral exposure to soluble and PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN, and lysate of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Yitbarek, Alexander; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2017-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading bacterial cause of food-borne illness in humans. Contaminated chicken meat is an important source of infection for humans. Chickens are not clinically affected by colonization, and immune responses following natural infection have limited effects on bacterial load in the gut. Induction of intestinal immune responses may possibly lead to a breakdown of the commensal relationship of chickens with Campylobacter. We have recently shown that soluble and poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) as well as C. jejuni lysate, are effective in reducing the intestinal burden of C. jejuni in chickens; however, the mechanisms behind this protection have yet to be determined. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of host responses conferred by these treatments. Chickens were treated orally with soluble CpG ODN, or PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN, or C. jejuni lysate, and expression of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides was evaluated in cecal tonsils and ileum using quantitative RT-PCR. Oral administration of soluble CpG ODN upregulated the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCLi2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4/1, IL-10 and IL-13, while treatment with PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN upregulated the expression of IL-1β, CXCLi2, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). C. jejuni lysate upregulated the expression of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TGF-β4/1, IL-13, AvBD1, and CATHL-3. In conclusion, induction of cytokine and antimicrobial peptides expression in intestinal microenvironments may provide a means of reducing C. jejuni colonization in broiler chickens, a key step in reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 3D-CT imaging processing for qualitative and quantitative analysis of maxillofacial cysts and tumors Processamento de imagens em 3D-TC para análise qualitativa e quantitativa de cistos e tumores maxilo-faciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Gusmão Paraiso Cavalcanti

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate spiral-computed tomography (3D-CT images of 20 patients presenting with cysts and tumors in the maxillofacial complex, in order to compare the surface and volume techniques of image rendering. The qualitative and quantitative appraisal indicated that the volume technique allowed a more precise and accurate observation than the surface method. On the average, the measurements obtained by means of the 3D volume-rendering technique were 6.28% higher than those obtained by means of the surface method. The sensitivity of the 3D surface technique was lower than that of the 3D volume technique for all conditions stipulated in the diagnosis and evaluation of lesions. We concluded that the 3D-CT volume rendering technique was more reproducible and sensitive than the 3D-CT surface method, in the diagnosis, treatment planning and evaluation of maxillofacial lesions, especially those with intra-osseous involvement.O presente trabalho consiste em um estudo associativo e comparativo entre as técnicas de superfície e volume para a reconstrução de imagens em três dimensões (3D utilizando tomografia computadorizada (TC. Foram realizadas tomografias computadorizadas em espiral de 20 pacientes com cistos e tumores do complexo maxilo-facial para análise qualitativa e quantitativa, utilizando métodos de superfície e de volume em 3D. A comparação interexaminadores apresentou erro padrão percentual menos elevado para a técnica de volume (1,94% que para a técnica de superfície (4,38%, indicando a maior reprodutibilidade do primeiro método. As medidas obtidas pela técnica de volume foram em média 6,28% mais elevadas que as medidas obtidas pela técnica de superfície. A técnica de volume apresentou sensibilidade mais elevada que a técnica de superfície na identificação das lesões do complexo maxilo-facial. A técnica de volume em 3D-TC, utilizando a metodologia da computação gráfica, apresentou maior

  17. Application of PET in brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2002-01-01

    The annual incidence of primary brain tumors is 7-19 cases per 100,000 people. The unique capacity of visualizing biochemical processes allows PET to determine functional metabolic activities of the brain tumors. Like other malignant tumors, F-18 FDG has been used commonly in the imaging of brain tumors. FDG PET is valuable in grading malignancy, predicting prognosis, monitoring treatment, differentiating tumor recurrence from radiation nucrosis, and detecting primary lesion in metastatric brain tumors. Among amino acids labeled with positron emitters, C-11 methionine is used clinically.Tumor delineation is much better with methionine PET than with FDG PET. Low grade gliomas, in particular, are better evaluated with methionine than with FDG. PET opens another dimension in brain tumor imaging. PET imaging has clearly entered the clinical area with a profound impact on patient care in many indications

  18. Geometrical approach to tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Tumor growth has a number of features in common with a physical process known as molecular beam epitaxy. Both growth processes are characterized by the constraint of growth development to the body border, and surface diffusion of cells and particles at the growing edge. However, tumor growth implies an approximate spherical symmetry that makes necessary a geometrical treatment of the growth equations. The basic model was introduced in a former paper [C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. E 73, 020902(R) (2006)], and in the present work we extend our analysis and try to shed light on the possible geometrical principles that drive tumor growth. We present two-dimensional models that reproduce the experimental observations, and analyze the unexplored three-dimensional case, for which interesting conclusions on tumor growth are derived.

  19. Mir-513a-3p contributes to the controlling of cellular migration processes in the A549 lung tumor cells by modulating integrin β-8 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Marina Bonfogo; Lima, Kelvin Furtado; da Silva, Andrea Renata; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Moraes, Karen C M

    2017-12-04

    Lung tumors are a frequent type of cancer in humans and a leading cause of death, and the late diagnostic contributes to high mortality rates. New therapeutic strategies are needed, and the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) [ang-(1-7)] demonstrated the ability to control cancer growth rates and migration in vitro and in vivo. However, the possible use of the heptapeptide in clinical trials demands deeper analyses to elucidate molecular mechanisms of its effect in the target cells. In this study, we investigated relevant elements that control pro-inflammatory environment and cellular migration, focusing in the post-transcription mechanism using lung tumor cell line. In our cellular model, the microRNA-513a-3p was identified as a novel element targeting ITG-β8, thereby controlling the protein level and its molecular function in the controlling of migration and pro-inflammatory environment. These findings provide useful information for future studies, using miR-513a-3p as an innovative molecular tool to control lung tumor cell migration, which will support more effective clinical treatment of the patients with the widely used chemotherapeutic agents, increasing survival rates.

  20. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  1. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  2. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  3. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  4. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  5. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 01/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  6. Comparison of osteo/odontogenic differentiation of human adult dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from apical papilla in the presence of platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuarqoub, Duaa; Awidi, Abdalla; Abuharfeil, Nizar

    2015-10-01

    Human dental pulp cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from apical papilla have been used for the repair of damaged tooth tissues. Human platelet lysate (PL) has been suggested as a substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for large scale expansion of dental stem cells. However, biological effects and optimal concentrations of PL for proliferation and differentiation of human dental stem cells remain to be elucidated. DPSCs and SCAP cells were isolated from impacted third molars of young healthy donors, at the stage of root development and identified by markers using flow cytometry. For comparison the cells were cultured in media containing PL (1%, 5% and 10%) and FBS, with subsequent induction for osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation. The cultures were analyzed for; morphology, growth characteristics, mineralization potential (Alizarin Red method) and differentiation markers using ELISA and real time -polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The proliferation rates of DPSCs and SCAP significantly increased when cells were treated with 5% PL (7X doubling time) as compared to FBS. 5% PL also enhanced mineralized differentiation of DPSCs and SCAP, as indicated by the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and osteopontin, calcium deposition and q-PCR. Our findings suggest that using 5% platelet lysate, proliferation and osteo/odontogenesis of DPSCs and SCAP for a short period of time (15 days), was significantly improved. This may imply its use as an optimum concentration for expansion of dental stem cells in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. QUANTOM - improved tumor diagnosis by quantitative evaluation of tomography data using digital 3D image processing. Final report; QUANTOM - Verbesserung der Tumordiagnostik durch quantitative Auswertung von Tomographiedaten mit Hilfe der digitalen 3D-Bildverarbeitung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfill, G

    2001-07-01

    Nonlinear techniques are applied to tasks in medical image processing. Using the so-called scaling index method and scaling vector method segmentation and detection algorithms are developed in order to recognise and measure tumors in three-dimensional tomographic data sets. It is shown that pulmonary nodules can well be detected in the lung only by analysing their morphological structure. Especially the nodules can be discriminated from the bronchovascular structures, which have the same intensity in the data sets. Newly developed segmentation algorithms, with which an exact volumetric assessment of tumors is made possible, are presented. It turns out that an algorithm, which combines elements from the watershed-transformation and from region growing techniques, yields the best results in terms of accuracy, transparency and reproducibility. The clinical valence of the volumetry is illustrated with studies concerning the response evaluation of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract during (chemo-)therapy. It turns out that the results obtained with an exact three-dimensional volume determination are in much better agreement with the histological gold standard than those obtained with simple conventional, planimetric measurements. Furthermore the specificity of the prediction for the response to a chosen therapy can be significantly increased using CT-volumetry and PET-measurements. Therefore, the number of therapeutically questionable operations can be reduced. Further possible fields of application for the newly developed methods are presented. (orig.)

  8. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  9. Malignant renal tumors in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, C.; Torterolo, J.; Irigoyen, B.; Bel, M.; Elias, E.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Professionals who work in pediatric oncology, we see childhood cancer as a common disease, but in fact constitutes about 2% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide. Wilms tumor accounts for 6% of all childhood tumors and presentation bilateral accounts for 4-6% of all Wilms tumors diagnosed. Theoretical Framework: In the period between the year 1994-2003 period were attended in the Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Center, a total of 29 cases of malignant renal tumors, corresponding to 86% (25 cases) to Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma tumor. The Wilms is of embryonic origin, capable of metastatic spread, (85% lungs 15% liver). Very sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which confers high cure rates (85%); having a multidisciplinary treatment model, combining surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The role of nursing in comprehensive cancer care child is essential in the prevention and early detection of side effects or complications. Case report: S.D. currently 10 years old. In 10/1994, at 8 months of age, was diagnosed with bilateral Wilms tumor. On admission her weight was 8200gr with abdominal circumference 50cm. Conducted pre-operative MDT and 02/1995 nephrectomy of the left kidney and right kidney lumpectomy (tumor nodule 420gr. and a 250gr.). MDT begins in 03/1995 01/1996 ending. 09/2003 with abdominal pain and vomiting, and kidney failure. 10/2003 lumpectomy biopsy (sclerotic nodule associated with maturation nephroblastoma). Currently severe renal insufficiency plan enters dialysis. Nursing process: Objectives: 1) To prepare the child and family to the side effects and possible complications of chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy 2) Prevent and minimize related complications tumor and / or treatment. Care Plan comprises four stages: A) rating and customer income. B) Implement care chemotherapy C) post-operative Care D) Implement radiation care

  10. Neuroendocrine Tumor, diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH secretion is a rare disease. A 51 years old woman, with a Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion, diagnosed in 2009, with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, whose biopsy was compatible with lung small cell carcinoma, staged as IIIB using TNM classification. No other lesions were found in patient study. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, associated to ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily, with partial remission of both conditions. Three years later was admitted with an aggravation of Cushing syndrome. There was no evidence of progression of pulmonary disease. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic uncinated process was found by abdominal CT scan and with avid uptake by DOTANOC PET discreet in anterior mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of pancreatic mass revealed a neuroendocrine tumor. Pulmonary masses were biopsied again and was in favor of neuroendocrine tumor. It was assumed the diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with mediastinal metastasis. The patient initiated lanreotid (120 mg, monthly, subcutaneous in association with ketoconazole. After 5 months of therapy, patient died with sepsis secondary to pneumonia. Neuroendocrine tumours are rare, difficult to diagnose and with poor prognosis when associated with ectopic ACTH secreting Cushing syndrome.

  11. Bone tumor mimickers: A pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhuircheartaigh, Jennifer Ni; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jim S

    2014-01-01

    Focal lesions in bone are very common and many of these lesions are not bone tumors. These bone tumor mimickers can include numerous normal anatomic variants and non-neoplastic processes. Many of these tumor mimickers can be left alone, while others can be due to a significant disease process. It is important for the radiologist and clinician to be aware of these bone tumor mimickers and understand the characteristic features which allow discrimination between them and true neoplasms in order to avoid unnecessary additional workup. Knowing which lesions to leave alone or which ones require workup can prevent misdiagnosis and reduce patient anxiety

  12. Cadmium-109 uptake by tumors derived from Balb C/3T3 cell lines with varying degrees of the transformed phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, K.; Alazraki, N.; Winge, D.; Lynch, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    To determine if tumors are rich in metallothionein, the authors measured the vivo uptake of subcutaneously-injected carrier-free cadmium-109 in tumors and in normal tissues of Balb/C mice. The tumors were grown in the mice from cultured Balb/3T3 cells transformed by the Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Uptake of cadmium-109 per gram of tissue was greatest for liver, kidney, and spleen. However, tumor uptake of cadmium-109 was markedly greater than that in blood, skeletal muscle, bones, intestine or adipose tissue. B Sephadex G-75 chromatography, the radioactivity in tumor and in liver lysates eluted with cytochrome-C, a molecule similar in molecular weight to metal-lothionein. To determine if metallothionein levels are related to the degree of malignancy of tumors, cadmium-109 uptake in the tumors from the virally-transformed cells was compared to that in tumors from non-transformed Balb/3T3 cells and two derivative chemically transformed cell lines. There was strong correlation between the substrate-independent growth in soft agarose of the four cell lines, the rate of growth of the corresponding tumors, and the amount of cadmium-109 uptake in the tumors. The authors conclude that metallothionein levels may be elevated in tumors as a function of the degree of expression of the transformed phenotype

  13. Radiological diagnostics of skeletal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, M.; Herget, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    The book contains contributions concerning the following topics: 1. introduction and fundamentals: WHO classification of bone tumors, imaging diagnostics and their function; localization, typical clinical and radiological criteria, TNM classification and status classification, invasive tumor diagnostics; 2. specific tumor diagnostics: chondrogenic bone tumors, osseous tumors, connective tissue bony tumors, osteoclastoma, osteomyelogenic bone tumors, vascular bone tumors, neurogenic bone tumors, chordoma; adamantinoma of the long tubular bone; tumor-like lesions, bony metastases, bone granulomas, differential diagnostics: tumor-like lesions

  14. Disentegrating lung tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedbekov, Eh.N.; Kyazimova, L.G.; Mamed''yarova, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and roentgenological appearances of tuberculosis and tumoral lesions of bronchi and lungs are similar. It makes possible of wrong diagnosis of disease. Complications in diagnosis are connected with that fact that increase of frequency of pulmonary carcinoma both in patients with active tuberculosis and in persons with residual posttuberculous changes in respiratory organs is observed. Patients with specific processes in the lungs was presented. Additional X-ray examination was carried out on the base of clinical symptoms and results of X-ray examination. The diagnosis was established: disintegrating blastoma of the right lung with metastases to mediastinum lymph nodes

  15. Diagnostic evaluatuin of gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K.

    1998-01-01

    Prior to surgery of gastrointestinal tumors exact information about tumor localization, extent and possible infiltration in adjacent structures are important. The task for radiological and scintigraphic methods is predominantly the preoperative tumor staging. The upper (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and the lower (colon, rectum) gastrointestinal tract should be routinely investigated by endoscopy and endosonography. CT or MRI imaging may add information about tumor extent, infiltration in adjacent structures and pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. The latter may be detected with similar or higher sensitivity by PET as well. Furthermore, with PET it is possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from postoperative scar tissue earlier than with conventional morphological imaging techniques, for example in colorectal cancer. Liver tumors should primarily be inspected sonographically followed by an MRI scan if dignity is uncertain. The receptor scintigraphy with radioactive ligands allows to further characterize a detected tumor. Benigne liver lesions can be distinguished from malignant tumors (metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) by the neogalactoalbumin-(NGA-)scintigraphy, because NGA binds exclusively to the liver galactose receptors of normally functioning hepatocytes. For the differentiation between liver metastasis and HCC insulin scintigraphy can be used, since insulin binds significantly in HCC due to an overexpression of insulin receptors in these tumors. If a malignant process is suspected, additionally CT-arterioportography may be recommended, because this newer radiological technique is capable to visualize lesions smaller than 1 cm. In such cases PET is sensitive as well and due to increased glucose metabolism even small foci can be detected with comparably high sepcificity. The method of choice for the detection of a pancreatic tumor is endoscopic sonography. In most cases the dignity of the tumor can be verified by ERCP, but sometimes it is very

  16. Promotion of Tumor Invasion by Cooperation of Granulocytes and Macrophages Activated by Anti-tumor Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Barbera-Guillem

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential role of anti-tumor antibodies and tumor antigens in the formation of immune complexes which promote matrix degradation and angiogenesis. B-cell deficient or B-cell depleted mice showed a reduction in tumor invasion and metastasis. In vitro invasion assays and in vivo models of metastasis showed that anti-sTn antibodies and sTn tumor antigens form complexes which induce granulocytes and macrophages together to mediate tumor invasion and metastasis by processes including extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis. These results suggest the existence of a tumor promoting role of a B-cell immune response induced by shed tumor associated antigens of solid, nonlymphoid tumors.

  17. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  18. Brain Tumor Image Segmentation in MRI Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peni Agustin Tjahyaningtijas, Hapsari

    2018-04-01

    Brain tumor segmentation plays an important role in medical image processing. Treatment of patients with brain tumors is highly dependent on early detection of these tumors. Early detection of brain tumors will improve the patient’s life chances. Diagnosis of brain tumors by experts usually use a manual segmentation that is difficult and time consuming because of the necessary automatic segmentation. Nowadays automatic segmentation is very populer and can be a solution to the problem of tumor brain segmentation with better performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods. There are number of existing review papers, focusing on traditional methods for MRI-based brain tumor image segmentation. this paper, we focus on the recent trend of automatic segmentation in this field. First, an introduction to brain tumors and methods for brain tumor segmentation is given. Then, the state-of-the-art algorithms with a focus on recent trend of full automatic segmentaion are discussed. Finally, an assessment of the current state is presented and future developments to standardize MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods into daily clinical routine are addressed.

  19. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Norio; Dohi, Kiyohiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)

  20. CT of abdominal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Satoshi; Yamada, Kenji; Ito, Masatoshi; Ito, Hisao; Yamaura, Harutsugu

    1981-01-01

    CT findings in 33 patients who had an abdominal tumor were evaluated. CT revealed a tumor in 31 cases. The organ from which the tumor originated was correctly diagnosed in 18 patients. Whether the tumor was solid or cystic was correctly predicted in 28 patients. The diagnosis malignant or benign nature of tumor was correct, incorrect and impossible, in 23, 3, and five patiens, respectively. (Kondo, M.)

  1. Differential inhibition of ex-vivo tumor kinase activity by vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E and BRAF wild-type metastatic malignant melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andliena Tahiri

    Full Text Available Treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma patients harboring BRAF(V600E has improved drastically after the discovery of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib. However, drug resistance is a recurring problem, and prognoses are still very bad for patients harboring BRAF wild-type. Better markers for targeted therapy are therefore urgently needed.In this study, we assessed the individual kinase activity profiles in 26 tumor samples obtained from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma using peptide arrays with 144 kinase substrates. In addition, we studied the overall ex-vivo inhibitory effects of vemurafenib and sunitinib on kinase activity status.Overall kinase activity was significantly higher in lysates from melanoma tumors compared to normal skin tissue. Furthermore, ex-vivo incubation with both vemurafenib and sunitinib caused significant decrease in phosphorylation of kinase substrates, i.e kinase activity. While basal phosphorylation profiles were similar in BRAF wild-type and BRAF(V600E tumors, analysis with ex-vivo vemurafenib treatment identified a subset of 40 kinase substrates showing stronger inhibition in BRAF(V600E tumor lysates, distinguishing the BRAF wild-type and BRAF(V600E tumors. Interestingly, a few BRAF wild-type tumors showed inhibition profiles similar to BRAF(V600E tumors. The kinase inhibitory effect of vemurafenib was subsequently analyzed in cell lines harboring different BRAF mutational status with various vemurafenib sensitivity in-vitro.Our findings suggest that multiplex kinase substrate array analysis give valuable information about overall tumor kinase activity. Furthermore, intra-assay exposure to kinase inhibiting drugs may provide a useful tool to study mechanisms of resistance, as well as to identify predictive markers.

  2. Polyplex micelle installing intracellular self-processing functionalities without free catiomers for safe and efficient systemic gene therapy through tumor vasculature targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qixian; Osada, Kensuke; Ge, Zhishen; Uchida, Satoshi; Tockary, Theofilus A; Dirisala, Anjaneyulu; Matsui, Akitsugu; Toh, Kazuko; Takeda, Kaori M; Liu, Xueying; Nomoto, Takahiro; Ishii, Tekihiko; Oba, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yu; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    H gradient. Subsequent systemic application to the pancreatic tumor demonstrated a capability of vascular targeting mediated by the cRGD ligand, which was directly confirmed based on in situ confocal laser scanning microscopy observation. Encouraging this result, the vascular targeting to transfect a secretable anti-angiogenic gene was attempted to treat the intractable pancreatic tumor with anticipation that the strategy could circumvent the intrinsic physiological barriers derived from hypovascular and fibrotic characters. The obtained therapeutic efficiency demonstrates promising utilities of the proposed formulation as a safe systemic gene delivery carrier in practical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Skull base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikinis, R.; Matsumae, M.; Jolesz, F.A.; Black, P.M.; Cline, H.E.; Lorenson, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an image processing procedure for the planning of surgery of skull base tumors that can extract bone, vessels, tumor, and brain parenchyma and that permits resolution of cranial nerves. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were generated from double-echo long TR interleaved conventional spin-echo and fast-spin-echo MR imaging data. Sixteen cases have been analyzed preoperatively. Image processing consisted of a multistep procedure combining a supervised multivariate analysis with neighborhood operations such as connectivity and erosion/dilation. 3D renderings of anatomic structures of interest were then generated. Cases were evaluated preoperatively and manipulated interactively with the computer-generated images by a team consisting of neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, and craniofacial surgeons. The preparation of 3D reconstructions required only a few hours and was performed mostly by a research assistant. The preoperative analysis of the 3D reconstructions was found to be a valuable tool, providing information complementing the surgeon's understanding of a case as derived from conventional imaging. The interactive manipulation of data proved to be a powerful way to evaluate alternative surgical approaches

  4. Generation of mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of platelet lysate: a phenotypic and functional comparison of umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-derived progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Cometa, Angela Maria; Perotti, Cesare; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Novara, Francesca; Visai, Livia; Moretta, Antonia; Del Fante, Claudia; Villa, Raffaella; Ball, Lynne M.; Fibbe, Willem E.; Maccario, Rita; Locatelli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells are employed in various different clinical settings in order to modulate immune response. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms responsible for their immunomodulatory effects, which could be influenced by both the cell source and culture conditions. Design and Methods We tested the ability of a 5% platelet lysate-supplemented medium to support isolation and ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells from full-term umbilical-cord blood. We also investigated the biological/functional properties of umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells, in comparison with platelet lysate-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Results The success rate of isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells from umbilical cord blood was in the order of 20%. These cells exhibited typical morphology, immunophenotype and differentiation capacity. Although they have a low clonogenic efficiency, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells may possess high proliferative potential. The genetic stability of these cells from umbilical cord blood was demonstrated by a normal molecular karyotype; in addition, these cells do not express hTERT and telomerase activity, do express p16ink4a protein and do not show anchorage-independent cell growth. Concerning alloantigen-specific immune responses, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells were able to: (i) suppress T- and NK-lymphocyte proliferation, (ii) decrease cytotoxic activity and (iii) only slightly increase interleukin-10, while decreasing interferon-γ secretion, in mixed lymphocyte culture supernatants. While an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-specific inhibitor did not reverse mesenchymal stromal cell-induced suppressive effects, a prostaglandin E2-specific inhibitor hampered the suppressive effect of both umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells on alloantigen-induced cytotoxic activity. Mesenchymal stromal cells from both sources expressed HLA

  5. Integrated culture platform based on a human platelet lysate supplement for the isolation and scalable manufacturing of umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soure, António M; Fernandes-Platzgummer, Ana; Moreira, Francisco; Lilaia, Carla; Liu, Shi-Hwei; Ku, Chen-Peng; Huang, Yi-Feng; Milligan, William; Cabral, Joaquim M S; da Silva, Cláudia L

    2017-05-01

    Umbilical cord matrix (UCM)-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are promising therapeutic candidates for regenerative medicine settings. UCM MSCs have advantages over adult cells as these can be obtained through a non-invasive harvesting procedure and display a higher proliferative capacity. However, the high cell doses required in the clinical setting make large-scale manufacturing of UCM MSCs mandatory. A commercially available human platelet lysate-based culture supplement (UltraGRO TM , AventaCell BioMedical) (5%(v/v)) was tested to effectively isolate UCM MSCs and to expand these cells under (1) static conditions, using planar culture systems and (2) stirred culture using plastic microcarriers in a spinner flask. The MSC-like cells were isolated from UCM explant cultures after 11 ± 2 days. After five passages in static culture, UCM MSCs retained their immunophenotype and multilineage differentiation potential. The UCM MSCs cultured under static conditions using UltraGRO TM -supplemented medium expanded more rapidly compared with UCM MSCs expanded using a previously established protocol. Importantly, UCM MSCs were successfully expanded under dynamic conditions on plastic microcarriers using UltraGRO TM -supplemented medium in spinner flasks. Upon an initial 54% cell adhesion to the beads, UCM MSCs expanded by >13-fold after 5-6 days, maintaining their immunophenotype and multilineage differentiation ability. The present paper reports the establishment of an easily scalable integrated culture platform based on a human platelet lysate supplement for the effective isolation and expansion of UCM MSCs in a xenogeneic-free microcarrier-based system. This platform represents an important advance in obtaining safer and clinically meaningful MSC numbers for clinical translation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Stimulation with lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae maximizes cross-reactivity of anti-fungal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Shivashni S; Virassamy, Balaji; Halliday, Catriona; Clancy, Leighton; Chen, Sharon; Meyer, Wieland; Sorrell, Tania C; Gottlieb, David J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi and yeasts are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed hematology patients. We previously published a method to expand Aspergillus fumigatus-specific T cells for clinical cell therapy. In the present study, we investigated expansion of T cells specific for other fungal pathogens and creation of a broadly reactive panfungal T-cell product. Fungal strains selected were those frequently observed in the clinical hematology setting and included Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Lomentospora/Scedosporium. Four T-cell cultures specific to each fungus were established. We selected lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae to expand panfungal T cells. Allelic restriction of anti-fungal activity was determined through the use of specific major histocompatibility complex class II-blocking antibodies. Individual T-cell cultures specific to each fungus could be expanded in vitro, generating predominantly CD4(+) T cells of which 8% to 20% were fungus-specific. We successfully expanded panfungal T cells from the peripheral blood (n = 8) and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-primed stem cell products (n = 3) of normal donors by using a combination of lysates from Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae. Anti-fungal activity was mediated through human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR alleles and was maintained when antigen-presenting cells from partially HLA-DRB1-matched donors were used to stimulate T cells. We demonstrate a method to manufacture panfungal T-cell products with specificity against a range of clinical fungal pathogens by use of the blood and stem cells of healthy donors as the starting material. The safety and efficacy of these products will need to be tested clinically. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of glutathione in supernatants and lysates of a human proximal tubular cell line from perfusion culture upon intoxication with cadmium chloride by HPLC and LC-ESI-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, Hans; Huck, Christian W; Rainer, Matthias; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Bakry, Rania; Abberger, Thomas; Jennings, Paul; Pfaller, Walter; Bonn, Günther K

    A simple and highly effective reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is described for analysing glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in out-flowing supernatants and lysates of perfusion cell cultures of human kidney cells (HK-2 cells) continuously

  8. Analyzing Protein Changes in Guinea Pig Tissue Lysates Using Non-guinea Pig Specific Antibodies: Procedures for Western Blotting and Examples Using 16 Individual Antibodies for Common CNS Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    guinea pig model does present a significant problem...trying to correlate behavioral and protein changes due to the absence of guinea pig -specific antibodies. We...have developed a procedure to determine the specificity of commercially available, non- guinea pig -specific antibodies in guinea pig lysates.

  9. Tumor macroenvironment and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%-20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient's outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and optimization of the production process of radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Nal{sup 3}-Octreotide for the treatment of gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors; Diseno y optimizacion del proceso de produccion del radiofarmaco {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Nal{sup 3}-Octreotido para el tratamiento de tumores gastroenteropancreaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez G, M. F.

    2013-07-01

    The radiolabel peptides are molecules of interest in nuclear medicine for their therapeutic and diagnostic application in cancer. Among an impressing group of relevant peptides, those similar of the somatostatin, as the Nal{sup 3}-Octreotide (NOC), have established as potential radiopharmaceuticals when presenting significant affinity for the receptors of this peptide hormone that are over expressed and broadly distributed in tumors of neuroendocrine origin, as the gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors. On the other hand, the Lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) is an ideal candidate for the peptides radiolabel and has favorable characteristics to be used in radionuclide therapy. The objective of this work was designing, optimizing and to document the production process of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Nal{sup 3}-Octreotide ({sup 177}Lu-DOTANOC) for the solicitude of its sanitary registration before the Comision Federal contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). For the optimization of the production process a factorial design of three variables was evaluated with mixed levels (18 combinations), where the dependent variable is the radiochemical purity and the analytic method used to determine this parameter (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) was validated. Later on, by means of the production of 3 lots of the optimized formula of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTANOC the production process was validated and the stability long term study to determine the period of useful life was carried out. The following pharmaceutical formulation was adopted as good: 1.85 GBq (0.5μg) of {sup 177}Lu, 250 μg of DOTANOC and 150 μL of acetates Buffer 1 M ph 5 in 5 m L of the medium. The analytic method used to determine the radiochemical purity of the formulation satisfied the requirements for the wished analytic application. We can conclude that the 3 validation lots prepared under protocols of Good Production Practices, in the Plant of Radiopharmaceuticals Production of the

  11. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 5. Abstract. Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as ...

  12. Tumor-Derived CXCL1 Promotes Lung Cancer Growth via Recruitment of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils have a traditional role in inflammatory process and act as the first line of defense against infections. Although their contribution to tumorigenesis and progression is still controversial, accumulating evidence recently has demonstrated that tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs play a key role in multiple aspects of cancer biology. Here, we detected that chemokine CXCL1 was dramatically elevated in serum from 3LL tumor-bearing mice. In vitro, 3LL cells constitutively expressed and secreted higher level of CXCL1. Furthermore, knocking down CXCL1 expression in 3LL cells significantly hindered tumor growth by inhibiting recruitment of neutrophils from peripheral blood into tumor tissues. Additionally, tumor-infiltrated neutrophils expressed higher levels of MPO and Fas/FasL, which may be involved in TAN-mediated inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results demonstrate that tumor-derived CXCL1 contributes to TANs infiltration in lung cancer which promotes tumor growth.

  13. Malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    International histological classification and classification according to TNM systems, domestic clinical classification according to stages of carcinoma of stomach, large intestine and rectum are presented. Diagnosis of tumoral processes of the given localizations should be based on complex application of diagnostic methods: clinical, ultrasonic, radiological and others. Surgical method and variants of surgical method with preoperative radiotherapy play a leading role in treatment of mentioned tumors. Combined method of treatment-surgical intervention with postoperation intravenous injection of colloid 198 Au - is applied for preventing propagation of stomach cancer metastases. Advisability of combining operations with radiological and antitumoral medicamentous therapy is shown. Reliable results of treatment of malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract are presented

  14. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  15. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed. (Author) [pt

  16. Testicular germinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of testicular germinal tumors. The presumed diagnosis is based in the anamnesis, clinical examination, testicular ultrasound and tumor markers. The definitive diagnosis is obtained through the inguinal radical orchidectomy

  17. Tissue engineered tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Ward, B R; Imam, S A; Atkinson, R; Ho, H; Taylor, C R

    2010-08-01

    Many research programs use well-characterized tumor cell lines as tumor models for in vitro studies. Because tumor cells grown as three-dimensional (3-D) structures have been shown to behave more like tumors in vivo than do cells growing in monolayer culture, a growing number of investigators now use tumor cell spheroids as models. Single cell type spheroids, however, do not model the stromal-epithelial interactions that have an important role in controlling tumor growth and development in vivo. We describe here a method for generating, reproducibly, more realistic 3-D tumor models that contain both stromal and malignant epithelial cells with an architecture that closely resembles that of tumor microlesions in vivo. Because they are so tissue-like we refer to them as tumor histoids. They can be generated reproducibly in substantial quantities. The bioreactor developed to generate histoid constructs is described and illustrated. It accommodates disposable culture chambers that have filled volumes of either 10 or 64 ml, each culture yielding on the order of 100 or 600 histoid particles, respectively. Each particle is a few tenths of a millimeter in diameter. Examples of histological sections of tumor histoids representing cancers of breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and urinary bladder are presented. Potential applications of tumor histoids include, but are not limited to, use as surrogate tumors for pre-screening anti-solid tumor pharmaceutical agents, as reference specimens for immunostaining in the surgical pathology laboratory and use in studies of invasive properties of cells or other aspects of tumor development and progression. Histoids containing nonmalignant cells also may have potential as "seeds" in tissue engineering. For drug testing, histoids probably will have to meet certain criteria of size and tumor cell content. Using a COPAS Plus flow cytometer, histoids containing fluorescent tumor cells were analyzed successfully and sorted using such criteria.

  18. Tumor suppressors: enhancers or suppressors of regeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Jason H.; Blau, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor suppressors are so named because cancers occur in their absence, but these genes also have important functions in development, metabolism and tissue homeostasis. Here, we discuss known and potential functions of tumor suppressor genes during tissue regeneration, focusing on the evolutionarily conserved tumor suppressors pRb1, p53, Pten and Hippo. We propose that their activity is essential for tissue regeneration. This is in contrast to suggestions that tumor suppression is a trade-off for regenerative capacity. We also hypothesize that certain aspects of tumor suppressor pathways inhibit regenerative processes in mammals, and that transient targeted modification of these pathways could be fruitfully exploited to enhance processes that are important to regenerative medicine. PMID:23715544

  19. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  20. Transient phosphorylation of tumor associated microtubule associated protein (TMAP)/cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2) at Thr-596 during early phases of mitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kyung Uk; Choi, Yong-Bock; Lee, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kwon, Hye-Rim; Seong, Yeon-Sun; Kim, Heung Tae; Park, Joobae; Bae, Chang-Dae; Hong, Kyeong-Man

    2008-01-01

    Tumor associated microtubule associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton associated protein 2 (CKAP2) is a mitotic spindle-associated protein whose expression is cell cycle-regulated and also frequently deregulated in cancer cells. Two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against TMAP/CKAP2 were produced: B-1-13 and D-12-3. Interestingly, the reactivity of mAb D-12-3 to TMAP/CKAP2 was markedly decreased specifically in mitotic cell lysate. The epitope mapping study showed that mAb D-12-3 re...

  1. Effect of Blood Collection Tube Type and Time to Processing on the Enumeration and High-Content Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells Using the High-Definition Single-Cell Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lee, Mariam; Kolatkar, Anand; McCormick, Madelyn; Dago, Angel D; Kendall, Jude; Carlsson, Nils Anders; Bethel, Kelly; Greenspan, Emily J; Hwang, Shelley E; Waitman, Kathryn R; Nieva, Jorge J; Hicks, James; Kuhn, Peter

    2018-02-01

    - As circulating tumor cell (CTC) assays gain clinical relevance, it is essential to address preanalytic variability and to develop standard operating procedures for sample handling in order to successfully implement genomically informed, precision health care. - To evaluate the effects of blood collection tube (BCT) type and time-to-assay (TTA) on the enumeration and high-content characterization of CTCs by using the high-definition single-cell assay (HD-SCA). - Blood samples of patients with early- and advanced-stage breast cancer were collected into cell-free DNA (CfDNA), EDTA, acid-citrate-dextrose solution, and heparin BCTs. Time-to-assay was evaluated at 24 and 72 hours, representing the fastest possible and more routine domestic shipping intervals, respectively. - We detected the highest CTC levels and the lowest levels of negative events in CfDNA BCT at 24 hours. At 72 hours in this BCT, all CTC subpopulations were decreased with the larger effect observed in high-definition CTCs and cytokeratin-positive cells smaller than white blood cells. Overall cell retention was also optimal in CfDNA BCT at 24 hours. Whole-genome copy number variation profiles were generated from single cells isolated from all BCT types and TTAs. Cells from CfDNA BCT at 24-hour TTA exhibited the least noise. - Circulating tumor cells can be identified and characterized under a variety of collection, handling, and processing conditions, but the highest quality can be achieved with optimized conditions. We quantified performance differences of the HD-SCA for specific preanalytic variables that may be used as a guide to develop best practices for implementation into patient care and/or research biorepository processes.

  2. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  3. Lung inflammatory pseudo tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliz, Elizabeth; Leone, Gaetano; Cano, Fernando; Sanchez, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory pseudo tumor is a non neoplastic process characterized by an irregular growth of inflammatory cells. We described the case of a 38 year-old patient, she went to our institute for a in situ cervix cancer and left lung nodule without breathing symptoms; valued by neumology who did bronchoscopy with biopsy whose result was negative for malignancy. She went to surgery in where we find intraparenquima nodule in felt lingula of approximately 4 cms, we remove it; the result was: Inflammatory pseudotumor. This pathology is a not very frequent, it can develop in diverse regions of the organism, it is frequent in lung. The image tests are not specific for the diagnose, which it is possible only with the biopsy. The treatment is the complete resection. (The author)

  4. PET and endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  5. Biochemomechanical poroelastic theory of avascular tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shi-Lei; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2016-09-01

    Tumor growth is a complex process involving genetic mutations, biochemical regulations, and mechanical deformations. In this paper, a thermodynamics-based nonlinear poroelastic theory is established to model the coupling among the mechanical, chemical, and biological mechanisms governing avascular tumor growth. A volumetric growth law accounting for mechano-chemo-biological coupled effects is proposed to describe the development of solid tumors. The regulating roles of stresses and nutrient transport in the tumor growth are revealed under different environmental constraints. We show that the mechano-chemo-biological coupling triggers anisotropic and heterogeneous growth, leading to the formation of layered structures in a growing tumor. There exists a steady state in which tumor growth is balanced by resorption. The influence of external confinements on tumor growth is also examined. A phase diagram is constructed to illustrate how the elastic modulus and thickness of the confinements jointly dictate the steady state of tumor volume. Qualitative and quantitative agreements with experimental observations indicate the developed model is capable of capturing the essential features of avascular tumor growth in various environments.

  6. Epilepsy and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yi Sha

    2009-01-01

    @@ Epidemiology It is estimated 61,414 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2009 in the U.S. The incidence statistic of 61,414 persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant (22,738) and non-malignant (38,677) brain tumors. (Data from American Brain Tumor Association). During the years 2004-2005, approximately 359,000 people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81,000 persons were living with a malignant tumor, more than 267,000 persons with a benign tumor. For every 100,000 people in the United States, approximately 131 are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor. This represents a prevalence rate of 130.8 per 100,000 person years[1].

  7. Long-Term Expansion in Platelet Lysate Increases Growth of Peripheral Blood-Derived Endothelial-Colony Forming Cells and Their Growth Factor-Induced Sprouting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasev, Dimitar; van Wijhe, Michiel H; Weijers, Ester M; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Efficient implementation of peripheral blood-derived endothelial-colony cells (PB-ECFCs) as a therapeutical tool requires isolation and generation of a sufficient number of cells in ex vivo conditions devoid of animal-derived products. At present, little is known how the isolation and expansion procedure in xenogeneic-free conditions affects the therapeutical capacity of PB-ECFCs. The findings presented in this study indicate that human platelet lysate (PL) as a serum substitute yields twice more colonies per mL blood compared to the conventional isolation with fetal bovine serum (FBS). Isolated ECFCs displayed a higher proliferative ability in PL supplemented medium than cells in FBS medium during 30 days expansion. The cells at 18 cumulative population doubling levels (CPDL) retained their proliferative capacity, showed higher sprouting ability in fibrin matrices upon stimulation with FGF-2 and VEGF-A than the cells at 6 CPDL, and displayed low β-galactosidase activity. The increased sprouting of PB-ECFCs at 18 CPDL was accompanied by an intrinsic activation of the uPA/uPAR fibrinolytic system. Induced deficiency of uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) or uPAR (uPA receptor) by siRNA technology completely abolished the angiogenic ability of PB-ECFCs in fibrin matrices. During the serial expansion, the gene induction of the markers associated with inflammatory activation such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 did not occur or only to limited extent. While further propagation up to 31 CPDL proceeded at a comparable rate, a marked upregulation of inflammatory markers occurred in all donors accompanied by a further increase of uPA/uPAR gene induction. The observed induction of inflammatory genes at later stages of long-term propagation of PB-ECFCs underpins the necessity to determine the right time-point for harvesting of sufficient number of cells with preserved therapeutical potential. The presented isolation method and subsequent cell expansion in platelet lysate

  8. Long-Term Expansion in Platelet Lysate Increases Growth of Peripheral Blood-Derived Endothelial-Colony Forming Cells and Their Growth Factor-Induced Sprouting Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tasev

    Full Text Available Efficient implementation of peripheral blood-derived endothelial-colony cells (PB-ECFCs as a therapeutical tool requires isolation and generation of a sufficient number of cells in ex vivo conditions devoid of animal-derived products. At present, little is known how the isolation and expansion procedure in xenogeneic-free conditions affects the therapeutical capacity of PB-ECFCs.The findings presented in this study indicate that human platelet lysate (PL as a serum substitute yields twice more colonies per mL blood compared to the conventional isolation with fetal bovine serum (FBS. Isolated ECFCs displayed a higher proliferative ability in PL supplemented medium than cells in FBS medium during 30 days expansion. The cells at 18 cumulative population doubling levels (CPDL retained their proliferative capacity, showed higher sprouting ability in fibrin matrices upon stimulation with FGF-2 and VEGF-A than the cells at 6 CPDL, and displayed low β-galactosidase activity. The increased sprouting of PB-ECFCs at 18 CPDL was accompanied by an intrinsic activation of the uPA/uPAR fibrinolytic system. Induced deficiency of uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator or uPAR (uPA receptor by siRNA technology completely abolished the angiogenic ability of PB-ECFCs in fibrin matrices. During the serial expansion, the gene induction of the markers associated with inflammatory activation such as VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 did not occur or only to limited extent. While further propagation up to 31 CPDL proceeded at a comparable rate, a marked upregulation of inflammatory markers occurred in all donors accompanied by a further increase of uPA/uPAR gene induction. The observed induction of inflammatory genes at later stages of long-term propagation of PB-ECFCs underpins the necessity to determine the right time-point for harvesting of sufficient number of cells with preserved therapeutical potential.The presented isolation method and subsequent cell expansion in platelet

  9. Regulation of Tumor Progression by Programmed Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing malignant tumors frequently encounter hypoxia and nutrient (e.g., glucose deprivation, which occurs because of insufficient blood supply. This results in necrotic cell death in the core region of solid tumors. Necrotic cells release their cellular cytoplasmic contents into the extracellular space, such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, which is a nonhistone nuclear protein, but acts as a proinflammatory and tumor-promoting cytokine when released by necrotic cells. These released molecules recruit immune and inflammatory cells, which exert tumor-promoting activity by inducing angiogenesis, proliferation, and invasion. Development of a necrotic core in cancer patients is also associated with poor prognosis. Conventionally, necrosis has been thought of as an unregulated process, unlike programmed cell death processes like apoptosis and autophagy. Recently, necrosis has been recognized as a programmed cell death, encompassing processes such as oncosis, necroptosis, and others. Metabolic stress-induced necrosis and its regulatory mechanisms have been poorly investigated until recently. Snail and Dlx-2, EMT-inducing transcription factors, are responsible for metabolic stress-induced necrosis in tumors. Snail and Dlx-2 contribute to tumor progression by promoting necrosis and inducing EMT and oncogenic metabolism. Oncogenic metabolism has been shown to play a role(s in initiating necrosis. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic stress-induced programmed necrosis that promote tumor progression and aggressiveness.

  10. Imaging Mitochondrial Redox Potential and Its Possible Link to Tumor Metastatic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin Z.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular redox states can regulate cell metabolism, growth, differentiation, motility, apoptosis, signaling pathways, and gene expressions etc. Growing body of literature suggest importance of redox status for cancer progression. While most studies on redox state were done on cells and tissue lysates, it is important to understand the role of redox state in tissue in vivo/ex vivo and image its heterogeneity. Redox scanning is a clinically-translatable method for imaging tissue mitochondrial redox potential with a submillimeter resolution. Redox scanning data in mouse models of human cancers demonstrate a correlation between mitochondrial redox state and tumor metastatic potential. I will discuss the significance of this correlation and possible directions for future research. PMID:22895837

  11. Ligament Tissue Engineering Using a Novel Porous Polycaprolactone Fumarate Scaffold and Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Grown in Platelet Lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eric R; Bravo, Dalibel; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Riester, Scott M; Chase, Steven; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Dietz, Allan B; van Wijnen, Andre J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Kakar, Sanjeev

    2015-11-01

    Surgical reconstruction of intra-articular ligament injuries is hampered by the poor regenerative potential of the tissue. We hypothesized that a novel composite polymer "neoligament" seeded with progenitor cells and growth factors would be effective in regenerating native ligamentous tissue. We synthesized a fumarate-derivative of polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF) to create macro-porous scaffolds to allow cell-cell communication and nutrient flow. Clinical grade human adipose tissue-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) were cultured in 5% human platelet lysate (PL) and seeded on scaffolds using a dynamic bioreactor. Cell growth, viability, and differentiation were examined using metabolic assays and immunostaining for ligament-related markers (e.g., glycosaminoglycans [GAGs], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], collagens, and tenascin-C). AMSCs seeded on three-dimensional (3D) PCLF scaffolds remain viable for at least 2 weeks with proliferating cells filling the pores. AMSC proliferation rates increased in PL compared to fetal bovine serum (FBS) (p ligament and tenogenic growth factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), especially when cultured in the presence of PL (p engineering and ligament regeneration.

  12. Donor T cells primed on leukemia lysate-pulsed recipient APCs mediate strong graft-versus-leukemia effects across MHC barriers in full chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Koestner, Wolfgang; Hapke, Martin; Schlaphoff, Verena; Länger, Florian; Baumann, Rolf; Koenecke, Christian; Cornberg, Markus; Welte, Karl; Blazar, Bruce R; Sauer, Martin G

    2009-04-30

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of host origin drive graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects but can also trigger life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) across major histocompatibility complex (MHC) barriers. We show that in vitro priming of donor lymphocytes can circumvent the need of recipient-derived APCs in vivo for mediating robust GVL effects and significantly diminishes the risk of severe GVHD. In vitro, generated and expanded T cells (ETCs) mediate anti-leukemia effects only when primed on recipient-derived APCs. Loading of APCs in vitro with leukemia cell lysate, chimerism status of the recipient, and timing of adoptive transfer after HCT are important factors determining the outcome. Delayed transfer of ETCs resulted in strong GVL effects in leukemia-bearing full chimera (FC) and mixed chimera (MC) recipients, which were comparable with the GVL/GVHD rates observed after the transfer of naive donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). Upon early transfer, GVL effects were more pronounced with ETCs but at the expense of significant GVHD. The degree of GVHD was most severe in MCs after transfer of ETCs that had been in vitro primed either on nonpulsed recipient-derived APCs or with donor-derived APCs.

  13. Feasibility and Efficiency of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Culture with Allogeneic Platelet Lysate-Supplementation for Cell Therapy against Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbo Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is increasing interest in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs as regeneration therapy against cerebral stroke. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of hBMSC cultures with allogeneic platelet lysates (PLs. Platelet concentrates (PC were harvested from healthy volunteers and made into single donor-derived PL (sPL. The PL mixtures (mPL were made from three different sPL. Some growth factors and platelet cell surface antigens were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The hBMSCs cultured with 10% PL were analyzed for their proliferative potential, surface markers, and karyotypes. The cells were incubated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO agents and injected into a pig brain. MRI and histological analysis were performed. Consequently, nine lots of sPL and three mPL were prepared. ELISA analysis showed that PL contained adequate growth factors and a particle of platelet surface antigens. Cell proliferation capacity of PLs was equivalent to or higher than that of fetal calf serum (FCS. No contradiction in cell surface markers and no chromosomal aberrations were found. The MRI detected the distribution of SPIO-labeled hBMSCs in the pig brain. In summary, the hBMSCs cultured with allogeneic PL are suitable for cell therapy against stroke.

  14. Freeze-thaw lysates of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells induce differentiation of functionally competent regulatory T cells from memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Olivia C; Lawrence, Emma; Gray, Alice P; Njie, Madi; Riley, Eleanor M; Walther, Michael

    2012-07-01

    In addition to naturally occurring regulatory T (nTreg) cells derived from the thymus, functionally competent Treg cells can be induced in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes in response to TCR stimulation with cytokine costimulation. Using these artificial stimulation conditions, both naïve as well as memory CD4(+) T cells can be converted into induced Treg (iTreg) cells, but the cellular origin of such iTreg cells in vivo or in response to more physiologic stimulation with pathogen-derived antigens is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that a freeze/thaw lysate of Plasmodium falciparum schizont extract (PfSE) can induce functionally competent Treg cells from peripheral lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner without the addition of exogenous costimulatory factors. The PfSE-mediated induction of Treg cells required the presence of nTreg cells in the starting culture. Further experiments mixing either memory or naïve T cells with antigen presenting cells and CFSE-labeled Treg cells identified CD4(+) CD45RO(+) CD25(-) memory T cells rather than Treg cells as the primary source of PfSE-induced Treg cells. Taken together, these data suggest that in the presence of nTreg cells, PfSE induces memory T cells to convert into iTreg cells that subsequently expand alongside PfSE-induced effector T cells. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Validated hemoglobin-depletion approach for red blood cell lysate proteome analysis by means of 2D PAGE and Orbitrap MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpurgis, Katja; Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Wenzel, Folker; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of the cytosolic red blood cell (RBC) proteome is negatively affected by the high intracellular amount of hemoglobin complicating the detection of low-abundant cytosolic proteins. In this study, an alternative approach for the preparation of hemoglobin-depleted RBC lysates is presented, which was established in combination with downstream 2D PAGE analysis and Orbitrap MS. Hemoglobin removal was accomplished by using HemoVoid(TM) depletion reagent, which enabled a very efficient enrichment of low-abundant proteins by simultaneously reducing the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. After defining selected sample preparation protocol characteristics including specificity/selectivity, precision and linearity, a 2D reference map (pH 4-7) of the cytosolic RBC proteome was generated and a total of 189 different proteins were identified. Thus, the presented approach proved to be highly suitable to prepare reproducible high-resolution 2D protein maps of the RBC cytosol and provides a helpful tool for future studies investigating disease- or storage-induced changes of the cytosolic RBC proteome. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Development of chitosan oleate ionic micelles loaded with silver sulfadiazine to be associated with platelet lysate for application in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellera, Eleonora; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sandri, Giuseppina; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Del Fante, Claudia; Perotti, Cesare; Grisoli, Pietro; Caramella, Carla

    2014-11-01

    In the treatment of chronic wounds, topical application of anti-infective drugs such as silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) is of primary importance to avoid infections and accelerate wound repair. AgSD is used in burns and chronic wounds for its wide antibacterial spectrum, but presents limitations due to poor solubility and cytotoxicity. In the present work polymeric micelles obtained by self-assembling of chitosan ionically modified by interaction with oleic acid were developed as carriers for AgSD to overcome the drawbacks of the drug. The AgSD loaded micelles were intended to be associated in wound healing with platelet lysate (PL), a hemoderivative rich in growth factors. Unloaded micelles demonstrated good compatibility with both fibroblasts and PL. The relevance of chitosan concentration and of the ratio between chitosan and oleic acid to the drug loading and the particle size of nanoparticles was studied. A marked increase (up to 100 times with respect to saturated solution) of AgSD concentration in micelle dispersion was obtained. Moreover, the encapsulation reduced the cytotoxic effect of the drug towards fibroblasts and the drug incompatibility with PDGF-AB (platelet derived growth factor), chosen as representative of platelet growth factors. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A novel dressing for the combined delivery of platelet lysate and vancomycin hydrochloride to chronic skin ulcers: Hyaluronic acid particles in alginate matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, S; Mori, M; Vigani, B; Bonferoni, M C; Sandri, G; Riva, F; Caramella, C; Ferrari, F

    2018-06-15

    The aim of the present work was to develop a medication allowing for the combined delivery of platelet lysate (PL) and an anti-infective model drug, vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM), to chronic skin ulcers. A simple method was set up for the preparation of hyaluronic acid (HA) core-shell particles, loaded with PL and coated with calcium alginate, embedded in a VCM containing alginate matrix. Two different CaCl 2 concentrations were investigated to allow for HA/PL core-shell particle formation. The resulting dressings were characterized for mechanical and hydration properties and tested in vitro (on fibroblasts) and ex-vivo (on skin biopsies) for biological activity. They were found of sufficient mechanical strength to withstand packaging and handling stress and able to absorb a high amount of wound exudate and to form a protective gel on the lesion area. The CaCl 2 concentration used for shell formation did not affect VCM release from the alginate matrix, but strongly modified the release of PGFAB (chosen as representative of growth factors present in PL) from HA particles. In vitro and ex vivo tests provided sufficient proof of concept of the ability of dressings to improve skin ulcers healing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of allogeneic platelet lysate and fetal bovine serum for in vitro expansion of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-pil; Tsuzuki, Nao; Haneda, Shingo; Yamada, Kazutaka; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapy and tissue engineering approaches. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used for in vitro MSC expansion; however, the use of FBS may be associated with ethical, scientific, and safety issues. This study aimed to compare the ability of allogeneic platelet lysate (PL) and FBS to cause equine bone marrow-derived MSC expansion. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirate in media supplemented with either PL or FBS, and cell proliferation properties and characteristics were examined. There were no significant differences in MSC yield, colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay, and population doubling time between PL and FBS cultures. In addition, both PL-MSCs and FBS-MSCs showed similar results in term of ALP staining, osteogenic differentiation, and RT-PCR, although there were subtle differences in morphology, growth pattern, and adhesive properties. These results suggest that PL is a suitable alternative to FBS for use in equine MSC expansion, without the problems related to FBS use. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  19. The Potential of GMP-Compliant Platelet Lysate to Induce a Permissive State for Cardiovascular Transdifferentiation in Human Mediastinal Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Siciliano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs are considered eligible candidates for cardiovascular stem cell therapy applications due to their cardiac transdifferentiation potential and immunotolerance. Over the years, the in vitro culture of ADMSCs by platelet lysate (PL, a hemoderivate containing numerous growth factors and cytokines derived from platelet pools, has allowed achieving a safe and reproducible methodology to obtain high cell yield prior to clinical administration. Nevertheless, the biological properties of PL are still to be fully elucidated. In this brief report we show the potential ability of PL to induce a permissive state of cardiac-like transdifferentiation and to cause epigenetic modifications. RTPCR results indicate an upregulation of Cx43, SMA, c-kit, and Thy-1 confirmed by immunofluorescence staining, compared to standard cultures with foetal bovine serum. Moreover, PL-cultured ADMSCs exhibit a remarkable increase of both acetylated histones 3 and 4, with a patient-dependent time trend, and methylation at lysine 9 on histone 3 preceding the acetylation. Expression levels of p300 and SIRT-1, two major regulators of histone 3, are also upregulated after treatment with PL. In conclusion, PL could unravel novel biological properties beyond its routine employment in noncardiac applications, providing new insights into the plasticity of human ADMSCs.

  20. The Potential of GMP-Compliant Platelet Lysate to Induce a Permissive State for Cardiovascular Transdifferentiation in Human Mediastinal Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Antonella; Ponti, Donatella; Iudicone, Paola; Rendina, Erino Angelo; Calogero, Antonella; Pierelli, Luca; Ibrahim, Mohsen; De Falco, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are considered eligible candidates for cardiovascular stem cell therapy applications due to their cardiac transdifferentiation potential and immunotolerance. Over the years, the in vitro culture of ADMSCs by platelet lysate (PL), a hemoderivate containing numerous growth factors and cytokines derived from platelet pools, has allowed achieving a safe and reproducible methodology to obtain high cell yield prior to clinical administration. Nevertheless, the biological properties of PL are still to be fully elucidated. In this brief report we show the potential ability of PL to induce a permissive state of cardiac-like transdifferentiation and to cause epigenetic modifications. RTPCR results indicate an upregulation of Cx43, SMA, c-kit, and Thy-1 confirmed by immunofluorescence staining, compared to standard cultures with foetal bovine serum. Moreover, PL-cultured ADMSCs exhibit a remarkable increase of both acetylated histones 3 and 4, with a patient-dependent time trend, and methylation at lysine 9 on histone 3 preceding the acetylation. Expression levels of p300 and SIRT-1, two major regulators of histone 3, are also upregulated after treatment with PL. In conclusion, PL could unravel novel biological properties beyond its routine employment in noncardiac applications, providing new insights into the plasticity of human ADMSCs. PMID:26495284

  1. Phenotypical and functional characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow: comparison of culture using different media supplemented with human platelet lysate or fetal bovine serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to differentiate into several mesenchymal lineages, classically derived from bone marrow (BM) but potentially from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Although they are becoming a good tool for regenerative medicine, they usually need to be expanded in fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented media. Human platelet lysate (HPL) has recently been proposed as substitute for safety reasons, but it is not yet clear how this supplement influences the properties of expanded MSCs. Methods In the present study, we compared the effect of various media combining autologous HPL with or without FBS on phenotypic, proliferative and functional (differentiation, cytokine secretion profile) characteristics of human BM-derived MSCs. Results Despite less expression of adipogenic and osteogenic markers, MSCs cultured in HPL-supplemented media fully differentiated along osteoblastic, adipogenic, chondrogenic and vascular smooth muscle lineages. The analyses of particular specific proteins expressed during osteogenic differentiation (calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and parathormone receptor (PTHR)) showed their decrease at D0 before any induction for MSC cultured with HPL mostly at high percentage (10%HPL). The cytokine dosage showed a clear increase of proliferation capacity and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion. Conclusions This study shows that MSCs can be expanded in media supplemented with HPL that can totally replace FBS. HPL-supplemented media not only preserves their phenotype as well as their differentiation capacity, but also shortens culture time by increasing their growth rate. PMID:22333342

  2. Bone Formation with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral or Biphasic Calcium Phosphate in the Presence of Autologous Platelet Lysate: Comparative Investigation in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Chakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone substitutes alone or supplemented with platelet-derived concentrates are widely used to promote bone regeneration but their potency remains controversial. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare the regenerative potential of preparations containing autologous platelet lysate (APL and particles of either deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM or biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, two bone substitutes with different resorption patterns. Rabbit APL was prepared by freeze-thawing a platelet suspension. Critical-size defects in rabbit femoral condyle were filled with DBBM or DBBM+APL and BCP or BCP+APL. Rabbits were sacrificed after six weeks and newly formed bone and residual implanted material were evaluated using nondemineralized histology and histomorphometry. New bone was observed around particles of all fillers tested. In the defects filled with BCP, the newly formed bone area was greater (70%; P<0.001 while the residual material area was lower (60%; P<0.001 than that observed in those filled with DBBM. New bone and residual material area of defects filled with either APL+DBBM or APL+BCP were similar to those observed in those filled with the material alone. In summary, osteoconductivity and resorption of BCP were greater than those of DBBM, while APL associated with either DBBM or BCP did not have an additional benefit.

  3. Sponge-Like Dressings Based on the Association of Chitosan and Sericin for the Treatment of Chronic Skin Ulcers. II. Loading of the Hemoderivative Platelet Lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Michela; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Bonferoni, Maria C; Sandri, Giuseppina; Riva, Federica; Tenci, Marika; Del Fante, Claudia; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Caramella, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Platelet lysate (PL) was loaded into dressings based on chitosan glutamate (CSG) low and high molecular weight, sericin (Ser), and glycine (Gly). A synergic effect of Ser and PL on fibroblast proliferation was proved in vitro. Two different PL loading approaches were considered: the first provided to prepare dressings by freeze-drying a mixture of PL and CSG/Gly/Ser solution, the second approach consisted in the extemporarily loading of PL in the CSG/Gly/Ser freeze-dried dressings. As for the first approach, PL loading did not produce any variation in dressing mechanical properties. Such dressings absorbed a high amount (about 8-fold of dry weight) of phosphate-buffered saline (fluid mimicking wound exudate), forming a gel with pseudoplastic and elastic properties. Platelet-derived growth factor AB assay indicated that neither freeze-drying nor the excipients alter PL growth factor content. As for the second approach, mechanical and rheological properties of the gel formed upon PL absorption enabled to choose a PL loading of about 90 μL/cm(2). Upon contact with fibroblasts, all PL loaded formulations increased the number not only of viable cells but also of those in the proliferative phase. Histological studies effected on human skin strips pointed out the positive effect of PL loaded dressings on dermal matrix reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Particulate systems based on pectin/chitosan association for the delivery of manuka honey components and platelet lysate in chronic skin ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenci, Marika; Rossi, Silvia; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sandri, Giuseppina; Boselli, Cinzia; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Daglia, Maria; Icaro Cornaglia, Antonia; Gioglio, Luciana; Perotti, Cesare; Caramella, Carla; Ferrari, Franca

    2016-07-25

    The aim of the present work was the development of a powder formulation for the delivery of manuka honey (MH) bioactive components and platelet lysate (PL) in chronic skin ulcers. In particular pectin (PEC)/chitosan (CS) particles were prepared by ionotropic gelation in the presence of calcium chloride and subsequently characterized for particle size, hydration properties and mechanical resistance. Different experimental conditions (calcium chloride and CS concentrations; rest time in the cationic solution) were considered in order to obtain particles characterized by optimal size, hydration properties and mechanical resistance. Two different fractions of MH were examined: one (Fr1), rich in methylglyoxal and the other (Fr2), rich in polyphenols. Particles were loaded with Fr1, fraction able to enhance in vitro proliferation of human fibroblasts, and with PL. The presence of CS in Fr1-loaded particles produced an improvement in cell proliferation. Moreover, PL loading into particles did not affect the biological activity of the hemoderivative. In vivo efficacy of PL- and Fr1-loaded particles was evaluated on a rat wound model. Both treatments markedly increased wound healing to the same extent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of the bacteriophage community in induced lysates of undefined mesophilic mixed-strain DL-cultures using classical and metagenomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Musemma K; Olsen, Mette L; Kot, Witold; Neve, Horst; Castro-Mejía, Josué L; Janzen, Thomas; Hansen, Lars H; Nielsen, Dennis S; Sørensen, Søren J; Heller, Knut J; Vogensen, Finn K

    2018-05-02

    To investigate the notion that starter cultures can be a reservoir of bacteriophages (phages) in the dairy environment, strains of three DL-starters (undefined mesophilic mixed-strain starters containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc species) were selected and induced by mitomycin C, and the whole starters were induced spontaneously as well as by mitomycin C. Frequency of induction of 17%, 26% and 12% was estimated among the isolates of the three starters, with majority of the induced phages mostly showing morphological similarity to known P335 phages, and with a fraction of them showing atypical features. Sequences of P335 quasi-species phages were found to be the most frequent entities in almost all metaviromes derived from the induced lysates. However, sequences of Sk1virus phages (previously 936 phages) were emerged as the predominant entities following spontaneous induction of one of the starters, suggesting a phage-carrier state. Sequences of other phages such as 949, 1706, C2virus (previously c2 phages) and Leuconostoc species could also be observed but with a lower relative frequency. Taken together, the majority of the P335 quasi-species phages could represent the induced viral community of the starters and the remaining phage groups mainly represent the background ambient viral community. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. β class II tubulin predominates in normal and tumor breast tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, James H; Hiser, Laree; Davis, Jennifer A; Thomas, Nancy Stubbs; Tucci, Michelle A; Benghuzzi, Hamed A; Frankfurter, Anthony; Correia, John J; Lobert, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Antimitotic chemotherapeutic agents target tubulin, the major protein in mitotic spindles. Tubulin isotype composition is thought to be both diagnostic of tumor progression and a determinant of the cellular response to chemotherapy. This implies that there is a difference in isotype composition between normal and tumor tissues. To determine whether such a difference occurs in breast tissues, total tubulin was fractionated from lysates of paired normal and tumor breast tissues, and the amounts of β-tubulin classes I + IV, II, and III were measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only primary tumor tissues, before chemotherapy, were examined. Her2/neu protein amplification occurs in about 30% of breast tumors and is considered a marker for poor prognosis. To gain insight into whether tubulin isotype levels might be correlated with prognosis, ELISAs were used to quantify Her2/neu protein levels in these tissues. β-Tubulin isotype distributions in normal and tumor breast tissues were similar. The most abundant β-tubulin isotypes in these tissues were β-tubulin classes II and I + IV. Her2/neu levels in tumor tissues were 5–30-fold those in normal tissues, although there was no correlation between the Her2/neu biomarker and tubulin isotype levels. These results suggest that tubulin isotype levels, alone or in combination with Her2/neu protein levels, might not be diagnostic of tumorigenesis in breast cancer. However, the presence of a broad distribution of these tubulin isotypes (for example, 40–75% β-tubulin class II) in breast tissue, in conjunction with other factors, might still be relevant to disease progression and cellular response to antimitotic drugs

  7. [Immune system and tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Imaging of pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most frequent solid tumor of the pancreas. This tumor has distinct features including early obstruction of the pancreatic duct, diminished enhancement after administration of contrast material due to desmoplastic growth, high propensity to infiltrate adjacent structures and to metastasize into the liver and the peritoneum. Hormone active endocrine tumors cause specific clinical symptoms. Imaging is aimed at localization of these hypervascular tumors. Non hormone active tumors are most frequently malignant and demonstrate very varying features. Cystic pancreatic tumors are increasingly detected by means of cross sectional imaging. Exact classification can be achieved with knowledge of the macropathology and considering clinical presentation as well as age and gender of the patients. (orig.)

  9. Pooled human platelet lysate versus fetal bovine serum—investigating the proliferation rate, chromosome stability and angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells intended for clinical use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Because of an increasing focus on the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in clinical trials, the culture conditions for these cells are being optimized. We compared the proliferation rates and chromosomal stability of ASCs that had been cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) ......) supplemented with either pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) or clinical-grade fetal bovine serum (FBS) (DMEM(pHPL) versus DMEM(FBS))....

  10. Isotope scanning for tumor localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-09-15

    At the request of the Government of the United Arab Republic, the Agency provided the services of an expert for the establishment in the UAR of a tumor localization program using photoscanning techniques and appropriate radioactive tracers. Photoscanning is a recently developed technique whereby the differences in isotope concentrations are enhanced on the record, and this facilitates the interpretation of the record. A variety of brain tumors were located, using a suitable radioactive tracer (Hg-203 - labelled Neohydrin) obtained from the USA. In some other investigations, processes in the kidney were scanned. Further, radioactive gold was used to demonstrate the normal and pathological spleen and liver and these tests showed various types of space occupying lesions resulting from malignancy and the parasitic infections endemic to the area. While the localization of brain tumors by scanning techniques is extremely useful, it does not always establish the precise extent of the tumor which should be known at the time of surgery. Dr. Bender, therefore, thought it advisable to instruct personnel in the use of what is known as an in-vivo needle scintillation probe - a technique for the investigation of the isotope concentration in a particular tissue during operation. The necessary instrument was obtained for this purpose and demonstrations were given; one patient was examined in this way at the time of surgery at the University of Alexandria Hospital.

  11. Hallazgo de antígenos en un tumor murino espontáneo no inmunogénico mediante el uso de una vacuna basada en células dendríticas Unveiling antigens in a non-immunogenic spontaneous murine tumor using a dendritic cell-based vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica L. Reffo

    2008-08-01

    absence of tumor antigens or to the existence of tolerogenic mechanisms preventing such antigens from initiating an antitumor immune response. We have used two murine tumors -a non-immunogenic spontaneous lymphoma (LB and a strongly immunogenic methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (MC-C- together with a vaccination strategy based on the inoculation of dendritic cells (DC loaded with a tumor lysate. When DC were pulsed with LB lysate (DC+LB, no maturation of DC was achieved in vitro and no protection against LB implants after DC+LB inoculation was observed in vivo. On the other hand, when DC were pulsed with MC-C lysate (DC+MC-C, maturation of DC was observed along with a strong protection against MC-C implants after DC+MC-C inoculaton. Finally, when DC were pulsed with both LB and MC-C lysates (DC+LB+MC-C, maturation of DC and protection against LB implants were achieved. Since no immune cross reaction between MC-C and LB was ever observed, the most likely interpretation is that LB bears specific tumor antigens but lacks other signals to achieve DC maturation. These signals would be provided by MC-C which would enable DC to mature and to initiate an effective anti-LB immune response.

  12. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevertz, Jana L; Torquato, Salvatore; Gillies, George T

    2008-01-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics

  13. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  14. Management of CNS tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of tumors of the CNS has undergone a number of changes based on the impact of CT. The use of intraoperative US for the establishment of tumor location and tumor histology is demonstrated. MR imaging also is beginning to make an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of tumors of the CNS. Examples of MR images are shown. The authors then discuss the important aspects of tumor histology as it affects management and newer concepts in surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy on tumor treatment. The role of intraoperative placement of radioactive sources, the utilization of heavy particle radiation therapy, and the potential role of other experimental radiation therapy techniques are discussed. The role of hyperfractionated radiation and of neutrons and x-ray in a mixed-beam treatment are discussed in perspective with standard radiation therapy. Current chemotherapy techniques, including intraarterial chemotherapy, are discussed. The complications of radiation therapy alone and in combination with chemotherapy in the management of primary brain tumors, brain metastases, and leukemia are reviewed. A summary of the current management of pituitary tumors, including secreting pituitary adenomas and chromophobe adenomas, are discussed. The treatment with heavy particle radiation, transsphenoidal microsurgical removal, and combined radiotherapeutic and surgical management are considered. Tumor metastasis management of lesions of the brain and spinal cord are considered

  15. Morphogenesis and Complexity of the Tumor Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    A mechanism to describe the apoptosis process at mesoscopic level through p53 is proposed in this paper. A deterministic model given by three differential equations is deduced from the mesoscopic approach, which exhibits sustained oscillations caused by a supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. Taking as hypothesis that the p53 sustained oscillation is the fundamental mechanism for apoptosis regulation; the model predicts that it is necessary a strict control of p53 to stimulated it, which is an important consideration to established new therapy strategy to fight cancer. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth allows us to describe the most important regularities of these systems. A stochastic model, based on the most important processes that take place at the level of individual cells, is proposed to predict the dynamical behavior of the expected radius of the tumor and its fractal dimension. It was found that the tumor has a characteristic fractal dimension, which contains the necessary information to predict the tumor growth until it reaches a stationary state. The mathematical modeling of tumor growth is an approach to explain the complex nature of these systems. A model that describes tumor growth was obtained by using a mesoscopic formalism and fractal dimension. This model theoretically predicts the relation between the morphology of the cell pattern and the mitosis/apoptosis quotient that helps to predict tumor growth from tumoral cells fractal dimension. The relation between the tumor macroscopic morphology and the cell pattern morphology is also determined. This could explain why the interface fractal dimension decreases with the increase of the cell pattern fractal dimension and consequently with the increase of the mitosis/apoptosis relation. Indexes to characterize tumoral cell proliferation and invasion capacities are proposed and used to predict the growth of different types of tumors. These indexes also show that the proliferation capacity is

  16. Tumor carcinoide apendicular Appendiceal carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Vázquez Palanco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue dar a conocer un interesante caso de tumor carcinoide que se presentó con cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda. El paciente fue un varón de 8 años de edad, al cual se realizó apendicectomía a causa de una apendicitis aguda. El resultado anatomopatológico confirmó un tumor de células endocrinas (argentafinoma, tumor carcinoide en el tercio distal del órgano, que infiltraba hasta la serosa, y apendicitis aguda supurada. El paciente fue enviado a un servicio de oncohematología para tratamiento oncoespecífico. Por lo inusual de estos tumores en edades tempranas y por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta no consecuente, decidimos presentar este caso a la comunidad científica nacional e internacional. Es extremadamente importante el seguimiento de los pacientes con apendicitis aguda y de las conclusiones del examen histológico, por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta inadecuada en una situación como esta.The objective of this paper was to make known an interesting case of carcinoid tumor that presented a clinical picture of acute appendicitis.The patient was an eight-year-old boy that underwent appendectomy due to an acute appendicitis. The anatomopathological report confirmed an endocrine cell tumor (argentaffinoma, carcinoid tumor in the distal third of the organ that infiltrated up to the serosa, and acute suppurative appendicitis. The patient was referred to an oncohematology service for oncospecific treatment. As it is a rare tumor at early ages, and taking into account what a inconsequent behavior may represent for the child, it was decided to present this case to the national and international scientific community. The follow-up of the patients with acute appendicitis and of the conclusions of the histological examination is extremely important considering what an inadequate conduct may represent for the child in a situation like this.

  17. An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen. Key words: Collision tumor, stromal tumor, adenocarcinoma ...

  18. Pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [de

  19. [Pituitary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesser, J; Schlamp, K; Bendszus, M

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15% of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65% of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50% secrete prolactin, 10% secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6% secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10% of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland.

  20. Does Tumor Development Follow a Programmed Path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The initiation and progression of a tumor is a complex process, resembling the growth of a embryo in terms of the stages of development and increasing differentiation and somatic evolution of constituent cells in the community of cells that constitute the tumor. Typically we view cancer cells as rogue individuals violating the rules of the games played within an organism, but I would suggest that what we see is a programmed and algorithmic process. I will then question If tumor progression is dominated by the random acquisition of successive survival traits, or by a systematic and sequential unpacking of ``weapons'' from a pre-adapted ``toolkit'' of genetic and epigenetic potentialities? Can we then address this hypothesis by data mining solid tumors layer by layer? Support of the NSF and the NCI is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. MRI Brain Tumor Segmentation Methods- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gursangeet, Kaur; Jyoti, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Medical image processing and its segmentation is an active and interesting area for researchers. It has reached at the tremendous place in diagnosing tumors after the discovery of CT and MRI. MRI is an useful tool to detect the brain tumor and segmentation is performed to carry out the useful portion from an image. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of different image segmentation methods like watershed algorithm, morphological operations, neutrosophic sets, thresholding, K-...

  2. Ewing tumors in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Ranft, Andreas; Jürgens, Heribert

    2008-01-01

    Malignancies in infancy are extremely rare. Ewing tumors are hardly ever noted in these children. Since it is generally assumed that malignancies in infancy have an extremely poor outcome, we wanted to investigate whether this was also the case in Ewing tumors. We identified in the Munster data

  3. GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pavel M.E., Baum U., Hahn E.G., Hensen J. Doxorubucin and streptozocin after failed biotherapy of Neuroendocrine tumors. Int J. Gastrointest Cancer 2005; 35 179-185. 33. Yao J.C., Phan A., Hoff P.M., et al. Targeting vas- cular endothelial growth factor in advanced carci- noid tumors: a random assignment phase II study.

  4. Atypically localized glomus tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meric Ugurlar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors, may aid diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 112-117

  5. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  6. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  7. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  8. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, M. V.; Budyal, Sweta; Kasliwal, Rajeev; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented. PMID:23226664

  9. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Kee; Phi, Ji Hoon; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies for neuronal differentiation in glial tumors revealed subsets of tumors having both characteristics of glial and neuronal lineages. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation can be observed with diverse phenotypes and histologic grades. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle and papillary glioneuronal tumor have been newly classified as distinct disease entities. There are other candidates for classification, such as the glioneuronal tumor without pseudopapillary architecture, glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands, and the malignant glioneuronal tumor. The clinical significance of these previously unclassified tumors should be confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  11. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  12. Wilm's tumor in adulthood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, B.P.; Bukharkin, B.V.; Gotsadze, D.T.

    1984-01-01

    Wilms' tumor occurs extremely rarely in adults. There is no consensus in the literature on the problems of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the diseasa. Ten adult patients (aged 16-29) with Wilms' tumor formed the study group. They made up 0.9 per cent of the total number of kidney tumor patients. The peculiarities of the clinical course that distinguish adult nephroblastoma from renal cancer and Wilms' tumor of the infancy were analysed. The latent period appeared to be long. Problems of diagnosis are discussed. Angiography proved to be of the highest diagnostic value. Complex treatment including transperitoneal nephrectory, radiation and chemotherapy was carried out in 7 cases, palliative radiation treatmenchemotherapy andn 3. Unlike pediatric nephroblastomt - i Wilms' tumor in adults was resistant to radiation. Treatment results still remained unsatisfactory: 6 patients died 7-19 months after the beginning of treatment

  13. Radiotherapy of pineal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.; Sheline, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. Recently however, major technical advances related to the use of the operating microscope and development of microsurgical techniques have prompted a renewed interest in the direct surgical approach for biopsy and/or excision. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region (i.e., germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, glial tumors, and cysts) and their differing biological behavior, controversy also surrounds aspects of radiotherapy such as: the optimal radiation dose, the volume to be irradiated, and indications for prophylactic spinal irradiation. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions

  14. Parallel evolution of tumor subclones mimics diversity between tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumor adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicines approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumor (intratumor heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumors (intertumor heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, ...

  15. Localization of the experimental tumor regrowth after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, H; Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer

    1978-08-01

    The process of the structural changes in the irradiated AH109A tumor and its regrowth was studied, using histologic and transparent-chamber techniques. The tumor tissue was divided into four successive layers, according to vascular morphology and measures. The vascularity was the greatest in the outermost region and decreased towards the inner part of the tumor until necrosis. The tumor was irradiated with various doses of x and gamma-rays. The inside hypoxic region was destroyed completely after 3,000 rad and regrowths started from the outermost area of the tumor where oxygen enhancing effect to irradiation was supposed to be the greatest.

  16. Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotter, Susan L.; Wood, Roger; McWeeny, David J.

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjuction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15°C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment and during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeasts and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds.

  17. Evaluation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotter, S.L.; Wood, R.; McWeeny, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacterial (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15 0 C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment amd during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeast and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds. (author)

  18. Ligament Tissue Engineering Using a Novel Porous Polycaprolactone Fumarate Scaffold and Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Grown in Platelet Lysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eric R.; Bravo, Dalibel; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Riester, Scott M.; Chase, Steven; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Dietz, Allan B.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical reconstruction of intra-articular ligament injuries is hampered by the poor regenerative potential of the tissue. We hypothesized that a novel composite polymer “neoligament” seeded with progenitor cells and growth factors would be effective in regenerating native ligamentous tissue. Methods: We synthesized a fumarate-derivative of polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF) to create macro-porous scaffolds to allow cell–cell communication and nutrient flow. Clinical grade human adipose tissue-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) were cultured in 5% human platelet lysate (PL) and seeded on scaffolds using a dynamic bioreactor. Cell growth, viability, and differentiation were examined using metabolic assays and immunostaining for ligament-related markers (e.g., glycosaminoglycans [GAGs], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], collagens, and tenascin-C). Results: AMSCs seeded on three-dimensional (3D) PCLF scaffolds remain viable for at least 2 weeks with proliferating cells filling the pores. AMSC proliferation rates increased in PL compared to fetal bovine serum (FBS) (p < 0.05). Cells had a low baseline expression of ALP and GAG, but increased expression of total collagen when induced by the ligament and tenogenic growth factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), especially when cultured in the presence of PL (p < 0.01) instead of FBS (p < 0.05). FGF-2 and PL also significantly increased immunostaining of tenascin-C and collagen at 2 and 4 weeks compared with human fibroblasts. Summary: Our results demonstrate that AMSCs proliferate and eventually produce a collagen-rich extracellular matrix on porous PCLF scaffolds. This novel scaffold has potential in stem cell engineering and ligament regeneration. PMID:26413793

  19. Evaluation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotter, S L; Wood, R; McWeeny, D J [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Norwich (UK). Food Science Lab.

    1990-01-01

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjunction with a Gram negative bacterial (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15{sup 0}C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment amd during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeast and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds. (author).

  20. Platelet lysate as a substitute for animal serum for the ex-vivo expansion of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astori, Giuseppe; Amati, Eliana; Bambi, Franco; Bernardi, Martina; Chieregato, Katia; Schäfer, Richard; Sella, Sabrina; Rodeghiero, Francesco

    2016-07-13

    The use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a cell culture supplement is discouraged by regulatory authorities to limit the risk of zoonoses and xenogeneic immune reactions in the transplanted host. Additionally, FBS production came under scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Platelet derivatives have been proposed as FBS substitutes for the ex-vivo expansion of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) since platelet-derived growth factors can promote MSC ex-vivo expansion. Platelet-derived growth factors are present in platelet lysate (PL) obtained after repeated freezing-thawing cycles of the platelet-rich plasma or by applying physiological stimuli such as thrombin or CaCl2.PL-expanded MSCs have been used already in the clinic, taking advantage of their faster proliferation compared with FBS-expanded preparations. Should PL be applied to other biopharmaceutical products, its demand is likely to increase dramatically. The use of fresh platelet units for the production of PL raises concerns due to limited availability of platelet donors. Expired units might represent an alternative, but further data are needed to define safety, including pathogen reduction, and functionality of the obtained PL. In addition, relevant questions concerning the definition of PL release criteria, including concentration ranges of specific growth factors in PL batches for various clinical indications, also need to be addressed. We are still far from a common definition of PL and standardized PL manufacture due to our limited knowledge of the mechanisms that mediate PL-promoting cell growth. Here, we concisely discuss aspects of PL as MSC culture supplement as a preliminary step towards an agreed definition of the required characteristics of PL for the requirements of manufacturers and users.

  1. Human platelet lysate successfully promotes proliferation and subsequent chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells: a comparison with articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildner, F; Eder, M J; Hofer, K; Aberl, J; Redl, H; van Griensven, M; Gabriel, C; Peterbauer-Scherb, A

    2015-07-01

    Fetal calf serum (FCS) bears a potential risk for carrying diseases and eliciting immune reactions. Nevertheless, it still represents the gold standard as medium supplement in cell culture. In the present study, human platelet lysate (PL) was tested as an alternative to FCS for the expansion and subsequent chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs were expanded with 10% FCS (group F) or 5% PL (group P). Subsequently, three-dimensional (3D) micromass pellets were created and cultured for 5 weeks in chondrogenic differentiation medium. Additionally, the de- and redifferentiation potential of human articular chondrocytes (HACs) was evaluated and compared to ASCs. Both HACs and ASCs cultured with PL showed strongly enhanced proliferation rates. Redifferentiation of HACs was possible for cells expanded up to 3.3 population doublings (PD). At this stage, PL-expanded HACs demonstrated better redifferentiation potential than FCS-expanded cells. ASCs could also be differentiated following extended passaging. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) quantification and qRT-PCR of 10 cartilage related markers demonstrated a tendency for increased chondrogenic differentiation of PL-expanded ASCs compared to cells expanded with FCS. Histologically, collagen type II but also collagen type X was mainly present in group P. The present study demonstrates that PL strongly induces proliferation of ASCs, while the chondrogenic differentiation potential is retained. HACs also showed enhanced proliferation and even better redifferentiation when previously expanded with PL. This suggests that PL is superior to FCS as a supplement for the expansion of ASCs and HACs, particularly with regard to chondrogenic (re)differentiation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Equine platelet lysate as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in equine mesenchymal stromal cell culture - too much of a good thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K A; Koch, T G

    2016-03-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are often culture-expanded in vitro. Presently, expansion medium (EM) for MSC is supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS). However, increasing cost, variable composition and potential risks associated with bovine antigens call for alternatives. Platelet lysate (PL) has shown promise as an alternative supplement. To determine how equine umbilical cord blood (CB) MSC proliferate in EM enriched with PL or FBS at various concentrations. Randomised dose escalation study. Platelet concentrate was generated from 5 equine whole blood samples through a double centrifugation method and standardised to 1 × 10(12) platelets/l prior to a freeze/thaw cycle to produce PL. Pooled PL or pooled FBS was added to EM at concentrations of 5% to 60%. Proliferation of 4 equine CB-MSC cultures was determined after 4 days using a resazurin semiquantitative assay. Cord blood-MSC proliferated with a dose-dependent response with no significant difference found between PL and FBS up to a 30% concentration. Beyond 30%, proliferation fell in the PL-cultured cells, while continued dose-dependent proliferation was noted in the FBS-cultured cells. Despite reduced cell numbers in high PL concentrations, live/dead staining revealed that adherent cells remained viable. Expansion medium enriched with PL can support short-term equine CB-MSC proliferation at conventional culture concentrations. Based on the unexpected suppression of CB-MSC at higher PL concentrations, an in vivo dose study is indicated to investigate if combinational therapies of CB-MSC and platelet-rich plasma are associated with synergistic or antagonistic effect on CB-MSC function. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Human Platelet Lysate as a Xeno Free Alternative of Fetal Bovine Serum for the In Vitro Expansion of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Saeed; Nikbakht, Mohsen; Malek Mohammadi, Ashraf; Zahed Panah, Mahdi; Ostadali, Mohammad Reza; Nasiri, Hajar; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2016-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are employed in various different clinical settings in order to modulate immune response. Human autologous and allogeneic supplements including platelet derivatives such as platelet lysate (PL), platelet-released factors (PRF) and serum are assessed in clinical studies to replace fetal bovine serum (FBS). The immunosuppressive activity and multi-potential characteristic of MSCs appear to be maintained when the cells are expanded in platelet derivatives. Platelet-rich plasma was collected from umbrical cord blood (UCB). Platelet-derived growth factors obtained by freeze and thaw methods. CD62P expression was determined by flow cytometry. The concentration of PDGF-BB and PDGF-AB was detemined by ELISA. We tested the ability of a different concentration of PL-supplemented medium to support the ex vivo expansion of Wharton's jelly derived MSCs. We also investigated the biological/functional properties of expanded MSCs in presence of different concentration of PL. The conventional karyotyping was performed in order to study the chromosomal stability. The gene expression of Collagen I and II aggrecan and SOX-9 in the presence of different concentrations of PL was evaluated by Real-time PCR. We observed 5% and 10% PL, causing greater effects on proliferation of MSCs .These cells exhibited typical morphology, immunophenotype and differentiation capacity. The genetic stability of these derivative cells from Wharton's jelly was demonstrated by a normal karyotype. Furthermore, the results of Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of chondrocyte specific genes was higher in MSCs in the presence of 5% and 10% PL, compared with FBS supplement. We demonstrated that PL could be used as an alternative safe source of growth factors for expansion of MSCs and also maintained similar growing potential and phenotype without any effect on chromosomal stability.

  4. Canine Platelet Lysate Is Inferior to Fetal Bovine Serum for the Isolation and Propagation of Canine Adipose Tissue- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith A.; Gibson, Thomas W. G.; Chong, Andrew; Co, Carmon; Koch, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are increasingly investigated for their clinical utility in dogs. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a common culture supplement used for canine MSC expansion. However, FBS content is variable, its clinical use carries risk of an immune response, and its cost is increasing due to global demand. Platelet lysate (PL) has proven to be a suitable alternative to FBS for expansion of human MSC. Hypothesis and Objectives We hypothesized that canine adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM) MSC could be isolated and expanded equally in PL and FBS at conventionally-used concentrations with differentiation of these MSC unaffected by choice of supplement. Our objectives were to evaluate the use of canine PL in comparison with FBS at four stages: 1) isolation, 2) proliferation, 3) spontaneous differentiation, and 4) directed differentiation. Results 1) Medium with 10% PL was unable to isolate MSC. 2) MSC, initially isolated in FBS-supplemented media, followed a dose-dependent response with no significant difference between PL and FBS cultures at up to 20% (AT) or 30% (BM) enrichment. Beyond these respective peaks, proliferation fell in PL cultures only, while a continued dose-dependent proliferation response was noted in FBS cultures. 3) Further investigation indicated PL expansion culture was inducing spontaneous adipogenesis in concentrations as low as 10% and as early as 4 days in culture. 4) MSC isolated in FBS, but expanded in either FBS or PL, maintained ability to undergo directed adipogenesis and osteogenesis, but not chondrogenesis. Conclusions/Significance Canine PL did not support establishment of MSC colonies from AT and BM, nor expansion of MSC, which appear to undergo spontaneous adipogenesis in response to PL exposure. In vivo studies are warranted to determine if concurrent use of MSC with any platelet-derived products such as platelet-rich plasma are associated with synergistic, neutral or antagonistic effects. PMID:26353112

  5. High-resolution molecular validation of self-renewal and spontaneous differentiation in adipose-tissue derived human mesenchymal stem cells cultured in human platelet lysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakovic, Amel Dudakovic; Camilleri, Emily; Riester, Scott M.; Lewallen, Eric A.; Kvasha, Sergiy; Chen, Xiaoyue; Radel, Darcie J.; Anderson, Jarett M.; Nair, Asha A.; Evans, Jared M.; Krych, Aaron J.; Smith, Jay; Deyle, David R.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Im, Hee-Jeong; Cool, Simon M.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Kakar, Sanjeev; Dietz, Allan B.; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2014-01-01

    Improving the effectiveness of adipose-tissue derived human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs) for skeletal therapies requires a detailed characterization of mechanisms supporting cell proliferation and multi-potency. We investigated the molecular phenotype of AMSCs that were either actively proliferating in platelet lysate or in a basal non-proliferative state. Flow cytometry combined with high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNASeq) and RT-qPCR analyses validate that AMSCs express classic mesenchymal cell surface markers (e.g., CD44, CD73/NT5E, CD90/THY1 and CD105/ENG). Expression of CD90 is selectively elevated at confluence. Self-renewing AMSCs express a standard cell cycle program that successively mediates DNA replication, chromatin packaging, cyto-architectural enlargement and mitotic division. Confluent AMSCs preferentially express genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and cellular communication. For example, cell cycle-related biomarkers (e.g., cyclins E2 and B2, transcription factor E2F1) and histone-related genes (e.g., H4, HINFP, NPAT) are elevated in proliferating AMSCs, while ECM genes are strongly upregulated (>10 fold) in quiescent AMSCs. AMSCs also express pluripotency genes (e.g., POU5F1, NANOG, KLF4) and early mesenchymal markers (e.g., NES, ACTA2) consistent with their multipotent phenotype. Strikingly, AMSCs modulate expression of WNT signaling components and switch production of WNT ligands (from WNT5A/WNT5B/WNT7B to WNT2/WNT2B), while up-regulating WNT-related genes (WISP2, SFRP2 and SFRP4). Furthermore, post-proliferative AMSCs spontaneously express fibroblastic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic biomarkers when maintained in confluent cultures. Our findings validate the biological properties of self-renewing and multi-potent AMSCs by providing high-resolution quality control data that support their clinical versatility. PMID:24905804

  6. Human platelet lysate is a feasible candidate to replace fetal calf serum as medium supplement for blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Pablo; Riedl, Sabrina; Witzeneder, Karin; Hildner, Florian; Wolbank, Susanne; Groeger, Marion; Gabriel, Christian; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    As angiogenic and lymphangiogenic key players, endothelial cells (ECs) are promising candidates for vascular regenerative therapies. To culture ECs in vitro, fetal calf serum (FCS) is most often used. However, some critical aspects of FCS usage, such as possible internalization of xenogeneic proteins and prions, must be considered. Therefore, the aim of this project was to determine if human platelet lysate (hPL) is a suitable alternative to FCS as medium supplement for the culture of blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. The usability of hPL was tested by analysis of endothelial surface marker expression, metabolic activity and vasculogenic potential of outgrowth ECs (OECs), human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), and lymphatic ECs (LECs). Expression of EC markers CD31, VEGFR2, VE-cadherin and CD146 did not differ significantly between the EC types cultured in FCS or hPL. In addition, OECs, HUVECs and LECs formed tube-like structures on Matrigel when cultured in hPL and FCS. With the use of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid assays, we found that the metabolic activity of OECs and LECs was slightly decreased when hPL was used. However, HUVECs and LECs did not show a significant decrease in metabolic activity, and HUVECs showed a slightly higher activity at low seeding densities. The use of hPL on different EC types did not reveal any substantial negative effects on EC behavior. Thus, hPL appears to be a favorable candidate to replace FCS as a medium supplement in the culture of ECs. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Canine Platelet Lysate Is Inferior to Fetal Bovine Serum for the Isolation and Propagation of Canine Adipose Tissue- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Russell

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are increasingly investigated for their clinical utility in dogs. Fetal bovine serum (FBS is a common culture supplement used for canine MSC expansion. However, FBS content is variable, its clinical use carries risk of an immune response, and its cost is increasing due to global demand. Platelet lysate (PL has proven to be a suitable alternative to FBS for expansion of human MSC.We hypothesized that canine adipose tissue (AT and bone marrow (BM MSC could be isolated and expanded equally in PL and FBS at conventionally-used concentrations with differentiation of these MSC unaffected by choice of supplement. Our objectives were to evaluate the use of canine PL in comparison with FBS at four stages: 1 isolation, 2 proliferation, 3 spontaneous differentiation, and 4 directed differentiation.1 Medium with 10% PL was unable to isolate MSC. 2 MSC, initially isolated in FBS-supplemented media, followed a dose-dependent response with no significant difference between PL and FBS cultures at up to 20% (AT or 30% (BM enrichment. Beyond these respective peaks, proliferation fell in PL cultures only, while a continued dose-dependent proliferation response was noted in FBS cultures. 3 Further investigation indicated PL expansion culture was inducing spontaneous adipogenesis in concentrations as low as 10% and as early as 4 days in culture. 4 MSC isolated in FBS, but expanded in either FBS or PL, maintained ability to undergo directed adipogenesis and osteogenesis, but not chondrogenesis.Canine PL did not support establishment of MSC colonies from AT and BM, nor expansion of MSC, which appear to undergo spontaneous adipogenesis in response to PL exposure. In vivo studies are warranted to determine if concurrent use of MSC with any platelet-derived products such as platelet-rich plasma are associated with synergistic, neutral or antagonistic effects.

  8. Inactivated human platelet lysate with psoralen: a new perspective for mesenchymal stromal cell production in Good Manufacturing Practice conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Sara; Mareschi, Katia; Labanca, Luciana; Lucania, Graziella; Leone, Marco; Sanavio, Fiorella; Castello, Laura; Rustichelli, Deborah; Signorino, Elena; Gunetti, Monica; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Bordiga, Anna Maria; Ferrero, Ivana; Fagioli, Franca

    2014-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are ideal candidates for regenerative and immunomodulatory therapies. The use of xenogeneic protein-free Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant growth media is a prerequisite for clinical MSC isolation and expansion. Human platelet lysate (HPL) has been efficiently implemented into MSC clinical manufacturing as a substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS). Because the use of human-derived blood materials alleviates immunologic risks but not the transmission of blood-borne viruses, the aim of our study was to test an even safer alternative than HPL to FBS: HPL subjected to pathogen inactivation by psoralen (iHPL). Bone marrow samples were plated and expanded in α-minimum essential medium with 10% of three culture supplements: HPL, iHPL and FBS, at the same time. MSC morphology, growth and immunophenotype were analyzed at each passage. Karyotype, tumorigenicity and sterility were analyzed at the third passage. Statistical analyses were performed. The MSCs cultivated in the three different culture conditions showed no significant differences in terms of fibroblast colony-forming unit number, immunophenotype or in their multipotent capacity. Conversely, the HPL/iHPL-MSCs were smaller, more numerous, had a higher proliferative potential and showed a higher Oct-3/4 and NANOG protein expression than did FBS-MSCs. Although HPL/iHPL-MSCs exhibit characteristics that may be attributable to a higher primitive stemness than FBS-MSCs, no tumorigenic mutations or karyotype modifications were observed. We demonstrated that iHPL is safer than HPL and represents a good, Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant alternative to FBS for MSC clinical production that is even more advantageous in terms of cellular growth and stemness. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Photodynamic therapy of solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, Giulio

    Some porphyrin compounds, which are characterized by a relatively large degree of hydrophobicity (n-octanol/water partition coefficient above 8), are accumulated in greater amounts and retained for longer periods of time by neoplastic as compared with normal tissues. The affinity of these dyes for tumors is partially a consequence of their in vivo transport by low-density lipoproteins, which are preferentially endocytosized by hyperproliferating tissues in a receptor-mediated process. In general, at 24-48 h after the systematic administration of porphyrin doses in the range of 2.5 mg/kg body weight, the ratio of drug concentration between the neoplastic and the surrounding tissues is sufficiently large to guarantee a selective photoexcitation of the porphyrin. Toward this aim, the porphyrin-containing tumor tissues are irradiated with light wavelengths longer than 600 nm, since the transmittance of biological tissues is maximal in this spectral region. The electronically excited porphyrin transfers its excitation energy to oxygen, thus generating activated oxygen species (mainly, singlet oxygen): as a consequence, the photooxidative modification of subcellular targets (e.g. the plasma membrane and mitochondria) is readily obtained leading to an irreversible necrosis of the cell. With the most frequently used porphyrins for clinical phototherapy (including hematoporphyrin and its derivatives HpD and Photofrin II), one observes the preferential photosensitized destruction of endothelial cells, hence the vascular damage is a major process involved in the necrosis of tumors. The optimization of the phototherapy of tumors is presently pursued by the definition of clinical protocols tailored to the optical properties of specific neoplastic tissues as well as by the use of porphyrin analogs, such as chlorins and phthalocyanines, having an extinction coefficient in the red spectral region larger than that typical of hematoporphyrin and HpD.

  10. Tumor control probability after a radiation of animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Muneyasu; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Nesumi, Naofumi

    1975-01-01

    Tumor control and regrowth probability of animal tumors irradiated with a single x-ray dose were determined, using a spontaneous C3H mouse mammary carcinoma. Cellular radiation sensitivity of tumor cells and tumor control probability of the tumor were examined by the TD 50 and TCD 50 assays respectively. Tumor growth kinetics were measured by counting the percentage of labelled mitosis and by measuring the growth curve. A mathematical analysis of tumor control probability was made from these results. A formula proposed, accounted for cell population kinetics or division probability model, cell sensitivity to radiation and number of tumor cells. (auth.)

  11. The Tumor Macroenvironment: Cancer-Promoting Networks Beyond Tumor Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Melanie R; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the macroenvironment and the primary tumor will enable the design of specific therapies that have the potential to prevent dissemination and metastatic spread. This chapter will summarize recent findings detailing how the primary tumor and systemic tumor macroenvironment coordinate malignant progression. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) / Microwave Ablation (MWA) of Lung Tumors ... and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, ...

  13. The PCa Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottnik, Joseph L; Zhang, Jian; Macoska, Jill A; Keller, Evan T

    2011-12-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a very complex niche that consists of multiple cell types, supportive matrix and soluble factors. Cells in the TME consist of both host cells that are present at tumor site at the onset of tumor growth and cells that are recruited in either response to tumor- or host-derived factors. PCa (PCa) thrives on crosstalk between tumor cells and the TME. Crosstalk results in an orchestrated evolution of both the tumor and microenvironment as the tumor progresses. The TME reacts to PCa-produced soluble factors as well as direct interaction with PCa cells. In return, the TME produces soluble factors, structural support and direct contact interactions that influence the establishment and progression of PCa. In this review, we focus on the host side of the equation to provide a foundation for understanding how different aspects of the TME contribute to PCa progression. We discuss immune effector cells, specialized niches, such as the vascular and bone marrow, and several key protein factors that mediate host effects on PCa. This discussion highlights the concept that the TME offers a potentially very fertile target for PCa therapy.

  14. Epilepsy and brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLOT, DARIO J.; CHANG, EDWARD F.; VECHT, CHARLES J.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  15. Tumor-like tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Yong

    1975-01-01

    It was known that some of the abdominal tuberculosis can produce tumor-like appearance clinically and radiologically. But these were mainly masses formed in mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The author has experienced the gastrointestinal tuberculosis resembling to a neoplastic process. In the gastric tuberculosis, irregular narrowing and filling defect with mucosal distortion and occasional shoulder effect could be seen in pyloric antrum. Deformity of proximal portion of duodenum was noted in most cases. Difficulty in differential diagnosis from the gastric cancer might be encountered. If duodenum was not involved. No definite sign of mucosal destruction involved area and associated deformity of duodenum was suggestive of an inflammatory lesion. If there is any tuberculous changes in small bowel, than gastric tuberculosis is more likely. There was the tuberculosis of descending duodenum or pancreaticoduodenal group of lymph nodes revealed cancer-like appearance. Long irregular narrowing with nodular filling defect and mucosal distortion or inverted 3 sign was evident. Differential diagnosis from cancer in duodenum or pancreas could not be made radiographically. Short annular stenosis and nodular filling defect with shoulder effect in both ends of stenosis was noted in some of small bowel tuberculosis. The findings were very resemble to malignancy. There was a case of huge hepatoma-like tuberculosis formed a large irregular mass by lymph nodes and adjacent organs. Chest film was not much help in the differential diagnosis. In many cases of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis, radiological findings were resembled to a neoplastic process. Since none of radiologic findings are specific enough to allow one to make a definitive diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis and since type of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis could be cured by chemotherapy, careful analyzation of clinical features is emphasized before surgery.

  16. Tumor-like tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon Yong [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    It was known that some of the abdominal tuberculosis can produce tumor-like appearance clinically and radiologically. But these were mainly masses formed in mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The author has experienced the gastrointestinal tuberculosis resembling to a neoplastic process. In the gastric tuberculosis, irregular narrowing and filling defect with mucosal distortion and occasional shoulder effect could be seen in pyloric antrum. Deformity of proximal portion of duodenum was noted in most cases. Difficulty in differential diagnosis from the gastric cancer might be encountered. If duodenum was not involved. No definite sign of mucosal destruction involved area and associated deformity of duodenum was suggestive of an inflammatory lesion. If there is any tuberculous changes in small bowel, than gastric tuberculosis is more likely. There was the tuberculosis of descending duodenum or pancreaticoduodenal group of lymph nodes revealed cancer-like appearance. Long irregular narrowing with nodular filling defect and mucosal distortion or inverted 3 sign was evident. Differential diagnosis from cancer in duodenum or pancreas could not be made radiographically. Short annular stenosis and nodular filling defect with shoulder effect in both ends of stenosis was noted in some of small bowel tuberculosis. The findings were very resemble to malignancy. There was a case of huge hepatoma-like tuberculosis formed a large irregular mass by lymph nodes and adjacent organs. Chest film was not much help in the differential diagnosis. In many cases of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis, radiological findings were resembled to a neoplastic process. Since none of radiologic findings are specific enough to allow one to make a definitive diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis and since type of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis could be cured by chemotherapy, careful analyzation of clinical features is emphasized before surgery.

  17. Tumor cell surface proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, S.J.; Braslawsky, G.R.; Flynn, K.; Foote, L.J.; Friedman, E.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Huang, A.H.L.; Lankford, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Cell surface proteins mediate interaction between cells and their environment. Unique tumor cell surface proteins are being identified and quantified in several tumor systems to address the following questions: (i) how do tumor-specific proteins arise during cell transformation; (ii) can these proteins be used as markers of tumor cell distribution in vivo; (iii) can cytotoxic drugs be targeted specifically to tumor cells using antibody; and (iv) can solid state radioimmunoassay of these proteins provide a means to quantify transformation frequencies. A tumor surface protein of 180,000 M/sub r/ (TSP-180) has been identified on cells of several lung carcinomas of BALB/c mice. TSP-180 was not detected on normal lung tissue, embryonic tissue, or other epithelial or sarcoma tumors, but it was found on lung carcinomas of other strains of mice. Considerable amino acid sequence homology exists among TSP-180's from several cell sources, indicating that TSP-180 synthesis is directed by normal cellular genes although it is not expressed in normal cells. The regulation of synthesis of TSP-180 and its relationship to normal cell surface proteins are being studied. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to TSP-180 have been developed. The antibodies have been used in immunoaffinity chromatography to isolate TSP-180 from tumor cell sources. This purified tumor antigen was used to immunize rats. Antibody produced by these animals reacted at different sites (epitopes) on the TSP-180 molecule than did the original MoAb. These sera and MoAb from these animals are being used to identify normal cell components related to the TSP-180 molecule

  18. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  19. Stochastic models for tumoral growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border, and surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stoch...

  20. Uterine mesenchymal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil A Sangle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine mesenchymal tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can frequently be diagnostically challenging. Differentiation between the benign and malignant counterparts of mesenchymal tumors is significant due to differences in clinical outcome, and the role of the surgical pathologist in making this distinction (especially in the difficult cases cannot be underestimated. Although immunohistochemical stains are supportive toward establishing a final diagnosis, the morphologic features trump all the other ancillary techniques for this group of neoplasms. This review therefore emphasizes the key morphologic features required to diagnose and distinguish uterine mesenchymal tumors from their mimics, with a brief description of the relevant immunohistochemical features.

  1. The clinical factors associated with benign renal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Ryo; Nakamura, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Masato; Matsui, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Raizo; Niwakawa, Masashi; Tobisu, Kenichi; Asakura, Koiku; Ito, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we sought to define the incidence of benign renal tumors in our institute and to clarify the clinical factors associated with benign renal tumors, in order to assist in forming preoperative differential diagnoses. From October 2002 to July 2007, we performed 157 nephrectomies in patients preoperatively diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma. We chose 81 tumors, all of which were less than 5 cm, for further study. We reviewed double-phase helical CT imaging retrospectively, specifically focusing on attenuation patterns and homogeneity. We also compared clinical factors, including age, sex and tumor size, between the benign and malignant renal tumors. The patient's median age was 67 years (mean age, 63 years), and the median tumor diameter was 3.0 cm (mean, 3.2 cm). Benign renal tumors were found in 10 (12%) of the 81 tumors; these included seven cases of oncocytoma and three cases of angiomyolipoma with minimal fat. Several factors were significant clinical determinants of differentiation between benign and malignant renal tumors: homogeneity in CT, female gender, and small tumor size all predominated in cases of benign tumors. Attenuation pattern in CT, however, was not a significant factor (p=0.344). When a patient, especially a female, presents with a small and homogeneous renal tumor, careful consideration should be given to the possibility of a benign process, which needs further consideration before performing excessive surgery. (author)

  2. RNA-Sequencing of Primary Retinoblastoma Tumors Provides New Insights and Challenges Into Tumor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja V. Elchuri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is rare tumor of the retina caused by the homozygous loss of the Retinoblastoma 1 tumor suppressor gene (RB1. Loss of the RB1 protein, pRB, results in de-regulated activity of the E2F transcription factors, chromatin changes and developmental defects leading to tumor development. Extensive microarray profiles of these tumors have enabled the identification of genes sensitive to pRB disruption, however, this technology has a number of limitations in the RNA profiles that they generate. The advent of RNA-sequencing has enabled the global profiling of all of the RNA within the cell including both coding and non-coding features and the detection of aberrant RNA processing events. In this perspective, we focus on discussing how RNA-sequencing of rare Retinoblastoma tumors will build on existing data and open up new area’s to improve our understanding of the biology of these tumors. In particular, we discuss how the RB-research field may be to use this data to determine how RB1 loss results in the expression of; non-coding RNAs, causes aberrant RNA processing events and how a deeper analysis of metabolic RNA changes can be utilized to model tumor specific shifts in metabolism. Each section discusses new opportunities and challenges associated with these types of analyses and aims to provide an honest assessment of how understanding these different processes may contribute to the treatment of Retinoblastoma.

  3. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors.

  4. Big Bang Tumor Growth and Clonal Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruping; Hu, Zheng; Curtis, Christina

    2018-05-01

    The advent and application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to tumor genomes has reinvigorated efforts to understand clonal evolution. Although tumor progression has traditionally been viewed as a gradual stepwise process, recent studies suggest that evolutionary rates in tumors can be variable with periods of punctuated mutational bursts and relative stasis. For example, Big Bang dynamics have been reported, wherein after transformation, growth occurs in the absence of stringent selection, consistent with effectively neutral evolution. Although first noted in colorectal tumors, effective neutrality may be relatively common. Additionally, punctuated evolution resulting from mutational bursts and cataclysmic genomic alterations have been described. In this review, we contrast these findings with the conventional gradualist view of clonal evolution and describe potential clinical and therapeutic implications of different evolutionary modes and tempos. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. ARF tumor suppression in the nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Leonard B; Winkeler, Crystal L; Miceli, Alexander P; Apicelli, Anthony J; Brady, Suzanne N; Kuchenreuther, Michael J; Weber, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Since its discovery close to twenty years ago, the ARF tumor suppressor has played a pivotal role in the field of cancer biology. Elucidating ARF's basal physiological function in the cell has been the focal interest of numerous laboratories throughout the world for many years. Our current understanding of ARF is constantly evolving to include novel frameworks for conceptualizing the regulation of this critical tumor suppressor. As a result of this complexity, there is great need to broaden our understanding of the intricacies governing the biology of the ARF tumor suppressor. The ARF tumor suppressor is a key sensor of signals that instruct a cell to grow and proliferate and is appropriately localized in nucleoli to limit these processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back ...

  7. Overview of Heart Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors By Siddique A. Abbasi, MD, MSc, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Attending Cardiologist, Director of Heart Failure, and Director of Cardiac MRI, Providence VA Medical ...

  8. Renal tumors in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaya, J.; Garcia, P.

    1997-01-01

    The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail. (Author) 24 refs

  9. Radioimmunoassays for tumor diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, J.

    1983-01-01

    Aside from imaging techniques several (radio-)immunological analyses are used for tumor diagnosis. Oncofetal antigens, for instance the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), have become the most important substances for many malignancies. However, nearly all of the so-called tumor markers are not suitable for early diagnosis or screening either because of low sensitivity or low tumor specifity. On the other hand follow-up measurements give a very sensitive index of the success of treatment and may indicate tumor progression when other signs are still not present. In some carcinomas and under some clinical circumstances tumorspecific markers are available and mandatory for detection and/or staging: AFP in hepatoma, acid phosphatase in metastasizing carcinoma of the prostate and serum thyreoglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [de

  10. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  11. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina M; Bozeman, Erica N; Imasuen, Imade E; He, Sara; Daniels, Danielle; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies. The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types. To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies. PMID:24064957

  12. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It is not very .... was estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and ... cervical, ovarian, and urinary bladder cancers. Multiple.

  13. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary gland and prevent it from secreting adequate levels of hormones. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2010). NINDS pituitary tumors information page . ...

  14. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  15. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  16. Perlecan and tumor angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of basement membranes (BMs) and connective tissues. The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with thr...... have unwanted promoting effects on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention....

  17. Adrenocortical tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ribeiro

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT are rare. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. Most cases occur in the contiguous states of São Paulo and Paraná. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer (p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart. Most of the affected children are young girls with classic endocrine syndromes (virilizing and/or Cushing. Levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, which are abnormal in approximately 90% of the cases, provide the pivotal clue to a diagnosis of ACT. Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors, the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

  18. Neuroendocrine tumors and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Miličević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine cells are dispersed around the body and can be found within the gastrointestinal system, lungs, larynx, thymus, thyroid, adrenal, gonads, skin and other tissues. These cells form the so-called ''diffuse neuroendocrine system'' and tumors arising from them are defined as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs. The traditional classification of NETs based on their embryonic origin includes foregut tumors (lung, thymus, stomach, pancreas and duodenum, midgut tumors (beyond the ligament of Treitz of the duodenum to the proximal transverse colon and hindgut tumors (distal colon and rectum. NETs at each site are biologically and clinically distinct from their counterparts at other sites. Symptoms in patients with early disease are often insidious in onset, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The majority of these tumors are thus diagnosed at a stage at which the only curative treatment, radical surgical intervention, is no longer an option. Due to the increasing incidence and mortality, many studies have been conducted in order to identify risk factors for the development of NETs. Still, little is known especially when it comes to preventable risk factors such as smoking. This review will focus on smoking and its contribution to the development of different subtypes of NETs.

  19. Aerobic Glycolysis as a Marker of Tumor Aggressiveness: Preliminary Data in High Grade Human Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Vlassenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose metabolism outside of oxidative phosphorylation, or aerobic glycolysis (AG, is a hallmark of active cancer cells that is not directly measured with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, we characterized tumor regions with elevated AG defined based on PET measurements of glucose and oxygen metabolism. Methods. Fourteen individuals with high-grade brain tumors underwent structural MR scans and PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF, oxygen (CMRO2 and glucose (CMRGlu metabolism, and AG, using 15O-labeled CO, O2 and H2O, and FDG, and were compared to a normative cohort of 20 age-matched individuals. Results. Elevated AG was observed in most high-grade brain tumors and it was associated with decreased CMRO2 and CBF, but not with significant changes in CMRGlu. Elevated AG was a dramatic and early sign of tumor growth associated with decreased survival. AG changes associated with tumor growth were differentiated from the effects of nonneoplastic processes such as epileptic seizures. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that high-grade brain tumors exhibit elevated AG as a marker of tumor growth and aggressiveness. AG may detect areas of active tumor growth that are not evident on conventional FDG PET.

  20. The Role of a Platelet Lysate-Based Compartmentalized System as a Carrier of Cells and Platelet-Origin Cytokines for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Cai, Xinjie; Plachokova, Adelina S; Reis, Rui L; Jansen, John A; Gomes, Manuela E; Walboomers, X Frank

    2016-10-01

    Currently available clinical therapies are not capable to regenerate tissues that are lost by periodontitis. Tissue engineering can be applied as a strategy to regenerate reliably the tissues and function of damaged periodontium. A prerequisite for this regeneration is the colonization of the defect with the adequate cell populations. In this study, we proposed a bilayered system composed of (1) a platelet lysate (PL)-based construct produced by crosslinking of PL proteins with genipin (gPL) for the delivery of rat periodontal ligament cells (rat-PDLCs); combined with (2) an injectable composite consisting of calcium phosphate cement incorporated with PL-loaded poly(d, l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres. This system was expected to promote periodontal regeneration by the delivery of adequate progenitor cells and providing a stable system enriched with adequate cytokines and growth factors for the orchestration of tissue regrowth in periodontal defects. The bilayered system was tested in a three-wall intrabony defect in rats and the healing of periodontal tissue was assessed 6 weeks after surgery. Results showed that the bilayered system was able to promote the regrowth of functional periodontal tissues, both with (cells + gPL) and without the loading of PDLCs (gPL). Significant connective tissue attachment (45.0 ± 15.0% and 64.0 ± 15.0% for gPL and cells + gPL group, respectively) and new bone area (33.8 ± 21% and 21.3 ± 3% for gPL and cells + gPL group, respectively) were observed. Nevertheless, rat PDLCs delivered with gPL construct in the defect area were hardly visible 6 weeks after surgery and did not contribute for the regeneration of new periodontal tissue. Overall, our findings show that the bilayered system promotes the stabilization of PL proteins on the root surface and has a positive effect in the repair of periodontal tissues both in quality and in quantity.

  1. Human serum and platelet lysate are appropriate xeno-free alternatives for clinical-grade production of human MuStem cell batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saury, Charlotte; Lardenois, Aurélie; Schleder, Cindy; Leroux, Isabelle; Lieubeau, Blandine; David, Laurent; Charrier, Marine; Guével, Laëtitia; Viau, Sabrina; Delorme, Bruno; Rouger, Karl

    2018-05-02

    Canine MuStem cells have demonstrated regenerative efficacy in a dog model of muscular dystrophy, and the recent characterization of human counterparts (hMuStem) has highlighted the therapeutic potential of this muscle-derived stem cell population. To date, these cells have only been generated in research-grade conditions. However, evaluation of the clinical efficacy of any such therapy will require the production of hMuStem cells in compliance with good manufacturing practices (GMPs). Because the current use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) to isolate and expand hMuStem cells raises several ethical, safety, and supply concerns, we assessed the use of two alternative xeno-free blood derivatives: human serum (HS) and a human platelet lysate (hPL). hMuStem cells were isolated and expanded in vitro in either HS-supplemented or hPL-supplemented media and the proliferation rate, clonogenicity, myogenic commitment potential, and oligopotency compared with that observed in FBS-supplemented medium. Flow cytometry and high-throughput 3'-digital gene expression RNA sequencing were used to characterize the phenotype and global gene expression pattern of hMuStem cells cultured with HS or hPL. HS-supplemented and hPL-supplemented media both supported the isolation and long-term proliferation of hMuStem cells. Compared with FBS-based medium, both supplements enhanced clonogenicity and allowed for a reduction in growth factor supplementation. Neither supplement altered the cell lineage pattern of hMuStem cells. In vitro differentiation assays revealed a decrease in myogenic commitment and in the fusion ability of hMuStem cells when cultured with hPL. In return, this reduction of myogenic potential in hPL-supplemented cultures was rapidly reversed by substitution of hPL with HS or fibrinogen-depleted hPL. Moreover, culture of hMuStem cells in hPL hydrogel and fibrinogen-depleted hPL demonstrated that myogenic differentiation potential is maintained in heparin-free hPL derivatives. Our

  2. Characterization of Heterogeneous Prostate Tumors in Targeted Pten Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Korsten

    Full Text Available Previously, we generated a preclinical mouse prostate tumor model based on PSA-Cre driven inactivation of Pten. In this model homogeneous hyperplastic prostates (4-5m developed at older age (>10m into tumors. Here, we describe the molecular and histological characterization of the tumors in order to better understand the processes that are associated with prostate tumorigenesis in this targeted mouse Pten knockout model. The morphologies of the tumors that developed were very heterogeneous. Different histopathological growth patterns could be identified, including intraductal carcinoma (IDC, adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma, all strongly positive for the epithelial cell marker Cytokeratin (CK, and carcinosarcomas, which were negative for CK. IDC pattern was already detected in prostates of 7-8 month old mice, indicating that it could be a precursor stage. At more than 10 months IDC and carcinosarcoma were most frequently observed. Gene expression profiling discriminated essentially two molecular subtypes, denoted tumor class 1 (TC1 and tumor class 2 (TC2. TC1 tumors were characterized by high expression of epithelial markers like Cytokeratin 8 and E-Cadherin whereas TC2 tumors showed high expression of mesenchyme/stroma markers such as Snail and Fibronectin. These molecular subtypes corresponded with histological growth patterns: where TC1 tumors mainly represented adenocarcinoma/intraductal carcinoma, in TC2 tumors carcinosarcoma was the dominant growth pattern. Further molecular characterization of the prostate tumors revealed an increased expression of genes associated with the inflammatory response. Moreover, functional markers for senescence, proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis were higher expressed in tumors compared to hyperplasia. The highest expression of proliferation and angiogenesis markers was detected in TC2 tumors. Our data clearly showed that in the genetically well-defined PSA-Cre;Pten-loxP/loxP prostate tumor

  3. THE TUMOR MACROENVIRONMENT: CANCER-PROMOTING NETWORKS BEYOND TUMOR BEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Puchalt, Alfredo Perales; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, and myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the mac...

  4. Tumor detection using feature extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, A.S.; Amudhavalli, N.; Sivakolundu, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The assistance system for brain tumor detection helps the doctor to analyse the brain tumor in MRI image and help to make decision. The manual detection system takes 3 -5 hours time to analyse the tumor. Doctors are in a position to analyze the tumor faster and make a correct decision with an assistance system

  5. Wilms tumors: genotypes and phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Segers (Heidi)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, represents about 90% of all pediatric renal tumors and about 7% of all pediatric malignancies. Most Wilms tumors are unilateral, although in 5-10 % of the patients both kidneys are infected. Wilms tumor typically occurs between the age of 2 and 4 years,

  6. Mast cells: potential positive and negative roles in tumor biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichal, Thomas; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

    2013-11-01

    Mast cells are immune cells that reside in virtually all vascularized tissues. Upon activation by diverse mechanisms, mast cells can secrete a broad array of biologically active products that either are stored in the cytoplasmic granules of the cells (e.g., histamine, heparin, various proteases) or are produced de novo upon cell stimulation (e.g., prostaglandins, leukotrienes, cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors). Mast cells are best known for their effector functions during anaphylaxis and acute IgE-associated allergic reactions, but they also have been implicated in a wide variety of processes that maintain health or contribute to disease. There has been particular interest in the possible roles of mast cells in tumor biology. In vitro studies have shown that mast cells have the potential to influence many aspects of tumor biology, including tumor development, tumor-induced angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling, and the shaping of adaptive immune responses to tumors. Yet, the actual contributions of mast cells to tumor biology in vivo remain controversial. Here, we review some basic features of mast cell biology with a special emphasis on those relevant to their potential roles in tumors. We discuss how using in vivo tumor models in combination with models in which mast cell function can be modulated has implicated mast cells in the regulation of host responses to tumors. Finally, we summarize data from studies of human tumors that suggest either beneficial or detrimental roles for mast cells in tumors. ©2013 AACR.

  7. Tumor and target delineation: current research and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin-Seymour, Mary; Chen, George T.Y.; Rosenman, Julian; Michalski, Jeff; Lindsley, Karen; Goitein, Michael

    1995-01-01

    In the past decade, significant progress has been made in the imaging of tumors, three dimensional (3D) treatment planning, and radiation treatment delivery. At this time one of the greatest challenges for conformal radiation therapy is the accurate delineation of tumor and target volumes. The physician encounters many uncertainties in the process of defining both tumor and target. The sources of these uncertainties are discussed, as well as the issues requiring study to reduce these uncertainties

  8. Fluorescence diagnosis of pre-tumor and tumor pathology of endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Filonenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of fluorescence hysteroscopy with Alasens includes visual assessment of fluorescence of Alasens-induced protoporphyrin IX and local fluorescence spectroscopy. The technique allows to improve the efficacy of early diagnosis for endometrial pathology including early endometrial cancer, to assess definitely an extent of pre-tumor and tumor process. The sensitivity of fluorescence hysteroscopy accounts for 100%, the specificity – 98%. 

  9. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  10. Negative brain scintigrams in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalke, K.G.

    1978-01-01

    With 53 histologically verified and 2 histologically not identified brain tumors, that showed a negative scintigram, it was tried to find reasons for the wrong and negative dropout of these scintigrams. The electroencephalograms and angiograms, that were made simultaneously were taken into consideration with respect to their propositional capability and were compared with the scintigram findings. For the formation of the negative brain scintigrams there could be found no unique cause or causal constellation. The scintigraphic tumor representation is likely based on a complex process. Therefore the reasons for the negativity of the brain scintigrams can be a manifold of causes. An important role plays the vascularisation of the tumor, but not in a sole way. As well the tumor localisation gains some importance; especially in the temporal lobe or in the deeper structures situated tumors can be negative in the scintigram. To hold down the rate of wrong-negative quote in the case of intracranial tumor search, one is advised to continue with an further exposure after 2 to 4 hours besides the usual exposures, unless a sequential scintigraphy was made from the beginning. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Tumor scintigram, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Shunichi; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Shimura, Kazuo; Ifuka, Keijiro

    1975-01-01

    In various cases of malignant tumors, especially those of lung cancer and liver cancer, scans were made with 57 Co-bleomycin(BLM), and its diagnostic significance was evaluated. Tumors were visualized with 57 Co-BLM in 22 of the 26 cases of lung cancer (84.6%). Concentrations of the RI were noted in all of the cases of squamous epithelium cancer, adenoid cancer and cellule-type undifferentiated cancer. The smallest tumor that could be detected was a 2 x 2 cm adenoid cancer. Tumors were imaged in 19 of the 27 cases of liver cancer (70.4%). This detection rate was increased by a combination of 57 Co-BLM and 198 Au-colloid scanning. The authors believe that 57 Co-BLM will help to establish the diagnosis of lung cancer or liver cancer. Tumors were also imaged in 6 of the 15 cases of breast cancer, but no distinct concentration was noted in the 7 cases of thyroid cancer. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Parotid hybrid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo C, Gustavo; Seymour M, Camila; Fernandez R, Lara; Villanueva I, Maria Elena; Scott C, Carlos; Celedon L, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands represent 33%-10% of head and neck neoplasms. The most common location is the parotid gland, accounting for 50%-85% of the cases, with 20%-30% of them being malignant. The following are known to be indicative of a malignant tumor: fast growing, painless mass, associated facial paralysis and lymphadenopathy. Most parotid neoplasm derive from a single histological type but eventually the development of more than one type on the same gland can occur. This paper presents a case of a parotid neoplasm with two different histological tumors, with uncharacteristic clinical presentation. The patient presented initially with ear pain and otorrhoea, in the clinical examination highlighted an external auditory canal tumor. The complementary study revealed a parotid neoplasm and a total resection of the gland was performed. The biopsy revealed an adenoid-cystic carcinoma with differentiated basaloid areas. Adjuvant radio-chemotherapy was administered, and the imaging control with PET-CT showed no evidence of recurrence or dissemination of the tumor

  13. Blockade of Notch Signaling in Tumor-Bearing Mice May Lead to Tumor Regression, Progression, or Metastasis, Depending on Tumor Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Bin Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that blocking Notch signaling in tumor-bearing mice results in abortive angiogenesis and tumor regression. However, given that Notch signaling influences numerous cellular processes in vivo, a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of Notch inactivation on tumor growth would be favorable. In this study, we inoculated four cancer cell lines in mice with the conditional inactivation of recombination signal-binding protein-Jκ (RBP-J, which mediates signaling from all four mammalian Notch receptors. We found that whereas three tumors including hepatocarcinoma, lung cancer, and osteogenic sarcoma grew slower in the RBP-J-deficient mice, at least a melanoma, B16, grew significantly faster in the RBP-J-deficient mice than in the controls, suggesting that the RBP-J-deficient hosts could provide permissive cues for tumor growth. All these tumors showed increased microvessels and up-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, suggesting that whereas defective angiogenesis resulted in hypoxia, different tumors might grow differentially in the RBP-J-deleted mice. Similarly, increased infiltration of Gr1+/Mac1+ cells were noticed in tumors grown in the RBP-J-inactivated mice. Moreover, we found that when inoculated in the RBP-J knockout hosts, the H22 hepatoma cells had a high frequency of metastasis and lethality, suggesting that at least for H22, deficiency of environmental Notch signaling favored tumor metastasis. Our findings suggested that the general blockade of Notch signaling in tumor-bearing mice could lead to defective angiogenesis in tumors, but depending on tumor cell types, general inhibition of Notch signaling might result in tumor regression, progression, or metastasis.

  14. Multisite tumor sampling enhances the detection of intratumor heterogeneity at all different temporal stages of tumor evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erramuzpe, Asier; Cortés, Jesús M; López, José I

    2018-02-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is an inherent process of tumor development that has received much attention in previous years, as it has become a major obstacle for the success of targeted therapies. ITH is also temporally unpredictable across tumor evolution, which makes its precise characterization even more problematic since detection success depends on the precise temporal snapshot at which ITH is analyzed. New and more efficient strategies for tumor sampling are needed to overcome these difficulties which currently rely entirely on the pathologist's interpretation. Recently, we showed that a new strategy, the multisite tumor sampling, works better than the routine sampling protocol for the ITH detection when the tumor time evolution was not taken into consideration. Here, we extend this work and compare the ITH detections of multisite tumor sampling and routine sampling protocols across tumor time evolution, and in particular, we provide in silico analyses of both strategies at early and late temporal stages for four different models of tumor evolution (linear, branched, neutral, and punctuated). Our results indicate that multisite tumor sampling outperforms routine protocols in detecting ITH at all different temporal stages of tumor evolution. We conclude that multisite tumor sampling is more advantageous than routine protocols in detecting intratumor heterogeneity.

  15. Cultivation and irradiation of human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with platelet lysate for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture; Cultivo e irradiacao de fibroblastos humanos em meio enriquecido com lisado de plaquetas para obtencao de camada de sustentacao em culturas de celulas da epiderme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshito, Daniele

    2011-07-01

    For over 30 years, the use of culture medium, enriched with bovine serum, and murines fibroblasts, with the rate of proliferation controlled by irradiation or by share anticarcinogenic drugs, has been playing successfully its role in assisting in the development of keratinocytes in culture, for clinical purposes. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and animals viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, the present work aims to cultivate human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with human platelets lysate and determine the irradiation dose of these cells, for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture. For carrying out the proposed objective, platelets lysis has standardized, this lysate was used for human fibroblasts cultivation and the irradiation dose enough to inhibit its duplication was evaluated. Human keratinocytes were cultivated in these feeder layers, in culture medium enriched with the lysate. With these results we conclude that the 10% platelets lysate promoted a better adhesion and proliferation of human fibroblasts and in all dose levels tested (60 to 300 Gy), these had their mitotic activity inactivated by ionizing irradiation, being that the feeder layers obtained with doses from 70 to 150 Gy were those that provided the best development of keratinocytes in medium containing 2.5% of human platelet lysate. Therefore, it was possible to standardize both the cultivation of human fibroblasts as its inactivation for use as feeder layer in culture of keratinocytes, so as to eliminate xenobiotics components. (author)

  16. Tumor radiation responses and tumor oxygenation in aging mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    1989-01-01

    EMT6 mouse mammary tumors transplanted into aging mice are less sensitive to radiation than tumors growing in young adult animals. The experiments reported here compare the radiation dose-response curves defining the survivals of tumor cells in aging mice and in young adult mice. Cell survival curves were assessed in normal air-breathing mice and in mice asphyxiated with N 2 to produce uniform hypoxia throughout the tumors. Analyses of survival curves revealed that 41% of viable malignant cells were severely hypoxic in tumors in aging mice, while only 19% of the tumor cells in young adult animals were radiobiologically hypoxic. This did not appear to reflect anaemia in the old animals. Treatment of aging animals with a perfluorochemical emulsion plus carbogen (95% O 2 /5% CO 2 ) increased radiation response of the tumors, apparently by improving tumor oxygenation and decreasing the number of severely hypoxic, radiation resistant cells in the tumors. (author)

  17. Radiology of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hako, R.; Hakova, H.; Gulova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors arise in the bronchopulmonary or gastrointestinal tract, but they can arise in almost any organ. The tumors have varied malignant potential depending on the site of their origin. Metastases may be present at the time of diagnosis, which often occurs at a late stage of the disease. Most NETs have nonspecific imaging characteristics. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the localization and staging of neuroendocrine tumors and in monitoring the treatment response. Imaging should involve multi-phase computed tomography, contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and other one. Hepatic metastatic disease in particular lends itself to a wide range of interventional treatment options. Transcatheter arterial embolization may be used alone or in combination with chemo embolization. Ablative techniques, hepatic cryotherapy and percutaneous ethanol injection may then be undertaken. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment and follow-up is important. (author)

  18. Bilateral Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, A.W.; Jaffe, N.; Folkman, M.J.; Cassady, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty children with bilateral Wilms' tumor were presented to the Children's Hospital Medical Center and Children's Cancer Research Foundation, Sidney Farber Cancer Institute, and Joint Center for Radiation Therapy (CHMC-CCRF, SFCI, JCRT) from January 1, 1956 to December 31, 1976. Of these 20, 16 had simultaneous and 4 had metachronous disease on presentation. All patients were treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Of the 16 patients with simultaneous disease, 10 (63%) are alive and free of disease 12+ to 175+ months post diagnosis and treatment, with median follow-up of 121 months. There were no long-term survivors in the metachronous group; all were dead of disease within 21 months from initial presentation of original tumor. With these data we relate prognosis to extent of disease and discuss a general approach to the management of bilateral Wilms' tumor

  19. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  20. Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Lim Suh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT is a benign glioneuronal neoplasm that most commonly occurs in children and young adults and may present with medically intractable, chronic seizures. Radiologically, this tumor is characterized by a cortical topography and lack of mass effect or perilesional edema. Partial complex seizures are the most common presentation. Three histologic subtypes of DNTs have been described. Histologically, the recognition of a unique, specific glioneuronal element in brain tumor samples from patients with medically intractable, chronic epilepsy serves as a diagnostic feature for complex or simple DNT types. However, nonspecific DNT has diagnostic difficulty because its histology is indistinguishable from conventional gliomas and because a specific glioneuronal element and/or multinodularity are absent. This review will focus on the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features as well as the molecular genetics of all three variants of DNTs. The histological and cytological differential diagnoses for this lesion, especially the nonspecific variant, will be discussed.

  1. Mediastinal tumors. Update 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Thomas, C.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This volume represents the premier work devoted solely to the complex myriad of mediastinal tumors. The contributors to the state-of-the-art text are clinical investigators of international renown. The diagnosis, natural history, and therapeutic strategies in respect of all mediastinal tumors are thoroughly addressed in a concise and logical manner. An emphasis on the multidisciplinary nature of mediastinal tumors is thematic throughout the text. Moreover, the combined-modality treatment schemes that have been increasingly developed worldwide are analyzed. This textbook will prove of value to all general surgeons, thoracic surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pulmonologists, and endocrinologists, as well as to nursing and medical students, residents and fellows-in training. (orig.). 55 figs., 21 tabs

  2. Computed tomography of the orbital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jai Korl; Lee, Hwang Bok; Kang, Eun Young; Seol, Hae Young; Suh, Won Hyuck; Ahn, Byeong Yeob

    1987-01-01

    The development of computed tomography (CT) provided a noninvasive safe technique for imaging the orbit in any plane exquisitely demonstrating its normal anatomy as well as its pathologic process. The orbit is an ideal structure to be examined by CT because of large difference of absorption values between the intraorbital fat, muscle, optic nerve and vessels. In this study, the authors reviewed CT findings of 66 pathologically proven orbital tumors and tumorous conditions among the total of 98 cases who had taken orbital CT scan because if exophthalmos, ocular pain, diplopia and other ophthalmologic symptoms suggesting orbital masses during the period of 3 years. For the analysis of characteristic CT findings of the orbital lesions, all lesions are divided into 4 groups according to the site of origin, i.e., tumors arising in the eyeball (group 1); from intraconal space (group 2); from extraconal space (group 3); and from extraorbital regions (group 4). The results are as follows; 1.Extra tumor detection and localization was possible in 63 cases. Thus the detection rate was 95% with CT scan. 2.Among 36 males and 30 females, their age ranged from 10 months to 72 years. 3.Intraocular tumors (group 1) were 10 cases. Retinoblastoma occurred wholly in the young children under 5 years and combined with calcification in 57%. Choroidal melanoma occurred wholly in adults. 4.Intraconal tumors (group 2) were 9 cases. Vascular tumors (7 cases) were the most frequent and well enhancing mass. 5.The tumors arising in the extraconal region (group 3) were pseudotumor (12 cases), lymphoma (3 cases), dermoid cyst (4 cases), metastasis (2 cases), adenoid cystic carcinoma (1 case) and teratoma (1 case). A case of lymphoma demonstrating retrobulbar ill defined mass with scleral l thickening could not be differentiated from the pseudotumor which showing similar finding. 6.The lesions arising from extraorbital region (group 4) were PNS cancer (9 cases), mucocele (3 cases), lid cancer (4

  3. Computed tomography of the orbital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jai Korl; Lee, Hwang Bok; Kang, Eun Young; Seol, Hae Young; Suh, Won Hyuck [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byeong Yeob [Han Mi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-04-15

    The development of computed tomography (CT) provided a noninvasive safe technique for imaging the orbit in any plane exquisitely demonstrating its normal anatomy as well as its pathologic process. The orbit is an ideal structure to be examined by CT because of large difference of absorption values between the intraorbital fat, muscle, optic nerve and vessels. In this study, the authors reviewed CT findings of 66 pathologically proven orbital tumors and tumorous conditions among the total of 98 cases who had taken orbital CT scan because if exophthalmos, ocular pain, diplopia and other ophthalmologic symptoms suggesting orbital masses during the period of 3 years. For the analysis of characteristic CT findings of the orbital lesions, all lesions are divided into 4 groups according to the site of origin, i.e., tumors arising in the eyeball (group 1); from intraconal space (group 2); from extraconal space (group 3); and from extraorbital regions (group 4). The results are as follows; 1.Extra tumor detection and localization was possible in 63 cases. Thus the detection rate was 95% with CT scan. 2.Among 36 males and 30 females, their age ranged from 10 months to 72 years. 3.Intraocular tumors (group 1) were 10 cases. Retinoblastoma occurred wholly in the young children under 5 years and combined with calcification in 57%. Choroidal melanoma occurred wholly in adults. 4.Intraconal tumors (group 2) were 9 cases. Vascular tumors (7 cases) were the most frequent and well enhancing mass. 5.The tumors arising in the extraconal region (group 3) were pseudotumor (12 cases), lymphoma (3 cases), dermoid cyst (4 cases), metastasis (2 cases), adenoid cystic carcinoma (1 case) and teratoma (1 case). A case of lymphoma demonstrating retrobulbar ill defined mass with scleral l thickening could not be differentiated from the pseudotumor which showing similar finding. 6.The lesions arising from extraorbital region (group 4) were PNS cancer (9 cases), mucocele (3 cases), lid cancer (4

  4. Cancer-associated adipocytes promotes breast tumor radioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochet, Ludivine; Meulle, Aline [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM U1048, 1 Avenue du Pr Jean Poulhes, BP 84225, F-31432 Toulouse Cedex (France); Imbert, Sandrine [CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Salles, Bernard [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Valet, Philippe [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM U1048, 1 Avenue du Pr Jean Poulhes, BP 84225, F-31432 Toulouse Cedex (France); Muller, Catherine, E-mail: muller@ipbs.fr [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Tumor-surrounding adipocytes contribute to breast cancer progression. {yields} Breast tumor cells previously co-cultivated with mature adipocytes exhibit radioresistance. {yields} Increased in Chk1 phosphorylation is observed in irradiated co-cultivated tumor cells. {yields} IL-6 is over-expressed in tumor cells co-cultivated with adipocytes. {yields} IL-6 exposure confers increased Chk1 phosphorylation and radioresistance in tumor cells. -- Abstract: Mature adipocytes are excellent candidates to influence tumor behavior through heterotypic signaling processes since these cells produce hormones, growth factors, cytokines and other molecules, a heterogeneous group of molecules named adipokines. Using a 2D coculture system, we demonstrate that breast tumor cells previously co-cultivated with mature adipocytes exhibit radioresistance and an earlier and higher increase in the effector kinase Chk1, a phenotype that was associated with decreased cell death as compared to tumor cells grown alone. Interestingly, the adipocytes-induced tumor changes taking place during the coculture time preceding the exposure to IR were sufficient to confer the radioresistant effect. Notorious among the changes brought by adipocytes was the significant increase of IL-6 expression in tumor cells, whose activity may well account for the observed tumor cell protection from IR toxicity. Indeed, our data confirmed the protective role of this cytokine as tumor cells incubated after irradiation with recombinant IL-6 exhibit an increased in Chk1 phosphorylation and a radioresistant phenotype, thus far recapitulating the effects observed in the presence of adipocytes. Our current study sheds light on a new role of tumor-surrounding adipocytes in fostering a radioresistant phenotype in breast tumors, a finding that might have important clinical implications in obese patients that frequently exhibit aggressive diseases.

  5. [Bilateral anophthalmia and left-sided orbital tumor : case of an eight-month-old infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundertmark, P; Dierks, P; Gottschalk, J; Kreusch, T; Wiegand, W

    2011-08-01

    An 8-month-old infant from Russia with bilateral anophthalmia presented with an expanding orbital tumor. The tumor was extirpated and the histological examination revealed a non-malignant pseudocystic process with residual neuro-ectodermal structures.

  6. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Florenzano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body. In up to 60% of these tumors, a fibronectin-1(FN1 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1 fusion gene has been identified that may serve as a tumoral driver. The diagnosis is established by the finding of acquired chronic hypophosphatemia due to isolated renal phosphate wasting with concomitant elevated or inappropriately normal blood levels of FGF23 and decreased or inappropriately normal 1,25-OH2-Vitamin D (1,25(OH2D. Locating the tumor is critical, as complete removal is curative. For this purpose, a step-wise approach is recommended, starting with a thorough medical history and physical examination, followed by functional imaging. Suspicious lesions should be confirmed by anatomical imaging, and if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23. If the tumor is not localized, or surgical resection is not possible, medical therapy with phosphate and active vitamin D is usually successful in healing the osteomalacia and reducing symptoms. However, compliance is often poor due to the frequent dosing regimen and side effects. Furthermore, careful monitoring is needed to avoid complications such us secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis. Novel therapeutical approaches are being developed for TIO patients, such as image-guided tumor ablation and medical treatment with the anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody KRN23 or anti FGFR medications. The case of a patient with TIO is presented to

  7. Tumors of germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, Ricardo; Avila, Andres

    2002-01-01

    The tumors of germinal cells (TGC) are derived neoplasia of the primordial germinal cells that in the life embryonic migrant from the primitive central nervous system until being located in the gonads. Their cause is even unknown and they represent 95% of the testicular tumors. In them, the intention of the treatment is always healing and the diagnostic has improved thanks to the results of the handling multidisciplinary. The paper includes topics like their incidence and prevalence, epidemiology and pathology, clinic and diagnoses among other topics

  8. Tumor Suppression and Promotion by Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenniffer Ávalos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic process that involves lysosomal degradation of proteins and organelles, mostly mitochondria, for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and reduction of metabolic stress. Problems in the execution of this process are linked to different pathological conditions, such as neurodegeneration, aging, and cancer. Many of the proteins that regulate autophagy are either oncogenes or tumor suppressor proteins. Specifically, tumor suppressor genes that negatively regulate mTOR, such as PTEN, AMPK, LKB1, and TSC1/2 stimulate autophagy while, conversely, oncogenes that activate mTOR, such as class I PI3K, Ras, Rheb, and AKT, inhibit autophagy, suggesting that autophagy is a tumor suppressor mechanism. Consistent with this hypothesis, the inhibition of autophagy promotes oxidative stress, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, autophagy also functions as a cytoprotective mechanism under stress conditions, including hypoxia and nutrient starvation, that promotes tumor growth and resistance to chemotherapy in established tumors. Here, in this brief review, we will focus the discussion on this ambiguous role of autophagy in the development and progression of cancer.

  9. Tumor suppression and promotion by autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávalos, Yenniffer; Canales, Jimena; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Criollo, Alfredo; Lavandero, Sergio; Quest, Andrew F G

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic process that involves lysosomal degradation of proteins and organelles, mostly mitochondria, for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and reduction of metabolic stress. Problems in the execution of this process are linked to different pathological conditions, such as neurodegeneration, aging, and cancer. Many of the proteins that regulate autophagy are either oncogenes or tumor suppressor proteins. Specifically, tumor suppressor genes that negatively regulate mTOR, such as PTEN, AMPK, LKB1, and TSC1/2 stimulate autophagy while, conversely, oncogenes that activate mTOR, such as class I PI3K, Ras, Rheb, and AKT, inhibit autophagy, suggesting that autophagy is a tumor suppressor mechanism. Consistent with this hypothesis, the inhibition of autophagy promotes oxidative stress, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, autophagy also functions as a cytoprotective mechanism under stress conditions, including hypoxia and nutrient starvation, that promotes tumor growth and resistance to chemotherapy in established tumors. Here, in this brief review, we will focus the discussion on this ambiguous role of autophagy in the development and progression of cancer.

  10. MRI findings of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Demao; Meng Quanfei; Chen Yinming; Zhou Chunxiang; Gao Zhenhua; Yang Zheng; Wang Liantang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe MR findings in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the soft tissue. Methods: MR manifestations of 11 cases of IMT of the soft tissue were retrospectively analyzed, and the MR findings were correlated with surgical and histological results. Results: The pathological classification of the tumors was type I in 1 case, type II in 4 cases, mainly type II admixed with type I in 3 cases, and mainly type II admixed with type III in 3 eases. In 4 cases with primary tumor, the tumors were spheroid in shape, with well-defined margin and pseudocapsule. In 2 eases with primary axillary tumor and 5 cases with recurrent tumor, the tumors were irregular in shape, with ill-defined margin and invasion of adjacent structures. The tumors were mainly isointensive in T 1 -weighted images. Tumors of different pathological classifications had different signal intensities in T 2 -weighted images: 1 case of type I tumor was bright; 4 cases of type II tumor and 3 cases of type II tumor admixed with type I tumor were slightly bright; 3 cases of type II tumor admixed with type III were isointense or slightly hypointense in signal. All of the 11 cases in the study exhibited 'pitaya cross-section sign' in T 2 -weighted sequence, which referred to discrete punctuate foci of relatively hypointensity in the background of hyperintensity, slightly hypointensity or isointensity. All of the 11 cases exhibited inhomogeneously significant enhancement after gadolinium administration. In the follow-up of the 6 eases of primary tumor, 4 cases had recurrence, 1 case had no recurrence, and 1 case was lost in the follow-up process. In the follow-up of the 5 cases of recurrent tumor, 4 cases showed recurrence again, and 3 cases were lost in the follow-up process. Conclusions: The IMT of the soft tissue has characteristic MR features. The signal intensity of the tumor on T2-weighted sequence could reflect the pathological type of the tumor' to some extent. 'pitaya cross

  11. Tumor Heterogeneity and Drug Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerova, L.; Skolekova, S.; Kozovska, Z.

    2015-01-01

    New generation of sequencing methodologies revealed unexpected complexity and genomic alterations linked with the tumor subtypes. This diversity exists across the tumor types, histologic tumor subtypes and subsets of the tumor cells within the same tumor. This phenomenon is termed tumor heterogeneity. Regardless of its origin and mechanisms of development it has a major impact in the clinical setting. Genetic, phenotypic and expression pattern diversity of tumors plays critical role in the selection of suitable treatment and also in the prognosis prediction. Intratumoral heterogeneity plays a key role in the intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance to cytotoxic and targeted therapies. In this review we focus on the mechanisms of intratumoral and inter tumoral heterogeneity and their relationship to the drug resistance. Understanding of the mechanisms and spatiotemporal dynamics of tumor heterogeneity development before and during the therapy is important for the ability to design individual treatment protocols suitable in the given molecular context. (author)

  12. Stochastic models for tumoral growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-02-01

    Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border and the surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stochastic partial differential equations are reported in this paper in order to correctly model the physical properties of tumoral growth in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions. The advantage of these models is that they reproduce the correct geometry of the tumor and are defined in terms of polar variables. An analysis of these models allows us to quantitatively estimate the response of the tumor to an unfavorable perturbation during growth.

  13. Radionuclidr diagnosis of brain tumors, brain inflammatory and traumatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badmaev, K.N.; Mel'kishev, V.F.; Dement'ev, E.V.; Svetlova, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A complex of problems of radionuclide diagnosis of central nervous system diseases including tumors, traumas, vascular lessons, inflammatory processes is considered. The principles, technique and results of radionuclide xintigraphy of a tumor, depending on its localization are given. Radioindication of brain tumours in the operation is given

  14. MR imaging assisted radiation therapy planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, M.; Roesler, H.P.; Higer, H.P.; Kutzner, J.; Thelen, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the improvement of the accuracy of treatment portals in radiation therapy of brain tumors with use of MR imaging. After proper processing, the parasagittal MR image showing the largest tumor size and the midline sagittal image were superimposed. With common anatomic landmarks of midline tomogram and lateral simulation radiograph, commensurate reference grids were laid over both images in identical positions. Tumor coordinates were then transferred from the synthesized MR image to the lateral radiograph. Rectangular fields or individual shielding blocks encompassing the tumor could be drawn directly. This new method was used in 17 patients, and results were compared with CT-assisted results

  15. Clinical relevance and biology of circulating tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Most breast cancer patients die due to metastases, and the early onset of this multistep process is usually missed by current tumor staging modalities. Therefore, ultrasensitive techniques have been developed to enable the enrichment, detection, isolation and characterization of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow and circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. There is increasing evidence that the presence of these cells is associated with an unfavorable prognosis related to metastatic progression in the bone and other organs. This review focuses on investigations regarding the biology and clinical relevance of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer. PMID:22114869

  16. Effect of radiation on the expression of tumor-associated antigens of human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareyama, Masato

    1988-01-01

    We studied the effects of irradiation on the expression of a tumor-associated antigen (YH206 antigen) of cultured human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry. YH206 antigen is preferentially expressed on adenocarcinoma cells. Irradiation of A549 cells remarkably increased the expression of YH206 antigen on the cell surface and the level of the antigen in the culture supernatant as well as in the cell lysate, whereas it significantly affected the expression of HLA (MHC-class I) antigen on the same cells. The expression of HLA antigen on the cell was also increased after treatment of the cells with interferon-γ. In an additional experiment, cells were stained simultaneously for surface antigens (fluorescein coupled antibodies) and for DNA content (propidium iodide), and then dual parameter measurements were performed by flow cytometry to analyse the relationship between antigen levels and the cell cycle. YH206 antigen and HLA antigen increased more in the S and G 2 /M phases of the cell cycle than in G 0 /G 1 . The expression of YH206 antigen was enhanced in the S and G 2 /M phases by irradiation, whereas the expression of HLA antigen was enhanced in each phase of the cell cycle with irradiation or IFN. These results suggest that irradiation plays a key role in the change of the expression of certain tumor-associated antigens. (author)

  17. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... breast and ascending colon. KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous. Multiple Primary Tumors. MA Adeyanju, AA Ilori. Address for correspondence: Dr. MA Adeyanju,. Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Ebute Metta,. Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: mbadeyanju@yahoo.

  18. Surgery for adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamah, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the presentation, localization, pathology, surgical management and outcome of surgery for adrenal gland tumors. Design: Prospective clinico epidemiological study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery, University Unit, Riyadh medical Complex Kingdom of Saudi Rabia from June, 1991 to may, 2001. Subjects and Methods: A total of 21 cases with adrenal tumors were studied for demographic data, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, localization, surgical management, pathology and outcome. The outcome of these patients was followed prospectively. Results: The study included 12 female and 9 male patients. The mean age at surgery was 36.7 years. Hypertension (69.%) was the commonest presentation in hypersecretory functional tumors. The localization accuracy for ultrasonography, computerized tomography, MRI and MIBG scan was 95.2%, 98.3% 87.8% and 83.6% respectively. Pheochromocytoma was the most common adrenal pathology observed in 14 (66.6%) cases. The overall morbidity was 19% with no hospital mortality. Complete follow-up of available 19 patients (90.5 %) revealed no tumor recurrence and persistent hypertension in 14.3% cases. Conclusion: surgery on adrenal glands is safe in experienced hands and is recommended in institutes with all backup facilities. (author)

  19. Study of wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.H.; Yaqub, N.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an effort to bring into light data related to children with Wilms' tumor managed at Islamabad as local literature on this topic is lacking. It was retrospective study. The study was conducted at Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Science, Islamabad between January, 1987 and December 1995. All patients managed during the study period were included in the study. In all the patients complete blood count (CBC), urine analysis (D/R),X-ray abdomen and chest, ultrasound abdomen and in selected cases CT scan were performed. National Wilms' Tumor Study Group (NWTS 3) protocol was followed for further management. Fifty patients including 28 males and 22 females with the age range from 9 months to 8 years were managed in 9 years period. Left kidney was involved in 31 patients. Most of the tumors were solid on ultrasound, 76% patients were in stage III and IV. In one case bilateral involvement of kidney was found. Forty patients underwent primary surgery. Only 14 patients received complete course of chemotherapy while 31 radiotherapy. Nineteen patients died and 15 lost to follow-up. The survival and mortality rates are comparable to NWTS-3 results, although, most of the patients were presented in advance stage of Wilms tumor. The survival of these patients can be improved by increasing awareness of society through electronic and print media. (author)

  20. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  1. Imaging findings of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Sung Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik

    2003-01-01

    The various pathologic conditions detected at CT and MRI and subsumed by the term 'sacral tumor' include primary bone tumors, sacral canal tumors and metastases. Among these, metastases are much more common than primary bone tumors, of which chordoma is the most common. Although the imaging findings of sacral tumors are nonspecific, a patient's age and sex, and specific findings such as calcification or fluid-fluid levels, can help radiologists in their differential diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of primary sacral tumors, emphasizing the MRI findings

  2. Molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilki, Derya; Seitz, Michael; Singer, Bernhard B; Irmak, Ster; Stief, Christian G; Reich, Oliver; Ergün, Süleyman

    2009-05-01

    In the past three decades many efforts have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis. The introduction of anti-angiogenic drugs in tumor therapy during the last few years necessitates the establishment of new techniques enabling molecular imaging of tumor vascular remodelling. The determination of tumor size as commonly used is not appropriate since the extended necrosis under anti-angiogenic therapy does not necessarily result in the reduction of tumor diameter. The basis for the molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels is the remodelling of the tumor vessels under anti-angiogenic therapy which obviously occurs at an early stage and seems to be a convincing parameter. Beside the enormous progress in this field during the last few years the resolution is still not high enough to evaluate the remodelling of the micro tumor vessels. New imaging approaches combining specific molecular markers for tumor vessels with the different imaging techniques are needed to overcome this issue as exemplarily discussed for prostate cancer in this review. Molecular contrast agents targeting the vasculature will allow clinicians the visualization of vascular remodelling processes taking place under anti-angiogenic therapy and improve tumor diagnosis and follow-up.

  3. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a potent regulator of a range of physiological processes in most tissues. Solid epidemiological data show that exercise training can reduce disease risk and mortality for several cancer diagnoses, suggesting that exercise training may directly regulate tumor physiology and metabolism. Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental intervention studies are still needed to verify the cause-effect relationship between these mechanisms and the control of tumor growth.

  4. Active Roles of Tumor Stroma in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, Z.I.; Sang, Q.A.; Sahab, Z.J.

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of death for breast cancer patients. Tumors are heterogenous cellular entities composed of cancer cells and cells of the microenvironment in which they reside. A reciprocal dynamic interaction occurs between the tumor cells and their surrounding stroma under physiological and pathological conditions. This tumor-host communication interface mediates the escape of tumor cells at the primary site, survival of circulating cancer cells in the vasculature, and growth of metastatic cancer at secondary site. Each step of the metastatic process is accompanied by recruitment of stromal cells from the microenvironment and production of unique array of growth factors and chemokines. Stromal microenvironment may play active roles in breast cancer metastasis. Elucidating the types of cells recruited and signal pathways involved in the crosstalk between tumor cells and stromal cells will help identify novel strategies for cotargeting cancer cells and tumor stromal cells to suppress metastasis and improve patient outcome

  5. Active Roles of Tumor Stroma in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa I. Khamis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death for breast cancer patients. Tumors are heterogenous cellular entities composed of cancer cells and cells of the microenvironment in which they reside. A reciprocal dynamic interaction occurs between the tumor cells and their surrounding stroma under physiological and pathological conditions. This tumor-host communication interface mediates the escape of tumor cells at the primary site, survival of circulating cancer cells in the vasculature, and growth of metastatic cancer at secondary site. Each step of the metastatic process is accompanied by recruitment of stromal cells from the microenvironment and production of unique array of growth factors and chemokines. Stromal microenvironment may play active roles in breast cancer metastasis. Elucidating the types of cells recruited and signal pathways involved in the crosstalk between tumor cells and stromal cells will help identify novel strategies for cotargeting cancer cells and tumor stromal cells to suppress metastasis and improve patient outcome.

  6. Development of an oxygen-sensitive degradable peptide probe for the imaging of hypoxia-inducible factor-1-active regions in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masashi; Ogawa, Kei; Miyano, Azusa; Ono, Masahiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Saji, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to develop a radiolabeled peptide probe for the imaging of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-active tumors. We synthesized the peptide probes that contain or lack an essential sequence of the oxygen-dependent degradation of HIF-1α in proteasomes ((123/125)I-DKOP30 or (125)I-mDKOP, respectively). The degradation of probes was evaluated in vitro using cell lysates containing proteasomes. In vivo biodistribution study, planar imaging, autoradiography, and comparison between probe accumulation and HIF-1 transcriptional activity were also performed. The (125)I-DKOP30 underwent degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner, while (125)I-mDKOP was not degraded. Biodistribution analysis showed (125)I-DKOP30 accumulation in tumors. The tumors were clearly visualized by in vivo imaging, and intratumoral distribution of (125)I-DKOP30 coincided with the HIF-1α-positive hypoxic regions. Tumoral accumulation of (125)I-DKOP30 was significantly correlated with HIF-1-dependent luciferase bioluminescence, while that of (125)I-mDKOP was not. (123)I-DKOP30 is a useful peptide probe for the imaging of HIF-1-active tumors.

  7. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  8. Dietary administration of scallion extract effectively inhibits colorectal tumor growth: cellular and molecular mechanisms in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Arulselvan

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Diet is known to play an important role in the etiology of colon cancer and dietary chemoprevention is receiving increasing attention for prevention and/or alternative treatment of colon cancers. Allium fistulosum L., commonly known as scallion, is popularly used as a spice or vegetable worldwide, and as a traditional medicine in Asian cultures for treating a variety of diseases. In this study we evaluated the possible beneficial effects of dietary scallion on chemoprevention of colon cancer using a mouse model of colon carcinoma (CT-26 cells subcutaneously inoculated into BALB/c mice. Tumor lysates were subjected to western blotting for analysis of key inflammatory markers, ELISA for analysis of cytokines, and immunohistochemistry for analysis of inflammatory markers. Metabolite profiles of scallion extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Scallion extracts, particularly hot-water extract, orally fed to mice at 50 mg (dry weight/kg body weight resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth and enhanced the survival rate of test mice. At the molecular level, scallion extracts inhibited the key inflammatory markers COX-2 and iNOS, and suppressed the expression of various cellular markers known to be involved in tumor apoptosis (apoptosis index, proliferation (cyclin D1 and c-Myc, angiogenesis (VEGF and HIF-1α, and tumor invasion (MMP-9 and ICAM-1 when compared with vehicle control-treated mice. Our findings may warrant further investigation of the use of common scallion as a chemopreventive dietary agent to lower the risk of colon cancer.

  9. Phase transitions in tumor growth: IV relationship between metabolic rate and fractal dimension of human tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt-Mar, J. A.; Llanos-Pérez, J. A.; Cocho, G.; Mansilla, R.; Martin, R. R.; Montero, S.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    By the use of thermodynamics formalism of irreversible processes, complex systems theory and systems biology, it is derived a relationship between the production of entropy per unit time, the fractal dimension and the tumor growth rate for human tumors cells. The thermodynamics framework developed demonstrates that, the dissipation function is a Landau potential and also the Lyapunov function of the dynamical behavior of tumor growth, which indicate the directional character, stability and robustness of the phenomenon. The entropy production rate may be used as a quantitative index of the metastatic potential of tumors. The current theoretical framework will hopefully provide a better understanding of cancer and contribute to improvements in cancer treatment.