WorldWideScience

Sample records for tularensis strains belonging

  1. Comparative genomic characterization of Francisella tularensis strains belonging to low and high virulence subspecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia D Champion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a geographically widespread, severely debilitating, and occasionally lethal disease in humans. It is caused by infection by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. In order to better understand its potency as an etiological agent as well as its potential as a biological weapon, we have completed draft assemblies and report the first complete genomic characterization of five strains belonging to the following different Francisella subspecies (subsp.: the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis FSC033, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica FSC257 and FSC022, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida GA99-3548 and GA99-3549 strains. Here, we report the sequencing of these strains and comparative genomic analysis with recently available public Francisella sequences, including the rare F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain isolate from the Central Asian Region. We report evidence for the occurrence of large-scale rearrangement events in strains of the holarctica subspecies, supporting previous proposals that further phylogenetic subdivisions of the Type B clade are likely. We also find a significant enrichment of disrupted or absent ORFs proximal to predicted breakpoints in the FSC022 strain, including a genetic component of the Type I restriction-modification defense system. Many of the pseudogenes identified are also disrupted in the closely related rarely human pathogenic F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain, including modulator of drug activity B (mdaB (FTT0961, which encodes a known NADPH quinone reductase involved in oxidative stress resistance. We have also identified genes exhibiting sequence similarity to effectors of the Type III (T3SS and components of the Type IV secretion systems (T4SS. One of the genes, msrA2 (FTT1797c, is disrupted in F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica and has recently been shown to mediate bacterial pathogen survival in host organisms. Our findings suggest that in addition to the duplication of

  2. Rapid focused sequencing: a multiplexed assay for simultaneous detection and strain typing of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary S Turingan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the United States in 2001 has heightened concern about the use of pathogenic microorganisms in bioterrorism attacks. Many of the deadliest bacteria, including the Class A Select Agents Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis, are highly infectious via the pulmonary route when released in aerosolized form. Hence, rapid, sensitive, and reliable methods for detection of these biothreats and characterization of their potential impact on the exposed population are of critical importance to initiate and support rapid military, public health, and clinical responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed microfluidic multiplexed PCR and sequencing assays based on the simultaneous interrogation of three pathogens per assay and ten loci per pathogen. Microfluidic separation of amplified fluorescently labeled fragments generated characteristic electrophoretic signatures for identification of each agent. The three sets of primers allowed significant strain typing and discrimination from non-pathogenic closely-related species and environmental background strains based on amplicon sizes alone. Furthermore, sequencing of the 10 amplicons per pathogen, termed "Rapid Focused Sequencing," allowed an even greater degree of strain discrimination and, in some cases, can be used to determine virulence. Both amplification and sequencing assays were performed in microfluidic biochips developed for fast thermal cycling and requiring 7 µL per reaction. The 30-plex sequencing assay resulted in genotypic resolution of 84 representative strains belonging to each of the three biothreat species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microfluidic multiplexed assays allowed identification and strain differentiation of the biothreat agents Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis and clear discrimination from closely-related species and several environmental

  3. Prior Inoculation with Type B Strains of Francisella tularensis Provides Partial Protection against Virulent Type A Strains in Cottontail Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vienna R Brown

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent bacterium that is capable of causing severe disease (tularemia in a wide range of species. This organism is characterized into two distinct subspecies: tularensis (type A and holarctica (type B which vary in several crucial ways, with some type A strains having been found to be considerably more virulent in humans and laboratory animals. Cottontail rabbits have been widely implicated as a reservoir species for this subspecies; however, experimental inoculation in our laboratory revealed type A organisms to be highly virulent, resulting in 100% mortality following challenge with 50-100 organisms. Inoculation of cottontail rabbits with the same number of organisms from type B strains of bacteria was found to be rarely lethal and to result in a robust humoral immune response. The objective of this study was to characterize the protection afforded by a prior challenge with type B strains against a later inoculation with a type A strain in North American cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus spp. Previous infection with a type B strain of organism was found to lengthen survival time and in some cases prevent death following inoculation with a type A2 strain of F. tularensis. In contrast, inoculation of a type A1b strain was uniformly lethal in cottontail rabbits irrespective of a prior type B inoculation. These findings provide important insight about the role cottontail rabbits may play in environmental maintenance and transmission of this organism.

  4. Francisella tularensis type A Strains Cause the Rapid Encystment of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Survive in Amoebal Cysts for Three Weeks post Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Etr, S H; Margolis, J; Monack, D; Robison, R; Cohen, M; Moore, E; Rasley, A

    2009-07-28

    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia, has recently gained increased attention due to the emergence of tularemia in geographical areas where the disease has been previously unknown, and the organism's potential as a bioterrorism agent. Although F. tularensis has an extremely broad host range, the bacterial reservoir in nature has not been conclusively identified. In this study, the ability of virulent F. tularensis strains to survive and replicate in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii was explored. We observe that A. castellanii trophozoites rapidly encyst in response to F. tularensis infection and that this rapid encystment phenotype (REP) is caused by factor(s) secreted by amoebae and/or F. tularensis into the co-culture media. Further, our results indicate that in contrast to LVS, virulent strains of F. tularensis can survive in A. castellanii cysts for at least 3 weeks post infection and that induction of rapid amoeba encystment is essential for survival. In addition, our data indicate that pathogenic F. tularensis strains block lysosomal fusion in A. castellanii. Taken together, these data suggest that the interactions between F. tularensis strains and amoeba may play a role in the environmental persistence of F. tularensis.

  5. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of Francisella tularensis strains demonstrates extensive genetic conservation within the species but identifies regions that are unique to the highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, M.P.; Larsson, P.; Johansson, A.; Byström, M.; Eriksson, U.; Larsson, E.; Prior, R.G.; Sjöstedt, A.; Titball, R.W.; Forsman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a potent pathogen and a possible bioterrorism agent. Little is known, however, to explain the molecular basis for its virulence and the distinct differences in virulence found between the four recognized subspecies, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp.

  6. The Natural History of Pneumonic Tularemia in Female Fischer 344 Rats after Inhalational Exposure to Aerosolized Francisella tularensis Subspecies tularensis Strain SCHU S4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Julie A; Lovchik, Julie A; Dekonenko, Alexander; Hahn, Andrew C; Wu, Terry H

    2017-02-01

    The inbred Fischer 344 rat is being evaluated for testing novel vaccines and therapeutics against pneumonic tularemia. Although primary pneumonic tularemia in humans typically occurs by inhalation of aerosolized bacteria, the rat model has relied on intratracheal inoculation of organisms because of safety and equipment issues. We now report the natural history of pneumonic tularemia in female Fischer 344 rats after nose-only inhalational exposure to lethal doses of aerosolized Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis, strain SCHU S4. Our results are consistent with initial uptake of aerosolized SCHU S4 from the nasal cavity, lungs, and possibly the gastrointestinal tract. Bacteremia with hematogenous dissemination was first detected 2 days after exposure. Shortly thereafter, the infected rats exhibited fever, tachypnea, and hypertension that persisted for 24 to 36 hours and then rapidly decreased as animals succumbed to infection between days 5 and 8 after exposure. Tachycardia was observed briefly, but only after the core body temperature and blood pressure began to decrease as the animals were near death. Initial neutrophilic and histiocytic inflammation in affected tissues became progressively more fibrinous and necrotizing over time. At death, as many as 10 10 colony-forming units were found in the lungs, spleen, and liver. Death was attributed to sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Overall, the pathogenesis of pneumonic tularemia in the female F344 rat model appears to replicate the disease in humans. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunoproteomics analysis of the murine antibody response to vaccination with an improved Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Twine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis is the causative agent of a spectrum of diseases collectively known as tularemia. An attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS has been shown to be efficacious in humans, but safety concerns have prevented its licensure by the FDA. Recently, F. tularensis LVS has been produced under Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP guidelines. Little is known about the immunogenicity of this new vaccine preparation in comparison with extensive studies conducted with laboratory passaged strains of LVS. Thus, the aim of the current work was to evaluate the repertoire of antibodies produced in mouse strains vaccinated with the new LVS vaccine preparation.In the current study, we used an immunoproteomics approach to examine the repertoire of antibodies induced following successful immunization of BALB/c versus unsuccessful vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with the new preparation of F. tularensis LVS. Successful vaccination of BALB/c mice elicited antibodies to nine identified proteins that were not recognized by antisera from vaccinated but unprotected C57BL/6 mice. In addition, the CGMP formulation of LVS stimulated a greater repertoire of antibodies following vaccination compared to vaccination with laboratory passaged ATCC LVS strain. A total of 15 immunoreactive proteins were identified in both studies, however, 16 immunoreactive proteins were uniquely reactive with sera from the new formulation of LVS.This is the first report characterising the antibody based immune response of the new formulation of LVS in the widely used murine model of tularemia. Using two mouse strains, we show that successfully vaccinated mice can be distinguished from unsuccessfully vaccinated mice based upon the repertoire of antibodies generated. This opens the door towards downselection of antigens for incorporation into tularemia subunit vaccines. In addition, this work also highlights differences in the humoral immune response to

  8. Description of two new plasmids isolated from Francisella philomiragia strains and construction of shuttle vectors for the study of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pihive, E; Blaha, D; Chenavas, S; Thibault, F; Vidal, D; Valade, E

    2009-11-01

    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia, a zoonotic disease often transmitted to humans by infected animals. The lack of useful specific genetic tools has long hampered the study of F. tularensis subspecies. We identified and characterized two new plasmids, pF242 and pF243, isolated from Francisella philomiragia strains ATCC 25016 and ATCC 25017, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that pF242 and pF243 are closely related to pC194 and pFNL10 plasmids, respectively. Two generations of pF242- and pF243-based shuttle vectors, harboring several antibiotic resistance markers, were developed. We used the first generation to compare transformation efficiencies in two virulent F. tularensis subspecies. We found that electroporation was more efficient than cryotransformation: almost all vectors tested were successfully introduced by electroporation into Francisella strains with a high level of efficiency. The second generation of shuttle vectors, containing a multiple cloning site and/or gfp gene downstream of Francisella groES promotor, was used for GFP production in F. tularensis. The development of new shuttle vectors offers new perspectives in the genetic manipulation of F. tularensis, helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying its virulence.

  9. A Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain that improves stimulation of antigen-presenting cells does not enhance vaccine efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M Schmitt

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a proven strategy to mitigate morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases. The methodology of identifying and testing new vaccine candidates could be improved with rational design and in vitro testing prior to animal experimentation. The tularemia vaccine, Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS, does not elicit complete protection against lethal challenge with a virulent type A Francisella strain. One factor that may contribute to this poor performance is limited stimulation of antigen-presenting cells. In this study, we examined whether the interaction of genetically modified LVS strains with human antigen-presenting cells correlated with effectiveness as tularemia vaccine candidates. Human dendritic cells infected with wild-type LVS secrete low levels of proinflammatory cytokines, fail to upregulate costimulatory molecules, and activate human T cells poorly in vitro. One LVS mutant, strain 13B47, stimulated higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines from dendritic cells and macrophages and increased costimulatory molecule expression on dendritic cells compared to wild type. Additionally, 13B47-infected dendritic cells activated T cells more efficiently than LVS-infected cells. A deletion allele of the same gene in LVS displayed similar in vitro characteristics, but vaccination with this strain did not improve survival after challenge with a virulent Francisella strain. In vivo, this mutant was attenuated for growth and did not stimulate T cell responses in the lung comparable to wild type. Therefore, stimulation of antigen-presenting cells in vitro was improved by genetic modification of LVS, but did not correlate with efficacy against challenge in vivo within this model system.

  10. Live Vaccine Strain Francisella tularensis is Detectable at the Inoculation Site but Not in Blood after Vaccination Against Tularemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hepburn, Matthew J; Purcell, Bret K; Lawler, James V; Coyne, Susan R; Petitt, Patricia L; Sellers, Karen D; Norwood, David A; Ulrich, Melanie P

    2006-01-01

    ...) for the detection of F. tularensis in human clinical samples. Methods. Blood and skin swab samples were prospectively collected from volunteers who received the LVS tularemia vaccine at baseline (negative controls...

  11. Low dose vaccination with attenuated Francisella tularensis strain SchuS4 mutants protects against tularemia independent of the route of vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeke Rockx-Brouwer

    Full Text Available Tularemia, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Interest in tularemia has increased over the last decade due to its history as a biological weapon. In particular, development of novel vaccines directed at protecting against pneumonic tularemia has been an important goal. Previous work has demonstrated that, when delivered at very high inoculums, administration of live, highly attenuated strains of virulent F. tularensis can protect against tularemia. However, lower vaccinating inoculums did not offer similar immunity. One concern of using live vaccines is that the host may develop mild tularemia in response to infection and use of high inoculums may contribute to this issue. Thus, generation of a live vaccine that can efficiently protect against tularemia when delivered in low numbers, e.g. <100 organisms, may address this concern. Herein we describe the ability of three defined, attenuated mutants of F. tularensis SchuS4, deleted for FTT0369c, FTT1676, or FTT0369c and FTT1676, respectively, to engender protective immunity against tularemia when delivered at concentrations of approximately 50 or fewer bacteria. Attenuated strains for use as vaccines were selected by their inability to efficiently replicate in macrophages in vitro and impaired replication and dissemination in vivo. Although all strains were defective for replication in vitro within macrophages, protective efficacy of each attenuated mutant was correlated with their ability to modestly replicate and disseminate in the host. Finally, we demonstrate the parenteral vaccination with these strains offered superior protection against pneumonic tularemia than intranasal vaccination. Together our data provides proof of principle that low dose attenuated vaccines may be a viable goal in development of novel vaccines directed against tularemia.

  12. Low Dose Vaccination with Attenuated Francisella tularensis Strain SchuS4 Mutants Protects against Tularemia Independent of the Route of Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockx-Brouwer, Dedeke; Chong, Audrey; Wehrly, Tara D.; Child, Robert; Crane, Deborah D.

    2012-01-01

    Tularemia, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Interest in tularemia has increased over the last decade due to its history as a biological weapon. In particular, development of novel vaccines directed at protecting against pneumonic tularemia has been an important goal. Previous work has demonstrated that, when delivered at very high inoculums, administration of live, highly attenuated strains of virulent F. tularensis can protect against tularemia. However, lower vaccinating inoculums did not offer similar immunity. One concern of using live vaccines is that the host may develop mild tularemia in response to infection and use of high inoculums may contribute to this issue. Thus, generation of a live vaccine that can efficiently protect against tularemia when delivered in low numbers, e.g. tularemia when delivered at concentrations of approximately 50 or fewer bacteria. Attenuated strains for use as vaccines were selected by their inability to efficiently replicate in macrophages in vitro and impaired replication and dissemination in vivo. Although all strains were defective for replication in vitro within macrophages, protective efficacy of each attenuated mutant was correlated with their ability to modestly replicate and disseminate in the host. Finally, we demonstrate the parenteral vaccination with these strains offered superior protection against pneumonic tularemia than intranasal vaccination. Together our data provides proof of principle that low dose attenuated vaccines may be a viable goal in development of novel vaccines directed against tularemia. PMID:22662210

  13. Biohazard Analysis of Select Biodefense Vaccine Candidates - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella Tularensis LVS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.

    2007-01-01

    Biohazard assessment of biodefense vaccine candidates forms the basis for a facility- and activity-specific risk assessment performed to determine the biosafety levels and general safety standards required for biological product development. As a part of our support to the US biodefense vaccine development program, we perform a systematic biohazard assessment of potential vaccine candidates with the primary objective to, (a) Identify and characterize hazard elements associated with the wild type and vaccine strains, (b) Provide biohazard information on the etiologic agent (vaccine candidate) to assess Phase 1 clinical trial facility sites, (c) Provide a baseline to conduct an agent and facility-specific risk assessment at clinical trial facilities interested in performing phase 1 clinical trial, (d) Provide comparative hazard profiles of the vaccine candidates wit MSDS for wild-type to identify and establish appropriate protective biosafety levels, and (e) Support determination of a hazard level to select personal protective equipment as required under the OSHA guidelines. This paper will describe the biohazard analysis of two vaccine candidates, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella tularensis LVS, a viral and bacterial agent, respectively. As part of the biohazard assessment we preformed a thorough review of published literature on medical pathology, epidemiology, pre-clinical investigational studies, and environmental data on the etiologic agent subtypes and the vaccine candidates. Using standard analytical procedures, the data were then analyzed relative to two intrinsic hazard parameters-health hazard and environmental hazard. Using a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach, the potential hazards of etiologic agent wild subtypes and vaccine candidates were ranked under three main categories: Public Health Hazard, Environmental Hazard, and Overall Hazard. A WOE scoring system allows for both a determination of the intrinsic hazard of each

  14. Biohazard Analysis of Select Biodefense Vaccine Candidates - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella Tularensis LVS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, V [National Security Programs, Computer Science Corporation, Alexandria (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Biohazard assessment of biodefense vaccine candidates forms the basis for a facility- and activity-specific risk assessment performed to determine the biosafety levels and general safety standards required for biological product development. As a part of our support to the US biodefense vaccine development program, we perform a systematic biohazard assessment of potential vaccine candidates with the primary objective to, (a) Identify and characterize hazard elements associated with the wild type and vaccine strains, (b) Provide biohazard information on the etiologic agent (vaccine candidate) to assess Phase 1 clinical trial facility sites, (c) Provide a baseline to conduct an agent and facility-specific risk assessment at clinical trial facilities interested in performing phase 1 clinical trial, (d) Provide comparative hazard profiles of the vaccine candidates wit MSDS for wild-type to identify and establish appropriate protective biosafety levels, and (e) Support determination of a hazard level to select personal protective equipment as required under the OSHA guidelines. This paper will describe the biohazard analysis of two vaccine candidates, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella tularensis LVS, a viral and bacterial agent, respectively. As part of the biohazard assessment we preformed a thorough review of published literature on medical pathology, epidemiology, pre-clinical investigational studies, and environmental data on the etiologic agent subtypes and the vaccine candidates. Using standard analytical procedures, the data were then analyzed relative to two intrinsic hazard parameters-health hazard and environmental hazard. Using a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach, the potential hazards of etiologic agent wild subtypes and vaccine candidates were ranked under three main categories: Public Health Hazard, Environmental Hazard, and Overall Hazard. A WOE scoring system allows for both a determination of the intrinsic hazard of each

  15. Virulence differences among Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis clades in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R Molins

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A and holarctica (type B are of clinical importance in causing tularemia. Molecular typing methods have further separated type A strains into three genetically distinct clades, A1a, A1b and A2. Epidemiological analyses of human infections in the United States suggest that A1b infections are associated with a significantly higher mortality rate as compared to infections caused by A1a, A2 and type B. To determine if genetic differences as defined by molecular typing directly correlate with differences in virulence, A1a, A1b, A2 and type B strains were compared in C57BL/6 mice. Here we demonstrate significant differences between survival curves for infections caused by A1b versus A1a, A2 and type B, with A1b infected mice dying earlier than mice infected with A1a, A2 or type B; these results were conserved among multiple strains. Differences were also detected among type A clades as well as between type A clades and type B with respect to bacterial burdens, and gross anatomy in infected mice. Our results indicate that clades defined within F. tularensis subsp. tularensis by molecular typing methods correlate with virulence differences, with A1b strains more virulent than A1a, A2 and type B strains. These findings indicate type A strains are not equivalent with respect to virulence and have important implications for public health as well as basic research programs.

  16. Francisella tularensis Confronts the Complement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Brock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis has developed a number of effective evasion strategies to counteract host immune defenses, not the least of which is its ability to interact with the complement system to its own advantage. Following exposure of the bacterium to fresh human serum, complement is activated and C3b and iC3b can be found covalently attached to the bacterial surface. However, the lipopolysaccharide and capsule of the F. tularensis cell wall prevent complement-mediated lysis and endow the bacterium with serum resistance. Opsonization of F. tularensis with C3 greatly increases its uptake by human neutrophils, dendritic cells and macrophages. Uptake occurs by an unusual looping morphology in human macrophages. Complement receptor 3 is thought to play an important role in opsonophagocytosis by human macrophages, and signaling through this receptor can antagonize Toll-like receptor 2-initiated macrophage activation. Complement C3 also determines the survival of infected human macrophages and perhaps other cell types. C3-opsonization of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain SCHU S4 results in greatly increased death of infected human macrophages, which requires more than complement receptor engagement and is independent of the intracellular replication by the pathogen. Given its entry into the cytosol of host cells, F. tularensis has the potential for a number of other complement-mediated interactions. Studies on the uptake C3-opsonized adenovirus have suggested the existence of a C3 sensing system that initiates cellular responses to cytosolic C3b present on invading microbes. Here we propose that C3 peptides enter the cytosol of human macrophages following phagosome escape of F. tularensis and are recognized as intruding molecular patterns that signal host cell death. With the discovery of new roles for intracellular C3, a better understanding of tularemia pathogenesis is likely to emerge.

  17. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses induced by scarification vaccination of human volunteers with a new lot of the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, D M; Galloway, A; Sandstrom, G; Bolt, C R; England, M J; Nelson, G O; Williams, J C

    1992-01-01

    Tularemia is a disease caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. We evaluated a new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine for its immunogenicity in human volunteers. Scarification vaccination induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Indications of a positive immune response after vaccination included an increase in specific antibody levels, which were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoblot assays, and the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to whole F. tularensis bacteria as recall antigens. Vaccination caused a significant rise (P less than 0.05) in immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM titers. Lymphocyte stimulation indices were significantly increased (P less than 0.01) in vaccinees 14 days after vaccination. These data verify that this new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine is immunogenic. Images PMID:1400988

  18. Virulent Type A Francisella tularensis actively suppresses cytokine responses in human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Devyn D.; Curry, Heather M.; Cremer, Thomas; Ravneberg, David; Fatehchand, Kavin; Shah, Prexy A.; Wewers, Mark D.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Tridandapani, Susheela; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human monocyte inflammatory responses differ between virulent and attenuated Francisella infection. Results: A mixed infection model showed that the virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 can attenuate inflammatory cytokine responses to the less virulent F. novicida in human monocytes. Conclusion: F. tularensis dampens inflammatory response by an active process. Significance: This suppression may contribute to enhanced pathogenicity of F. tularensis. Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative bacterium that can cause the disease tularemia, even upon exposure to low numbers of bacteria. One critical characteristic of Francisella is its ability to dampen or subvert the host immune response. Previous work has shown that monocytes infected with highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu S4 responded with a general pattern of quantitatively reduced pro-inflammatory signaling pathway genes and cytokine production in comparison to those infected with the less virulent related F. novicida. However, it has been unclear whether the virulent Schu S4 was merely evading or actively suppressing monocyte responses. By using mixed infection assays with F. tularensis and F. novicida, we show that F. tularensis actively suppresses monocyte pro-inflammatory responses. Additional experiments show that this suppression occurs in a dose-dependent manner and is dependent upon the viability of F. tularensis. Importantly, F. tularensis was able to suppress pro-inflammatory responses to earlier infections with F. novicida. These results lend support that F. tularensis actively dampens human monocyte responses and this likely contributes to its enhanced pathogenicity. PMID:24783062

  19. Live Attenuated Tularemia Vaccines for Protection Against Respiratory Challenge With Virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qingmei; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2018-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and a Tier I bioterrorism agent. In the 1900s, several vaccines were developed against tularemia including the killed “Foshay” vaccine, subunit vaccines comprising F. tularensis protein(s) or lipoproteins(s) in an adjuvant formulation, and the F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS); none were licensed in the U.S.A. or European Union. The LVS vaccine retains toxicity in humans and animals—especially mice—but has demonstrated efficacy in humans, and thus serves as the current gold standard for vaccine efficacy studies. The U.S.A. 2001 anthrax bioterrorism attack spawned renewed interest in vaccines against potential biowarfare agents including F. tularensis. Since live attenuated—but not killed or subunit—vaccines have shown promising efficacy and since vaccine efficacy against respiratory challenge with less virulent subspecies holarctica or F. novicida, or against non-respiratory challenge with virulent subsp. tularensis (Type A) does not reliably predict vaccine efficacy against respiratory challenge with virulent subsp. tularensis, the route of transmission and species of greatest concern in a bioterrorist attack, in this review, we focus on live attenuated tularemia vaccine candidates tested against respiratory challenge with virulent Type A strains, including homologous vaccines derived from mutants of subsp. holarctica, F. novicida, and subsp. tularensis, and heterologous vaccines developed using viral or bacterial vectors to express F. tularensis immunoprotective antigens. We compare the virulence and efficacy of these vaccine candidates with that of LVS and discuss factors that can significantly impact the development and evaluation of live attenuated tularemia vaccines. Several vaccines meet what we would consider the minimum criteria for vaccines to go forward into clinical development—safety greater than LVS and efficacy at least as great as LVS, and of these, several meet the

  20. Whole-genome pyrosequencing of an epidemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain belonging to the European clone II group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacono, M.; Villa, L.; Fortini, D.

    2008-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence of an epidemic, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain (strain ACICU) belonging to the European clone II group and carrying the plasmid-mediated bla(OXA-58) carbapenem resistance gene was determined. The A. baumannii ACICU genome was compared with the genomes...

  1. Mechanisms of heme utilization by Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lindgren

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent facultative intracellular pathogen causing the severe disease tularemia in mammals. As for other bacteria, iron is essential for its growth but very few mechanisms for iron acquisition have been identified. Here, we analyzed if and how F. tularensis can utilize heme, a major source of iron in vivo. This is by no means obvious since the bacterium lacks components of traditional heme-uptake systems. We show that SCHU S4, the prototypic strain of subspecies tularensis, grew in vitro with heme as the sole iron source. By screening a SCHU S4 transposon insertion library, 16 genes were identified as important to efficiently utilize heme, two of which were required to avoid heme toxicity. None of the identified genes appeared to encode components of a potential heme-uptake apparatus. Analysis of SCHU S4 deletion mutants revealed that each of the components FeoB, the siderophore system, and FupA, contributed to the heme-dependent growth. In the case of the former two systems, iron acquisition was impaired, whereas the absence of FupA did not affect iron uptake but led to abnormally high binding of iron to macromolecules. Overall, the present study demonstrates that heme supports growth of F. tularensis and that the requirements for the utilization are highly complex and to some extent novel.

  2. Crystallization of a newly discovered histidine acid phosphatase from Francisella tularensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felts, Richard L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Reilly, Thomas J. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65212 (United States); Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65212 (United States); Calcutt, Michael J. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65212 (United States); Tanner, John J., E-mail: tannerjj@missouri.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A histidine acid phosphatase from the CDC Category A pathogen F. tularensis has been crystallized in space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.96, c = 210.78 Å. A 1.75 Å resolution data set was collected at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterial pathogen that is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to be a potential bioterrorism weapon. Here, the crystallization of a 37.2 kDa phosphatase encoded by the genome of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica live vaccine strain is reported. This enzyme shares 41% amino-acid sequence identity with Legionella pneumophila major acid phosphatase and contains the RHGXRXP motif that is characteristic of the histidine acid phosphatase family. Large diffraction-quality crystals were grown in the presence of Tacsimate, HEPES and PEG 3350. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.96, c = 210.78 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain one protein molecule, with a solvent content of 53%. A 1.75 Å resolution native data set was recorded at beamline 4.2.2 of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source. Molecular-replacement trials using the human prostatic acid phosphatase structure as the search model (28% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of F. tularensis histidine acid phosphatase will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  3. Crystallization of a newly discovered histidine acid phosphatase from Francisella tularensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felts, Richard L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2005-01-01

    A histidine acid phosphatase from the CDC Category A pathogen F. tularensis has been crystallized in space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.96, c = 210.78 Å. A 1.75 Å resolution data set was collected at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterial pathogen that is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to be a potential bioterrorism weapon. Here, the crystallization of a 37.2 kDa phosphatase encoded by the genome of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica live vaccine strain is reported. This enzyme shares 41% amino-acid sequence identity with Legionella pneumophila major acid phosphatase and contains the RHGXRXP motif that is characteristic of the histidine acid phosphatase family. Large diffraction-quality crystals were grown in the presence of Tacsimate, HEPES and PEG 3350. The crystals belong to space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.96, c = 210.78 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain one protein molecule, with a solvent content of 53%. A 1.75 Å resolution native data set was recorded at beamline 4.2.2 of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source. Molecular-replacement trials using the human prostatic acid phosphatase structure as the search model (28% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of F. tularensis histidine acid phosphatase will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative

  4. Genetic manipulation of Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhavit eZogaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease tularemia. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis causes the most severe disease in humans and has been classified as a select A agent and potential bioweapon. There is currently no vaccine approved for human use, making genetic manipulation of this organism critical to unraveling the genetic basis of pathogenesis and developing countermeasures against tularemia. The development of genetic techniques applicable to F. tularensis have lagged behind those routinely used for other bacteria, primarily due to lack of research and the restricted nature of the biocontainment required for studying this pathogen. However, in recent years, genetic techniques, such as transposon mutagenesis and targeted gene disruption, have been developed, that have had a dramatic impact on our understanding of the genetic basis of F. tularensis virulence. In this review, we describe some of the methods developed for genetic manipulation of F. tularensis.

  5. The Effect of Interferon-γ and Lipopolysaccharide on the Growth of Francisella tularensis LVS in Murine Macrophage-like Cell Line J774

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Holická

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Francisella tularensis, a causative agent of human tularemia, displaying the ability to proliferate inside the human cells. Aims: To evaluate the growth potential of F. tularensis LVS strain in macrophage-like cell line J774 modulated by recombinant interferon γ and E. coli derived lipopolysaccharide. Results: Stimulation of J774 cells either by interferon-γ or lipopolysaccharide alone, or especially in combination before infection F. tularensis, revealed protective effects. Higher concentrations of stimulating agents were needed to inhibit ongoing F. tularensis infection. Conclusions: Stimulation of J774 cell line by combination of interferon-γ with lipopolysaccharide inhibits the intracellular growth of F. tularensis.

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Extensively Drug-Resistant Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Belonging to the Euro-American S Lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinga, L.A.; Abeel, T.; Desjardins, C.A.; Dlamini, T.C.; Cassell, G.; Chapman, S.B.; Birren, B.W.; Earl, A.M.; Van der Walt, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the whole-genome sequencing of two extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis strains belonging to the Euro-American S lineage. The RSA 114 strain showed single-nucleotide polymorphisms predicted to have drug efflux activity.

  7. Virulent Type A Francisella tularensis actively suppresses cytokine responses in human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyn D Gilette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative bacterium that can cause the disease tularemia, even upon exposure to low numbers of bacteria. One critical characteristic of Francisella is its ability to dampen or subvert the host immune response. Previous work has shown that monocytes infected with highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu S4 responded with a general pattern of quantitatively reduced pro-inflammatory signaling pathway genes and cytokine production in comparison to those infected with the less virulent related F. novicida. However, it has been unclear whether the virulent Schu S4 was merely evading or actively suppressing monocyte responses. By using mixed infection assays with F. tularensis and F. novicida, we show that F. tularensis actively suppresses monocyte pro-inflammatory responses. Additional experiments show that this suppression occurs in a dose-dependent manner and is dependent upon the viability of F. tularensis. Importantly, F. tularensis was able to suppress pro-inflammatory responses to earlier infections with F. novicida. These results lend support that F. tularensis actively dampens human monocyte responses and this likely contributes to its enhanced pathogenicity.

  8. Geographic Differentiation of Francisella Tularensis using Molecular Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Department of Animal Health, Facultad de Veterinaria , Leon, Spain, 4 for contribution of his entire F. tularensis strain DNA collection. I thank Dr...Medicina Veterinaria , 1998. 15: p. 418-423. 32. de la Puente-Redondo, V.A., et al., Comparison of different PCR approaches for typing of Francisella

  9. Benzimidazole-Based Antibacterial Agents Against F. tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kunal; Awasthi, Divya; Lee, Seung-Yub; Cummings, Jason E.; Knudson, Susan E.; Slayden, Richard A.; Ojima, Iwao

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent pathogenic bacterium. In order to identify novel potential antibacterial agents against F. tularensis, libraries of trisubstituted benzimidazoles were screened against F. tularensis LVS strain. In a preliminary screening assay, remarkably, 23 of 2,5,6- and 2,5,7-trisubstituted benzimidazoles showed excellent activity exhibiting greater than 90 % growth inhibition at 1 µg/mL. Among those hits, 21 compounds showed MIC90 values in the range of 0.35–48.6 µg/mL after accurate MIC determination. In ex-vivo efficacy assays, four of these compounds exhibited 2–3 Log reduction in colony forming units (CFU) per mL at concentrations of 10 and 50 µg/mL. PMID:23623254

  10. Comparative Transcriptional Analyses of Francisella tularensis and Francisella novicida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva T Sarva

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is composed of a number of subspecies with varied geographic distribution, host ranges, and virulence. In view of these marked differences, comparative functional genomics may elucidate some of the molecular mechanism(s behind these differences. In this study a shared probe microarray was designed that could be used to compare the transcriptomes of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4 (Ftt, Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica OR960246 (Fth, Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica LVS (LVS, and Francisella novicida U112 (Fn. To gain insight into expression differences that may be related to the differences in virulence of these subspecies, transcriptomes were measured from each strain grown in vitro under identical conditions, utilizing a shared probe microarray. The human avirulent Fn strain exhibited high levels of transcription of genes involved in general metabolism, which are pseudogenes in the human virulent Ftt and Fth strains, consistent with the process of genome decay in the virulent strains. Genes encoding an efflux system (emrA2 cluster of genes, siderophore (fsl operon, acid phosphatase, LPS synthesis, polyamine synthesis, and citrulline ureidase were all highly expressed in Ftt when compared to Fn, suggesting that some of these may contribute to the relative high virulence of Ftt. Genes expressed at a higher level in Ftt when compared to the relatively less virulent Fth included genes encoding isochorismatases, cholylglycine hydrolase, polyamine synthesis, citrulline ureidase, Type IV pilus subunit, and the Francisella Pathogenicity Island protein PdpD. Fth and LVS had very few expression differences, consistent with the derivation of LVS from Fth. This study demonstrated that a shared probe microarray designed to detect transcripts in multiple species/subspecies of Francisella enabled comparative transcriptional analyses that may highlight critical differences that underlie the relative

  11. Russian isolates enlarge the known geographic diversity of Francisella tularensis subsp. mediasiatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Timofeev

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, a small Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of infecting a wide range of animals, including humans, and causes a plague-like disease called tularemia-a highly contagious disease with a high mortality rate. Because of these characteristics, F. tularensis is considered a potential agent of biological terrorism. Currently, F. tularensis is divided into four subspecies, which differ in their virulence and geographic distribution. Two of them, subsp. tularensis (primarily found in North America and subsp. holarctica (widespread across the Northern Hemisphere, are responsible for tularemia in humans. Subsp. novicida is almost avirulent in humans. The fourth subspecies, subsp. mediasiatica, is the least studied because of its limited distribution and impact in human health. It is found only in sparsely populated regions of Central Asia. In this report, we describe the first focus of naturally circulating F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica in Russia. We isolated and characterized 18 strains of this subspecies in the Altai region. All strains were highly virulent in mice. The virulence of subsp. mediasiatica in a vaccinated mouse model is intermediate between that of subsp. tularensis and subsp. holarctica. Based on a multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA, we show that the Altaic population of F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica is genetically distinct from the classical Central Asian population, and probably is endemic to Southern Siberia. We propose to subdivide the mediasiatica subspecies into three phylogeographic groups, M.I, M.II and M.III.

  12. Francisella tularensis - potential biological agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleski, V.

    2009-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a small, nonmotile, aerobic, gram-negative coccobacillus capable of surviving for weeks at low temperatures in water, moist soil, hay, straw, or decaying animal carcasses. F. tularensis is the causative of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterium was first identified in ground squirrels in Tulare County, California (1912). The human disease was recognized and described by Edward Francis (1922) as tularemia, and the agent was renamed Francisella tularensis in his honor. F. tularensis is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known, as few as 10-50 organisms can cause disease. Humans can become incidentally infected through diverse environmental exposures: bites by infected arthropods; handling infectious animal tissues or fluids; direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated food, water, or soil and inhalation of infective aerosols. Humans can develop severe and sometimes fatal illness, but do not transmit the disease to others. F. tularensis have few subspecies: 1) F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A), highly virulent, found only in North America. The bacterium is transmitted among animals and from animals to humans by ticks, occasionally deerfly, or by aerosols; 2) F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B), moderately virulent, occurs in Euroasia and North America, mainly associated with streams, lakes, ponds, rivers and semi-aquatic animals such as muskrats and beavers (water-borne disease). Type B tularemia has been observed during war times (during Second World War 100 000 cases occurred each year, in Kosovo in 2000 and 2003 over 300 cases each year); 3) F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, rarely reported, isolated only in Kazahstan and Turkmenistan; 4) F. tularensis subsp. novicida is of low virulence, isolated in USA, Canada, Spain and Australia; 5) F. tularensis subsp. philomiragia, is of low virulence, associated with salt water (Atlantic, Mediterranean). Tularemia is very rear in Macedonia, but in 1996 an

  13. Comparison of virulence of Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica genotypes B.12 and B.FTNF002-00.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Erdélyi, Károly; Felde, Orsolya; Fabbi, Massimo; Sulyok, Kinga M; Magyar, Tibor; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2017-02-10

    Two main genetic groups (B.12 and B.FTNF002-00) of Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica are endemic in Europe. The B.FTNF002-00 group proved to be dominant in Western European countries, while strains of the B.12 group were isolated mainly in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The clinical course of tularemia in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) also shows distinct patterns according to the geographical area. Acute course of the disease is observed in hares in Western European countries, while signs of sub-acute or chronic infection are more frequently detected in the eastern part of the continent. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is any difference in the virulence of the strains belonging to the B.FTNF002-00 and B.12 genetic clades. Experimental infection of Fischer 344 rats was performed by intra-peritoneal injection of three dilutions of a Hungarian (B.12 genotype) and an Italian (B.FTNF002-00 genotype) F. tularensis ssp. holarctica strain. Moderate difference was observed in the virulence of the two genotypes. Significant differences were observed in total weight loss values and scores of clinical signs between the two genotypes with more rats succumbing to tularemia in groups infected with the B.FTNF002-00 genotype. Results of the experimental infection are consistent with previous clinical observations and pathological studies suggesting that F. tularensis ssp. holarctica genotype B.FTNF002-00 has higher pathogenic potential than the B.12 genotype.

  14. TaqMan real-time PCR assays for single-nucleotide polymorphisms which identify Francisella tularensis and its subspecies and subpopulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn N Birdsell

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, the etiologic agent of tularemia and a Class A Select Agent, is divided into three subspecies and multiple subpopulations that differ in virulence and geographic distribution. Given these differences, there is a need to rapidly and accurately determine if a strain is F. tularensis and, if it is, assign it to subspecies and subpopulation. We designed TaqMan real-time PCR genotyping assays using eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that were potentially specific to closely related groups within the genus Francisella, including numerous subpopulations within F. tularensis species. We performed extensive validation studies to test the specificity of these SNPs to particular populations by screening the assays across a set of 565 genetically and geographically diverse F. tularensis isolates and an additional 21 genetic near-neighbor (outgroup isolates. All eleven assays correctly determined the genetic groups of all 565 F. tularensis isolates. One assay differentiates F. tularensis, F. novicida, and F. hispaniensis from the more genetically distant F. philomiragia and Francisella-like endosymbionts. Another assay differentiates F. tularensis isolates from near neighbors. The remaining nine assays classify F. tularensis-confirmed isolates into F. tularensis subspecies and subpopulations. The genotyping accuracy of these nine assays diminished when tested on outgroup isolates (i.e. non F. tularensis, therefore a hierarchical approach of assay usage is recommended wherein the F. tularensis-specific assay is used before the nine downstream assays. Among F. tularensis isolates, all eleven assays were highly sensitive, consistently amplifying very low concentrations of DNA. Altogether, these eleven TaqMan real-time PCR assays represent a highly accurate, rapid, and sensitive means of identifying the species, subspecies, and subpopulation of any F. tularensis isolate if used in a step-wise hierarchical scheme. These assays

  15. Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis from Tibet, China: Evidence for an asian origin and radiation of holarctica-type Tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongfeng; Yu, Yonghui; Feng, Le; Li, Yanwei; He, Jun; Zhu, Hong; Duan, Qing; Song, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    The geographical origin and radiation of holarctica-type tularemia, which has spread across the northern hemisphere, is open to scientific debate. Here, through phylogenetics, we show that five Tibetan Francisella tularensis isolates subsp. holarctica cluster between basal-positioned Japanese isolates and all other subspecies strains in the world, providing evidence for a previously unknown intermediate lineage next to the Japanese isolates. Importantly, identification of this new intermediate lineage complements current knowledge of tularemia epidemiology, supporting a geographical origin and radiation of the subsp. holarctica in Asia. In addition, thirteen Tibetan isolates belonging to a clade previously found only in North America and Scandinavia, further increases the diversity of holarctica strains in Asia. In summary, this study provides evidence for an Asian origin and radiation of holarctica-type tularemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of pathogenicity determinant protein C (PdpC in determining the virulence of the Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis SCHU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Uda

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is highly pathogenic to humans and animals. However, the SCHU strain of F. tularensis SCHU P0 maintained by passaging in artificial media has been found to be attenuated. To better understand the molecular mechanisms behind the pathogenicity of F. tularensis SCHU, we attempted to isolate virulent bacteria by serial passages in mice. SCHU P5 obtained after 5th passages in mice remained avirulent, while SCHU P9 obtained after 9th passages was completely virulent in mice. Moreover, SCHU P9 grew more efficiently in J774.1 murine macrophages compared with that in the less pathogenic SCHU P0 and P5. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the whole genomes of SCHU P0, P5, and P9 revealed only 1 nucleotide difference among P0, P5 and P9 in 1 of the 2 copies of pathogenicity determinant protein C (pdpC gene. An adenine residue deletion was observed in the pdpC1 gene of SCHU P0, P5, and P9 and in the pdpC2 gene of SCHU P0, and P5, while P9 was characterized by the wild type pdpC2 gene. Thus, SCHU P0 and P5 expressed only truncated forms of PdpC protein, while SCHU P9 expressed both wild type and truncated versions. To validate the pathogenicity of PdpC, both copies of the pdpC gene in SCHU P9 have been inactivated by Targetron mutagenesis. SCHU P9 mutants with inactivated pdpC gene showed low intracellular growth in J774.1 cells and did not induce severe disease in experimentally infected mice, while virulence of the mutants was restored by complementation with expression of the intact PdpC. These results demonstrate that PdpC is crucial in determining the virulence of F. tularensis SCHU.

  17. Characterization of a Francisella tularensis-Caenorhabditis elegans Pathosystem for the Evaluation of Therapeutic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Elamparithi; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Kim, Wooseong; Okoli, Ikechukwu; Hernandez, Ana M.; Lee, Kiho; Nau, Gerard J.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia. Because of its potential as a bioterrorism agent, there is a need for new therapeutic agents. We therefore developed a whole-animal Caenorhabditis elegans-F. tularensis pathosystem for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize potential therapeutic compounds. We found that the C. elegans p38 mitogen-activate protein (MAP) kinase cascade is involved in the immune response to F. tularensis, and we developed a robust F. tularensis-mediated C. elegans killing assay with a Z′ factor consistently of >0.5, which was then utilized to screen a library of FDA-approved compounds that included 1,760 small molecules. In addition to clinically used antibiotics, five FDA-approved drugs were also identified as potential hits, including the anti-inflammatory drug diflunisal that showed anti-F. tularensis activity in vitro. Moreover, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diflunisal, at 4× MIC, blocked the replication of an F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) in primary human macrophages and nonphagocytic cells. Diflunisal was nontoxic to human erythrocytes and HepG2 human liver cells at concentrations of ≥32 μg/ml. Finally, diflunisal exhibited synergetic activity with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in both a checkerboard assay and a macrophage infection assay. In conclusion, the liquid C. elegans-F. tularensis LVS assay described here allows screening for anti-F. tularensis compounds and suggests that diflunisal could potentially be repurposed for the management of tularemia. PMID:28652232

  18. Characterization of a Francisella tularensis-Caenorhabditis elegans Pathosystem for the Evaluation of Therapeutic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Elamparithi; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Coleman, Jeffrey J; Kim, Wooseong; Okoli, Ikechukwu; Hernandez, Ana M; Lee, Kiho; Nau, Gerard J; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-09-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia. Because of its potential as a bioterrorism agent, there is a need for new therapeutic agents. We therefore developed a whole-animal Caenorhabditis elegans - F. tularensis pathosystem for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize potential therapeutic compounds. We found that the C. elegans p38 mitogen-activate protein (MAP) kinase cascade is involved in the immune response to F. tularensis , and we developed a robust F. tularensis -mediated C. elegans killing assay with a Z' factor consistently of >0.5, which was then utilized to screen a library of FDA-approved compounds that included 1,760 small molecules. In addition to clinically used antibiotics, five FDA-approved drugs were also identified as potential hits, including the anti-inflammatory drug diflunisal that showed anti- F. tularensis activity in vitro Moreover, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diflunisal, at 4× MIC, blocked the replication of an F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) in primary human macrophages and nonphagocytic cells. Diflunisal was nontoxic to human erythrocytes and HepG2 human liver cells at concentrations of ≥32 μg/ml. Finally, diflunisal exhibited synergetic activity with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in both a checkerboard assay and a macrophage infection assay. In conclusion, the liquid C. elegans - F. tularensis LVS assay described here allows screening for anti- F. tularensis compounds and suggests that diflunisal could potentially be repurposed for the management of tularemia. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Amblyomma americanum as a Bridging Vector for Human Infection with Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinosh J Mani

    Full Text Available The γ-proteobacterium Francisella tularensis causes seasonal tick-transmitted tularemia outbreaks in natural rabbit hosts and incidental infections in humans in the south-central United States. Although Dermacentor variabilis is considered a primary vector for F. tularensis, Amblyomma americanum is the most abundant tick species in this endemic region. A systematic study of F. tularensis colonization of A. americanum was undertaken to better understand its potential to serve as an overwintering reservoir for F. tularensis and as a bridging vector for human infections. Colony-reared A. americanum were artificially fed F. tularensis subspecies holarctica strain LVS via glass capillaries and colonization levels determined. Capillary-fed larva and nymph were initially infected with 10(4 CFU/tick which declined prior to molting for both stages, but rebounded post-molting in nymphs and persisted in 53% at 10(3 to 10(8 CFU/nymph at 168 days post-capillary feeding (longest sampling time in the study. In contrast, only 18% of adults molted from colonized nymphs maintained LVS colonization at 10(1 to 10(5 CFU/adult at 168 days post-capillary feeding (longest sampling time. For adults, LVS initially colonized the gut and disseminated to salivary glands by 24 h and had an ID50 of <5CFU in mice. Francisella tularensis infected the ovaries of gravid females, but transmission to eggs was infrequent and transovarial transmission to hatched larvae was not observed. The prolonged persistence of F. tularensis in A. americanum nymphs supports A. americanum as an overwintering reservoir for F. tularensis from which seasonal epizootics may originate; however, although the rapid dissemination of F. tularensis from gut to salivary glands in adults A. americanum is compatible with intermittent feeding adult males acting as bridging vectors for incidental F. tularensis infections of humans, acquisition of F. tularensis by adults may be unlikely based on adult feeding

  20. Genotypic diversity of oscillatoriacean strains belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina determined by 16S rDNA restriction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, Maria C; Piccardi, Raffaella; Ventura, Stefano; Viti, Carlo; Giovannetti, Luciana

    2003-05-01

    Genotypic diversity of several cyanobacterial strains mostly isolated from marine or brackish waters, belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina, was investigated by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and compared with morphological features and response to salinity. Cluster analysis was performed on amplified 16S rDNA restriction profiles of these strains along with profiles obtained from sequence data of five Spirulina-like strains, including three representatives of the new genus Halospirulina. Our strains with tightly coiled trichomes from hypersaline waters could be assigned to the Halospirulina genus. Among the uncoiled strains, the two strains of hypersaline origin clustered together and were found to be distant from their counterparts of marine and freshwater habitat. Moreover, another cluster, formed by alkali-tolerant strains with tightly coiled trichomes, was well delineated.

  1. Pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers are of the same subtype as pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from humans and may be a source of human infection in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Zhigang; Wang, Hua; Tang, Liuying; Yang, Jinchuan; Gu, Ling; Jin, Dong; Luo, Longze; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Xiong, Haiping; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi

    2010-05-01

    We isolated 326 Yersinia enterocolitica strains from 5,919 specimens from patients with diarrhea at outpatient clinics, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment in the cities of Nantong and Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the 12 pathogenic strains were of the O:3 serotype. Six strains were isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers and were found to be the primary carriers of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially in Xuzhou. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the pathogenic strains from dogs belonging to farmers showed that they shared the same patterns as strains from diarrhea patients isolated in 1994. This indicates that the strains from domestic dogs have a close correlation with the strains causing human infections.

  2. TLR-dependent control of Francisella tularensis infection and host inflammatory responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Abplanalp

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and is classified as a Category A select agent. Recent studies have implicated TLR2 as a critical element in the host protective response to F. tularensis infection, but questions remain about whether TLR2 signaling dominates the response in all circumstances and with all species of Francisella and whether F. tularensis PAMPs are predominantly recognized by TLR2/TLR1 or TLR2/TLR6. To address these questions, we have explored the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs in the host response to infections with F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS and F. tularensis subspecies (subsp. novicida in vivo.C57BL/6 (B6 control mice and TLR- or MyD88-deficient mice were infected intranasally (i.n. or intradermally (i.d. with F. tularensis LVS or with F. tularensis subsp. novicida. B6 mice survived >21 days following infection with LVS by both routes and survival of TLR1(-/-, TLR4(-/-, and TLR6(-/- mice infected i.n. with LVS was equivalent to controls. Survival of TLR2(-/- and MyD88(-/- mice, however, was significantly reduced compared to B6 mice, regardless of the route of infection or the subspecies of F. tularensis. TLR2(-/- and MyD88(-/- mice also showed increased bacterial burdens in lungs, liver, and spleen compared to controls following i.n. infection. Primary macrophages from MyD88(-/- and TLR2(-/- mice were significantly impaired in the ability to secrete TNF and other pro-inflammatory cytokines upon ex vivo infection with LVS. TNF expression was also impaired in vivo as demonstrated by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and by in situ immunofluorescent staining.We conclude from these studies that TLR2 and MyD88, but not TLR4, play critical roles in the innate immune response to F. tularensis infection regardless of the route of infection or the subspecies. Moreover, signaling through TLR2 does not depend exclusively on TLR1 or TLR6 during F. tularensis LVS infection.

  3. Tularemia vaccine: Safety, reactogenicity, "Take" skin reactions, and antibody responses following vaccination with a new lot of the Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain - A phase 2 randomized clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Mark J; Stapleton, Jack T; Keitel, Wendy A; Frey, Sharon E; Chen, Wilbur H; Rouphael, Nadine; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Beck, Allison; Winokur, Patricia L; El Sahly, Hana M; Patel, Shital M; Atmar, Robert L; Graham, Irene; Anderson, Edwin; El-Kamary, Samer S; Pasetti, Marcela F; Sztein, Marcelo B; Hill, Heather; Goll, Johannes B

    2017-08-24

    Tularemia is caused by Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative bacterium that has been weaponized as an aerosol. For protection of personnel conducting biodefense research, the United States Army required clinical evaluation of a new lot of tularemia live vaccine strain manufactured in accordance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices. A phase 2 randomized clinical trial compared the new lot (DVC-LVS) to the existing vaccine that has been in use for decades (USAMRIID-LVS). The vaccines were delivered by scarification to 228 participants. Safety, reactogenicity, take and/or antibody levels were assessed on days 0, 1, 2, 8, 14, 28, 56, and 180. Both vaccines were safe and had acceptable reactogenicity profiles during six months of follow-up. There were no serious or grade 3 and 4 laboratory adverse events. Moderate systemic reactogenicity (mostly headache or feeling tired) was reported by ∼23% of participants receiving either vaccine. Injection site reactogenicity was mostly mild itchiness and pain. The frequencies of vaccine take skin reactions were 73% (95% CI, 64, 81) for DVC-LVS and 80% (95% CI, 71, 87) for USAMRIID-LVS. The 90% CI for the difference in proportions was -6.9% (-16.4, 2.6). The rates of seroconversion measured by microagglutination assay on days 28 or 56 were 94% (95% CI, 88, 98; n=98/104) for DVC-LVS and 94% (95% CI, 87, 97; n=103/110) for USAMRIID-LVS (p=1.00). Day 14 sera revealed more rapid seroconversion for DVC-LVS relative to USAMRIID-LVS: 82% (95% CI, 73, 89) versus 55% (95% CI, 45, 65), respectively (p<0.0001). The DVC-LVS vaccine had similar safety, reactogenicity, take and antibody responses compared to the older USAMRIID vaccine, and was superior for early (day 14) antibody production. Vaccination take was not a sensitive surrogate for seroconversion in a multi-center study where personnel at five research clinics performed assessments. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01150695. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  4. Pathogenicity evaluation of twelve West Nile virus strains belonging to four lineages from five continents in a mouse model: discrimination between three pathogenicity categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Del Amo, Javier; Fall, Gamou; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Lubisi, Alison; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Vázquez, Ana; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel

    2017-04-01

    Rodent models have been used extensively to study West Nile virus (WNV) infection because they develop severe neurological symptoms similar to those observed in human WNV neuroinvasive disease. Most of this research has focused on old lineage (L) 1 strains, while information about pathogenicity is lacking for the most recent L1 and L2 strains, as well as for newly defined lineages. In this study, 4-week-old Swiss mice were inoculated with a collection of 12 WNV isolates, comprising 10 old and recent L1 and L2 strains, the putative L6 strain from Malaysia and the proposed L7 strain Koutango (KOU). The intraperitoneal inoculation of 10-fold dilutions of each strain allowed the characterization of the isolates in terms of LD50, median survival times, ID50, replication in neural and extraneural tissues and antibody production. Based on these results, we classified the isolates in three groups: high virulence (all L1a strains, recent L2 strains and KOU), moderate virulence (B956 strain) and low virulence (Kunjin and Malaysian isolates). We determined that the inoculation of a single dose of 1000 p.f.u. would be sufficient to classify WNV strains by pathotype. We confirmed the enhanced virulence of the KOU strain with a high capacity to cause rapid systemic infection. We also corroborated that differences in pathogenicity among strains do not correlate with phylogenetic lineage or geographic origin, and confirmed that recent European and African WNV strains belonging to L1 and L2 are highly virulent and do not differ in their pathotype profile compared to the prototype NY99 strain.

  5. A Spontaneous Mutation in kdsD, a Biosynthesis Gene for 3-Deoxy-D-manno-Octulosonic Acid, Occurred in a Ciprofloxacin Resistant Strain of Francisella tularensis and Causes a High Level of Attenuation in Murine Models of Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    often associated with areas of tissue necrosis . These random 339 areas of neutrophilic inflammation are consistent with embolic ( vascular ) spread of F...colonization of tissues and associated tissue necrosis . For mice on day 5 post-exposure, 342 classic lesions consistent with acute to subacute infection...with F. tularensis were observed (Fig. 8). These 343 lesions consisted of random foci of lytic necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, and lymph nodes

  6. CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides protect mice from Burkholderia pseudomallei but not Francisella tularensis Schu S4 aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozak, David A; Gelhaus, Herbert C; Smith, Mark; Zadeh, Mojgan; Huzella, Louis; Waag, David; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J

    2010-02-05

    Studies have shown that CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODN) protect mice from various bacterial pathogens, including Burkholderia pseudomallei and Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS), when administered before parenteral challenge. Given the potential to develop CpG ODN as a pre-treatment for multiple bacterial biological warfare agents, we examined survival, histopathology, and cytokine data from CpG ODN-treated C57BL/6 mice to determine whether previously-reported protection extended to aerosolized B. pseudomallei 1026b and highly virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 infections. We found that, although CpG ODN protected mice from aerosolized B. pseudomallei challenges, the immunostimulant failed to benefit the animals exposed to F. tularensis Schu S4 aerosols. Our results, which contrast with earlier F. tularensis LVS studies, highlight potential differences in Francisella species pathogenesis and underscore the need to evaluate immunotherapies against human pathogenic species.

  7. Draft genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica BD11-00177

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, J.P.M.; Sjödin, A.; Maraha, B.; Hajer, G.F.; Forsman, M.; Verspui, E.; Frenay, H.M.E.; Notermans, D.W.; Vries, M.C. de; Reubsaet, F.A.G.; Paauw, A.; Roeselers, G.

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium in the class Gammaproteobacteria. This strain is of interest because it is the etiologic agent of tularemia and a highly virulent category A biothreat agent. Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of Francisella

  8. Rapid high resolution genotyping of Francisella tularensis by whole genome sequence comparison of annotated genes ("MLST+".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus H Antwerpen

    Full Text Available The zoonotic disease tularemia is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. This pathogen is considered as a category A select agent with potential to be misused in bioterrorism. Molecular typing based on DNA-sequence like canSNP-typing or MLVA has become the accepted standard for this organism. Due to the organism's highly clonal nature, the current typing methods have reached their limit of discrimination for classifying closely related subpopulations within the subspecies F. tularensis ssp. holarctica. We introduce a new gene-by-gene approach, MLST+, based on whole genome data of 15 sequenced F. tularensis ssp. holarctica strains and apply this approach to investigate an epidemic of lethal tularemia among non-human primates in two animal facilities in Germany. Due to the high resolution of MLST+ we are able to demonstrate that three independent clones of this highly infectious pathogen were responsible for these spatially and temporally restricted outbreaks.

  9. The draft genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CCBH4851, a nosocomial isolate belonging to clone SP (ST277 that is prevalent in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melise Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The high occurrence of nosocomial multidrug-resistant (MDR microorganisms is considered a global health problem. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated in Brazil that belongs to the endemic clone ST277. The genome encodes important resistance determinant genes and consists of 6.7 Mb with a G+C content of 66.86% and 6,347 predicted coding regions including 60 RNAs.

  10. Cellular and humoral immunity are synergistic in protection against types A and B Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shite; Pinkham, Jessica T; Lynch, Jillian G; Ross, Robin A; Reinap, Barbara; Blalock, Leeann T; Conlan, J Wayne; Kasper, Dennis L

    2009-01-22

    Herein we report studies with a novel combination vaccine that, when administered to mice, conferred protection against highly virulent strains of Francisella tularensis by stimulating both arms of the immune system. Our earlier studies with Ft.LVS::wbtA, an O-polysaccharide (OPS)-negative mutant derived from the available live vaccine strain of F. tularensis (Ft.LVS), elucidated the role of antibodies to the OPS - a key virulence determinant - in protection against virulent type A organisms. However, when expressed on the organism, the OPS enhances virulence. In contrast, in purified form, the OPS is completely benign. We hypothesized that a novel combination vaccine containing both a component that induces humoral immunity and a component that induces cellular immunity to this intracellular microbe would have an enhanced protective capacity over either component alone and would be much safer than the LVS vaccine. Thus we developed a combination vaccine containing both OPS (supplied in an OPS-tetanus toxoid glycoconjugate) to induce a humoral antibody response and strain Ft.LVS::wbtA (which is markedly attenuated by its lack of OPS) to induce a cell-mediated protective response. This vaccine protected mice against otherwise-lethal intranasal and intradermal challenge with wild-type F. tularensis strains Schu S4 (type A) and FSC 108 (type B). These results represent a significant advance in our understanding of immunity to F. tularensis and provide important insight into the development of a safer vaccine effective against infections caused by clinical type A and B strains of F. tularensis.

  11. Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Related Genes in E. coli Strains Belonging to B2 Phylogroup Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Combination with Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Staji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  This study was conducted to detect the prevalence of EHEC virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup implicated in Urinary tract infections in Semnan, Iran.Methods:   From 240 urine samples 160 E. coli strains were isolated, biochemically. Then, E. coli isolates were examined by Multiplex-PCR for phylogenetic typing and detection of virulence genes (hly, stx1, stx2, eae associated with Enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Finally, Antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates were characterized using Disk Diffusion method.  Results:  From 160 E. coli isolates, 75 strains (47% were assigned to B2 phylogenetic group and prevalence of virulence genes were as follow: hly (21.3%, stx1 (16%, stx2 (10.6% and eae (6.7%, subsequently.  Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance of B2 isolates showed that all isolates were sensitive to Meropenem and Furazolidone and then highest frequency of resistance was observed to Streptomycin, Oxytetracycline, Neomycin, Nalidixic acid and Ampicillin (98.7% to 49.3%. Also low resistance prevalence was observed in case of Ceftizoxime, Lincospectin, Imipenem, Chloramphenicol and flurefenicole (16% to 1.3%.Conclusion:   The data suggest a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in UPEC strains belonging to B2 phylogroup even for the antimicrobials using in pet and farm animals and their potential to cause EHEC specific clinical symptoms which may represent a serious health risk since these strains can be transmitted to GI tract and act as a reservoir for other uropathogenic E. coli and commensal strains.

  12. Towards Development of Improved Serodiagnostics for Tularemia by Use of Francisella tularensis Proteome Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Rie; Escudero, Raquel; Molina, Douglas M; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; Randall, Arlo; Jasinskas, Algis; Pablo, Jozelyn; Felgner, Philip L; AuCoin, David P; Anda, Pedro; Davies, D Huw

    2016-07-01

    Tularemia in humans is caused mainly by two subspecies of the Gram-negative facultative anaerobe Francisella tularensis: F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A) and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B). The current serological test for tularemia is based on agglutination of whole organisms, and the reactive antigens are not well understood. Previously, we profiled the antibody responses in type A and B tularemia cases in the United States using a proteome microarray of 1,741 different proteins derived from the type A strain Schu S4. Fifteen dominant antigens able to detect antibodies to both types of infection were identified, although these were not validated in a different immunoassay format. Since type A and B subspecies are closely related, we hypothesized that Schu S4 antigens would also have utility for diagnosing type B tularemia caused by strains from other geographic locations. To test this, we probed the Schu S4 array with sera from 241 type B tularemia cases in Spain. Despite there being no type A strains in Spain, we confirmed the responses against some of the same potential serodiagnostic antigens reported previously, as well as determined the responses against additional potential serodiagnostic antigens. Five potential serodiagnostic antigens were evaluated on immunostrips, and two of these (FTT1696/GroEL and FTT0975/conserved hypothetical protein) discriminated between the Spanish tularemia cases and healthy controls. We conclude that antigens from the type A strain Schu S4 are suitable for detection of antibodies from patients with type B F. tularensis infections and that these can be used for the diagnosis of tularemia in a deployable format, such as the immunostrip. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. A 52 Kilodalton Protein Vaccine Candidate for Francisella tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    du vaccin vivant F. tularensis (LVS). Soixante pourcent (60%) des souris vaccindes ont survdcu la dose ltale multiple alors que toutes les souris non...le lysat des cellules de cultures vivantes du vaccin vivant F. tularensis. Plusieurs composants de Francisella tularensis ont dt6 identifids par cet...antiserum. Le s6rum de souris provenant de souris vaccin6es avec F. tularensis non- vivant n’a pas identifid ces composants. A partir de ces prot6ines

  14. Signatures of T cells as correlates of immunity to Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Eneslätt

    Full Text Available Tularemia or vaccination with the live vaccine strain (LVS of Francisella tularensis confers long-lived cell-mediated immunity. We hypothesized that this immunity depends on polyfunctional memory T cells, i.e., CD4(+ and/or CD8(+ T cells with the capability to simultaneously express several functional markers. Multiparametric flow cytometry, measurement of secreted cytokines, and analysis of lymphocyte proliferation were used to characterize in vitro recall responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC to killed F. tularensis antigens from the LVS or Schu S4 strains. PBMC responses were compared between individuals who had contracted tularemia, had been vaccinated, or had not been exposed to F. tularensis (naïve. Significant differences were detected between either of the immune donor groups and naïve individuals for secreted levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and MIP-1β. Expression of IFN-γ, MIP-1β, and CD107a by CD4(+CD45RO(+ or CD8(+CD45RO(+ T cells correlated to antigen concentrations. In particular, IFN-γ and MIP-1β strongly discriminated between immune and naïve individuals. Only one cytokine, IL-6, discriminated between the two groups of immune individuals. Notably, IL-2- or TNF-α-secretion was low. Our results identify functional signatures of T cells that may serve as correlates of immunity and protection against F. tularensis.

  15. Glutathione provides a source of cysteine essential for intracellular multiplication of Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Alkhuder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterium causing the zoonotic disease tularemia. Its ability to multiply and survive in macrophages is critical for its virulence. By screening a bank of HimarFT transposon mutants of the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS to isolate intracellular growth-deficient mutants, we selected one mutant in a gene encoding a putative gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT. This gene (FTL_0766 was hence designated ggt. The mutant strain showed impaired intracellular multiplication and was strongly attenuated for virulence in mice. Here we present evidence that the GGT activity of F. tularensis allows utilization of glutathione (GSH, gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine and gamma-glutamyl-cysteine dipeptide as cysteine sources to ensure intracellular growth. This is the first demonstration of the essential role of a nutrient acquisition system in the intracellular multiplication of F. tularensis. GSH is the most abundant source of cysteine in the host cytosol. Thus, the capacity this intracellular bacterial pathogen has evolved to utilize the available GSH, as a source of cysteine in the host cytosol, constitutes a paradigm of bacteria-host adaptation.

  16. Conceptualizing belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Alyson L; Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather

    2013-06-01

    To develop a transdisciplinary conceptualization of social belonging that could be used to guide measurement approaches aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of community-based programs for people with disabilities. We conducted a narrative, scoping review of peer reviewed English language literature published between 1990 and July 2011 using multiple databases, with "sense of belonging" as a key search term. The search engine ranked articles for relevance to the search strategy. Articles were searched in order until theoretical saturation was reached. We augmented this search strategy by reviewing reference lists of relevant papers. Theoretical saturation was reached after 40 articles; 22 of which were qualitative accounts. We identified five intersecting themes: subjectivity; groundedness to an external referent; reciprocity; dynamism and self-determination. We define a sense of belonging as a subjective feeling of value and respect derived from a reciprocal relationship to an external referent that is built on a foundation of shared experiences, beliefs or personal characteristics. These feelings of external connectedness are grounded to the context or referent group, to whom one chooses, wants and feels permission to belong. This dynamic phenomenon may be either hindered or promoted by complex interactions between environmental and personal factors.

  17. Entry of Francisella tularensis into Murine B Cells: The Role of B Cell Receptors and Complement Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Plzakova

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is an intracellular pathogen that dominantly infects and proliferates inside phagocytic cells but can be seen also in non-phagocytic cells, including B cells. Although protective immunity is known to be almost exclusively associated with the type 1 pathway of cellular immunity, a significant role of B cells in immune responses already has been demonstrated. Whether their role is associated with antibody-dependent or antibody-independent B cell functions is not yet fully understood. The character of early events during B cell-pathogen interaction may determine the type of B cell response regulating the induction of adaptive immunity. We used fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to identify the basic requirements for the entry of F. tularensis into B cells within in vivo and in vitro infection models. Here, we present data showing that Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain LVS significantly infects individual subsets of murine peritoneal B cells early after infection. Depending on a given B cell subset, uptake of Francisella into B cells is mediated by B cell receptors (BCRs with or without complement receptor CR1/2. However, F. tularensis strain FSC200 ΔiglC and ΔftdsbA deletion mutants are defective in the ability to enter B cells. Once internalized into B cells, F. tularensis LVS intracellular trafficking occurs along the endosomal pathway, albeit without significant multiplication. The results strongly suggest that BCRs alone within the B-1a subset can ensure the internalization process while the BCRs on B-1b and B-2 cells need co-signaling from the co receptor containing CR1/2 to initiate F. tularensis engulfment. In this case, fluidity of the surface cell membrane is a prerequisite for the bacteria's internalization. The results substantially underline the functional heterogeneity of B cell subsets in relation to F. tularensis.

  18. Phytotoxic activity against Bromus tectorum for secondary metabolites of a seed-pathogenic Fusarium strain belonging to the F. tricinctum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Clement, Suzette; Peacock, Beth; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure ('die-off'), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex were isolated from these soils and found to be pathogenic on B. tectorum seeds. One of these strains was produced in cheatgrass seed culture to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxins. Six metabolites were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods (essentially 1D and 2D NMR and ESIMS) as acuminatopyrone (1), blumenol A (2), chlamydosporol (3), isochlamydosporol (4), ergosterol (5) and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (6). Upon testing against B. tectorum in a seedling bioassay, (6) the coleoptile and radicle length of cheatgrass seedlings were significantly reduced. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate activity, while 3-5 were not significantly different from the control.

  19. Differential belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores suburban middle-class residents’ narratives about housing choice, everyday life and belonging in residential areas of Greater Copenhagen, Denmark, to understand how residential processes of social differentiation are constituted. Using Savage et al.’s concepts of discursive...... and not only to the area itself. In addition, rather than seeing suburban residential areas as homogenous, greater attention should be paid to differences within such areas....

  20. Ambiguous Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Cecil Marie

    and work in the new place and at the same time shallowly enough for them to be able to move on. Not least do they secure that ‘the crown’, which may signify ‘the culture’ or ‘Indianness’, is not buried underneath the soil. Fragarian practices allow the Indians to live transnationally while at the same time...... of ethnographic fieldwork in Moshi, Tanzania, and in London, UK, I explore and analyze intersections of local and transnational belonging, purity, citizenship strategies, networks, and claims for recognition as ‘good citizens’. Arguing that the uncertainty, which has been a fundamental condition for the Indians...

  1. Inhibition of AcpA phosphatase activity with ascorbate attenuates Francisella tularensis intramacrophage survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Steven; Pagliai, Fernando A; Mohapatra, Nrusingh P; Gener, Alejandro; Mahmou, Asma Sayed Abdelgeliel; Gunn, John S; Lorca, Graciela L; Gonzalez, Claudio F

    2010-02-19

    Acid phosphatase activity in the highly infectious intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis is directly related with the ability of these bacteria to survive inside host cells. Pharmacological inactivation of acid phosphatases could potentially help in the treatment of tularemia or even be utilized to neutralize the infection. In the present work, we report inhibitory compounds for three of the four major acid phosphatases produced by F. tularensis SCHU4: AcpA, AcpB, and AcpC. The inhibitors were identified using a catalytic screen from a library of chemicals approved for use in humans. The best results were obtained against AcpA. The two compounds identified, ascorbate (K(i) = 380 +/- 160 microM) and 2-phosphoascorbate (K(i) = 3.2 +/- 0.85 microM) inhibit AcpA in a noncompetitive, nonreversible fashion. A potential ascorbylation site in the proximity of the catalytic pocket of AcpA was identified using site-directed mutagenesis. The effects of the inhibitors identified in vitro were evaluated using bioassays determining the ability of F. tularensis to survive inside infected cells. The presence of ascorbate or 2-phosphoascorbate impaired the intramacrophage survival of F. tularensis in an AcpA-dependent manner as it was probed using knockout strains. The evidence presented herein indicated that ascorbate could be a good alternative to be used clinically to improve treatments against tularemia.

  2. A method for functional trans-complementation of intracellular Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steele

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterial pathogen that invades and replicates within numerous host cell types. After uptake, F. tularensis bacteria escape the phagosome, replicate within the cytosol, and suppress cytokine responses. However, the mechanisms employed by F. tularensis to thrive within host cells are mostly unknown. Potential F. tularensis mutants involved in host-pathogen interactions are typically discovered by negative selection screens for intracellular replication or virulence. Mutants that fulfill these criteria fall into two categories: mutants with intrinsic intracellular growth defects and mutants that fail to modify detrimental host cell processes. It is often difficult and time consuming to discriminate between these two possibilities. We devised a method to functionally trans-complement and thus identify mutants that fail to modify the host response. In this assay, host cells are consistently and reproducibly infected with two different F. tularensis strains by physically tethering the bacteria to antibody-coated beads. To examine the efficacy of this protocol, we tested phagosomal escape, cytokine suppression, and intracellular replication for F. tularensis ΔripA and ΔpdpC. ΔripA has an intracellular growth defect that is likely due to an intrinsic defect and fails to suppress IL-1β secretion. In the co-infection model, ΔripA was unable to replicate in the host cell when wild-type bacteria infected the same cell, but cytokine suppression was rescued. Therefore, ΔripA intracellular growth is due to an intrinsic bacterial defect while cytokine secretion results from a failed host-pathogen interaction. Likewise, ΔpdpC is deficient for phagosomal escape, intracellular survival and suppression of IL-1β secretion. Wild-type bacteria that entered through the same phagosome as ΔpdpC rescued all of these phenotypes, indicating that ΔpdpC failed to properly manipulate the host. In summary, functional

  3. 3-Substituted Indole Inhibitors Against Francisella tularensis FabI Identified by Structure-Based Virtual Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    and incubation at 35 ± 2 °C on agar plates using starting samples removed from freezer stocks of each strain. Chocolate agar was used for F. tularensis...potential massive use of antimicrobial agents as prophylaxis or therapy of a bioterrorist attack. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 2002, 8, 534−539. (11) Loveless, B

  4. Isolation and mutagenesis of a capsule-like complex (CLC from Francisella tularensis, and contribution of the CLC to F. tularensis virulence in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloka B Bandara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis is a category-A select agent and is responsible for tularemia in humans and animals. The surface components of F. tularensis that contribute to virulence are not well characterized. An electron-dense capsule has been postulated to be present around F. tularensis based primarily on electron microscopy, but this specific antigen has not been isolated or characterized. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A capsule-like complex (CLC was effectively extracted from the cell surface of an F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS lacking O-antigen with 0.5% phenol after 10 passages in defined medium broth and growth on defined medium agar for 5 days at 32°C in 7% CO₂. The large molecular size CLC was extracted by enzyme digestion, ethanol precipitation, and ultracentrifugation, and consisted of glucose, galactose, mannose, and Proteinase K-resistant protein. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR showed that expression of genes in a putative polysaccharide locus in the LVS genome (FTL_1432 through FTL_1421 was upregulated when CLC expression was enhanced. Open reading frames FTL_1423 and FLT_1422, which have homology to genes encoding for glycosyl transferases, were deleted by allelic exchange, and the resulting mutant after passage in broth (LVSΔ1423/1422_P10 lacked most or all of the CLC, as determined by electron microscopy, and CLC isolation and analysis. Complementation of LVSΔ1423/1422 and subsequent passage in broth restored CLC expression. LVSΔ1423/1422_P10 was attenuated in BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally (IN and intraperitoneally with greater than 80 times and 270 times the LVS LD₅₀, respectively. Following immunization, mice challenged IN with over 700 times the LD₅₀ of LVS remained healthy and asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that the CLC may be a glycoprotein, FTL_1422 and -FTL_1423 were involved in CLC biosynthesis, the CLC contributed to the virulence of F. tularensis LVS, and a CLC

  5. Biochemical responses and oxidative stress in Francisella tularensis infection: a European brown hare model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treml Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate biochemical and oxidative stress responses to experimental F. tularensis infection in European brown hares, an important source of human tularemia infections. Methods For these purposes we compared the development of an array of biochemical parameters measured in blood plasma using standard procedures of dry chemistry as well as electrochemical devices following a subcutaneous infection with a wild Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain (a single dose of 2.6 × 109 CFU pro toto. Results Subcutaneous inoculation of a single dose with 2.6 × 109 colony forming units of a wild F. tularensis strain pro toto resulted in the death of two out of five hares. Plasma chemistry profiles were examined on days 2 to 35 post-infection. When compared to controls, the total protein, urea, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were increased, while albumin, glucose and amylase were decreased. Both uric and ascorbic acids and glutathione dropped on day 2 and then increased significantly on days 6 to 12 and 6 to 14 post-inoculation, respectively. There was a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation on days 4 to 8 post-inoculation. Conclusions Contrary to all expectations, the present study demonstrates that the European brown hare shows relatively low susceptibility to tularemia. Therefore, the circumstances of tularemia in hares under natural conditions should be further studied.

  6. The Francisella tularensis proteome and its recognition by antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L.N. Kilmury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of a spectrum of diseases collectively known as tularemia. The extreme virulence of the pathogen in humans, combined with the low infectious dose and the ease of dissemination by aerosol have led to concerns about its abuse as a bioweapon. Until recently, nothing was known about the virulence mechanisms and even now, there is still a relatively poor understanding of pathogen virulence. Completion of increasing numbers of Francisella genome sequences, combined with comparative genomics and proteomics studies, are contributing to the knowledge in this area. Tularemia may be treated with antibiotics, but there is currently no licensed vaccine. An attenuated strain, the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS has been used to vaccinate military and at risk laboratory personnel, but safety concerns mean that it is unlikely to be licensed by the FDA for general use. Little is known about the protective immunity induced by vaccination with LVS, in humans or animals models. Immunoproteomics studies with sera from infected humans or vaccinated mouse strains, are being used in gel based or proteome microarray approaches to give insight into the humoral immune response. In addition, these data have the potential to be exploited in the identification of new diagnostic or protective antigens, the design of next generation live vaccine strains, and the development of subunit vaccines. Herein, we briefly review the current knowledge from Francisella comparative proteomics studies and then focus upon the findings from immunoproteomics approaches.

  7. The Role and Mechanism of Erythrocyte Invasion by Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M. Schmitt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is an extremely virulent bacterium that can be transmitted naturally by blood sucking arthropods. During mammalian infection, F. tularensis infects numerous types of host cells, including erythrocytes. As erythrocytes do not undergo phagocytosis or endocytosis, it remains unknown how F. tularensis invades these cells. Furthermore, the consequence of inhabiting the intracellular space of red blood cells (RBCs has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence indicating that residing within an erythrocyte enhances the ability of F. tularensis to colonize ticks following a blood meal. Erythrocyte residence protected F. tularensis from a low pH environment similar to that of gut cells of a feeding tick. Mechanistic studies revealed that the F. tularensis type VI secretion system (T6SS was required for erythrocyte invasion as mutation of mglA (a transcriptional regulator of T6SS genes, dotU, or iglC (two genes encoding T6SS machinery severely diminished bacterial entry into RBCs. Invasion was also inhibited upon treatment of erythrocytes with venom from the Blue-bellied black snake (Pseudechis guttatus, which aggregates spectrin in the cytoskeleton, but not inhibitors of actin polymerization and depolymerization. These data suggest that erythrocyte invasion by F. tularensis is dependent on spectrin utilization which is likely mediated by effectors delivered through the T6SS. Our results begin to elucidate the mechanism of a unique biological process facilitated by F. tularensis to invade erythrocytes, allowing for enhanced colonization of ticks.

  8. Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida isolated from a human in Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Dawn N

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Francisella tularensis is the etiologic agent of tularemia and is classified as a select agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently four known subspecies of F. tularensis that differ in virulence and geographical distribution are recognized:tularensis (type A, holarctica (type B, mediasiatica, and novicida. Because of the Select Agent status and differences in virulence and geographical location, the molecular analysis of any clinical case of tularemia is of particular interest. We analyzed an unusual Francisella clinical isolate from a human infection in Arizona using multiple DNA-based approaches. Findings We report that the isolate is F. tularensis subsp. novicida, a subspecies that is rarely isolated. Conclusion The rarity of this novicida subspecies in clinical settings makes each case study important for our understanding of its role in disease and its genetic relationship with other F. tularensis subspecies.

  9. Interactions of Francisella tularensis with Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells and the Murine Respiratory Epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Faron

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is classified as a Tier 1 select agent by the CDC due to its low infectious dose and the possibility that the organism can be used as a bioweapon. The low dose of infection suggests that Francisella is unusually efficient at evading host defenses. Although ~50 cfu are necessary to cause human respiratory infection, the early interactions of virulent Francisella with the lung environment are not well understood. To provide additional insights into these interactions during early Francisella infection of mice, we performed TEM analysis on mouse lungs infected with F. tularensis strains Schu S4, LVS and the O-antigen mutant Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn. For all three strains, the majority of the bacteria that we could detect were observed within alveolar type II epithelial cells at 16 hours post infection. Although there were no detectable differences in the amount of bacteria within an infected cell between the three strains, there was a significant increase in the amount of cellular debris observed in the air spaces of the lungs in the Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant compared to either the Schu S4 or LVS strain. We also studied the interactions of Francisella strains with human AT-II cells in vitro by characterizing the ability of these three strains to invade and replicate within these cells. Gentamicin assay and confocal microscopy both confirmed that F. tularensis Schu S4 replicated robustly within these cells while F. tularensis LVS displayed significantly lower levels of growth over 24 hours, although the strain was able to enter these cells at about the same level as Schu S4 (1 organism per cell, as determined by confocal imaging. The Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant that we have previously described as attenuated for growth in macrophages and mouse virulence displayed interesting properties as well. This mutant induced significant airway inflammation (cell debris and had an attenuated growth phenotype in the human AT-II cells. These

  10. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of macrophage growth locus A (MglA) protein from Francisella tularensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subburaman, Priadarsini; Austin, Brian P.; Shaw, Gary X.; Waugh, David S.; Ji, Xinhua

    2010-01-01

    The macrophage growth locus A (MglA) protein from F. tularensis crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6 1 or P6 5 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 125, c = 54 Å. Francisella tularensis, a potential bioweapon, causes a rare infectious disease called tularemia in humans and animals. The macrophage growth locus A (MglA) protein from F. tularensis associates with RNA polymerase to positively regulate the expression of multiple virulence factors that are required for its survival and replication within macrophages. The MglA protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 7.5 Å resolution at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 1 or P6 5 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 125, c = 54 Å

  11. Revisiting Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Causative Agent of Tularemia in Germany With Bioinformatics: New Insights in Genome Structure, DNA Methylation and Comparative Phylogenetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Busch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Francisella (F. tularensis is a highly virulent, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we generated, analyzed and characterized a high quality circular genome sequence of the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain 12T0050 that caused fatal tularemia in a hare. Besides the genomic structure, we focused on the analysis of oriC, unique to the Francisella genus and regulating replication in and outside hosts and the first report on genomic DNA methylation of a Francisella strain. The high quality genome was used to establish and evaluate a diagnostic whole genome sequencing pipeline. A genotyping strategy for F. tularensis was developed using various bioinformatics tools for genotyping. Additionally, whole genome sequences of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates isolated in the years 2008–2015 in Germany were generated. A phylogenetic analysis allowed to determine the genetic relatedness of these isolates and confirmed the highly conserved nature of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica.

  12. Protective immunity against tularemia provided by an adenovirus-vectored vaccine expressing Tul4 of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravinder; Chen, Shan; Arévalo, Maria T; Xu, Qingfu; Chen, Yanping; Zeng, Mingtao

    2012-03-01

    Francisella tularensis, a category A bioterrorism agent, is a highly infectious organism that is passed on via skin contact and inhalation routes. A live attenuated vaccine strain (LVS) has been developed, but it has not been licensed for public use by the FDA due to safety concerns. Thus, there exists a need for a safer and improved vaccine. In this study, we have constructed a replication-incompetent adenovirus, Ad/opt-Tul4, carrying a codon-optimized gene for expression of a membrane protein, Tul4, of F. tularensis LVS. Its ability to protect against lethal challenge and its immunogenicity were evaluated in a murine model. An intramuscular injection of a single dose (1 × 10(7) PFU) of Ad/opt-Tul4 elicited a robust Tul4-specific antibody response. Assays suggest a Th1-driven response. A single dose elicited 20% protection against challenge with 100 × 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) F. tularensis LVS; two additional booster shots resulted in 60% protection. In comparison, three doses of 5 μg recombinant Tul4 protein did not elicit significant protection against challenge. Therefore, the Ad/opt-Tul4 vaccine was more effective than the protein vaccine, and protection was dose dependent. Compared to LVS, the protection rate is lower, but an adenovirus-vectored vaccine may be more attractive due to its enhanced safety profile and mucosal route of delivery. Furthermore, simple genetic modification of the vaccine may potentially produce antibodies protective against a fully virulent strain of F. tularensis. Our data support the development and further research of an adenovirus-vectored vaccine against Tul4 of F. tularensis LVS.

  13. Novel engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides display broad-spectrum activity against Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis and Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbaqi, Suha; Deslouches, Berthony; Steckbeck, Jonathan; Montelaro, Ronald; Reed, Douglas S

    2016-02-01

    Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are needed to effectively treat patients infected in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of a pathogen prior to confirmation of the pathogen's identity. Engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (eCAPs) display activity against a number of bacterial pathogens including multi-drug-resistant strains. Two lead eCAPs, WLBU2 and WR12, were compared with human cathelicidin (LL-37) against three highly pathogenic bacteria: Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Both WLBU2 and WR12 demonstrated bactericidal activity greater than that of LL-37, particularly against F. tularensis and Y. pestis. Only WLBU2 had bactericidal activity against B. pseudomallei. WLBU2, WR12 and LL-37 were all able to inhibit the growth of the three bacteria in vitro. Because these bacteria can be facultative intracellular pathogens, preferentially infecting macrophages and dendritic cells, we evaluated the activity of WLBU2 against F. tularensis in an ex vivo infection model with J774 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line. In that model WLBU2 was able to achieve greater than 50% killing of F. tularensis at a concentration of 12.5 μM. These data show the therapeutic potential of eCAPs, particularly WLBU2, as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial for treating highly pathogenic bacterial infections.

  14. Pathogenic Strains of Yersinia enterocolitica Isolated from Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Belonging to Farmers Are of the Same Subtype as Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica Strains Isolated from Humans and May Be a Source of Human Infection in Jiangsu Province, China ▿ ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Zhigang; Wang, Hua; Tang, Liuying; Yang, Jinchuan; Gu, Ling; Jin, Dong; Luo, Longze; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Xiong, Haiping; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi

    2010-01-01

    We isolated 326 Yersinia enterocolitica strains from 5,919 specimens from patients with diarrhea at outpatient clinics, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment in the cities of Nantong and Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the 12 pathogenic strains were of the O:3 serotype. Six strains were isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers and were found to be the primary carriers of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially in Xuzhou. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the pathogenic strains from dogs belonging to farmers showed that they shared the same patterns as strains from diarrhea patients isolated in 1994. This indicates that the strains from domestic dogs have a close correlation with the strains causing human infections. PMID:20181899

  15. Mouse models of aerosol-acquired tularemia caused by Francisella tularensis types A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, David L; England, Marilyn J; Miller, Lynda; Waag, David M

    2014-10-01

    After preliminary assessment of virulence in AKR/J, DBA/1, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice, we investigated histopathologic changes in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice infected with type A (strain SCHU S4) or type B (strain 425) Francisella tularensis by aerosol exposure. In mice exposed to type A infection, changes in histologic presentation were not apparent until day 3 after infection, when pyogranulomatous inflammation was detected in spleens and livers of BALB/c mice, and in lungs and spleens of C57BL/6 mice. Histopathologic changes were most severe and widespread in both mouse strains on day 5 after infection and seemed to completely resolve within 22 d of challenge. BALB/c mice were more resistant than C57BL/6 mice in lethal-dose calculations, but C57BL/6 mice cleared the infection more rapidly. Mice similarly challenged with type B F. tularensis also developed histopathologic signs of infection beginning on day 3. The most severe changes were noted on day 8 and were characterized by granulomatous or pyogranulomatous infiltrations of the lungs. Unlike type A infection, lesions due to type B did not resolve over time and remained 3 wk after infection. In type B, but not type A, infection we noted extensive inflammation of the heart muscle. Although no microorganisms were found in tissues of type A survivors beyond 9 d after infection, mice surviving strain 425 infection had a low level of residual infection at 3 wk after challenge. The histopathologic presentation of tularemia caused by F. tularensis types A and B in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice bears distinct similarities to tularemia in humans.

  16. Vaccine-Mediated Mechanisms Controlling Replication of Francisella tularensis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using a Co-culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Eneslätt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell-mediated immunity (CMI is normally required for efficient protection against intracellular infections, however, identification of correlates is challenging and they are generally lacking. Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent, facultative intracellular bacterium and CMI is critically required for protection against the pathogen, but how this is effectuated in humans is poorly understood. To understand the protective mechanisms, we established an in vitro co-culture assay to identify how control of infection of F. tularensis is accomplished by human cells and hypothesized that the model will mimic in vivo immune mechanisms. Non-adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were expanded with antigen and added to cultures with adherent PBMC infected with the human vaccine strain, LVS, or the highly virulent SCHU S4 strain. Intracellular numbers of F. tularensis was followed for 72 h and secreted and intracellular cytokines were analyzed. Addition of PBMC expanded from naïve individuals, i.e., those with no record of immunization to F. tularensis, generally resulted in little or no control of intracellular bacterial growth, whereas addition of PBMC from a majority of F. tularensis-immune individuals executed static and sometimes cidal effects on intracellular bacteria. Regardless of infecting strain, statistical differences between the two groups were significant, P < 0.05. Secretion of 11 cytokines was analyzed after 72 h of infection and significant differences with regard to secretion of IFN-γ, TNF, and MIP-1β was observed between immune and naïve individuals for LVS-infected cultures. Also, in LVS-infected cultures, CD4 T cells from vaccinees, but not CD8 T cells, showed significantly higher expression of IFN-γ, MIP-1β, TNF, and CD107a than cells from naïve individuals. The co-culture system appears to identify correlates of immunity that are relevant for the understanding of mechanisms of the protective host immunity to

  17. Generation of a convalescent model of virulent Francisella tularensis infection for assessment of host requirements for survival of tularemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah D Crane

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of tularemia. Development of novel vaccines and therapeutics for tularemia has been hampered by the lack of understanding of which immune components are required to survive infection. Defining these requirements for protection against virulent F. tularensis, such as strain SchuS4, has been difficult since experimentally infected animals typically die within 5 days after exposure to as few as 10 bacteria. Such a short mean time to death typically precludes development, and therefore assessment, of immune responses directed against virulent F. tularensis. To enable identification of the components of the immune system that are required for survival of virulent F. tularensis, we developed a convalescent model of tularemia in C57Bl/6 mice using low dose antibiotic therapy in which the host immune response is ultimately responsible for clearance of the bacterium. Using this model we demonstrate αβTCR(+ cells, γδTCR(+ cells, and B cells are necessary to survive primary SchuS4 infection. Analysis of mice deficient in specific soluble mediators shows that IL-12p40 and IL-12p35 are essential for survival of SchuS4 infection. We also show that IFN-γ is required for survival of SchuS4 infection since mice lacking IFN-γR succumb to disease during the course of antibiotic therapy. Finally, we found that both CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells are the primary producers of IFN-γand that γδTCR(+ cells and NK cells make a minimal contribution toward production of this cytokine throughout infection. Together these data provide a novel model that identifies key cells and cytokines required for survival or exacerbation of infection with virulent F. tularensis and provides evidence that this model will be a useful tool for better understanding the dynamics of tularemia infection.

  18. Rapid countermeasure discovery against Francisella tularensis based on a metabolic network reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhartha Chaudhury

    Full Text Available In the future, we may be faced with the need to provide treatment for an emergent biological threat against which existing vaccines and drugs have limited efficacy or availability. To prepare for this eventuality, our objective was to use a metabolic network-based approach to rapidly identify potential drug targets and prospectively screen and validate novel small-molecule antimicrobials. Our target organism was the fully virulent Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis Schu S4 strain, a highly infectious intracellular pathogen that is the causative agent of tularemia and is classified as a category A biological agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We proceeded with a staggered computational and experimental workflow that used a strain-specific metabolic network model, homology modeling and X-ray crystallography of protein targets, and ligand- and structure-based drug design. Selected compounds were subsequently filtered based on physiological-based pharmacokinetic modeling, and we selected a final set of 40 compounds for experimental validation of antimicrobial activity. We began screening these compounds in whole bacterial cell-based assays in biosafety level 3 facilities in the 20th week of the study and completed the screens within 12 weeks. Six compounds showed significant growth inhibition of F. tularensis, and we determined their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations and mammalian cell cytotoxicities. The most promising compound had a low molecular weight, was non-toxic, and abolished bacterial growth at 13 µM, with putative activity against pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A, encoded by gene coaD. The novel antimicrobial compounds identified in this study serve as starting points for lead optimization, animal testing, and drug development against tularemia. Our integrated in silico/in vitro approach had an overall 15% success rate in terms of

  19. Long-Lasting Fever and Lymphadenitis: Think about F. tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Longo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of glandular tularemia that developed in a man supposedly infected by a tick bite in Western Switzerland. Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis was identified. In Europe tularemia most commonly manifests itself as ulcero-glandular or glandular disease; the diagnosis of tularemia may be delayed in glandular form where skin or mucous lesion is absent, particularly in areas which are assumed to have a low incidence of the disease.

  20. Host-pathogen interactions between Francisella tularensis and Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Vonkavaara, Malin

    2012-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative bacterium causing the zoonotic disease tularemia. Arthropod-borne transmission plays an important role in transferring the disease to humans. F. tularensis induces very low amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines during infection, due to inhibition of immune signaling pathways and an unusual structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To date, there is no vaccine available that is approved for public use, although an attenuated live vacci...

  1. The Early Dendritic Cell Signaling Induced by Virulent Francisella tularensis Strain Occurs in Phases and Involves the Activation of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases (ERKs) and p38 In the Later Stage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabrik, I.; Link, M.; Putzova, D.; Plzakova, L.; Lubovska, Zuzana; Philimonenko, Vlada; Pavkova, I.; Řehulka, P.; Krocová, Z.; Hozák, Pavel; Santic, M.; Stulík, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2018), s. 95-108 ISSN 1535-9476 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : factor-alpha production * live vaccine strain * phosphorylation sites * negative regulator * innate immunity * lvs infection * pathway * identification * reveals * mapk Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 6.540, year: 2016

  2. Predicting adhesion and biofilm formation boundaries on stainless steel surfaces by five Salmonella enterica strains belonging to different serovars as a function of pH, temperature and NaCl concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Juliana O; Cruz, Ellen A; Souza, Enio G F; Oliveira, Tereza C M; Alvarenga, Verônica O; Peña, Wilmer E L; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Magnani, Marciane

    2018-05-26

    This study aimed to assess the capability of 97 epidemic S. enterica strains belonging to 18 serovars to form biofilm. Five strains characterized as strong biofilm-producers, belonging to distinct serovars (S. Enteritidis 132, S. Infantis 176, S. Typhimurium 177, S. Heidelberg 281 and S. Corvallis 297) were assayed for adhesion/biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces. The experiments were conducted in different combinations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10% w/v), pH (4, 5, 6 and 7) and temperatures (8 °C, 12 °C, 20 °C and 35 °C). Only adhesion was assumed to occur when S. enterica counts were ≥3 and biofilm formation was defined as when the counts were ≥5 log CFU/cm 2 . The binary responses were used to develop models to predict the probability of adhesion/biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces by five strains belonging to different S. enterica serovars. A total of 99% (96/97) of the tested S. enterica strains were characterized as biofilm-producers in the microtiter plate assays. The ability to form biofilm varied (P biofilm-producers, 21% (20/96), 45% (43/96), and 35% (34/96) were weak, moderate and strong biofilm-producers, respectively. The capability for adhesion/biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces under the experimental conditions studied varied among the strains studied, and distinct secondary models were obtained to describe the behavior of the five S. enterica tested. All strains showed adhesion at pH 4 up to 4% of NaCl and at 20 °C and 35 °C. The probability of adhesion decreased when NaCl concentrations were >8% and at 8 °C, as well as in pH values ≤ 5 and NaCl concentrations > 6%, for all tested strains. At pH 7 and 6, biofilm formation for S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg was observed up to 6% of NaCl at 35 °C and 20 °C. The predicted boundaries for adhesion were pH values biofilm formation, the predicted boundaries were pH values biofilm formation

  3. Insights to genetic characterization tools for epidemiological tracking of Francisella tularensis in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Wahab

    Full Text Available Tularaemia, caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is endemic in Sweden and is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three different genetic typing systems to link a genetic type to the source and place of tularemia infection in Sweden. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNPs, MLVA including five variable number of tandem repeat loci and PmeI-PFGE were tested on 127 F. tularensis positive specimens collected from Swedish case-patients. All three typing methods identified two major genetic groups with near-perfect agreement. Higher genetic resolution was obtained with canSNP and MLVA compared to PFGE; F. tularensis samples were first assigned into ten phylogroups based on canSNPs followed by 33 unique MLVA types. Phylogroups were geographically analysed to reveal complex phylogeographic patterns in Sweden. The extensive phylogenetic diversity found within individual counties posed a challenge to linking specific genetic types with specific geographic locations. Despite this, a single phylogroup (B.22, defined by a SNP marker specific to a lone Swedish sequenced strain, did link genetic type with a likely geographic place. This result suggests that SNP markers, highly specific to a particular reference genome, may be found most frequently among samples recovered from the same location where the reference genome originated. This insight compels us to consider whole-genome sequencing (WGS as the appropriate tool for effectively linking specific genetic type to geography. Comparing the WGS of an unknown sample to WGS databases of archived Swedish strains maximizes the likelihood of revealing those rare geographically informative SNPs.

  4. Lymphotoxin-α Plays Only a Minor Role in Host Resistance to Respiratory Infection with Virulent Type A Francisella tularensis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of lymphotoxin (LT-α in host defense against airborne infection with Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of tularemia. Following a low-dose aerosol infection with the highly virulent type A strain of F. tularensis, mice deficient in LT α (LTα−/− consistently harbored approximately 10-fold fewer bacteria in their spleens at day 2 and 10-fold more bacteria in their lungs at day 4 than LTα+/+ mice. However, the mortality and median time to death were indistinguishable between the two mouse strains. In addition, the inflammatory responses to the infection, as reflected by the cytokine levels and leukocyte influx in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histopathological analysis, were generally similar between LTα−/− and LTα+/+ mice. These data suggest that although LTα does not contribute significantly to the resistance and host responses of mice to airborne type A F. tularensis infection, it does play a subtle role in the multiplication/dissemination of F. tularensis.

  5. Xylella fastidiosa CoDiRO strain associated with the olive quick decline syndrome in southern Italy belongs to a clonal complex of the subspecies pauca that evolved in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelletti, Simone; Scortichini, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-limited bacterium transmitted by xylem-fluid-feeding Hemiptera insects, causes economic losses of both woody and herbaceous plant species. A Xyl. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain, namely CoDiRO, was recently found to be associated with the 'olive quick decline syndrome' in southern Italy (i.e. Apulia region). Recently, some Xyl. fastidiosa strains intercepted in France from Coffea spp. plant cuttings imported from Central and South America were characterized. The introduction of infected plant material from Central America in Apulia was also postulated even though an ad hoc study to confirm this hypothesis is lacking. In the present study, we assessed the complete and draft genome of 27 Xyl. fastidiosa strains. Through a genome-wide approach, we confirmed the occurrence of three subspecies within Xyl. fastidiosa, namely fastidiosa, multiplex and pauca, and demonstrated the occurrence of a genetic clonal complex of four Xyl. fastidiosa strains belonging to subspecies pauca which evolved in Central America. The CoDiRO strain displayed 13 SNPs when compared with a strain isolated in Costa Rica from Coffea sp. and 32 SNPs when compared with two strains obtained from Nerium oleander in Costa Rica. These results support the close relationships of the two strains. The four strains in the clonal complex contain prophage-like genes in their genomes. This study strongly supports the possibility of the introduction of Xyl. fastidiosa in southern Italy via coffee plants grown in Central America. The data also stress how the current global circulation of agricultural commodities potentially threatens the agrosystems worldwide.

  6. A novel nanoprobe for the sensitive detection of Francisella tularensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-eun; Seo, Youngmin; Jeong, Yoon [Department of Bionano Technology, Graduate School, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Mintai P. [Center for Biomaterials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jangsun [Department of Bionano Technology, Graduate School, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Jaebum; Hong, Jong Wook [Department of Bionano Technology, Graduate School, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bionano Engineering, Hanyang University ERICA, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jun Ho; Rhie, Gi-eun [Division of High-risk Pathogen Research, Center for Infectious Disease, Korea National Institute of Health, Cheongju 363-951 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jonghoon, E-mail: jonghchoi@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Bionano Technology, Graduate School, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bionano Engineering, Hanyang University ERICA, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We prepare apoferritin nanoprobes decorated with antibodies and nanoparticles. • We examine nanoprobes for the sensitive detection of Francisella tularensis. • 10-fold decrease of minimum concentration of pathogen was achieved. • Simultaneous detection of multiple high-risk pathogens was obtained. - Abstract: Francisella tularensis is a human zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia, a severe infectious disease. Given the extreme infectivity of F. tularensis and its potential to be used as a biological warfare agent, a fast and sensitive detection method is highly desirable. Herein, we construct a novel detection platform composed of two units: (1) Magnetic beads conjugated with multiple capturing antibodies against F. tularensis for its simple and rapid separation and (2) Genetically-engineered apoferritin protein constructs conjugated with multiple quantum dots and a detection antibody against F. tularensis for the amplification of signal. We demonstrate a 10-fold increase in the sensitivity relative to traditional lateral flow devices that utilize enzyme-based detection methods. We ultimately envision the use of our novel nanoprobe detection platform in future applications that require the highly-sensitive on-site detection of high-risk pathogens.

  7. A novel nanoprobe for the sensitive detection of Francisella tularensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-eun; Seo, Youngmin; Jeong, Yoon; Hwang, Mintai P.; Hwang, Jangsun; Choo, Jaebum; Hong, Jong Wook; Jeon, Jun Ho; Rhie, Gi-eun; Choi, Jonghoon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We prepare apoferritin nanoprobes decorated with antibodies and nanoparticles. • We examine nanoprobes for the sensitive detection of Francisella tularensis. • 10-fold decrease of minimum concentration of pathogen was achieved. • Simultaneous detection of multiple high-risk pathogens was obtained. - Abstract: Francisella tularensis is a human zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia, a severe infectious disease. Given the extreme infectivity of F. tularensis and its potential to be used as a biological warfare agent, a fast and sensitive detection method is highly desirable. Herein, we construct a novel detection platform composed of two units: (1) Magnetic beads conjugated with multiple capturing antibodies against F. tularensis for its simple and rapid separation and (2) Genetically-engineered apoferritin protein constructs conjugated with multiple quantum dots and a detection antibody against F. tularensis for the amplification of signal. We demonstrate a 10-fold increase in the sensitivity relative to traditional lateral flow devices that utilize enzyme-based detection methods. We ultimately envision the use of our novel nanoprobe detection platform in future applications that require the highly-sensitive on-site detection of high-risk pathogens

  8. Francisella tularensis Catalase Restricts Immune Function by Impairing TRPM2 Channel Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerley, Nicole L; Chandrasekaran, Akshaya; Trebak, Mohamed; Miller, Barbara A; Melendez, J Andrés

    2016-02-19

    As an innate defense mechanism, macrophages produce reactive oxygen species that weaken pathogens and serve as secondary messengers involved in immune function. The Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis utilizes its antioxidant armature to limit the host immune response, but the mechanism behind this suppression is not defined. Here we establish that F. tularensis limits Ca(2+) entry in macrophages, thereby limiting actin reorganization and IL-6 production in a redox-dependent fashion. Wild type (live vaccine strain) or catalase-deficient F. tularensis (ΔkatG) show distinct profiles in their H2O2 scavenging rates, 1 and 0.015 pm/s, respectively. Murine alveolar macrophages infected with ΔkatG display abnormally high basal intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that did not increase further in response to H2O2. Additionally, ΔkatG-infected macrophages displayed limited Ca(2+) influx in response to ionomycin, as a result of ionophore H2O2 sensitivity. Exogenously added H2O2 or H2O2 generated by ΔkatG likely oxidizes ionomycin and alters its ability to transport Ca(2+). Basal increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) and insensitivity to H2O2-mediated Ca(2+) entry in ΔkatG-infected cells are reversed by the Ca(2+) channel inhibitors 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate and SKF-96365. 2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate but not SKF-96365 abrogated ΔkatG-dependent increases in macrophage actin remodeling and IL-6 secretion, suggesting a role for H2O2-mediated Ca(2+) entry through the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel in macrophages. Indeed, increases in basal Ca(2+), actin polymerization, and IL-6 production are reversed in TRPM2-null macrophages infected with ΔkatG. Together, our findings provide compelling evidence that F. tularensis catalase restricts reactive oxygen species to temper macrophage TRPM2-mediated Ca(2+) signaling and limit host immune function. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Adaptive Immunity to Francisella tularensis and Considerations for Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia M. Roberts

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is an intracellular bacterium that causes the disease tularemia. There are several subspecies of F. tularensis whose ability to cause disease varies in humans. The most virulent subspecies, tularensis, is a Tier One Select Agent and a potential bioweapon. Although considerable effort has made to generate efficacious tularemia vaccines, to date none have been licensed for use in the United States. Despite the lack of a tularemia vaccine, we have learned a great deal about the adaptive immune response the underlies protective immunity. Herein, we detail the animal models commonly used to study tularemia and their recapitulation of human disease, the field's current understanding of vaccine-mediated protection, and discuss the challenges associated with new vaccine development.

  10. Live attenuated Francisella novicida vaccine protects against Francisella tularensis pulmonary challenge in rats and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularemia. Human pulmonary exposure to the most virulent form, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (Ftt, leads to high morbidity and mortality, resulting in this bacterium being classified as a potential biothreat agent. However, a closely-related species, F. novicida, is avirulent in healthy humans. No tularemia vaccine is currently approved for human use. We demonstrate that a single dose vaccine of a live attenuated F. novicida strain (Fn iglD protects against subsequent pulmonary challenge with Ftt using two different animal models, Fischer 344 rats and cynomolgus macaques (NHP. The Fn iglD vaccine showed protective efficacy in rats, as did a Ftt iglD vaccine, suggesting no disadvantage to utilizing the low human virulent Francisella species to induce protective immunity. Comparison of specific antibody profiles in vaccinated rat and NHP sera by proteome array identified a core set of immunodominant antigens in vaccinated animals. This is the first report of a defined live attenuated vaccine that demonstrates efficacy against pulmonary tularemia in a NHP, and indicates that the low human virulence F. novicida functions as an effective tularemia vaccine platform.

  11. Emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing strains belonging to cefotaxime-M-1 class from intensive care units patients and environmental surfaces in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqsa Ashraf Bukhari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria is the most dangerous threat for the treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli among patients and environment of intensive care units (ICUs of three tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 samples from ICU’s patients and inanimate environment (injection trays, wash basins, door handles, hand swabs of professionals, and ICU fridges were screened for ESBL by culturing on CHROMagar-ESBL. ESBL and carbapenemases production were confirmed by double disc synergy test and modified Hodge’s test, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect ESBL encoding genes bla cefotaxime (CTX-M, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-9, blaTEM, blaSHV and carbapenemase genes blaKPC, bla New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1, blaOXA-48 and blaVIM. Results: Overall, ESBL production was found high 30/82 (36.5% among isolates of which 15.8% K. pneumoniae and 20.7% E. coli were identified. All the K. pneumoniae and majority of E. coli isolates were MDR, i.e., resistance to three or more antimicrobial categories. Molecular characterization showed the blaCTX-M-1 as the predominant genotype found in 17/21 (80% of the isolates. None of the strains was found positive for carbapenemase-encoding genes. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates the emergence of MDR ESBL producing strains among ICU patients and hospital environment, posing a serious threat for the control of nosocomial infections.

  12. Cowpea and peanut in southern Africa are nodulated by diverse Bradyrhizobium strains harboring nodulation genes that belong to the large pantropical clade common in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Emma T; Stepkowski, Tomasz; Przymusiak, Anna; Botha, Wilhelm J; Law, Ian J

    2008-09-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in southern Africa are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the identity of these bacteria, a collection of 22 isolates originating from the root nodules of both hosts in Botswana and South Africa was investigated using the combined sequences for the core genome genes rrs, recA, and glnII. These data separated the majority of the isolates into one of three unique lineages that most likely represent novel Bradyrhizobium species. Some isolates were also conspecific with B. yuanmingense and with B. elkanii, although none grouped with B. japonicum, B. canariense or B. liaoningense. To study the evolution of nodulation genes in these bacteria, the common nodulation gene, nodA, and host-specific nodulation genes, nodZ, noeE, and noeI, were analyzed. The nodA phylogeny showed that the cowpea and peanut Bradyrhizobium isolates represent various locally adapted groups or ecotypes that form part of Clade III of the seven known BradyrhizobiumnodA clades. This large and highly diverse clade comprises all strains from sub-Saharan Africa, as well as some originating from the Americas, Australia, Indonesia, China and Japan. Some similar groupings were supported by the other nodulation genes, although the overall phylogenies for the nodulation genes were incongruent with that inferred from the core genome genes, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer significantly influences the evolution of cowpea and peanut root-nodule bacteria. Furthermore, identification of the nodZ, noeI, and noeE genes in the isolates tested indicates that African Bradyrhizobium species may produce highly decorated nodulation factors, which potentially represent an important adaptation enabling nodulation of a great variety of legumes inhabiting the African continent.

  13. The potential for flower nectar to allow mosquito to mosquito transmission of Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kenney

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is disseminated in nature by biting arthropods such as mosquitoes. The relationship between mosquitoes and F. tularensis in nature is highly ambiguous, due in part to the fact that mosquitoes have caused significant tularemia outbreaks despite being classified as a mechanical vector of F. tularensis. One possible explanation for mosquitoes being a prominent, yet mechanical vector is that these insects feed on flower nectar between blood meals, allowing for transmission of F. tularensis between mosquitoes. Here, we aimed to assess whether F. tularensis could survive in flower nectar. Moreover, we examined if mosquitoes could interact with or ingest and transmit F. tularensis from one source of nectar to another. F. tularensis exhibited robust survivability in flower nectar with concentrations of viable bacteria remaining consistent with the rich growth medium. Furthermore, F. tularensis was able to survive (albeit to a lesser extent in 30% sucrose (a nectar surrogate over a period of time consistent with that of a typical flower bloom. Although we observed diminished bacterial survival in the nectar surrogate, mosquitoes that fed on this material became colonized with F. tularensis. Finally, colonized mosquitoes were capable of transferring F. tularensis to a sterile nectar surrogate. These data suggest that flower nectar may be capable of serving as a temporary source of F. tularensis that could contribute to the amplification of outbreaks. Mosquitoes that feed on an infected mammalian host and subsequently feed on flower nectar could deposit some F. tularensis bacteria into the nectar in the process. Mosquitoes subsequently feeding on this nectar source could potentially become colonized by F. tularensis. Thus, the possibility exists that flower nectar may allow for vector-vector transmission of F. tularensis.

  14. The potential for flower nectar to allow mosquito to mosquito transmission of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Adam; Cusick, Austin; Payne, Jessica; Gaughenbaugh, Anna; Renshaw, Andrea; Wright, Jenna; Seeber, Roger; Barnes, Rebecca; Florjanczyk, Aleksandr; Horzempa, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is disseminated in nature by biting arthropods such as mosquitoes. The relationship between mosquitoes and F. tularensis in nature is highly ambiguous, due in part to the fact that mosquitoes have caused significant tularemia outbreaks despite being classified as a mechanical vector of F. tularensis. One possible explanation for mosquitoes being a prominent, yet mechanical vector is that these insects feed on flower nectar between blood meals, allowing for transmission of F. tularensis between mosquitoes. Here, we aimed to assess whether F. tularensis could survive in flower nectar. Moreover, we examined if mosquitoes could interact with or ingest and transmit F. tularensis from one source of nectar to another. F. tularensis exhibited robust survivability in flower nectar with concentrations of viable bacteria remaining consistent with the rich growth medium. Furthermore, F. tularensis was able to survive (albeit to a lesser extent) in 30% sucrose (a nectar surrogate) over a period of time consistent with that of a typical flower bloom. Although we observed diminished bacterial survival in the nectar surrogate, mosquitoes that fed on this material became colonized with F. tularensis. Finally, colonized mosquitoes were capable of transferring F. tularensis to a sterile nectar surrogate. These data suggest that flower nectar may be capable of serving as a temporary source of F. tularensis that could contribute to the amplification of outbreaks. Mosquitoes that feed on an infected mammalian host and subsequently feed on flower nectar could deposit some F. tularensis bacteria into the nectar in the process. Mosquitoes subsequently feeding on this nectar source could potentially become colonized by F. tularensis. Thus, the possibility exists that flower nectar may allow for vector-vector transmission of F. tularensis.

  15. Border Patrol Gone Awry: Lung NKT Cell Activation by Francisella tularensis Exacerbates Tularemia-Like Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Timothy M; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Cicek, Basak B; Osina, Maria A; Boyd, Kelli L; Durrant, Douglas M; Metzger, Dennis W; Khanna, Kamal M; Joyce, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    The respiratory mucosa is a major site for pathogen invasion and, hence, a site requiring constant immune surveillance. The type I, semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are enriched within the lung vasculature. Despite optimal positioning, the role of NKT cells in respiratory infectious diseases remains poorly understood. Hence, we assessed their function in a murine model of pulmonary tularemia--because tularemia is a sepsis-like proinflammatory disease and NKT cells are known to control the cellular and humoral responses underlying sepsis. Here we show for the first time that respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain resulted in rapid accumulation of NKT cells within the lung interstitium. Activated NKT cells produced interferon-γ and promoted both local and systemic proinflammatory responses. Consistent with these results, NKT cell-deficient mice showed reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response yet they survived the infection better than their wild type counterparts. Strikingly, NKT cell-deficient mice had increased lymphocytic infiltration in the lungs that organized into tertiary lymphoid structures resembling induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) at the peak of infection. Thus, NKT cell activation by F. tularensis infection hampers iBALT formation and promotes a systemic proinflammatory response, which exacerbates severe pulmonary tularemia-like disease in mice.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica FTNF002-00.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi D Barabote

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica FTNF002-00 strain was originally obtained from the first known clinical case of bacteremic F. tularensis pneumonia in Southern Europe isolated from an immunocompetent individual. The FTNF002-00 complete genome contains the RD(23 deletion and represents a type strain for a clonal population from the first epidemic tularemia outbreak in Spain between 1997-1998. Here, we present the complete sequence analysis of the FTNF002-00 genome. The complete genome sequence of FTNF002-00 revealed several large as well as small genomic differences with respect to two other published complete genome sequences of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains, LVS and OSU18. The FTNF002-00 genome shares >99.9% sequence similarity with LVS and OSU18, and is also approximately 5 MB smaller by comparison. The overall organization of the FTNF002-00 genome is remarkably identical to those of LVS and OSU18, except for a single 3.9 kb inversion in FTNF002-00. Twelve regions of difference ranging from 0.1-1.5 kb and forty-two small insertions and deletions were identified in a comparative analysis of FTNF002-00, LVS, and OSU18 genomes. Two small deletions appear to inactivate two genes in FTNF002-00 causing them to become pseudogenes; the intact genes encode a protein of unknown function and a drug:H(+ antiporter. In addition, we identified ninety-nine proteins in FTNF002-00 containing amino acid mutations compared to LVS and OSU18. Several non-conserved amino acid replacements were identified, one of which occurs in the virulence-associated intracellular growth locus subunit D protein. Many of these changes in FTNF002-00 are likely the consequence of direct selection that increases the fitness of this subsp. holarctica clone within its endemic population. Our complete genome sequence analyses lay the foundation for experimental testing of these possibilities.

  17. Francisella tularensis endocarditis: two case reports and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaci, Rostane; Alauzet, Corentine; Selton-Suty, Christine; Lozniewski, Alain; Pulcini, Céline; May, Thierry; Goehringer, François

    2017-02-01

    We report the first two cases of infective endocarditis caused by Francisella tularensis in Europe (two cases have previously been reported outside Europe). We suggest clinicians should consider tularemia as a possible diagnosis in endemic regions in cases of culture-negative endocarditis.

  18. Identification of Ciprofloxacin Resistance by SimpleProbe (trademark), High Resolution Melt and Pyrosequencing (trademark) Nucleic Acid Analysis in Biothreat Agents: Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis and Francisella tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    tularensis strain Schu4 following standardmicrobiological techniques to develop antibiotic resistance. Colonies from an original chocolate agar culture...35 C for two weeks. Growth in broth containing 16 mg/ml ciprofloxacin was transferred to chocolate agar plates containing 64 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and...expeditious therapy , the three PCR technologies described in this study were evaluated for the ability to accurately differentiate wt B. anthracis, Y

  19. Protective Immunity against Tularemia Provided by an Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine Expressing Tul4 of Francisella tularensis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Ravinder; Chen, Shan; Arévalo, Maria T.; Xu, Qingfu; Chen, Yanping; Zeng, Mingtao

    2012-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, a category A bioterrorism agent, is a highly infectious organism that is passed on via skin contact and inhalation routes. A live attenuated vaccine strain (LVS) has been developed, but it has not been licensed for public use by the FDA due to safety concerns. Thus, there exists a need for a safer and improved vaccine. In this study, we have constructed a replication-incompetent adenovirus, Ad/opt-Tul4, carrying a codon-optimized gene for expression of a membrane prote...

  20. Further Characterization of the Capsule-Like Complex (CLC Produced by Francisella tularensis Subspecies tularensis: Protective Efficacy and Similarity to Outer Membrane Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Champion

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is the etiologic agent of tularemia, and subspecies tularensis (type A is the most virulent subspecies. The live vaccine strain (LVS of subspecies holarctica produces a capsule-like complex (CLC that consists of a large variety of glycoproteins. Expression of the CLC is greatly enhanced when the bacteria are subcultured in and grown on chemically defined medium. Deletion of two genes responsible for CLC glycosylation in LVS results in an attenuated mutant that is protective against respiratory tularemia in a mouse model. We sought to further characterize the CLC composition and to determine if a type A CLC glycosylation mutant would be attenuated in mice. The CLCs isolated from LVS extracted with 0.5% phenol or 1 M urea were similar, as determined by gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, but the CLC extracted with urea was more water-soluble. The CLC extracted with either 0.5% phenol or 1 M urea from type A strains was also similar to the CLC of LVS in antigenic properties, electrophoretic profile, and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The solubility of the CLC could be further enhanced by fractionation with Triton X-114 followed by N-Lauroylsarcosine detergents; the largest (>250 kDa molecular size component appeared to be an aggregate of smaller components. Outer membrane vesicles/tubules (OMV/T isolated by differential centrifugation and micro-filtration appeared similar to the CLC by TEM, and many of the proteins present in the OMV/T were also identified in soluble and insoluble fractions of the CLC. Further investigation is warranted to assess the relationship between OMV/T and the CLC. The CLC conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin or flagellin was highly protective against high-dose LVS intradermal challenge and partially protective against intranasal challenge. A protective response was associated with a significant rise in cytokines IL-12, IL-10, and IFN-γ. However, a type A CLC glycosylation mutant

  1. Natural Selection in Virulence Genes of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Mark K; Robison, Richard A; Adams, Byron J

    2016-06-01

    A fundamental tenet of evolution is that alleles that are under negative selection are often deleterious and confer no evolutionary advantage. Negatively selected alleles are removed from the gene pool and are eventually extinguished from the population. Conversely, alleles under positive selection do confer an evolutionary advantage and lead to an increase in the overall fitness of the organism. These alleles increase in frequency until they eventually become fixed in the population. Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic pathogen and a potential biothreat agent. The most virulent type of F. tularensis, Type A, is distributed across North America with Type A.I occurring mainly in the east and Type A.II appearing mainly in the west. F. tularensis is thought to be a genome in decay (losing genes) because of the relatively large number of pseudogenes present in its genome. We hypothesized that the observed frequency of gene loss/pseudogenes may be an artifact of evolution in response to a changing environment, and that genes involved in virulence should be under strong positive selection. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced and compared whole genomes of Type A.I and A.II isolates. We analyzed a subset of virulence and housekeeping genes from several F. tularensis subspecies genomes to ascertain the presence and extent of positive selection. Eleven previously identified virulence genes were screened for positive selection along with 10 housekeeping genes. Analyses of selection yielded one housekeeping gene and 7 virulence genes which showed significant evidence of positive selection at loci implicated in cell surface structures and membrane proteins, metabolism and biosynthesis, transcription, translation and cell separation, and substrate binding and transport. Our results suggest that while the loss of functional genes through disuse could be accelerated by negative selection, the genome decay in Francisella could also be the byproduct of adaptive evolution

  2. Ambiguity in urban belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    mapping of life as an ethnic minority in the city. It revolves around three issues. First, it focuses on the narrators’ experiences of exclusions and blockages in everyday life. This is followed by a focus on urban belonging emphasizing its differential character. Finally, the ambiguity of experiences...

  3. The Multiple Localized Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Contributes to the Attenuation of the Francisella tularensis dsbA Deletion Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Pavkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The DsbA homolog of Francisella tularensis was previously demonstrated to be required for intracellular replication and animal death. Disruption of the dsbA gene leads to a pleiotropic phenotype that could indirectly affect a number of different cellular pathways. To reveal the broad effects of DsbA, we compared fractions enriched in membrane proteins of the wild-type FSC200 strain with the dsbA deletion strain using a SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis. This analysis enabled identification of 63 proteins with significantly altered amounts in the dsbA mutant strain compared to the wild-type strain. These proteins comprise a quite heterogeneous group including hypothetical proteins, proteins associated with membrane structures, and potential secreted proteins. Many of them are known to be associated with F. tularensis virulence. Several proteins were selected for further studies focused on their potential role in tularemia's pathogenesis. Of them, only the gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of glycolytic pathway, was found to be important for full virulence manifestations both in vivo and in vitro. We next created a viable mutant strain with deleted gapA gene and analyzed its phenotype. The gapA mutant is characterized by reduced virulence in mice, defective replication inside macrophages, and its ability to induce a protective immune response against systemic challenge with parental wild-type strain. We also demonstrate the multiple localization sites of this protein: In addition to within the cytosol, it was found on the cell surface, outside the cells, and in the culture medium. Recombinant GapA was successfully obtained, and it was shown that it binds host extracellular serum proteins like plasminogen, fibrinogen, and fibronectin.

  4. An original case of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica bacteremia after a near-drowning accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ughetto, Estelle; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Cariou, Marie-Estelle; Pelloux, Isabelle; Maurin, Max; Caillon, Jocelyne; Moreau, Philippe; Ygout, Jean-François; Corvec, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    We report the first case of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica bacteremia after water contamination in France. A 75-year-old man developed septic pneumonic tularemia after a near-drowning accident. We highlight the need for a longer incubation time for isolation of F. tularensis from blood cultures.

  5. Innate immune recognition of Francisella tularensis: activation of type-I interferons and the inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wiley Jones

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen that can cause severe disease in a wide range of mammalian hosts. Primarily residing in host macrophages, F. tularensis escapes phagosomal degradation, and replicates in the macrophage cytosol. The macrophage uses a series of pattern recognition receptors to detect conserved microbial molecules from invading pathogens, and initiates an appropriate host response. In the cytosol, F. tularensis is recognized by the inflammasome, a multiprotein complex responsible for the activation of the cysteine protease caspase-1. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and release of proinflammatory cytokines and host cell death. Here we review recent work on the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation by F. tularensis, and its consequences both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we discuss the coordination between the inflammasome and other cytosolic host responses, and the evidence for F. tularensis virulence factors that suppress inflammasome activation.

  6. Host-adaptation of Francisella tularensis alters the bacterium's surface-carbohydrates to hinder effectors of innate and adaptive immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M Zarrella

    Full Text Available The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with both intracellular and extracellular phases and could reasonably be expected to express distinct phenotypes in these environments. The presence of a capsule on this bacterium has been controversial with some groups finding such a structure while other groups report that no capsule could be identified. Previously we reported in vitro culture conditions for this bacterium which, in contrast to typical methods, yielded a bacterial phenotype that mimics that of the bacterium's mammalian, extracellular phase.SDS-PAGE and carbohydrate analysis of differentially-cultivated F. tularensis LVS revealed that bacteria displaying the host-adapted phenotype produce both longer polymers of LPS O-antigen (OAg and additional HMW carbohydrates/glycoproteins that are reduced/absent in non-host-adapted bacteria. Analysis of wildtype and OAg-mutant bacteria indicated that the induced changes in surface carbohydrates involved both OAg and non-OAg species. To assess the impact of these HMW carbohydrates on the access of outer membrane constituents to antibody we used differentially-cultivated bacteria in vitro to immunoprecipitate antibodies directed against outer membrane moieties. We observed that the surface-carbohydrates induced during host-adaptation shield many outer membrane antigens from binding by antibody. Similar assays with normal mouse serum indicate that the induced HMW carbohydrates also impede complement deposition. Using an in vitro macrophage infection assay, we find that the bacterial HMW carbohydrate impedes TLR2-dependent, pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages. Lastly we show that upon host-adaptation, the human-virulent strain, F. tularensis SchuS4 also induces capsule production with the effect of reducing macrophage-activation and accelerating tularemia pathogenesis in mice.F. tularensis undergoes host-adaptation which

  7. Human Dose-Response Data for Francisella tularensis and a Dose- and Time-Dependent Mathematical Model of Early-Phase Fever Associated with Tularemia After Inhalation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Gene; Coleman, Margaret; Crary, David; Thurman, Alec; Thran, Brandolyn

    2018-04-25

    Military health risk assessors, medical planners, operational planners, and defense system developers require knowledge of human responses to doses of biothreat agents to support force health protection and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear (CBRN) defense missions. This article reviews extensive data from 118 human volunteers administered aerosols of the bacterial agent Francisella tularensis, strain Schu S4, which causes tularemia. The data set includes incidence of early-phase febrile illness following administration of well-characterized inhaled doses of F. tularensis. Supplemental data on human body temperature profiles over time available from de-identified case reports is also presented. A unified, logically consistent model of early-phase febrile illness is described as a lognormal dose-response function for febrile illness linked with a stochastic time profile of fever. Three parameters are estimated from the human data to describe the time profile: incubation period or onset time for fever; rise time of fever; and near-maximum body temperature. Inhaled dose-dependence and variability are characterized for each of the three parameters. These parameters enable a stochastic model for the response of an exposed population through incorporation of individual-by-individual variability by drawing random samples from the statistical distributions of these three parameters for each individual. This model provides risk assessors and medical decisionmakers reliable representations of the predicted health impacts of early-phase febrile illness for as long as one week after aerosol exposures of human populations to F. tularensis. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Lipids Derived from Virulent Francisella tularensis Broadly Inhibit Pulmonary Inflammation via Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Deborah D.; Ireland, Robin; Alinger, Joshua B.; Small, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes an acute lethal respiratory disease in humans. The heightened virulence of the pathogen is linked to its unique ability to inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory responses. The bacterial component and mechanism of this inhibition are unknown. Here we show that lipids isolated from virulent but not attenuated strains of F. tularensis are not detected by host cells, inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines by primary macrophages in response to known TLR ligands, and suppress neutrophil recruitment in vivo. We further show that lipid-mediated inhibition of inflammation is dependent on TLR2, MyD88, and the nuclear hormone and fatty acid receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Pathogen lipid-mediated interference with inflammatory responses through the engagement of TLR2 and PPARα represents a novel manipulation of host signaling pathways consistent with the ability of highly virulent F. tularensis to efficiently evade host immune responses. PMID:23925884

  9. The involvement of IL-17A in the murine response to sub-lethal inhalational infection with Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Markel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is an intercellular bacterium often causing fatal disease when inhaled. Previous reports have underlined the role of cell-mediated immunity and IFNgamma in the host response to Francisella tularensis infection.Here we provide evidence for the involvement of IL-17A in host defense to inhalational tularemia, using a mouse model of intranasal infection with the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS. We demonstrate the kinetics of IL-17A production in lavage fluids of infected lungs and identify the IL-17A-producing lymphocytes as pulmonary gammadelta and Th17 cells. The peak of IL-17A production appears early during sub-lethal infection, it precedes the peak of immune activation and the nadir of the disease, and then subsides subsequently. Exogenous airway administration of IL-17A or of IL-23 had a limited yet consistent effect of delaying the onset of death from a lethal dose of LVS, implying that IL-17A may be involved in restraining the infection. The protective role for IL-17A was directly demonstrated by in vivo neutralization of IL-17A. Administration of anti IL-17A antibodies concomitantly to a sub-lethal airway infection with 0.1xLD(50 resulted in a fatal disease.In summary, these data characterize the involvement and underline the protective key role of the IL-17A axis in the lungs from inhalational tularemia.

  10. Indigenous Infection with Francisella tularensis holarctica in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulos Maraha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first case of indigenous tularemia detected in The Netherlands, a nonendemic country, since 1953. Whole genome DNA sequence analysis assigned the isolate BD11-00177 to the genomic group B.FTNF002-00, which previously has been exclusively reported from Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. The patient had not been abroad for years, which implies that this is an indigenous infection. The current case might predict an upcoming distribution of Francisella tularensis holarctica genomic group B.FTNF002-00 in Europe.

  11. Performing Belonging, celebrating invisibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Serbian migrants living transnational lives consciously or unconsciously move between visibility and invisibility in their performance of migrant success stories. A case in point are public festivals, performed to make visible migrants’ successful inclusion in Danish society, i.e. celebrating...... invisibility. Meanwhile, other celebrations are consciously relegated to the invisible confines of the Serbian homeland. This article analyses celebrations in Denmark and in Serbia and shows how visible displays of ethnicity and difference tend to turn into easily palatable heritage versions of Serbian culture...... when performed in a Danish context. In turn, the visibility acquired through celebrations of migrants’ belonging in their homeland is inclined to render invisible those who did not take part in the migration experience....

  12. The power of belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjøtterud Sigrid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coming from a Nordic environment, professionally working in teacher education, both authors engaged in developmental work and research in the Uluguru mountains in Tanzania. The research is carried out in a community-based organization for vulnerable youth, Mgeta Orphan Education Foundation (MOEF, which builds on principles of action learning and action research. We have followed and participated in the development of the organization since 2010, and this article builds on data gathered in 2016-17. We will show and discuss some of the transformations we have witnessed, mainly in the older members. The transformations seem to have an emergent character, and we examine further factors we have seen as crucial for transforming the lives of the young people in the orphan education project. Surprisingly, duty was a factor coming forth in the data. The youth perceived duty in a relational way, mainly caused by inner motivation nurtured by the example of their coordinator, Solomon, and by facing the continuous, emergent need for assistance in their local communities. Less surprisingly, belonging transpired as a fundamental factor. Previously, we have analyzed the transformational learning among the youngsters, and identified a set of transformational tools (Gjotterud, Krogh, Dyngeland, & Mwakasumba, 2015. Building on the transformational tools, we have derived a model for Relational Transformation. Transformative action research is the approach we follow, and one aim of this article is to contribute to the understanding of the reciprocity of transformative processes in transformative research.

  13. Characterization of a Francisella tularensis-Caenorhabditis elegans Pathosystem for the Evaluation of Therapeutic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Jayamani, Elamparithi; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Kim, Wooseong; Okoli, Ikechukwu; Hernandez, Ana M.; Lee, Kiho; Nau, Gerard J.; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia. Because of its potential as a bioterrorism agent, there is a need for new therapeutic agents. We therefore developed a whole-animal Caenorhabditis elegans-F. tularensis pathosystem for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize potential therapeutic compounds. We found that the C. elegans p38 mitogen-activate protein (MAP) kinase cascade is involved in the immune response to F...

  14. Molecular evolutionary consequences of niche restriction in Francisella tularensis, a facultative intracellular pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Larsson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a potent mammalian pathogen well adapted to intracellular habitats, whereas F. novicida and F. philomiragia are less virulent in mammals and appear to have less specialized lifecycles. We explored adaptations within the genus that may be linked to increased host association, as follows. First, we determined the genome sequence of F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica, the only subspecies that had not been previously sequenced. This genome, and those of 12 other F. tularensis isolates, were then compared to the genomes of F. novicida (three isolates and F. philomiragia (one isolate. Signs of homologous recombination were found in approximately 19.2% of F. novicida and F. philomiragia genes, but none among F. tularensis genomes. In addition, random insertions of insertion sequence elements appear to have provided raw materials for secondary adaptive mutations in F. tularensis, e.g. for duplication of the Francisella Pathogenicity Island and multiplication of a putative glycosyl transferase gene. Further, the five major genetic branches of F. tularensis seem to have converged along independent routes towards a common gene set via independent losses of gene functions. Our observations suggest that despite an average nucleotide identity of >97%, F. tularensis and F. novicida have evolved as two distinct population lineages, the former characterized by clonal structure with weak purifying selection, the latter by more frequent recombination and strong purifying selection. F. tularensis and F. novicida could be considered the same bacterial species, given their high similarity, but based on the evolutionary analyses described in this work we propose retaining separate species names.

  15. From the Outside-In: the Francisella tularensis Envelope and Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M. Rowe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly-infectious bacterium that causes the rapid, and often lethal disease, tularemia. Many studies have been performed to identify and characterize the virulence factors that F. tularensis uses to infect a wide variety of hosts and host cell types, evade immune defenses, and induce severe disease and death. This review focuses on the virulence factors that are present in the F. tularensis envelope, including capsule, LPS, outer membrane, periplasm, inner membrane, secretion systems, and various molecules in each of aforementioned sub-compartments. Whereas no single bacterial molecule or molecular complex single-handedly controls F. tularensis virulence, we review here how diverse bacterial systems work in conjunction to subvert the immune system, attach to and invade host cells, alter phagosome/lysosome maturation pathways, replicate in host cells without being detected, inhibit apoptosis, and induce host cell death for bacterial release and infection of adjacent cells. Given that the F. tularensis envelope is the outermost layer of the bacterium, we highlight herein how many of these molecules directly interact with the host to promote infection and disease. These and future envelope studies are important to advance our collective understanding of F. tularensis virulence mechanisms and offer targets for future vaccine development efforts.

  16. How to Understand Custodial Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Game

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Debates about ecological responsibility are interested in different forms of belonging. This article develops an understanding of a custodial form of belonging based on the logic of relation, which we distinguish from a proprietorial form of belonging based on the logic of identity. Theorists working on questions of belonging use a language of custodianship when describing a sense of responsibility and care that arises through connection or relation. We argue, however, that the full significance of custodial belonging cannot be appreciated when understandings of connection are derived from within the terms of identity logic. In other words, when belonging is understood in terms of identity and identification, custodianship is inadvertently reduced to a proprietorial form of responsibility and care. We develop this argument by addressing Australian research on custodial belonging. Focusing on the influential work of Deborah Bird Rose, we argue that there are tensions between, on the one hand, her attempts to recognise connected forms of belonging, and, on the other, her conceptual reliance on the assumptions of identity logic. Our primary concern here is to indicate relational possibilities in her work precluded by the language of identity. In particular, we suggest that the concept of ecological being allows for a specificity and inclusiveness that are not recognised by Rose’s concept of the ‘ecologically emplaced self’.

  17. MiR-155 induction by F. novicida but not the virulent F. tularensis results in SHIP down-regulation and enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Cremer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularemia and is known for its ability to subvert host immune responses. Previous work from our laboratory identified the PI3K/Akt pathway and SHIP as critical modulators of host resistance to Francisella. Here, we show that SHIP expression is strongly down-regulated in monocytes and macrophages following infection with F. tularensis novicida (F.n.. To account for this negative regulation we explored the possibility that microRNAs (miRs that target SHIP may be induced during infection. There is one miR that is predicted to target SHIP, miR-155. We tested for induction and found that F.n. induced miR-155 both in primary monocytes/macrophages and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assays we confirmed that miR-155 led to down-regulation of SHIP, showing that it specifically targets the SHIP 3'UTR. Further experiments showed that miR-155 and BIC, the gene that encodes miR-155, were induced as early as four hours post-infection in primary human monocytes. This expression was dependent on TLR2/MyD88 and did not require inflammasome activation. Importantly, miR-155 positively regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine release in human monocytes infected with Francisella. In sharp contrast, we found that the highly virulent type A SCHU S4 strain of Francisella tularensis (F.t. led to a significantly lower miR-155 response than the less virulent F.n. Hence, F.n. induces miR-155 expression and leads to down-regulation of SHIP, resulting in enhanced pro-inflammatory responses. However, impaired miR-155 induction by SCHU S4 may help explain the lack of both SHIP down-regulation and pro-inflammatory response and may account for the virulence of Type A Francisella.

  18. Monitoring of Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Danish hares (Lepus europaeus) by fluorescent in-situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte

    . pseudotuberculosis has a wide host range and causes high mortality in hares. When it comes to zoonotic potential F. tularensis poses the major risk for humans, where it causes tularemia - a potentially deadly disease. FISH is an easy, cheap and not at least safe method for monitoring F. tularensis and Y...

  19. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis induces a unique pulmonary inflammatory response: role of bacterial gene expression in temporal regulation of host defense responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie-Anne Walters

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to Francisella tularensis is associated with severe lung pathology and a high mortality rate. The lack of induction of classical inflammatory mediators, including IL1-β and TNF-α, during early infection has led to the suggestion that F. tularensis evades detection by host innate immune surveillance and/or actively suppresses inflammation. To gain more insight into the host response to Francisella infection during the acute stage, transcriptomic analysis was performed on lung tissue from mice exposed to virulent (Francisella tularensis ssp tularensis SchuS4. Despite an extensive transcriptional response in the lungs of animals as early as 4 hrs post-exposure, Francisella tularensis was associated with an almost complete lack of induction of immune-related genes during the initial 24 hrs post-exposure. This broad subversion of innate immune responses was particularly evident when compared to the pulmonary inflammatory response induced by other lethal (Yersinia pestis and non-lethal (Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infections. However, the unique induction of a subset of inflammation-related genes suggests a role for dysregulation of lymphocyte function and anti-inflammatory pathways in the extreme virulence of Francisella. Subsequent activation of a classical inflammatory response 48 hrs post-exposure was associated with altered abundance of Francisella-specific transcripts, including those associated with bacterial surface components. In summary, virulent Francisella induces a unique pulmonary inflammatory response characterized by temporal regulation of innate immune pathways correlating with altered bacterial gene expression patterns. This study represents the first simultaneous measurement of both host and Francisella transcriptome changes that occur during in vivo infection and identifies potential bacterial virulence factors responsible for regulation of host inflammatory pathways.

  20. The orange spotted cockroach (Blaptica dubia, Serville 1839) is a permissive experimental host for Francisella tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Bridget E.; Mahdi, Osama; Huntley, Jason F.; Collins, Elliot; Martin, Caleb; Horzempa, Joseph; Fisher, Nathan A.

    2018-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic bacterial pathogen that causes severe disease in a wide range of host animals, including humans. Well-developed murine models of F. tularensis pathogenesis are available, but they do not meet the needs of all investigators. However, researchers are increasingly turning to insect host systems as a cost-effective alternative that allows greater increased experimental throughput without the regulatory requirements associated with the use of mammals in biomedical research. Unfortunately, the utility of previously-described insect hosts is limited because of temperature restriction, short lifespans, and concerns about the immunological status of insects mass-produced for other purposes. Here, we present a novel host species, the orange spotted (OS) cockroach (Blaptica dubia), that overcomes these limitations and is readily infected by F. tularensis. Intrahemocoel inoculation was accomplished using standard laboratory equipment and lethality was directly proportional to the number of bacteria injected. Progression of infection differed in insects housed at low and high temperatures and F. tularensis mutants lacking key virulence components were attenuated in OS cockroaches. Finally, antibiotics were delivered to infected OS cockroaches by systemic injection and controlled feeding; in the latter case, protection correlated with oral bioavailability in mammals. Collectively, these results demonstrate that this new host system provides investigators with a new tool capable of interrogating F. tularensis virulence and immune evasion in situations where mammalian models are not available or appropriate, such as undirected screens of large mutant libraries. PMID:29578544

  1. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. Strain Ep R1 Isolated from Echinacea purpurea Roots and Effective in the Growth Inhibition of Human Opportunistic Pathogens Belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Valentina; Presta, Luana; Miceli, Elisangela; Fondi, Marco; Bosi, Emanuele; Chiellini, Carolina; Fagorzi, Camilla; Bogani, Patrizia; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Perrin, Elena; Fani, Renato

    2017-05-18

    In this announcement, we detail the draft genome sequence of the Pseudomonas sp. strain Ep R1, isolated from the roots of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea The elucidation of this genome sequence may allow the identification of genes associated with the production of antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2017 Maggini et al.

  3. Francisella tularensis detection using magnetic labels and a magnetic biosensor based on frequency mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Martin H.F.; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Hartmann, Markus; Miethe, Peter; Oster, Juergen; Keusgen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A biosensor that uses resonant coils with a special frequency-mixing technique and magnetic beads as detectable labels has been established for the detection of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent for tularemia. The detection principle is based on a sandwich immunoassay using an anti-Ft antibody for immunofiltration immobilized to ABICAP[reg] polyethylene filters, and biotinylated with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads as labels. The linear detection range of this biosensor was found to be 10 4 -10 6 cfu F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per ml. Tested sample matrices were physiological PBS buffer and rabbit serum

  4. Francisella tularensis detection using magnetic labels and a magnetic biosensor based on frequency mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Martin H.F. [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Krause, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Bio-and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Center Juelich (Germany); Hartmann, Markus [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Miethe, Peter [SENOVA GmbH, Jena (Germany); Oster, Juergen [chemagen GmbH, Baesweiler (Germany); Keusgen, Michael [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany)]. E-mail: Keusgen@staff.uni-marburg.de

    2007-04-15

    A biosensor that uses resonant coils with a special frequency-mixing technique and magnetic beads as detectable labels has been established for the detection of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent for tularemia. The detection principle is based on a sandwich immunoassay using an anti-Ft antibody for immunofiltration immobilized to ABICAP[reg] polyethylene filters, and biotinylated with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads as labels. The linear detection range of this biosensor was found to be 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} cfu F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per ml. Tested sample matrices were physiological PBS buffer and rabbit serum.

  5. Population Genomics of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica and its Implication on the Eco-Epidemiology of Tularemia in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Matthias; Altpeter, Ekkehard; Pilo, Paola; Gygli, Sebastian M; Beuret, Christian; Foucault, Frederic; Ackermann-Gäumann, Rahel; Karrer, Urs; Jacob, Daniela; Grunow, Roland; Schürch, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) methods provide new possibilities in the field of molecular epidemiology. This is particularly true for monomorphic organisms where the discriminatory power of traditional methods (e.g., restriction enzyme length polymorphism typing, multi locus sequence typing etc.) is inadequate to elucidate complex disease transmission patterns, as well as resolving the phylogeny at high resolution on a micro-geographic scale. In this study, we present insights into the population structure of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica , the causative agent of tularemia in Switzerland. A total of 59 Fth isolates were obtained from castor bean ticks ( Ixodes ricinus) , animals and humans and a high resolution phylogeny was inferred using WGS methods. The majority of the Fth population in Switzerland belongs to the west European B.11 clade and shows an extraordinary genetic diversity underlining the old evolutionary history of the pathogen in the alpine region. Moreover, a new B.11 subclade was identified which was not described so far. The combined analysis of the epidemiological data of human tularemia cases with the whole genome sequences of the 59 isolates provide evidence that ticks play a pivotal role in transmitting Fth to humans and other vertebrates in Switzerland. This is further underlined by the correlation of disease risk estimates with climatic and ecological factors influencing the survival of ticks.

  6. Population Genomics of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica and its Implication on the Eco-Epidemiology of Tularemia in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Matthias; Altpeter, Ekkehard; Pilo, Paola; Gygli, Sebastian M.; Beuret, Christian; Foucault, Frederic; Ackermann-Gäumann, Rahel; Karrer, Urs; Jacob, Daniela; Grunow, Roland; Schürch, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) methods provide new possibilities in the field of molecular epidemiology. This is particularly true for monomorphic organisms where the discriminatory power of traditional methods (e.g., restriction enzyme length polymorphism typing, multi locus sequence typing etc.) is inadequate to elucidate complex disease transmission patterns, as well as resolving the phylogeny at high resolution on a micro-geographic scale. In this study, we present insights into the population structure of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, the causative agent of tularemia in Switzerland. A total of 59 Fth isolates were obtained from castor bean ticks (Ixodes ricinus), animals and humans and a high resolution phylogeny was inferred using WGS methods. The majority of the Fth population in Switzerland belongs to the west European B.11 clade and shows an extraordinary genetic diversity underlining the old evolutionary history of the pathogen in the alpine region. Moreover, a new B.11 subclade was identified which was not described so far. The combined analysis of the epidemiological data of human tularemia cases with the whole genome sequences of the 59 isolates provide evidence that ticks play a pivotal role in transmitting Fth to humans and other vertebrates in Switzerland. This is further underlined by the correlation of disease risk estimates with climatic and ecological factors influencing the survival of ticks. PMID:29623260

  7. Local community, mobility and belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anja; Arp Fallov, Mia; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2011-01-01

    ,recent developments in the understandings of mobility and local communities,and presents different theoretical views on local belonging.These questions highlight the necessity to discuss and investigate two overall narratives in social theory about the connection between space and social relations.Namely,1...

  8. Tick salivary gland extract accelerates proliferation of Francisella tularensis in the host

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kročová, Z.; Macela, A.; Hernychová, L.; Kroča, M.; Pechová, Jitka; Kopecký, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2003), s. 14-20 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0901; GA MZd NI4700 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : salivary gland extract * tick * Francisella tularensis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.137, year: 2003

  9. A combined enrichment and aptamer pulldown assay for francisella tularensis detection in food and environmental matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Elise A.; Wang, Ping; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Borewicz, Klaudyna; Abdallah, Ahmed; Isaacson, Richard E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Kourentzi, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative bacterium and causative agent of tularemia, is categorized as a Class A select agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention due to its ease of dissemination and ability to cause disease. Oropharyngeal and gastrointestinal tularemia may occur due

  10. Phylogeographical pattern of Francisella tularensis in a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia in Norway, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afset, J E; Larssen, K W; Bergh, K; Larkeryd, A; Sjodin, A; Johansson, A; Forsman, M

    2015-05-14

    In 2011, a nationwide outbreak of tularaemia occurred in Norway with 180 recorded cases. It was associated with the largest peak in lemming density seen in 40 years. Francisella tularensis was isolated from 18 patients. To study the geographical distribution of F.tularensis genotypes in Norway and correlate genotype with epidemiology and clinical presentation,we performed whole genome sequencing of patient isolates. All 18 genomes from the outbreak carried genetic signatures of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica and were assigned to genetic clades using canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms. Ten isolates were assigned to major genetic clade B.6 (subclade B.7),seven to clade B.12, and one to clade B.4. The B.6 subclade B.7 was most common in southern and central Norway, while clade B.12 was evenly distributed between the southern, central and northern parts of the country. There was no association between genotype and clinical presentation of tularaemia, time of year or specimen type. We found extensive sequence similarity with F. tularensis subsp. holarctica genomes from high-endemic tularaemia areas in Sweden.Finding nearly identical genomes across large geographical distances in Norway and Sweden imply a life cycle of the bacterium without replication between the outbreaks and raise new questions about long-range migration mechanisms.

  11. An outbreak of respiratory tularemia caused by diverse clones of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders; Lärkeryd, Adrian; Widerström, Micael; Mörtberg, Sara; Myrtännäs, Kerstin; Ohrman, Caroline; Birdsell, Dawn; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Pär

    2014-12-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is recognized for its virulence, infectivity, genetic homogeneity, and potential as a bioterrorism agent. Outbreaks of respiratory tularemia, caused by inhalation of this bacterium, are poorly understood. Such outbreaks are exceedingly rare, and F. tularensis is seldom recovered from clinical specimens. A localized outbreak of tularemia in Sweden was investigated. Sixty-seven humans contracted laboratory-verified respiratory tularemia. F. tularensis subspecies holarctica was isolated from the blood or pleural fluid of 10 individuals from July to September 2010. Using whole-genome sequencing and analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), outbreak isolates were compared with 110 archived global isolates. There were 757 SNPs among the genomes of the 10 outbreak isolates and the 25 most closely related archival isolates (all from Sweden/Finland). Whole genomes of outbreak isolates were >99.9% similar at the nucleotide level and clustered into 3 distinct genetic clades. Unexpectedly, high-sequence similarity grouped some outbreak and archival isolates that originated from patients from different geographic regions and up to 10 years apart. Outbreak and archival genomes frequently differed by only 1-3 of 1 585 229 examined nucleotides. The outbreak was caused by diverse clones of F. tularensis that occurred concomitantly, were widespread, and apparently persisted in the environment. Multiple independent acquisitions of F. tularensis from the environment over a short time period suggest that natural outbreaks of respiratory tularemia are triggered by environmental cues. The findings additionally caution against interpreting genome sequence identity for this pathogen as proof of a direct epidemiological link. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Transnational Connections and Multiple Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    With the purpose of presenting DIMECCE key findings, we in this paper present different aspects, potentials and challenges related to the Middle Eastern Christians transnational connections and multiple belonging. We distinguish between individual transnational connections and practices, such as ......, such as family relations, churches as transnational – or global – institutions, and other organisations and associations established to support politically, socially or culturally connections and development in the country or region of origin....

  13. Inactivation of Francisella tularensis Gene Encoding Putative ABC Transporter Has a Pleiotropic Effect upon Production of Various Glycoconjugates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daňková, V.; Balonová, L.; Link, M.; Strašková, Adéla; Sheshko, V .; Stulík, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2016), s. 510-524 ISSN 1535-3893 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Francisella tularensis * glycosylation * lipopolysaccharide Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.268, year: 2016

  14. Serological evidence of Francisella tularensis in febrile patients seeking treatment at remote hospitals, northeastern Kenya, 2014–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Njeru

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tularaemia is a highly contagious infectious zoonosis caused by the bacterial agent Francisella tularensis. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies to F. tularensis in febrile patients in northeastern Kenya. During 2014–2015, 730 patients were screened for anti-F. tularensis antibodies using a combination of ELISA and Western blot. Twenty-seven (3.7% individuals were positive for F. tularensis. Tularaemia was not suspected by the treating clinicians in any of them. Our results suggest that tularaemia may be present in Kenya but remain unreported, and emphasizes the need for local clinicians to broaden their diagnostic repertoire when evaluating patients with undifferentiated febrile illness.

  15. Adaptation of Francisella tularensis to the Mammalian Environment Is Governed by Cues Which Can Be Mimicked In Vitro▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Hazlett, Karsten R. O.; Caldon, Seth D.; McArthur, Debbie G.; Cirillo, Kerry A.; Kirimanjeswara, Girish S.; Magguilli, Micheal L.; Malik, Meenakshi; Shah, Aaloki; Broderick, Scott; Golovliov, Igor; Metzger, Dennis W.; Rajan, Krishna; Sellati, Timothy J.; Loegering, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis survives in mammals, arthropods, and freshwater amoeba. It was previously established that the conventional media used for in vitro propagation of this microbe do not yield bacteria that mimic those harvested from infected mammals; whether these in vitro-cultivated bacteria resemble arthropod- or amoeba-adapted Francisella is unknown. As a foundation for our goal of identifying F. tularensis outer membrane proteins which are expressed during ...

  16. Re-emergence of tularemia in Germany: Presence of Francisella tularensis in different rodent species in endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeffer Martin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tularemia re-emerged in Germany starting in 2004 (with 39 human cases from 2004 to 2007 after over 40 years of only sporadic human infections. The reasons for this rise in case numbers are unknown as is the possible reservoir of the etiologic agent Francisella (F. tularensis. No systematic study on the reservoir situation of F. tularensis has been published for Germany so far. Methods We investigated three areas six to ten months after the initial tularemia outbreaks for the presence of F. tularensis among small mammals, ticks/fleas and water. The investigations consisted of animal live-trapping, serologic testing, screening by real-time-PCR and cultivation. Results A total of 386 small mammals were trapped. F. tularensis was detected in five different rodent species with carrier rates of 2.04, 6.94 and 10.87% per trapping area. None of the ticks or fleas (n = 432 tested positive for F. tularensis. We were able to demonstrate F. tularensis-specific DNA in one of 28 water samples taken in one of the outbreak areas. Conclusion The findings of our study stress the need for long-term surveillance of natural foci in order to get a better understanding of the reasons for the temporal and spatial patterns of tularemia in Germany.

  17. IL-23 p19 knockout mice exhibit minimal defects in responses to primary and secondary infection with Francisella tularensis LVS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L Kurtz

    Full Text Available Our laboratory's investigations into mechanisms of protective immunity against Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS have uncovered mediators important in host defense against primary infection, as well as those correlated with successful vaccination. One such potential correlate was IL-12p40, a pleiotropic cytokine that promotes Th1 T cell function as part of IL-12p70. LVS-infected IL-12p40 deficient knockout (KO mice maintain a chronic infection, but IL-12p35 KO mice clear LVS infection; thus the role that IL-12p40 plays in immunity to LVS is independent of the IL-12p70 heterodimer. IL-12p40 can also partner with IL-23p19 to create the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23. Here, we directly tested the role of IL-23 in LVS resistance, and found IL-23 to be largely dispensable for immunity to LVS following intradermal or intranasal infection. IL-23p19 KO splenocytes were fully competent in controlling intramacrophage LVS replication in an in vitro overlay assay. Further, antibody responses in IL-23p19 KO mice were similar to those of normal wild type mice after LVS infection. IL-23p19 KO mice or normal wild type mice that survived primary LVS infection survived maximal doses of LVS secondary challenge. Thus p40 has a novel role in clearance of LVS infection that is unrelated to either IL-12 or IL-23.

  18. Nasal Acai Polysaccharides Potentiate Innate Immunity to Protect against Pulmonary Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Skyberg, Jerod A.; Rollins, MaryClare F.; Holderness, Jeff S.; Marlenee, Nicole L.; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Goodyear, Andrew; Dow, Steven W.; Jutila, Mark A.; Pascual, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei infections are highly lethal in untreated patients, and current antibiotic regimens are not always effective. Activating the innate immune system provides an alternative means of treating infection and can also complement antibiotic therapies. Several natural agonists were screened for their ability to enhance host resistance to infection, and polysaccharides derived from the Acai berry (Acai PS) were found to have potent abilitie...

  19. Rapid Countermeasure Discovery against Francisella tularensis Based on a Metabolic Network Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    growth inhibition [13]. These modeling frameworks can also be used to identify synergistic effects that arise from combination therapies that inhibit...addition of the compound. Briefly, scrapings from F. tularensis Schu S4 in 25% glycerol stock were streaked onto a chocolate agar plate and incubated...at 37uC for 2 days until clearly formed colonies appeared. A single colony from the chocolate agar plate was used to inoculate 3 ml Chamberlain’s

  20. The human-bacterial pathogen protein interaction networks of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Dyer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis are bacterial pathogens that can cause anthrax, lethal acute pneumonic disease, and bubonic plague, respectively, and are listed as NIAID Category A priority pathogens for possible use as biological weapons. However, the interactions between human proteins and proteins in these bacteria remain poorly characterized leading to an incomplete understanding of their pathogenesis and mechanisms of immune evasion.In this study, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assay to identify physical interactions between human proteins and proteins from each of these three pathogens. From more than 250,000 screens performed, we identified 3,073 human-B. anthracis, 1,383 human-F. tularensis, and 4,059 human-Y. pestis protein-protein interactions including interactions involving 304 B. anthracis, 52 F. tularensis, and 330 Y. pestis proteins that are uncharacterized. Computational analysis revealed that pathogen proteins preferentially interact with human proteins that are hubs and bottlenecks in the human PPI network. In addition, we computed modules of human-pathogen PPIs that are conserved amongst the three networks. Functionally, such conserved modules reveal commonalities between how the different pathogens interact with crucial host pathways involved in inflammation and immunity.These data constitute the first extensive protein interaction networks constructed for bacterial pathogens and their human hosts. This study provides novel insights into host-pathogen interactions.

  1. Nonrandom distribution of vector ticks (Dermacentor variabilis infected by Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi K Goethert

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, is the site of a sustained outbreak of tularemia due to Francisella tularensis tularensis. Dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, appear to be critical in the perpetuation of the agent there. Tularemia has long been characterized as an agent of natural focality, stably persisting in characteristic sites of transmission, but this suggestion has never been rigorously tested. Accordingly, we sought to identify a natural focus of transmission of the agent of tularemia by mapping the distribution of PCR-positive ticks. From 2004 to 2007, questing D. variabilis were collected from 85 individual waypoints along a 1.5 km transect in a field site on Martha's Vineyard. The positions of PCR-positive ticks were then mapped using ArcGIS. Cluster analysis identified an area approximately 290 meters in diameter, 9 waypoints, that was significantly more likely to yield PCR-positive ticks (relative risk 3.3, P = 0.001 than the rest of the field site. Genotyping of F. tularensis using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis on PCR-positive ticks yielded 13 different haplotypes, the vast majority of which was one dominant haplotype. Positive ticks collected in the cluster were 3.4 times (relative risk = 3.4, P<0.0001 more likely to have an uncommon haplotype than those collected elsewhere from the transect. We conclude that we have identified a microfocus where the agent of tularemia stably perpetuates and that this area is where genetic diversity is generated.

  2. Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Test for Rapid and Reliable Serodiagnosis of Human Tularemia and Detection of Francisella tularensis-Specific Antibodies in Sera from Different Mammalian Species ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstoesser, W.; Guglielmo-Viret, V.; Seibold, E.; Thullier, P.

    2010-01-01

    Tularemia is a highly contagious infectious zoonosis caused by the bacterial agent Francisella tularensis. Serology is still considered to be a cornerstone in tularemia diagnosis due to the low sensitivity of bacterial culture and the lack of standardization in PCR methodology for the direct identification of the pathogen. We developed a novel immunochromatographic test (ICT) to efficiently detect F. tularensis-specific antibodies in sera from humans and other mammalian species (nonhuman primate, pig, and rabbit). This new tool requires none or minimal laboratory equipment, and the results are obtained within 15 min. When compared to the method of microagglutination, which was shown to be more specific than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the ICT had a sensitivity of 98.3% (58 positive sera were tested) and a specificity of 96.5% (58 negative sera were tested) on human sera. On animal sera, the overall sensitivity was 100% (22 positive sera were tested) and specificity was also 100% (70 negative sera were tested). This rapid test preferentially detects IgG antibodies that may occur early in the course of human tularemia, but further evaluation with human sera is important to prove that the ICT can be a valuable field test to support a presumptive diagnosis of tularemia. The ICT can also be a useful tool to monitor successful vaccination with subunit vaccines or live vaccine strains containing lipopolysaccharide (e.g., LVS) and to detect seropositive individuals or animals in outbreak situations or in the context of epidemiologic surveillance programs in areas of endemicity as recently recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:20220165

  3. Detection of Francisella tularensis-Specific Antibodies in Patients with Tularemia by a Novel Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Fujita, Osamu; Uda, Akihiko; Morikawa, Shigeru; Yamada, Akio

    2013-01-01

    A novel competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed and evaluated for detection of antibodies against Francisella tularensis in humans. The assay is based on the ability of serum antibodies to inhibit the binding of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide antigens. The assay was evaluated using serum samples of tularemia patients, inactivated F. tularensis-immunized rabbits, and F. tularensis-infected mice. Antibodies against F. tularensis were successfully detected in serum samples of tularemia patients as well as the immunized and infected animals. The cELISA method was compared to indirect ELISA (iELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination test (MA) using serum samples of 19 tularemia patients and 50 healthy individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of cELISA were 93.9 and 96.1%, respectively, in comparison to the iELISA. MA was less sensitive than cELISA with a sensitivity and specificity of only 81.8 and 98.0%, respectively. A high degree of correlation (R2 = 0.8226) was observed between cELISA and iELISA results. The novel cELISA developed in this study appears to be highly sensitive and specific for serodiagnosis of human tularemia. The potential of the MAb-based cELISA to be used in both human and animal samples emphasizes its usefulness for serological survey of tularemia among multiple animal species. PMID:23114700

  4. Automated microfluidically controlled electrochemical biosensor for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Samuel B; Gransee, Rainer; Julich, Sandra; Tomaso, Herbert; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2014-09-15

    Tularemia is a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by a Gram-negative coccoid rod bacterium, Francisella tularensis. Tularemia is considered as a life-threatening potential biological warfare agent due to its high virulence, transmission, mortality and simplicity of cultivation. In the work reported here, different electrochemical immunosensor formats for the detection of whole F. tularensis bacteria were developed and their performance compared. An anti-Francisella antibody (FB11) was used for the detection that recognises the lipopolysaccharide found in the outer membrane of the bacteria. In the first approach, gold-supported self-assembled monolayers of a carboxyl terminated bipodal alkanethiol were used to covalently cross-link with the FB11 antibody. In an alternative second approach F(ab) fragments of the FB11 antibody were generated and directly chemisorbed onto the gold electrode surface. The second approach resulted in an increased capture efficiency and higher sensitivity. Detection limits of 4.5 ng/mL for the lipopolysaccharide antigen and 31 bacteria/mL for the F. tularensis bacteria were achieved. Having demonstrated the functionality of the immunosensor, an electrode array was functionalised with the antibody fragment and integrated with microfluidics and housed in a tester set-up that facilitated complete automation of the assay. The only end-user intervention is sample addition, requiring less than one-minute hands-on time. The use of the automated microfluidic set-up not only required much lower reagent volumes but also the required incubation time was considerably reduced and a notable increase of 3-fold in assay sensitivity was achieved with a total assay time from sample addition to read-out of less than 20 min. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Francisella tularensis: No Evidence for Transovarial Transmission in the Tularemia Tick Vectors Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Marco; Prati, Paola; Vicari, Nadia; Manfredini, Andrea; Sacchi, Luciano; Clementi, Emanuela; Bandi, Claudio; Epis, Sara; Fabbi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious Gram-negative coccobacillus. Due to easy dissemination, multiple routes of infection, high environmental contamination and morbidity and mortality rates, Francisella is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and classified as a category A select agent by the CDC. Tick bites are among the most prevalent modes of transmission, and ticks have been indicated as a possible reservoir, although their reservoir competence has yet to be defined. Tick-borne transmission of F. tularensis was recognized in 1923, and transstadial transmission has been demonstrated in several tick species. Studies on transovarial transmission, however, have reported conflicting results. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ticks as reservoirs for Francisella, assessing the transovarial transmission of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in ticks, using experimentally-infected females of Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus. Results Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed F. tularensis within oocytes. However, cultures and bioassays of eggs and larvae were negative; in addition, microscopy techniques revealed bacterial degeneration/death in the oocytes. Conclusions These results suggest that bacterial death might occur in oocytes, preventing the transovarial transmission of Francisella. We can speculate that Francisella does not have a defined reservoir, but that rather various biological niches (e.g. ticks, rodents), that allow the bacterium to persist in the environment. Our results, suggesting that ticks are not competent for the bacterium vertical transmission, are congruent with this view. PMID:26244842

  6. Francisella tularensis: No Evidence for Transovarial Transmission in the Tularemia Tick Vectors Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Genchi

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the Francisella tularensis, a highly infectious Gram-negative coccobacillus. Due to easy dissemination, multiple routes of infection, high environmental contamination and morbidity and mortality rates, Francisella is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and classified as a category A select agent by the CDC. Tick bites are among the most prevalent modes of transmission, and ticks have been indicated as a possible reservoir, although their reservoir competence has yet to be defined. Tick-borne transmission of F. tularensis was recognized in 1923, and transstadial transmission has been demonstrated in several tick species. Studies on transovarial transmission, however, have reported conflicting results.The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ticks as reservoirs for Francisella, assessing the transovarial transmission of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in ticks, using experimentally-infected females of Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus.Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed F. tularensis within oocytes. However, cultures and bioassays of eggs and larvae were negative; in addition, microscopy techniques revealed bacterial degeneration/death in the oocytes.These results suggest that bacterial death might occur in oocytes, preventing the transovarial transmission of Francisella. We can speculate that Francisella does not have a defined reservoir, but that rather various biological niches (e.g. ticks, rodents, that allow the bacterium to persist in the environment. Our results, suggesting that ticks are not competent for the bacterium vertical transmission, are congruent with this view.

  7. The Multiple Localized Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Contributes to the Attenuation of the Francisella tularensis dsbA Deletion Mutant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavkova, I.; Kopečková, M.; Klimentová, J.; Schmidt, M.; Sheshko, V.; Sobol, Margaryta; Žáková, J.; Hozák, Pavel; Stulík, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, zima (2017), č. článku 503. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : DsbA * SILAC * glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase * Francisella tularensis * moonlighting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  8. The Belonging to the University Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Omer; Cirak, Yuksel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a belonging to the university scale (BUS) in order to determine the level of fulfillment of the need to belong among university students at the higher education institutions they attend. The population of the investigation includes university students studying at the campus of Ordu University. A 5 point…

  9. Social Inclusion and Local Practices of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Social inclusion has been conceptualised as having two key aspects: distributional aspects relating to access to resources including employment, and relational aspects which concern the connections between people and the wider society. While both are important, the emphasis in Australian social inclusion policy has been on distributional aspects. This paper focuses on the relational aspects of social inclusion, and argues that it is critically important to include relational considerations in social inclusion policy. Central to the relational aspects of social inclusion is achieving a sense of belonging, particularly at the everyday, local level. Belonging in this everyday sense can be thought of as an ongoing project achieved through everyday practices, rather than solely in terms of membership of a group. While many such practices, for example regularly engaging in team sports, are accepted ways of establishing and maintaining belonging, for others in a community practices of belonging may necessitate disrupting or at least broadening the established norms of how one belongs. To ground this discussion of inclusion and belonging, this paper draws on practices of belonging in a regional community. Established norms of belonging are examined through the idea of ‘being a local’, a way of belonging that appears to be based on membership. The paper then turns to two local projects which disrupt the exclusive bounds of local membership and establish new and inclusive practices of belonging. To conclude, parallels are drawn between the boundaries which define ‘the social’ in social inclusion and ‘the local community’ in being a local, to argue for the importance of including relational aspects of social inclusion within social inclusion policy debates and program formulation.

  10. Mucosal immunization with live attenuated Francisella novicida U112ΔiglB protects against pulmonary F. tularensis SCHU S4 in the Fischer 344 rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L Signarovitz

    Full Text Available The need for an efficacious vaccine against Francisella tularensis is a consequence of its low infectious dose and high mortality rate if left untreated. This study sought to characterize a live attenuated subspecies novicida-based vaccine strain (U112ΔiglB in an established second rodent model of pulmonary tularemia, namely the Fischer 344 rat using two distinct routes of vaccination (intratracheal [i.t.] and oral. Attenuation was verified by comparing replication of U112ΔiglB with wild type parental strain U112 in F344 primary alveolar macrophages. U112ΔiglB exhibited an LD(50>10(7 CFU compared to the wild type (LD(50 = 5 × 10(6 CFU i.t.. Immunization with 10(7 CFU U112ΔiglB by i.t. and oral routes induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and potent humoral responses both systemically (IgG2a>IgG1 in serum and at the site of mucosal vaccination (respiratory/intestinal compartment. Importantly, vaccination with U112ΔiglB by either i.t. or oral routes provided equivalent levels of protection (50% survival in F344 rats against a subsequent pulmonary challenge with ~25 LD(50 (1.25 × 10(4 CFU of the highly human virulent strain SCHU S4. Collectively, these results provide further evidence on the utility of a mucosal vaccination platform with a defined subsp. novicida U112ΔiglB vaccine strain in conferring protective immunity against pulmonary tularemia.

  11. FmvB: A Francisella tularensis Magnesium-Responsive Outer Membrane Protein that Plays a Role in Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Wu

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of the lethal disease tularemia. Despite decades of research, little is understood about why F. tularensis is so virulent. Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs are involved in various virulence processes, including protein secretion, host cell attachment, and intracellular survival. Many pathogenic bacteria require metals for intracellular survival and OMPs often play important roles in metal uptake. Previous studies identified three F. tularensis OMPs that play roles in iron acquisition. In this study, we examined two previously uncharacterized proteins, FTT0267 (named fmvA, for Francisella metal and virulence and FTT0602c (fmvB, which are homologs of the previously studied F. tularensis iron acquisition genes and are predicted OMPs. To study the potential roles of FmvA and FmvB in metal acquisition and virulence, we first examined fmvA and fmvB expression following pulmonary infection of mice, finding that fmvB was upregulated up to 5-fold during F. tularensis infection of mice. Despite sequence homology to previously-characterized iron-acquisition genes, FmvA and FmvB do not appear to be involved iron uptake, as neither fmvA nor fmvB were upregulated in iron-limiting media and neither ΔfmvA nor ΔfmvB exhibited growth defects in iron limitation. However, when other metals were examined in this study, magnesium-limitation significantly induced fmvB expression, ΔfmvB was found to express significantly higher levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in magnesium-limiting medium, and increased numbers of surface protrusions were observed on ΔfmvB in magnesium-limiting medium, compared to wild-type F. tularensis grown in magnesium-limiting medium. RNA sequencing analysis of ΔfmvB revealed the potential mechanism for increased LPS expression, as LPS synthesis genes kdtA and wbtA were significantly upregulated in ΔfmvB, compared with wild-type F. tularensis. To provide further evidence for the potential

  12. Complement Receptor 3-Mediated Inhibition of Inflammasome Priming by Ras GTPase-Activating Protein During Francisella tularensis Phagocytosis by Human Mononuclear Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ky V. Hoang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a remarkably infectious facultative intracellular bacterium of macrophages that causes tularemia. Early evasion of host immune responses contributes to the success of F. tularensis as a pathogen. F. tularensis entry into human monocytes and macrophages is mediated by the major phagocytic receptor, complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18. We recently determined that despite a significant increase in macrophage uptake following C3 opsonization of the virulent Type A F. tularensis spp. tularensis Schu S4, this phagocytic pathway results in limited pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Notably, MAP kinase/ERK activation is suppressed immediately during C3-opsonized Schu S4-CR3 phagocytosis. A mathematical model of CR3-TLR2 crosstalk predicted early involvement of Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP in immune suppression by CR3. Here, we link CR3-mediated uptake of opsonized Schu S4 by human monocytes and macrophages with inhibition of early signal 1 inflammasome activation, evidenced by limited caspase-1 cleavage and IL-18 release. This inhibition is due to increased RasGAP activity, leading to a reduction in the Ras-ERK signaling cascade upstream of the early inflammasome activation event. Thus, our data uncover a novel signaling pathway mediated by CR3 following engagement of opsonized virulent F. tularensis to limit inflammasome activation in human phagocytic cells, thereby contributing to evasion of the host innate immune system.

  13. About three cases of ulceroglandular tularemia, is this the re-emergence of Francisella tularensis in Belgium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, E; Van Eeckhoudt, S; Thissen, X; Ausselet, N; Fretin, D; Stefanescu, I; Glupczynski, Y; Delaere, B

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by Francisella tularensis that can be transmitted by several ways to human being and cause different clinical manifestations. We report three clinical cases of tularemia with ulceroglandular presentation in young males acquired during outdoor activities in Southern Belgium. Confirmation of the diagnosis was established by serology. Only three cases of tularemia have been reported in Belgium between 1950 and 2012 by the National Reference Laboratory CODA-CERVA (Ref Lab CODA-CERVA) but re-emergence of tularemia is established in several European countries and F. tularensis is also well known to be present in animal reservoirs and vectors in Belgium. The diagnosis of tularemia has to be considered in case of suggestive clinical presentation associated with epidemiological risk factors.

  14. Belonging and Unbelonging from an Intersectional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte

    2009-01-01

    lives and local communities. The three levels are explained and illustrated with empirical examples from a Nordic context, all based on the perspective of intersectionality between gender, class, race, and ethnicity. Finally, the article discusses some challenges for further research on belonging...

  15. Refugee youth, belonging and community sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines community sport as a site where refugee youth negotiate belonging, which is conceptualised as a dynamic dialectic of ‘seeking’ and ‘granting’. Drawing on three years of ethnographic fieldwork among Somali Australian youth at community football (soccer) clubs in Melbourne, the

  16. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…

  17. The Need of Belonging and Sense of Belonging versus Effectiveness of Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczyńska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the dependence between the need for and sense of belonging and symptoms of depression vs. one’s capacity to cope effectively. Using path analysis of our data (N = 178, we found direct patterns, in which both depression symptoms and life satisfaction depend to a considerable degree on the sense of belonging. The belonging need influences, in a direct way, the coping focused on the search for social support. Undertaking active techniques of coping, including confrontation with a stressful situation and its negative controlling impact, depends on having a high level of the sense of belonging. In contrast, individuals who cope by means of taking psychoactive drugs show the symptoms of depression.

  18. A Conceptual Shift in Studies of Belonging and the Politics of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Youkhana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of belonging, its underlying notions, and the politics of belonging shows that social, political, and territorial demarcations are still based on essentialist conceptions of the collective. These are often applied and reproduced in the social sciences as a result of methodological nationalism. Space-sensitive studies of migration and globalization and a return to the material have recently challenged social constructivist lines of argumentation and have provoked a conceptual shift from analytical categories with inherent spatiality, territoriality, and boundary marking to concepts based on movement and flow. In this paper the analysis of belonging and the related politics of belonging in migration studies incorporates space as an analytical category that cross-cuts established categorizations such as race, class, gender, and stage in the life cycle, and integrates a material semiotic perspective more systematically into the study of social relations at the intersection of the social categories mentioned. A new concept of belonging is defined which reflects the complex relations that individuals have with other people, circulating objects, artefacts, and changing social, political, and cultural landscapes, thus mirroring both the material conditions and the underlying power relations. Such an understanding of belonging proceeds from social naturalizations and fixations to the multiplicity and situatedness of individual attachments, which entangle social, imagined, and sensual-material relations that are constantly re-articulated and re-negotiated by actors in their day-to-day practices. In such a reading, belonging comes into being as a result of individual life stories, versatile contexts, and situated experiences and acts. In times of constant exchange through travel, mass media, and communication technologies, the conceptualization of belonging questions established sociocultural and political demarcations, indicates the

  19. Downmodulation of Vaccine-Induced Immunity and Protection against the Intracellular Bacterium Francisella tularensis by the Inhibitory Receptor FcγRIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Franz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fc gamma receptor IIB (FcγRIIB is the only Fc gamma receptor (FcγR which negatively regulates the immune response, when engaged by antigen- (Ag- antibody (Ab complexes. Thus, the generation of Ag-specific IgG in response to infection or immunization has the potential to downmodulate immune protection against infection. Therefore, we sought to determine the impact of FcγRIIB on immune protection against Francisella tularensis (Ft, a Category A biothreat agent. We utilized inactivated Ft (iFt as an immunogen. Naïve and iFt-immunized FcγRIIB knockout (KO or wildtype (WT mice were challenged with Ft-live vaccine strain (LVS. While no significant difference in survival between naïve FcγRIIB KO versus WT mice was observed, iFt-immunized FcγRIIB KO mice were significantly better protected than iFt-immunized WT mice. Ft-specific IgA in serum and bronchial alveolar lavage, as well as IFN-γ, IL-10, and TNF-α production by splenocytes harvested from iFt-immunized FcγRIIB KO, were also significantly elevated. In addition, iFt-immunized FcγRIIB KO mice exhibited a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine levels in vivo at 5 days after challenge, which correlates with increased survival following Ft-LVS challenge in published studies. Thus, these studies demonstrate for the first time the ability of FcγRIIB to regulate vaccine-induced IgA production and downmodulate immunity and protection. The immune mechanisms behind the above observations and their potential impact on vaccine development are discussed.

  20. Evidence Suggesting That Francisella tularensis O-Antigen Capsule Contains a Lipid A-Like Molecule That Is Structurally Distinct from the More Abundant Free Lipid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Barker

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, the Gram-negative bacterium that causes tularemia, produces a high molecular weight capsule that is immunologically distinct from Francisella lipopolysaccharide but contains the same O-antigen tetrasaccharide. To pursue the possibility that the capsule of Francisella live vaccine strain (LVS has a structurally unique lipid anchor, we have metabolically labeled Francisella with [14C]acetate to facilitate highly sensitive compositional analysis of capsule-associated lipids. Capsule was purified by two independent methods and yielded similar results. Autoradiographic and immunologic analysis confirmed that this purified material was largely devoid of low molecular weight LPS and of the copious amounts of free lipid A that the Francisellae accumulate. Chemical hydrolysis yielded [14C]-labeled free fatty acids characteristic of Francisella lipid A but with a different molar ratio of 3-OH C18:0 to 3-OH C16:0 and different composition of non-hydroxylated fatty acids (mainly C14:0 rather than C16:0 than that of free Francisella lipid A. Mild acid hydrolysis to induce selective cleavage of KDO-lipid A linkage yielded a [14C]-labeled product that partitioned during Bligh/Dyer extraction and migrated during thin-layer chromatography like lipid A. These findings suggest that the O-antigen capsule of Francisella contains a covalently linked and structurally distinct lipid A species. The presence of a discrete lipid A-like molecule associated with capsule raises the possibility that Francisella selectively exploits lipid A structural heterogeneity to regulate synthesis, transport, and stable bacterial surface association of the O-antigen capsular layer.

  1. Structure of the Francisella tularensis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) in complex with NAD+ and triclosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehboob, Shahila; Truong, Kent; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Johnson, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Structure of the ternary complex of F. tularensis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase reveals the structure of the substrate binding loop whose electron density was missing in an earlier structure, and demonstrates a shift in the position of the NAD + cofactor. Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) catalyzes the last rate-limiting step in the elongation cycle of the fatty-acid biosynthesis pathway and has been validated as a potential antimicrobial drug target in Francisella tularensis. The development of new antibiotic therapies is important both to combat potential drug-resistant bioweapons and to address the broader societal problem of increasing antibiotic resistance among many pathogenic bacteria. The crystal structure of FabI from F. tularensis (FtuFabI) in complex with the inhibitor triclosan and the cofactor NAD + has been solved to a resolution of 2.1 Å. Triclosan is known to effectively inhibit FabI from different organisms. Precise characterization of the mode of triclosan binding is required to develop highly specific inhibitors. Comparison of our structure with the previously determined FtuFabI structure which is bound to only NAD + reveals the conformation of the substrate-binding loop, electron density for which was missing in the earlier structure, and demonstrates a shift in the conformation of the NAD + cofactor. This shift in the position of the phosphate groups allows more room in the active site for substrate or inhibitor to bind and be better accommodated. This information will be crucial for virtual screening studies to identify novel scaffolds for development into new active inhibitors

  2. Historical distribution and host-vector diversity of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Jake; Kracalik, Ian T; Vydayko, Nataliya; Goodin, Douglas; Glass, Gregory; Blackburn, Jason K

    2014-10-16

    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a zoonotic agent that remains across much of the northern hemisphere, where it exists in enzootic cycles. In Ukraine, tularemia has a long history that suggests a need for sustained surveillance in natural foci. To better characterize the host-vector diversity and spatial distribution of tularemia, we analyzed historical data from field collections carried out from 1941 to 2008. We analyzed the spatial-temporal distribution of bacterial isolates collected from field samples. Isolates were characterized by source and dominant land cover type. To identify environmental persistence and spatial variation in the source of isolation, we used the space-time permutation and multinomial models in SaTScan. A total of 3,086 positive isolates were taken from 1,084 geographic locations. Isolation of F. tularensis was more frequent among arthropods [n = 2,045 (66.3%)] followed by mammals [n = 619 (20.1%)], water [n = 393 (12.7%)], and farm produce [n = 29 (0.94%)], respectively. Four areas of persistent bacterial isolation were identified. Water and farm produce as sources of bacterial isolation were clustered. Our findings confirm the presence of long-standing natural foci of F. tularensis in Ukraine. Given the history of tularemia as well as its environmental persistence there exists a possibility of (re)emergence in human populations. Heterogeneity in the distribution of tularemia isolate recovery related to land cover type supports the theory of natural nidality and clusters identify areas to target potential sources of the pathogen and improve surveillance.

  3. Environmental Monitoring and Surveillance of Rodents and Vectors for Francisella tularensis Following Outbreaks of Human Tularemia in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashvili, Eka; Kracalik, Ian; Burjanadze, Irma; Datukishvili, Sophio; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Beridze, Levan; Shavishvili, Merab; Dzneladze, Archil; Grdzelidze, Marina; Imnadze, Paata; Pearson, Andrew; Blackburn, Jason K

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia is a re-emerging bacterial zoonosis, broadly distributed across the northern hemisphere. In Georgia, there is a history of human tularemia outbreaks dating back to the 1940s. In response to outbreaks, health officials initiated long-term field surveillance and environmental monitoring. The objective of our study was to obtain information from 57 years of field surveys to identify species that play a role in the occurrence Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica in the environment in Georgia. We collected historical data on human outbreaks, field collections, population dynamics of the common vole (Microtus arvalis), and conducted surveys on small mammals and vectors from five regions in Georgia during 1956-2012. Bacterial isolation was conducted using standard culturing techniques, and isolation rates for species were obtained for a subset of years. We used a Spearman rank correlation to test for associations between the density of the common vole and isolation rates. From 1956 through 2012, there were four recorded outbreaks of human tularemia (362 cases). A total of 465 bacterial isolates of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica were obtained from 27 species and environmental samples. The number of isolations was highest in the common vole (M. arvalis; 149 isolates; 32%) and Dermacentor marginatus ticks (132 isolates; 28%); isolation rates ranged between 0-0.91% and 0-0.47%, respectively. Population dynamics of the common vole were not correlated with the isolation rate. Given the history of tularemia re-emergence in Georgia, continued field surveys and environmental monitoring may provide an early indication of outbreak risk in humans. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of long-standing foci of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica that are likely maintained by the common vole-tick cycle.

  4. Health and nomadism: territory and belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Hillesheim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how territory and linking notions articulate with the health field in Brazil, in view of the relations that are established between health staff and certain social groups who see in the movement a logic of life, survival and resistance: the nomads. The concept of territory is an important organizer of Brazilian’s public policies, and is closely related to inclusion. The data were collected through participant observation of the daily work of two teams of Family Health Strategy, in a medium-sized city located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. For these services, nomadism is seen as a nuisance. On the other hand, include not only acquires a sense of attachment and population control, but the demarcation of belonging territories, from the investment of the relation of users with health services.

  5. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Macrophage-Derived Lipid Rafts Reveals Induction of Autophagy Pathway at the Early Time of Francisella tularensis LVS Infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartlová, A.; Link, M.; Balounová, Jana; Benešová, Martina; Resch, U.; Strašková, A.; Sobol, Margaryta; Filimonenko, Anatolij; Hozák, Pavel; Krocová, Z.; Gekara, N.; Filipp, Dominik; Stulík, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2014), s. 796-804 ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA MO(CZ) OVUOFVZ200808 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : innate immune response * bacterial infection * lipid rafts * Francisella tularensis * phagocytosis * autophagy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.245, year: 2014

  6. Discordant results obtained with Francisella tularensis during in vitro and in vivo immunological studies are attributable to compromised bacterial structural integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Singh

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis (Ft is a highly infectious intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Because Ft can be dispersed via small droplet-aerosols and has a very low infectious dose it is characterized as a category A Select Agent of biological warfare. Respiratory infection with the attenuated Live Vaccine Strain (LVS and the highly virulent SchuS4 strain of Ft engenders intense peribronchiolar and perivascular inflammation, but fails to elicit select pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-γ within the first ~72 h. This in vivo finding is discordant with the principally TH1-oriented response to Ft frequently observed in cell-based studies wherein the aforementioned cytokines are produced. An often overlooked confounding factor in the interpretation of experimental results is the influence of environmental cues on the bacterium's capacity to elicit certain host responses. Herein, we reveal that adaptation of Ft to its mammalian host imparts an inability to elicit select pro-inflammatory mediators throughout the course of infection. Furthermore, in vitro findings that non-host adapted Ft elicits such a response from host cells reflect aberrant recognition of the DNA of structurally-compromised bacteria by AIM2-dependent and -independent host cell cytosolic DNA sensors. Growth of Ft in Muller-Hinton Broth or on Muller-Hinton-based chocolate agar plates or genetic mutation of Ft was found to compromise the structural integrity of the bacterium thus rendering it capable of aberrantly eliciting pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g., TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-γ. Our studies highlight the profound impact of different growth conditions on host cell response to infection and demonstrate that not all in vitro-derived findings may be relevant to tularemia pathogenesis in the mammalian host. Rational development of a vaccine and immunotherapeutics can only proceed from a foundation of knowledge based upon

  7. DNA type analysis to differentiate strains of Xylophilus ampelinus from Europe and Hokkaido, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Tsutomu; Shinmura, Akinori; Kondo, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Strains of the bacterium Xylophilus ampelinus were collected from Europe and Hokkaido, Japan. Genomic fingerprints generated from 43 strains revealed four DNA types (A-D) using the combined results of Rep-, ERIC-, and Box-PCR. Genetic variation was found among the strains examined; strains collected from Europe belonged to DNA types A or B, and strains collected from Hokkaido belonged to DNA types C or D. However, strains belonging to each DNA type showed the same pathogenicity to grapevines ...

  8. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) Isolates from Recent Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Outbreaks Belong to the Same Genetic Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratufolo, Maria C.; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S.; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Balestra, Giorgio M.

    2012-01-01

    Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks. PMID:22590555

  9. A Molecular Survey for Francisella tularensis and Rickettsia spp. in Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Acari: Ixodidae) in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Tara; Lane, Robert S; Foley, Janet

    2017-03-01

    Francisella tularensis and Rickettsia spp. have been cultured from Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard, but their prevalence in this tick has not been determined using modern molecular methods. We collected H. leporispalustris by flagging vegetation and leaf litter and from lagomorphs (Lepus californicus Gray and Sylvilagus bachmani (Waterhouse)) in northern California. Francisella tularensis DNA was not detected in any of 1,030 ticks tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas 0.4% of larvae tested in pools, 0 of 117 individual nymphs, and 2.3% of 164 adult ticks were PCR-positive for Rickettsia spp. Positive sites were Laurel Canyon Trail in Tilden Regional Park in Alameda Contra Costa County, with a Rickettsia spp. prevalence of 0.6% in 2009, and Hopland Research and Extension Center in Mendocino County, with a prevalence of 4.2% in 1988. DNA sequencing revealed R. felis, the agent of cat-flea typhus, in two larval pools from shaded California bay and live oak leaf litter in Contra Costa County and one adult tick from a L. californicus in chaparral in Mendocino County. The R. felis in unfed, questing larvae demonstrates that H. leporispalustris can transmit this rickettsia transovarially. Although R. felis is increasingly found in diverse arthropods and geographical regions, prior literature suggests a typical epidemiological cycle involving mesocarnivores and the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. felis in H. leporispalustris. Natural infection and transovarial transmission of this pathogen in the tick indicate the existence of a previously undocumented wild-lands transmission cycle that may intersect mesocarnivore-reservoired cycles and collectively affect human health risk. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Friends, family and social belonging as we age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Aims: This study investigated if perceptions of social belonging in late adulthood are differentiated by the quality of family and friend relationships. Method:  The study consisted of two phases.  In Phase 1, 260 university staff and students, aged 18 to 75, completed an online survey investigating the quality of family and friend relationships and their association with social belonging.  In Phase 2, 88 older adults completed a refined print version of the survey.   Results:  Multiple regression was used to analyse the predictive ability of family and friend relationships on social belonging. In Phase 1, significant associations were found between both family and friend relationships and social belonging, with friendship yielding the strongest relationship.  Interestingly, in Phase 2 the association between quality of family and friend relationships and social belonging was mediated by age. Those aged 65 to 74 reported a significant relationship between friends and social belonging, which contrasted with those aged over 75.  A significant association between social belonging and family relationships was also found for the entire cohort aged over 65, while high quality friend relationships enhanced social belonging when family relationships were not strong. Conclusions: These results are tentative, but suggest that future research should consider the role that both friendships and family play in promoting social belonging in older adults.

  11. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that colocalization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. In the third quarter of the third year, F344 rats vaccinated with adjuvanted NLP formulations were challenged with F. tularensis SCHU S4 at Battelle. Preliminary data indicate that up to 65% of females vaccinated intranasally with an NLP-based formulation survived this challenge, compared to only 20% survival of naïve animals. In addition, NLPs were successfully formulated with Burkholderia protein antigens. IACUC approval for immunological assessments in BALB/c mice was received and we anticipate that these assessments will begin by March 2015, pending ACURO approval.

  12. Diversity of Francisella tularensis Schu4 antigens recognized by T lymphocytes after natural infections in humans: identification of candidate epitopes for inclusion in a rationally designed tularemia vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurry, Julie A; Gregory, Stephen H; Moise, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The T lymphocyte antigens, which may have a role in protection against tularemia, were predicted by immunoinformatics analysis of Francisella tularensis Schu4. Twenty-seven class II putative promiscuous epitopes and 125 putative class I supertype epitopes were chosen for synthesis; peptides were...... responded to pools of 25 A2, A24, and B7 peptides, respectively. These data can aid in the development of novel epitope-based and subunit tularemia vaccines....

  13. BOX-PCR-based identification of bacterial species belonging to Pseudomonas syringae: P. viridiflava group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi S.A. Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic characteristics and genetic fingerprints of a collection of 120 bacterial strains, belonging to Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato group, P. viridiflava and reference bacteria were evaluated, with the aim of species identification. The numerical analysis of 119 nutritional characteristics did not show patterns that would help with identification. Regarding the genetic fingerprinting, the results of the present study supported the observation that BOX-PCR seems to be able to identify bacterial strains at species level. After numerical analyses of the bar-codes, all pathovars belonging to each one of the nine described genomospecies were clustered together at a distance of 0.72, and could be separated at genomic species level. Two P. syringae strains of unknown pathovars (CFBP 3650 and CFBP 3662 and the three P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains were grouped in two extra clusters and might eventually constitute two new species. This genomic species clustering was particularly evident for genomospecies 4, which gathered P. syringae pvs. atropurpurea, coronafaciens, garçae, oryzae, porri, striafaciens, and zizaniae at a noticeably low distance.

  14. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Annual Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-04-16

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that co-localization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of recombinant subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. NLPs are are biocompatible, high-density lipoprotein mimetics that are amenable to the incorporation of multiple, chemically-disparate adjuvant and antigen molecules. We hypothesize that the ability to co-localize optimized adjuvant formulations with subunit antigens within a single particle will enhance the stimulation and activation of key immune effector cells, increasing the protective efficacy of subunit antigen-based vaccines. While Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis subunit antigens are the focus of this proposal, we anticipate that this approach is applicable to a wide range of DOD-relevant biothreat agents. The F344 rat aerosol challenge model for F. tularensis has been successfully established at Battelle under this contract, and Year 3 efficacy studies performed at Battelle demonstrated that an NLP vaccine formulation was able to enhance survival of female F344 rats relative to naïve animals. In addition, Year 3 focused on the incorporation of multiple Burkholderia antigens (both polysaccharides and proteins) onto adjuvanted NLPs, with immunological analysis poised to begin in the next quarter.

  15. Acculturative Stress and School Belonging among Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Cathy; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2012-01-01

    Dimensions of acculturative stress and their implications for school belonging and achievement were examined among 199 Latino middle-school students. The proposed model hypothesized that school belonging would mediate the association between acculturative stress dimensions and low school achievement. Eighty percent youth of the sample were…

  16. Migrant Rap in the Periphery: Performing Politics of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Sirpa; Westinen, Elina

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on a YouTube performance by an emergent Finnish Somali rapper and the audience responses it has generated, this paper looks at ways in which rap music engages with the issue of belonging. Drawing on recent theorizations of belonging as a multi-dimensional, contingent and fluid process, along with sociolinguistic work on globalization and…

  17. Belonging as a Guiding Principle in the Education of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly A.; Bowles, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Belonging has been shown to have a significant impact on a range of factors associated with wellbeing. These areas include life satisfaction, general wellbeing, clinical depression, cognitive performance, academic outcomes, and physical health. Belonging is an important aspect of psychological functioning. Schools offer unique opportunities for…

  18. Multiple Religious Belonging: Hermeneutical Challenges for Theology of Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oostveen Daan F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is studied from different perspectives, each of which reveals a different understanding of religion, religious diversity and religious belonging. This shows that the phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is challenging the applicability of these central notions in academic enquiry about religion. In this article, I present the different perspectives on multiple religious belonging in theology of religions and show how the understanding of some central scholarly notions is different. In Christian theology, the debate on multiple religious belonging is conducted between particularists, who focus on the uniqueness of religious traditions, and pluralists, who focus on the shared religious core of religious traditions. Both positions are criticized by feminist and post-colonial theologians. They believe that both particularists and pluralists focus too strongly on religious traditions and the boundaries between them. I argue that the hermeneutic study of multiple religious belonging could benefit from a more open understanding of religious traditions and religious boundaries, as proposed by these feminist and post-colonial scholars. In order to achieve this goal we could also benefit from a more intercultural approach to multiple religious belonging in order to understand religious belonging in a nonexclusive way.

  19. Social inhibition sense of belonging and vulnerability to internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, E.L.; Denollet, J.; Laceulle, O.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a conceptual test of how social inhibition, sense of belonging and internalizing problems are related, and whether sense of belonging moderates or mediates the relation between social inhibition and internalizing problems. Methods Data were used from

  20. How the Host Nation's Boundary Drawing Affects Immigrants' Belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær

    2016-01-01

    Across Western democracies, the place for newcomers in the host society is debated, involving often a questioning of immigrants’ belonging to their new nation. This article argues that immigrants’ feeling of host national belonging depends on how the host nation imagines its community and its...

  1. Social Class and Belonging: Implications for Graduate Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrove, Joan M.; Stewart, Abigail J.; Curtin, Nicola L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role that social class background plays in graduate students' career goals. Class background was significantly related to the extent to which students struggled financially in graduate school, which related to their sense of belonging in graduate school. Sense of belonging related to academic self-concept, which predicted students'…

  2. Hybrid Citizenship: Latina Youth and the Politics of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from interview data collected from high school students in Broward County, Florida, this article explores how eight adolescent Latinas understand citizenship and belonging vis-à-vis circulating images and discourses on Latina/o immigration, immigrant, and Latina. The author examines Latina youths' citizenship identities and belonging using…

  3. It Feels Good to Learn Where I Belong: School Belonging, Academic Emotions, and Academic Achievement in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Un Fong; Chen, Wei-Wen; Zhang, Jingqi; Liang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between school belonging, academic emotions, and academic achievement in Macau adolescents. A survey of 406 junior high school students in Macau was used to collect information on the extent to which these students felt accepted and respected in their schools (school belonging), the emotions they experienced…

  4. Disentangling Memories. Complex (Be)longings and Social Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Chistina Hee; Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This presentation analyses the complex workings of social categories in constructions of (be)longing in memories of young university students in Bolivia and Peru. In a methodology course the participants explored how socio economic and socio cultural differences had affected the lives...... belonging to a specific social or racial group. (Be)longing to a specific gendered and radicalised body constitutes in the analysis of these stories an excellent “location,” from which to analyse how socio/cultural and socio/economic categories like class, nationality and age intersect with one another...... to produce insights and consciousness about the socio-cultural impact of sense making processes....

  5. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis revealed pathogenic potential in Penicillium capsulatum as a novel fungal pathogen belonging to Eurotiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium capsulatum is a rare Penicillium species used in paper manufacturing, but recently it has been reported to cause invasive infection. To research the pathogenicity of the clinical Penicillium strain, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptome of the clinical and environmental strains of P. capsulatum. Comparative analyses of these two P. capsulatum strains and close related strains belonging to Eurotiales were performed. The assembled genome sizes of P. capsulatum are approximately 34.4 Mbp in length and encode 11,080 predicted genes. The different isolates of P. capsulatum are highly similar, with the exception of several unique genes, INDELs or SNP in the genes coding for glycosyl hydrolases, amino acid transporters and circumsporozoite protein. A phylogenomic analysis was performed based on the whole genome data of 38 strains belonging to Eurotiales. By comparing the whole genome sequences and the virulence-related genes from 20 important related species, including fungal pathogens and non-human pathogens belonging to Eurotiales, we found meaningful pathogenicity characteristics between P. capsulatum and its closely related species. Our research indicated that P. capsulatum may be a neglected opportunistic pathogen. This study is beneficial for mycologists, geneticists and epidemiologists to achieve a deeper understanding of the genetic basis of the role of P. capsulatum as a newly reported fungal pathogen.

  6. Respiratory and oral vaccination improves protection conferred by the live vaccine strain against pneumonic tularemia in the rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Elizabeth; Smith, Le'Kneitah P; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Barry, Eileen M; Reed, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    Tularemia is a severe, zoonotic disease caused by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis We have previously shown that rabbits are a good model of human pneumonic tularemia when exposed to aerosols containing a virulent, type A strain, SCHU S4. We further demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS), an attenuated type B strain, extended time to death when given by scarification. Oral or aerosol vaccination has been previously shown in humans to offer superior protection to parenteral vaccination against respiratory tularemia challenge. Both oral and aerosol vaccination with LVS were well tolerated in the rabbit with only minimal fever and no weight loss after inoculation. Plasma antibody titers against F. tularensis were higher in rabbits that were vaccinated by either oral or aerosol routes compared to scarification. Thirty days after vaccination, all rabbits were challenged with aerosolized SCHU S4. LVS given by scarification extended time to death compared to mock-vaccinated controls. One orally vaccinated rabbit did survive aerosol challenge, however, only aerosol vaccination extended time to death significantly compared to scarification. These results further demonstrate the utility of the rabbit model of pneumonic tularemia in replicating what has been reported in humans and macaques as well as demonstrating the utility of vaccination by oral and respiratory routes against an aerosol tularemia challenge. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Antibodies to Both Terminal and Internal B-Cell Epitopes of Francisella tularensis O-Polysaccharide Produced by Patients with Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaohua; Perkins, Hillary M.

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, the Gram-negative bacterium that causes tularemia, is considered a potential bioterrorism threat due to its low infectivity dose and the high morbidity and mortality from respiratory disease. We previously characterized two mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the O-polysaccharide (O antigen [OAg]) of F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS): Ab63, which targets a terminal epitope at the nonreducing end of OAg, and Ab52, which targets a repeating internal OAg epitope. These two MAbs were protective in a mouse model of respiratory tularemia. To determine whether these epitope types are also targeted by humans, we tested the ability of each of 18 blood serum samples from 11 tularemia patients to inhibit the binding of Ab63 or Ab52 to F. tularensis LPS in a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Although all serum samples had Ab63- and Ab52-inhibitory activities, the ratios of Ab63 to Ab52 inhibitory potencies varied 75-fold. However, the variation was only 2.3-fold for sequential serum samples from the same patient, indicating different distributions of terminal- versus internal-binding antibodies in different individuals. Western blot analysis using class-specific anti-human Ig secondary antibodies showed that both terminal- and internal-binding OAg antibodies were of the IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes. These results support the use of a mouse model to discover protective B-cell epitopes for tularemia vaccines or prophylactic/therapeutic antibodies, and they present a general strategy for interrogating the antibody responses of patients and vaccinees to microbial carbohydrate epitopes that have been characterized in experimental animals. PMID:24351753

  8. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-06

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that colocalization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. In the second quarter of the third year, LLNL finalized all immunological assessments of NLP vaccine formulations in the F344 model. Battelle has immunized rats with three unique NLP formulations by either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All inoculations have been completed, and protective efficacy against an aerosolized challenge will begin at the end of October, 2014.

  9. Homegrown religious radicalization and the quest for belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    this seemingly religious radicalization, from the point of view of the youngsters, by drawing on a study of young Muslims in religious communities in Copenhagen and combining it with existing blogs, twitter profiles etc. of youngsters sympathizing with Islamic radicalized movements. What are the youngsters...... framework based on a focus on belonging, self-construction and the sense of community will be proposed. The framework will be utilized in an analysis of narratives from youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging...

  10. Multiculturalism, Mauritian Style : Cultural Diversity, Belonging, and a Secular State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2015-01-01

    Multiculturalism is on the retreat in many Western countries. As an ideology, it is criticized for failing to engender national belonging and social cohesion and thereby to encourage groups of citizens to have parallel lives. In this article, we present the case of Mauritius that is often viewed as

  11. Experiences of School Belonging for Young Children with Refugee Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Previous research with adolescents with refugee backgrounds living in countries of resettlement has found that school belonging has an impact on a range of well-being and developmental outcomes, including mental health, peer relationships, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and academic achievement. However, very little research has explored school…

  12. Relentless Verity: Education for Being-Becoming-Belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, James Robbins

    The dynamic relationship of the concepts of being, becoming, and belonging is and must be the heart and central goal of adult education. The concept can be understood most readily by examination of the writings of humanist psychologists such as Carl Rogers, Fritz Perls, Gordon Allport, and Abraham Maslow. Some characteristics or dimensions of an…

  13. Discrimination and Sleep: The Protective Role of School Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Virginia W.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority adolescents experience certain sleep problems, yet factors that affect their sleep are poorly understood. This study examined the association between ethnic discrimination and sleep during adolescence and the extent to which perceived stress mediated these associations. This study also examined whether school belonging can protect…

  14. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  15. Examining belonging at the interface of ethnicity, social status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining belonging at the interface of ethnicity, social status and masculinities in transnational space among foreign African male students at the University of ... finance and production as well as the on going processes of political and economic integration has led to an unprecedented increase in international migration.

  16. The politics of identity, belonging and the integration of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article will be looking at the political and institutional structures in place, which either facilitate or constrain a sense of belonging and integration of professional migrants of African origin into the new democratic state of South Africa. Discussions in this article are based on a qualitative in-depth study conducted among ...

  17. Belongings: Oral History, Objects and an Online Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Wilton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The New South Wales Migration Heritage Centre was established in 1998. Since 2003 its physical presence has been located within Sydney’s Powerhouse Museum and it has had the strategic brief to record the memories of ageing migrants before their stories are lost. The Centre is, however, a museum without a collection; a heritage authority without heritage sites; a cultural institution whose main presence is in cyberspace. Among its high profile projects is one entitled Objects through time and another Belongings. Both focus on the ways in which objects can convey aspects of the migration experience. Belongings, the focus of this article, presents the remembered experiences of people who migrated to Australia after World War II, and seeks to highlight significant features of their experiences through asking them to share their memories and to nominate and talk about significant objects. As a project it grew out of movable heritage policy work within state government agencies, and its initiators – John Petersen, Kylie Winkworth and Meredith Walker – were central players in this development. It was also inspired by the National Quilt Register of the Pioneer Women’s Hut at Tumbarumba. With its object-centred approach and accompanying edited interview transcripts, Belongings provides a focus for exploring the messages and emphases that emerge when oral history interviews concerned with migration have the specific brief to ask about material culture and its significance. Belongings also enables an exploration of the layering of those messages that emerges when object captions are located back in the context of the oral history interviews from which they were extracted. As a virtual exhibition, Belongings also provides the opportunity to consider the challenges for museums (virtual and real when they need to condense the richness of migrant oral histories and life stories to captioned objects that can be put on display.

  18. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of intracellular growth locus E (IglE) protein from Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Craig S.; Nano, Francis E.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2010-01-01

    The F. tularensis protein IglE from the FPI, which is a component of the type VI-like secretion system, has been crystallized and preliminary X-ray data have been collected. Tularaemia is an uncommon but potentially dangerous zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. As few as ten bacterial cells are sufficient to cause disease in a healthy human, making this one of the most infectious disease agents known. The virulence of this organism is dependent upon a genetic locus known as the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI), which encodes components of a secretion system that is related to the type VI secretion system. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and preliminary X-ray diffraction statistics of the FPI-encoded protein IglE are presented. This putative lipoprotein is required for intra-macrophage growth and is thought to be a constituent of the periplasmic portion of the type VI-like protein complex that is responsible for the secretion of critical virulence factors in Francisella

  19. Inhibition of expression in Escherichia coli of a virulence regulator MglB of Francisella tularensis using external guide sequence technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoping Xiao

    Full Text Available External guide sequences (EGSs have successfully been used to inhibit expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We previously reported that EGS accessible and cleavable sites in the target RNAs can rapidly be identified by screening random EGS (rEGS libraries. Here the method of screening rEGS libraries and a partial RNase T1 digestion assay were used to identify sites accessible to EGSs in the mRNA of a global virulence regulator MglB from Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium. Specific EGSs were subsequently designed and their activities in terms of the cleavage of mglB mRNA by RNase P were tested in vitro and in vivo. EGS73, EGS148, and EGS155 in both stem and M1 EGS constructs induced mglB mRNA cleavage in vitro. Expression of stem EGS73 and EGS155 in Escherichia coli resulted in significant reduction of the mglB mRNA level coded for the F. tularensis mglB gene inserted in those cells.

  20. Cosmopolitanism, geographical imaginaries and belonging in North London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, Ranji

    2010-01-01

    Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents.

  1. Creating a hybrid sense of belonging in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    to local products and culturally by enacting the competition (Coupland 2014). Yet, I argue that the participants do not create a copy of the activity as it is played out in its original setting, rather it is ascribed a certain urban coolness, which might be a way of demonstrating hybrid senses of belonging...... the first event, a Facebook-community was set up to organize and promote succeeding events. By analyzing empirical data from Facebook I point to how the participants draw on a range of ‘languagecultural practices’ (Cornips & de Rooij in press) to re-contextualize the rural tradition to an urban setting. I...... discuss whether and how the two dimensions of ‘belonging’ (Antonsich 2010), i.e. place-belongingness and politics of belonging, are made relevant by the participants. The connection to Southern Jutland is pointed to in several ways: linguistically by using dialect orthography, materially by pointing...

  2. When the mosque goes Beethoven: Expressing religious belongings through music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Salzbrunn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article will provide insight on music as a vector of religious belonging: a female choir at a mosque in the Lake Geneva Metropolitan Region has reinterpreted Beethoven’s Ode to Joy with new text about the glory of the Messenger, and a regional political and religious event which has united music from Syria, Kosovo and Tunisia in order to put on stage the cosmopolitan characteristics of Swiss Muslims. Religious and national belonging as well as cultural references can be expressed in different ways through ritual practices (prayer, celebrations, food or clothing. These practices, influenced by gender and age, are highly diverse. Celebrations that are performed in public also depend on the local and global political context, the specific social situation and the specific place (location, public, legal framework etc.. As part of a broader research project on “(Invisible Islam in the city,” a research team directed by Monika Salzbrunn has observed various forms of celebration – both religious and secular festive events – in which Muslim citizens are involved. At what audience are these musical performances directed? Can we really separate an analysis of religious belongings from an analysis of political and/or cultural performances?

  3. Differences in genotype and virulence among four multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates belonging to the PMEN1 clone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Luisa Hiller

    Full Text Available We report on the comparative genomics and characterization of the virulence phenotypes of four S. pneumoniae strains that belong to the multidrug resistant clone PMEN1 (Spain(23F ST81. Strains SV35-T23 and SV36-T3 were recovered in 1996 from the nasopharynx of patients at an AIDS hospice in New York. Strain SV36-T3 expressed capsule type 3 which is unusual for this clone and represents the product of an in vivo capsular switch event. A third PMEN1 isolate - PN4595-T23 - was recovered in 1996 from the nasopharynx of a child attending day care in Portugal, and a fourth strain - ATCC700669 - was originally isolated from a patient with pneumococcal disease in Spain in 1984. We compared the genomes among four PMEN1 strains and 47 previously sequenced pneumococcal isolates for gene possession differences and allelic variations within core genes. In contrast to the 47 strains - representing a variety of clonal types - the four PMEN1 strains grouped closely together, demonstrating high genomic conservation within this lineage relative to the rest of the species. In the four PMEN1 strains allelic and gene possession differences were clustered into 18 genomic regions including the capsule, the blp bacteriocins, erythromycin resistance, the MM1-2008 prophage and multiple cell wall anchored proteins. In spite of their genomic similarity, the high resolution chinchilla model was able to detect variations in virulence properties of the PMEN1 strains highlighting how small genic or allelic variation can lead to significant changes in pathogenicity and making this set of strains ideal for the identification of novel virulence determinants.

  4. Queer families: valuing stories of adversity, diversity and belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christy E

    2018-05-31

    The 2017 Australian Marriage Law Postal Survey provided an unwelcome reminder that the concepts of queer sexuality and family life continue to be viewed as incompatible by many. However, campaigns in support of marriage equality also provide opportunities to document and disseminate stories of queer belonging within families. This commentary proposes three new ways of understanding and valuing accounts of what family means to LGBTQ communities, based on emerging findings from social research studies. It argues that in post-marriage equality contexts, it is time to learn to accept and to celebrate the differences that exist within every community, including within the diverse forms of families that are made.

  5. Fermentation of glycolate by a pure culture of a strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Peter H; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2003-05-01

    The component bacteria of a three-membered mixed culture able to ferment glycolate to acetate, propionate and CO(2) were isolated in pure culture. All three strains were strict anaerobes that, on the basis of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, belonged to the order Clostridiales in the phylum Firmicutes (low G+C gram-positive bacteria). Two of the strains were not involved in glycolate metabolism. The third, the glycolate-fermenting strain 19gly4 (DSM 11261), was related to members of the family Lachnospiraceae. The cells of strain 19gly4 were oval- to lemon-shaped, 0.85 microm long and 0.65 microm in diameter, occurring singly, in pairs, or in chains of up to 30 cells. Strain 19gly4 fermented glycolate or fumarate to acetate, succinate, and CO(2). Hydrogen was not formed, and strain 19gly4 was able to grow on glycolate in pure culture without any syntrophic hydrogen transfer and without the use of an external electron acceptor. There was no evidence for homoacetogenic metabolism. This bacterium therefore differs in metabolism from previously reported glycolate-utilising anaerobes.

  6. Identity and Belonging as Positionality. An Approach from Intersectionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arce-Cuadros

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article terms we may use to refer to identities and the meanings of belonging in a multicultural context are considered. For this purpose, we study Stuart Hall’s concept of vernacular cosmopolitism, which recognizes identities as points of suture between discourses and practices; that is, alignments between two scopes: a constitutive outside, and interiority produced by the self. On the other hand, we study the intersectionality approach, which considers that axes of social stratification are mutually organized and interconnected; therefore, identities are not built in relation to fixed groups such as class, ethnic group, nation, but as social positionalities letting the representation of multiple identities to operate simultaneously as possible.

  7. The need to belong can motivate belief in God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2012-04-01

    The need to belong can motivate belief in God. In Study 1, 40 undergraduates read bogus astrophysics articles "proving" God's existence or not offering proof. Participants in the proof-for-God condition reported higher belief in God (compared to control) when they chronically imagined God as accepting but lower belief in God when they imagined God as rejecting. Additionally, in Study 2 (72 undergraduates), these effects did not occur when participants' belongingness need was satisfied by priming close others. Study 3 manipulated 79 Internet participants' image of God. Chronic believers in the God-is-rejecting condition reported lower religious behavioral intentions than chronic believers in the God-is-accepting condition, and this effect was mediated by lower desires for closeness with God. In Study 4 (106 Internet participants), chronic believers with an accepting image of God reported that their belief in God is motivated by belongingness needs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Isolation and survey of novel fluoroacetate-degrading bacteria belonging to the phylum Synergistetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carl K; Webb, Richard I; Sly, Lindsay I; Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Chris S

    2012-06-01

    Microbial dehalogenation of chlorinated compounds in anaerobic environments is well known, but the degradation of fluorinated compounds under similar conditions has rarely been described. Here, we report on the isolation of a bovine rumen bacterium that metabolizes fluoroacetate under anaerobic conditions, the mode of degradation and its presence in gut ecosystems. The bacterium was identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as belonging to the phylum Synergistetes and was designated strain MFA1. Growth was stimulated by amino acids with greater quantities of amino acids metabolized in the presence of fluoroacetate, but sugars were not fermented. Acetate, formate, propionate, isobutryate, isovalerate, ornithine and H(2) were end products of amino acid metabolism. Acetate was the primary end product of fluoroacetate dehalogenation, and the amount produced correlated with the stoichiometric release of fluoride which was confirmed using fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance ((19) F NMR) spectroscopy. Hydrogen and formate produced in situ were consumed during dehalogenation. The growth characteristics of strain MFA1 indicated that the bacterium may gain energy via reductive dehalogenation. This is the first study to identify a bacterium that can anaerobically dehalogenate fluoroacetate. Nested 16S rRNA gene-specific PCR assays detected the bacterium at low numbers in the gut of several herbivore species. © 2012 Commonwealth of Australia.

  9. Photosynthetic pigments of oceanic Chlorophyta belonging to prasinophytes clade VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Dos Santos, Adriana; Gourvil, Priscillia; Rodríguez, Francisco; Garrido, José Luis; Vaulot, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The ecological importance and diversity of pico/nanoplanktonic algae remains poorly studied in marine waters, in part because many are tiny and without distinctive morphological features. Amongst green algae, Mamiellophyceae such as Micromonas or Bathycoccus are dominant in coastal waters while prasinophytes clade VII, yet not formerly described, appear to be major players in open oceanic waters. The pigment composition of 14 strains representative of different subclades of clade VII was analyzed using a method that improves the separation of loroxanthin and neoxanthin. All the prasinophytes clade VII analyzed here showed a pigment composition similar to that previously reported for RCC287 corresponding to pigment group prasino-2A. However, we detected in addition astaxanthin for which it is the first report in prasinophytes. Among the strains analyzed, the pigment signature is qualitatively similar within subclades A and B. By contrast, RCC3402 from subclade C (Picocystis) lacks loroxanthin, astaxanthin, and antheraxanthin but contains alloxanthin, diatoxanthin, and monadoxanthin that are usually found in diatoms or cryptophytes. For subclades A and B, loroxanthin was lowest at highest light irradiance suggesting a light-harvesting role of this pigment in clade VII as in Tetraselmis. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Biogeography of thermophilic phototrophic bacteria belonging to Roseiflexus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisin, Vasil A; Grouzdev, Denis S; Namsaraev, Zorigto B; Sukhacheva, Marina V; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Kuznetsov, Boris B

    2016-03-01

    Isolated environments such as hot springs are particularly interesting for studying the microbial biogeography. These environments create an 'island effect' leading to genetic divergence. We studied the phylogeographic pattern of thermophilic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, belonging to the Roseiflexus genus. The main characteristic of the observed pattern was geographic and geochronologic fidelity to the hot springs within Circum-Pacific and Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian orogenic belts. Mantel test revealed a correlation between genetic divergence and geographic distance among the phylotypes. Cluster analysis revealed a regional differentiation of the global phylogenetic pattern. The phylogeographic pattern is in correlation with geochronologic events during the break up of Pangaea that led to the modern configuration of continents. To our knowledge this is the first geochronological scenario of intercontinental prokaryotic taxon divergence. The existence of the modern phylogeographic pattern contradicts with the existence of the ancient evolutionary history of the Roseiflexus group proposed on the basis of its deep-branching phylogenetic position. These facts indicate that evolutionary rates in Roseiflexus varied over a wide range. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Korean indigenous bacterial species with valid names belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyung Sook; Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Ji Hee; Kang, Joo Won; Kim, Dae In; Lee, Ji Hee; Seong, Chi Nam

    2016-12-01

    To understand the isolation and classification state of actinobacterial species with valid names for Korean indigenous isolates, isolation source, regional origin, and taxonomic affiliation of the isolates were studied. At the time of this writing, the phylum Actinobacteria consisted of only one class, Actinobacteria, including five subclasses, 10 orders, 56 families, and 330 genera. Moreover, new taxa of this phylum continue to be discovered. Korean actinobacterial species with a valid name has been reported from 1995 as Tsukamurella inchonensis isolated from a clinical specimen. In 1997, Streptomyces seoulensis was validated with the isolate from the natural Korean environment. Until Feb. 2016, 256 actinobacterial species with valid names originated from Korean territory were listed on LPSN. The species were affiliated with three subclasses (Acidimicrobidae, Actinobacteridae, and Rubrobacteridae), four orders (Acidimicrobiales, Actinomycetales, Bifidobacteriales, and Solirubrobacterales), 12 suborders, 36 families, and 93 genera. Most of the species belonged to the subclass Actinobacteridae, and almost of the members of this subclass were affiliated with the order Actinomycetales. A number of novel isolates belonged to the families Nocardioidaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Intrasporangiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae as well as the genera Nocardioides, Streptomyces, and Microbacterium. Twenty-six novel genera and one novel family, Motilibacteraceae, were created first with Korean indigenous isolates. Most of the Korean indigenous actionobacterial species were isolated from natural environments such as soil, seawater, tidal flat sediment, and fresh-water. A considerable number of species were isolated from artificial resources such as fermented foods, wastewater, compost, biofilm, and water-cooling systems or clinical specimens. Korean indigenous actinobacterial species were isolated from whole territory of Korea, and especially a large number of species were from Jeju

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF PLANTS BELONGING TO LAMIACEAE JUSS. FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanayda M.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the important sources of therapeutic and prophylactic agents of modern medicines are essential oils of medicinal plants. Essential oils are the main group of biologically active substances of a number of plants belonging to Lamiaceae Juss. Family. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants belonging to Lamiaceae Family many scientists associated with containing of essential oils. In this regard, considerable interest presents the comparative analysis of the antimicrobial properties of essential oils of Lamiaceae Family representatives. Material and methods.The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of investigated plants was studied with using in vitro condition. The essential oils derived from the aerial parts of cultivated plants of Ocimum, Hyssopus, Dracocephalum, Lophanthus, Monarda and Satureja genus harvested during flowering period (in terms of Ternopil region. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils studied plants was studied by serial dilution method and disk diffusion assay. It has been applied on standard microorganism test strains: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 885-653. Results and discussion. It was conducted a comparative study of the influence of some essential oils of cultivated plants belonging to Lamiaceae family on microorganisms in conditions in vitro. It was found that essential oils of the studied plants were most effective in the maximum concentration (1:10. Gram-positive cocci S. aureus and yeast C. albicans were the most sensitive to influence of investigated essential oils. It was analyzed the relationship of the biological activity with the component composition of essential oils of plants. Essential oils of L. anisatus, M. fistulosa and S. hortensis characterized by the dominance of aromatic compounds and had shown stronger antimicrobial activity than essential oils of

  13. Complete genome sequences of six measles virus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, M.V.T. (My V.T.); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); B.B. Oude Munnink (Bas B.); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); R.L. de Swart (Rik); Cotten, M. (Matthew)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractGenetic characterization of wild-type measles virus (MV) strains is a critical component of measles surveillance and molecular epidemiology. We have obtained complete genome sequences of six MV strains belonging to different genotypes, using random-primed next generation sequencing.

  14. Do I Belong? Factors Contributing to the Development of Social Belonging of Children Who Are Homeless in Southeastern United States Shelters: A Multi-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Corilyn Mae

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study explored the factors that contribute to the development of social belonging in the classroom for children who are homeless age's five to seven. Previous empirical research has shown the importance of children who are homeless developing belonging in the classroom and other research has shown the negative…

  15. Young Children in Day and Night Care: Negotiating and Constructing Belonging during Daily Arrivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Eija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Sevón, Eija

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims at understanding the processes related to young children's belonging during daily arrivals at day and night care. Two aspects of a child's belonging are considered: membership and sense of belonging. Data were gathered by ethnographic observation of 8 children aged from 20 to 36 months in two Finnish day care centres offering day…

  16. Fostering School Belonging in Secondary Schools Using a Socio-Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly-Ann; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Waters, Lea

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of belonging and feeling connected to school for adolescent mental health and wellbeing are well documented, but how belonging is fostered is less understood. The present article puts forward a new conceptual framework of school belonging based on Bronfenbrenner's (1979) sociological model of human development, using evidence from a…

  17. What Schools Need to Know about Fostering School Belonging: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly; Kern, Margaret L.; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Hattie, John; Waters, Lea

    2018-01-01

    Belonging is an essential aspect of psychological functioning. Schools offer unique opportunities to improve belonging for school-aged children. Research on school belonging, however, has been fragmented and diluted by inconsistency in the use of terminology. To resolve some of these inconsistencies, the current study uses meta-analysis of…

  18. Genome Sequences of Three Vaccine Strains and Two Wild-Type Canine Distemper Virus Strains from a Recent Disease Outbreak in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Angelika K; Du Plessis, Morné; Dalton, Desiré Lee; Mitchell, Emily; Venter, Estelle H

    2017-07-06

    Canine distemper virus causes global multihost infectious disease. This report details complete genome sequences of three vaccine and two new wild-type strains. The wild-type strains belong to the South African lineage, and all three vaccine strains to the America 1 lineage. This constitutes the first genomic sequences of this virus from South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Loots et al.

  19. How culture shapes community: bible belief, theological unity, and a sense of belonging in religious congregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroope, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Feeling that you belong in a group is an important and powerful need. The ability to foster a sense of belonging can also determine whether groups survive. Organizational features of groups cultivate feelings of belonging, yet prior research fails to investigate the idea that belief systems also play a major role. Using multilevel data, this study finds that church members' traditional beliefs, group-level belief unity, and their interaction associate positively with members' sense of belonging. In fact, belief unity can be thought of as a “sacred canopy” under which the relationship between traditional beliefs and feelings of belonging thrives.

  20. [New antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanicheva, I A; Kozlov, D G; Efimenko, T A; Zenkova, V A; Kastrukha, G S; Reznikova, M I; Korolev, A M; Borshchevskaia, L N; Tarasova, O D; Sineokiĭ, S P; Efremenkova, O V

    2014-01-01

    Two Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the fruiting body of a basidiomycete fungus Pholiota squarrosa exhibited a broad range of antibacterial activity, including those against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus INA 00761 (MRSA) and Leuconostoc mes6nteroides VKPM B-4177 resistant to glycopep-> tide antibiotics, as well as antifungal activity. The strains were identified as belonging to the "B. subtilis" com- plex based on their morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both strains (INA 01085 and INA 01086) produced insignificant amounts of polyene antibiotics (hexaen and pentaen, respectively). Strain INA 01086 produced also a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic containing Asp, Gly, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Thr, Trp, and Phe, while the antibiotic of strain INA 01085 contained, apart from these, two unidentified nonproteinaceous amino acids. Both polypeptide antibiotics were new compounds efficient against gram-positive bacteria and able to override the natural bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  1. M-Cells Contribute to the Entry of an Oral Vaccine but Are Not Essential for the Subsequent Induction of Protective Immunity against Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee L Cunningham

    Full Text Available M-cells (microfold cells are thought to be a primary conduit of intestinal antigen trafficking. Using an established neutralizing anti-RANKL (Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand antibody treatment to transiently deplete M-cells in vivo, we sought to determine whether intestinal M-cells were required for the effective induction of protective immunity following oral vaccination with ΔiglB (a defined live attenuated Francisella novicida mutant. M-cell depleted, ΔiglB-vaccinated mice exhibited increased (but not significant morbidity and mortality following a subsequent homotypic or heterotypic pulmonary F. tularensis challenge. No significant differences in splenic IFN-γ, IL-2, or IL-17 or serum antibody (IgG1, IgG2a, IgA production were observed compared to non-depleted, ΔiglB-vaccinated animals suggesting complementary mechanisms for ΔiglB entry. Thus, we examined other possible routes of gastrointestinal antigen sampling following oral vaccination and found that ΔiglB co-localized to villus goblet cells and enterocytes. These results provide insight into the role of M-cells and complementary pathways in intestinal antigen trafficking that may be involved in the generation of optimal immunity following oral vaccination.

  2. Yersinia enterocolitica strains associated with human infections in Switzerland 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Cernela, N; Hächler, H; Stephan, R

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica infections are common in humans. However, very scarce data are available on the different biotypes and virulence factors of human strains, which has proved to be problematic to assess the clinical significance of the isolated strains. In this study, the presence of the ail gene and distribution of different bio- and serotypes among human Y. enterocolitica strains and their possible relation to the genotype and antimicrobial resistance were studied. In total, 128 Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from human clinical samples in Switzerland during 2001-2010 were characterised. Most (75 out of 128) of the Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to biotypes 2, 3 or 4 and carried the ail gene. One of the 51 strains that belonged to biotype 1A was also ail positive. Most of the ail-positive strains belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3 (47 out of 76) followed by 2/O:9 (22 out of 76). Strains of bioserotype 4/O:3 were dominant among patients between 20 and 40 years old and strains of biotype 1A dominate in patients over 40 years. Strains belonging to biotypes 2, 3 and 4, which all carried the ail gene, exhibited a high homogeneity with PFGE typing. Y. enterocolitica 2/O:5,27 and 2/O:9 strains showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefoxitin, but Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains did not.

  3. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  4. Ethnic pride, self-esteem, and school belonging: A reciprocal analysis over time

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, MM; Robins, RW; Widaman, KF; Conger, RD

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 American Psychological Association. School belonging (i.e., social connectedness to school) has positive implications for academic achievement and well-being. However, few studies have examined the developmental antecedents of school belonging, particularly for students of Mexican origin. To address this gap in the research literature, the present study examined reciprocal relations between school belonging and two self-affirmation beliefs-self-esteem and ethnic pride- using data from ...

  5. The interconnection between mental health, work and belonging: A phenomenological investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tangvald-Pedersen, Svein Olav; Bongaardt, Robert (Rob)

    2017-01-01

    It is well-known that a sense of belonging is crucial in relation to gaining and maintaining sound mental health. Work is also known to be an essential aspect of recovery from mental health problems. However, there is scant knowledge of what a sense of belonging in the workplace represents. This study explores the nature and meaning of a sense of belonging in the workplace as experienced by persons struggling with mental health issues. Using a descriptive phenomenological methodology, sixt...

  6. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown.We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree.CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  7. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Spinola, Stanley M

    2016-12-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown. We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree. CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  8. Francisella tularensis elicits IL-10 via a PGE₂-inducible factor, to drive macrophage MARCH1 expression and class II down-regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hunt

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a bacterial pathogen that uses host-derived PGE₂ to subvert the host's adaptive immune responses in multiple ways. Francisella-induced PGE₂ acts directly on CD4 T cells to blunt production of IFN-γ. Francisella-induced PGE₂ can also elicit production of a >10 kDa soluble host factor termed FTMØSN (F. tularensismacrophage supernatant, which acts on IFN-γ pre-activated MØ to down-regulate MHC class II expression via a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism, blocking antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. Here, we report that FTMØSN-induced down-regulation of MØ class II is the result of the induction of MARCH1, and that MØ expressing MARCH1 "resistant" class II molecules are resistant to FTMØSN-induced class II down-regulation. Since PGE₂ can induce IL-10 production and IL-10 is the only reported cytokine able to induce MARCH1 expression in monocytes and dendritic cells, these findings suggested that IL-10 is the active factor in FTMØSN. However, use of IL-10 knockout MØ established that IL-10 is not the active factor in FTMØSN, but rather that Francisella-elicited PGE₂ drives production of a >10 kDa host factor distinct from IL-10. This factor then drives MØ IL-10 production to induce MARCH1 expression and the resultant class II down-regulation. Since many human pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Legionella pneumophila also induce production of host PGE₂, these results suggest that a yet-to-be-identified PGE₂-inducible host factor capable of inducing IL-10 is central to the immune evasion mechanisms of multiple important human pathogens.

  9. An Assessment of School Belonging and Academic Motivation among Latino Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate and examine the self-reported feelings of school belonging and academic motivation among seventh and eighth grade students in a suburban setting, with a specific focus on the Latino subgroup. A corollary purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between school belonging and…

  10. A Pilot Study of Motor Disturbances in Children with ADHD Belonging to Chilean Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancatén González, Carlos; Montes, Rodrigo; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    The present pilot study aimed to determine motor control alterations in children with ADHD belonging to public schools, using Da Fonseca's Psychomotor Battery (BPM). This was a descriptive cross-sectional comparative study. The sample consisted of two groups, each group composed of 15 children between 7 and 9 years old belonging to public…

  11. Self-defeating behaviors in organizations : The relationship between thwarted belonging and interpersonal work behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thau, Stefan; Aquino, Karl; Poortvliet, P. Marijn

    This multisource field study applied belongingness theory to examine whether thwarted belonging, defined as the perceived discrepancy between one's desired and actual levels of belonging with respect to one's coworkers, predicts interpersonal work behaviors that are self-defeating. Controlling for

  12. Ethnic Pride, Self-Esteem, and School Belonging: A Reciprocal Analysis over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2017-01-01

    School belonging (i.e., social connectedness to school) has positive implications for academic achievement and well-being. However, few studies have examined the developmental antecedents of school belonging, particularly for students of Mexican origin. To address this gap in the research literature, the present study examined reciprocal relations…

  13. Probability distributions for first neighbor distances between resonances that belong to two different families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-01-01

    For a mixture of two families of resonances, we found the probability distribution for the distance, as first neighbors, between resonances that belong to different families. Integration of this distribution gives the probability of accidental overlapping of resonances of one isotope by resonances of the other, provided that the resonances of each isotope belong to a single family. (author)

  14. Development of a Sense of Belonging for Privileged and Minoritized Students: An Emergent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Newmand, Barbara M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a constructionist grounded theory study with 51 first-year college students. We explored student definitions and development of a sense of belonging during their first year of college. Belonging for all participants was shaped by 3 themes: environmental perceptions, involvement, and relationships. Yet, there were…

  15. A Sense of Belonging among College Students with Disabilities: An Emergent Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Daly-Cano, Meada; Newman, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education research suggests that the development of a sense of belonging is key to academic success and persistence, yet we know little about how first-year students with disabilities develop a sense of belonging as they transition into and through their first year in postsecondary environments. Themes from a grounded theory study of 8…

  16. University Belonging, Friendship Quality, and Psychological Adjustment during the Transition to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Laura D.; Richmond, Adeya

    2008-01-01

    The authors collected questionnaire data from college students (N = 79) at 2 time points during their freshman year to examine how changes in a sense of university belonging, quality of friendships, and psychological adjustment were associated. Students who had positive changes in university belonging had corresponding positive changes in…

  17. A Sense of Belonging through the Eyes of First-Year LGBPQ Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Newman, Barbara M.

    2017-01-01

    Using grounded theory methods, the authors examined how LGBPQ students developed a sense of belonging during the first year of college. Sense of belonging transformed and deepened over the year and was fostered in three different contexts: university, group, and friendship. It was influenced by sexual identity and outness, university messaging,…

  18. "Row, Row, Row Your Boat": Singing, Identity and Belonging in a Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The concept of belonging is widely recognised as a fundamental part of human development and a key element of early childhood curricula. The research presented here explores the role of singing in the development of children's sense of belonging in a day nursery for children aged from six months to two years. The research design incorporated…

  19. A longitudinal study of school belonging and academic motivation across high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Cari Gillen-O'; Fuligni, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated (N = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the course of high school, however, girls' school belonging declined, whereas boys' remained stable. Within-person longitudinal analyses indicated that years in which students had higher school belonging were also years in which they felt that school was more enjoyable and more useful, above and beyond their actual level of achievement. Results highlight the importance of belonging for maintaining students' academic engagement during the teenage years. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. How a gender gap in belonging contributes to the gender gap in physics participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jane G.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of research indicates that feeling a secure sense of belonging in academic settings is critical to students' achievement. In the current work, we present data collected over multiple semesters of a calculus-based introductory physics class indicating that women feel a lower sense of belonging than men in physics. This finding is important because our data also indicate that having a strong sense of belonging in physics positively predicts the degree to which all students see the value of physics in their daily life (an outcome that predicts motivation and persistence in achievement settings) as well as performance on exams in the course. We identify one potential antecedent of women's relatively lower sense of belonging in physics, namely, negative cultural stereotypes about women's inferior ability in physics compared to men. We then discuss pedagogical strategies that might be employed to enhance women's sense of belonging in physics.

  1. How Is Developing the Sense of Belonging in Iranian Adolescent Girls? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mousavi

    2018-05-01

    CONCLUSION: Adequate parental education and the proper management of girls’ interactions with the family and society can play an important role in the development of a sense of belonging among adolescent girls.

  2. Self-defeating behaviors in organizations: the relationship between thwarted belonging and interpersonal work behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thau, Stefan; Aquino, Karl; Poortvliet, P Marijn

    2007-05-01

    This multisource field study applied belongingness theory to examine whether thwarted belonging, defined as the perceived discrepancy between one's desired and actual levels of belonging with respect to one's coworkers, predicts interpersonal work behaviors that are self-defeating. Controlling for demographic variables, job type, justice constructs, and trust in organization in a multilevel regression analysis using data from 130 employees of a clinical chemical laboratory and their supervisors, the authors found that employees who perceive greater levels of desired coworker belonging than actual levels of coworker belonging were more likely to engage in interpersonally harmful and less likely to engage in interpersonally helpful behaviors. Implications for the application of belongingness theory to explain self-defeating behaviors in organizations are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Belonging and quality of life as perceived by people with advanced cancer who live at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Nissen, Nina; Brandt, Åse

    Purpose: In previous research (Peoples, Nissen, Brandt, & la Cour, 2017), we explored how people with advanced cancer who live at home perceive quality of life. Findings from our previous study indicate that dimensions of belonging in various ways may be connected to quality of life when living...... with an impending death. These findings prompted our curiosity to further explore, how perceived quality of life may be linked to belonging when living with advanced cancer. By drawing on our findings and the theoretical concept of belonging within occupational science, the purpose of this study was to gain...... a deeper understanding of the ways in which quality of life may be related to belonging as perceived by people with advanced cancer. Method: The study employed a qualitative approach using a combination of qualitative interviews and photo-elicitation. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Ten...

  4. Building a sense of belonging among tertiary commuter students: The Monash Non-Residential Colleges program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fernandes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Student engagement at university is significantly influenced by sense of belonging. In 2013, our university developed a novel extra-curricular program designed to foster a sense of belonging in students who commute to university – the Monash Non-Residential Colleges (NRC program. This study examines whether participation in the Monash NRC program changed students’ perceptions about their university experience and their sense of belonging to the university community. We show that our NRC program appears to be effective in fostering a more positive university experience for students when compared with non-NRC students. Additionally, we demonstrate that our NRC program influenced students’ sense of belonging through increased interaction with peers and staff as well as greater reported attendance on campus.

  5. Negotiations of believing and belonging among Iraqi and Egyptian Christians in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    This presentation explores negotiations of belonging among Christian immigrants of Iraqi and Egyptian background in Denmark. Based on transnational and diaspora studies, experiences and practices of belonging are explored as multi-directional and situational springing from everyday encounters...... and personal life trajectory, political events in both the region of origin and in the receiving country (Denmark), as well as opportunity structures empowering Middle Eastern Christians as collective and individual actors....

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus pauculus Strain KF709, a Biphenyl-Utilizing Bacterium Isolated from Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahito; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Hosoyama, Akira; Fujihara, Hidehiko; Suenaga, Hikaru; Hirose, Jun; Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi; Kimura, Nobutada; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2015-03-26

    We report the draft genome sequence of Cupriavidus pauculus strain KF709, which comprises 6,826,799 bp with 6,272 coding sequences. The strain KF709 utilizes biphenyl and degrades low-chlorinated biphenyls; however, it possesses fewer coding sequences involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds than other strains belonging to the Betaproteobacteria. Copyright © 2015 Watanabe et al.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus pauculus Strain KF709, a Biphenyl-Utilizing Bacterium Isolated from Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Takahito; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Hosoyama, Akira; Fujihara, Hidehiko; Suenaga, Hikaru; Hirose, Jun; Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi; Kimura, Nobutada; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Cupriavidus pauculus strain KF709, which comprises 6,826,799 bp with 6,272 coding sequences. The strain KF709 utilizes biphenyl and degrades low-chlorinated biphenyls; however, it possesses fewer coding sequences involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds than other strains belonging to the Betaproteobacteria.

  8. Characterization of Streptomyces strain SLO-105 isolated from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... produce a vivid yellow pigment on most media except on the ISP5. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the isolate were compared with known Actinomycetes species described in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology and they suggested that SLO-105 strain belong to Streptomyces ...

  9. Strain engineering on transmission carriers of monolayer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Feng; Hu, Junsong; Zhang, Ping; Yin, Jiuren; Tang, Xianqiong; Jiang, Yong; Wu, Bozhao; Ding, Yanhuai

    2017-11-22

    The effects of uniaxial strain on the structure, band gap and transmission carriers of monolayer phosphorene were investigated by first-principles calculations. The strain induced semiconductor-metal as well as direct-indirect transitions were studied in monolayer phosphorene. The position of CBM which belonged to indirect gap shifts along the direction of the applied strain. We have concluded the change rules of the carrier effective mass when plane strains are applied. In band structure, the sudden decrease of band gap or the new formation of CBM (VBM) causes the unexpected change in carrier effective mass. The effects of zigzag and armchair strain on the effective electron mass in phosphorene are different. The strain along zigzag direction has effects on the electrons effective mass along both zigzag and armchair direction. By contrast, armchair-direction strain seems to affect only on the free electron mass along zigzag direction. For the holes, the effective masses along zigzag direction are largely affected by plane strains while the effective mass along armchair direction exhibits independence in strain processing. The carrier density of monolayer phosphorene at 300 K is calculated about [Formula: see text] cm -2 , which is greatly influenced by the temperature and strain. Strain engineering is an efficient method to improve the carrier density in phosphorene.

  10. ELECTRONIC SPORT: HOW PRO-GAMING NEGOTIATES TERRITORIAL BELONGING AND GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Maric

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the phenomenon of electronic sport (e-sport, which refers to organised and competitive video gaming. It is approached as a 'social world' and a specific culture of gaming, which produces organised groups, events and broadcasting. Located at the intersection of gaming and sports, e-sport adopts elements from both areas. From a grounded theory perspective, the article discusses the contexts, meanings and practices of pro-gaming within e-sport as researched in a study consisting of semi-structured interviews with e-sport fans, gamers, journalists and team managers and observation of e-sport events and clubhouses. The results point out that territorial belonging and gender remain relevant for pro-gaming. Both can inspire belonging and result in exclusions or inclusions. But while territorial belonging is adopted as a flexible practice, gender is structuring gaming within e-sport.

  11. Student-teacher relationships matter for school inclusion: school belonging, disability, and school transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Ronald; Keys, Christopher B; McMahon, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    For students with disabilities, the process of school inclusion often begins with a move from segregated settings into general education classrooms. School transitions can be stressful as students adjust to a new environment. This study examines the adjustment of 133 students with and without disabilities who moved from a school that served primarily students with disabilities into 23 public schools in a large urban school district in the Midwest. These students and 111 of their teachers and other school staff rated the degree that students felt they belonged in their new schools and the quality of their social interactions. Results show that students who experienced more positive and fewer negative social interactions with school staff had higher school belonging. Teachers accurately noted whether students felt they belonged in their new settings, but were not consistently able to identify student perceptions of negative social interactions with staff. Implications for inclusion and improving our educational system are explored.

  12. Organizational identification and commitment: correlates of sense of belonging and affective commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Jiménez García, Gemma

    2012-03-01

    The general purpose of this work is to analyze the overlap between organizational identification and commitment. Specifically, our study focuses on the analysis of the differences and similarities between sense of belonging (a dimension of organizational identification) and affective commitment (a dimension of organizational commitment). In order to do this, we analyzed their discriminant validity and raised their relationship with variables that previous research had showed like precedent and subsequent variables of them: value congruence, perceived support, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to continue in the organization. A total of 292 people at one organization completed surveys measuring the variables previously described. The results showed that sense of belonging and affective commitment are different concepts and they have different relationships with relation to precedent and subsequent variables. Affective commitment seems to be more useful than sense of belonging to predict organizational citizenship behavior aimed at the organization and intention to continue. Some practical implications are described.

  13. Demystifying values-affirmation interventions: writing about social belonging is a key to buffering against identity threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnabel, Nurit; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Cook, Jonathan E; Garcia, Julio; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments examined for the first time whether the specific content of participant-generated affirmation essays-in particular, writing about social belonging-facilitated an affirmation intervention's ability to reduce identity threat among negatively stereotyped students. Study 1, a field experiment, revealed that seventh graders assigned to a values-affirmation condition wrote about social belonging more than those assigned to a control condition. Writing about belonging, in turn, improved the grade point average (GPA) of Black, but not White students. In Study 2, using a modified "belonging-affirmation" intervention, we directly manipulated writing about social belonging before a math test described as diagnostic of math ability. The more female participants wrote about belonging, the better they performed, while there was no effect of writing about belonging for males. Writing about social belonging improved performance only for members of negatively stereotyped groups. Implications for self-affirmation theory and practice are discussed.

  14. Diversity, Localization, and Physiological Properties of Filamentous Microbes Belonging to Chloroflexi Subphylum I in Mesophilic and Thermophilic Methanogenic Sludge Granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that the thermophilic filamentous anaerobe Anaerolinea thermophila, which is the first cultured representative of subphylum I of the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi, not only was one of the predominant constituents of thermophilic sludge granules but also was a causative agent of filamentous sludge bulking in a thermophilic (55°C) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in which high-strength organic wastewater was treated (Y. Sekiguchi, H. Takahashi, Y. Kamagata, A. Ohashi, and H. Harada, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:5740-5749, 2001). To further elucidate the ecology and function of Anaerolinea-type filamentous microbes in UASB sludge granules, we surveyed the diversity, distribution, and physiological properties of Chloroflexi subphylum I microbes residing in UASB granules. Five different types of mesophilic and thermophilic UASB sludge were used to analyze the Chloroflexi subphylum I populations. 16S rRNA gene cloning-based analyses using a 16S rRNA gene-targeted Chloroflexi-specific PCR primer set revealed that all clonal sequences were affiliated with the Chloroflexi subphylum I group and that a number of different phylotypes were present in each clone library, suggesting the ubiquity and vast genetic diversity of these populations in UASB sludge granules. Subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the three different types of mesophilic sludge granules using a Chloroflexi-specific probe suggested that all probe-reactive cells had a filamentous morphology and were widely distributed within the sludge granules. The FISH observations also indicated that the Chloroflexi subphylum I bacteria were not always the predominant populations within mesophilic sludge granules, in contrast to thermophilic sludge granules. We isolated two mesophilic strains and one thermophilic strain belonging to the Chloroflexi subphylum I group. The physiological properties of these isolates suggested that these populations may contribute to the

  15. The second immunoglobulin class is commonly present in cartilaginous fish belonging to the order Rajiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Tomonaga, S

    1988-02-01

    Six species of cartilaginous fish distributed into four orders, Rajiformes (skates and guitarfishes), Myliobatiformes (rays), Heterodontiformes (sharks) and Carcharhiniformes (sharks), were investigated for the possible presence of a second class of immunoglobulin (Ig) other than IgM. Among those orders, fish belonging to the order Rajiformes were found to have a second Ig (IgR) with a non-covalently associated dimeric structure in which the H chain was different from that of IgM in mol. wt and antigenicity. Cartilaginous fish belonging to the other orders investigated had only one class of IgM.

  16. The association between Act-Belong-Commit indicators and problem drinking among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Nielsen, Line; Hinrichsen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program to promote mental health. However, its potential for preventing substance use disorders is unknown. Further, a literature gap is evident concerning behavioral modification strategies...... to prevent such disorders. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and the development of problem drinking. Data from two waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The sample consisted...

  17. Molecular characterisation and nucleotide sequence analysis of canine parvovirus strains in vaccines in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukdeb Nandi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV‑2 is one of the most important viruses that causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and myocarditis of dogs worldwide. The picture has been complicated further due to the emergence of new mutants of CPV, namely: CPV‑2a, CPV‑2b and CPV‑2c. In this study, the molecular characterisation of strains present in the CPV vaccines available on the Indian market was performed using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The VP1/VP2 genes of two vaccine strains and a field strain (Bhopal were sequenced and the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared. The results indicated that the isolate belonged to CPV type 2b and the strains in the vaccines belonged to type CPV‑2. From the study, it is inferred that the CPV strain used in commercially available vaccine preparation differed from the strains present in CPV infection in dogs in India

  18. Molecular characterisation and nucleotide sequence analysis of canine parvovirus strains in vaccines in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sukdeb; Anbazhagan, Rajendra; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) is one of the most important viruses that causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and myocarditis of dogs worldwide. The picture has been complicated further due to the emergence of new mutants of CPV, namely: CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. In this study, the molecular characterisation of strains present in the CPV vaccines available on the Indian market was performed using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The VP1/VP2 genes of two vaccine strains and a field strain (Bhopal) were sequenced and the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared. The results indicated that the isolate belonged to CPV type 2b and the strains in the vaccines belonged to type CPV-2. From the study, it is inferred that the CPV strain used in commercially available vaccine preparation differed from the strains present in CPV infection in dogs in India.

  19. The Influence of Scalded Flour, Fermentation, and Plants Belonging to Lamiaceae Family on the Wheat Bread Quality and Acrylamide Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Bartkevics, Vadims; Krungleviciute, Vita; Pugajeva, Iveta; Zadeike, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Cizeikiene, Dalia

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of additives such as plants belonging to Lamiaceae family (Thymus vulgaris, Carum carvi, Origanum vulgare, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum), scalded flour (SF) or scalded flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 (SFFLp) on the quality and acrylamide formation in wheat bread. The formation of acrylamide and bread quality significantly depended on the king of plants used and the amount of SF and SFFLp used. The additives of T. vulgaris and SF increased the content of acrylamide by 3.4-fold in comparison with bread prepared without SF, whereas the addition of SFFLp significantly reduced the content of acrylamide in bread, especially using 5% of SFFLp supplemented with O. vulgare and 15% of SFFLp supplemented with C. sativum (respectively by 40% and 29.4%) therefore could be recommended for safer bread production. The addition of 5% (from total wheat flour content) of scalded wheat flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 strain (SFFLp) with Origanum vulgare addition, and 5% or 10% of SFFLp prepared with Ocimum basilicum, and 15% of SFFLp prepared with Coriandrum sativum significantly reduce the content of acrylamide in wheat bread, therefore could be recommended for safer bread production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. A Pedagogy of Belonging: Troubling Encounters with Ethnic and Religious Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgeworth, Kathryn; Santoro, Ninetta

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the construction of belonging, and how unbelonging might be troubled, is critical work. For schools in many parts of the world one of the many challenges of globalisation is the task of teaching with, and for, ethnic and cultural diversity. This paper examines the exclusionary practices of teaching that construct ethnic and religious…

  1. Library Informational Technology Workers: Their Sense of Belonging, Role, Job Autonomy and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sook

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of library information technology (IT) workers using a mail survey. The IT workers showed a moderate level of a sense of belonging, playing the broker's role, job autonomy, and job satisfaction. There were differences between librarian IT workers and non-librarian IT workers regarding most of these…

  2. Device of Definition of Hand-Written Documents Belonging to One Executor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Kulik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of working out of the device of definition of hand-written documents belonging to the executor of the text in Russian are presented. The device is intended for automation of work of experts and allows to solve problems of information security and search of criminals.

  3. School Belonging of Adolescents: The Role of Teacher-Student Relationships, Peer Relationships and Family Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Fatma; Gizir, Sidika

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, and family involvement can be used to predict a sense of school belonging among adolescents, according to gender. The sample of the study consists of 815 students enrolled in nine state primary schools in the central districts of Mersin, Turkey. The data was…

  4. Belonging and adapting: mental health of Bosnian refugees living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Emily F; Kane, Catherine F

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the experience of Bosnian refugees currently living in the United States. Using a phenomenological method, seven adult female Bosnian refugees each participated in an audio-recorded interview lasting from one to two hours. Two major themes emerged from the analyses of the text: belonging and adapting. Belonging included concepts of cultural memory, identity and difference, empathy and reciprocity, and perfection of speech. Adapting focused on coping with transitions, coping with memories of past and attendant losses, coping with accepting a new culture while trying to fit into the new culture, and learning the new language perfectly. Implicit in the refugees' experiences were states of culture shock, loneliness, psychic numbness, grief, nostalgia, and feelings of dejection, humiliation, inferiority, and feeling as if they belonged nowhere. Simultaneously, the refugees reported feelings of relief and safety after leaving behind the threat of death in their old homes, feelings of gratefulness for their new freedom to hope for a better life, and their restored ability to notice beauty, as well as a sense of normalcy in their new lives. Recommendations for nursing research include the need to identify additional factors promoting successful belonging and adapting in refugees. Recommendations for nursing practice include the importance of adopting a perspective that is respectful of the uniqueness of each refugee and the necessity for recognizing the normal processes of refugee adaptation.

  5. Teacher and Peer Support for Young Adolescents' Motivation, Engagement, and School Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Alley, Kathleen M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed methods study was to investigate teacher and peer support for young adolescents' academic motivation, classroom engagement, and school belonging within one large, urban, ethnically diverse middle school. In the initial quantitative phase, associations among aspects of teacher support (autonomy,…

  6. Educational and Psychological Aspects of Environmental Awareness and a Sense of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Ojars

    2015-01-01

    The research problem concerns the sphere of relationships with the environment and an individual's awareness in the aspect of satisfying the need for belonging. This research aims to determine the conditions of relationships with the environment and an individual's awareness in the process of personality formation. The research is constituted by…

  7. Sense of belonging and social cohesion in a desegregated former House of Delegates school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramodungoane Tabane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal of creating a non-racial and equitable school environment is embedded in the South African Constitution. This ideal is informed by a desire to overcome the divisions of the apartheid past by pursuing policies and strategies that will promote the achievement of social cohesion, without denying space for various identities. Schools are seen as important vehicles for driving social cohesion amongst learners and it is therefore important that all learners, irrespective of their race, experience a sense of belonging in the school. Using a case study and an interactive qualitative analysis research methodology, we explored the experiences of black and Indian learners in a desegregated former House of Delegates school to determine the successes and possible challenges of ensuring racial integration at the school level and therefore its contribution to social cohesion. The study demonstrates the importance of eight concepts (namely, the school as a welcoming space; belonging; respect; security; equality in the way we socialise; tender loving care; motivation; and freedom to the study of racial integration and social cohesion. This article focuses on the contribution that sense of belonging has on creating a school environment that is enabling, contributing to learner achievement and concludes that sense of belonging, integration, and social cohesion are intertwined and important in creating an environment that is welcoming and a "home" to diverse learners and educators.

  8. Meeting the need to belong: Predicting effects of a friendship enrichment program for older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, N.L.; Martina, C.M.S.; Westerhof, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the effects of participation in a program designed to enrich friendship and reduce loneliness among women in later life. Several hypotheses based on the need to belong, socioemotional selectivity theory, and the social compensation model were tested. Design and Methods:

  9. Belonging, racism and white backlash in the 2016 US Presidential Election.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Donald Trump’s victory in the 2016 presidential election has been attributed to disaffection among the American populace and its disengagement with the US political system, leading to a seismic shift towards populism. However, in common with Brexit, dominant discourses in Trump’s campaign centred on issues around belonging and identity with clearly marked boundaries of inclusion and exclusion.

  10. Academic "Place-Making": Fostering Attachment, Belonging and Identity for Indigenous Students in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer; Hollinsworth, David; Raciti, Maria; Gilbey, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    Place is a concept used to explore how people ascribe meaning to their physical and social surrounds, and their emotional affects. Exploring the university as a place can highlight social relations affecting Australian Indigenous students' sense of belonging and identity. We asked what university factors contribute to the development of a positive…

  11. Using Popular Theatre for Engaging Racialized Minority Girls in Exploring Questions of Identity and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jo-Anne; De Finney, Sandrina

    2004-01-01

    This chapter examines the use of popular theatre as a methodology to investigate racialized minority girls' processes of identity formation and experiences of exclusion and belonging in predominantly white, urban Victoria, B.C., Canada. The article draws on transnational feminist frameworks that emphasize intersectionality and locality to…

  12. Hip-Hop Is the Healer: Sense of Belonging and Diversity among Hip-Hop Collegians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulé, V. Thandi

    2016-01-01

    Sense of belonging is recognized as a factor contributing to persistence to graduation. Furthermore, interactional diversity is associated with learning and civic outcomes--touted higher education goals. Hip-hop culture, one of the most influential cultural creations of the mid-20th century, has succeeded in attracting devotees from diverse…

  13. Exploring the Association between School Belonging and Emotional Health among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gökmen

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the association between school belonging and well-being, distress, and emotional health status yielded from a bidimensional model among adolescents. Participants comprised of 413--49.7% female and 50.3% male--adolescents, ranging in age between 11 and 18 years (M = 13.96, SD = 1.64). Findings from…

  14. Applying visual methods in the study of place affiliation, mobility, and belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Møller, Karina Torp; Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    In this short essay we present a Danish research project called ‘Images of the Global Periphery’. Through the use of visual methodologies, the project focuses on belonging and home-making among newcomers, thereby addressing how geographic mobility is implicated in ‘everyday belonging’ and people...

  15. Meeting the Need to Belong: Predicting Effects of a Friendship Enrichment Program for Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nan L.; Martina, Camille M. S.; Westerhof, Gerben J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the effects of participation in a program designed to enrich friendship and reduce loneliness among women in later life. Several hypotheses based on the need to belong, socioemotional selectivity theory, and the social compensation model were tested. Design and Methods: Study 1 involved two measurement points, one at…

  16. Synthesis of insect pheromones belonging to the group of (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorieva, Natalia Ya; Tsiklauri, Paata G

    2000-01-01

    Stereo- and regiocontrolled methods for the construction of a (Z)-trisubstituted C=C bond and for the regiospecific introduction of a chiral fragment are exemplified in total syntheses of insect pheromones belonging to (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes. The bibliography includes 113 references.

  17. School Values: A Comparison of Academic Motivation, Mental Health Promotion, and School Belonging with Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly-Ann; Kern, Margaret L.; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Waters, Lea

    2017-01-01

    School vision and mission statements are an explicit indication of a school's priorities. Research has found academic motivation, mental health promotion, and school belonging to be the most frequently cited themes in these statements. The present study sought to examine whether these themes relate to student academic achievement, as indicated by…

  18. The village as a ‘community of practice’ Constitution of village belonging through leisure sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Barlocco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the formation and display of a form of identification alternative to the national one, the belonging to the village, within the leisure practices of Kadazan villagers in Sabah, East Malaysia, both constituted by the regular meetings of peer groups and by festive events. The analysis of the paper applies the concept of ‘community of practice’ to the group of villagers who regularly invest most of their resources of free time, but also money, in interacting between themselves and in organising celebrations for various life-cycle events or for other occasions, and argues that a strong sense of belonging to the village is developed through this engagement. These practices are informed by a powerful and widely spread local ideology, positing the village as the central point of reference for its inhabitants’ sense of belonging and as the locus of a traditionalist ‘way of life’, based on cooperation, sharing and egalitarian principles, and rejecting the modern, multi-ethnic urban world from which the majority of the villagers derive their livelihood. This ideology defines the village as Kadazan and Christian, determining a rootedness in everyday life of ethnic identity as well as a general rejection of government-led nationalist propaganda and of its policies. This ideology is an essential part of the affirmation by the villagers of the primacy of the local and of direct involvement and participation over their sense of belonging to collective categories.

  19. Perceptions of Stereotype Vulnerability, Belonging and Campus Climate by African Americans Attending a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Loren Wright

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…

  20. Predicting Social Responsibility and Belonging in Urban After-School Physical Activity Programs with Underserved Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Byrd, Brigid; Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Kulik, Noel; Centeio, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to predict feelings of belonging and social responsibility based on the motivational climate perceptions and contingent self-worth of children participating in urban after-school physical activity programs. Three-hundred and four elementary school students from a major Midwestern city participated.…

  1. Community Strikes Back? Belonging and Exclusion in Rural English Villages in Networked Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyard, Sam; Bagley, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The paper draws upon ethnographic research of two contrasting English primary schools and their villages to explore the themes of belonging and exclusion in contemporary rural contexts. The paper first describes the schools and the villages. A second, conceptual section explores the meaning of rurality in relation to the themes of class, belonging…

  2. Work-Integrated Learning and the Importance of Peer Support and Sense of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, Margaret; Drysdale, Maureen T. B.; Bohn, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between peer support and sense of belonging on the mental health and overall well-being, with a specific focus on comparing the perceptions of students in a work-integrated learning (WIL) program to those in a traditional non-WIL program. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured…

  3. Students’ sense of belonging at school in 41 countries: cross-cultural variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiu, M.M.; Chow, B.W.Y.; McBride, C.; Mol, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether students’ sense of belonging at school (SOBAS) differed across attributes of countries, families, schools, teachers, or students. Multilevel analyses of survey and test data from 193,073 15-year-old students in 41 countries yielded four main findings. First, students in

  4. Differentiation of Self, Personal Adjustment, Problem Solving, and Ethnic Group Belonging among Persons of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on examining the cross-cultural validity of Bowen family systems theory (M. Bowen, 1978), namely differentiation of self for individuals of color. Ethnic minority men and women completed measures of differentiation of self, ethnic group belonging, and 3 indices of personal adjustment. Initial support for the cross-cultural…

  5. Simpson, His Donkey and the Rest of Us--Public Pedagogies of the Value of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolidis, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    At the heart of this paper is an exploration of belonging and how this is assumed to connect with a set of values represented as national. There is a particular interest in the relationship between these values and education. Because the significance of the learning that occurs through the public domain outside educational institutions such as…

  6. Does Hamlet Belong in Freshman Composition? The Debatable Role of Canonical Literature in Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwilliam, Marie A.

    2006-01-01

    The question of whether "Hamlet" belongs in a freshman composition classroom is one that institutions are making easier to answer, though perhaps for political rather than pedagogical reasons. This article describes a project in which Marie Fitzwilliam and her colleagues were asked to engage in a dialogue with the administration on…

  7. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  8. Social integration, a sense of belonging and the Cenotaph Service: old soldiers reminisce about Remembrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Duncan S; Davies, Stephen P; Wiggins, Richard D

    2008-07-01

    This study explored how war commemorations such as the Cenotaph Service in the UK enable older veterans to benefit from a feeling of integration and belonging gained from both comradeship and acknowledgement from wider society. Focus groups preceded by a video clip of the Cenotaph Service with 45 veterans were used to discuss the significance of collective commemorations for older veterans. Findings indicated that social integration and a sense of belonging are fostered both by comradeship and societal support during collective commemorations allowing veterans to reminisce safely. Spontaneous reminiscences involving troubling memories may be processed more easily with the support, social integration and sense of belonging which occurs at collective commemorations. Many Korean War and female World War II veterans felt forgotten and socially isolated, but described gaining vicarious support via collective commemorations. Cohen and Wills' (1985) main-effects and buffering models of social support are used to discuss the findings further. Collective commemorations can be important sources of support for many older veterans. Both comradeship and societal support promote social integration and a sense of belonging (main-effects), which enabled reminiscing and processing (buffering) to occur.

  9. "In Your Face" Democracy: Education for Belonging and Its Challenges in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Mustafa, Muhanad; Jabareen, Yousef T.

    2015-01-01

    This article will juxtapose the goals and implications of two pedagogical programmes that promote education for belonging in Israel. Representing the official knowledge of the Ministry of Education, the first is the "100 Concepts in Heritage, Zionism and Democracy" curriculum. The second, which embodies the counter knowledge produced and…

  10. School Belonging, School Victimization, and the Mental Health of LGBT Young Adults: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Lindquist, Lauri M.; Machek, Greg R.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the mediating role of school victimization in the relationship between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults' feelings of high school belonging and current mental health (both depression and general psychological distress) outcomes. A total of 145 LGBT young adults were recruited from college LGBT…

  11. Pinnipedia belonging to collection of Department of Paleontology of the Science Faculty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Garcia, M.

    1998-01-01

    Pinnipedia belonging to collection of Department of Paleontology, Facultad de Ciencias, are shown. They are an astragalus and partial humerus, found the former in the coast of Departamento of San Jose and the latter in Rocha Department. The astragalus is assigned to Arctocephalus (southern fur seal) and humerus to Phocidae. (author)

  12. The Importance of Belonging: Learning from the Student Experience of Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Max A.

    2012-01-01

    This article grew out of an extensive piece of grounded theory research that explored students' experiences of democratic education. A small democratic school in the south of England is used as a case study. Students in this school experienced a strong sense of belonging--to the school itself, with teachers, and with peers. This appeared to make a…

  13. Black Undergraduate Women and Their Sense of Belonging in STEM at Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Deniece; Patel, Chirag

    2017-01-01

    Because little work exists on the sense of belonging focusing on just Black undergraduate women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), especially at highly selective predominantly white institutions (PWIs), this study takes a phenomenological approach to understand the lived experiences of Black undergraduate women in STEM by…

  14. A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

  15. Belonging and quality of life as perceived by people with advanced cancer who live at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Nissen, Nina; Brandt, Åse

    2018-01-01

    Baggrund: I en tidligere artikel, udforskede hvordan personer med fremskreden kræft oplever deltagelse i aktivitet og livskvalitet i deres hverdag, som pegede på betydningen af at gøre noget sammen med og for andre. Disse fund relaterer sig til det teoretiske begreb belonging, inden for aktivitet...

  16. British Citizenship, Gender and Migration: The Containment of Cultural Differences and the Stratification of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrice, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Debates about integration, British values and identity, who can belong and who can become a citizen, have been fuelled by concerns about growing cultural diversity in the United Kingdom. To promote a shared sense of national identity and claim a universal and normative citizen subject, the UK government, along with many other western nations, has…

  17. The Impact of Culture on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of cultural factors on Filipino American students' sense of belonging in college. The authors utilized structural equation modeling techniques to analyze a single-institution sample of 143 Filipino American undergraduates and estimate the impact of pressure to commit "cultural…

  18. Strain-Modulated Epitaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, April

    1999-01-01

    Strain-Modulated Epitaxy (SME) is a novel approach, invented at Georgia Tech, to utilize subsurface stressors to control strain and therefore material properties and growth kinetics in the material above the stressors...

  19. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - hamstring ... There are 3 levels of hamstring strains: Grade 1 -- mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends ...

  20. Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from winemaking environments

    OpenAIRE

    Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Ciências The principal aim of the present work is to assess the genetic diversity of fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains found in vineyards belonging to the Vinho Verde Region in order to create a strain collection representing the region’s biodiversity wealth as a basis for future strain selection and improvement programs. Validation of molecular techniques for accurate genotyping is an indispensable prerequisite for biogeographical surveys. Molecular ty...

  1. Differences in iron acquisition from human haemoglobin among strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashida, H.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    . actinomycetemcomitans strains examined harboured a single genomic sequence with homology to the hgpA gene encoding haemoglobin-binding protein A in Haemophilus influenzae. However, in all three strains belonging to the JP2 clone and in one serotype e strain hgpA was a pseudogene. Seven other strains possessed...... a functional hgpA gene which, according to insertion mutagenesis experiments, was responsible for the ability of these strains to utilize haemoglobin as a source of iron. Thus, the presence of an hgpA pseudogene and the inability to use human haemoglobin as an iron source discriminate the high-toxic JP2 clone...

  2. Kinases of two strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and a strain of Mycoplasma synoviae: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Melo Bailão

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are wall-less eubacteria belonging to the class of Mollicutes. These prokaryotes have a reduced genome size and reduced biosynthetic machinery. They cause great losses in animal production. M. synoviae is responsible for an upper respiratory tract disease of chickens and turkeys. M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. The complete genomes of these organisms showed 17 ORFs encoding kinases in M. synoviae and 15 in each of the M. hyopneumoniae strain. Four kinase genes were restricted to the avian pathogen while three were specific to the pig pathogen when compared to each other. All deduced kinases found in the non pathogenic strain (J[ATCC25934] were also found in the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae strain. The enzymes were classified in nine families composing five fold groups.

  3. The Portrait of Market Leader in Flower Market Vendors at Pasar Rawa Belong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Aryanti W. Puspokusumo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A good prospect in flowers’ business has made many newcomers from different cities interested in trying the opportunity to become a succesful florist. Since Pasar Rawa Belong has grown up and become more well-known as the marketing and promotion center for flowers, it creates a conducive and atmospheric place to start the business. Many florists in Pasar Rawa Belong have made big profits from the businesses. It can be said that they all are successful florists. However, there will be barely a single florist who is considerately leading forward in the competitive environment. An observation through population of all florists in Pasar Rawa Belong and samples of 50 florists was done in order to find the forthcoming market leader. The method used in observing florists in Pasar Rawa Belong was survey and interview. Next, the results were summarized and analyzed based on certain theoremes from textbooks, articles, and online documents. The theorems are mostly related to management aspects of a competitive and conducive environment while operating a business. According to the data, Yurie Florist, Kusumawardani, and Anadisha come out as the market leaders in 2011 since they have the highest sales per month or beyond 100 million. Meanwhile, no more than 16 percent of florists in Pasar Rawa Belong are able to gain profit of more than 100 million rupiahs per month. Yurie Florist, Kusumawardani, and Anadisha have wide-scale of distribution channels and sells imported flowers which support their high sales. The sales become indicator to determine market share of the shops. The market share itself is decisive indicator to determine the market leader

  4. Taxonomic and Strain-Specific Identification of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei Group▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudeyras, Sophie; Marchandin, Hélène; Fajon, Céline; Forestier, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35. PMID:18326671

  5. [Phylogenetic analysis of genomes of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated on the territory of Rostov region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, K V; Markelov, M L; Dedkov, V G; Vodop'ianov, A S; Kermanov, A V; Pisanov, R V; Kruglikov, V D; Mazrukho, A B; Maleev, V V; Shipulin, G A

    2013-01-01

    Determination of origin of 2 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated on the territory of Rostov region by using full genome sequencing data. Toxigenic strain 2011 EL- 301 V. cholerae 01 El Tor Inaba No. 301 (ctxAB+, tcpA+) and nontoxigenic strain V. cholerae O1 Ogawa P- 18785 (ctxAB-, tcpA+) were studied. Sequencing was carried out on the MiSeq platform. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes obtained was carried out based on comparison of conservative part of the studied and 54 previously sequenced genomes. 2011EL-301 strain genome was presented by 164 contigs with an average coverage of 100, N50 parameter was 132 kb, for strain P- 18785 - 159 contigs with a coverage of69, N50 - 83 kb. The contigs obtained for strain 2011 EL-301 were deposited in DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases with access code AJFN02000000, for strain P-18785 - ANHS00000000. 716 protein-coding orthologous genes were detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis strain P- 18785 belongs to PG-1 subgroup (a group of predecessor strains of the 7th pandemic). Strain 2011EL-301 belongs to groups of strains of the 7th pandemic and is included into the cluster with later isolates that are associated with cases of cholera in South Africa and cases of import of cholera to the USA from Pakistan. The data obtained allows to establish phylogenetic connections with V cholerae strains isolated earlier.

  6. [Multilocus sequence-typing for characterization of Moscow strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, A E; Mironov, K O; Iatsyshina, S B; Koroleva, I S; Platonova, O V; Gushchin, A E; Shipulin, G A

    2003-01-01

    Haemophilius influenzae, type b (Hib) bacteria, were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using 5 loci (adk, fucK, mdh, pgi, recA). 42 Moscow Hib strains (including 38 isolates form cerebrospinal fluid of children, who had purulent meningitis in 1999-2001, and 4 strains isolated from healthy carriers of Hib), as well as 2 strains from Yekaterinburg were studied. In MLST a strain is characterized, by alleles and their combinations (an allele profile) referred to also as sequence-type (ST). 9 Sts were identified within the Russian Hib bacteria: ST-1 was found in 25 strains (57%), ST-12 was found in 8 strains (18%), ST-11 was found in 4 strains (9%) and ST-15 was found in 2 strains (4.5%); all other STs strains (13, 14, 16, 17, 51) were found in isolated cases (2.3%). A comparison of allelic profiles and of nucleotide sequences showed that 93% of Russian isolates, i.e. strain with ST-1, 11, 12, 13, 15 and 17, belong to one and the same clonal complex. 2 isolates from Norway and Sweden from among 7 foreign Hib strains studied up to now can be described as belonging to the same clonal complex; 5 Hib strains were different from the Russian ones.

  7. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences and the PCR to generate fingerprints of genomic DNAs from Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and non-O1 strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, I G; Chowdhury, M A; Huq, A; Jacobs, D; Martins, M T; Colwell, R R

    1995-01-01

    Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence polymorphism was studied in Vibrio Cholerae strains isolated before and after the cholera epidemic in Brazil (in 1991), along with epidemic strains from Peru, Mexico, and India, by PCR. A total of 17 fingerprint patterns (FPs) were detected in the V. cholerae strains examined; 96.7% of the toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains and 100% of the O139 serogroup strains were found to belong to the same FP group comprising four fragments (F...

  8. Detection of phosphatase activity in aquatic and terrestrial cyanobacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Olivera B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, as highly adaptable microorganisms, are characterized by an ability to survive in different environmental conditions, in which a significant role belongs to their enzymes. Phosphatases are enzymes produced by algae in relatively large quantities in response to a low orthophosphate concentration and their activity is significantly correlated with their primary production. The activity of these enzymes was investigated in 11 cyanobacterial strains in order to determine enzyme synthesis depending on taxonomic and ecological group of cyanobacteria. The study was conducted with 4 terrestrial cyanobacterial strains, which belong to Nostoc and Anabaena genera, and 7 filamentous water cyanobacteria of Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Microcystis genera. The obtained results showed that the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases strongly depended on cyanobacterial strain and the environment from which the strain originated. Higher activity of alkaline phosphatases, ranging from 3.64 to 85.14 μmolpNP/s/dm3, was recorded in terrestrial strains compared to the studied water strains (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. The activity of acid phosphatases was higher in most tested water strains (1.67-6.28 μmolpNP/s/dm3 compared to the activity of alkaline phosphatases (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. Comparing enzyme activity of nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, it was found that most nitrogen fixing strains had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatases. The data obtained in this work indicate that activity of phosphatases is a strain specific property. The results further suggest that synthesis and activity of phosphatases depended on eco-physiological characteristics of the examined cyanobacterial strains. This can be of great importance for the further study of enzymes and mechanisms of their activity as a part of cyanobacterial survival strategy in environments with extreme conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  9. Influence of Environmental Parameters on Trichoderma Strains with Biocontrol Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Antal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several mycoparasitic strains belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma are promising candidates for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. When planning the application of antagonistic Trichoderma strains for the purposes of biological control, it is very important to consider the environmental parameters affecting the biocontrol agents in the soil. A series of abiotic and biotic environmental parameters has an influence on the biocontrol efficacy of Trichoderma. Some important parameters to be considered are the effects of temperature, water potential and pH, and the presence of pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria in the soil. Most of the Trichoderma strains are mesophilic. Low temperatures in winter may cause a problem during biological control by influencing the activity of the biocontrol agents. Another problem emerging during the application of Trichoderma strains as biocontrol agents is that they cannot tolerate dry conditions, however, we may need biocontrol agents against plant pathogenic fungi which are able to grow and cause disease even in dry soils. The pH characteristics of the soil also belong to the most important environmental parameters affecting the activities of mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains. Within the frames of a complex integrated plant protection strategy, we may have to combine Trichoderma strains with chemical pesticides or metal compounds, therefore it is important to collect information about the effects of pesticides and metal ions on the biocontrol strains. Antagonistic soil bacteria may also have negative effects on the biocontrol abilities of Trichoderma strains, therefore it may be advantageous if a biocontrol strain possesses bacterium- degrading abilities as well. This review will discuss the literature about the influence of temperature, water potential, pH, pesticides, metal ions and antagonistic bacteria on mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains including the results of our

  10. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the strain gauge comprises two reinforcement members positioned on the carrier layer at opposite ends of the measurement grid in the axial direction....... The reinforcement members are each placed within a certain axial distance to the measurement grid with the axial distance being equal to or smaller than a factor times the grid spacing. The invention further relates to a multi-axial strain gauge such as a bi-axial strain gauge or a strain gauge rosette where each...... of the strain gauges comprises reinforcement members. The invention further relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  11. Draft Genome Sequences from a Novel Clade of Bacillus cereus Sensu Lato Strains, Isolated from the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra; Ratnayake, Shashikala; Pope, Robert K; Blank, Thomas E; Stepanov, Victor G; Fox, George E; van Tongeren, Sandra P; Torres, Clinton; Allen, Jonathan; Jaing, Crystal; Pierson, Duane; Perry, Jay; Koren, Sergey; Phillippy, Adam; Klubnik, Joy; Treangen, Todd J; Rosovitz, M J; Bergman, Nicholas H

    2017-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of six Bacillus strains, isolated from the International Space Station and belonging to the Bacillus anthracis-B. cereus-B. thuringiensis group, are presented here. These strains were isolated from the Japanese Experiment Module (one strain), U.S. Harmony Node 2 (three

  12. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  13. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  14. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buira, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  15. Increasing the emotional engagement of first year mature-aged distance students: Interest and belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Kahu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research followed 19 mature-aged distance students through their first semester of undergraduate study. The analysis of interviews and video diaries presented in this paper focuses on two key elements of emotional engagement: interest and belonging. Findings highlight the importance of interest triggered by personal preferences and experiences. Interest led to enjoyment, increased behavioural engagement with greater time and effort expended, and improved cognitive engagement in terms of depth and breadth of learning. In contrast, there was less evidence of the social side of emotional engagement, belonging. Participants felt little connection to the university, but connecting with fellow students through face-to-face courses and online forums was important for some to reduce their sense of isolation. However, distance study was not for all. The findings highlight the need for staff to consider emotional engagement when designing and delivering the curriculum and when interacting with students, particularly in the all-important first year.

  16. OPERATIONAL CIRCULAR No. 4 (REV. 1) – USE OF VEHICLES BELONGING TO OR RENTED BY CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 4 (Rev. 1) entitled “Use of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN”, approved by the Director-general following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 15 February 2012, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 4 entitled “Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN” of April 2003. This new version enables, in particular, to include CERN contractors and their personnel, to harmonize the structure of the circular with other circulars and to simplify the procedures by permitting electronics forms. Department Head Office HR Department

  17. Latinos' Changing Ethnic Group Representation From Elementary to Middle School: Perceived Belonging and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Chicas, Jessica; Graham, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the association between change in ethnic group representation from elementary to middle school and Latino students' school belonging and achievement. The ethnic diversity of students' middle school was examined as a moderator. Participants were 1,825 Latino sixth graders from 26 ethnically diverse urban middle schools. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a change in ethnic representation toward fewer Latinos in middle school than elementary school was related to less perceived belonging and lower achievement in schools with low ethnic diversity. There were no mean differences as a function of declining representation in more diverse middle schools, suggesting that greater school diversity was protective. Findings highlight the importance of examining school ethnic context, especially across the middle school transition. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  18. Empty Selves and Multiple Belonging: Gadamer and Nāgārjuna on Religious Identity’s Hidden Plurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hustwit J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction to multiple religious belonging has been fraught with anxiety in the monotheistic traditions. Nevertheless, increasing numbers of people report belonging to multiple religions. I propose that it is most useful to think of multiple religious belonging not so much as an expression of choice, but just the opposite. Multiple religious belonging is best explained as the ontological condition of two or more religious traditions constituting the self, so that the self’s possibilities are constrained by those religions. Furthermore, I argue that multiple religious belonging per se does not threaten traditional religious communities. Threats are by definition future possibilities, and ontologically speaking, we always already belong to multiple religions. We belong to multiple religions because every religious tradition is an amalgam of earlier distinct traditions. There is nothing new about multiple religious belonging. It is nearly unremarkable. Two philosophers in particular-one a twentieth-century German phenomenologist, the other a second-century Indian Buddhist-have given particularly careful examination of the phenomenon of belonging. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s concept of Wirkungsgeschichte [history of effects] and Nāgārjuna’s teaching of śūnyatā [emptiness] both imply that multiple religious belonging is the ontological condition of all human beings, and that producing any monolithic religious identity requires significant mental gymnastics.

  19. Identification of Recent Bats belonging to the Rhinolophidae by the Humeral Characters

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Myung Hee; Uchida, Teruaki; 内田, 照章

    1983-01-01

    Humeral characters of eleven recent species and one subspecies belonging to three genera of the Rhinolophidae including two subfamilies were described. A key provides for their identification as well as the identification of the fossil bats found on the Akiyoshi-dai Plateau. Further, we discussed differences in the adaptability for flight of the bats not only within each taxon of the family but also between the phylogenetically less advanced Rhinolophidae and the more advanced Vespertilionida...

  20. The Strongylidae belonging to Strongylus genus in horses from southeastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Studzińska, M. B.; Tomczuk, K.; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, M.; Szczepaniak, K.

    2012-01-01

    Postmortem parasitic examinations of the large intestines of 725 slaughtered horses from individual farmers in southeastern Poland were carried out. The examinations were carried out monthly since February 2006 until January 2007 (except for August 2007 because of a technological stoppage in the slaughterhouse). The examinations included the intensiveness and extensiveness of the infestation of the Strongylidae belonging to the Strongylus genus. The Strongylidae were found in 26.5 % of the ex...

  1. Contested Spaces. Meaningful Places. Contemporary Performances of Place and Belonging in Spain and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. C. Krom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to contribute to current anthropological debate on space and place, analysing in two instances of festival performance how, on the one hand the politics of appropriation of space contributes to the configuration of power relations, and how on the other hand, participants in these festivals engage individually and collectively with physical space(s to create places which they experience as meaningful in terms of identity and belonging.

  2. Morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Špakaitė, Ina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania. The detailed research of freshwater and terrestrial Nostoc and Desmonostoc species provided new data on taxonomy, biology and ecology of these cyanobacteria and the overall diversity of algae in Lithuania. 20 Nostoc species and two intraspecific taxa, and 18 taxa to the Nostoc genus level were identified. Twelve Nostoc species and intraspecifi...

  3. Critical Taxonomic Appraisal of Some Taxa of Pedicularis from Indian Himalayas Belonging to Section Siphonanthae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Garg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The existing confusion on the taxonomic status of five taxa of Pedicularis viz. P. punctata Decne, P. siphonantha D. Don, P. hookeriana Wall. ex Benth., P. megalantha D. Don and P. hoffmeisteri Kl. ex Kl. & Garcke is resolved on the basis of critical morphological study. These taxa belong to section Siphonanthae, subgenus Longirostres. Pennell’s view of segregating these taxa into distinct species is defended and upheld.

  4. Accuracy evaluation of the prescribed calibration factors for ionisation chambers belonging to radiotherapy centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Taufik Dolah; Supian Samat; Taiman Kadni

    1999-01-01

    Air kerma and exposure calibration factors of 14 ionisation chambers belonging to ten local radiotherapy centres have been determined by SSDL in the recent last ten month (1/10/1998 - 31/7/1999). The results obtained were compared either with previous SSDL results, or the chambers certificate values. The range of the percentage deviations obtained was -1.70% to 1.18%, which lies between the IAEA accepted value of range ±3.5%. (author)

  5. The Religious Quest As Transformative Journey: Interspiritual Religious Belonging And The Problem Of Religious Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEntee Rory

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As scholars and the public grope towards understanding emergent forms of religiosity (multiple-religious belonging, spiritual but not religious, interspirituality, notions of discernment, religious depth, and spiritual practice figure prominently in defining and assessing these forms. Some form of commitment to a particular religious tradition is often considered the most important factor in the discernment of religious depth, while “spiritual but not religious” is often seen as the amorphous searching or the drifting whims of an immature ego. I will argue, however, that failing to take into account the most mature forms of emerging religiosity is bound to miss important developments, just as similar methodologies would for traditional religions. Further, I point out problems with correlating religious depth with belonging to a particular religious tradition, and offer an alternate way to conceive of religious depth. In doing so I develop the concept of the religious quest as transformative journey, allowing for a more capacious understanding of religious consciousness. I then introduce interspiritual religious belonging, contrasting it with certain understandings of “multiple-religious” belonging, and providing mature examples of its embodiment. Finally, utilizing new surveys from Pew and PPRI showing accelerating growth among the “spiritual but not religious” and “religiously unaffiliated”-as well as expanding religious and racial diversity within the United States-I briefly reference potential political ramifications the interspiritual movement might have, and address the importance of developing mature theological perspectives from within it. It is my hope that the Theology Without Walls project can provide academic space for the latter.

  6. [Factors of persistence and (or) pathogenicity in vibrios and aeromonads belonging to different ecotopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, O V; Boĭko, A V; Zhuravleva, L A

    1998-01-01

    Factors of persistence and/or pathogenicity in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila (hemolytic, lipase, lecithin, DNAase, RNAase, antilysozyme, "anti-interferon", anticomplementary activities and capacity for absorbing Congo red) were studied. The study revealed the interspecific and subpopulation (hospital and extraorganismal parts of the population) differences in the activity of the manifestation of these factors. Strong dependence of the whole complex of persistence and pathogenicity factors of their belonging to the hostal part of Vibrio and Aeromonas populations was shown.

  7. Transcultural and Imagological Figures: Disenchantment, Allophilia, and Belonging in Enrique Vila-Matas and Antonio Tabucchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Simões

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In some contemporary literary works, the presence of the ‘other’ and the representation of the ‘foreigner’ emphasize the problematic ways by which human beings relate to foreign people, revealing how those issues are pressing concerns in modern society. This study questions how the shift in the way we perceive identity and belonging are depicted in Enrique Vila-Matas and Antonio Tabucchi’s fictions. Both authors aesthetically represent episodes and situations where characters’ relation to space is problematic, showing how the idea of belonging can be related not only to a specific country or a special space, but also to a desired space.  Furthermore, based  on the pregnancy of the notion of ‘dwelling’ theorized by Emmanuel Levinas, this study  analyses how characters and narrators aesthetically represent the complexity of belonging and examines some of the transnational transfers and multicultural connexions displayed by both autors, mainly in Never Any End to Paris and It’s Getting Later All the Time.

  8. Benefits of belonging: experimental manipulation of social inclusion to enhance psychological and physiological health parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begen, Fiona M; Turner-Cobb, Julie M

    2015-01-01

    Acute changes in social belonging are important triggers for alterations in health and well-being, yet research has emphasised the negative effects of 'exclusion' at the expense of evaluating the potentially positive effects of 'inclusion'. This study examined the impact of acute belonging on physiological and psychological outcomes. A healthy population (N = 138) were randomly allocated to 'included' or 'excluded' conditions. Condition-dependent differences in pre/during-task heart rate and pre/post-task self-reports of negative/positive mood, and social self-esteem, were assessed. Included participants showed decreased heart rate and negative mood, and increased social self-esteem. No inclusion-related change in positive mood was shown. An increase in heart rate was observed in excluded participants though no changes in negative/positive mood or social self-esteem were shown. Shifts in social self-esteem acted as a mechanism through which inclusion/exclusion impacted upon negative and positive mood alterations. Results remained significant in presence of covariates (sex, global self-esteem, rumination and social anxiety). Findings suggest that acting to enhance belonging through 'inclusion' resulted in adaptive physiological and psychological outcomes. Neutral and potentially protective responses were observed in the immediate aftermath of 'exclusion'. Self-esteem served as one route through which these effects were transmitted.

  9. A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Gregory M; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2011-03-18

    A brief intervention aimed at buttressing college freshmen's sense of social belonging in school was tested in a randomized controlled trial (N = 92), and its academic and health-related consequences over 3 years are reported. The intervention aimed to lessen psychological perceptions of threat on campus by framing social adversity as common and transient. It used subtle attitude-change strategies to lead participants to self-generate the intervention message. The intervention was expected to be particularly beneficial to African-American students (N = 49), a stereotyped and socially marginalized group in academics, and less so to European-American students (N = 43). Consistent with these expectations, over the 3-year observation period the intervention raised African Americans' grade-point average (GPA) relative to multiple control groups and halved the minority achievement gap. This performance boost was mediated by the effect of the intervention on subjective construal: It prevented students from seeing adversity on campus as an indictment of their belonging. Additionally, the intervention improved African Americans' self-reported health and well-being and reduced their reported number of doctor visits 3 years postintervention. Senior-year surveys indicated no awareness among participants of the intervention's impact. The results suggest that social belonging is a psychological lever where targeted intervention can have broad consequences that lessen inequalities in achievement and health.

  10. Synthesis of siderophores by strains of Staphylococcus cohnii isolated from various environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarapińska-Kwaszewska, Jadwiga; Farkas, Lukasz I

    2003-01-01

    Siderophore activity as the feature of microorganisms enabling colonization of human body and the survival in inanimate environment was investigated in 108 strains of Staphylococcus cohnii; S. cohnii ssp. cohnii (50 strains) and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus (58 strains). Strains were isolated from people, hospital and non-hospital environment. Highest siderophore activity was noted in strains S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus particularly from the inanimate environments origin. In 86% analyzed strains siderophores of hydroxamate class were detected. Larger amounts of these compounds were synthesized in strains S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. Strains belonging to both subspecies from human origin showed lower activity of siderophores (total pool) and did not produce hydroxamate class chelators or produced very small amounts of these compounds.

  11. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Ngom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia, was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains.

  12. Intraspecies diversity of Lactobacillus sakei response to oxidative stress and variability of strain performance in mixed strains challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, Morgan; Zagorec, Monique; Chaillou, Stéphane; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2012-04-01

    Lactobacillus sakei is a meat-borne lactic acid bacterium species exhibiting a wide genomic diversity. We have investigated the diversity of response to various oxidative compounds, between L. sakei strains, among a collection representing the genomic diversity. We observed various responses to the different compounds as well as a diversity of response depending on the aeration conditions used for cell growth. A principal component analysis revealed two main phenotypic groups, partially correlating with previously described genomic clusters. We designed strains mixes composed of three different strains, in order to examine the behavior of each strain, when cultured alone or in the presence of other strains. The strains composing the mixtures were chosen as diverse as possible, i.e. exhibiting diverse responses to oxidative stress and belonging to different genomic clusters. Growth and survival rates of each strain were monitored under various aeration conditions, with or without heme supplementation. The results obtained suggest that some strains may act as "helper" or "burden" strains depending on the oxidative conditions encountered during incubation. This study confirms that resistance to oxidative stress is extremely variable within the L. sakei species and that this property should be considered when investigating starter performance in the complex meat bacterial ecosystems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  14. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  15. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  16. Sonorensin: an antimicrobial peptide, belonging to the heterocycloanthracin subfamily of bacteriocins, from a new marine isolate, Bacillus sonorensis MT93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Lipsy; Singh, Gurdeep; Choudhary, Vikas; Sahoo, Debendra K

    2014-05-01

    Marine environments are the greatest fronts of biodiversity, representing a resource of unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received great attention recently due to their applications as food preservatives and therapeutic agents. A new marine soil isolate producing an AMP was identified as Bacillus sonorensis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It produced an AMP that showed a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The peptide, named sonorensin, was purified to homogeneity using a combination of chromatographic techniques. The intact molecular mass of the purified peptide, 6,274 Da, as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), was in agreement with Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis. A PCR array of primers was used to identify AMP structural genes, which allowed the successful amplification of the related genes from strain MT93. The putative open reading frame of sonorensin was amplified, cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector, expressed as a thioredoxin (Trx) fusion protein in Escherichia coli, and then purified. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the bacteriocin being reported could belong to new subfamily of bacteriocins, heterocycloanthracin. The peptide indicated its potential as a biocontrol agent or food antimicrobial agent, due to its antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of the production, purification, and characterization of wild-type and recombinant bacteriocin by B. sonorensis and the first bacteriocin of the heterocycloanthracin subfamily to be characterized.

  17. Health-promoting properties exhibited by Lactobacillus helveticus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Gustaw, Waldemar; Waśko, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Many strains belonging to lactobacilli exert a variety of beneficial health effects in humans and some of the bacteria are regarded as probiotic microorganisms. Adherence and capabilities of colonization by Lactobacillus strains of the intestinal tract is a prerequisite for probiotic strains to exhibit desired functional properties. The analysis conducted here aimed at screening strains of Lactobacillus helveticus possessing a health-promoting potential. The molecular analysis performed, revealed the presence of a slpA gene encoding the surface S-layer protein SlpA (contributing to the immunostimulatory activity of L. helveticus M 92 probiotic strain) in all B734, DSM, T80, and T105 strains. The product of gene amplification was also identified in a Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 probiotic strain. SDS-PAGE of a surface protein extract demonstrated the presence of a protein with a mass of about 50 kDa in all strains, which refers to the mass of the S-layer proteins. These results are confirmed by observations carried with transmission electron microscopy, where a clearly visible S-layer was registered in all the strains analyzed. The in vitro study results obtained indicate that the strongest adhesion capacity to epithelial cells (HT-29) was demonstrated by L. helveticus B734, while coaggregation with pathogens was highly diverse among the tested strains. The percentage degree of coaggregation was increasing with the incubation time. After 5 h of incubation, the strongest ability to coaggregate with Escherichia coli was expressed by T104. The T80 strain demonstrated a significant ability to co-aggregate with Staphylococcus aureus, while DSM with Bacillus subtilis. For B734, the highest values of co-aggregation coefficient was noted in samples with Salmonella. The capability of autoaggregation, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to increasing salt concentrations, and strain survival in simulated small intestinal juice were also analyzed.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Pestivirus Strain PG-2, a Second Member of the Tentative Pestivirus Species Giraffe

    OpenAIRE

    Becher, Paul; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias; Postel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of bovine pestivirus strain PG-2. The sequence data from this virus showed that PG-2 is closely related to the giraffe pestivirus strain H138. PG-2 and H138 belong to one pestivirus species that should be considered an approved member of the genus Pestivirus.

  19. In-planta Sporulation Capacity Enhances Infectivity and Rhizospheric Competitiveness of Frankia Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Pozzi, Adrien C; Schwob, Guillaume; Fournier, Pascale; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Frankia Sp+ strains maintain their ability to sporulate in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, producing abundant sporangia inside host plant cells, in contrast to Sp- strains, which are unable to perform in-planta sporulation. We herein examined the role of in-planta sporulation in Frankia infectivity and competitiveness for root infection. Fifteen strains belonging to different Sp+ and Sp- phylogenetic lineages were inoculated on seedlings of Alnus glutinosa (Ag) and A. incana (Ai). Strain competitiveness was investigated by performing Sp-/Sp+ co-inoculations. Plant inoculations were standardized using crushed nodules obtained under laboratory-controlled conditions (same plant species, age, and environmental factors). Specific oligonucleotide primers were developed to identify Frankia Sp+ and/or Sp- strains in the resulting nodules. Single inoculation experiments showed that (i) infectivity by Sp+ strains was significantly greater than that by Sp- strains, (ii) genetically divergent Sp+ strains exhibited different infective abilities, and (iii) Sp+ and Sp- strains showed different host preferences according to the origin (host species) of the inocula. Co-inoculations of Sp+ and Sp- strains revealed the greater competitiveness of Sp+ strains (98.3 to 100% of Sp+ nodules, with up to 15.6% nodules containing both Sp+ and Sp- strains). The results of the present study highlight differences in Sp+/Sp- strain ecological behaviors and provide new insights to strengthen the obligate symbiont hypothesis for Sp+ strains.

  20. The organisation and needs of young sections belonging to UEG National Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Castro, Valeria; Dolak, Werner

    2017-01-01

    launched a survey to collect up-to-date information on YGISs belonging to UEG National Societies. The Friends of YTG were chosen as the target population and received a web-based questionnaire concerning their personal information, the structure of YGIS in their respective country, the YGIS' support...... suggest that a lack of funding, of harmonised education, and of active roles available within National Societies, were the concerns most prevalent among young fellows. Our survey shows that the development of YGIS is being hindered by organisational, financial, and political issues. The YTG believes...

  1. Detailed abundances in stars belonging to ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    François, P.; Monaco, L.; Villanova, S.; Catelan, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Bellazzini, M.; Bidin, C. Moni; Marconi, G.; Geisler, D.; Sbordone, L.

    2012-01-01

    We report preliminary results concerning the detailed chemical composition of metal poor stars belonging to close ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (hereafter UfDSphs). The abundances have been determined thanks to spectra obtained with X-Shooter, a high efficiency spectrograph installed on one of the ESO VLT units. The sample of ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal stars have abundance ratios slightly lower to what is measured in field halo star of the same metallicity.We did not find extreme abundances in...

  2. Four New Ladybug Species Belonging to Decadiomus Chapin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra-Carmona, A E; Otero, M

    2014-12-01

    While searching for native natural enemies attacking invasive insect pests in Puerto Rico, we found four undescribed ladybug species belonging to the Caribbean ladybug genus Decadiomus Chapin. In this article, we describe the following species from Puerto Rico: Decadiomus seini n. sp., Decadiomus ramosi n. sp., Decadiomus hayuyai n. sp., and Decadiomus martorelli n. sp. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus, shape of prosternal carinae, and drawings of male and female genitalia are presented. We also present a key for Diomini of Puerto Rico and discuss their importance as potential biocontrol agents.

  3. Chemical of shales belonging to Castellanos and Migues formations (Cretaceous), Santa Lucia basin - Uruguay: Paleoenvironment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, E.; Veloslavsky, G.; Fulfaro, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work there are analyzed 16 samples of shales belonging to Castellanos and Migues formations (Cretaceous), taken from cores of various boreholes of the Santa Lucia Basin (Uruguay). Chemical analysis of major elements, trace elements (B,V, Sr, Rb, Cr y Ga) and X- ray diffractometry were done to them in order to obtain a geochemical characterization. The characterization shows that their chemical composition is comparable to the world average composition of shales. Besides, the X-ray diffractometry. Based on that, it is clear to deduce that it existed a change in the environment conditions having a shift from a redactor environment which agrees with former micropaleontologic studies. (author)

  4. Phyto-therapeutic claims about euphorbeaceous plants belonging to pakistan; an ethnomedicinal review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.T.; Shinwari, ZK.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotany has attracted many researchers in the modern era in order to find novel and cheaper approaches to alleviate the human sufferings. Since ancient times, plants are used traditionally for cure. In the last few years herbal practices have attained global relevance. Among the different important plant families, the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is well known for its therapeutic potential. Different plants are used in folk medicinal practices in different forms to treat several diseases. Plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae are common in Pakistan and used for different purposes. The present communication deals with the different ethnomedicinal uses reported in the peer reviewed articles of the various species present in Pakistan. (author)

  5. A strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a strain gauge of a carrier layer and a meandering measurement grid (101) positioned on the carrier layer, wherein the measurement grid comprises a number of measurement grid sections placed side by side with gaps in between, and a number of end loops (106) interconnecting...... relates to a method for manufacturing a strain gauge as mentioned above....

  6. Complete genome sequence of Marivirga tractuosa type strain (H-43).

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Ioanna; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Tice, Hope; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Nolan, Matt; Saunders, Elizabeth; Pitluck, Sam; Held, Brittany; Goodwin, Lynne; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ovchinikova, Galina

    2011-01-01

    Marivirga tractuosa (Lewin 1969) Nedashkovskaya et al. 2010 is the type species of the genus Marivirga, which belongs to the family Flammeovirgaceae. Members of this genus are of interest because of their gliding motility. The species is of interest because representative strains show resistance to several antibiotics, including gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, polymixin and streptomycin. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Flammeovirgaceae. Here we describe t...

  7. Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Fernández Pinto, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    of the chemical potential. Four strains belonged to the Alternaria infectoria sp.-grp., 6 to the Alternaria arborescens sp.-grp., 6 showed a sporulation pattern similar to that of “M” according to Simmons, 1 to that of Alternaria vaccinii, and the remaining 70 constituted a diverse group belonging...... sporulation pattern “M” were only isolated from tomatoes. Otherwise, no clear association between substrate and identity could be found. The analyses in the study show that at least 75% of the Argentinean strains are able to produce potential mycotoxins....

  8. Belonging to and in the Shale Gas Fields. A Case-Study of the Noordoostpolder, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhne, Michiel; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how belonging becomes articulated in relation to large-scale extractive projects. It does so through an ethnographic analysis of the construction of belonging expressed in languages of valuation (the meanings that people give to natural resources discursively and in practice)

  9. Does Students' Machismo Fit in School? Clarifying the Implications of Traditional Gender Role Ideology for School Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyge, Ellen; Van Maele, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    How much students feel at home in school predicts academic outcomes. In view of the gender achievement gap, it is worth examining the gendered pattern of this school belonging. Studies on school belonging, however, have barely acknowledged possible obstructive effects of traditional gender role attitudes of individual students and student…

  10. Remaking Selves, Repositioning Selves, or Remaking Space: An Examination of Asian American College Students' Processes of "Belonging"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    The importance of "belonging" for college students has been well documented. Students' sense of belonging is closely related to their academic achievement, retention, engagement, satisfaction with student life, mental health, and overall well-being (Astin, 1993; Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Bowman, 2010; Hausmann, Schofield, &…

  11. The parasites of cereal stem borers (Lepidoptera: Cossidae, Crambidae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae) in Africa, belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Polaszek, A.

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the parasites (parasitoids) of the African cereal stem borers (including introduced species) belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera); 38 species belonging to 19 genera are keyed and treated. Three new species are described: Macrocentrus sesamivorus spec. nov. from

  12. The funeral in the village: urbanites' shifting imaginations of belonging, mobility, and community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, P.; Diouf, M.; Fredericks, R.

    2014-01-01

    Throughout Africa, the continuing involvement of urbanites with the village of origin—for some time, seen as a special trait of urbanization in the continent—seems to be under heavy strain. For the Yoruba area, where urbanization has a relatively long history, Dan Aronson spoke in 1971 of “a

  13. Ecology, Inhibitory Activity, and Morphogenesis of a Marine Antagonistic Bacterium Belonging to the Roseobacter Clade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Hjelm, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Roseobacter strain 27-4 has been isolated from a turbot larval rearing unit and is capable of reducing mortality in turbot egg yolk sac larvae. Here, we demonstrate that the supernatant of Roseobacter 27-4 is lethal to the larval pathogens Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus in a buffer syst...

  14. Molecular Identification Of Trichoderma Strains Collected To Develop Plant Growth-Promoting And Biocontrol Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskiera Michał

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma strains that are beneficial to both the growth and health of plants can be used as plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF or biological control agents (BCA in agricultural and horticultural practices. In order to select PGPF or BCA strains, their biological properties and taxonomy must be carefully studied. In this study, 104 strains of Trichoderma collected at geographically different locations in Poland for selection as PGPF or BCA were identified by DNA barcoding, based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2 of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and on the sequences of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1, chitinase 18-5 (chi18-5, and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2 gene fragments. Most of the strains were classified as: T. atroviride (38%, T. harzianum (21%, T. lentiforme (9%, T. virens (9%, and T. simmonsii (6%. Single strains belonging to T. atrobrunneum, T. citrinoviride, T. crassum, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. spirale, T. tomentosum, and T. viridescens were identified. Three strains that are potentially pathogenic to cultivated mushrooms belonging to T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were also identified. Four strains: TRS4, TRS29, TRS33, and TRS73 were classified to Trichoderma spp. and molecular identification was inconclusive at the species level. Phylogeny analysis showed that three of these strains TRS4, TRS29, and TRS33 belong to Trichoderma species that is not yet taxonomically established and strain TRS73 belongs to the T. harzianum complex, however, the species could not be identified with certainty.

  15. A journey of negotiation and belonging: understanding students' transitions to science and engineering in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents results from a longitudinal study of students' decisions to enrol on a higher education science programme and their experiences of it. The aim is to give insights into students' transition process and negotiation of identity. This is done by following a cohort of 38 students in a series of qualitative interviews during a 3-year period starting as they were about to finish upper secondary school. We find that the students' choice of study is an ongoing process of meaning-making, which continues when the students enter higher education and continuously work on their identities to gain a sense of belonging to their science or engineering programme. The use of a narrative methodology provides understanding of choice of study as involving changes in future perspectives and in the interpretation of past experiences. Further, we gain access into how this meaning-making process over time reflects the students' negotiations in terms of belonging to higher education and their coping strategies when their expectations of their new programme interact with their first-year experiences.

  16. Transnationalism among Second-Generation Muslim Americans: Being and Belonging in Their Transnational Social Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Byng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An increase in transnationalism, the ability of individuals and families to travel and maintain relationships across national borders, has led to questions about its impact on identity especially for the children of migrants. When combined with concerns about global and national security such as those that are associated with Muslims and Islam, then questions about the strength national identity are particularly pertinent. This analysis uses the theories of transnational social fields and intersectionality to examine the transnational experiences of second-generation Muslim Americans. It relies on qualitative interview data. The data show the intersection of their national, religious, and gender identities. It demonstrates that they experience transnational being in their parents’ country of origin and belonging in the United States. Nationality, religion, and gender influence what they experience in each location. The analysis demonstrates the stability and centrality of American national identity in what second-generation Muslims experience in both locations. Moreover, their belonging in the United States rests squarely on their perceptions of themselves as Americans and their construction of their Muslim identity as an American religious identity.

  17. Against the odds: foster carers' perceptions of family, commitment and belonging in successful placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Nicholas; Rostill-Brookes, Helen; Larkin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines carer attributes associated with placement stability for teenagers growing up in long term foster care, focusing on unexpected placement success. We explored experiences and perceptions relating to family, belonging and commitment in a group of foster carers providing a stable placement for a young person who had not been expected to settle. These placements showed positive outcome, despite factors in the child's history that might have predicted otherwise. Seven foster carers were interviewed following a semi-structured guide, which covered their ideas about their relationship with the child in question, about the foster family, and the child's sense of belonging in foster and birth family. Analysis of carers' accounts of placements which had succeeded 'against the odds' revealed four major themes, described under the headings My Child--emotional bonding, the carers' enlarged view of family and their parental regard for the young person; Jam in the Sandwich--working within a 'compromised space' between Local Authority and birth family; Repair and Rebuild--the craft of fostering including managing the foster/birth family boundary; Sticking with It--resilience, tenacity and maintaining hopefulness. The carers' accounts offer pointers towards the ingredients of successful placements and prompt reflection on how these may be supported and promoted. They also highlight tensions inherent in the foster carer task relating to carers' parental functioning for young people in long-term foster care.

  18. Depression, anxiety and stress among adolescent students belonging to affluent families: a school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Sanjiv K; Sharma, Rahul; Saini, N K

    2010-02-01

    To study depression, anxiety and stress (DAS) among adolescent school students belonging to affluent families and the factors associated with high levels of DAS. 242 adolescent students belonging to class 9-12th selected for the study. DASS-21 questionnaire was used for assessing DAS. The scores in the three domains (DAS) were found to be remarkably correlated. It was seen that depression was significantly more among the females (mean rank 132.5) than the males (mean rank 113.2), p=0.03. Depression (p=0.025), Anxiety (0.005) and Stress (pstudents. Depression and Stress were found to be significantly associated with the number of adverse events in the student's life that occurred in last one year. A significant proportion of the students were found to be having high levels of DAS and several important factors were found to be associated with them. Proactive steps at the school-level and community-level and steps for improved parent-adolescent communication are needed for amelioration of the problem.

  19. To belong, contribute, and hope: first stage development of a measure of social recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Casadi Khaki

    2015-04-01

    Recovery from mental health challenges is beginning to be explored as an inherently social process. There is a need to measure social recovery. Targeted measures would be utilized in needs assessment, service delivery, and program evaluation. This paper reports on the first stage of development of a social recovery measure. Explore the social aspects of recovery as reported by individuals with lived experience. A qualitative study using thematic analysis of data from focus groups with 41 individuals in recovery. Three meta-themes of social recovery emerged: community, self-concept, and capacities. Each theme contained a number of sub-themes concerned with a sense of belonging, inherent acceptability of the self, and ability to cope with mental distress and engage socially. Study participants clearly spoke to common human needs to belong, contribute, and have hope for one's future. Findings converged with results of consumer-led research that emphasize the importance of overcoming the impact of illness on the self and social context.

  20. Questions of migration and belonging: understandings of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, V

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores alternative understandings and experiences of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador. Through the case study, the study examines migrants' multiple motivations for mobility and their ambivalence toward the process. Insights from the transnational migration literature were drawn in order to think through the implications of an increasingly contradictory context of economic modernization and its impact upon the sense of possibilities and belonging of migrants. In-depth interviews with urban-destined migrants in Ecuador were drawn to argue that mobility produces ambivalent development subjects. This argument is developed in three sections. First, the paper centers on the epistemological and theoretical basis for the relevance of migrant narratives in extending theorizations of migration. Second, in-depth interviews with migrants to Quito are drawn to explore migrants' sense of belonging and regional affiliation, identity formation through migration, and experiences of alienation and disruption in their lives. Lastly, this paper concludes with a retheorization of the role of migration places in the migrant identity construction.

  1. Effect of Freezing on Spermatozoa from Tigaie Rams Belonging to the Mountain Ecotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Miclea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to study the influence of freezing on the viability and frequency of abnormalities in frozen ram spermatozoa. Sperm was collected form 20 rams belonging to the mountain ecotype of the Tigaie breed using the artificial vagina technique and volume and motility were assessed. Afterward it was diluted with Tryladil (1:4 supplemented with 20% egg yolk and heated at 37°C. Subsequently the temperature decreased at a rate of 0.2°C/minute until reaching 4°C and an equilibration time of 2 hours followed. During this time the diluted sperm was packaged in 0.25 ml straws. After sealing these were kept 6 cm above liquid nitrogen level for 13 minutes (- 120°C and then plunged into nitrogen. Volume, motility and concentration were assessed before freezing. After thawing sperm morphology was assessed using Hancock’s method and at the same time the endurance (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes and HOST tests were performed. The highest motility (0.40 was graded at 30 minutes. It could be correlated with the increased percentage of HOST positive spermatozoa, 27.78%. The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was also high (47.89%, 38.44% of them having acrosome flaws. Cryopreservation has a negative effect on the characteristics of sperm cells from Tigaie rams belonging to the mountain ecotype.

  2. Sexual Harassment Victimization, School Belonging, and Depressive Symptoms Among LGBTQ Adolescents: Temporal Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchel, Tyler; Espelage, Dorothy L; Huang, Yuanhong

    2017-06-15

    Peer victimization and the associated poor outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth have been the focus of countless studies. School climate is a factor that has garnered significant attention. Perceptions of school contexts may even be mechanisms that define how victimization relates to poor outcomes. However, there is a lack of rigorous scholarship that could demonstrate directionality and therefore further augment our understanding of these relations. Specifically, it is not clear if victimization is strictly an antecedent to mental health issues like depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined the associations among sexual harassment victimization, school belonging, and depressive symptoms among LGBTQ high school students (n = 404). Self-report measures were completed at 3 time points across 3 school years in 6 Midwest high schools. Structural equation modeling indicated that peer victimization was an antecedent to depressive symptoms, and that school belonging mediated the association. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Isolation and sequence characterization of DNA-A genome of a new begomovirus strain associated with severe leaf curling symptoms of Jatropha curcas L.

    KAUST Repository

    Chauhan, Sushma; Rahman, Hifzur; Mastan, Shaik G.; Sudheer, Pamidimarri D.V.N.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2018-01-01

    Begomoviruses belong to the family Geminiviridae are associated with several disease symptoms, such as mosaic and leaf curling in Jatropha curcas. The molecular characterization of these viral strains will help in developing management strategies

  4. Efficacy of fungal decolorization of a mixture of dyes belonging to different classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Przystas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are the most difficult constituents to remove by conventional biological wastewater treatment. Colored wastewater is mainly eliminated by physical and chemical procedures, which are very expensive and have drawbacks. Therefore, the advantage of using biological processes, such as the biotransformation of dyes, is that they may lead to complete mineralization or formation of less toxic products. To prove the possibility of using fungal processes for decolorization and other applications, the analysis of the toxicity of the processes' products is required. The decolorization of the mixture of two dyes from different classes - triphenylmethane brilliant green and azo Evans blue (GB - total concentration 0.08 g/L, proportion 1:1 w/w - by Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH and MB, Gloeophyllum odoratum (DCa, RWP17 (Polyporus picipes and Fusarium oxysporum (G1 was studied. Zootoxicity (Daphnia magna and phytotoxicity (Lemna minor changes were estimated at the end of the experiment. The mixture of dyes was significantly removed by all the strains that were tested with 96 h of experimental time. However, differences among strains from the same species (P. ostreatus were noted. Shaking improved the efficacy and rate of the dye removal. In static samples, the removal of the mixture reached more than 51.9% and in shaken samples, more than 79.2%. Tests using the dead biomass of the fungi only adsorbed up to 37% of the dye mixture (strain BWPH, which suggests that the process with the living biomass involves the biotransformation of the dyes. The best results were reached for the MB strain, which removed 90% of the tested mixture under shaking conditions. Regardless of the efficacy of the dye removal, toxicity decreased from class V to class III in tests with D. magna. Tests with L. minor control samples were classified as class IV, and samples with certain strains were non-toxic. The highest phytotoxicity decrease was noted in shaken samples where the

  5. The efficacy of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity using a brucellin prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus to detect brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.; Muskens, J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Eight-hundred-and-ninety-six cattle belonging to herds officially designated Brucella-free, and 190 cattle belonging to infected herds were tested with the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (SDTH) test, using brucellin (273) prepared from a rnucoid strain of Brucella abortus. An increase in

  6. Probiotic and technological properties of Lactobacillus spp. strains from the human stomach in the search for potential candidates against gastric microbial dysbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Susana; Leite, Analy M. O.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Mayo, Baltasar

    2015-01-01

    This work characterizes a set of lactobacilli strains isolated from the stomach of healthy humans that might serve as probiotic cultures. Ten different strains were recognized by rep-PCR and PFGE fingerprinting among 19 isolates from gastric biopsies and stomach juice samples. These strains belonged to five species, Lactobacillus gasseri (3), Lactobacillus reuteri (2), Lactobacillus vaginalis (2), Lactobacillus fermentum (2) and Lactobacillus casei (1). All ten strains were subjected to a ser...

  7. Commercial biocides induce transfer of prophage Φ13 from human strains of Staphylococcus aureus to livestock CC398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yuanyue; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Hvitved, Annemette

    2017-01-01

    if exposure to biocidal products induces phage transfer, and find that during co-culture, Φ13 from strain 8325, belonging to ΦSa3 group, is induced and transferred from a human strain to LA-MRSA CC398 when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial biocides containing hydrogen peroxide. Integration...... variation in CC398 strains that disrupts the phage attachment site, but not the expression of β-hemolysin. Our results show that hydrogen peroxide present in biocidal products stimulate transfer of ΦSa3 from human to LA-MRSA CC398 strains and that in these strains prophage stability depends...

  8. Immunoproteomic analysis of the human antibody response to natural tularemia infection with Type A or Type B strains or LVS vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Kelly M.; Zhao, Xigeng; Petit, Mireille D.; Kilmury, Sara L.N; Wolfraim, Lawrence A.; House, Robert V.; Sjostedt, Anders; Twine, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is pathogenic for many mammalian species including humans, causing a spectrum of diseases called tularemia. The highly virulent Type A strains have associated mortality rates of up to 60% if inhaled. An attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS) is the only vaccine to show efficacy in humans, but suffers several barriers to licensure, including the absence of a correlate of protection. An immunoproteomics approach was used to survey the repertoire of antibodies in sera from individuals who had contracted tularemia during two outbreaks and individuals from two geographical areas who had been vaccinated with NDBR Lot 11 or Lot 17 LVS. These data showed a large overlap in the antibodies generated in response to tularemia infection or LVS vaccination. A total of seven proteins were observed to be reactive with 60 % or more sera from vaccinees and convalescents. A further four proteins were recognised by 30–60 % of the sera screened. These proteins have the potential to serve as markers of vaccination or candidates for subunit vaccines. PMID:21873113

  9. Genetic characterization of L-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Jelena; Gulija, Tanja Kosutic; Forcic, Dubravko; Baricevic, Marijana; Jug, Renata; Mesko-Prejac, Majda; Mazuran, Renata

    2005-04-01

    Eleven mumps vaccine strains, all containing live attenuated virus, have been used throughout the world. Although L-Zagreb mumps vaccine has been licensed since 1972, only its partial nucleotide sequence was previously determined (accession numbers , and ). Therefore, we sequenced the entire genome of L-Zagreb vaccine strain (Institute of Immunology Inc., Zagreb, Croatia). In order to investigate the genetic stability of the vaccine, sequences of both L-Zagreb master seed and currently produced vaccine batch were determined and no difference between them was observed. A phylogenetic analysis based on SH gene sequence has shown that L-Zagreb strain does not belong to any of established mumps genotypes and that it is most similar to old, laboratory preserved European strains (1950s-1970s). L-Zagreb nucleotide and deduced protein sequences were compared with other mumps virus sequences obtained from the GenBank. Emphasis was put on functionally important protein regions and known antigenic epitopes. The extensive comparisons of nucleotide and deduced protein sequences between L-Zagreb vaccine strain and other previously determined mumps virus sequences have shown that while the functional regions of HN, V, and L proteins are well conserved among various mumps strains, there can be a substantial amino acid difference in antigenic epitopes of all proteins and in functional regions of F protein. No molecular pattern was identified that can be used as a distinction marker between virulent and attenuated strains.

  10. Polyphasic analysis of Acidovorax citrulli strains from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirley Michele Marques Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB of cucurbit plants is caused by Acidovorax citrulli and represents a serious concern to melon (Cucumis melo L. growers worldwide, including those in Brazil. Thirty-four A. citrulli strains from different melon production areas of northeastern Brazil were characterized for their virulence on melon fruits and their substrate utilization and molecular profiles. Based on the analysis of BFB severity on melon fruits, the A. citrulli strains were divided into three groups, classified as mildly, moderately or highly virulent. Although host-related groups were not observed, the watermelon and ‘melão-pepino’ strains exhibited only low or moderate virulence on melon fruit. Substrate utilization profiles revealed that 94 % of the 95 tested compounds were used by A. citrulli strains as a carbon source. Overall, based on substrate utilization, low variability was observed with no relationship to host of origin. The formation of one group of A. citrulli strains based on Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR analysis confirmed the low variability observed in the substrate utilization analyses. Bayesian inference based on the analysis of 23S rDNA partial sequence data resulted in one well-supported clade and clustered the strains with the A. citrulli-type species with high posterior probability support. Based on the markers used, the Brazilian A. citrulli strains belong to a single group, which corresponds to the previously described Group I for this bacterium in the United States.

  11. Internally Mounting Strain Gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, J. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for mounting strain gages inside bolt or cylinder simultaneously inserts gage, attached dowel segment, and length of expandable tubing. Expandable tubing holds gage in place while adhesive cures, assuring even distribution of pressure on gage and area gaged.

  12. Running Title: Strained Yoghurts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... ever, the traditional method of producing strained yoghurt ... Food market studies have the essential function of providing ..... Communication No: 2001/21. ... fermented foods and beverages of Turkey. Crit. Rev. Food. Sci. Nutr.

  13. Yersinia pestis strains of ancient phylogenetic branch 0.ANT are widely spread in the high-mountain plague foci of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroshenko, Galina A; Nosov, Nikita Yu; Krasnov, Yaroslav M; Oglodin, Yevgeny G; Kukleva, Lyubov M; Guseva, Natalia P; Kuznetsov, Alexander A; Abdikarimov, Sabyrzhan T; Dzhaparova, Aigul K; Kutyrev, Vladimir V

    2017-01-01

    Fifty six Yersinia pestis strains, isolated over the period of more than 50 years in three high-mountain foci of Kyrgyzstan (Tien Shan, Alai, and Talas), have been characterized by means of PCR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing methods. Seven of these strains were also characterized by means of whole genome sequencing and genome-wide SNP phylogenetic analysis. It was found that forty two strains belong to 0.ANT2, 0.ANT3 and 0.ANT5 phylogenetic branches. From these, strains of 0.ANT2 and 0.ANT3 branches were earlier detected in China only, whereas 0.ANT5 phylogenetic branch was identified for Y. pestis phylogeny for the first time. According to the results of genome-wide SNP analysis, 0.ANT5 strains are ones of the most closely related to Y. pestis strain responsible for the Justinianic Plague. We have also found out that four of the studied strains belong to the phylogenetic branch 2.MED1, and ten strains from Talas high-mountain focus belong to the phylogenetic branch 0.PE4 (sub-branch 0.PE4t). Established diversity of Y. pestis strains and extensive dissemination of the strains pertaining to the 0.ANT branch confirm the antiquity of the mentioned above plague foci and suggest that strains of the 0.ANT branch, which serve as precursors for all highly virulent Y. pestis strains, had their origin in the Tien Shan mountains.

  14. A Study on the Social Belonging of People to Iranian Society and its Relationship with Social Trust and Individualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Naz Bidel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of The present study investigated the extent of social belonging of people of Mashhad to Iran society and the relationship with social trust and individualism has been. Research has been Survey and data was collected through questionnaires. The Statistical Society' who was twenty years in Mashhad with a population 1530827 equals the number 384 as the sample size by using multi-stage cluster sampling is the selection and Specified. The results show the average amount of social belonging, respondents scored2/7, and to a maximum of5 points, the value of 2/3 is the score. The social belonging of the people of Mashhad to Iran is in the middle. Social belonging with increasing age and also social belonging in the Persians than other ethnic groups as well as practitioners than other people and in The middle class than other classes more have been. Overall, the independent variables were entered into multiple regression coefficients with 40% of the changes made to explain the dependent variable (R2=0/40 the variable «social trust» by a factor of 0/61 had the greatest impact on social belonging and then « extreme individualism «-0/1 8 determining factor influencing the next time it is used, thus increasing social distrust of the people most affected has had on their social belonging.

  15. Becoming, belonging and sharing: Striving to live in the spirit of Ubuntu in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Horta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the non-formal education programme of the Ubuntu Academy in Portugal, a non-profit organisation that aims to empower and train young adults with strong leadership potential. The participants, who come mostly from African immigrant communities and contexts of social exclusion, are trained to develop and implement social entrepreneur and outreach projects in their communities. I explore the Ubuntu Academy’s use of the Southern African communitarian philosophy of ubuntu and draw on ubuntu literature to argue that this specific education programme’s focus on the notions of humaneness and interdependence encapsulated in the concept of ubuntu has introduced a paradigm shift from an individualistic worldview prevalent in the West to a communitarian form of becoming, belonging and sharing. In this context, I consider the role of testimony and narrative in both promoting personal growth and developing a sense of interdependence and connectedness among people of diverse backgrounds and identities.

  16. Seeking "a place where one belongs": elderly Korean immigrant women using day care services in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kumsun; Herrera C, Lourdes R; Lee, Setsuko; Nakamura, Yasuhide

    2012-10-01

    The study examined the subjective life experiences of elderly first-generation Korean women living in Japan and investigated their adjustment to the local Japanese community. The study group comprised 14 elderly Korean women residents at a Korean-oriented, insurance-based, day services center in midwestern Japan. They were interviewed in depth, and the data were analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. The study designated the core category as "conservation of ethnic identity" and identified five subcategories: (a) loneliness, (b) returning to one's homeland culture, (c) physical decline as a result of aging, (d) family ties, and (e) a place where one belongs. The results elucidated that although the participants had adapted to Japanese culture, they were strongly influenced by the memories of their hometowns and wished to return to their homeland. The study suggests that elderly immigrants need day care support that provides an environment where they can enjoy their culture.

  17. Tuber aztecorum sp. nov., a truffle species from Mexico belonging to the Maculatum clade (Tuberaceae, Pezizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of truffle, T. aztecorum, is described from central Mexico. Tuber aztecorum can be distinguished from other related Tuber species synoptically by a combination of morphological features including ascospore size, pellis cells with irregular thickness, cystidia, ascoma colour and associated host (Abies religiosa an endemic Abies species from central Mexico; sequence variation on the ITS rDNA also distinguishes T. aztecorum from related species. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS rDNA demonstrates that T. aztecorum belongs to the Maculatum clade and is unique from other similar small, white-cream coloured Tuber species distributed in north-eastern Mexico such as T. castilloi and T. guevarai.

  18. The diversity of polyprenol pattern in leaves of fruit trees belonging to Rosaceae and Cornaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, M; Chojnacki, T; Swiezewska, E

    1998-01-01

    The polyprenol pattern in leaves of fruit trees belonging to the Rosaceae (genera: Prunus, Malus) and Cornaceae (genus: Cornus) families is presented. The content of polyprenyl acetates varied within plant species between 10-50 mg per gram of dry weight. In genus Prunus, Cornus and in representatives of species Malus domestica, a mixture of polyprenols composed of 18, 19, 20, 21 isoprene units was found. In six species of genus Prunus (sour-cherry): P. serrulata-spontanea, P. yedoensis, P. fruticosa. P. kurilensis, P. subhirtella and P. incisa the presence of a second polyprenol family, i.e. the group of prenologues consisting of prenol -35, -36, -37, etc. up to -42 was detected.

  19. Ixodes ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of anticomplement proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daix, V; Schroeder, H; Praet, N; Georgin, J-P; Chiappino, I; Gillet, L; de Fays, K; Decrem, Y; Leboulle, G; Godfroid, E; Bollen, A; Pastoret, P-P; Gern, L; Sharp, P M; Vanderplasschen, A

    2007-04-01

    The alternative pathway of complement is an important innate defence against pathogens including ticks. This component of the immune system has selected for pathogens that have evolved countermeasures. Recently, a salivary protein able to inhibit the alternative pathway was cloned from the American tick Ixodes scapularis (Valenzuela et al., 2000; J. Biol. Chem. 275, 18717-18723). Here, we isolated two different sequences, similar to Isac, from the transcriptome of I. ricinus salivary glands. Expression of these sequences revealed that they both encode secreted proteins able to inhibit the complement alternative pathway. These proteins, called I. ricinus anticomplement (IRAC) protein I and II, are coexpressed constitutively in I. ricinus salivary glands and are upregulated during blood feeding. Also, we demonstrated that they are the products of different genes and not of alleles of the same locus. Finally, phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of relatively small anticomplement molecules undergoing diversification by positive Darwinian selection.

  20. The role of isomorphous substitutions in natural selenides belonging to the pyrite group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindi, Luca; Cipriani, Curzio; Pratesi, Giovanni; Trosti-Ferroni, Renza

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports chemical and structural data of selenide minerals belonging to the pyrite group. Eighteen samples of minerals in this group with variable chemical composition (7 samples of penroseite, NiSe 2 ; 10 samples of krutaite, CuSe 2 ; 1 sample of trogtalite, CoSe 2 ) were studied by means of X-ray single-crystal diffraction and electron microprobe. On the basis of information gained from the chemical characterization, we can conclude that a complete solid solution between NiSe 2 and CuSe 2 exists in nature with the absence of pure end-members. Although verified only for the Ni-rich members, we also infer a solid solution between NiSe 2 and CoSe 2 . The unit-cell parameters were modeled using a multiple regression method as a function of the Co, Ni, and Cu contents

  1. The role of isomorphous substitutions in natural selenides belonging to the pyrite group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindi, Luca [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: luca.bindi@unifi.it; Cipriani, Curzio [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, Giovanni [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Trosti-Ferroni, Renza [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2008-07-14

    The present paper reports chemical and structural data of selenide minerals belonging to the pyrite group. Eighteen samples of minerals in this group with variable chemical composition (7 samples of penroseite, NiSe{sub 2}; 10 samples of krutaite, CuSe{sub 2}; 1 sample of trogtalite, CoSe{sub 2}) were studied by means of X-ray single-crystal diffraction and electron microprobe. On the basis of information gained from the chemical characterization, we can conclude that a complete solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CuSe{sub 2} exists in nature with the absence of pure end-members. Although verified only for the Ni-rich members, we also infer a solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CoSe{sub 2}. The unit-cell parameters were modeled using a multiple regression method as a function of the Co, Ni, and Cu contents.

  2. Posttraumatic stress and growth: the contribution of cognitive appraisal and sense of belonging to the country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Rachel; Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit

    2009-05-01

    The study has three aims: (1) to compare the effect of the Qassam attacks in two types of communities: development town and kibbutz; (2) to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG); and (3) to examine the contribution that level of exposure, cognitive appraisal, and sense of belonging to the country make to PTS and PTG. The sample consisted of 134 residents, 67 living on two kibbutzim and 67 living in the development town of Sderot. Results revealed that the development town residents reported more PTS symptoms and more PTG than did the kibbutz residents, and the association between PTS and PTG was positive. In addition, the findings show that most of the predictors contribute to either PTS or PTG, or predicted them differently. The discussion examines the results in light of the current literature on PTS and PTG.

  3. Inhibition of RNA Helicases of ssRNA+ Virus Belonging to Flaviviridae, Coronaviridae and Picornaviridae Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Briguglio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many viral pathogens encode the motor proteins named RNA helicases which display various functions in genome replication. General strategies to design specific and selective drugs targeting helicase for the treatment of viral infections could act via one or more of the following mechanisms: inhibition of the NTPase activity, by interferences with ATP binding and therefore by limiting the energy required for the unwinding and translocation, or by allosteric mechanism and therefore by stabilizing the conformation of the enzyme in low helicase activity state; inhibition of nucleic acids binding to the helicase; inhibition of coupling of ATP hydrolysis to unwinding; inhibition of unwinding by sterically blocking helicase translocation. Recently, by in vitro screening studies, it has been reported that several benzotriazole, imidazole, imidazodiazepine, phenothiazine, quinoline, anthracycline, triphenylmethane, tropolone, pyrrole, acridone, small peptide, and Bananin derivatives are endowed with helicase inhibition of pathogen viruses belonging to Flaviviridae, Coronaviridae, and Picornaviridae families.

  4. A journey of negotiation and belonging: understanding students' transition to science and engineering in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents results from a longitudinal study of students’ decisions to enrol on a higher education science programme and their experiences of it. The aim is to give insights into students’ transition process and negotiation of identity. This is done by following a cohort of 38 students...... in a series of qualitative interviews during a 3-year period starting as they were about to finish upper secondary school. We find that the students’ choice of study is an ongoing process of meaning-making, which continues when the students enter higher education and continuously work on their identities...... to gain a sense of belonging to their science or engineering programme. The use of a narrative methodology provides understanding of choice of study as involving changes in future perspectives and in the interpretation of past experiences. Further, we gain access into how this meaning-making process over...

  5. Belonging to the Land in Tura: Reforms, Migrations, and Indentity Politics in Evenkia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Povoroznyuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tura is a mixed community where Evenks live alongside other indigenous groups and Russians. The establishment of Evenk autonomy, with the centre in Tura, in 1930 strengthened Evenk ethnic identity and unity through increased political and cultural representation, as well as through the integration of migrants from other regions. In the post-Soviet period, the community witnessed a population loss, a declining socio-economic situation, and the abolition of autonomy. In the long course of reforms and identity construction, the indigenous intelligentsia has manipulated the concept of belonging to the land either to stress or to erase cultural differences, and thus, to secure the access of the local elite to valuable resources. currently, the most hotly debated boundaries are those dividing Evenks into local and migrant, authentic and unauthentic, urban and rural. The paper illustrates the intricate interrelations between ethnic, indigenous, and territorial identities from an identity politics perspective.

  6. [The social-political-environmental and health reality of families belonging to a vulnerable community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, Carla Kowalski; Backes, Dirce Stein; Backes, Marli Stein; Marchiori, Mara Teixeira; Souza, Martha Teixeira de; Carpes, Adriana Dornelles

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to ascertain the perception of community leadership, health professionals and users regarding citizenship status and the enhancement of the healthcare conditions of families belonging to a vulnerable community. This is an exploratory study of a qualitative nature, guided by theory based on data. Data were collected between July and December 2009, by means of interviews with four community health leaders, a team of eight family health team professionals and twelve health users. The codification of the data resulted in the following categories: Understanding the social conditions, the political conditions, the environmental conditions and the health conditions of families in a vulnerable community. The conclusions reached were, that if on the one hand the social security and health policies made it possible to reduce poverty and local inequalities, on the other hand they do not ensure the requisite enhancement of citizenship or even the improvement of health conditions.

  7. Stranger-ness and Belonging in a Neighbourhood WhatsApp Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon Natalie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The messaging application WhatsApp is often adopted in urban neighbourhoods to distribute and discuss information as part of neighbourhood watch programmes. In this context, certain notions of information sharing and the cherishing this implies, are often entangled with ideals of protection in the neighbourhood. Using the case study of an enclosed neighbourhood in Johannesburg, this essay draws on theories of affect and mobility to introduce the concept of affective mooring. That is, that a neighbourhood WhatsApp group constitutes an affective mooring-an established practice and point of fixity-that generates a sense of being held in a community through feelings of collective presence and safety. Notably, these feelings of presence and safety are hinged on acts of resistance and alienation towards strangers. In this way, WhatsApp as an affective mooring in the neighbourhood is also a site for negotiating ideals of belonging.

  8. Belonging to the Land in Tura: Reforms, Migrations, and Indentity Politics in Evenkia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Povoroznyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tura is a mixed community where Evenks live alongside other indigenous groups and Russians. The establishment of Evenk autonomy, with the centre in Tura, in 1930 strengthened Evenk ethnic identity and unity through increased political and cultural representation, as well as through the integration of migrants from other regions. In the post-Soviet period, the community witnessed a population loss, a declining socio-economic situation, and the abolition of autonomy. In the long course of reforms and identity construction, the indigenous intelligentsia has manipulated the concept of belonging to the land either to stress or to erase cultural differences, and thus, to secure the access of the local elite to valuable resources. currently, the most hotly debated boundaries are those dividing Evenks into local and migrant, authentic and unauthentic, urban and rural. The paper illustrates the intricate interrelations between ethnic, indigenous, and territorial identities from an identity politics perspective.

  9. Repair of ultraviolet radiation damage in xeroderma pigmentosum cells belonging to complementation group F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, H.; Ishizaki, K.; Yagi, T.; Takebe, H.; Inoue, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Kyoto Univ.

    1981-01-01

    DNA-repair characteristics of xeroderma pigmentosum belonging to complementation group F were investigated. The cells exhibited an intermediate level of repair as measured in terms of (1) disappearance of T4 endonuclease-V-susceptible sites from DNA, (2) formation of ultraviolet-induced strand breaks in DNA, and (3) ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis during post-irradiation incubation. The impaired ability of XP3YO to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis was restored, to half the normal level, by the concomitant treatment with T4 endonuclease V and ultraviolet-inactivated Sendai virus. It is suggested that xeroderma pigmentosum cells of group F may be defective, at least in part, in the incision step of excision repair. (orig.)

  10. SugE belongs to the small multidrug resistance (SMR) protein family involved in tributyltin (TBT) biodegradation and bioremediation by alkaliphilic Stenotrophomonas chelatiphaga HS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hamdy A

    2018-03-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) used in a variety of industrial processes, subsequent discharge into the environment, its fate, toxicity and human exposure are topics of current concern. TBT degradation by alkaliphilic bacteria may be a key factor in the remediation of TBT in high pH contaminated sites. In this study, Stenotrophomonas chelatiphaga HS2 were isolated and identified from TBT contaminated site in Mediterranean Sea. S. chelatiphaga HS2 has vigor capability to transform TBT into dibutyltin and monobutyltin (DBT and MBT) at pH 9 and 7% NaCl (w/v). A gene was amplified and characterized from strain HS2 as SugE protein belongs to SMR protein family, a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that SugE protein involved in the TBT degradation by HS2 strain. TBT bioremediation was investigated in stimulated TBT contaminated sediment samples (pH 9) using S chelatiphaga HS2 in association with E. coli BL21 (DE3)-pET28a(+)-sugE instead of S chelatiphaga HS2 alone reduced significantly the TBT half-life from 12d to 5d, although no TBT degradation appeared using E. coli BL21 (DE3)-pET28a(+)-sugE alone. This finding indicated that SugE gene increased the rate and degraded amount of TBT and is necessary in enhancing TBT bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Between difference and belonging: configuring self and others in inpatient treatment for eating disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Eli

    Full Text Available Dedicated inpatient care for eating disorders has profound impact on patients' embodied practices and lived realities. Analyses of inpatients' accounts have shown that participants endorse complex and conflicting attitudes toward their experiences in eating disorders wards, yet the apparent ambivalence that characterizes inpatient experiences has not been subject to critical examination. This paper examines the narrated experiences of 13 participants (12 women and one man; age 18-38 years at first interview with past or present anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified, who had been hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders ward for adults in central Israel. The interviews, which took place in 2005-2006, and again in 2011, were part of a larger longitudinal study exploring the subjective experiences of eating disorders and recovery among Israeli adults. Employing qualitative analysis, this study finds that the participants' accounts were concerned with dynamics of difference and belonging, as they played out in various aspects of inpatient care, including diagnosis, treatment, relationships with fellow patients and staff, and everyday life in hospital. Notably, participants simultaneously defined themselves as connected to, but also distinct from, the eating disordered others who formed their reference group at the ward. Through negotiating a protectively ambivalent positioning, participants recognized their eating disordered identities and connected with others on the ward, while also asserting their non-disordered individuality and distancing themselves from the potential dangers posed by 'excessive' belonging. The paper suggests that this ambivalent positioning can usefully be understood through the anthropological concept of liminality: being both a part of and apart from one's community.

  12. Entitativity and intergroup bias: How belonging to a cohesive group allows people to express their prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effron, Daniel A; Knowles, Eric D

    2015-02-01

    We propose that people treat prejudice as more legitimate when it seems rationalistic-that is, linked to a group's pursuit of collective interests. Groups that appear to be coherent and unified wholes (entitative groups) are most likely to have such interests. We thus predicted that belonging to an entitative group licenses people to express prejudice against outgroups. Support for this idea came from 3 correlational studies and 5 experiments examining racial, national, and religious prejudice. The first 4 studies found that prejudice and discrimination seemed more socially acceptable to third parties when committed by members of highly entitative groups, because people could more easily explain entitative groups' biases as a defense of collective interests. Moreover, ingroup entitativity only lent legitimacy to outgroup prejudice when an interests-based explanation was plausible-namely, when the outgroup could possibly threaten the ingroup's interests. The last 4 studies found that people were more willing to express private prejudices when they perceived themselves as belonging to an entitative group. Participants' perceptions of their own race's entitativity were associated with a greater tendency to give explicit voice to their implicit prejudice against other races. Furthermore, experimentally raising participants' perceptions of ingroup entitativity increased explicit expressions of outgroup prejudice, particularly among people most likely to privately harbor such prejudices (i.e., highly identified group members). Together, these findings demonstrate that entitativity can lend a veneer of legitimacy to prejudice and disinhibit its expression. We discuss implications for intergroup relations and shifting national demographics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Flexible piezotronic strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Gu, Yudong; Fei, Peng; Mai, Wenjie; Gao, Yifan; Yang, Rusen; Bao, Gang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-09-01

    Strain sensors based on individual ZnO piezoelectric fine-wires (PFWs; nanowires, microwires) have been fabricated by a simple, reliable, and cost-effective technique. The electromechanical sensor device consists of a single electrically connected PFW that is placed on the outer surface of a flexible polystyrene (PS) substrate and bonded at its two ends. The entire device is fully packaged by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin layer. The PFW has Schottky contacts at its two ends but with distinctly different barrier heights. The I- V characteristic is highly sensitive to strain mainly due to the change in Schottky barrier height (SBH), which scales linear with strain. The change in SBH is suggested owing to the strain induced band structure change and piezoelectric effect. The experimental data can be well-described by the thermionic emission-diffusion model. A gauge factor of as high as 1250 has been demonstrated, which is 25% higher than the best gauge factor demonstrated for carbon nanotubes. The strain sensor developed here has applications in strain and stress measurements in cell biology, biomedical sciences, MEMS devices, structure monitoring, and more.

  14. High quality draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, XinJun; Li, Ang; Lv, LongXian; Yuan, Chunhui; Guo, Lihua; Jiang, Xiawei; Jiang, Haiyin; Qian, GuiRong; Zheng, BeiWen; Guo, Jing; Li, LanJuan

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii belongs to the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales , class Bacilli and phylum Firmicutes . The increasing relevance of S. cohnii to human health prompted us to determine the genomic sequence of Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, a multidrug-resistant isolate from a hospital in China. Here we describe the features of S. cohnii subsp. cohnii strain hu-01, together with the genome sequence and its annotation. This is the first genom...

  15. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa) and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia), was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different...

  16. The dynamics of toxic microcystis strains and microcystin production in two hypertrofic South African reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, Sandra; Conradie, Karin Ronel

    2012-01-01

    The South African impoundments of Hartbeespoort and Roodeplaat experience excessive blooms of Microcystis species each year. Microcystins, produced primarily by strains of cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Microcystis, Anabaena and Planktothrix, are harmful cyanobacterial hepatotoxins. These bloom-forming cyanobacteria form toxic and non-toxic strains that co-occur and are visually indistinguishable, but can be identified and quantified molecularly. We described the relationships between ...

  17. Streptomyces lunalinharesii Strain 235 Shows the Potential to Inhibit Bacteria Involved in Biocorrosion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco da Rosa, Juliana; Korenblum, Elisa; Franco-Cirigliano, Marcella Novaes; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Soares, Rosângela M. A.; Macrae, Andrew; Seldin, Lucy; Coelho, Rosalie R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Four actinomycete strains previously isolated from Brazilian soils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus LF-4 and Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491, bacteria that are well known to be involved in biofilm formation and biocorrosion. Strain 235, belonging to the species Streptomyces lunalinharesii, inhibited the growth of both bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was seen over a wide range of pH, and after treatment with several chemicals and heat but not with...

  18. A duplex PCR assay for the detection of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II strains in Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Cellier

    Full Text Available Banana wilt outbreaks that are attributable to Moko disease-causing strains of the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs remain a social and economic burden for both multinational corporations and subsistence farmers. All known Moko strains belong to the phylotype II lineage, which has been previously recognized for its broad genetic basis. Moko strains are paraphyletic and are distributed among seven related but distinct phylogenetic clusters (sequevars that are potentially major threats to Musaceae, Solanaceae, and ornamental crops in many countries. Although clustered within the Moko IIB-4 sequevar, strains of the epidemiologically variant IIB-4NPB do not cause wilt on Cavendish or plantain bananas; instead, they establish a latent infection in the vascular tissues of plantains and demonstrate an expanded host range and high aggressiveness toward Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Although most molecular diagnostic methods focus on strains that wilt Solanaceae (particularly potato, no relevant protocol has been described that universally detects strains of the Musaceae-infecting Rs phylotype II. Thus, a duplex PCR assay targeting Moko and IIB-4NPB variant strains was developed, and its performance was assessed using an extensive collection of 111 strains representing the known diversity of Rs Moko-related strains and IIB-4NPB variant strains along with certain related strains and families. The proposed diagnostic protocol demonstrated both high accuracy (inclusivity and exclusivity and high repeatability, detected targets on either pure culture or spiked plant extracts. Although they did not belong to the Moko clusters described at the time of the study, recently discovered banana-infecting strains from Brazil were also detected. According to our comprehensive evaluation, this duplex PCR assay appears suitable for both research and diagnostic laboratories and provides reliable detection of phylotype II Rs strains that infect Musaceae.

  19. Job strain, sleep and alertness in shift working health care professionals -- a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2013-01-01

    We explored the associations of job strain with sleep and alertness of shift working female nurses and nursing assistants. Participants (n=95) were recruited from the Finnish Public Sector Study, from hospital wards that belonged to the top or bottom quartiles on job strain. Participants' own job strain was at least as high in high-strain group or low in low-strain group as the ward's average. The study included three-week measurements with sleep diary and actigraphy. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) was performed during one pre-selected morning and night shift and a day off. Sleep efficiency before morning shifts was lower in the high-strain than low-strain group (p=0.03). Low-strain group took more often (72 vs. 45%; psleep were more common in high-strain group, especially after evening shifts (psleep duration (06:49 h) and efficiency (89%) did not differ between these groups. In conclusion, high job strain is associated with difficulties initiating sleep and reduced psychomotor vigilance in night shifts. Shift working contributed to impaired sleep in both high and low job strain group. Individual and organization-based actions are needed to promote sufficient sleep in shift working nurses, especially with high job strain.

  20. Belonging and Mental Wellbeing Among a Rural Indian-Canadian Diaspora: Navigating Tensions in "Finding a Space of Our Own".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caxaj, C Susana; Gill, Navjot K

    2017-07-01

    Belonging is linked to a variety of positive health outcomes. Yet this relationship is not well understood, particularly among rural immigrant diasporas. In this article, we explore the experiences of community belonging and wellbeing among a rural Indian-Canadian diaspora in the Interior of British Columbia, Canada, our central research questions being, "What are the experiences of belonging in this community? How does a sense of belonging (or lack of) shape mental health and wellbeing among local residents?" Using a situational analysis research approach, our findings indicate that local residents must navigate several tensions within an overarching reality of finding a space of our own. Such tensions reveal contradictory experiences of tight-knitedness, context-informed notions of cultural continuity, access/acceptability barriers, particularly in relation to rural agricultural living, and competing expectations of "small town" life. Such tensions can begin to be addressed through creative service provision, collaborative decision making, and diversity-informed program planning.

  1. “I Like to Play with My Friends”: Children with Spina Bifida and Belonging in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Bannink

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experiences of living and belonging from the perspectives of Ugandan children with spina bifida and their siblings and parents. We explored belonging at micro, meso and macro level taking into consideration African Childhood Disability Studies, central concepts of family, cultural conceptions of disability, poverty, and the notion of ‘ubuntu’, and using child-friendly culturally adjusted interview methods including play. Whilst children with spina bifida had a strong sense of belonging at household level, they experienced more difficulties engaging in larger social networks, including school. Poverty and stigma were important barriers to inclusion. We propose strengthening the network at family level, where the environment is more enabling for the children to find a place of belonging and support, and expanding investment and awareness at community and national level.

  2. Dimensions of belonging as an aspect of racial-ethnic-cultural identity: an exploration of indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen A; Oyama, Kathleen E; Odunewu, Latifat O; Huggins, Jackie G

    2014-07-01

    Sense of belonging is a key aspect of racial and ethnic identity. Interestingly, there is little exploration of the multiple characteristics of belongingness within the racial and ethnic identity literature. Through individual interviews and a focus group, we explored the sense of racial-ethnic-cultural (REC) belonging among 19 self-identified Black Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders). Using dimensional analysis, we uncovered 5 core interrelated dimensions of REC belonging: History/Memory, Place, and Peoplehood; Sense of Community; Acceptance and Pride; Shared Language and Culture; and Interconnections. We also uncovered 3 main barriers undermining participants' sense of REC belonging: phenotype, social identity, and history of colonization. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. 2-D DIGE proteomic profiles of three strains of Fusarium graminearum grown in agmatine or glutamic acid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Serchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 2D DIGE proteomics data obtained from three strains belonging to Fusarium graminearum s.s. species growing in a glutamic acid or agmatine containing medium are provided.A total of 381 protein species have been identified which do differ for abundance among the two treatments and among the strains (ANOVA±1.3.Data on the diversity of protein species profiles between the two media for each strain are made available. Shared profiles among strains are discussed in Pasquali et al. [1].Here proteins that with diverse profile can be used to differentiate strains are highlighted. The full dataset allow to obtaining single strain proteomic profiles. Keywords: Comparative strain proteomics, Toxigenic fungi, Polyamines, Trichothecenes, Strain variability

  4. [Geno- and phenotypic characteristic of Bacillus strains--components of endosporin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, L A; Zelenaia, L B; Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V; Reva, O N; Podgorskiĭ, V S

    2012-01-01

    Endosporin is used in veterinary for the prophylaxis and treatment of disbacteriosis, intestinal infections, festering wounds and postpartum pyoinflammatory complications in agricultural animals. The probiotic is based on two Bacillus strains which inhibit growth of a broad spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms and synthesise proteolytic enzymes and other biologically active secondary metabolites, particularly - polysaccharides. The activity of these two strains was supplementary. For the species identification of these strains, sequences of 16S rRNA genes and fatty acid content of cell walls were analysed. It was found that the both strains belong to B. velezensis. Limitations of application of 16S rRNA sequences for identification of closely related species are discussed in the paper. A method of 16S rRNA sequence profiling by polymorphic nucleotides was proposed. It was also shown that usefulness of Bacillus strains in probiotics is mostly based on their unique strain specific properties rather than on general species characteristics.

  5. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, Sohail; Afzal, Muhammad; Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Brady, Carrie L.; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: → E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. → E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. → E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. → E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. → Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  6. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, Sohail [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Afzal, Muhammad [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad (Pakistan); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Environmental Resources and Technologies Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Brady, Carrie L. [Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: > E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. > E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. > E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. > E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. > Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  7. Whole-Genome Sequencing and In Silico Analysis of Two Strains of Sporothrix globosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Lilin; Gao, Wenchao; Giosa, Domenico; Criseo, Giuseppe; Zhang, Jing; He, Tailong; Huang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jiufeng; Sun, Yao; Huang, Jiamin; Zhang, Yunqing; Brankovics, Balázs; Scordino, Fabio; D'Alessandro, Enrico; van Diepeningen, Anne; de Hoog, Sybren; Huang, Huaiqiu; Romeo, Orazio

    2016-01-01

    Sporothrix globosa is a thermo-dimorphic fungus belonging to a pathogenic clade that also includes Sporothrix schenckii, which causes human and animal sporotrichosis. Here, we present the first genome assemblies of two S. globosa strains providing data for future comparative genomic studies in

  8. Fatal necrotizing fasciitis due to necrotic toxin-producing Escherichia coli strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gallois

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a fatal case of necrotizing soft tissues infection caused by an Escherichia coli strain belonging to phylogenetic group C and harbouring numerous virulence factors reported to be part of a pathogenicity island (PAI such as PAI IIJ96 and conserved virulence plasmidic region.

  9. Pathogenesis of new strains of Newcastle disease virus from Israel and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past few years, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains with epizootic characteristics belonging to subgenotypes VIIi and XIIIb emerged in the Middle East and Asia. In this study, 2 NDV strains—1 representative of subgenotype VIIi isolated in Israel (Kvuzat/13) and 1 representative of subgenoty...

  10. Pertencimento, medos corriqueiros e redes de solidariedade Belonging, current fears and nets of solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Guilherme Pinheiro Koury

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio busca entender como os processos de construção da semelhança e da dessemelhança entre os indivíduos e os grupos sociais se formam e se informam. Procura compreender também, as bases da afirmação e as maneiras da superação do medo do outro e as estratégias de solidariedade usadas pelos habitantes de um bairro popular. Analisa os processos aparentemente sentidos como polares pelos cidadãos que os vivenciam, e entendido, neste ensaio como opostos e complementares no estabelecimento de ações e afirmações socialmente dispostas no processo permanente de construção de novos significados de pertencimento.This essay looks for to understand as the processes of construction of similarity and of dissimilarity between social individuals and groups are formed and are inquired. This paper search to understand, also, the bases of affirmation and ways of overcoming of fear of the other, and the strategies of solidarity used for the inhabitants of a popular quarter. This essay still analyzes the processes seen, apparently, as polar for the citizens that live deeply them, and understood in this work as opposing and complementary in the establishment of action and affirmations socially made in the process of construction of new meanings of belonging.

  11. The Strongylidae belonging to Strongylus genus in horses from southeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzińska, M B; Tomczuk, K; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, M; Szczepaniak, K

    2012-10-01

    Postmortem parasitic examinations of the large intestines of 725 slaughtered horses from individual farmers in southeastern Poland were carried out. The examinations were carried out monthly since February 2006 until January 2007 (except for August 2007 because of a technological stoppage in the slaughterhouse). The examinations included the intensiveness and extensiveness of the infestation of the Strongylidae belonging to the Strongylus genus. The Strongylidae were found in 26.5% of the examined horses. Strongylus vulgaris was the most dominant nematode and had a 22.8% prevalence, Strongylus edentatus was carried by 18.3% of the horses. Strongylus equinus was identified only in 1.7% of the examined horses. Our findings revealed that combined infestation of S. vulgaris and S. edentatus occurred in 100 (52.1%) of the 725 horses infected by the Strongylidae. The present results indicate that the lowest prevalence of strongyle species except for S. equinus was found in January, February, and March. However, it is difficult to draw a conclusion because of an extremely low extensiveness of infestation. The results indicate that the prevalence of the Strongylidae in horses from southeastern Poland is limited.

  12. Religious Belonging, Religious Agency, and Women’s Autonomy in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    Women’s autonomy has frequently been linked with women’s opportunities and investments, such as education, employment, and reproductive control. The association between women’s autonomy and religion in the developing world, however, has received less attention, and the few existing studies make comparisons across major religious traditions. In this study, we focus on variations in levels of female decision-making autonomy within a single religious tradition—Christianity. Using unique survey data from a predominantly Christian area in Mozambique, we devise an autonomy scale and apply it to compare women affiliated to different Christian denominations as well as unaffiliated women. In addition to affiliation, we examine the relationship between autonomy and women’s religious agency both within and outside their churches. Multivariate analyses show that women belonging to more liberal religious traditions (such as Catholicism and mainline Protestantism) and tend to have higher autonomy levels, regardless of other factors. These results are situated within the cross-national scholarship on religion and women’s empowerment and are interpreted in the context of gendered religious dynamics in Mozambique and similar developing settings. PMID:26973353

  13. Perceived Status and National Belonging: The Case of Russian Speakers in Finland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Anna Renvik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of research on disadvantaged minority group members, the research field on the ramifications of low group status is largely split between more material and psychological lines of explanation. There is also a lack of research on how subjectively perceived socio-economic status and discrimination cumulatively affect the sense of national belonging of ethnic minority group members. This survey study was conducted among Russian-speaking immigrants in Finland ('N' = 316 and Estonia ('N' = 501. The results in Estonia showed that for national identification to be high, both indicators of subjective group status had to be perceived as relatively high. In Finland, there was no interaction between the two indicators of subjectively perceived low group status. The study shows how perceptions of cumulative disadvantage may provoke a backlash in the form of immigrants’ psychological distancing from the national ingroup. The findings are discussed in relation to the pervasiveness of low status in different intergroup contexts and minority group members’ perceived investments to society.

  14. Citizen or Subordinate: Permutations of Belonging in the United States and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina Aber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dominican Republic and the United States have both experienced tensions arising from migratory flows from poorer, less stable neighbors. Until recently, both countries had constitutions which conferred citizenship by birth with very limited exceptions. Despite these similarities, their respective discourses around jus soli citizenship, particularly for the children of unauthorized migrants from the poorer neighboring countries, have manifested in different ways. The identity of the United States as a nation of immigrants has limited the success of campaigns to revoke jus soli citizenship for the children of unauthorized immigrants, but the persistent articulation of this idea as a response to illegal migration has shifted the parameters of the immigration debate. In the Dominican Republic, the historical construction of national identity and anti-Haitian discourse has led to an evolution in Dominican law which codifies already established practices that deny citizenship to children of Haitian migrants. In both cases, movements that support more inclusive understandings of societal belonging, like the DREAMers in the United States and youth movements in the Dominican Republic, may offer the most effective way of protecting universal jus soli citizenship regimes. 

  15. Ambient belonging: how stereotypical cues impact gender participation in computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Plaut, Victoria C; Davies, Paul G; Steele, Claude M

    2009-12-01

    People can make decisions to join a group based solely on exposure to that group's physical environment. Four studies demonstrate that the gender difference in interest in computer science is influenced by exposure to environments associated with computer scientists. In Study 1, simply changing the objects in a computer science classroom from those considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., Star Trek poster, video games) to objects not considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., nature poster, phone books) was sufficient to boost female undergraduates' interest in computer science to the level of their male peers. Further investigation revealed that the stereotypical broadcast a masculine stereotype that discouraged women's sense of ambient belonging and subsequent interest in the environment (Studies 2, 3, and 4) but had no similar effect on men (Studies 3, 4). This masculine stereotype prevented women's interest from developing even in environments entirely populated by other women (Study 2). Objects can thus come to broadcast stereotypes of a group, which in turn can deter people who do not identify with these stereotypes from joining that group.

  16. Deviant Citizenship: DREAMer Activism in the United States and Transnational Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Weber-Shirk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available My analysis places the assertions of political presence by non-citizen immigrant youth in the U.S. (often referred to as DREAMers within a rapidly globalizing world; this placement re-frames the DREAMers’ movement from a fight for U.S. citizenship to a broader critique of the limits and impossibility of liberal democratic citizenship, which claims to be all-inclusive. Increased transnational migration has brought into stark relief the inequality that current frameworks of nation-state citizenship, as a caste-system of rights, have codified. I am interested in the activism of immigrant youth as a place to explore where immigrants themselves are reasserting the right to politics. This reassertion privileges the social embeddedness of family ties and community above the notion of individual choice or individual rationality. In doing so, this articulation of politics is a critique of the liberal order by forcing the consideration of the contexts and structures that create migration, exploitation, and transnational communities of belonging.

  17. Re-utilization by '' Stud Welding'' of capsules charpy-V belonged to surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapena, J.; Perosanz, F. J.; Gachuz, M.

    1998-01-01

    The perspectives of nuclear plants life extension that are approximating to their end of design life compels to make new surveillance programs. The re-utilization of specimens belonging to surveillance capsules already tested in these new surveillance programs seems be a solution worldwide accepted. The two possible re-utilization processes of this irradiated material are: Subsized specimens and Reconstitution. While the first alternative (Subsized specimens) outlines serious problems for apply the results, the reconstitution eliminates this problem, since the resulting specimens after of the reconstruction procedure would be of the same dimensions that the original. The reconstruction process involves welds, and therefore it has associated the specific problems of this type of joints. Furthermore, by be tried to material irradiated with certain degree of internal damage, that is the variable to evaluate, requires that the heat contribution to the piece not originate local thermal treatments that alter its mechanical qualities. In this work has been followed the evolution by the variables of the weld process and their influence on the quality by the union from metallographic al point of view as well as mechanical for a weld procedure by Stud Welding. The principal objective is to optimize said parameters to assure a good mechanical continuity, without detriment of the microstructural characteristics of the original material. To verify this last have been accomplished with metallographical tests, temperature profile, hardness and will be carried out also Charpy tests. (Author)

  18. As if they do not exist. Images of (belonging and of owning Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Neidhardt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Films from or about Palestine are frequently programmed at international film festivals. They are sometimes released in cinemas and quite often presented in special screenings at various institutions all over the Western World. Due to the scarcity of screens and the boycott of Israel, they are seen to a lesser extend in Arab countries. Compared to screenings of other Arab films or the presentation of movies from other former colonies and mandatory territories, Western audiences often react highly emotional to the images from Palestine. In debates questions for a better understanding of the films’ subject or context are barely ever asked. Rather the foreign spectators seem to have a sense of belonging and to claim the right for co-determination. Where do these emotional ties originate from? In recent years a large number of films shot in Palestine during the late Ottoman period and the British mandate were made accesssible online, mainly by the Steven Spielberg Film Archive in Jerusalem and the British War Museum in London. Libraries like the Library of Congress in Washington digitized parts of their photographic collections. Based on them as well as on the films I work with as distributor and programmer for Arab film series, in this article I look at images on and from Palestine and ask for what purpose, in which context and by whom they were made and distributed.

  19. In A Queer Place in Time: Fictions of Belonging in Italy 1890-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Christopher Burke

    In a Queer Place in Time: Fictions of Belonging in Italy 1890-2010 maps the "elsewheres"---spatial, temporal and intertextual--- that authorize same-sex desire in modern Italy. Tracing a genealogy that spans from nineteenth century travel writing about Italy to contemporary Italian novels, I argue that texts exported from the Northern Europe and the U.S. function as vital site of affiliation and vexing points of discrepancy for Italy's queers. Pier Vittorio Tondelli's Camere separate (1989), for instance, cites the British novelist Christopher Isherwood as proof that -- somewhere else -- silence did not yoke homosexuality. Rather than defining sexuality as a constant set of desires, I demonstrate it to be a retroactive fiction. It is the fleeting affinity that the reading of inherited texts can evoke. In examining the reception of transnational gay narratives in the national context of Italy, this dissertation argues that the concept of "Western" homosexuality is internally riven. Ultimately, In a Queer Place in Time illuminates how local histories -- including affective differences like shame, estrangement and backwardness -- continue to haunt gay culture's global fictions. !

  20. A key to larvae of species belonging to the genus Diamesa from Alps and Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A key to species belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Alps and Apennines (Italy is presented using characters observable in the fourth-instar larva. The larvae are separated on the basis of qualitative and quantitative characters. At present fifteen species from the Italian Alps are described in all three life stages, but only twelve species groups can be separated as larvae. The separation is based on the length and thickness of anal setae, antennal ratio, head capsule color and few other characters of the labrum and mentum. The shape of mental and mandibular teeth is still a valid taxonomic character, but unfortunately these characters can be rarely used because teeth are often excessively worn in samples collected in the field. Quantitative characters show variability within each species, differing according to the duration of larval development and must be used with caution. The species groups which can be separated in the larval stage are: the dampfi group, which includes D. dampfi and D. permacra, the latitarsis group including D. modesta and D. latitarsis, the zernyi group including D. zernyi and D. vaillanti. The species within each of these groups at present cannot be separated. D. starmachi, D. steinboecki, D. goetghebueri, D. bertrami, D. aberrata, D. incallida, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. insignipes can be separated from all the other known species in larval stage.

  1. Seroprevalence of Sandfly-Borne Phleboviruses Belonging to Three Serocomplexes (Sandfly fever Naples, Sandfly fever Sicilian and Salehabad in Dogs from Greece and Cyprus Using Neutralization Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaf Alwassouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phleboviruses transmitted by sandflies are endemic in the Mediterranean area. The last decade has witnessed the description of an accumulating number of novel viruses. Although, the risk of exposure of vertebrates is globally assessed, detailed geographic knowledge is poor even in Greece and Cyprus where sandfly fever has been recognized for a long time and repeatedly. A total of 1,250 dogs from mainland Greece and Greek archipelago on one hand and 422 dogs from Cyprus on the other hand have been sampled and tested for neutralising antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV, Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV, Arbia virus, and Adana virus i.e. four viruses belonging to the 3 sandfly-borne serocomplexes known to circulate actively in the Mediterranean area. Our results showed that (i SFSV is highly prevalent with 71.9% (50.7-84.9% depending on the region in Greece and 60.2% (40.0-72.6% in Cyprus; (ii TOSV ranked second with 4.4% (0-15.4% in Greece and 8.4% (0-11.4% in Cyprus; (iii Salehabad viruses (Arbia and Adana displayed also substantial prevalence rates in both countries with values ranging from 0-22.6% depending on the region and on the virus strain used in the test. These results demonstrate that circulation of viruses transmitted by sand flies can be estimated qualitatively using dog sera. As reported in other regions of the Mediterranean, these results indicate that it is time to shift these viruses from the "neglected" status to the "priority" status in order to stimulate studies aiming at defining and quantifying their medical and veterinary importance and possible public health impact. Specifically, viruses belonging to the Sandfly fever Sicilian complex should be given careful consideration. This calls for implementation of direct and indirect diagnosis in National reference centers and in hospital microbiology laboratories and systematic testing of unelucidated febrile illness and central and peripheral nervous system febrile

  2. Proof that Burkholderia Strains Form Effective Symbioses with Legumes: a Study of Novel Mimosa-Nodulating Strains from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ming; de Faria, Sergio M.; Straliotto, Rosângela; Pitard, Rosa M.; Simões-Araùjo, Jean L.; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Yi-Ju; Barrios, Edmundo; Prescott, Alan R.; Elliott, Geoffrey N.; Sprent, Janet I.; Young, J. Peter W.; James, Euan K.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty Mimosa-nodulating bacterial strains from Brazil and Venezuela, together with eight reference Mimosa-nodulating rhizobial strains and two other β-rhizobial strains, were examined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. They fell into 16 patterns and formed a single cluster together with the known β-rhizobia, Burkholderia caribensis, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia tuberum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 15 of the 20 strains were determined, and all were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia; four distinct clusters could be discerned, with strains isolated from the same host species usually clustering very closely. Five of the strains (MAP3-5, Br3407, Br3454, Br3461, and Br3469) were selected for further studies of the symbiosis-related genes nodA, the NodD-dependent regulatory consensus sequences (nod box), and nifH. The nodA and nifH sequences were very close to each other and to those of B. phymatum STM815, B. caribensis TJ182, and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 but were relatively distant from those of B. tuberum STM678. In addition to nodulating their original hosts, all five strains could also nodulate other Mimosa spp., and all produced nodules on Mimosa pudica that had nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activities and structures typical of effective N2-fixing symbioses. Finally, both wild-type and green fluorescent protein-expressing transconjugant strains of Br3461 and MAP3-5 produced N2-fixing nodules on their original hosts, Mimosa bimucronata (Br3461) and Mimosa pigra (MAP3-5), and hence this confirms strongly that Burkholderia strains can form effective symbioses with legumes. PMID:16269788

  3. Strains and Sprains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lot of pressure on a muscle or you push it too far, such as when lifting a heavy object. Strains may be more likely to happen if you haven't warmed up first to get blood circulating to the muscles. They're also common for someone returning to a sport after the off-season. That first time playing ...

  4. Pathogenic Leptospira species express surface-exposed proteins belonging to the bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, James; Barocchi, Michele A.; Croda, Julio; Young, Tracy A.; Sanchez, Yolanda; Siqueira, Isadora; Bolin, Carole A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Riley, Lee W.; Haake, David A.; Ko, Albert I.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, such as the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin and Escherichia coli intimin, are surface-expressed proteins that mediate host mammalian cell invasion or attachment. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new family of Big domain proteins, referred to as Lig (leptospiral Ig-like) proteins, in pathogenic Leptospira. Screening of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri expression libraries with sera from leptospirosis patients identified 13 lambda phage clones that encode tandem repeats of the 90 amino acid Big domain. Two lig genes, designated ligA and ligB, and one pseudo-gene, ligC, were identified. The ligA and ligB genes encode amino-terminal lipoprotein signal peptides followed by 10 or 11 Big domain repeats and, in the case of ligB, a unique carboxy-terminal non-repeat domain. The organization of ligC is similar to that of ligB but contains mutations that disrupt the reading frame. The lig sequences are present in pathogenic but not saprophytic Leptospira species. LigA and LigB are expressed by a variety of virulent leptospiral strains. Loss of Lig protein and RNA transcript expression is correlated with the observed loss of virulence during culture attenuation of pathogenic strains. High-pressure freeze substitution followed by immunocytochemical electron microscopy confirmed that the Lig proteins were localized to the bacterial surface. Immunoblot studies with patient sera found that the Lig proteins are a major antigen recognized during the acute host infection. These observations demonstrate that the Lig proteins are a newly identified surface protein of pathogenic Leptospira, which by analogy to other bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily virulence factors, may play a role in host cell attachment and invasion during leptospiral pathogenesis. PMID:12890019

  5. Characteristics of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strains from fresh vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Gordana R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains synthesizing extracellular polysaccharide dextran on a medium with 10% sucrose were isolated from different kind of vegetables (cabbage, cucumber, cauliflower, kohlrabi, carrot, green beans, red beet, pepper, eggplant, radish. Carbohydrate fermentation was examined using a bioMerieux API 50 CHL test system. Among micropopulations with characteristic spherical cell morphology, 94.9% belonged to Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and 5.1% were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum. According to fermentation of pentoses L. mesenteroides strains were divided into three groups with a certain number of biotypes; 10 strains were tested on acid production. .

  6. Characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by three moderately halophilic bacteria belonging to the family Alteromonadaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, J A; Béjar, V; Bressollier, P; Tallon, R; Urdaci, M C; Quesada, E; Llamas, I

    2008-08-01

    To study the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by three novel moderately halophilic species belonging to the family Alteromonadaceae to optimize EPS yields, characterize their physical and chemical properties and evaluate possible biotechnological applications for these polymers. EPSs synthesized by Idiomarina fontislapidosi F32(T), Idiomarina ramblicola R22(T) and Alteromonas hispanica F23(T) were collected and analysed under optimum conditions: MY medium supplemented with 7.5% (w/v) salts; 32 degrees C; and 1% (w/v) glucose. Polymers were synthesized mainly during the early stationary growth phase with yields ranging from 1 to 1.5 g l(-1). The Idiomarina species each produced an anionic EPS composed mainly of glucose, mannose and galactose. A. hispanica synthesized an anionic EPS composed mainly of glucose, mannose and xylose. Solutions of all the polymers were low in viscosity and pseudoplastic in their behaviour. They showed emulsifying activity and the capacity to bind some metals. The Alteromonadaceae species studied in this work produced EPSs with physical and chemical properties different from those produced by other halophilic and nonhalophilic bacteria, suggesting that the wide diversity of micro-organisms being encountered nowadays in hypersaline environments offers enormous potential resources for biotechnological applications. We have optimized the EPS production and analysed new biopolymers produced by some recently described, moderately halophilic bacteria. These biopolymers are chemically and physically different from others already in use in biotechnology and offer hopes for new applications, especially in the case of A. hispanica, which may prove to be a viable source of xylo-oligosaccharides.

  7. A set of particle locating algorithms not requiring face belonging to cell connectivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, M.; Saidi, M. S.

    2009-10-01

    Existing efficient directed particle locating (host determination) algorithms rely on the face belonging to cell relationship (F2C) to find the next cell on the search path and the cell in which the target is located. Recently, finite volume methods have been devised which do not need F2C. Therefore, existing search algorithms are not directly applicable (unless F2C is included). F2C is a major memory burden in grid description. If the memory benefit from these finite volume methods are desirable new search algorithms should be devised. In this work two new algorithms (line of sight and closest cell) are proposed which do not need F2C. They are based on the structure of the sparse coefficient matrix involved (stored for example in the compressed row storage, CRS, format) to determine the next cell. Since F2C is not available, testing a cell for the presence of the target is not possible. Therefore, the proposed methods may wrongly mark a nearby cell as the host in some rare cases. The issue of importance of finding the correct host cell (not wrongly hitting its neighbor) is addressed. Quantitative measures are introduced to assess the efficiency of the methods and comparison is made for typical grid types used in computational fluid dynamics. In comparison, the closest cell method, having a lower computational cost than the family of line of sight and the existing efficient maximum dot product methods, gives a very good performance with tolerable and harmless wrong hits. If more accuracy is needed, the method of approximate line of sight then closest cell (LS-A-CC) is recommended.

  8. Glossina palpalis palpalis populations from Equatorial Guinea belong to distinct allopatric clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Cano, Jorge; Knapp, Jenny; Nebreda, Paloma; Ndong-Mabale, Nicolas; Ncogo-Ada, Policarpo Ricardo; Ndongo-Asumu, Pedro; Navarro, Miguel; Pinto, Joao; Benito, Agustin; Bart, Jean-Mathieu

    2014-01-17

    Luba is one of the four historical foci of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) on Bioko Island, in Equatorial Guinea. Although no human cases have been detected since 1995, T. b. gambiense was recently observed in the vector Glossina palpalis palpalis. The existence of cryptic species within this vector taxon has been previously suggested, although no data are available regarding the evolutionary history of tsetse flies populations in Bioko. A phylogenetic analysis of 60 G. p. palpalis from Luba was performed sequencing three mitochondrial (COI, ND2 and 16S) and one nuclear (rDNA-ITS1) DNA markers. Phylogeny reconstruction was performed by Distance Based, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The COI and ND2 mitochondrial genes were concatenated and revealed 10 closely related haplotypes with a dominant one found in 61.1% of the flies. The sequence homology of the other 9 haplotypes compared to the former ranged from 99.6 to 99.9%. Phylogenetic analysis clearly clustered all island samples with flies coming from the Western African Clade (WAC), and separated from the flies belonging to the Central Africa Clade (CAC), including samples from Mbini and Kogo, two foci of mainland Equatorial Guinea. Consistent with mitochondrial data, analysis of the microsatellite motif present in the ITS1 sequence exhibited two closely related genotypes, clearly divergent from the genotypes previously identified in Mbini and Kogo. We report herein that tsetse flies populations circulating in Equatorial Guinea are composed of two allopatric subspecies, one insular and the other continental. The presence of these two G. p. palpalis cryptic taxa in Equatorial Guinea should be taken into account to accurately manage vector control strategy, in a country where trypanosomiasis transmission is controlled but not definitively eliminated yet.

  9. Structural and biochemical characterization of novel bacterial α-galactosidases belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Ishizaki, Yuichi; Ichikawa, Megumi; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31) proteins have been reportedly identified as exo-α-glycosidases with activity for α-glucosides and α-xylosides. We focused on a GH31 subfamily, which contains proteins with low sequence identity (Pedobacter heparinus and Pedobacter saltans. The enzymes unexpectedly exhibited α-galactosidase activity, but were not active on α-glucosides and α-xylosides. The crystal structures of one of the enzymes, PsGal31A, in unliganded form and in complexes with D-galactose or L-fucose and the catalytic nucleophile mutant in unliganded form and in complex with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside, were determined at 1.85-2.30 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. The overall structure of PsGal31A contains four domains and the catalytic domain adopts a (β/α)8-barrel fold that resembles the structures of other GH31 enzymes. Two catalytic aspartic acid residues are structurally conserved in the enzymes, whereas most residues forming the active site differ from those of GH31 α-glucosidases and α-xylosidases. PsGal31A forms a dimer via a unique loop that is not conserved in other reported GH31 enzymes; this loop is involved in its aglycone specificity and in binding L-fucose. Considering potential genes for α-L-fucosidases and carbohydrate-related proteins within the vicinity of Pedobacter Gal31, the identified Gal31 enzymes are likely to function in a novel sugar degradation system. This is the first report of α-galactosidases which belong to GH31 family. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  10. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical species belonging to Aspergillus genus and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuei, R; Khodavaisy, S; Rezaie, S; Sharifynia, S

    2016-03-01

    Among filamentous fungal pathogens, Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes account for highest rates of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Recently developed antifungal drugs offer the potential to improve management and therapeutic outcomes of fungal infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 54 isolates belonging to different clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and R. oryzae was tested for four antifungal agents using a microdilution reference method (CLSI, M38-A2). All isolates were identified by typical colony and microscopic characteristics, and also characterized by molecular methods. Caspofungin (MEC range: 0.008-0.25 and MEC50: 0.0023μg/mL) was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by voriconazole (MIC range: 0.031-8 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), itraconazole (MIC range: 0.031-16 and MIC50: 0.25μg/mL), and amphotericin B (MIC range: 0.125-4 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), in order of decreasing activity. The caspofungin, voriconazole, and itraconazole demonstrated poor in vitro activity against R. oryzae isolates evaluated, followed by amphotericin B. This study demonstrates that caspofungin had good antifungal activity and azole agents had better activity than amphotericin B against Aspergillus species. Although, azole drugs are considered ineffective against R. oryzae. This result is just from a small scale in vitro susceptibility study and we did not take other factors into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) for Bacterial Strain Identification - Quarterly Progress Report for the period 7/1/00 to 10/30/00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul Keim

    2000-11-07

    Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) systems are being developed for B. anthracis, Y. pestis and F. tularensis. These are high resolution DNA fingerprinting systems that will allow for molecular epidemiology and forensic analysis of these pathogens.

  12. Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) for Bacterial Strain Identification - Quarterly Progress Report for the period 7/1/00 to 10/30/00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Paul Keim

    2000-01-01

    Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) systems are being developed for B. anthracis, Y. pestis and F. tularensis. These are high resolution DNA fingerprinting systems that will allow for molecular epidemiology and forensic analysis of these pathogens

  13. Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) for Bacterial Strain Identification - Quarterly Progress Report for the Period 4/1/00 to 6/30/00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul Keim

    2000-11-07

    Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) systems are being developed for B. anthracis, Y. pestis and F. tularensis. These are high resolution DNA fingerprinting systems that will allow for molecular epidemiology and forensic analysis of these pathogens.

  14. Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) for Bacterial Strain Identification - Quarterly Progress Report for the Period 4/1/00 to 6/30/00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Paul Keim

    2000-01-01

    Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) systems are being developed for B. anthracis, Y. pestis and F. tularensis. These are high resolution DNA fingerprinting systems that will allow for molecular epidemiology and forensic analysis of these pathogens

  15. Understanding Intersectionality and Resiliency among Transgender Adolescents: Exploring Pathways among Peer Victimization, School Belonging, and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchel, Tyler; Marx, Robert

    2018-06-19

    Transgender youth experience elevated levels of victimization and may therefore report greater drug use than their cisgender peers, yet little is known about protective factors like school belonging that may mediate this relationship. Further, scant research has explored the experiences of youth at the intersection of transgender identity and youth of color status or low socioeconomic status, especially with respect to these multiple minority statuses’ associations with peer victimization, drug use, and school belonging. Using data from the California Healthy Kids Survey, the current study employs structural equation modeling to explore the relationships among school belonging, peer victimization, and drug use for transgender youth. Findings indicate that school belonging does mediate the pathway between peer victimization and drug use for transgender youth and that although youth of color experience greater victimization, they do not engage in greater drug use than their white transgender peers. Based on these results, those concerned with the healthy futures of transgender youth should advocate for more open and affirming school climates that engender a sense of belonging and treat transgender youth with dignity and fairness.

  16. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  17. Genetic analysis of Asian measles virus strains--new endemic genotype in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, A T; Mulders, M N; Gautam, D C; Ammerlaan, W; de Swart, R L; King, C C; Osterhaus, A D; Muller, C P

    2001-07-01

    In many parts of Asia measles virus (MV) continues to be endemic. However, little is known about the genetic characteristics of viruses circulating on this continent. This study reports the molecular epidemiological analysis based on the entire nucleocapsid (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes of the first isolates from Nepal and Taiwan, as well as of recent MV strains from India, Indonesia, and China. Four isolates collected in various regions in Nepal during 1999 belonged to a new genotype, tentatively called D8. Another Nepalese isolate and one from India belonged to genotype D4. The diversity of the Nepalese strains indicated that measles continues to be endemic in this country. The isolate from Taiwan grouped with D3 viruses and one Chinese strain isolated in The Netherlands was assigned to the previously described clade H, known to be endemic in Mainland China. Molecular characterization emerges as an important tool for monitoring virus endemicity and vaccination efforts.

  18. Genetic relatedness of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains isolated in south Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Kaisar A; Khajanchi, Bijay K; Islam, M Aminul; Dutta, Dilip K; Islam, Zhahirul; Safa, Ashrafus; Khan, G Y; Alam, Khorshed; Hossain, M A; Malla, Sarala; Niyogi, S K; Rahman, Mustafizur; Watanabe, Haruo; Nair, G Balakrish; Sack, David A

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the clonal relationships of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains isolated from south Asia, and S. dysenteriae 1 strains associated with epidemics in 1978, 1984 and 1994. The antimicrobial susceptibilities were examined by NCCLS methods. Molecular epidemiological characterization was performed by plasmid profiling, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and mutation analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA by sequencing. Plasmid patterns of the current ciprofloxacin-resistant strains from India, Nepal and Bangladesh were very similar to those of the 1978, 1984 and 1994 epidemic isolates of S. dysenteriae 1, except for the presence of a new plasmid of approximately 2.6 MDa, which was found in one recent ciprofloxacin-resistant strain isolated in Bangladesh. PFGE analysis showed that the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains isolated in Bangladesh, India and Nepal belonged to a PFGE type (type A), which was possibly related to that of the 1984 and 1994 clone of S. dysenteriae 1, but different from 1978 epidemic strains. The current ciprofloxacin-resistant strains belong to five subtypes (A3-A7), all of which were found in India, but in Bangladesh and Nepal, only A3 existed. Mutation analysis of the QRDR of gyrA revealed that amino acid substitutions at positions 83 and 87 of ciprofloxacin-resistant strains isolated in Bangladesh were similar to those of the strains isolated in Nepal, but different (at position 87) from ciprofloxacin-resistant strains isolated in India. PFGE and mutation analysis of gyrA showed differences between the current ciprofloxacin-resistant S. dysenteriae 1 strains isolated in south Asia and those associated with epidemics in 1978, 1984 and 1994.

  19. Genetic Diversity and Transmission Characteristics of Beijing Family Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Tomotada; Grandjean, Louis; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Noriko; Caviedes, Luz; Coronel, Jorge; Sheen, Patricia; Wada, Takayuki; Taype, Carmen A.; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Moore, David A. J.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Beijing family strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have attracted worldwide attention because of their wide geographical distribution and global emergence. Peru, which has a historical relationship with East Asia, is considered to be a hotspot for Beijing family strains in South America. We aimed to unveil the genetic diversity and transmission characteristics of the Beijing strains in Peru. A total of 200 Beijing family strains were identified from 2140 M. tuberculosis isolates obtained in Lima, Peru, between December 2008 and January 2010. Of them, 198 strains were classified into sublineages, on the basis of 10 sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). They were also subjected to variable number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing using an international standard set of 15 loci (15-MIRU-VNTR) plus 9 additional loci optimized for Beijing strains. An additional 70 Beijing family strains, isolated between 1999 and 2006 in Lima, were also analyzed in order to make a longitudinal comparison. The Beijing family was the third largest spoligotyping clade in Peru. Its population structure, by SNP typing, was characterized by a high frequency of Sequence Type 10 (ST10), which belongs to a modern subfamily of Beijing strains (178/198, 89.9%). Twelve strains belonged to the ancient subfamily (ST3 [n = 3], ST25 [n = 1], ST19 [n = 8]). Overall, the polymorphic information content for each of the 24 loci values was low. The 24 loci VNTR showed a high clustering rate (80.3%) and a high recent transmission index (RTIn−1 = 0.707). These strongly suggest the active and on-going transmission of Beijing family strains in the survey area. Notably, 1 VNTR genotype was found to account for 43.9% of the strains. Comparisons with data from East Asia suggested the genotype emerged as a uniquely endemic clone in Peru. A longitudinal comparison revealed the genotype was present in Lima by 1999. PMID:23185395

  20. In Vitro Susceptibility of Various Genotypic Strains of Toxoplasma gondii to Pyrimethamine, Sulfadiazine, and Atovaquone▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneceur, Pascale; Bouldouyre, Marie-Anne; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Sauvage, Virginie; Garin, Jean-François; Derouin, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and atovaquone are widely used for the treatment of severe toxoplasmosis. Their in vitro activities have been almost exclusively demonstrated on laboratory strains belonging to genotype I. We determined the in vitro activities of these drugs against 17 strains of Toxoplasma gondii belonging to various genotypes and examined the correlations among 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s), growth kinetics, strain genotypes, and mutations on drug target genes. Growth kinetics were determined in THP-1 cell cultures using real-time PCR. IC50s were determined in MRC-5 cell cultures using a T. gondii-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on cultures. Mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), and cytochrome b genes were determined by sequencing. Pyrimethamine IC50s ranged between 0.07 and 0.39 mg/liter, with no correlation with the strain genotype but a significant correlation with growth kinetics. Several mutations found on the DHFR gene were not linked to lower susceptibility. Atovaquone IC50s were in a narrow range of concentrations (mean, 0.06 ± 0.02 mg/liter); no mutation was found on the cytochrome b gene. IC50s for sulfadiazine ranged between 3 and 18.9 mg/liter for 13 strains and were >50 mg/liter for three strains. High IC50s were not correlated to strain genotypes or growth kinetics. A new mutation of the DHPS gene was demonstrated in one of these strains. In conclusion, we found variability in the susceptibilities of T. gondii strains to pyrimethamine and atovaquone, with no evidence of drug resistance. A higher variability was found for sulfadiazine, with a possible resistance of three strains. No relationship was found between drug susceptibility and strain genotype. PMID:18212105

  1. Ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.

  2. The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Keller, Melanie M; Froehlich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed.

  3. [Spread of genetically related methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus belonging to CC45, in healthy nasal carriers in Child Day Care Centers of Medellin, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tamayo, Erika Andrea; Ruiz-Cadavid, Alejandra; Sánchez-González, Leidy Maritza; García-Valencia, Natalia; Jiménez-Quiceno, Judy Natalia

    2016-03-01

    Colonization plays a major role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The child population is one of the most susceptible to colonization; however, community and children studies are limited in Colombia. To assess the clonal relationship of S.aureus strains isolated from colonized children in eight day care centers (DCCs) from Medellin and to determine the presence of epidemiological characteristics in these populations. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 200 children aged from 6 months to 5 years attending eight DCCs in Medellin, Colombia, during 2011. Nasal samples were collected from each nostril. The isolates species and methicillin resistance were molecularly confirmed using nuc and mec genes. Genotypic analysis included SCCmec typing, spa typing, PFGE and MLST. Epidemiological information was obtained from the parents and analyzed using the statistics program SPSS 21.0 RESULTS: The colonization frequency in DCCs ranged from 16.7% (n=3) to 53.6% (n=15). Genetically related isolates were identified inside four DCCs. Half (50%) of the isolates were grouped in 3 clusters, which belonged to the clonal complexes CC45, CC30, and CC121. Molecular typing of isolates from colonized children and comparison among DCCs showed the spread of colonizing strains inside DCCs in Medellin; predominantly the CC45 clone, a successful child colonizer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Strains in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Donato; Felice, Fernando de; Geralico, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The definition of relative accelerations and strains among a set of comoving particles is studied in connection with the geometric properties of the frame adapted to a 'fiducial observer'. We find that a relativistically complete and correct definition of strains must take into account the transport law of the chosen spatial triad along the observer's congruence. We use special congruences of (accelerated) test particles in some familiar spacetimes to elucidate such a point. The celebrated idea of Szekeres' compass of inertia, arising when studying geodesic deviation among a set of free-falling particles, is here generalized to the case of accelerated particles. In doing so we have naturally contributed to the theory of relativistic gravity gradiometer. Moreover, our analysis was made in an observer-dependent form, a fact that would be very useful when thinking about general relativistic tests on space stations orbiting compact objects like black holes and also in other interesting gravitational situations

  5. Strain Induced Adatom Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to sup...

  6. Finite elements model of a rotating half-bridge belonging to a circular settling tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascalescu, A. E.; Lazaroiu, G.; Scupi, A. A.; Oanta, E.

    2016-08-01

    A circular settling tank is an open reservoir used for the gravitational separation of the sludge and of the clarified water which is discharged in the launder which is mounted at the periphery of the basin. The extraction of the sludge is done by the use of a rotating half-bridge which sweeps the sludge, vacuums it using a system of scrapping blades and suction pipes, collects it in some local sludge chambers and pour it in a central collecting tank. The rotating half-bridge is a complex structure under a complex system of loads, therefore advanced instruments of investigation are required to assess the state of strains and stresses in this structure. Until now an analytical model was developed based on the hypotheses specific to the strength of materials academic discipline. The numerical models presented in the paper use the finite element method to determine the displacements of the main beam loaded by the weight of the structure and by the Archimedes’ forces. The results of the models developed so far are conclusive for the future directions of research which aims a higher degree of accuracy of the models and of the according research methodology.

  7. Ratchetting strain prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noban, Mohammad; Jahed, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    A time-efficient method for predicting ratchetting strain is proposed. The ratchetting strain at any cycle is determined by finding the ratchetting rate at only a few cycles. This determination is done by first defining the trajectory of the origin of stress in the deviatoric stress space and then incorporating this moving origin into a cyclic plasticity model. It is shown that at the beginning of the loading, the starting point of this trajectory coincides with the initial stress origin and approaches the mean stress, displaying a power-law relationship with the number of loading cycles. The method of obtaining this trajectory from a standard uniaxial asymmetric cyclic loading is presented. Ratchetting rates are calculated with the help of this trajectory and through the use of a constitutive cyclic plasticity model which incorporates deviatoric stresses and back stresses that are measured with respect to this moving frame. The proposed model is used to predict the ratchetting strain of two types of steels under single- and multi-step loadings. Results obtained agree well with the available experimental measurements

  8. Genotyping of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains reveals historic genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Romy; Roberts, Charlotte A; Brown, Terence A

    2014-04-22

    The evolutionary history of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) has previously been studied by analysis of sequence diversity in extant strains, but not addressed by direct examination of strain genotypes in archaeological remains. Here, we use ancient DNA sequencing to type 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms and two large sequence polymorphisms in the MTBC strains present in 10 archaeological samples from skeletons from Britain and Europe dating to the second-nineteenth centuries AD. The results enable us to assign the strains to groupings and lineages recognized in the extant MTBC. We show that at least during the eighteenth-nineteenth centuries AD, strains of M. tuberculosis belonging to different genetic groups were present in Britain at the same time, possibly even at a single location, and we present evidence for a mixed infection in at least one individual. Our study shows that ancient DNA typing applied to multiple samples can provide sufficiently detailed information to contribute to both archaeological and evolutionary knowledge of the history of tuberculosis.

  9. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. PMID:26219634

  10. [Persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in patients of Federal Scientific Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisian, L R; Voronina, O L; Chernukha, M Iu; Kunda, M S; Gabrielian, N I; Lunin, V G; Shaginian, I A

    2012-01-01

    Study genetic diversity of P. aeruginosa strains persisting in patients of Federal Scientific Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs, and main factors facilitating persistence of strains in the hospital. 136 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from patients of the center for 3 years 6 months were genotyped by RAPD-PCR and MLST methods and studied for antibiotics resistance and presence of integrons. Genetic diversity of strains persisting in hospital was established. Strains of main genotypes ST235, ST446, ST598 were isolated from patients of various surgical departments. Patients were shown to be colonized by these strains during stay in reanimation and intensive therapy department (RITD) of the hospital. Strains of dominant genotype 235 were isolated from 47% of examined patients during more than 3 years. Only genotype 235 strains contained integron with cassettes of antibiotics resistance genes blaGES5 and aadA6 in the genome. The data obtained show that over the period of observation in the center 1 clone of P. aeruginosa that belonged to genotype 235 dominated. This clone was endemic for this hospital and in the process of prolonged persistence became more resistant to antibiotics. Colonization of patients with these strains occurs in RITD. This confirms the necessity of constant monitoring of hospital microflora for advance detection of potentially dangerous epidemic hospital strains able to cause hospital infections.

  11. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  12. Identification and Evaluation of Clinically Significant Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia otitidiscaviarum Strains Using Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry (PyMS)

    OpenAIRE

    IŞIK, Kamil; KARİPTAŞ, Ergin; ŞAHİN, Nevzat

    2001-01-01

    Out of a total of thirty-nine Nocardia strains, eight species of N. brasiliensis, seventeen species of N. farcinica and fourteen species of N. otitidiscaviarum were identified using Pyrolysis mass spectrometry. N428, N477 N. brasiliensis; N669, N233 N. farcinica; and N231, N232 N. otitidiscaviarum duplicated strains were clustered in their own groups. Strains belonging to Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia otitidiscaviarum formed distinct pyrogroups corresponding to cluste...

  13. Characterization, genetic diversity, and evolutionary link of Cucumber mosaic virus strain New Delhi from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundal, Vikas; Haq, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul; Praveen, Shelly

    2011-02-01

    The genome of Cucumber mosaic virus New Delhi strain (CMV-ND) from India, obtained from tomato, was completely sequenced and compared with full genome sequences of 14 known CMV strains from subgroups I and II, for their genetic diversity. Sequence analysis suggests CMV-ND shares maximum sequence identity at the nucleotide level with a CMV strain from Taiwan. Among all 15 strains of CMV, the encoded protein 2b is least conserved, whereas the coat protein (CP) is most conserved. Sequence identity values and phylogram results indicate that CMV-ND belongs to subgroup I. Based on the recombination detection program result, it appears that CMV is prone to recombination, and different RNA components of CMV-ND have evolved differently. Recombinational analysis of all 15 CMV strains detected maximum recombination breakpoints in RNA2; CP showed the least recombination sites.

  14. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.P.; Zakharov, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    45 of radiosensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated by Curly/Lobe technique after EMS treatment of Livadia population males. The lethality of non-Curly late larvae after gamma-irradiation (4000r) characterized radiosensitivity strains. Most of them exhibited higher frequency of the spontaneous dominant lethals (up to 69%). The males of 6 strains were semi-sterile. 5 of these strains exhibited higher frequency of X-chromosome non-disjunction

  15. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from wasted ionic exchange resins kept at Area de Gestion Ezeiza belonging to RA-3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera Rodriguez, Leon; Pizarro, Ramon A.

    2009-01-01

    A spent ionic exchange resin kept at Area de Gannet's Ezeiza (Age), belonging to RA-3 Reactor, was treated with sterile water. Microorganisms suspended in the aqueous sample were isolated by several methods, broadening as much as possible cell recovery conditions. Bacteria were subject to purity controls and re-isolation when necessary. Characterization of the strains found in the sample included morphological, physiological and biochemical tests as well as stains. Being the spent resins volume reduction at Age the main purpose, a screening experiment is proposed based on bacteria capability to take carbon from the sediment present in the liquid sample. Recovered bacteria are at least the following: Method I: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas sp. Method II: Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Flavimonas sp., Agrobacterium sp. Method III: Bacillus circulans, Bacillus sphaericus, Kocuria rosea, Kytococcus sedentarius, Pseudomonas acidovorans. Microorganisms present in the sample are characteristic of those having low microbiological-contamination levels. Way III is an isolation method whose design would lead to find bacteria having the desired properties in order to diminish the volume of RA-3 Reactor spent resins. (author)

  16. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health.

  17. The Study of Relationship between Organizational Culture and Organizational Belonging in Employees of Varamin County Office of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaee, Seyed Mahmoud; Koohi, Amirhasan; Ghandali, Abbas; Tajik, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to study the relationship between organizational culture and organizational belonging among employees of Varamin County ministry of education. This is a descriptive-survey study. The statistical population is consisted of all 274 official and contract employees of ministry of education in Varamin County of…

  18. The moderating effect of the need to belong and classroom composition on belongingness seeking of minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Fu Wen; Yang, Shu Ching

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate whether the interaction of classroom composition and the need to belong influences belongingness seeking and, if so, to investigate how upward comparison mediates the effects. The analyses were conducted with a cross-sectional sample of 383 Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents (39.7% male) recruited from schools with mixed-sex/ethnicity (n = 113), single-sex (n = 122), and minority-only (n = 148) classrooms. After controlling for socioeconomic status, the moderation analyses indicated that participants with a chronic need to belong in classes with diversity (mixed sex/ethnicity) perceived higher social acceptance, while those with a chronic need to belong in homogeneous classes (single-sex and minority-only) reported greater feelings of rejection. Upward comparison for differentiation was found to influence the indirect effects of the need to belong on feelings of rejection and depression in single-sex and minority-only classes. In particular, the mediating effect of upward comparison was stronger in minority-only classes. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Teacher Job Satisfaction and Motivation to Leave the Teaching Profession: Relations with School Context, Feeling of Belonging, and Emotional Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relations between school context variables and teachers' feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. Six aspects of the school context were measured: value consonance, supervisory support, relations with colleagues, relations with parents, time pressure, and…

  20. Emotions on the Move: Belonging, Sense of Place and Feelings Identities among Young Romanian Immigrants in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the experiences in terms of belonging and sense of place among young Romanian immigrants who came to Spain in search of opportunities for professional development. The research detects and analyses the process of mobility, the search for job opportunities and the necessity of working below one's level of training or…

  1. Personally committed to emotional labor: Surface acting, emotional exhaustion and performance among service employees with a strong need to belong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, Dana; Medler-Liraz, Hana

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in emotional labor and subsequent vulnerability to burnout have been explored through the prism of Congruence Theory, which examines the congruence between personality traits and job requirements (Bono & Vey, 2007; Moskowitz & Coté, 1995). Drawing on theory and research dealing with the association between the need to belong and self-regulation (Baumeister, DeWall, Ciarocco & Twenge, 2005), this study examined the relationship between need to belong and service employees' surface acting and associated outcomes. In Study 1, participants (N = 54) were asked to write a response to an aggressive email from a hypothetical customer. The need to belong was positively related to display of positive emotions and negatively to display of negative emotions in the responses, but not related to felt anger, suggesting that it is associated with the inclination to engage in surface acting. In Study 2, a field study conducted with 170 service employee-customer dyads, surface acting mediated the positive relationship between fear of isolation and emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction. These results suggested that service employees with a strong need to belong might have a heightened risk of burnout because of their inclination to engage in emotional labor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Fostering Academic Self-Concept: Advisor Support and Sense of Belonging among International and Domestic Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.; Ostrove, Joan M.

    2013-01-01

    International doctoral students in the United States face challenges of acculturation in academia yet complete graduate school at higher rates and more quickly than their domestic counterparts. This study examined advisor support, sense of belonging, and academic self-concept among international and domestic doctoral students at a research…

  3. Effects induced by γ-radiation on the noise in junction field-effect transistors belonging to monolithic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.; Re, V.; Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of γ-rays on the noise characteristics of junction field-effect transistors belonging to three monolithic technologies have been investigated. A substantially different behavior of the radiation-induced noise in N and P -channel JFETs was observed. This may result in interesting design considerations. (authors)

  4. Belonging to a Workplace: First-Year Apprentices' Perspectives on Factors Determining Engagement and Continuation through Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Selena

    2016-01-01

    The transition to work through apprenticeship is one taken by many young people. A sense of belonging to a workplace is posited to be an important precursor for initial and on-going engagement with practice communities. This article details a study of beginning apprentices in ten trades. The project sought to identify factors influencing…

  5. "Ikasi Style" and the Quiet Violence of Dreams: A Critique of Youth Belonging in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene; Harding, James Hamilton; De Lannoy, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on empirical data from two recent research studies in post-Apartheid South Africa, this paper asks what it means to be poor, young and black, and belong in a society that has suffered debilitating and dehumanising racial subjugation, actively excluding people from citizenship, and how poverty serves to perpetuate this exclusion. It…

  6. The Relationship between the Physical Environment of Schools and Teacher Morale, Sense of Belonging, and Work Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Ben D.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the physical environment of school buildings and the effects it has on teacher morale, sense of belonging, and work ethic. Within this mixed-method study, four New York State schools were given the researcher developed School Environment Survey, and multiple school stakeholders were interviewed to determine the extent of these…

  7. The Impact of Denominational Affiliation on Organizational Sense of Belonging and Commitment of Adjunct Faculty at Bible Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilieci, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of faculty in higher education, including secular and biblical institutions, are adjunct faculty. The literature suggests that adjunct faculty are less effective and satisfied, and have weaker organizational sense of belonging (OSB) and affective organizational commitment (AOC). Denominational affiliation (DA) and religious commitment…

  8. Is the igeneration a 'we' generation? Social networking use among 9- to 13-year-olds and belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sally; Oldmeadow, Julian A

    2013-03-01

    Research suggests that online communication is associated with increased closeness to friends and friendship quality. Children under 13 years of age are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs), but research with this younger age group is scarce. This study examined the relationship between SNS use and feelings of belonging among children aged 9-13 years. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 443 children (48.98% boys), asking about their SNS use and their sense of belonging to their friendship group. SNS users reported a stronger sense of belonging to their friendship group than non-users, but this was found only among older boys. Furthermore, among boy SNS users, a positive linear relationship was found between the intensity of usage and feelings of belonging. No significant relationships were found for girls. These findings suggest that boys who use these sites are gaining friendship benefits over and above those boys who are non-users or low-intensity users. Longitudinal studies should investigate the causal relationships between SNS use and social effects within this age group. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Critical Care and Problematizing Sense of School Belonging as a Response to Inequality for Immigrants and Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNicolo, Christina Passos; Yu, Min; Crowley, Christopher B.; Gabel, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines the factors that contribute to a sense of school belonging for immigrant and immigrant-origin youth. Through a review of the education research on critical care, the authors propose a framework informed by "cariño conscientizado"--critically conscious and authentic care--as central to reconceptualizing notions of…

  10. Identity and Belonging in Social Learning Groups: The Importance of Distinguishing Social, Operational and Knowledge-Related Identity Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gwyneth

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning has much to offer but not all learners participate fully and peer groups can be exclusive. The article examines how belonging or "congruence" in learning groups is related to identities of gender, age, ethnicity and socio-economic status. A study of student experiences of collaborative learning on three different…

  11. The Social Network: Homeless Young Women, Social Capital, and the Health Implications of Belonging outside the Nuclear Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the means through which homeless young women are able to improve their flow of social capital by attaining a sense of belonging and forming positive attachments to supportive people and places. In so doing, they also develop relationships with health and social services and improve their overall physical and mental health…

  12. Is the "I"generation a "We" Generation? Social Networking Use among 9- to 13-Year-Olds and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sally; Oldmeadow, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that online communication is associated with increased closeness to friends and friendship quality. Children under 13 years of age are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs), but research with this younger age group is scarce. This study examined the relationship between SNS use and feelings of belonging among children…

  13. Creating Belonging and Transformation through the Adoption of Flexible Pedagogies in Masters Level International Business Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Ruth; Sutcliffe, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Flexible pedagogies [Ryan and Tilbury 2013. "Flexible Pedagogies: New Pedagogical Ideas." York: Higher Education Academy] place learner empowerment at the centre of curriculum development. Learner empowerment requires students to feel that they belong and are active in the learning process. This paper illuminates how, through the…

  14. Production and characterization of a thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.; Uria, A.R.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Oost, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    The gene encoding a novel alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily has been identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The gene, referred to as adhD, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified to homogeneity. The

  15. Integrating Facebook into a University Cohort to Enhance Student Sense of Belonging: A Pilot Program in Sport and Exercise Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuckin, Teneale Alyce; Sealey, Rebecca Maree

    2013-01-01

    University initiatives that enhance a students' sense of belonging may increase student retention and the overall student experience. Previous initiatives have largely focussed on face-to-face interactions however with the high usage of social networking, an online initiative may prove beneficial. The aim of this study was to establish a Facebook…

  16. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents' ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strain induced adatom correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    A Born-Green-Yvon type model for adatom density correlations is combined with a model for adatom interactions mediated by the strain in elastic anisotropic substrates. The resulting nonlinear integral equation is solved numerically for coverages from zero to a limit given by stability constraints. W, Nb, Ta and Au surfaces are taken as examples to show the effects of different elastic anisotropy regions. Results of the calculation are shown by appropriate plots and discussed. A mapping to superstructures is tried. Corresponding adatom configurations from Monte Carlo simulations are shown.

  18. Strain actuated aeroelastic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Kenneth B.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on strain actuated aeroelastic control are presented. Topics covered include: structural and aerodynamic modeling; control law design methodology; system block diagram; adaptive wing test article; bench-top experiments; bench-top disturbance rejection: open and closed loop response; bench-top disturbance rejection: state cost versus control cost; wind tunnel experiments; wind tunnel gust alleviation: open and closed loop response at 60 mph; wind tunnel gust alleviation: state cost versus control cost at 60 mph; wind tunnel command following: open and closed loop error at 60 mph; wind tunnel flutter suppression: open loop flutter speed; and wind tunnel flutter suppression: closed loop state cost curves.

  19. Complete genome sequence of 'Thermobaculum terrenum' type strain (YNP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Hajnalka; Cleland, David; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Nolan, Matt; Tice, Hope; Han, Cliff; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Lu, Megan; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C; Göker, Markus; Tindall, Brian J; Beck, Brian; McDermott, Timothy R; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2010-10-27

    'Thermobaculum terrenum' Botero et al. 2004 is the sole species within the proposed genus 'Thermobaculum'. Strain YNP1(T) is the only cultivated member of an acid tolerant, extremely thermophilic species belonging to a phylogenetically isolated environmental clone group within the phylum Chloroflexi. At present, the name 'Thermobaculum terrenum' is not yet validly published as it contravenes Rule 30 (3a) of the Bacteriological Code. The bacterium was isolated from a slightly acidic extreme thermal soil in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Depending on its final taxonomic allocation, this is likely to be the third completed genome sequence of a member of the class Thermomicrobia and the seventh type strain genome from the phylum Chloroflexi. The 3,101,581 bp long genome with its 2,872 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  20. Intervention to Improve Engineering Self-Efficacy and Sense of Belonging of First-Year Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kari L.

    /her physiological state, and social persuasions, such as student-professor interaction. Increasing the awareness of a student's engineering self-efficacy could potentially improve sense of belonging and persistence for underrepresented minority students in engineering. The hypothesis of this study is that an intervention during the first semester of an incoming freshman's tenure can help improve their engineering self-efficacy, sense of belonging, and overall retention in the engineering program. This study explored the following research questions: 1. What are the differences in engineering self-efficacy, and sense of belonging for first-year underrepresented minority engineering students compared to majority students? 2. What factors or variables should be considered and/or addressed in designing an intervention to increase engineering self-efficacy and sense of belonging amongst first-year underrepresented minority engineering students? 3. Can a small intervention during the beginning of the first semester improve a student's sense of belonging, engineering self-efficacy, and student-professor interaction? Using the race, social fit, and achievement study by Walton and Cohen as a model, the author developed an intervention consisting of short compelling videos of upperclass engineering students from diverse backgrounds. In these videos, students discussed their pursuit of the engineering degree, what obstacles they faced in terms of sense of belonging and coping efficacy, and how they overcame those obstacles. Treatment groups of students watched the videos during the first few weeks of the semester, and pre and post tests were administered to measure mean gains in the student's engineering self-efficacy, sense of belonging, and other variables. The results showed that underrepresented minority students had a lower sense of belonging than whites. The intervention used in the study contributed to mean gain increases in participants' engineering self-efficacy, which could

  1. Characterization of rumen bacterial strains isolated from enrichments of rumen content in the presence of propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Sílvia Cristina; Zeoula, Lucia Maria; do Prado, Odimari Pricila Pires; Arcuri, Pedro Braga; Forano, Evelyne

    2014-11-01

    Propolis presents many biological properties, including antibacterial activities, and has been proposed as an additive in ruminant nutrition. Twenty bacterial strains, previously isolated from enrichments of Brazilian cow rumen contents in the presence of different propolis extracts (LLOS), were characterized using phenotyping and 16S rRNA identification. Seven strains were assigned to Streptococcus sp., most likely S. bovis, and were all degrading starch. One amylolytic lactate-utilizing strain of Selenomonas ruminantium was also found. Two strains of Clostridium bifermentans were identified and showed proteolytic activity. Two strains were assigned to Mitsuokella jalaludinii and were saccharolytic. One strain belonged to a Bacillus species and seven strains were affiliated with Escherichia coli. All of the 20 strains were able to use many sugars, but none of them were able to degrade the polysaccharides carboxymethylcellulose and xylans. The effect of three propolis extracts (LLOS B1, C1 and C3) was tested on the in vitro growth of four representative isolates of S. bovis, E. coli, M. jalaludinii and C. bifermentans. The growth of S. bovis, E. coli and M. jalaludinii was not affected by the three propolis extracts at 1 mg ml(-1). C. bifermentans growth was completely inhibited at this LLOS concentration, but this bacterium was partially resistant at lower concentrations. LLOS C3, with the lower concentration of phenolic compounds, was a little less inhibitory than B1 and C1 on this strain.

  2. Distinct virulence of Rift Valley fever phlebovirus strains from different genetic lineages in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Ikegami

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV causes high rates of abortions and fetal malformations in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. Viral transmission occurs via mosquito vectors in endemic areas, which necessitates regular vaccination of susceptible livestock animals to prevent the RVF outbreaks. Although ZH501 strain has been used as a challenge strain for past vaccine efficacy studies, further characterization of other RVFV strains is important to optimize ruminant and nonhuman primate RVFV challenge models. This study aimed to characterize the virulence of wild-type RVFV strains belonging to different genetic lineages in outbred CD1 mice. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with 1x103 PFU of wild-type ZH501, Kenya 9800523, Kenya 90058, Saudi Arabia 200010911, OS1, OS7, SA75, Entebbe, or SA51 strains. Among them, mice infected with SA51, Entebbe, or OS7 strain showed rapid dissemination of virus in livers and peracute necrotic hepatitis at 2-3 dpi. Recombinant SA51 (rSA51 and Zinga (rZinga strains were recovered by reverse genetics, and their virulence was also tested in CD1 mice. The rSA51 strain reproduced peracute RVF disease in mice, whereas the rZinga strain showed a similar virulence with that of rZH501 strain. This study showed that RVFV strains in different genetic lineages display distinct virulence in outbred mice. Importantly, since wild-type RVFV strains contain defective-interfering RNA or various genetic subpopulations during passage from original viral isolations, recombinant RVFV strains generated by reverse genetics will be better suitable for reproducible challenge studies for vaccine development as well as pathological studies.

  3. Characterization of European Yersinia enterocolitica 1A strains using restriction fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murros, A; Säde, E; Johansson, P; Korkeala, H; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Björkroth, J

    2016-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is currently divided into two subspecies: subsp. enterocolitica including highly pathogenic strains of biotype 1B and subsp. palearctica including nonpathogenic strains of biotype 1A and moderately pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-5. In this work, we characterized 162 Y. enterocolitica strains of biotype 1A and 50 strains of biotypes 2-4 isolated from human, animal and food samples by restriction fragment length polymorphism using the HindIII restriction enzyme. Phylogenetic relatedness of 20 representative Y. enterocolitica strains including 15 biotype 1A strains was further studied by the multilocus sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes (glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60). In all the analyses, biotype 1A strains formed a separate genomic group, which differed from Y. enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica and from the strains of biotypes 2-4 of Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica. Based on these results, biotype 1A strains considered nonpathogenic should not be included in subspecies palearctica containing pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-5. Yersinia enterocolitica strains are currently divided into six biotypes and two subspecies. Strains of biotype 1A, which are phenotypically and genotypically very heterogeneous, are classified as subspecies palearctica. In this study, European Y. enterocolitica 1A strains isolated from both human and nonhuman sources were characterized using restriction fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis. The European biotype 1A strains formed a separate group, which differed from strains belonging to subspecies enterocolitica and palearctica. This may indicate that the current division between the two subspecies is not sufficient considering the strain diversity within Y. enterocolitica. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  5. “Having to Belong to Be”: The Consumption of New Medias and the Identity Projection These Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Dal Bello

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the emergency of the hi-tech youth, we look into the necessity of consumption of communication and information technologies, relating the context in which the new media are necessary and their involvements in social relations as well in the perception of the individual himself. For that, we try to understand the importance of new media for the experience of the post modern subject in a global, capitalist and media society, organized in net. In this society, the new media have access devices, and without them, the youth could not get connected to access and be accessible. Thus, the consumption for the access. Without these devices, how can a person belong to a new net of relations that are established in the media environment? If one does not belong, how can he exist?

  6. The protective properties of Act-Belong-Commit indicators against incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos

    2017-01-01

    -Belong-Commit and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment at two-year follow-up. The adjusted model showed that each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted the onset of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. The same was the case for social network...... integration (Belong); that is, being well integrated into social networks was a significant protective factor against all mental health outcomes. Finally, frequency of participation in social/recreational activities (Commit) significantly and inversely predicted the onset of depression and anxiety, while...... two consecutive waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The analytical sample consisted of 6098 adults aged ≥ 50 years. Validated scales for depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment were used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used...

  7. Youth, normality and belonging - How young people construct and understand youth, identity and normality in their local environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk; Gravesen, David Thore; Mikkelsen, Sidse Hølvig

    of social media such as My Stories on Snapchat. The idea of individualisation, which by many a sociologist is considered one of the late modernity’s most significant characteristics of the norm- and tradition free youth, appear to be a bit simplified in the light of this research, as the young informants...... construct meaning and a sense of belonging in a contingent late modern society? The classic distinction between the normal and the outsiders, by Howard Becker (Becker, 2013) is used in our analysis to initially shed a light on and ultimately come closer to an understanding of the young people...... the youth groupings is only a few kilometres, the symbolic distance should rather be measured in light years. Relevance for Nordic Educational Research: The understanding of young people’s take on youth, normality and sense of belonging, will shed light on important issues regarding socializing practices...

  8. Banks Belonging to the Erste Group and their Sensitivity to the Confidence Crisis on the Interbank Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Klepková Vodová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to measure the sensitivity of commercial banks from the Erste Group to the confidence crisis on the interbank market and to compare their sensitivity with average sensitivity of banks in particular countries. We have used the methodology of scenario analysis for the liquid asset ratio. All banks belonging to the Erste Group should be able to withstand the confidence crisis on the interbank market. The group of the most vulnerable banks consists from Erste bank Hungary and Banca Comerciala Romana from Romania. In some cases, banks from the Erste Group are more sensitive; while in other cases are banks belonging to the Erste Group less vulnerable than corresponding banking sectors. Except of banks from Hungary, Romania and Slovakia, subsidiary banks are less sensitive to the confidence crisis than the parent bank. Banks (and banking sectors who are net borrowers on the interbank market are much more sensitive to the confidence crisis on this market.

  9. Sodium butyrate stimulates cellular recovery from UV damage in xeroderma pigmentosum cells belonging to complementation group F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigori, Chikako; Takebe, Hiraku

    1987-01-01

    Possible stimulation of the DNA repair capacity by sodium butyrate in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells was investigated. XP cells belonging to the complementation group F showed considerable stimulation of DNA repair by sodium butyrate in terms of both the amount of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and the colony-forming ability after UV irradiation. UDS in XP cells belonging to the complementation group A was not enhanced, while normal cells showed slight enhancement, but less than that of XP F cells. In XP A, XP C, and normal cells, sodium butyrate treatment enhanced the killing effect of UV irradiation. The residual repair capacity in XP F cells appeared to be stimulated by sodium butyrate. (author)

  10. Identification of a novel acetate-utilizing bacterium belonging to Synergistes group 4 in anaerobic digester sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tsukasa; Yoshiguchi, Kazumi; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2011-12-01

    Major acetate-utilizing bacterial and archaeal populations in methanogenic anaerobic digester sludge were identified and quantified by radioisotope- and stable-isotope-based functional analyses, microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) and stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA (RNA-SIP) that can directly link 16S rRNA phylogeny with in situ metabolic function. First, MAR-FISH with (14)C-acetate indicated the significant utilization of acetate by only two major groups, unidentified bacterial cells and Methanosaeta-like filamentous archaeal cells, in the digester sludge. To identify the acetate-utilizing unidentified bacteria, RNA-SIP was conducted with (13)C(6)-glucose and (13)C(3)-propionate as sole carbon source, which were followed by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA. We found that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 were commonly detected in both 16S rRNA clone libraries derived from the sludge incubated with (13)C-glucose and (13)C-propionate. To confirm that this bacterial group can utilize acetate, specific FISH probe targeting for Synergistes group 4 was newly designed and applied to the sludge incubated with (14)C-acetate for MAR-FISH. The MAR-FISH result showed that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 significantly took up acetate and their active population size was comparable to that of Methanosaeta in this sludge. In addition, as bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 had high K(m) for acetate and maximum utilization rate, they are more competitive for acetate over Methanosaeta at high acetate concentrations (2.5-10  mM). To our knowledge, it is the first time to report the acetate-utilizing activity of uncultured bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 and its competitive significance to acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta.

  11. Embeddings of graphs into Euclidean space under which the number of points that belong to a hyperplane is minimal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblakov, Konstantin I; Oblakova, Tat' yana A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-31

    The paper is devoted to the characteristic of a graph that is the minimal (over all embeddings of the graph into a space of given dimension) number of points that belong to the same hyperplane. Upper and lower estimates for this number are given that linearly depend on the dimension of the space. For trees a more precise upper estimate is obtained, which asymptotically coincides with the lower one for large dimension of the space. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  12. Genetic diversity among major endemic strains of Leptospira interrogans in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhi-Ming

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a world-widely distributed zoonosis. Humans become infected via exposure to pathogenic Leptospira spp. from contaminated water or soil. The availability of genomic sequences of Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai and serovar Copenhageni opened up opportunities to identify genetic diversity among different pathogenic strains of L. interrogans representing various kinds of serotypes (serogroups and serovars. Results Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis was used to compare the gene content of L. interrogans serovar Lai strain Lai with that of other 10 L. interrogans strains prevailed in China and one identified from Brazil using a microarray spotted with 3,528 protein coding sequences (CDSs of strain Lai. The cutoff ratio of sample/reference (S/R hybridization for detecting the absence of genes from one tested strain was set by comparing the ratio of S/R hybridization and the in silico sequence similarities of strain Lai and serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. Among the 11 strains tested, 275 CDSs were found absent from at least one strain. The common backbone of the L. interrogans genome was estimated to contain about 2,917 CDSs. The genes encoding fundamental cellular functions such as translation, energy production and conversion were conserved. While strain-specific genes include those that encode proteins related to either cell surface structures or carbohydrate transport and metabolism. We also found two genomic islands (GIs in strain Lai containing genes divergently absent in other strains. Because genes encoding proteins with potential pathogenic functions are located within GIs, these elements might contribute to the variations in disease manifestation. Differences in genes involved in O-antigen biosynthesis were also identified for strains belonging to different serogroups, which offers an opportunity for future development of genomic typing tools for serological classification

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antibacterial properties of three grades of orthodox Sri Lankan black tea belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations. Methods: Methanloic extracts of orange pekoe (OP, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1 belonging to three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high grown were made and tested in vitro (concentration: 300 µg/disc against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 (S. aureus and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778 (B. cereus, and two Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 (P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218 (E. coli, using agar disc diffusion assay. Gentamycin (10 µg/disc was used as the positive control and methanol as the negative control. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were evaluated, using micro dilution method. Results: None of the tea extracts exerted an antibacterial action against P. aeruginosa and E. coli. In contrast mild to moderate antibacterial activity was exerted against S. aureus and B. cereus. Further gentamycin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all the four bacterial species. Further low MIC values were evident for tea samples against the two Gram-positive bacteria. The order of anti-bacterial activity for tea extracts was Dust No. 1 > BOPF > OP. Conclusions: It is concluded that Sri Lankan orthodox black tea belonging to Dust No. 1, BOPF, and OP pocess in vitro antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. cereus but not against Gram-positive bacteria P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

  14. Why narcissists are at risk for developing Facebook addiction: The need to be admired and the need to belong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    Building upon previous research establishing a positive association between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and problematic social networking use, the present study tests a model that explains how grandiose and vulnerable narcissists might develop Facebook (Fb) addiction symptoms through the need for admiration and the need to belong. A sample of 535 undergraduates (50.08% F; mean age 22.70±2.76years) completed measures of grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, Fb addiction symptoms, and two brief scales measuring the need for admiration and the need to belong. Results from structural equation modelling show that the association between grandiose narcissism and Fb addiction levels was completely mediated by the need for admiration and the need to belong. On the other hand, vulnerable narcissism was not found to be associated either directly or indirectly with Fb addiction levels. The variables in the model accounted for 30% of the variance in Fb addiction levels. The present study represents a step toward a better understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying the link between grandiose narcissism and problematic Fb use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strain Pattern in Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Hajnal, David; Klix, Christian; Keim, Peter; Fuchs, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Investigations of strain correlations at the glass transition reveal unexpected phenomena. The shear strain fluctuations show an Eshelby-strain pattern [˜cos (4 θ ) /r2 ], characteristic of elastic response, even in liquids, at long times. We address this using a mode-coupling theory for the strain fluctuations in supercooled liquids and data from both video microscopy of a two-dimensional colloidal glass former and simulations of Brownian hard disks. We show that the long-ranged and long-lived strain signatures follow a scaling law valid close to the glass transition. For large enough viscosities, the Eshelby-strain pattern is visible even on time scales longer than the structural relaxation time τ and after the shear modulus has relaxed to zero.

  16. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    Full Text Available More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization.

  17. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...... to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...

  19. The relationships between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction, and self-esteem among Australian gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousari-Rad, Pantea; McLaren, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction has been linked to belonging to the gay community and poor self-esteem among gay men. This study was designed to explore the applicability of a moderation model and a mediation model in explaining the relations between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem among 90 self-identified Australian gay men. Participants completed the psychological subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Body Satisfaction Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results supported the moderation model; the relation between body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem was found to be statistically significant only at average and high levels of belonging to the gay community. The mediation model was also supported; body image dissatisfaction partially mediated the sense of belonging-self-esteem relation. Educating gay men and health professionals about the possible negative outcomes of "belonging" to an appearance-oriented community is important.

  20. ``But it doesn't come naturally'': how effort expenditure shapes the benefit of growth mindset on women's sense of intellectual belonging in computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jane G.; Blaney, Jennifer M.

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests growth mindset, or the belief that knowledge is acquired through effort, may enhance women's sense of belonging in male-dominated disciplines, like computing. However, other research indicates women who spend a great deal of time and energy in technical fields experience a low sense of belonging. The current study assessed the benefits of a growth mindset on women's (and men's) sense of intellectual belonging in computing, accounting for the amount of time and effort dedicated to academics. We define "intellectual belonging" as the sense that one is believed to be a competent member of the community. Whereas a stronger growth mindset was associated with stronger intellectual belonging for men, a growth mindset only boosted women's intellectual belonging when they did not work hard on academics. Our findings suggest, paradoxically, women may not benefit from a growth mindset in computing when they exert a lot of effort.