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Sample records for tubules programacao metabolica

  1. Zigzag lipid tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Fang, Jiyu

    2008-09-04

    We report a method based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp-assisted moving contact line to bend lipid tubules into zigzags on glass substrates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that the zigzag lipid tubules buckle at the bent sites. The measurements of buckling heights as a function of bending angles suggest a gradual buckling mode. By imaging the zigzag tubules with AFM under different loading forces, we study the correlation between the loading force and the tubule compression. The reduced stiffness at the buckling sites of zigzag tubules suggests that lipid molecules are reorganized during the gradual buckling.

  2. Regeneration of injured renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Honma, Shigeyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI), clinically defined by high serum creatinine and low urine flow, has many complicated pathophysiological features including tubular and glomerular injury. Although renal tubules are thought to be constituted by highly differentiated epithelial cells, it is possible to repair injured nephrons by the healing process. Several studies have revealed that AKI, especially AKI caused by ischemia/reperfusion injury or nephrotoxic medication, depends on a number of factors, including activation of transcriptional factors, endothelial injury of peritubular small vessels, immune responses, and inflammatory processes associated with necrosis and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelium. For regeneration of injured tubules, partly dedifferentiated progenitor-like cells fill the injured site and constitute the tubular structure and function, although the source of these cells is still under debate. It is essential to understand the molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms of AKI and tubular regeneration for the development of therapies to prevent and treat kidney injury.

  3. Interactions between renal tubules and interstitium.

    OpenAIRE

    Howie, A J; Lote, C J

    1996-01-01

    Renal tubules and interstitium have close physiological associations. Changes in both are often seen in renal disease. Damaged tubules can attract inflammatory cells and stimulate interstitial fibrosis, but do not always do so. Interstitial inflammation can damage tubules and can also stimulate fibrosis, and is probably always initiated by tubular events. Interstitial and tubular abnormalities are closely associated with changes in renal excretory function, but tubular events are more importa...

  4. Tubulering

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Jan; Linnér, Harry; Arvidsson, Johan

    2002-01-01

    This report contains the results of a series of field trials carried out on two sites, Ulfhäll and Fiholmsby in Södermanland, during the period 1998-2000. The aim of the trials was to evaluate the effects of mole drainage as a complement to tile drainage in combination with liming and variation in sowing date. The trial layout induded the following treatments and sowing dates: A = Control B = Mole drainage C = Piped mole drainage 1 = Conventional seedbed preparation with normal sowing date 2 ...

  5. Osmosis in Cortical Collecting Tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, James A.; Troutman, Susan L.; Andreoli, Thomas E.

    1974-01-01

    The present experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of varying the osmolality of luminal solutions on the antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-independent water and solute permeability properties of isolated rabbit cortical collecting tubules. In the absence of ADH, the osmotic water permeability coefficient (cm s–1) Pfl→b, computed from volume flows from hypotonic lumen to isotonic bath, was 20 ± 4 x 10–4 (SEM); the value of Pfb→l in the absence of ADH, computed from volume flows from isotonic bath to hypertonic lumen, was 88 ± 15 x 10–4 cm s–1. We also measured apparent urea permeability coefficients (cm s–1) from 14C-urea fluxes from lumen to bath (P DDurea l→b) and from bath to lumen (P DDurea b→l). For hypotonic luminal solutions and isotonic bathing solutions, P DDurea l→b was 0.045 ± 0.004 x 10–4 and was unaffected by ADH. The ADH-independent values of P DDurea l→b and P urea b→l were, respectively, 0.216 ± 0.022 x 10–4 cm s–1 and 0.033 ± 0.002 x 10–4 cm s–1 for isotonic bathing solutions and luminal solutions made hypertonic with urea, i.e., there was an absolute increase in urea permeability and asymmetry of urea fluxes. Significantly, P DDurea l→b did not rise when luminal hypertonicity was produced by sucrose; and, bathing fluid hypertonicity did not alter tubular permeability to water or to urea. We interpret these data to indicate that luminal hypertonicity increased the leakiness of tight junctions to water and urea but not sucrose. Since the value of Pfb→l in the absence of ADH, when tight junctions were open to urea, was approximately half of the value of Pfl→b in the presence of ADH, when tight junctions were closed to urea, we conclude that tight junctions are negligible paracellular shunts for lumen to bath osmosis with ADH. These findings, together with those in the preceding paper, are discussed in terms of a solubility-diffusion model for water permeation in which ADH increases water solubility in

  6. Afadin orients cell division to position the tubule lumen in developing renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Yang, Zhufeng; Hiremath, Chitkale; Zimmerman, Susan E; Long, Blake; Brakeman, Paul R; Mostov, Keith E; Bryant, David M; Luby-Phelps, Katherine; Marciano, Denise K

    2017-10-01

    In many types of tubules, continuity of the lumen is paramount to tubular function, yet how tubules generate lumen continuity in vivo is not known. We recently found that the F-actin-binding protein afadin is required for lumen continuity in developing renal tubules, though its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that afadin is required for lumen continuity by orienting the mitotic spindle during cell division. Using an in vitro 3D cyst model, we find that afadin localizes to the cell cortex adjacent to the spindle poles and orients the mitotic spindle. In tubules, cell division may be oriented relative to two axes: longitudinal and apical-basal. Unexpectedly, in vivo examination of early-stage developing nephron tubules reveals that cell division is not oriented in the longitudinal (or planar-polarized) axis. However, cell division is oriented perpendicular to the apical-basal axis. Absence of afadin in vivo leads to misorientation of apical-basal cell division in nephron tubules. Together, these results support a model whereby afadin determines lumen placement by directing apical-basal spindle orientation, resulting in a continuous lumen and normal tubule morphogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Renal response assayed by survival of tubule epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The epithelium of the renal tubules is essentially non-proliferative and hence is slow to be depleted after irradiation. Ultimately, however, depletion occurs. If cells survive within a tubule they regenerate the epithelial lining. After higher doses, e.g. greater than 12 Gy, some tubules are completely depopulated of epithelium giving rise to a histological picture of empty tubules interspersed with regenerated tubules. It is assumed that nephrons are all essentially the same size, that cell survival is a random probability and that, therefore, when a proportion of tubules are completely devoid of epithelium, those that aren't have regenerated from one or a few cells, the distribution of numbers of survivors per tubule following Poisson statistics. Based on these assumptions it is possible to determine a dose-survival relationship for renal tubule cells

  8. Bioengineered kidney tubules efficiently excrete uremic toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J; Fedecostante, M; Wilmer, M J; Peters, J G; Kreuser, U M; van den Broek, P H; Mensink, R A; Boltje, T J; Stamatialis, D; Wetzels, J F; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Masereeuw, R

    2016-05-31

    The development of a biotechnological platform for the removal of waste products (e.g. uremic toxins), often bound to proteins in plasma, is a prerequisite to improve current treatment modalities for patients suffering from end stage renal disease (ESRD). Here, we present a newly designed bioengineered renal tubule capable of active uremic toxin secretion through the concerted action of essential renal transporters, viz. organic anion transporter-1 (OAT1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4). Three-dimensional cell monolayer formation of human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) on biofunctionalized hollow fibers with maintained barrier function was demonstrated. Using a tailor made flow system, the secretory clearance of human serum albumin-bound uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate and kynurenic acid, as well as albumin reabsorption across the renal tubule was confirmed. These functional bioengineered renal tubules are promising entities in renal replacement therapies and regenerative medicine, as well as in drug development programs.

  9. Role of proximal tubules in the pathogenesis of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Batuman, Vecihi

    2011-01-01

    The proximal tubules make up a significant portion of the kidneys; proximal tubule epithelial cells are the most populous cell type in the kidney, and carry out diverse regulatory and endocrine functions where numerous transporters are located. Under normal circumstances, more than two thirds of filtered salt and water, and all filtered bicarbonate is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. A number of inherited and acquired acid-base and tubule disorders are linked to impaired transporters in the proximal tubule cells. Equally important is the intrinsic immune characteristics of proximal tubule cells that give them the ability to also function as immune responders to a wide range of immunologic, ischemic or toxic injury. It is therefore not surprising that proximal tubule-related phenomena are closely related to the pathogenesis of a vast array of kidney diseases. Many kidney diseases, acute and chronic, first manifest with proximal tubule disorders. Recent insight into molecular characteristics of transport functions in the proximal tubules, and the recognition that proximal tubule cells possess intrinsic immune responses have contributed to an improved understanding of important areas in nephrology, such as Fanconi's syndrome, renal tubular acidosis, phosphate wasting syndromes, Dent's disease, cystinuria and other amino acid transport disorders, acute kidney injury, and the role of proximal tubules in progressive kidney disease. Megalin/ cubilin-mediated endocytosis by proximal tubule cells of increased quantities of filtered proteins (protein overloading) in glomerular diseases appears to evoke cell stress responses resulting in increased inflammatory cytokines leading to tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Finally, the proximal tubule may be the site of both active vitamin D synthesis through the action of 1-α-hydroxylase, and the site where erythropoietin synthesis takes place. Thus, proximal tubule injury also contributes to two distressing

  10. Dentine tubule infection and endodontic therapy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntebi, B R

    1994-07-01

    A critical review of the literature suggests that the microenvironment of dentinal tubules appears to favour the selection of relatively few bacterial types irrespective of the aetiology of the infection process; coronal dental caries or pulpar necrosis. These bacteria may constitute an important reservoir from which root canal infection and reinfection may occur following pulp necrosis or during and after endodontic treatment. Previous studies of this microflora have utilized microbiological culture techniques which need to be supplemented by those that allow in situ demonstration as well as identification of the bacteria. Newer treatment strategies that are designed to eliminate this microflora must include agents that can penetrate the dentinal tubules and destroy these microorganisms, since they are located in an area beyond the host defence mechanisms where they cannot be reached by systemically administered antimicrobial agents.

  11. Detection and measurement of tubulitis in renal allograft rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, John B.; Chen, Qi; Jin, Jesse S.; Wang, Yung; Yong, James L. C.

    1997-04-01

    Tubulitis is one of the most reliable signs of acute renal allograft rejection. It occurs when mononuclear cells are localized between the lining tubular epithelial cells with or without disruption of the tubular basement membrane. It has been found that tubulitis takes place predominantly in the regions of the distal convoluted tubules and the cortical collecting system. The image processing tasks are to find the tubule boundaries and to find the relative location of the lymphocytes and epithelial cells and tubule boundaries. The requirement for accuracy applies to determining the relative locations of the lymphocytes and the tubule boundaries. This paper will show how the different sizes and grey values of the lymphocytes and epithelial cells simplify their identification and location. Difficulties in finding the tubule boundaries image processing will be illustrated. It will be shown how proximate location of epithelial cells and the tubule boundary leads to distortion in determination of the calculated boundary. However, in tubulitis the lymphocytes and the tubule boundaries are proximate.In these cases the tubule boundary is adequately resolved and the image processing is satisfactory to determining relativity in location. An adaptive non-linear anisotropic diffusion process is presented for image filtering and segmentation. Multi-layer analysis is used to extract lymphocytes and tubulitis from images. This paper will discuss grading of tissue using the Banff system. The ability to use computer to use computer processing will be argued as obviating problems of reproducability of values for this classification. This paper will also feature discussion of alternative approaches to image processing and provide an assessment of their capability for improving the identification of the tubule boundaries.

  12. An ultrasonically actuated silicon-microprobe-based testicular tubule assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Abhishek; Lal, Amit; Paduch, Darius A; Schlegel, Peter N

    2009-11-01

    Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is an invasive surgical procedure in which sparsely located healthy larger diameter tubules carrying viable spermatazoa are identified by visual examination of the seminiferous tubules of the infertile testis under a microscope, and biopsies of regions of interest are performed. In this paper, we report on microfabricated silicon microprobes integrated with an ultrasonic horn actuator and strain gauges for microdissection probe-TESE (MP-TESE) surgery. The microprobes, with axial-force-sensitive polysilicon strain gauges, have high force sensitivity (-0.4 V/N). The probes were used to detect the boundaries between seminiferous tubules, thus enabling identification of individual tubule diameters. Insertion experiments were performed on rat testis tissue, and by monitoring the tubule puncture in the recorded force, we were able to estimate the average diameter approximately 41.2 +/- 1.6 microm of the sperm-carrying tubules in samples. We have also demonstrated the ability to sense the existence of larger tubules embedded in a mess of thinner tubules, using an analytically calculated expression for the distribution of sizes measured by the microprobe. This information is important in MP-TESE to distinguish tubules with and without fertile sperm, potentially eliminating the large incision currently required for optical spermatazoa localization.

  13. Coupled water transport by rat proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Giebisch, G; Unwin, R; Weinstein, A M

    1991-12-01

    Simultaneous microperfusion of proximal tubules and peritubular capillaries in kidneys of rats anesthetized with Inactin was used to examine water reabsorption by this epithelium. Osmolality of the luminal solution was varied with changes in NaCl concentration and by the addition of raffinose. Capillary perfusates contained either low (2 g/dl) or high (16 g/dl) concentrations of albumin. We used low-bicarbonate perfusates for both lumen and capillary so that we might apply the nonequilibrium thermodynamic model of transport for a single solute (NaCl) to interpret our observations. Linear regression with the volume flux equation Jv = -Lp delta II - Lp sigma delta C + Jav (where Jv is volume flux, Lp is hydraulic conductance, delta II is oncotic force, sigma is osmotic reflection coefficient, delta C is salt concentration difference, and Jav is the component of Jv not attributed to transepithelial hydrostatic or osmotic forces) revealed a tubule water permeability (Pf = 0.11 +/- 0.01 cm/s) and a sigma (0.74 +/- 0.08) in agreement with previous determinations. These transport parameters were unaffected by changes in peritubular protein. We also found that Jav was substantial, approximately three-fourths of the rate of isotonic transport under these perfusion conditions. Further, this component of water transport nearly doubled with the transition from low- to high-protein peritubular capillary perfusion. When expressed as a capacity for water reabsorption against an osmotic gradient, the salt concentration differences required to null volume flux were 13.2 +/- 2.4 and 29.4 +/- 4.0 mosmol/kgH2O under low and high peritubular protein. Our data suggest that this protein effect is, most likely, an increase in solute transport by the tubule epithelial cells.

  14. Heterogeneity of T-Tubules in Pig Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeberg, Hanne C; Bond, Richard C; Kong, Cherrie H T; Chanoit, Guillaume P; Ascione, Raimondo; Cannell, Mark B; James, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    T-tubules are invaginations of the sarcolemma that play a key role in excitation-contraction coupling in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Although t-tubules were generally considered to be effectively absent in atrial myocytes, recent studies on atrial cells from larger mammals suggest that t-tubules may be more numerous than previously supposed. However, the degree of heterogeneity between cardiomyocytes in the extent of the t-tubule network remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the t-tubule network of pig atrial myocytes in comparison with ventricular tissue. Cardiac tissue was obtained from young female Landrace White pigs (45-75 kg, 5-6 months old). Cardiomyocytes were isolated by arterial perfusion with a collagenase-containing solution. Ca2+ transients were examined in field-stimulated isolated cells loaded with fluo-4-AM. Membranes of isolated cells were visualized using di-8-ANEPPS. T-tubules were visualized in fixed-frozen tissue sections stained with Alexa-Fluor 488-conjugated WGA. Binary images were obtained by application of a threshold and t-tubule density (TTD) calculated. A distance mapping approach was used to calculate half-distance to nearest t-tubule (HDTT). The spatio-temporal properties of the Ca2+ transient appeared to be consistent with the absence of functional t-tubules in isolated atrial myocytes. However, t-tubules could be identified in a sub-population of atrial cells in frozen sections. While all ventricular myocytes had TTD >3% (mean TTD = 6.94±0.395%, n = 24), this was true of just 5/22 atrial cells. Mean atrial TTD (2.35±0.457%, n = 22) was lower than ventricular TTD (P3% (1.65±0.06 μm, n = 5, Ppig cardiomyocytes in the extent of t-tubule network, which correlated with cell size.

  15. [Chromophobic carcinoma of the kidney with intracytoplasmic tubules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, I N; Vishnevskaia, Ia V; Gridneva, Ia V

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a rare case of chromophobic carcinoma (eosinophilic variant) of the kidney in a 72-year-old woman with the ultrastructural feature--intracellular tubules along with vesicular structures and mitochondria. Intracellular tubules are also seen during immunohistochemical study of the tumor.

  16. Severity and Frequency of Proximal Tubule Injury Determines Renal Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaori, Koji; Nakamura, Jin; Yamamoto, Shinya; Nakata, Hirosuke; Sato, Yuki; Takase, Masayuki; Nameta, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Economides, Aris N.; Kohno, Kenji; Haga, Hironori; Sharma, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    AKI increases the risk of developing CKD, but the mechanisms linking AKI to CKD remain unclear. Because proximal tubule injury is the mainstay of AKI, we postulated that proximal tubule injury triggers features of CKD. We generated a novel mouse model to induce proximal tubule–specific adjustable injury by inducing the expression of diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor with variable prevalence in proximal tubules. Administration of high-dose DT in mice expressing the DT receptor consistently caused severe proximal tubule–specific injury associated with interstitial fibrosis and reduction of erythropoietin production. Mild proximal tubule injury from a single injection of low-dose DT triggered reversible fibrosis, whereas repeated mild injuries caused sustained interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, glomerulosclerosis, and atubular glomeruli. DT–induced proximal tubule–specific injury also triggered distal tubule injury. Furthermore, injured tubular cells cocultured with fibroblasts stimulated induction of extracellular matrix and inflammatory genes. These results support the existence of proximal-distal tubule crosstalk and crosstalk between tubular cells and fibroblasts. Overall, our data provide evidence that proximal tubule injury triggers several features of CKD and that the severity and frequency of proximal tubule injury determines the progression to CKD. PMID:26701981

  17. Malpighian Tubules as Novel Targets for Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Piermarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Malpighian tubules and hindgut are the renal excretory tissues of mosquitoes; they are essential to maintaining hemolymph water and solute homeostasis. Moreover, they make important contributions to detoxifying metabolic wastes and xenobiotics in the hemolymph. We have focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of Malpighian tubule function in adult female mosquitoes and developing chemical tools as prototypes for next-generation mosquitocides that would act via a novel mechanism of action (i.e., renal failure. To date, we have targeted inward rectifier potassium (Kir channels expressed in the Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Inhibition of these channels with small molecules inhibits transepithelial K+ and fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, leading to a disruption of hemolymph K+ and fluid homeostasis in adult female mosquitoes. In addition, we have used next-generation sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of Malpighian tubules in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, before and after blood meals, to reveal new molecular targets for potentially disrupting Malpighian tubule function. Within 24 h after a blood meal, the Malpighian tubules enhance the mRNA expression of genes encoding mechanisms involved with the detoxification of metabolic wastes produced during blood digestion (e.g., heme, NH3, reactive oxygen species. The development of chemical tools targeting these molecular mechanisms in Malpighian tubules may offer a promising avenue for the development of mosquitocides that are highly-selective against hematophagous females, which are the only life stage that transmits pathogens.

  18. Malpighian Tubules as Novel Targets for Mosquito Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarini, Peter M; Esquivel, Carlos J; Denton, Jerod S

    2017-01-24

    The Malpighian tubules and hindgut are the renal excretory tissues of mosquitoes; they are essential to maintaining hemolymph water and solute homeostasis. Moreover, they make important contributions to detoxifying metabolic wastes and xenobiotics in the hemolymph. We have focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of Malpighian tubule function in adult female mosquitoes and developing chemical tools as prototypes for next-generation mosquitocides that would act via a novel mechanism of action (i.e., renal failure). To date, we have targeted inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels expressed in the Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae . Inhibition of these channels with small molecules inhibits transepithelial K⁺ and fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, leading to a disruption of hemolymph K⁺ and fluid homeostasis in adult female mosquitoes. In addition, we have used next-generation sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of Malpighian tubules in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus , before and after blood meals, to reveal new molecular targets for potentially disrupting Malpighian tubule function. Within 24 h after a blood meal, the Malpighian tubules enhance the mRNA expression of genes encoding mechanisms involved with the detoxification of metabolic wastes produced during blood digestion (e.g., heme, NH₃, reactive oxygen species). The development of chemical tools targeting these molecular mechanisms in Malpighian tubules may offer a promising avenue for the development of mosquitocides that are highly-selective against hematophagous females, which are the only life stage that transmits pathogens.

  19. Effect of dental materials on gluconeogenesis in rat kidney tubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichl, F.X.; Durner, J.; Mückter, H.; Elsenhans, B.; Forth, W.; Kunzelmann, K.H.; Hickel, R.; Spahl, W.; Hume, W.R.; Moes, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of dental composite components triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as well as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) on gluconeogenesis was investigated in isolated rat kidney tubules. From starved rats kidney tubules were

  20. Ultrasonically actuated silicon-microprobe-based testicular tubule metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Abhishek; Lal, Amit; Paduch, Darius A; Schlegel, Peter N

    2010-01-01

    We report on a microfabricated silicon microprobe integrated with an ultrasonic actuator and polysilicon strain gauges for Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) surgery. Multiple microprobe insertion experiments were performed on rat testis tissue and, by monitoring the tubule puncture artifacts in the force signal sensed by the microprobe, we were able to estimate the average diameter of the sperm-carrying tubules in the sample. We have demonstrated the ability to sense the existence of larger tubules embedded in a mass of thinner tubules, by means of an Area-Ratio based metric using an analytically calculated expression for the distribution of sizes measured by the microprobe. This information is important in microdissection TESE to distinguish tubules with and without fertile sperm, potentially eliminating the large incision currently required for optical spermatazoa localization.

  1. Selective Nanoparticle Targeting of the Renal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan M; Shah, Janki; Tian, Helen S; Chen, Xi; Geissmann, Frederic; Jaimes, Edgar A; Heller, Daniel A

    2018-01-01

    Direct targeting to the kidneys is a promising strategy to improve drug therapeutic index for the treatment of kidney diseases. We sought to investigate the renal selectivity and safety of kidney-targeted mesoscale nanoparticle technology. We found that direct intravenous administration of these particles resulted in 26-fold renal selectivity and localized negligibly in the liver or other organs. The nanoparticles targeted the renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, as evidenced by intravital microscopy and ex vivo imaging. Mice treated with the nanoparticles exhibited no negative systemic consequences, immune reaction, liver impairment, or renal impairment. The localization of material selectively to the renal tubules is uncommon, and this work portends the development of renal-targeted drugs for the treatment of kidney diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Shape transitions in anisotropic multicomponent lipid tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eAtherton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ternary mixtures of saturated and unsaturated lipids together with cholesterol can be induced to phase separate by photo-peroxidation into lipid-ordered Lo and lipid-disordered Ld domains. Because these have different mechanical properties, the phase separation is accompanied by dramatic changes in morphology. This work considers a tubule composed of Ld phase with Lo phase inclusions that possess greater rigidity; this system has been shown experimentally by Yuan and coworkers to spontaneously adopt either banded or disc configurations following phase separation. The static behaviour of inter-domain interactions is analyzed in each of these geometries by solving the linearized shape equations. These calculations suggest a possible mechanism by which the two structures form.

  3. Heterogeneity of T-Tubules in Pig Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeberg, Hanne C.; Bond, Richard C.; Kong, Cherrie H. T.; Chanoit, Guillaume P.; Ascione, Raimondo; Cannell, Mark B.; James, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Background T-tubules are invaginations of the sarcolemma that play a key role in excitation-contraction coupling in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Although t-tubules were generally considered to be effectively absent in atrial myocytes, recent studies on atrial cells from larger mammals suggest that t-tubules may be more numerous than previously supposed. However, the degree of heterogeneity between cardiomyocytes in the extent of the t-tubule network remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the t-tubule network of pig atrial myocytes in comparison with ventricular tissue. Methods Cardiac tissue was obtained from young female Landrace White pigs (45–75 kg, 5–6 months old). Cardiomyocytes were isolated by arterial perfusion with a collagenase-containing solution. Ca2+ transients were examined in field-stimulated isolated cells loaded with fluo-4-AM. Membranes of isolated cells were visualized using di-8-ANEPPS. T-tubules were visualized in fixed-frozen tissue sections stained with Alexa-Fluor 488-conjugated WGA. Binary images were obtained by application of a threshold and t-tubule density (TTD) calculated. A distance mapping approach was used to calculate half-distance to nearest t-tubule (HDTT). Results & Conclusion The spatio-temporal properties of the Ca2+ transient appeared to be consistent with the absence of functional t-tubules in isolated atrial myocytes. However, t-tubules could be identified in a sub-population of atrial cells in frozen sections. While all ventricular myocytes had TTD >3% (mean TTD = 6.94±0.395%, n = 24), this was true of just 5/22 atrial cells. Mean atrial TTD (2.35±0.457%, n = 22) was lower than ventricular TTD (P3% (1.65±0.06 μm, n = 5, P<0.05). These data demonstrate considerable heterogeneity between pig cardiomyocytes in the extent of t-tubule network, which correlated with cell size. PMID:27281038

  4. Natural history of seminiferous tubule degeneration in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Wikström, Anne M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) is characterized by small, firm testis, gynaecomastia, azoospermia and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Degeneration of the seminiferous tubules in 47,XXY males is a well-described phenomenon. It begins in the fetus, progresses through infancy and accelerates dramatic......Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) is characterized by small, firm testis, gynaecomastia, azoospermia and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Degeneration of the seminiferous tubules in 47,XXY males is a well-described phenomenon. It begins in the fetus, progresses through infancy and accelerates...

  5. Immunodissection and culture of rabbit cortical collecting tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielman, W.S.; Sonnenburg, W.K.; Allen, M.L.; Arend, L.J.; Gerozissis, K.; Smith, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody designated IgG 3 (rct-30) has been prepared that reacts specifically with an antigen on the surface of all cells comprising the cortical and medullary rabbit renal collecting tubule including the arcades. Plastic culture dishes coated with IgG 3 (rct-30) were used to isolate collecting tubule cells from collagenase dispersions of rabbit renal cortical cells by immunoadsorption. Typically, 10 6 rabbit cortical collecting tubule (RCCT) cells were obtained from 5 g of renal cortex (2 kidneys). Between 20 and 30% of the RCCT cells were reactive with peanut lectin suggesting that RCCT cells are a mixture of principal and intercalated cells. Approximately 10 7 RCCT cells were obtained after 4 to 5 days in primary culture. Moreover, RCCT cells continued to proliferate after passaging with a doubling time of ∼32 h. RCCT cells passaged once and then cultured 4-5 days were found 1) to synthesize cAMP in response to arginine vasopressin (AVP), prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), isoproterenol, and parathyroid hormone, but not calcitonin, prostaglandin D 2 , or prostaglandin I, and 2) to release PGE 2 in response to bradykinin but not arginine vasopressin or isoproterenol. The results indicate that cultured RCCT cells retain many of the hormonal, histochemical, and morphological properties expected for a mixture of principal and intercalated rabbit cortical collecting tubule epithelia. RCCT cells should prove useful both for studying hormonal interactions in the cortical collecting tubule and as a starting population for isolating intercalated collecting tubule epithelia

  6. Sorting Tubules Regulate Blood-Brain Barrier Transcytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Villaseñor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier (BBB regulates key processes of the brain, but the intracellular sorting mechanisms that determine successful receptor-mediated transcytosis in brain endothelial cells (BECs remain unidentified. Here, we used Transferrin receptor-based Brain Shuttle constructs to investigate intracellular transport in BECs, and we uncovered a pathway for the regulation of receptor-mediated transcytosis. By combining live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling in vitro with super-resolution microscopy of the BBB, we show that intracellular tubules promote transcytosis across the BBB. A monovalent construct (sFab sorted for transcytosis was localized to intracellular tubules, whereas a bivalent construct (dFab sorted for degradation formed clusters with impaired transport along tubules. Manipulating tubule biogenesis by overexpressing the small GTPase Rab17 increased dFab transport into tubules and induced its transcytosis in BECs. We propose that sorting tubules regulate transcytosis in BECs and may be a general mechanism for receptor-mediated transport across the BBB.

  7. Evaluation of nanohydroxyapatite-containing toothpaste for occluding dentin tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T; Mathews, Sapna M; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Mensinkai, Poornima K

    2015-02-01

    To compare dentin tubule occlusion by dentifrices containing either nanohydroxyapatite (10%nHAP and 15%nHAP), sodium monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) or NovaMin (NovaMin). All 80 participants wore four intraoral appliances bearing dentin blocks while using one of the four test dentifrices (n = 20/dentifrice) twice daily for 14 days. The four appliances were removed in pairs after 7 and 14 days. One treated block from each of the test periods (7 and 14 days) and their untreated controls were examined with SEM to determine the level of tubule occlusion. The remaining two treated blocks and their controls were used to determine tubule permeability to dye solution. Effectiveness was compared statistically (ANOVA/Tukey's) based on % area covered by deposited precipitate layer (%DPL), % dye penetration inhibition (%DPI) and percentage of fully-open (%FOT), partially-occluded (%POT) and completely-occluded (%COT) tubules in each block calculated relative to the number of tubules in their control blocks. SEM showed increased %COT and %DPL overtime. After 7 and 14 days, %COT, %POT, %DPL and %DPI were significantly lower with Na-MFP when compared to 10%nHAP (P DPL after 7 and 14 days, except with Na-MFP in which %DPL significantly (P< 0.05) increased with usage. In conclusion, nanohydroxyapatite-containing and NovaMin-containing toothpastes showed equal and more effectiveness in occluding dentin tubules than Na-MFP toothpaste.

  8. Degradation and transport of AVP by proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, F.A.; Christensen, E.I.; Flouret, G.

    1987-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that [3,4,5- 3 H-Phe 3 ,Arg 8 ]vasopressin ([ 3 H]AVP) was not degraded by isolated renal brush-border membranes or by a cortical lysosomal fraction in vitro; however, in the presence of 1 mM reduced glutathione, [ 3 H]AVP was degraded by both preparations. Renal cortical homogenates in vitro and luminal peptidases of proximal tubule in vivo degraded [ 3 H]AVP and in both instances yielded phenylalanine, hexapeptide AVP 1-6, heptapeptide AVP 1-7, octapeptide AVP 1-8, and two uncharacterized products X and Y. These data suggest that filtered AVP is reduced in the proximal tubule by a reduced glutathione-dependent transhydrogenase and subsequently cleaved to [ 3 H]Phe by tubular aminopeptidases. Following microinfusion of [ 3 H]AVP into proximal tubules, 15.7% of the label was absorbed. Five and fifteen minutes after infusion of [ 3 H]AVP, sequestration of total label in proximal tubules was 4.5 and 2.1%, respectively, and quantitative electron microscope autoradiography revealed accumulation of grains over apical endocytic vacuoles and lysosomes consistent with endocytic uptake and rapid lysosomal degradation of AVP and/or a large metabolite. Thus, enzymatic cleavage of AVP by luminal and lysosomal peptidases in proximal tubules could involve disulfide bond, C-terminal, and N-terminal loci

  9. Tenofovir renal toxicity targets mitochondria of renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, James J; Hosseini, Seyed H; Hoying-Brandt, Amy; Green, Elgin; Johnson, David M; Russ, Rodney; Tran, Dung; Raper, C Michael; Santoianni, Robert; Lewis, William

    2009-05-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is an analog of adenosine monophosphate that inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase in HIV/AIDS. Despite its therapeutic success, renal tubular side effects are reported. The mechanisms and targets of tenofovir toxicity were determined using '2 x 2' factorial protocols, and HIV transgenic (TG) and wild-type (WT) littermate mice with or without TDF (5 weeks). A parallel study used didanosine (ddI) instead of TDF. At termination, heart, kidney, and liver samples were retrieved. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance, and histo- and ultrastructural pathology were analyzed. Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate renal proximal tubules for molecular analyses. Tenofovir increased mtDNA abundance in TG whole kidneys, but not in their hearts or livers. In contrast, ddI decreased mtDNA abundance in the livers of WTs and TGs, but had no effect on their hearts or kidneys. Histological analyses of kidneys showed no disruption of glomeruli or proximal tubules with TDF or ddI treatments. Ultrastructural changes in renal proximal tubules from TDF-treated TGs included an increased number and irregular shape of mitochondria with sparse fragmented cristae. LCM-captured renal proximal tubules from TGs showed decreased mtDNA abundance with tenofovir. The results indicate that tenofovir targets mitochondrial toxicity on the renal proximal tubule in an AIDS model.

  10. Role of thyroid hormones in renal tubule acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Morales, M; Purchio Brucoli, H C; Malnic, G; Gil Lopes, A

    1996-01-12

    Renal tubule acidification was studied in thyroparathyroidectomized rats which had the parathyroids reimplanted into cervical muscle tissue, by stopped-flow microperfusion using ion-exchange resin microelectrodes. Hypothyroid rats had decreased rates of proximal and late distal bicarbonate reabsorption. This reduction occurred in the absence of changes in pH gradients, and was due mostly to decreases in acidification half-times, that is, of the rate of bicarbonate exit from the tubule lumen. H+ back-flux from the lumen measured during luminal perfusion with solutions at pH 6 (below stationary pH) was decreased in proximal tubule of hypothyroid rats, showing that the acidification defect was not due to an increased H+ shunt across the epithelium. These data indicate that in hypothyroid rats the proximal tubule luminal density of Na+/H+ exchangers or their turnover is decreased in the absence of alterations in the driving force (H+ and Na+ gradients across the luminal membrane) for H+ secretion. The effect observed in distal tubule may be due to action on Na+/H+ exchangers that are present also on this site, or to an impairment of the action of other H+ transporters such as H(+)-ATPases, including the provision of energy for them. 9

  11. Fine structure of seminiferous tubules in antarctic seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A A; Erickson, A W; Seal, U S

    1977-03-09

    The fine structure of seminiferous tubules from 5 crabeater, 2 leopard and 2 Ross seals showed that during the nonbreeding season the tubules were essentially similar in possessing spermatogenic and Sertoli cells. However, the tubules of leopard and Ross seals had more primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatids than the crabeater seals. In general, the tubules were devoid of spermatozoa. The spermatids showed stages of maturation such as Golgi phase of acrosome formation, acrosomal cap formation and condensation of nuclei. Some spermatids degenerated in tubules. Both maturing and degenerating spermatids were closely associated with Sertoli cells. Junctional complexes with plaques of filaments were observed between Sertoli cells and the spermatogenic cells. Sertoli cells, irregular and polygonal, contained highly convoluted nuclei, strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, small mitochondria, variable amounts of lipid droplets, lysosomes, lipofuscin granules and highly plicated plasma membranes. In brief, the spermatogenic activity had practically ceased in the testes and the animals probably secreted low levels of testosterone during the nonbreeding season.

  12. Importance of tubule density to the fracture toughness of dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, C; Arola, D; Ossa, E A

    2016-07-01

    The fracture toughness of dentin is critical to the prevention of tooth fracture. Within the tooth crown, the mechanical properties of dentin are influenced by spatial variations in the density and diameter of the dentin tubules with distance from the pulp. There are also relevant changes to the microstructure of dentin with age. In this investigation the importance of tubule density to the fracture toughness of dentin was evaluated in "young" and "old" age groups. The variations in microstructure (density and diameter of tubules) from young and old donor teeth were studied by means of optical microscopy. A reduction in the density and diameter of tubules was identified to occur with aging. An approach previously proposed to study the mechanical behavior of porous materials was used to model the fracture toughness of coronal dentin in terms of the tubule characteristics. Results were then compared with published results from previous studies. The model predictions were consistent with experimental results for the fracture toughness of dentin from young donor teeth, but overestimated the values that have been reported for "old" dentin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of green tea on kidney tubules of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Waleed M; Abdeen, Suad; Alkhalaf, Mousa; Asfar, Sami

    2008-09-01

    It has been documented that green tea (GT) and its catechin components improve renal failure and inhibit the growth of mesangial cells. In the present study we examined the long-term effect of GT extract on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy and on the glycogen accumulation in the kidney tubules. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to normal control groups (2, 6, 8 and 12 weeks) and five diabetic groups (n 10) of comparable age. A GT diabetic group received 16 % concentration of GT for 12 weeks post-diabetes induction as their sole source of drinking water. GT treatment significantly (P kidney tubules. These results indicate that in STZ diabetes, kidney function appears to be improved with GT consumption which also prevents glycogen accumulation in the renal tubules, probably by lowering blood levels of glucose. Therefore, GT could be beneficial additional therapy in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Acute Aldosterone-mediated Signaling Networks in Distal Convoluted Tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Lei; Wu, Qi; Olesen, Emma T. B.

    2017-01-01

    The kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) plays an important role in modulating body sodium balance and blood pressure. Long-term effects of aldosterone to increase sodium reabsorption in the DCT are well described. However, potential effects of aldosterone to acutely modulate DCT function via non...... in abundance following aldosterone treatment. The EGFR, ERK1/2, AKT, GSK3B and P70S6K were predicted to be important pathway nodes based on the quantitative proteomics data using network analysis. Ex vivo studies in isolated mouse cortical tubules demonstrated an increase in phosphorylated (active) NCC...

  15. Masonry structures built with fictile tubules: Experimental and numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberti, Simone; Scuro, Carmelo; Codispoti, Rosamaria; Olivito, Renato S.; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Masonry structures with fictile tubules were a distinctive building technique of the Mediterranean area. This technique dates back to Roman and early Christian times, used to build vaulted constructions and domes with various geometrical forms by virtue of their modular structure. In the present work, experimental tests were carried out to identify the mechanical properties of hollow clay fictile tubules and a possible reinforcing technique for existing buildings employing such elements. The experimental results were then validated by devising and analyzing numerical models with the FE software Abaqus, also aimed at investigating the structural behavior of an arch via linear and nonlinear static analyses.

  16. Chemically triggered ejection of membrane tubules controlled by intermonolayer friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, J-B; Khalifat, N; Puff, N; Angelova, M I

    2009-01-09

    We report a chemically driven membrane shape instability that triggers the ejection of a tubule growing exponentially toward a chemical source. The instability is initiated by a dilation of the exposed monolayer, which is coupled to the membrane spontaneous curvature and slowed down by intermonolayer friction. Our experiments are performed by local delivery of a basic pH solution to a giant vesicle. Quantitative fits of the data give an intermonolayer friction coefficient b approximately 2x10;{9} J s/m;{4}. The exponential growth of the tubule may be explained by a Marangoni stress yielding a pulling force proportional to its length.

  17. Hierarchically assembled DNA origami tubules with reconfigurable chirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haorong; Cha, Tae-Gon; Pan, Jing; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic reconfiguration of a hierarchically assembled tubular structure is demonstrated using the DNA origami technique. Short cylindrical DNA origami monomers are synthesized and linked into elongated tubules, which can then be disassembled via toehold-mediated strand displacement. The disassembled subunits are subsequently linked into tubules of a different chirality. The reconfiguration is performed with the subunits carrying dumbbell hairpin DNA oligonucleotides or gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The reconfiguration of higher order origami structures presented here is useful for constructing dynamic nanostructures that exceed the size limit of single DNA origami and may facilitate the study of molecular or particle interactions by tuning their relative distance and organization. (paper)

  18. Active ion transport in the renal proximal tubule. II. Ionic dependence of the Na pump

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The dependence of Na pump activity on intracellular and extracellular Na+ and K+ was investigated using a suspension of rabbit cortical tubules that contained mostly (86%) proximal tubules. The ouabain- sensitive rate of respiration (QO2) was used to measure the Na pump activity of intact tubules, and the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic activity was measured using lysed proximal tubule membranes. The dependence (K0.5) of the Na pump on intracellular Na+ was affected by the relative intracellular conce...

  19. Innervation of the renal proximal convoluted tubule of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas, L.; Powers, K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data suggest the proximal tubule as a major site of neurogenic influence on tubular function. The functional and anatomical axial heterogeneity of the proximal tubule prompted this study of the distribution of innervation sites along the early, mid, and late proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the rat. Serial section autoradiograms, with tritiated norepinephrine serving as a marker for monoaminergic nerves, were used in this study. Freehand clay models and graphic reconstructions of proximal tubules permitted a rough estimation of the location of the innervation sites along the PCT. In the subcapsular nephrons, the early PCT (first third) was devoid of innervation sites with most of the innervation occurring in the mid (middle third) and in the late (last third) PCT. Innervation sites were found in the early PCT in nephrons located deeper in the cortex. In juxtamedullary nephrons, innervation sites could be observed on the PCT as it left the glomerulus. This gradient of PCT innervation can be explained by the different tubulovascular relationships of nephrons at different levels of the cortex. The absence of innervation sites in the early PCT of subcapsular nephrons suggests that any influence of the renal nerves on the early PCT might be due to an effect of neurotransmitter released from renal nerves reaching the early PCT via the interstitium and/or capillaries

  20. Natural history of seminiferous tubule degeneration in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Wikström, Anne M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) is characterized by small, firm testis, gynaecomastia, azoospermia and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Degeneration of the seminiferous tubules in 47,XXY males is a well-described phenomenon. It begins in the fetus, progresses through infancy and accelerates dramatic...

  1. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Veland, Iben Rønn

    2016-01-01

    abundantly expressed in the adult renal (Malpighian) tubule rather than in neuronal tissues. The role Fas2 serves in this epithelium is unknown. Here we show that Fas2 is essential to brush border maintenance in renal tubules of Drosophila. Fas2 is dynamically expressed during tubule morphogenesis...

  2. RNA sequencing of kidney distal tubule cells reveals multiple mediators of chronic aldosterone action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Limbutara, Kavee; Fenton, Robert Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The renal aldosterone-sensitive distal tubule (ASDT) is crucial for sodium reabsorption and blood pressure regulation. The ASDT consists of the late distal convoluted tubule (DCT2), connecting tubule (CNT) and collecting duct. Due to difficulties in isolating epithelial cells from the ASDT in lar...

  3. Interstitial interfaces show marked differences in regenerating tubules, matured tubules, and the renal stem/progenitor cell niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

    2012-05-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. After an implantation stem/progenitor cells must migrate through the interstitial space to concentrate at the site of damage. However, information is lacking to what extent the interstitial interface is influencing the development of stem/progenitor cells into nephron structures. In consequence, tubule regeneration within an artificial polyester interstitium was analyzed by electron microscopy in comparison with the interstitial interface of matured tubules and the interstitium within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche. The experiments demonstrate that fixation of specimens with glutaraldehyde (GA) is leading in all cases to inconspicuously looking interstitial interfaces. In contrast, fixation of regenerating tubules in GA containing ruthenium red and tannic acid shows a dense network of fibers lining along the basal lamina. In contrast, matured tubules reveal after ruthenium red label an extremely thickened basal lamina, while only a punctate pattern is obtained after tannic acid treatment. Finally, within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche ruthenium red and tannic acid label reveals large amounts of extracellular matrix spanning through the interstitium. Thus, fixation of tissue in GA containing ruthenium red and tannic acid exhibits an unexpectedly regional heterogeneity of the renal interstitial interface. This fact has to be considered for an optimal therapeutic repair of parenchyma, since contacts between stem/progenitor cells with the interstitial interface influence further development. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection Induces VAP-Dependent Endosomal Tubulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqa, Abida; Massimi, Paola; Pim, David; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Banks, Lawrence

    2018-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans -Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation. In addition, we also show a critical requirement for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein VAP in this process. VAP plays an essential role in actin nucleation and endosome-to-Golgi transport. Indeed, the loss of VAP results in a dramatic decrease in the level of endosomal tubulation induced by incoming HPV-16 virions. This is also accompanied by a marked reduction in virus infectivity. In VAP knockdown cells, we see that the defect in virus trafficking occurs after capsid disassembly but prior to localization at the trans -Golgi network, with the incoming virion-transduced DNA accumulating in Vps29/TGN46-positive hybrid vesicles. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that infection with HPV-16 virions induces marked alterations of endocytic transport pathways, some of which are VAP dependent and required for the endosome-to-Golgi transport of the incoming viral L2/DNA complex. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus infectious entry involves multiple interactions with the endocytic transport machinery. In this study, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a dramatic increase in endocytic tubulation. This tubulation requires ER-associated VAP, which plays a critical role in ensuring the delivery of cargoes from the endocytic compartments to the trans -Golgi network. Indeed, the loss of

  5. Tip cells act as dynamic cellular anchors in the morphogenesis of looped renal tubules in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weavers, Helen; Skaer, Helen

    2013-11-11

    Tissue morphogenesis involves both the sculpting of tissue shape and the positioning of tissues relative to one another in the body. Using the renal tubules of Drosophila, we show that a specific distal tubule cell regulates both tissue architecture and position in the body cavity. Focusing on the anterior tubules, we demonstrate that tip cells make transient contacts with alary muscles at abdominal segment boundaries, moving progressively forward as convergent extension movements lengthen the tubule. Tip cell anchorage antagonizes forward-directed, TGF-β-guided tubule elongation, thereby ensuring the looped morphology characteristic of renal tubules from worms to humans. Distinctive tip cell exploratory behavior, adhesion, and basement membrane clearing underlie target recognition and dynamic interactions. Defects in these features obliterate tip cell anchorage, producing misshapen and misplaced tubules with impaired physiological function. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Paracellular transport and energy utilization in the renal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan S L

    2017-09-01

    Paracellular transport across the tight junction is a general mechanism for transepithelial transport of solutes in epithelia, including the renal tubule. However, why paracellular transport evolved, given the existence of a highly versatile system for transcellular transport, is unknown. Recent studies have identified the paracellular channel, claudin-2, that is responsible for paracellular reabsorption of sodium in the proximal renal tubule. Knockout of claudin-2 in mice impairs proximal sodium and fluid reabsorption but is compensated by upregulation of sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle. This occurs at the expense of increased renal oxygen consumption, hypoxia of the outer medulla and increased susceptibility to ischemic kidney injury. Paracellular transport can be viewed as a mechanism to exploit the potential energy in existing electrochemical gradients to drive passive transepithelial transport without consuming additional energy. In this way, it enhances the efficiency of energy utilization by transporting epithelia.

  7. Sodium pumps in the Malpighian tubule of Rhodnius sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARUSO-NEVES CELSO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Malpighian tubule of Rhodnius sp. express two sodium pumps: the classical ouabain-sensitive (Na+ + K+ATPase and an ouabain-insensitive, furosemide-sensitive Na+-ATPase. In insects, 5-hydroxitryptamine is a diuretic hormone released during meals. It inhibits the (Na+ + K+ATPase and Na+ -ATPase activities indicating that these enzymes are involved in fluid secretion. Furthermore, in Rhodnius neglectus, proximal cells of Malpighian tubule exposed to hyperosmotic medium, regulate their volume through a mechanism called regulatory volume increase. This regulatory response involves inhibition of the (Na+ + K+ATPase activity that could lead to accumulation of active osmotic solute inside the cell, influx of water and return to the normal cell volume. Adenosine, a compound produced in stress conditions, also inhibits the (Na+ + K+ATPase activity. Taken together these data indicate that (Na+ + K+ATPase is a target of the regulatory mechanisms of water and ions transport responsible for homeostasis in Rhodnius sp.

  8. Strontium effects on root dentin tubule occlusion and nanomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Kuniko; Marshall, Grayson W; Gansky, Stuart A; Parkinson, Charles R; Marshall, Sally J

    2016-02-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity often is treated by promotion of dentin tubule occlusion. In this in vitro study we evaluated nanomechanical properties and degree of tubule occlusion conferred to sound and demineralized human root dentin following treatment with a 10% (w/w) strontium acetate solution and its relation to the treatment duration and delivery method. 24 human cervical root dentin disks (8 groups of 3) were polished through 0.25 μm. 12 disks were subjected to an acid challenge (1% citric acid, pH 3.8) for 2 min. The specimens were incubated in artificial saliva, treated by soaking or brushing with deionized (DI) water or a solution of 10% strontium acetate for 2 min twice a day for 28 days. The occlusion percent and nanomechanical properties were determined at the baseline, 5, 14 and 28 days. Cross-sectioned specimens were prepared to evaluate the depth affected by strontium acetate / dentin interaction by SEM. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed effects models. A 10% strontium acetate treatment over 5-28 days significantly increased tubule occlusion for normal root dentin and to a lesser extent for demineralized dentin and increased the AFM based nanomechanical properties of demineralized dentin. Brushing was more effective than soaking in recovery of properties of demineralized dentin when treated with strontium. No difference in tubuleocclusion was found between the two delivery methods. Strontium acetate itself proved to have the ability to occlude dentin tubules and result in small changes in the mechanical properties of dentin. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fate of cadmium in rat renal tubules: a microinjection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felley-Bosco, E.; Diezi, J.

    1987-01-01

    109 Cd was injected into the lumen of superficial proximal or distal tubules of rat kidneys, and recovery in the pelvic urine from the ipsilateral kidney was measured. Fractional recovery of labeled inulin always exceeded 90%. About 70% of injected inorganic Cd (CdCl 2 ) was taken up by the epithelium of proximal tubules, while more than 90% of the injected amount was recovered after distal microinjection. The proximal fractional Cd uptake of a 1:1 (molar) Cd-L-cysteine complex was 82%, but was below 60% for a 5-10:1 molar ratio of cysteine:Cd. The chelate Cd-pentetic acid was recovered in final urine nearly quantitatively after proximal or distal microinjection. Fractional uptake of 109 Cd from a Cd-metallothionein (Mt) complex, following proximal microinjection, ranged between 17 (Cd-Mt 0.19 mM) and 8% (Cd-Mt 1.5 mM). It is concluded that luminal Cd uptake by the tubular epithelium depends markedly on the chemical form of Cd and, when present, occurs mostly or exclusively in proximal tubules

  10. Malpighian tubule development in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benedict; Denholm, Barry

    2014-11-01

    Malpighian tubules (MpTs) are the major organ for excretion and osmoregulation in most insects. MpT development is characterised for Drosophila melanogaster, but not other species. We therefore do not know the extent to which the MpT developmental programme is conserved across insects. To redress this we provide a comprehensive description of MpT development in the beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), a species separated from Drosophila by >315 million years. We identify similarities with Drosophila MpT development including: 1) the onset of morphological development, beginning when tubules bud from the gut and proliferate to increase organ size. 2) the tubule is shaped by convergent-extension movements and oriented cell divisions. 3) differentiated tip cells activate EGF-signalling in distal MpT cells through the ligand Spitz. 4) MpTs contain two main cell types - principal and stellate cells, differing in morphology and gene expression. We also describe development of the beetle cryptonephridial system, an adaptation for water conservation, which represents a major modification of the MpT ground plan characterised by intimate association between MpTs and rectum. This work establishes a new model to compare MpT development across insects, and provides a framework to help understand how an evolutionary novelty - the cryptonephridial system - arose during organ evolution. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural history of seminiferous tubule degeneration in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Wikström, Anne M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) is characterized by small, firm testis, gynaecomastia, azoospermia and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Degeneration of the seminiferous tubules in 47,XXY males is a well-described phenomenon. It begins in the fetus, progresses through infancy and accelerates dramatic......Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) is characterized by small, firm testis, gynaecomastia, azoospermia and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Degeneration of the seminiferous tubules in 47,XXY males is a well-described phenomenon. It begins in the fetus, progresses through infancy and accelerates...... and ends at a low-normal level in young adults. Likewise, serum concentration of inhibin B exhibits a dramatic decline to a low, often undetectable level, concomitantly with a rise in FSH, reflecting the degeneration of the seminiferous tubules. Many hypotheses about the underlying mechanism...... of the depletion of the germ cells in Klinefelter males have been reported and include insufficient supranumerary X-chromosome inactivation, Leydig cell insufficiency and disturbed regulation of apoptosis of Sertoli and Leydig cells. However, at present, the exact mechanism remains unclear. In this article, we...

  12. Reduced Insulin Receptor Expression Enhances Proximal Tubule Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Shankar, Kripa; Makhija, Ekta; Gaikwad, Anil; Ecelbarger, Carolyn; Mandhani, Anil; Srivastava, Aneesh; Tiwari, Swasti

    2017-02-01

    Reduced insulin receptor protein levels have been reported in the kidney cortex from diabetic humans and animals. We recently reported that, targeted deletion of insulin receptor (IR) from proximal tubules (PT) resulted in hyperglycemia in non-obese mice. To elucidate the mechanism, we examined human proximal tubule cells (hPTC) and C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat for 20 weeks). Immunoblotting revealed a significantly lower protein level of IR in HFD compare to normal chow diet (NCD). Furthermore, a blunted rise in p-AKT 308 levels in the kidney cortex of HFD mice was observed in response to acute insulin (0.75 IU/kg body weight, i.p) relative to NCD n = 8/group, P gluconeogenesis. Transcript levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK were significantly increased in cAMP/DEXA-stimulated hPTC cells (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis and PEPCK induction was significantly attenuated in IR (siRNA) silenced hPTC (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis. Thus reduced insulin signaling of the proximal tubule may contribute to hyperglycemia in the metabolic syndrome via elevated gluconeogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 276-285, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Digital three-dimensional reconstruction and ultrastructure of the mouse proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, X.Y.; Birn, H.; Jensen, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    , detailed analyses of normal mouse kidney structure and organization are lacking. This study describes the 3D organization and ultrastructural, segmental variation of the mouse kidney proximal tubule. A total of 160 proximal tubules in three C57/BL/6J mouse kidneys were analyzed on 800 serial sections from...... each kidney from the surface to the inner stripe of the outer zone of medulla. All tubules were reconstructed in 3D and visualized by interactive computer graphics. A quantitative ultrastructural analysis of the mouse proximal tubule at every 300 to 400 micro m was performed. The 3D representation....... In the medullary rays, these are arranged in layers outside the clusters of more superficial tubules. In contrast to rat and human kidney, no major segmental variation in the ultrastructure of the proximal tubule was identified, and no parameters enabled definition of distinct segments in this strain of mice...

  14. Recycling Endosome Tubule Morphogenesis from Sorting Endosomes Requires the Kinesin Motor KIF13A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Delevoye

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early endosomes consist of vacuolar sorting and tubular recycling domains that segregate components fated for degradation in lysosomes or reuse by recycling to the plasma membrane or Golgi. The tubular transport intermediates that constitute recycling endosomes function in cell polarity, migration, and cytokinesis. Endosomal tubulation and fission require both actin and intact microtubules, but although factors that stabilize recycling endosomal tubules have been identified, those required for tubule generation from vacuolar sorting endosomes (SEs remain unknown. We show that the microtubule motor KIF13A associates with recycling endosome tubules and controls their morphogenesis. Interfering with KIF13A function impairs the formation of endosomal tubules from SEs with consequent defects in endosome homeostasis and cargo recycling. Moreover, KIF13A interacts and cooperates with RAB11 to generate endosomal tubules. Our data illustrate how a microtubule motor couples early endosome morphogenesis to its motility and function.

  15. Epididymis-like Tubules in Adult Renal Hypodysplasia: Immunohistochemical Features Indicate a Mesonephric Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Madhavi A; Pai, Sanjay A

    2017-05-01

    We report the presence of epididymis-like tubules in unilateral renal hypodysplasia in 3 adult men. Microscopy showed dilated tubules lined by ciliated columnar epithelium and smaller basal cells, morphologically resembling epididymal tubules. Small tubules lined by cuboidal epithelium were also present in all cases, with glomeruli in 2 cases. The epididymis-like tubules expressed CD10, CK7, PAX8, and AR in the luminal epithelium, while the basal cells were positive for p63, CK7, and focally for CD10. The smooth muscle bundles around the epididymis-like tubules were focally AR and WT1 (cytoplasmic) positive. The epididymis-like tubules were negative for ER, PR, and WT1. CK7 and PAX8 stained all the collecting ducts, with AR staining some. Bowman's capsule, parietal and visceral epithelial cells expressed CD10; WT1 stained the visceral and parietal epithelial cells. Glomerular parietal cells expressed PAX8 and focally, CK7. Proximal tubules were positive for CD10 (luminal membranous and weak cytoplasmic). Distal tubules expressed CK7, PAX8 and AR. An occasional small tubule was ER positive. Scattered stromal cells expressed ER, PR, and AR. The urothelium of the renal pelvis/upper ureter expressed CK7 in all layers, CD10 in the superficial layers, PAX8 in the basal layers and p63 in all layers except the umbrella layer. The epididymis-like tubules replicate the pattern of the mesonephros-derived normal epididymis in expressing CK7, PAX8, CD10, and AR. This supports a mesonephric rather than metanephric origin for these tubules. The aberrant expression of some markers may be a manifestation of the dysplastic nature of the kidneys.

  16. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish

    OpenAIRE

    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structu...

  17. Towards a Guided Regeneration of Renal Tubules at a Polyester Interstitium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will W. Minuth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for a therapy of renal failure. However, sound knowledge about implantation and regeneration is lacking. Therefore, mechanisms leading from stem/progenitor cells into tubules are under research. Renal stem/progenitor cells were isolated from neonatal rabbit kidney and mounted between layers of polyester fleece. It creates an artificial interstitium and replaces coating by extracellular matrix proteins. Tubulogenic development is induced by aldosterone. Electron microscopy illuminates growth of tubules in close vicinity to polyester fibers. Tubules contain a differentiated epithelium. The spatial extension of tubules opens a new strategy for testing morphogenic drugs and biocompatible fleece materials.

  18. Clinical Importance of Morphological Appearance of Seminiferous Tubules During MicroTESE in NOA Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Haliloglu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Design: Clinical study. Setting: Research Center on Infertility, Ankara University; and Urology Department. Patients: 65 men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA.\tInterventions: Microscopical appearance of seminiferous tubules was recorded during TESE surgery. Differing from others, the largest opaque-white in color tubules were cut and removed. When all the tubules have no discriminating appearance, randomized biopsies were obtained. Removed tissue pieces were subjected to mechanical mincing under the stereomicroscope and then enzymatic digestion processes. Using inversion microscope (x32 magnification spermatozoa were searched. Main Outcome Measures: Morphological appearance of seminiferous tubules under optical magnification, spermatozoa recovery rates and histopathological findings were compared.\tRESULTS: In cases of Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS, maturation arrest, hypospermatogenesis and focal spermatogenesis TESE yielded at least one spermatozoon in 37%, 52%, 100% and 63% of the cases, respectively. When all the seminiferous tubules were homogenously swollen, histopathological diagnosis was hypospermatogenesis in 100% of the cases. Homogenously thin and transparent tubules corresponded to SCOS or maturation arrest in 90% and 10% of the cases, respectively. Mature spermatozoa recovery rates were 100% and zero in homogenously-swollen observed and homogenously-thin observed tubules, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Present data indicate that in cases of all tubules are homogenous in appearance and none of them can be discriminated from others, using microscope has no advantage in selection of the tubuli to be removed, but randomizely selection would also be sufficient. MicroTESE significantly increases the success in NOA cases with seminiferous tubules dispersed heterogeneously.

  19. Number of malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Costa, K; Kerr, W E; Carvalho-Zilse, G A

    2012-02-01

    The number of Malpighian tubules in larvae and adults of bees is variable. Larvae of Apis mellifera L. have four Malpighian tubules, while adults have 100 tubules. In stingless bees, this number varies from four to eight. The objectives of this study were to provide characteristics of the Malpighian tubules as well as to quantify their number in larvae and adults of six species of Meliponinae, Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, Melipona compressipes manaosensis Schwarz, Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier, Scaptotrigona Moure, Frieseomelitta Ihering, and Trigona williana Friese. Malpighian tubules were dissected from larvae and adults, measured, quantified, and maintained in microtubes with Dietrich's solution. The numbers of Malpighian tubules were constant only for larvae of M. rufiventris (four and eight) and Scaptotrigona sp. (four). The most frequent number of tubules in the Melipona group was seven and eight in larvae, and 70 and 90 in adults. In the Trigona group were four and 20 to 40, for larvae and adults, respectively. The results showed differences in the number of Malpighian tubules among the species analyzed and also between the larvae and adults of the same species. Despite the variation observed, species of the group Melipona always have a larger number and longer Malpighian tubules in both larvae and adults as compared to the Trigona group, which may indicate an evolutionary trend of differentiation between these groups.

  20. Use of poly (amidoamine dendrimer for dentinal tubule occlusion: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianda Wang

    Full Text Available The occlusion of dentinal tubules is an effective method to alleviate the symptoms caused by dentin hypersensitivity, a significant health problem in dentistry and daily life. The in situ mineralization within dentinal tubules is a promising treatment for dentin hypersensitivity as it induces the formation of mineral on the sensitive regions and occludes the dentinal tubules. This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of a whole generation poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer (G3.0 on dentinal tubule occlusion by inducing mineralization within dentinal tubules. Dentin discs were treated with PAMAM dendrimers using two methods, followed by the in vitro characterization using Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS. These results showed that G3.0 PAMAM dendrimers coated on dentin surface and infiltrated in dentinal tubules could induce hydroxyapatite formation and resulted in effective dentinal tubule occlusion. Moreover, crosslinked PAMAM dendrimers could induce the remineralization of demineralized dentin and thus had the potential in dentinal tubule occlusion. In this in vitro study, dentinal tubules occlusion could be achieved by using PAMAM dendrimers. This could lead to the development of a new therapeutic technique for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

  1. Metabolism of cysteine and cysteinesulfinate in rat kidney tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Rosa, J.; Stipanuk, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    In studies with rat hepatocytes, hypotaurine plus taurine production accounted for less than 5% of the total amount of cysteine (CYS) catabolized, whereas more than 90% of the metabolized cysteinesulfinate (CSA) was converted to taurine plus hypotaurine. Similar studies have been carried out with kidney tubules isolated from fed rats and incubated with 2 mM [1- 14 C]CYS or 25 mM [1- 14 C]CSA at 37 0 C for up to 40 min. The production of 14 CO 2 from CSA (3.1 +/- 1.3 nmol/sup ./ min -1 /sup ./ mg dry wt -1 ) was equivalent to the accumulation of N in NH 4 + plus glutamate. Substantial oxidation of CYS was observed (16 +/- 11 nmol CO 2 x min -1 x mg dry wt -1 ), but only 12% of the expected amount of N was recovered as NH 4 + plus glutamate. Accumulation of hypotaurine plus taurine was equivalent to 20% of the observed rate of 14 CO 2 production from CSA but accounted for only 2% of the observed rate of 14 CO 2 production from CYS. Addition of unlabeled CSA to incubations with varying levels of CYS had no effect on production of 14 CO 2 . Addition of 2 mM α-ketoglutarate to the incubation mixtures resulted in an increased in 14 CO 2 production from CSA to 290% of the control level but had no effect on CYS oxidation. In agreement with the authors findings for rat hepatocytes, these data suggest that most metabolism of CYS by the rat kidney tubule occurs by a CSA-independent pathway. However, in contrast to the metabolism of CSA almost entirely to taurine in the hepatocyte, kidney tubules appeared to metabolize CSA primarily by the transamination pathway

  2. Mineralocorticoid receptors along the nephron: [3H]aldosterone binding in rabbit tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, A.; Katz, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    To identify the site of mineralocorticoid action along the nephron, we measured the specific binding of [ 3 H]aldosterone to nephron segments microdissected from aldosterone-deficient rabbits. Specific binding was defined as the difference between binding measured in the absence or in the presence of 2,000-fold excess of unlabeled hormone (in 10 -18 mol.cm tubule length -1 +/- SE). High specific binding capacity was found in the branched collecting tubule (108 +/- 4), the cortical collecting tubule (119 +/- 9), and the outer medullary collecting tubule (115 +/- 16), whereas specific binding was negligible in the proximal convoluted tubule (8 +/- 9), pars recta (2 +/- 6), medullary thick ascending limb (4 +/- 6), cortical thick ascending limb (6 +/- 2), and distal convoluted tubule (6 +/- 6). In cortical collecting tubules, Scatchard analysis of the specific [ 3 H]aldosterone binding indicated a dissociation constant (K/sub D/) of 2.2 X 10 -9 and a maximum number of binding sites of 157 X 10 -18 mol.cm tubule length -1 . The steroid specificity was assessed from the competition of various steroids for [ 3 H]aldosterone binding sites. Receptors from the cortical collecting tubule revealed the following sequence of affinities: aldosterone > DOCA > spironolactone > dexamethasone > 5α-dihydrotestosterone = progesterone = 17β-estradiol, indicating that the binding sites in the collecting tubule are mineralocorticoid receptors. These results demonstrate significant [ 3 H]aldosterone binding to receptors of high affinity and mineralocorticoid specificity only in the collecting tubule and suggest that this nephron segment is the target site of mineralocorticoid action in the rabbit kidney

  3. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in mouse renal tubules during kidney development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Feng; Ren, Hao; Andreasen, Arne; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Zhai, Xiao-Yue

    2012-01-01

    Bcl-2 and Bax play an important role in apoptosis regulation, as well as in cell adhesion and migration during kidney morphogenesis, which is structurally and functionally related to mitochondria. In order to elucidate the role of Bcl-2 and Bax during kidney development, it is essential to establish the exact location of their expression in the kidney. The present study localized their expression during kidney development. Kidneys from embryonic (E) 16-, 17-, 18-day-old mouse fetuses, and postnatal (P) 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 14-, 21-day-old pups were embedded in Epon. Semi-thin serial sections from two E17 kidneys underwent computer assisted 3D tubule tracing. The tracing was combined with a newly developed immunohistochemical technique, which enables immunohistochemistry on glutaraldehyde fixated plastic embedded sections. Thereby, the microstructure could be described in detail, and the immunochemistry can be performed using exactly the same sections. The study showed that Bcl-2 and Bax were strongly expressed in mature proximal convoluted tubules at all time points, less strongly expressed in proximal straight tubules, and only weakly in immature proximal tubules and distal tubules. No expression was detected in ureteric bud and other earlier developing structures, such as comma bodies, S shaped bodies, glomeruli, etc. Tubules expressing Bcl-2 only were occasionally observed. The present study showed that, during kidney development, Bcl-2 and Bax are expressed differently in the proximal and distal tubules, although these two tubule segments are almost equally equipped with mitochondria. The functional significance of the different expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in proximal and distal tubules is unknown. However, the findings of the present study suggest that the mitochondrial function differs between mature proximal tubules and in the rest of the tubules. The function of Bcl-2 and Bax during tubulogenesis still needs to be investigated.

  4. Norepinephrines effect on adenosine transport in the proximal straight tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfuss, D.W.; McCann, W.P.; Katholi, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of norepinephrine on C 14 -adenosine transport in the rabbit proximal tubule (S 2 ) was studied. The transepithelial transport of adenosine (0.02 mM0 from lumin to bathing solution was measured by its rate of appearance (J/sub A/) in the bathing solution and by its disappearances (J/sub D/) from the luminal fluid. Norepinephrine (0.24 μM) was added to the bathing solution after a control flux period. After three samples from the experiment period the tubules were quickly harvested and the cellular concentration of C 14 -adenosine was determined. The high cellular adenosine concentration and th marked difference in adenosine appearance rate in the bathing solution compared to the luminal disappearance rate indicates the absorbed adenosine is trapped in the cells. This trapping may be due to adenosine metabolism or difficulty of crossing the basolateral membrane. Whichever is the case, norepinephrine appears to stimulate movement of adenosine or its metabolites into the bathing solution across the basolateral membrane

  5. Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Lara A; Boron, Walter F; Zhou, Yuehan

    2010-01-01

    Each day, the kidneys filter 180 L of blood plasma, equating to some 4,300 mmol of the major blood buffer, bicarbonate (HCO3-). The glomerular filtrate enters the lumen of the proximal tubule (PT), and the majority of filtered HCO3- is reclaimed along the early (S1) and convoluted (S2) portions of the PT in a manner coupled to the secretion of H+ into the lumen. The PT also uses the secreted H+ to titrate non-HCO3- buffers in the lumen, in the process creating "new HCO3-" for transport into the blood. Thus, the PT - along with more distal renal segments - is largely responsible for regulating plasma [HCO3-]. In this review we first focus on the milestone discoveries over the past 50+ years that define the mechanism and regulation of acid-base transport by the proximal tubule. Further on in the review, we will summarize research still in progress from our laboratory, work that addresses the problem of how the PT is able to finely adapt to acid-base disturbances by rapidly sensing changes in basolateral levels of HCO3- and CO2 (but not pH), and thereby to exert tight control over the acid-base composition of the blood plasma.

  6. Potential of stem/progenitor cell cultures within polyester fleeces to regenerate renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Anne; Denk, Lucia; Minuth, Will W

    2009-08-01

    The cell biological mechanism controlling the regeneration of renal tubules in renal failure after application of stem/progenitor cells is subject of actual research. Unsolved issues are the integration of stem/progenitor cells in a diseased organ environment, the differentiation into epithelial tissue and the formation of tubules in a spatial environment. Following this therapeutic strategy new biomaterials have to be found promoting spatial development of tubules. To obtain new information about the growth of tubules renal stem/progenitor cells from neonatal rabbit kidney were isolated and mounted in a tissue carrier between a selection of commercially available polyester fleeces. This procedure replaces coating by extracellular matrix proteins and creates an artificial interstitium supporting development of tubules. Perfusion culture was performed with chemically defined IMDM containing aldosterone as tubulogenic factor. Polyester fleeces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The spatial development of tubules was registered on whole-mount specimens and on cryosections labeled with SBA and antibodies indicating tubule differentiation. It is found that some polyester fleeces promote the spatial development of tubules between the fibers, whereat each of them produces its individual growth pattern.

  7. Shaping up for action: the path to physiological maturation in the renal tubules of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Barry

    2013-01-01

    The Malpighian tubule is the main organ for excretion and osmoregulation in most insects. During a short period of embryonic development the tubules of Drosophila are shaped, undergo differentiation and become precisely positioned in the body cavity, so they become fully functional at the time of larval hatching a few hours later. In this review I explore three developmental events on the path to physiological maturation. First, I examine the molecular and cellular mechanisms that generate organ shape, focusing on the process of cell intercalation that drives tubule elongation, the roles of the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix and how intercalation is coordinated at the tissue level. Second, I look at the genetic networks that control the physiological differentiation of tubule cells and consider how distinctive physiological domains in the tubule are patterned. Finally, I explore how the organ is positioned within the body cavity and consider the relationship between organ position and function.

  8. The Drosophila NKCC Ncc69 is required for normal renal tubule function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Michel; Huang, Chou-Long

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial ion transport is essential to renal homeostatic function, and it is dysregulated in several diseases, such as hypertension. An understanding of the insect renal (Malpighian) tubule yields insights into conserved epithelial ion transport processes in higher organisms and also has implications for the control of insect infectious disease vectors. Here, we examine the role of the Na+-K+-2Cl− (NKCC) cotransporter Ncc69 in Drosophila tubule function. Ncc69 mutant tubules have decreased rates of fluid secretion and K+ flux, and these phenotypes were rescued by expression of wild-type Ncc69 in the principal cells of the tubule. Na+ flux was unaltered in Ncc69 mutants, suggesting Na+ recycling across the basolateral membrane. In unstimulated tubules, the principal role of the Na+-K+-ATPase is to generate a favorable electrochemical gradient for Ncc69 activity: while the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain decreased K+ flux in wild-type tubules, it had no effect in Ncc69 mutant tubules. However, in the presence of cAMP, which stimulates diuresis, additional Na+-K+-ATPase-dependent K+ transport pathways are recruited. In studying the effects of capa-1 on wild-type and Ncc69 mutant tubules, we found a novel antidiuretic role for this hormone that is dependent on intact Ncc69, as it was abolished in Ncc69 mutant tubules. Thus, Ncc69 plays an important role in transepithelial ion and fluid transport in the fly renal tubule and is a target for regulation in antidiuretic states. PMID:22914641

  9. Kidney tubules: intertubular, vascular, and glomerular cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenbach, David A; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2016-05-01

    The kidney mediates the excretion or conservation of water and electrolytes in the face of changing fluid and salt intake and losses. To ultrafilter and reabsorb the exact quantities of free water and salts to maintain euvolemia a range of endocrine, paracrine, and hormonal signaling systems have evolved linking the tubules, capillaries, glomeruli, arterioles, and other intrinsic cells of the kidney. Our understanding of these systems remains incomplete. Recent work has provided new insights into the workings of the communication pathways between tubular segments and the glomeruli and vasculature, with novel therapeutic agents in development. Particular progress has also been made in the visualization of tubuloglomerular feedback. The review summarizes our current understanding of pathway functions in health and disease, as well as future therapeutic options to protect the healthy and injured kidney.

  10. Intraluminal colonization into the seminiferous tubules in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán-Masias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the primordial germ cells transplant technique, we could be able preserve and multiply pluripotent cells in the receptor for a long period of time. In this work, We aim to evaluate intraluminal colonization of a cellular gonocyte suspension from 14.5 dpc fetus. Cellular suspension with PGC's were isolated from fetus male mice by two enzymatic digestion steps, and cellular suspensions were transplanted into the rete testis of the receptor animals that were previously injected with Busulfan to decrease their own spermatogenesis. In this research the intraluminal colonization was identified in 13.27%, demonstrating that transplantation of a cellular suspension from gonocytes of fetus of 14.5 dpc containing PGCs can colonize the seminiferous tubules and support the spermatogenesis.

  11. Photoelectrochemical reactivity of polyoxophosphotungstates embedded in titania tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yibing

    2006-01-01

    A highly ordered and crystallized titania (TiO 2 ) nanotube array is fabricated by a low-voltage anodization plus a post-embedding calcination process. Polyoxophosphotungstate-titania (POPTA-TiO 2 ) composite catalyst is synthesized by embedding POPTA in TiO 2 tubule channels to improve the photoelectrochemical properties. The morphological characteristics and crystal behaviour of POPTA-TiO 2 are examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The stability of the chemical structure has been analysed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy measurements. The photoelectrochemical properties are investigated by means of the polarization current response. Photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic reactivities for the degradation of an endocrine disrupting chemical have also been investigated to examine the photoelectrochemical reaction efficiency of POPTA-TiO 2 composite catalyst

  12. Reversible effects of acute hypertension on proximal tubule sodium transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Magyar, C E; Norian, J M

    1998-01-01

    Acute hypertension provokes a rapid decrease in proximal tubule sodium reabsorption with a decrease in basolateral membrane sodium-potassium-ATPase activity and an increase in the density of membranes containing apical membrane sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE3) [Y. Zhang, A. K. Mircheff, C. B....... Renal cortex lysate was fractionated on sorbitol gradients. Basolateral membrane sodium-potassium-ATPase activity (but not subunit immunoreactivity) decreased one-third to one-half after BP was elevated and recovered after BP was normalized. After BP was elevated, 55% of the apical NHE3 immunoreactivity......, smaller fractions of sodium-phosphate cotransporter immunoreactivity, and apical alkaline phosphatase and dipeptidyl-peptidase redistributed to membranes of higher density enriched in markers of the intermicrovillar cleft (megalin) and endosomes (Rab 4 and Rab 5), whereas density distributions...

  13. Proximal Tubule Cell Hypothesis for Cardiorenal Syndrome in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Saito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD is remarkably high among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, even in the early microalbuminuric stages with normal glomerular filtration rates. Proximal tubule cells (PTCs mediate metabolism and urinary excretion of vasculotoxic substances via apical and basolateral receptors and transporters. These cells also retrieve vasculoprotective substances from circulation or synthesize them for release into the circulation. PTCs are also involved in the uptake of sodium and phosphate, which are critical for hemodynamic regulation and maintaining the mineral balance, respectively. Dysregulation of PTC functions in CKD is likely to be associated with the development of CVD and is linked to the progression to end-stage renal disease. In particular, PTC dysfunction occurs early in diabetic nephropathy, a leading cause of CKD. It is therefore important to elucidate the mechanisms of PTC dysfunction to develop therapeutic strategies for treating cardiorenal syndrome in diabetes.

  14. Luminal uptake and intracellular transport of insulin in renal proximal tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellfritzsch, M.; Christensen, E.I.; Sonne, O.

    1986-01-01

    It is generally accepted that proteins taken up from the renal tubular fluid are transported into lysosomes in proximal tubule cells. Recently, however, it has been postulated that insulin in isolated perfused rat kidneys did not accumulate in lysosomes but to a certain degree in the Golgi region. The present study was undertaken to investigate the intracellular handling of biologically unaltered insulin in rat renal proximal tubule cells. Rats were prepared for in vivo micropuncture and either a colloidal gold insulin complex or insulin monoiodinated in the A-14 position ( 125 I-insulin) was microinfused into proximal tubules. After 5, 10, 25 or 60 min the tubules were fixed by microinfusion of glutaraldehyde and processed for electron microscopy or electron microscope autoradiography. A qualitative analysis of tubules infused with colloidal gold insulin or 125 I-insulin showed that insulin was taken up by endocytosis and transported to lysosomes, and a quantitative autoradiographic analysis of the 125 I-insulin microinfused tubules showed that the grain density after five min was significantly increased for endocytic vacuoles and for lysosomes. After 60 min the grain density was still significant over lysosomes. The accumulation of grains was non-significant over all other areas analyzed at any time. This study shows that insulin is taken up from the luminal side of the proximal tubule by endocytosis and transported to the lysosomes. There was no significant transport to the Golgi region

  15. Cyclophilin D and the mitochondrial permeability transition in kidney proximal tubules after hypoxic and ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Soon; Pasupulati, Ratna; Feldkamp, Thorsten; Roeser, Nancy F; Weinberg, Joel M

    2011-07-01

    Mitochondrial matrix cyclophilin D (CyPD) is known to promote development of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Kidney proximal tubule cells are especially prone to deleterious effects of mitochondrial damage because of their dependence on oxidative mitochondrial metabolism for ATP production. To clarify the role of CyPD and the MPT in proximal tubule injury during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R), we assessed freshly isolated tubules and in vivo injury in wild-type (WT) and Ppif(-/-) CyPD-null mice. Isolated mouse tubules developed a sustained, nonesterified fatty acid-mediated energetic deficit after H/R in vitro that could be substantially reversed by delipidated albumin and supplemental citric acid cycle substrates but was not modified by the absence of CyPD. Susceptibility of WT and Ppif(-/-) tubules to the MPT was increased by H/R but was less in normoxic and H/R Ppif(-/-) than WT tubules. Correction of the energetic deficit that developed during H/R strongly increased resistance to the MPT. Ppif(-/-) mice were resistant to I/R injury in vivo spanning a wide range of severity. The data clarify involvement of the MPT in oxygen deprivation-induced tubule cell injury by showing that the MPT does not contribute to the initial bioenergetic deficit produced by H/R but the deficit predisposes to subsequent development of the MPT, which contributes pathogenically to kidney I/R injury in vivo.

  16. Ultrastructural insights in the interface between generated renal tubules and a polyester interstitium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia; Meese, Christine; Rachel, Reinhard; Roessger, Anne

    2009-04-21

    In regenerative medicine, stem/progenitor cells are emerging as potential candidates for the treatment of renal failure. However, the mechanism of regeneration of renal tubules from stem/progenitor cells is not well-elucidated. In this study, a new method was developed for the generation of tubules replacing coating by extracellular matrix proteins. Renal stem/progenitor cells are mounted between layers of polyester fleece. This artificial interstitium supports spatial development of tubules within 13 days of perfusion culture in chemically defined Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium (IMDM) containing aldosterone as the tubulogenic factor. Whole mount label by soybean agglutinin (SBA) showed that generated tubules exhibited a lumen and a continuously developed basal lamina. Immuno-labeling for cytokeratin Endo-A demonstrated the presence of isoprismatic epithelial cells, and laminin gamma1, occludin, and Na/K-ATPase alpha5 labeling revealed typical features of a polarized epithelium. To get first insight in the interface between tubules and polyester interstitium, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed. The results showed that the generated tubules exhibited polar differentiation with a continuously developed basal lamina consisting of a lamina rara interna, lamina densa, and lamina rara externa. Collagen type III was found to be the linking molecule between the basal lamina and the surrounding polyester fibers by immuno labeling studies. Thus, the findings demonstrate that the spatial development involves the interface between the tubular basal lamina and the polyester interstitium of tubules and is not restricted to the epithelial portion.

  17. Aldosterone and angiotensin II induce protein aggregation in renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Muhammad U; Poulsen, Ebbe T; Enghild, Jan J; Hoorn, Ewout J; Hoorn, Ewout; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2013-09-01

    Renal tubules are highly active transporting epithelia and are at risk of protein aggregation due to high protein turnover and/or oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the risk of aggregation was increased upon hormone stimulation and assessed the state of the intracellular protein degradation systems in the kidney from control rats and rats receiving aldosterone or angiotensin II treatment for 7 days. Control rats formed both aggresomes and autophagosomes specifically in the proximal tubules, indicating a need for these structures even under baseline conditions. Fluorescence sorted aggresomes contained various rat keratins known to be expressed in renal tubules as assessed by protein mass spectrometry. Aldosterone administration increased the abundance of the proximal tubular aggresomal protein keratin 5, the ribosomal protein RPL27, ataxin-3, and the chaperone heat shock protein 70-4 with no apparent change in the aggresome-autophagosome markers. Angiotensin II induced aggregation of RPL27 specifically in proximal tubules, again without apparent change in antiaggregating proteins or the aggresome-autophagosome markers. Albumin endocytosis was unaffected by the hormone administration. Taken together, we find that the renal proximal tubules display aggresome formation and autophagy. Despite an increase in aggregation-prone protein load in these tubules during hormone treatment, renal proximal tubules seem to have sufficient capacity for removing protein aggregates from the cells.

  18. In vivo model for microbial invasion of tooth root dentinal tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. BRITTAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Bacterial penetration of dentinal tubules via exposed dentine can lead to root caries and promote infections of the pulp and root canal system. The aim of this work was to develop a new experimental model for studying bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules within the human oral cavity. Material and Methods Sections of human root dentine were mounted into lower oral appliances that were worn by four human subjects for 15 d. Roots were then fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically for evidence of bacterial invasion. Levels of invasion were expressed as Tubule Invasion Factor (TIF. DNA was extracted from root samples, subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA genes, and invading bacteria were identified by comparison of sequences with GenBank database. Results All root dentine samples with patent tubules showed evidence of bacterial cell invasion (TIF value range from 5.7 to 9.0 to depths of 200 mm or more. A spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative cell morphotypes were visualized, and molecular typing identified species of Granulicatella, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas as dentinal tubule residents. Conclusion A novel in vivo model is described, which provides for human root dentine to be efficiently infected by oral microorganisms. A range of bacteria were able to initially invade dentinal tubules within exposed dentine. The model will be useful for testing the effectiveness of antiseptics, irrigants, and potential tubule occluding agents in preventing bacterial invasion of dentine.

  19. Upregulation of nestin in proximal tubules may participate in cell migration during renal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Donghai; Ni, Li; You, Li; Zhang, Liying; Gu, Yong; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Chen, Jing

    2012-12-01

    The characteristics of renal tubular progenitor/precursor cells and the role of renal tubule regeneration in the repair of remnant kidneys (RKs) after nephrectomy are not well known. In the present study of a murine model of subtotal nephrectomy, we used immunofluorescence (IF), immunoblot analysis, and in situ hybridization methods to demonstrate that nestin expression was transiently upregulated in tubule cells near the incision edges of RKs. The nestin-positive tubules were immature proximal tubules that colabeled with lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin but not with markers of mature tubules (aquaporin-1, Tamm-Horsfall protein, and aquaporin-2). In addition, many of the nestin-expressing tubule cells were actively proliferative cells, as indicated by colabeling with bromodeoxyuridine. Double-label IF and immunoblot analysis also showed that the upregulation of tubular nestin was associated with enhanced transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression in the incision edge of RKs but not α-smooth muscle actin, which is a marker of fibrosis. In cultured human kidney proximal tubule cells (HKC), immunoblot analysis indicated that TGF-β1 induced nestin expression and loss of E-cadherin expression, suggesting an association of nestin expression and cellular dedifferentiation. Knockdown of nestin expression by a short hairpin RNA-containing plasmid led to decreased migration of HKC cells that were induced by TGF-β1. Taken together, our results suggest that the tubule repair that occurs during the recovery process following nephrectomy may involve TGF-β1-induced nestin expression in immature renal proximal tubule cells and the promotion of renal cell migration.

  20. Epidermal growth factor binding, stimulation of phosphorylation, and inhibition of gluconeogenesis in rat proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R C; Daniel, T O

    1989-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor and insulin share many biological activities, including stimulation of cell proliferation, ion flux, glycolysis, fatty acid and glycogen synthesis, and activation of receptor-linked tyrosine kinase activity. In the kidney, insulin has been shown to regulate transport processes and inhibit gluconeogenesis in the proximal tubule. Since the kidney represents a major source of EGF, the present studies investigated whether proximal tubule contained EGF receptors, whether EGF receptors were localized to apical or basolateral membranes, and whether EGF receptor activation participated in the regulation of an important proximal tubule function, gluconeogenesis. Specific EGF receptors were demonstrated in the basolateral membrane of proximal tubule. Following incubation with 125I EGF, basolateral membranes demonstrated equilibrium binding at 4 degrees C and 23 degrees C. There was 78 +/- 2% specific binding (n = 13). The dissociation constant (Kd) was 1.5 x 10(-9) M and maximal binding was 44 fmol/mg protein. There was ninefold more specific binding to proximal tubule basolateral membrane than to brush border membrane. In basolateral, but not brush border membranes, EGF induced phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues of intrinsic membrane proteins, including a 170 kDa protein, corresponding to the EGF receptor. In the presence of the gluconeogenic substrates, alanine, lactate, and succinate, proximal tubule suspensions synthesized glucose. EGF inhibited glucose production in a concentration-dependent manner over a concentration range of 3 x 10(-11) to 3 x 10(-9) M. In addition, EGF inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated glucose production in the proximal tubule suspensions. EGF did not significantly increase net glucose metabolism nor decrease cellular ATP concentrations. Therefore, these studies demonstrated that rat proximal tubule contained specific receptors for EGF that were localized to the basolateral membrane and linked to tyrosine kinase

  1. Regulation of proximal tubule vacuolar H+-ATPase by PKA and AMP-activated protein kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-bataineh, Mohammad M.; Gong, Fan; Marciszyn, Allison L.; Myerburg, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) mediates ATP-driven H+ transport across membranes. This pump is present at the apical membrane of kidney proximal tubule cells and intercalated cells. Defects in the V-ATPase and in proximal tubule function can cause renal tubular acidosis. We examined the role of protein kinase A (PKA) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the regulation of the V-ATPase in the proximal tubule as these two kinases coregulate the V-ATPase in the collecting duct. As the proximal tubule V-ATPases have different subunit compositions from other nephron segments, we postulated that V-ATPase regulation in the proximal tubule could differ from other kidney tubule segments. Immunofluorescence labeling of rat ex vivo kidney slices revealed that the V-ATPase was present in the proximal tubule both at the apical pole, colocalizing with the brush-border marker wheat germ agglutinin, and in the cytosol when slices were incubated in buffer alone. When slices were incubated with a cAMP analog and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, the V-ATPase accumulated at the apical pole of S3 segment cells. These PKA activators also increased V-ATPase apical membrane expression as well as the rate of V-ATPase-dependent extracellular acidification in S3 cell monolayers relative to untreated cells. However, the AMPK activator AICAR decreased PKA-induced V-ATPase apical accumulation in proximal tubules of kidney slices and decreased V-ATPase activity in S3 cell monolayers. Our results suggest that in proximal tubule the V-ATPase subcellular localization and activity are acutely coregulated via PKA downstream of hormonal signals and via AMPK downstream of metabolic stress. PMID:24553431

  2. Regulation of vitamin D metabolism by calcium and phosphate ions in isolated renal tubules.

    OpenAIRE

    Spanos, E; Freake, H; MacAuley, S J; MacIntyre, I

    1981-01-01

    The acute and long-term effects of Ca2+ and Pi on vitamin D metabolism were studied in vitro with isolated renal tubules from vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-supplemented chicks. Ca2+ depletion, achieved by isolating renal tubules in Ca2+-free buffers, led to suppression of 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity. Re-introduction of Ca2+ during incubation caused an acute stimulation of this enzyme. This stimulatory effect of Ca2+ was prevented by prior treatment of Ca2+-depleted renal tubules for 6 h ...

  3. Effects of quantum dots on different renal proximal tubule cell models and on gel-free renal tubules generated in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Zheng, Yuangang; Zhang, Kangyi; Ying, Jackie Y; Zink, Daniele

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the interactions of different types of human and porcine renal proximal tubule-derived cells with core-shell CdSe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) coated with polymerized histidine-formaldehyde (pHF). The results revealed that porcine and human proximal tubule cells showed a markedly different uptake behavior. This applied to flat epithelial monolayers, as well as to proximal tubules formed on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces in vitro. Primary human cells were most sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of QDs, but displayed inter-donor variability, which appeared to depend on the state of differentiation. The results suggested that human proximal tubule-derived cells were more appropriate than porcine cells for in vitro nanotoxicology. Primary human cells might be suitable when their state of differentiation and inter-donor variability were well-controlled. Furthermore, the results suggested that gel-free proximal tubules formed in vitro could be used as test system to address uptake and transport of nanometer-sized particles in human renal structures.

  4. Proteomic changes in response to crystal formation in Drosophila Malpighian tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Vera Y; Konietzny, Rebecca; Charles, Philip; Kessler, Benedikt; Fischer, Roman; Turney, Benjamin W

    2016-04-02

    Kidney stone disease is a major health burden with a complex and poorly understood pathophysiology. Drosophila Malpighian tubules have been shown to resemble human renal tubules in their physiological function. Herein, we have used Drosophila as a model to study the proteomic response to crystal formation induced by dietary manipulation in Malpighian tubules. Wild-type male flies were reared in parallel groups on standard medium supplemented with lithogenic agents: control, Sodium Oxalate (NaOx) and Ethylene Glycol (EG). Malpighian tubules were dissected after 2 weeks to visualize crystals with polarized light microscopy. The parallel group was dissected for protein extraction. A new method of Gel Assisted Sample Preparation (GASP) was used for protein extraction. Differentially abundant proteins (ptubules. Our results may further increase the understanding of the pathophysiology of human kidney stone disease.

  5. Regulatory pathways for ATP-binding cassette transport proteins in kidney proximal tubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masereeuw, R.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transport proteins (ABC transporters) represent important determinants of drug excretion. Protective or excretory tissues where these transporters mediate substrate efflux include the kidney proximal tubule. Regulation of the transport proteins in this tissue requires

  6. A role for phospholipase A2 activity in membrane tubule formation and TGN trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, John A; Kalkofen, Danielle N; Donovan, Kirk W; Brown, William J

    2010-12-01

    We have investigated the role of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2) ) enzymes in generating membrane tubules at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Constitutive TGN membrane tubules and those induced by over-expressing kinase dead protein kinase D were inhibited by the PLA(2) inhibitors ONO-RS-082 (ONO) and bromoenol lactone. These antagonists also inhibited secretory delivery of both soluble and transmembrane cargoes. Finally, use of the reversible antagonist ONO and time-lapse imaging revealed for the first time that PLA(2) antagonists inhibit the initiation of membrane tubule formation at the TGN. Thus, PLA(2) enzymes appear to have an important role in the earliest steps of membrane tubule formation at the TGN, which are utilized for membrane trafficking. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Scattering of neutrons by catalase: a study of molecules, subunits, and tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, J.; Starling, D.; Baldwin, J.P.; Ibel, K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper deals with small-angle scattering of neutrons by catalase tetramers, dimers, and monomers and with neutron diffraction by helical assemblies of tetramers in the form of tubules. A preliminary study of catalase is described

  8. The adult Drosophila malphigian tubules are maintained by multipotent stem cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    All animals must excrete the waste products of metabolism. Excretion is performed by the kidney in vertebrates and by the Malpighian tubules in Drosophila. The mammalian kidney has an inherent ability for recovery and regeneration after ischemic injury. Stem cells and progenitor cells have been proposed to be responsible for repair and regeneration of injured renal tissue. In Drosophila, the Malpighian tubules are thought to be very stable and no stem cells have been identified.

  9. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuju Kitatani

    Full Text Available A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  10. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  11. Visualization of Calcium Dynamics in Kidney Proximal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebényi, Kornélia; Füredi, András; Kolacsek, Orsolya; Csohány, Rózsa; Prókai, Ágnes; Kis-Petik, Katalin; Szabó, Attila; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Bender, Balázs; Tóvári, József; Enyedi, Ágnes; Orbán, Tamás I; Apáti, Ágota; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2015-11-01

    Intrarenal changes in cytoplasmic calcium levels have a key role in determining pathologic and pharmacologic responses in major kidney diseases. However, cell-specific delivery of calcium-sensitive probes in vivo remains problematic. We generated a transgenic rat stably expressing the green fluorescent protein-calmodulin-based genetically encoded calcium indicator (GCaMP2) predominantly in the kidney proximal tubules. The transposon-based method used allowed the generation of homozygous transgenic rats containing one copy of the transgene per allele with a defined insertion pattern, without genetic or phenotypic alterations. We applied in vitro confocal and in vivo two-photon microscopy to examine basal calcium levels and ligand- and drug-induced alterations in these levels in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Notably, renal ischemia induced a transient increase in cellular calcium, and reperfusion resulted in a secondary calcium load, which was significantly decreased by systemic administration of specific blockers of the angiotensin receptor and the Na-Ca exchanger. The parallel examination of in vivo cellular calcium dynamics and renal circulation by fluorescent probes opens new possibilities for physiologic and pharmacologic investigations. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. TIGAR regulates glycolysis in ischemic kidney proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinu; Devalaraja-Narashimha, Kishor; Padanilam, Babu J

    2015-02-15

    Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) activation blocks glycolytic ATP synthesis by inhibiting phosphofructokinase-1 activity. Our data indicate that TIGAR is selectively induced and activated in renal outermedullary proximal straight tubules (PSTs) after ischemia-reperfusion injury in a p53-dependent manner. Under severe ischemic conditions, TIGAR expression persisted through 48 h postinjury and induced loss of renal function and histological damage. Furthermore, TIGAR upregulation inhibited phosphofructokinase-1 activity, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, and induced ATP depletion, oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. Small interfering RNA-mediated TIGAR inhibition prevented the aforementioned malevolent effects and protected the kidneys from functional and histological damage. After mild ischemia, but not severe ischemia, G6PD activity and NADPH levels were restored, suggesting that TIGAR activation may redirect the glycolytic pathway into gluconeogenesis or the pentose phosphate pathway to produce NADPH. The increased level of NADPH maintained the level of GSH to scavenge ROS, resulting in a lower sensitivity of PST cells to injury. Under severe ischemia, G6PD activity and NADPH levels were reduced during reperfusion; however, blockade of TIGAR enhanced their levels and reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that inhibition of TIGAR may protect PST cells from energy depletion and apoptotic cell death in the setting of severe ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, under low ischemic burden, TIGAR activation induces the pentose phosphate pathway and autophagy as a protective mechanism. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Autophagy in proximal tubules protects against acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Man; Wei, Qingqing; Dong, Guie; Komatsu, Masaaki; Su, Yunchao; Dong, Zheng

    2012-12-01

    Autophagy is induced in renal tubular cells during acute kidney injury; however, whether this is protective or injurious remains controversial. We address this question by pharmacologic and genetic blockade of autophagy using mouse models of cisplatin- and ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. Chloroquine, a pharmacological inhibitor of autophagy, blocked autophagic flux and enhanced acute kidney injury in both models. Rapamycin, however, activated autophagy and protected against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. We also established a renal proximal tubule-specific autophagy-related gene 7-knockout mouse model shown to be defective in both basal and cisplatin-induced autophagy in kidneys. Compared with wild-type littermates, these knockout mice were markedly more sensitive to cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury as indicated by renal functional loss, tissue damage, and apoptosis. Mechanistically, these knockout mice had heightened activation of p53 and c-Jun N terminal kinase, the signaling pathways contributing to cisplatin acute kidney injury. Proximal tubular cells isolated from the knockout mice were more sensitive to cisplatin-induced apoptosis than cells from wild-type mice. In addition, the knockout mice were more sensitive to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury than their wild-type littermates. Thus, our results establish a renoprotective role of tubular cell autophagy in acute kidney injury where it may interfere with cell killing mechanisms.

  14. Liquid Tubule Formation and Stabilization Using Cellulose Nanocrystal Surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xubo; Shi, Shaowei; Li, Yanan; Forth, Joe; Wang, Dong; Russell, Thomas P

    2017-10-02

    Structured liquids, generated by the interfacial formation, assembly, and jamming of nanoparticle (NP)-surfactants at liquid/liquid interfaces, maintain all the desirable characteristics of each liquid, while providing a spatially structured framework. Herein, we show that rod-like cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-based NP-surfactants, termed CNC-surfactants, are formed rapidly at the liquid/liquid interface, assemble into a monolayer, and, when jammed, offer a robust assembly with exceptional mechanical properties. Plateau-Rayleigh (PR) instabilities of a free-falling jet of an aqueous medium containing the CNCs into a toluene solution of amine end-functionalized polystyrene are completely suppressed, allowing the jetting of aqueous tubules that are stabilized when the CNC-surfactants are jammed at the interface. These results open a new platform for the additive manufacturing techniques, for example, three-dimensional (3D) printing, of all-liquid constructs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Eps 15 Homology Domain (EHD-1 Remodels Transverse Tubules in Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis R Demonbreun

    Full Text Available We previously showed that Eps15 homology domain-containing 1 (EHD1 interacts with ferlin proteins to regulate endocytic recycling. Myoblasts from Ehd1-null mice were found to have defective recycling, myoblast fusion, and consequently smaller muscles. When expressed in C2C12 cells, an ATPase dead-EHD1 was found to interfere with BIN1/amphiphysin 2. We now extended those findings by examining Ehd1-heterozygous mice since these mice survive to maturity in normal Mendelian numbers and provide a ready source of mature muscle. We found that heterozygosity of EHD1 was sufficient to produce ectopic and excessive T-tubules, including large intracellular aggregates that contained BIN1. The disorganized T-tubule structures in Ehd1-heterozygous muscle were accompanied by marked elevation of the T-tubule-associated protein DHPR and reduction of the triad linker protein junctophilin 2, reflecting defective triads. Consistent with this, Ehd1-heterozygous muscle had reduced force production. Introduction of ATPase dead-EHD1 into mature muscle fibers was sufficient to induce ectopic T-tubule formation, seen as large BIN1 positive structures throughout the muscle. Ehd1-heterozygous mice were found to have strikingly elevated serum creatine kinase and smaller myofibers, but did not display findings of muscular dystrophy. These data indicate that EHD1 regulates the maintenance of T-tubules through its interaction with BIN1 and links T-tubules defects with elevated creatine kinase and myopathy.

  16. Late radiation response of kidney assayed by tubule-cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    An assay for the survival of renal tubule cells was developed using mice, analogous to other in-situ clonogenic cell survival assays. One kidney was irradiated using a 137 Cs irradiator and removed 60-68 weeks later for histological examination. In unirradiated animals there were about 370 tubules in contact with the capsule in a coronal cross section at the middle of the kidney. After irradiation, extensive tubular damage was the dominant lesion. The number of epithelialised tubules in contact with the capsule showed a dose-dependent logarithmic decline. The dose-survival relationship for the clonogenic cells responsible for the regeneration of tubule epithelium was described by a D 0 value of 1.5 Gy over the dose range 11-16 Gy. This radiosensitivity resembles that of stem cells in acutely responding tissues. The lack of histological evidence of damage to the arterial vasculature at the time the tubules are initially denuded of epithelium, and the similarity of renal tubule cell radiosensitivity to that of other mammalian cells, support the hypothesis that ''late'' radiation injury results primarily from depletion of parenchymal cells, not indirectly from injury to blood vessels, as has been the prevailing belief. (author)

  17. Mechanisms of calcium sequestration by isolated Malpighian tubules of the house cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Austin; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Hemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved by the Malpighian tubules, primarily by sequestering excess Ca 2+ within internal calcium stores (Ca-rich granules) most often located within type I (principal) tubule cells. Using both the scanning ion-selective electrode technique and the Ramsay secretion assay this study provides the first measurements of basolateral and transepithelial Ca 2+ fluxes across the Malpighian tubules of an Orthopteran insect, the house cricket Acheta domesticus. Ca 2+ transport was specific to midtubule segments, where 97% of the Ca 2+ entering the tubule is sequestered within intracellular calcium stores and the remaining 3% is secreted into the lumen. Antagonists of voltage-gated (L-type) calcium channels decreased Ca 2+ influx ≥fivefold in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-stimulated tubules, suggesting basolateral Ca 2+ influx is facilitated by voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. Increasing fluid secretion through manipulation of intracellular levels of cAMP or Ca 2+ had opposite effects on tubule Ca 2+ transport. The adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway promotes Ca 2+ sequestration whereas both 5-hydroxytryptamine and thapsigargin inhibited sequestration. Our results suggest that the midtubules of Acheta domesticus are dynamic calcium stores, which maintain hemolymph calcium concentration by manipulating rates of Ca 2+ sequestration through stimulatory (cAMP) and inhibitory (Ca 2+ ) regulatory pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of theobromine-containing toothpaste on dentin tubule occlusion in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T; Mathews, Sapna M; Mensinkai, Poornima K

    2015-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is treated by either occlusion of dentin tubules or nerve desensitization. This in situ study compared dentin tubules occlusion by theobromine-containing dentifrices with (Theodent-classic-F®, TCF) and without (Theodent-classic®, TC) fluoride with 1,500 ppm fluoride toothpaste, Colgate®-Regular (Fluoride) and Novamin®-containing toothpaste, Sensodyne®-5000-Nupro (Novamin®). Each subject wore four intraoral appliances bearing dentin blocks while using one of four test dentifrices (n = 20/dentifrice) twice daily for 7 days. The four appliances were removed successively after 1, 2, 3, and 7 days. Treated blocks and their control (untreated) blocks were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effects were compared statistically (ANOVA/Tukey's) based on percentage of surface area covered by deposited precipitate layer (%DPL) and percentage of fully open (%FOT), partially occluded (%POT), and completely occluded (%COT) tubules in each block calculated relative to the number of tubules in their control blocks. SEM observation indicated an increased %COT and %DPL over time. After 1 and 2 days, %COT was comparable with TC and TCF, and significantly (p Theobromine-containing toothpastes with and without fluoride have equal potential in occluding dentin tubules within a shorter time period than Novamin®-containing toothpaste; however, the three demonstrated equal potential after 1 week, but not the fluoride toothpaste. Theobromine-containing toothpaste promoted dentin tubule occlusion thus shows potential to relief DH.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF ACHETA DIURETIC PEPTIDE ON ISOLATED MALPIGHIAN TUBULES FROM THE HOUSE CRICKET ACHETA DOMESTICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast; Kay

    1994-02-01

    Acheta diuretic peptide (Acheta-DP) is a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related peptide found in head extracts of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. The peptide causes a dose-dependent increase in fluid secretion by cricket Malpighian tubules isolated in vitro, and the apparent EC50 is 1.3 nmol l-1, which is within the physiological range for a peptide hormone. The CRF antagonist alpha-helical CRF(9-41) blocks the action of Acheta-DP in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 is estimated to be in the micromolar range. Addition of Acheta-DP to isolated Malpighian tubules is followed by a rapid and marked increase in the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. This precedes any change in voltage or fluid secretion, which strongly suggests that cyclic AMP is the intracellular mediator of Acheta-DP activity. Consistent with this, diuretic activity is potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and there is a close relationship between the dose­response curves for cyclic AMP production and for fluid secretion. However, exogenous 8-bromo-cyclic AMP does not mimic all the effects of Acheta-DP, and the peptide may have a dual action on isolated tubules. Fluid secretion by tubules dosed repeatedly with Acheta-DP returns to near basal levels after 3­5 h. This cannot be explained by degradation of the peptide, but might be due in part to oxygen and/or metabolite deficiency. However, tubules that are refractory to Acheta-DP can be stimulated by forskolin, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and extracts of corpora cardiaca, which is indicative of a homologous desensitization of membrane receptors for the diuretic peptide. Differences in the rate of secretion by morphologically distinct regions of cricket Malpighian tubules have been assessed. In unstimulated tubules, the rate of secretion per unit length by the short distal segment is about twice that of the main tubule. However, diuretic peptides (Acheta-DP and achetakinin-I) have little effect on distal

  20. [The combined occluding effect of fluor protector and Nd:YAG laser irradiation on human dentinal tubules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Lin, Q; Zhao, B

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate the combined occluding effect of fluor protector and Nd:YAG Laser irradiation on human dentinal tubules. Twenty-four dentin specimens with exposed dentinal tubule orifices treated by 37% H3PO4 were randomly divided into four groups. Group B, C and D were vanished by fluor protector, group A served as a control. Group D was lased by Nd:YAG laser. Group C and D were brushed with normal force. Under SEM, group A showed numerous exposed dentinal tubule orifices, the diameter of which is 2-3 microns. Group B showed closure of dentinal tubule orifices. Group C showed that most of the fluor protector were brushed away and group D showed over 80% of the dentinal tubule orifices were occluded. Fluor protector combined with Nd:YAG laser can make most of the dentinal tubule orifices occluded even after brushed.

  1. Angiotensinogen import in isolated proximal tubules: evidence for mitochondrial trafficking and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bryan A; Cruz-Diaz, Nildris; Su, Yixin; Rose, James C; Gwathmey, TanYa M; Chappell, Mark C

    2017-05-01

    The renal proximal tubules are a key functional component of the kidney and express the angiotensin precursor angiotensinogen; however, it is unclear the extent that tubular angiotensinogen reflects local synthesis or internalization. Therefore, the current study established the extent to which angiotensinogen is internalized by proximal tubules and the intracellular distribution. Proximal tubules were isolated from the kidney cortex of male sheep by enzymatic digestion and a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Tubules were incubated with radiolabeled 125 I-angiotensinogen for 2 h at 37°C in serum/phenol-free DMEM/F12 media. Approximately 10% of exogenous 125 I-angiotensinogen was internalized by sheep tubules. Subcellular fractionation revealed that 21 ± 4% of the internalized 125 I-angiotensinogen associated with the mitochondrial fraction with additional labeling evident in the nucleus (60 ± 7%), endoplasmic reticulum (4 ± 0.5%), and cytosol (15 ± 4%; n = 4). Subsequent studies determined whether mitochondria directly internalized 125 I-angiotensinogen using isolated mitochondria from renal cortex and human HK-2 proximal tubule cells. Sheep cortical and HK-2 mitochondria internalized 125 I-angiotensinogen at a comparable rate of (33 ± 9 vs. 21 ± 10 pmol·min -1 ·mg protein -1 ; n = 3). Lastly, unlabeled angiotensinogen (100 nM) competed for 125 I-angiotensinogen uptake to a greater extent than human albumin in HK-2 mitochondria (60 ± 2 vs. 16 ± 13%; P tubules. We conclude that this pathway may constitute a source of the angiotensinogen precursor for the mitochondrial expression of angiotensin peptides. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Characterization of the Interaction of Staphylococcal Entertoxin B with CD1d Expressed in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-04

    staphylococcal entertoxin B with CD1d expressed in human renal proxiaml tubule epithelial cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...conjugation between SEB and CD1d expressed on human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) was further established by selective inhibition of...the non-human primate study reporting ~70% accumulation of SEB in the renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTECs) within 90 mi- nutes of aerosol

  3. Failed Tubule Recovery, AKI-CKD Transition, and Kidney Disease Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Joel M.; Kriz, Wilhelm; Bidani, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of AKI to CKD has major clinical significance. As reviewed here, recent studies show that a subpopulation of dedifferentiated, proliferating tubules recovering from AKI undergo pathologic growth arrest, fail to redifferentiate, and become atrophic. These abnormal tubules exhibit persistent, unregulated, and progressively increasing profibrotic signaling along multiple pathways. Paracrine products derived therefrom perturb normal interactions between peritubular capillary endothelium and pericyte-like fibroblasts, leading to myofibroblast transformation, proliferation, and fibrosis as well as capillary disintegration and rarefaction. Although signals from injured endothelium and inflammatory/immune cells also contribute, tubule injury alone is sufficient to produce the interstitial pathology required for fibrosis. Localized hypoxia produced by microvascular pathology may also prevent tubule recovery. However, fibrosis is not intrinsically progressive, and microvascular pathology develops strictly around damaged tubules; thus, additional deterioration of kidney structure after the transition of AKI to CKD requires new acute injury or other mechanisms of progression. Indeed, experiments using an acute-on-chronic injury model suggest that additional loss of parenchyma caused by failed repair of AKI in kidneys with prior renal mass reduction triggers hemodynamically mediated processes that damage glomeruli to cause progression. Continued investigation of these pathologic mechanisms should reveal options for preventing renal disease progression after AKI. PMID:25810494

  4. [N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase--marker of damage to renal proximal tubules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepka, Alina; Szajda, Sławomir D; Jankowska, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2008-09-01

    Cells of the renal epithelium synthesize and excrete to urine many enzymes. Among more than 50 enzymes produced by epithelial cells of proximal tubules, only few have a diagnostic value. Determination of the enzymatic activities in urine is sensitive and not invasive method for evaluation the function of renal tubules. Urinary N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase (HEX) activity is approved and practically utilized marker of the renal function. HEX is a lysosomal exoglycosidase taking part in catabolism of the sugar chains of glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids and proteoglycans). HEX catalyses release of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine from a non reducing ends of glycoconjugates. In urine of healthy persons activity of HEX is negligible, but significantly increases after damage to the proximal tubules. The cells of renal proximal tubules are very sensitive to hypoxia. Therefore all renal processes with hypoxia lead to dysfunction of proximal renal tubules and release HEX to urine. Increased activity of HEX in urine was found after intoxication by heavy metals, nephrotoxic drugs, contrast media, fewer, bacterial as well as immunological nephritis and hypertension, diabetes, neoplasms and during renal graft rejection. In the paper we presented review of literature concerning HEX, and its presence in renal tissue and urine, as well as application in diagnostics.

  5. Numerical Analysis of the Effect of T-tubule Location on Calcium Transient in Ventricular Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Uduak Z.; Wang, Jun; Yu, Zeyun

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) signaling in cardiac myocytes is vital for proper functioning of the heart. Understanding the intracellular Ca2+ dynamics would give an insight into the functions of normal and diseased hearts. In the current study, spatiotemporal Ca2+ dynamics is investigated in ventricular myocytes by considering Ca2+ release and re-uptake via sarcolemma and transverse tubules (T-tubules), Ca2+ diffusion and buffering in the cytosol, and the blockade of Ca2+ activities associated with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This study is carried out using a three dimensional (3D) geometric model of a branch of T-tubule extracted from the electron microscopy (EM) images of a partial ventricular myocyte. Mathematical modeling is done by using a system of partial differential equations involving Ca2+ , buffers, and membrane channels. Numerical simulation results suggest that a lack of T-tubule structure at the vicinity of the cell surface could increase the peak time of Ca2+ concentration in myocytes. The results also show that T-tubules and mobile buffers play an important role in the regulation of Ca2+ transient in ventricular myocytes. PMID:24212025

  6. Jellyfish stinging is driven by the moving front of the nematocyst's tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Uri; Park, Sinwook; Piriatinskiy, Gadi; Yossifon, Gilad; Lotan, Tamar

    2017-11-01

    Nematocysts are ultra-fast stinging organelles that are utilized by the Cnidaria phylum for prey capture, defense and locomotion. They consist of a capsule and a tubule and exert high pressure and acceleration to penetrate the target organism. Previous studies report that the ejection and elongation of the tubule are driven by a buildup of osmotic potential in the capsule. We question this explanation using a microfluidic system that controls the osmotic potential by directing the tubule through oil, where no osmotic potential can develop, while keeping the capsule in water. It was found that the time needed for elongation through oil is orders of magnitude larger than through water. Our mathematical model shows that the p γGlu concentration in the tubule is higher than in the capsule and the internal pressure that develops there serves as the elongation driving force. These findings imply that modifications of the environment along the tubule route have the potential to slow down the process and reduce its impact. This may shed light on prey defense strategies, human protection against jellyfish stinging, the use of nematocysts for drug delivery and exploration of osmotic based methods for nanotubes production and elongation.

  7. Drosophila Malpighian Tubules: A Model for Understanding Kidney Development, Function, and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Naveen Kumar; Verma, Puja; Tapadia, Madhu G

    The Malpighian tubules of insects are structurally simple but functionally important organs, and their integrity is important for the normal excretory process. They are functional analogs of human kidneys which are important physiological organs as they maintain water and electrolyte balance in the blood and simultaneously help the body to get rid of waste and toxic products after various metabolic activities. In addition, it receives early indications of insults to the body such as immune challenge and other toxic components and is essential for sustaining life. According to National Vital Statistics Reports 2016, renal dysfunction has been ranked as the ninth most abundant cause of death in the USA. This chapter provides detailed descriptions of Drosophila Malpighian tubule development, physiology, immune function and also presents evidences that Malpighian tubules can be used as a model organ system to address the fundamental questions in developmental and functional disorders of the kidney.

  8. Aldosterone and angiotensin II induced protein aggregation in renal proximal tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Enghild, Jan J

    2013-01-01

    systems in the kidney from control rats and rats receiving aldosterone or angiotensin II treatment for 7 days. Control rats formed both aggresomes and autophagosomes specifically in the proximal tubules, indicating a need for these structures even under baseline conditions. Fluorescence sorted aggresomes......Renal tubules are highly active transporting epithelia and are at risk of protein aggregation due to high protein turnover and/or oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the risk of aggregation was increased upon hormone stimulation and assessed the state of the intracellular protein degradation...... contained various rat keratins known to be expressed in renal tubules as assessed by protein mass spectrometry. Aldosterone administration increased the abundance of the proximal tubular aggresomal protein keratin 5, the ribosomal protein RPL27, ataxin-3, and the chaperone heat shock protein 70...

  9. Bioprinting of 3D Convoluted Renal Proximal Tubules on Perfusable Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kimberly A.; Kolesky, David B.; Skylar-Scott, Mark A.; Herrmann, Jessica; Obuobi, Humphrey; Moisan, Annie; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional models of kidney tissue that recapitulate human responses are needed for drug screening, disease modeling, and, ultimately, kidney organ engineering. Here, we report a bioprinting method for creating 3D human renal proximal tubules in vitro that are fully embedded within an extracellular matrix and housed in perfusable tissue chips, allowing them to be maintained for greater than two months. Their convoluted tubular architecture is circumscribed by proximal tubule epithelial cells and actively perfused through the open lumen. These engineered 3D proximal tubules on chip exhibit significantly enhanced epithelial morphology and functional properties relative to the same cells grown on 2D controls with or without perfusion. Upon introducing the nephrotoxin, Cyclosporine A, the epithelial barrier is disrupted in a dose-dependent manner. Our bioprinting method provides a new route for programmably fabricating advanced human kidney tissue models on demand.

  10. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Kenneth A; Rainey, Stephanie M; Veland, Iben R; Neuert, Helen; Dornan, Anthony J; Klämbt, Christian; Davies, Shireen-Anne; Dow, Julian A T

    2016-04-13

    Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell-cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most abundantly expressed in the adult renal (Malpighian) tubule rather than in neuronal tissues. The role Fas2 serves in this epithelium is unknown. Here we show that Fas2 is essential to brush border maintenance in renal tubules of Drosophila. Fas2 is dynamically expressed during tubule morphogenesis, localizing to the brush border whenever the tissue is transport competent. Genetic manipulations of Fas2 expression levels impact on both microvilli length and organization, which in turn dramatically affect stimulated rates of fluid secretion by the tissue. Consequently, we demonstrate a radically different role for this well-known cell adhesion molecule, and propose that Fas2-mediated intermicrovillar homophilic adhesion complexes help stabilize the brush border.

  11. NMR monitoring of intracellular sodium in dog and rabbit kidney tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Y.; Vinay, P.; Boulanger, M.

    1987-01-01

    23 Na-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to monitor intra- and extracellular sodium in suspensions of dog cortical tubules, rabbit cortical tubules, and dog thick ascending limbs. The NMR visibility of the intracellular sodium was determined by comparing the NMR and flame photometry results and by redistributing the sodium ions between the intra- and extracellular compartments using the ionophore nystatin (influx) or sodium substitution for choline in the extracellular fluid (efflux). The intracellular sodium visibility was ∼30% for the total sodium and 58% for the transportable sodium. Addition of sodium to sodium-depleted homogenates of dog renal cortex also showed a loss of visibility. The values of the relaxation times T 1 and T 2 were determined but could not be correlated with the visibility measurements. The intracellular sodium concentration in dog cortical tubules incubated in optimal biochemical conditions was estimated at 51 mM was dependent on the extracellular sodium concentration

  12. Comparing the effectiveness of four desensitizing toothpastes on dentinal tubule occlusion: A scanning electron microscope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Amit; Kala, Soumik; Shashirekha, Govind

    2017-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a sudden short sharp pain best explained by hydrodynamic theory. Several agents are available throughout the market that can treat DH either by blocking the nerves that helps in conducting pain or by blocking the open dentinal tubules. The aim of the present study was to compare the tubule occluding efficacy of four different desensitizing dentifrices under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sixty-two dentin blocks measuring 5 mm × 5 mm × 3 mm were obtained from extracted human molar teeth and were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1 - no treatment (control, n = 2); Group 2 - Pepsodent Pro-sensitive relief and repair ( n = 15); Group 3 - Sensodyne repair and protect ( n = 15); Group 4 - Remin Pro ( n = 15); Group 5 - Test toothpaste containing 15% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) crystals ( n = 15). The specimens were brushed for 2 min/day for 14 days and stored in artificial saliva. After final brushing, specimens were gold sputtered and viewed under SEM at ×2000 magnification. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and least significant difference post hoc test. All test groups showed significant increase in dentin tubule occlusion as compared to control group. The highest percentage of tubules occluded was shown by Group 4 and Group 5 which was significantly different from other groups ( P ≤ 0.05), and there was no significant difference in tubule occlusion among them. Newer desensitizing dentifrices containing 15% n-HA and Remin Pro can provide effective tubule occlusion and thereby reduce the pain and discomfort caused by DH.

  13. Generation of easily accessible human kidney tubules on two-dimensional surfaces in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huishi; Lau, Samantha Fong-Ting; Heng, Ber Fong; Teo, Pei Yun; Alahakoon, P K D Thilini; Ni, Ming; Tasnim, Farah; Ying, Jackie Y; Zink, Daniele

    2011-06-01

    The generation of tissue-like structures in vitro is of major interest for various fields of research including in vitro toxicology, regenerative therapies and tissue engineering. Usually 3D matrices are used to engineer tissue-like structures in vitro, and for the generation of kidney tubules, 3D gels are employed. Kidney tubules embedded within 3D gels are difficult to access for manipulations and imaging. Here we show how large and functional human kidney tubules can be generated in vitro on 2D surfaces, without the use of 3D matrices. The mechanism used by human primary renal proximal tubule cells for tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces appears to be distinct from the mechanism employed in 3D gels, and tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces involves interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The process is induced by transforming growth factor-β(1), and enhanced by a 3D substrate architecture. However, after triggering the process, the formation of renal tubules occurs with remarkable independence from the substrate architecture. Human proximal tubules generated on 2D surfaces typically have a length of several millimetres, and are easily accessible for manipulations and imaging, which makes them attractive for basic research and in vitro nephrotoxicology. The experimental system described also allows for in vitro studies on how primary human kidney cells regenerate renal structures after organ disruption. The finding that human kidney cells organize tissue-like structures independently from the substrate architecture has important consequences for kidney tissue engineering, and it will be important, for instance, to inhibit the process of tubulogenesis on 2D surfaces in bioartificial kidneys. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Cellular localization of uranium in the renal proximal tubules during acute renal uranium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma-Takeda, Shino; Kitahara, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kyoko; Blyth, Benjamin J; Suya, Noriyoshi; Konishi, Teruaki; Terada, Yasuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2015-12-01

    Renal toxicity is a hallmark of uranium exposure, with uranium accumulating specifically in the S3 segment of the proximal tubules causing tubular damage. As the distribution, concentration and dynamics of accumulated uranium at the cellular level is not well understood, here, we report on high-resolution quantitative in situ measurements by high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in renal sections from a rat model of uranium-induced acute renal toxicity. One day after subcutaneous administration of uranium acetate to male Wistar rats at a dose of 0.5 mg uranium kg(-1) body weight, uranium concentration in the S3 segment of the proximal tubules was 64.9 ± 18.2 µg g(-1) , sevenfold higher than the mean renal uranium concentration (9.7 ± 2.4 µg g(-1) ). Uranium distributed into the epithelium of the S3 segment of the proximal tubules and highly concentrated uranium (50-fold above mean renal concentration) in micro-regions was found near the nuclei. These uranium levels were maintained up to 8 days post-administration, despite more rapid reductions in mean renal concentration. Two weeks after uranium administration, damaged areas were filled with regenerating tubules and morphological signs of tissue recovery, but areas of high uranium concentration (100-fold above mean renal concentration) were still found in the epithelium of regenerating tubules. These data indicate that site-specific accumulation of uranium in micro-regions of the S3 segment of the proximal tubules and retention of uranium in concentrated areas during recovery are characteristics of uranium behavior in the kidney. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ectopic Phosphorylated Creb Marks Dedifferentiated Proximal Tubules in Cystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Pawan; Schaefer, Caitlin M; Bushnell, Daniel; Taglienti, Mary E; Kreidberg, Jordan A; Yoder, Bradley K; Bates, Carlton M

    2018-01-01

    Ectopic cAMP signaling is pathologic in polycystic kidney disease; however, its spatiotemporal actions are unclear. We characterized the expression of phosphorylated Creb (p-Creb), a target and mediator of cAMP signaling, in developing and cystic kidney models. We also examined tubule-specific effects of cAMP analogs in cystogenesis in embryonic kidney explants. In wild-type mice, p-Creb marked nephron progenitors (NP), early epithelial NP derivatives, ureteric bud, and cortical stroma; p-Creb was present in differentiated thick ascending limb of Henle, collecting duct, and stroma; however, it disappeared in mature NP-derived proximal tubules. In Six2cre;Frs2α Fl/Fl mice, a renal cystic model, ectopic p-Creb stained proximal tubule-derived cystic segments that lost the differentiation marker lotus tetragonolobus lectin. Furthermore, lotus tetragonolobus lectin-negative/p-Creb-positive cyst segments (re)-expressed Ncam1, Pax2, and Sox9 markers of immature nephron structures and dedifferentiated proximal tubules after acute kidney injury. These dedifferentiation markers were co-expressed with p-Creb in renal cysts in Itf88 knockout mice subjected to ischemia and Six2cre;Pkd1 Fl/Fl mice, other renal cystogenesis models. 8-Br-cAMP addition to wild-type embryonic kidney explants induced proximal tubular cystogenesis and p-Creb expression; these effects were blocked by co-addition of protein kinase A inhibitor. Thus p-Creb/cAMP signaling is appropriate in NP and early nephron derivatives, but disappears in mature proximal tubules. Moreover, ectopic p-Creb expression/cAMP signaling marks dedifferentiated proximal tubular cystic segments. Furthermore, proximal tubules are predisposed to become cystic after cAMP stimulation. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deep Sequencing in Microdissected Renal Tubules Identifies Nephron Segment-Specific Transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Wook; Chou, Chung-Lin; Knepper, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    The function of each renal tubule segment depends on the genes expressed therein. High-throughput methods used for global profiling of gene expression in unique cell types have shown low sensitivity and high false positivity, thereby limiting the usefulness of these methods in transcriptomic research. However, deep sequencing of RNA species (RNA-seq) achieves highly sensitive and quantitative transcriptomic profiling by sequencing RNAs in a massive, parallel manner. Here, we used RNA-seq coupled with classic renal tubule microdissection to comprehensively profile gene expression in each of 14 renal tubule segments from the proximal tubule through the inner medullary collecting duct of rat kidneys. Polyadenylated mRNAs were captured by oligo-dT primers and processed into adapter-ligated cDNA libraries that were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Transcriptomes were identified to a median depth of 8261 genes in microdissected renal tubule samples (105 replicates in total) and glomeruli (5 replicates). Manual microdissection allowed a high degree of sample purity, which was evidenced by the observed distributions of well established cell-specific markers. The main product of this work is an extensive database of gene expression along the nephron provided as a publicly accessible webpage (https://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/NephronRNAseq/index.html). The data also provide genome-wide maps of alternative exon usage and polyadenylation sites in the kidney. We illustrate the use of the data by profiling transcription factor expression along the renal tubule and mapping metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. The formation of pores in the basal lamina of regenerated renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, Annette; Denk, Lucia; Strehl, Raimund; Castrop, Hayo; Minuth, Will W

    2008-06-01

    Little information is available concerning the generation of renal tubules, but this information is urgently needed in regenerative medicine for the future treatment of acute and chronic renal failures. Of major interests are the integration of stem/progenitor cells, the cellular development and the tubular growth in a spatial environment. In this regard, we investigated the basal aspect of renal tubules generated at the interphase of an artificial interstitium. Stem/progenitor cells derived from neonatal rabbit kidney were mounted inside a specific tissue holder and covered by layers of polyester fleece. The tissue was then kept in a perfusion culture container for 13 days in chemically defined IMDM containing aldosterone (1 x 10(-7)m) as a tubulogenic factor. The spatial development of tubules was registered on whole-mount specimens and on cryo-sections labeled with soybean agglutinin (SBA) and tissue-specific antibodies indicating that collecting duct tubules were developed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the generated tubules were completely covered by a basal lamina. Most interestingly, the matrix was not consistently composed, but exhibited three categories of pores. The most frequently found pore type had an apparent diameter of 133+/-26 nm followed by a medium-sized pore type of 317+/-35 nm. Another category of pores with a diameter of 605+/-101 nm was rather rarely found. All of the pores were evenly distributed and not restricted to particular sites. The newly detected pores are not related to culture artifacts, since they were also detected in collecting duct tubules of the neonatal rabbit kidney. It remains to be evaluated whether these pores support physiological transport functions or if they indicate the site where extracellular matrix proteins are inserted into newly synthesized basal lamina.

  18. Binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by renal glomeruli and tubules isolated from rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meezan, E.; Freychet, P.; Nice Univ., 06

    1982-01-01

    Isolated rat renal glomeruli and tubules were shown to exhibit specific binding of 125 I-insulin and enzymatic degradation of the hormone. Binding to both renal fractions reached a plateau by 1 h at 22 0 C and increased linearly with increasing protein concentrations. Binding was inhibited in both preparations by insulin and its analogues in the order of relative potency: insulin > despentapeptide insulin > proinsulin, but insulin was ten times more potent in inhibiting 125 I-insulin binding to glomeruli than that to tubules, indicating a different affinity of receptors for the hormone in the two renal fractions (about 17 versus 210 μg unlabelled insulin/1 inhibiting 50% of the 125 I-insulin binding to glomeruli and tubules, respectively). Bound 125 I-insulin dissociated at a faster rate from tubules than from glomeruli; this release was accelreated by unlabelled insulin in both renal fractions, but to a greater extent in glomeruli than in tubules. Two-thirds of the total bound material released from glomeruli was found to be intact insulin as measured by trichloroacetic acid precipitation, whereas only one-third of the material released from tubules was intact. No direct relationship beteen binding and degradation of 125 I-insulin in these renal fractions could be demonstrated, however, because of the release of proteolytic enzymes into the incubation medium resulting in almost all degradation being extracellular. Although differing in their affinity for 125 I-insulin the high affinity glomerular insulin receptor and the lower affinity tubular insulin receptor have characteristics similar to those of insulin receptors in insulin responsive tissues. (orig.)

  19. The small molecule probe PT-Yellow labels the renal proximal tubules in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Veronika; Patke, Shantanu; Sahu, Srikanta; Teoh, Chai Lean; Peng, Zhenzhen; Chang, Young-Tae; Davidson, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a small fluorescent molecule, BDNCA3-D2, herein referred to as PT-Yellow. Soaking zebrafish embryos in PT-Yellow or intraperitoneal injection into adults results in non-toxic in vivo fluorescent labeling of the renal proximal tubules, the major site of blood filtrate reabsorption and a common target of injury in acute kidney injury. We demonstrate the applicability of this new compound as a rapid and simple readout for zebrafish kidney filtration and proximal tubule reabsorption function.

  20. Rhodnius prolixus Malpighian tubules and control of diuresis by neurohormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina V. Martini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius prolixus Malpighian tubules (MTs are a good model for fluid and ion secretion studies in view of the dramatic postprandial diuresis, which follows its massive blood meals. Ingestion of a blood meal equals to 10-12 times their initial body mass, leads to rapid activation of high output by excretory system, which eliminates 40-50% of the fluid mass. Secretion of ions and water is stimulated 1000-fold by serotonin and diuretic hormone. These hormones cooperate synergistically to activate adenylate cyclase activity from MTs cells, which increase the level of intracellular cAMP. The anti-diuretic hormones have also an important role in the fluid maintenance of Rhodnius prolixus. Several hours after insect feeding occurs a reduction in urine flow, that has been thought to result from a decreased diuretic hormone release or from a novel mechanism of anti-diuresis involving insect cardioacceleratory peptide 2b (CAP2b and cyclic GMP. In this article it is discussed how the hormone regulation of fluid transport is done in Rhodnius prolixus MTs.Os túbulos de Malpighi (TMs de Rhodnius prolixus são reconhecidos por serem excelentes modelos para o estudo da secreção de fluidos e íons devido a grande diurese que ocorre quando esses animais se alimentam de sangue. O inseto, após alimentação, pode aumentar seu peso corporal inicial em até 10-12 vezes, o que leva a rápida ativação do sistema excretor, que elimina 40-50% do fluido corporal. A secreção de íons e água é estimulada 1000 vezes pela serotonina e pelos hormônios diuréticos. Esses hormônios agem sinergicamente ativando a adenil ciclase das células dos TMs, aumentando os níveis intracelulares de AMPc. Os hormônios anti-diuréticos também têm um importante papel na manutenção dos fluídos corporais do Rhodnius prolixus. Várias horas após a alimentação do inseto ocorre uma redução do fluxo urinário, o que foi sugerido ser decorrente da diminuição da libera

  1. Differential activation of CD95-mediated apoptosis related proteins in proximal and distal tubules during rat renal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Feng; Tian, He; Zhang, Zhen-Xing

    2016-10-01

    The CD95-mediated apoptotic pathway is the best characterized of the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways. The present study characterized localization and expression of proteins involved in CD95-mediated apoptosis during rat renal development. Kidneys were obtained from embryonic (E) 18 and 20-day-old fetuses and postnatal (P) 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 14-, and 21-day-old pups. Immunohistochemical characterization revealed that CD95, FasL and cleaved caspase-3 were strongly expressed in proximal tubules and weakly expressed in distal tubules, but that expression of caspase-8 in distal tubules was stronger than that in proximal tubules. Results from terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays showed that levels of apoptosis in proximal tubules slowly increased after E18, while those of distal tubules slowly decreased after P5. Western blotting demonstrated that expression of CD95, FasL and FADD was very weak during embryonic development, but rapidly increased at P14. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 was maintained at high levels after P1, while caspase-8 expression gradually reached a peak at P7. Results from this study reveal that the CD95-mediated apoptotic pathway is a key driver of apoptosis in proximal tubules during late postnatal kidney development in rats and suggest that apoptosis in distal tubules is mediated by a different apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tubulation of class II MHC compartments is microtubule dependent and involves multiple endolysosomal membrane proteins in primary dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Jatin M; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2007-06-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP.

  3. Mechanisms of ion transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of Bufo bufo as revealed by microelectrode recordings in isolated perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad......amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad...

  4. Mechanisms of ion transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of Bufo bufo as revealed by microelectrode recordings in isolated perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad......amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad...

  5. Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 is required for stabilization of Rac1-positive membrane tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Muralidharan; Lee, Unn Hwa; Yoon, Nal Ae; Yoon, Eun Hye; Lee, Byung Ju; Cho, Wha Ja; Park, Jeong Woo

    2017-11-04

    Previously we have reported that developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) localizes on Rab5 endosomes and plays an important role in transferrin (Tfn) recycling. We here identified DRG2 as a key regulator of membrane tubule stability. At 30 min after Tfn treatment, DRG2 localized to membrane tubules which were enriched with phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate [PI(4)P] and did not contain Rab5. DRG2 interacted with Rac1 more strongly with GTP-bound Rac1 and tubular localization of DRG2 depended on Rac1 activity. DRG2 depletion led to destabilization of membrane tubules, while ectopic expression of DRG2 rescued the stability of the membrane tubules in DRG2-depleted cells. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for regulation of membrane tubule stability mediated by DRG2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PTEN loss defines a TGF-β-induced tubule phenotype of failed differentiation and JNK signaling during renal fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rongpei; Geng, Hui; Polichnowski, Aaron J.; Singha, Prajjal K.; Saikumar, Pothana; McEwen, Donald G.; Griffin, Karen A.; Koesters, Robert; Weinberg, Joel M.; Bidani, Anil K.; Kriz, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the signaling basis for tubule pathology during fibrosis after renal injury. Numerous signaling pathways are activated physiologically to direct tubule regeneration after acute kidney injury (AKI) but several persist pathologically after repair. Among these, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is particularly important because it controls epithelial differentiation and profibrotic cytokine production. We found that increased TGF-β signaling after AKI is accompanied by PTEN loss from proximal tubules (PT). With time, subpopulations of regenerating PT with persistent loss of PTEN (phosphate and tension homolog) failed to differentiate, became growth arrested, expressed vimentin, displayed profibrotic JNK activation, and produced PDGF-B. These tubules were surrounded by fibrosis. In contrast, PTEN recovery was associated with epithelial differentiation, normal tubule repair, and less fibrosis. This beneficial outcome was promoted by TGF-β antagonism. Tubule-specific induction of TGF-β led to PTEN loss, JNK activation, and fibrosis even without prior AKI. In PT culture, high TGF-β depleted PTEN, inhibited differentiation, and activated JNK. Conversely, TGF-β antagonism increased PTEN, promoted differentiation, and decreased JNK activity. Cre-Lox PTEN deletion suppressed differentiation, induced growth arrest, and activated JNK. The low-PTEN state with JNK signaling and fibrosis was ameliorated by contralateral nephrectomy done 2 wk after unilateral ischemia, suggesting reversibility of the low-PTEN dysfunctional tubule phenotype. Vimentin-expressing tubules with low-PTEN and JNK activation were associated with fibrosis also after tubule-selective AKI, and with human chronic kidney diseases of diverse etiology. By preventing tubule differentiation, the low-PTEN state may provide a platform for signals initiated physiologically to persist pathologically and cause fibrosis after injury. PMID:22301622

  7. Detection of Abnormal Extracellular Matrix in the Interstitium of Regenerating Renal Tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W.; Denk, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. However, recent data exhibit that survival of stem/progenitor cells after implantation in diseased renal parenchyma is restricted. To elaborate basic parameters improving survival, cell seeding was simulated under advanced in vitro conditions. After isolation, renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in a polyester interstitium for perfusion culture. During generation of tubules, chemically defined CO2 Independent Medium or Leibovitz’s L-15 Medium was applied. Specimens were then fixed for transmission electron microscopy to analyze morphological features in generated tubules. Fixation in conventional glutaraldehyde (GA) solution shows development of tubules each exhibiting a polarized epithelium, an intact basal lamina and an inconspicuous interstitium. In contrast, special fixation of specimens in GA solution containing cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils previously not visible extracellular matrix. Control experiments elucidate that a comparable extracellular matrix is not present in the interstitium of the matured kidney. Thus, generation of renal tubules in combination with advanced fixation of specimens for electron microscopy demonstrates that development of abnormal features in the newly developed interstitium has to be considered, when repair of renal parenchyma is performed by implantation of stem/progenitor cells. PMID:25517030

  8. N-cadherin is depleted from proximal tubules in experimental and human acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberger, Jens; Feldkamp, Thorsten; Kavapurackal, Rosmaria; Opazo Saez, Anabelle; Becker, Jan; Hörbelt, Markus; Kribben, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Ischemia remains the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Decreased intercellular adhesion and alterations in adhesion molecules may contribute to the loss of renal function observed in AKI. In the present study, we evaluated the distribution of adhesion molecules in the human kidney and analyzed their expression in human and experimental AKI. Specimens of human kidneys obtained from patients with and without AKI were stained for the cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin, N-cadherin and beta-catenin. Experimental AKI in rats was induced by renal artery clamping. Immunostaining and immunoblotting were carried out for E-cadherin, N-cadherin and beta-catenin. Proximal tubule cells from opossum kidneys (OKs) were used to analyze the effect of chemical hypoxia (ATP depletion) in vitro. In the adult human kidney, N-cadherin was expressed in proximal tubules, while E-cadherin was expressed in other nephron segments. beta-Catenin was expressed in both proximal and distal tubules. In human AKI and in ischemic rat kidneys, N-cadherin immunostaining was depleted from proximal tubules. There was no change in E-cadherin or beta-catenin. In vitro, OK cells expressed N-cadherin only in the presence of collagen, and ATP depletion led to a depletion of N-cadherin. Collagen IV staining was reduced in ischemic rat kidneys compared to controls. The results of the study suggest that N-cadherin may play a significant role in human and experimental AKI.

  9. Vasopressin induces phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Hofmeister, Marlene Vind; Rosenbaek, Lena L

    2010-01-01

    (Thr53, Thr58 and Thr53/Thr58) to assess the role of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in regulating NCC in rodent kidney in vivo. Immunohistochemistry showed distinct staining of phosphorylated NCC (pNCC) at the apical plasma membrane domain of distal convoluted tubule (DCT) cells. Unlike total NCC, p...

  10. Lessons learned about adult kidney stem cells from the malpighian tubules of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shree Ram; Hou, Steven X

    2008-04-01

    All multicellular organisms have a specialized organ to concentrate and excrete wastes from the body. The kidneys in vertebrates and the malpighian tubules in Drosophila accomplish these functions. Mammals and Drosophila share some similar features during renal tubular development. Vertebrate kidneys are derived through the mutual induction of the ureteric bud and metanephric mesoderm, whereas the malpighian tubules of Drosophila develop from the hindgut primordium and visceral mesoderm. The vertebrate kidney also has the capacity to recover and regenerate following episodes of acute injury. Previous studies suggest that stem cells and progenitor cells may be involved in the repair and regeneration of injured renal tissue. However, studies differ as to the source of the regenerating renal cells. Recently, multipotent stem cells in Drosophila malpighian tubules were identified, and it was demonstrated that several differentiated cells in the malpighian tubules arise from these stem cells. In this article, the current understanding of kidney development and stem cell fate in mammal and Drosophila is compared. Furthermore, the potential application of the adult renal stem cells in kidney repair and the treatment of kidney cancers are discussed.

  11. Mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction in renal convoluted tubules of obese mice: protective role of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Favero, Gaia; Giugno, Lorena; Lavazza, Antonio; Reiter, Russel J; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a common and complex health problem, which impacts crucial organs; it is also considered an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Few studies have analyzed the consequence of obesity in the renal proximal convoluted tubules, which are the major tubules involved in reabsorptive processes. For optimal performance of the kidney, energy is primarily provided by mitochondria. Melatonin, an indoleamine and antioxidant, has been identified in mitochondria, and there is considerable evidence regarding its essential role in the prevention of oxidative mitochondrial damage. In this study we evaluated the mechanism(s) of mitochondrial alterations in an animal model of obesity (ob/ob mice) and describe the beneficial effects of melatonin treatment on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics as influenced by mitofusin-2 and the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Melatonin dissolved in 1% ethanol was added to the drinking water from postnatal week 5-13; the calculated dose of melatonin intake was 100 mg/kg body weight/day. Compared to control mice, obesity-related morphological alterations were apparent in the proximal tubules which contained round mitochondria with irregular, short cristae and cells with elevated apoptotic index. Melatonin supplementation in obese mice changed mitochondria shape and cristae organization of proximal tubules, enhanced mitofusin-2 expression, which in turn modulated the progression of the mitochondria-driven intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These changes possibly aid in reducing renal failure. The melatonin-mediated changes indicate its potential protective use against renal morphological damage and dysfunction associated with obesity and metabolic disease.

  12. Local pH domains regulate NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Burford, James L.; McDonough, Alicia A.

    2014-01-01

    The proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), located in the apical dense microvilli (brush border), plays a major role in the reabsorption of NaCl and water in the renal proximal tubule. In response to a rise in blood pressure NHE3 redistributes in the plane of the plasma membrane to the base...... a spatiotemporal mathematical model of NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption across a proximal tubule cell and compared the model results with in vivo experiments in rats. The model predicts that when NHE3 is localized exclusively at the base of the brush border, it creates local pH microdomains that reduce NHE3 activity...... by >30%. We tested the model's prediction experimentally: the rat kidney cortex was loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, and cells of the proximal tubule were imaged in vivo using confocal fluorescence microscopy before and after an increase of blood pressure by ∼50 mmHg. The experimental...

  13. Role of NO in endothelin-regulated drug transport in the renal proximal tubule.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenboom, S.; Miller, D.S.; Smits, P.; Russel, F.G.M.; Masereeuw, R.

    2002-01-01

    We previously demonstrated in intact killifish renal proximal tubules that endothelin (ET), acting through an ET(B) receptor and protein kinase C (PKC), reduced transport mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), i.e., luminal accumulation of fluorescein methotrexate (FL-MTX)

  14. Distal renal tubules are deficient in aggresome formation and autophagy upon aldosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Nielsen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Enghild, Jan J; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged elevations of plasma aldosterone levels are associated with renal pathogenesis. We hypothesized that renal distress could be imposed by an augmented aldosterone-induced protein turnover challenging cellular protein degradation systems of the renal tubular cells. Cellular accumulation of specific protein aggregates in rat kidneys was assessed after 7 days of aldosterone administration. Aldosterone induced intracellular accumulation of 60 s ribosomal protein L22 in protein aggregates, specifically in the distal convoluted tubules. The mineralocorticoid receptor inhibitor spironolactone abolished aldosterone-induced accumulation of these aggregates. The aldosterone-induced protein aggregates also contained proteasome 20 s subunits. The partial de-ubiquitinase ataxin-3 was not localized to the distal renal tubule protein aggregates, and the aggregates only modestly colocalized with aggresome transfer proteins dynactin p62 and histone deacetylase 6. Intracellular protein aggregation in distal renal tubules did not lead to development of classical juxta-nuclear aggresomes or to autophagosome formation. Finally, aldosterone treatment induced foci in renal cortex of epithelial vimentin expression and a loss of E-cadherin expression, as signs of cellular stress. The cellular changes occurred within high, but physiological aldosterone concentrations. We conclude that aldosterone induces protein accumulation in distal renal tubules; these aggregates are not cleared by autophagy that may lead to early renal tubular damage.

  15. Detection of abnormal extracellular matrix in the interstitium of regenerating renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

    2014-12-15

    Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. However, recent data exhibit that survival of stem/progenitor cells after implantation in diseased renal parenchyma is restricted. To elaborate basic parameters improving survival, cell seeding was simulated under advanced in vitro conditions. After isolation, renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in a polyester interstitium for perfusion culture. During generation of tubules, chemically defined CO2 Independent Medium or Leibovitz's L-15 Medium was applied. Specimens were then fixed for transmission electron microscopy to analyze morphological features in generated tubules. Fixation in conventional glutaraldehyde (GA) solution shows development of tubules each exhibiting a polarized epithelium, an intact basal lamina and an inconspicuous interstitium. In contrast, special fixation of specimens in GA solution containing cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils previously not visible extracellular matrix. Control experiments elucidate that a comparable extracellular matrix is not present in the interstitium of the matured kidney. Thus, generation of renal tubules in combination with advanced fixation of specimens for electron microscopy demonstrates that development of abnormal features in the newly developed interstitium has to be considered, when repair of renal parenchyma is performed by implantation of stem/progenitor cells.

  16. Unidirectional potassium fluxes in renal distal tubule: effects of chloride and barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, D.H.; Velazquez, H.; Wright, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    Low luminal concentrations of chloride stimulate net potassium secretion by the renal distal tubule, independent of changes in transepithelial voltage. These effects are not prevented by the luminal application of the potassium channel blocking agent barium. Because net potassium secretion comprises secretory and absorptive components, we sought to evaluate the effects of chloride and barium on unidirectional potassium fluxes in the renal distal tubule. In vivo microperfusion methods were used in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Perfusion solutions contained either 42 K or 86 Rb as tracers for potassium. Tracer efflux coefficients, indicating apparent potassium permeability, were similar when measured using either isotope. Net potassium flux was determined as the difference between perfusion and collected rate, and unidirectional absorptive potassium flux was calculated as the product of the mean luminal potassium concentration and the tracer efflux coefficient. During perfusion with a solution that resembled fluid normally arriving at the early distal tubule, the absorptive potassium flux was approximately 25% of the unidirectional secretory flux. Reducing lumen chloride concentration increased net potassium secretion, because blood-to-lumen potassium flux increased from 61 +/- 12.7 to 96 +/- 14.6 pmol/min. Barium reduced both absorptive and secretory fluxes but did not prevent the stimulation of net potassium secretion that occurs when luminal chloride concentration is reduced. Apparent potassium permeability during perfusion with a solution that resembled fluid normally arriving at the early distal tubule was 800 nm/s when corrected for voltage

  17. Revealing t-tubules in striated muscle with new optical super-resolution microscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isuru D. Jayasinghe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The t-tubular system plays a central role in the synchronisation of calcium signalling and excitation-contraction coupling in most striated muscle cells. Light microscopy has been used for imaging t-tubules for well over 100 years and together with electron microscopy (EM, has revealed the three-dimensional complexities of the t-system topology within cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibres from a range of species. The emerging super-resolution single molecule localisation microscopy (SMLM techniques are offering a near 10-fold improvement over the resolution of conventional fluorescence light microscopy methods, with the ability to spectrally resolve nanometre scale distributions of multiple molecular targets. In conjunction with the next generation of electron microscopy, SMLM has allowed the visualisation and quantification of intricate t-tubule morphologies within large areas of muscle cells at an unprecedented level of detail. In this paper, we review recent advancements in the t-tubule structural biology with the utility of various microscopy techniques. We outline the technical considerations in adapting SMLM to study t-tubules and its potential to further our understanding of the molecular processes that underlie the sub-micron scale structural alterations observed in a range of muscle pathologies.

  18. Closing of dentinal tubules by glutardialdehyde treatment, a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, G E; Jongebloed, W L; de Vries, J; Ogaard, B; Arends, J

    1994-06-01

    The properties of dentin are strongly influenced by the so-called smear layer. This layer is always present on the dentin surface after cutting, drilling, sawing, etc. The smear layer can be removed by various chemical treatments, such as those of acid etching or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). These treatments remove the smear layer and open the tubules. In this paper, the effect on the smear layer of human dentin of treatment with a 2% glutardialdehyde (GDA) solution at pH 3.5 for 2 min and a 0.5-M EDTA solution at pH 7.4 for 4 min was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The dentin samples were dried by air or critical-point drying before SEM photography was employed. The number of open dentin tubules was quantified on micrographs of EDTA- and GDA+EDTA-treated dentin. The results show that the GDA treatment fixed part of the smear layer and the superficial dentin surface in such a way that at least 50% of the tubules remained closed after EDTA treatment. By closing the dentinal tubules, the GDA-fixed layer might have a positive effect on dentin hypersensitivity, root caries, and bonding of composite to dentin.

  19. P-glycoprotein-deficient mice have proximal tubule dysfunction but are protected against ischemic renal injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huls, M.; Kramers, C.; Levtchenko, E.N.; Wilmer, M.J.G.; Dijkman, H.B.P.M.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Hoorn, J.W.A. van der; Russel, F.G.M.; Masereeuw, R.

    2007-01-01

    The multidrug resistance gene 1 product, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is expressed in several excretory organs, including the apical membrane of proximal tubules. After inducing acute renal failure, P-gp expression is upregulated and this might be a protective function by pumping out toxicants and harmful

  20. Regulation of MRP2-mediated transport in shark rectal salt gland tubules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.S.; Masereeuw, R.; Karnaky Jr, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    We examined endothelin-1 (ET-1) regulation of the xenobiotic efflux pump, multidrug resistance-associated protein isoform 2 (MRP2), in intact dogfish shark rectal salt gland tubules using a fluorescent substrate sulforhodamine 101 and confocal microscopy. Subnanomolar to nanomolar concentrations of

  1. Membrane-associated cargo recycling by tubule-based endosomal sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weering, J.R.T.; Cullen, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The endosome system is a collection of organelles that sort membrane-associated proteins and lipids for lysosomal degradation or recycling back to their target organelle. Recycling cargo is captured in a network of membrane tubules emanating from endosomes where tubular carriers pinch off. These

  2. Use of tubulization (nerve conduits in repairing nerve defects in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Maria Sénès

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In peripheral nerve repairing in children by using nerve conduits, the outcome has been widely effective even when dealing with mixed and motor nerve, thus nerve tubulization might be considered as an alternative to nerve grafting. Conversely, considering the uncertain result obtained in brachial plexus repairing, the conduits cannot be considered as afirst choice of treatment in brachial plexus reconstruction.

  3. Proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion alters basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Chaudhry, Farrukh A.; Verlander, Jill W.; Weiner, I. David

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4 (+) with glutamate to form glutamine. GS is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule (PT), suggesting ammonia recycling via GS could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. The purpose of

  4. New molecular players facilitating Mg(2+) reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaudemans, Bob; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT) has an essential role in maintaining systemic magnesium (Mg(2+)) concentration. The DCT is the final determinant of plasma Mg(2+) levels, as the more distal nephron segments are largely impermeable to Mg(2+). In the past decade, positional candidate

  5. Functionally induced changes in water transport in the proximal tubule segment of rat kidneys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, Poul; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Nørgaard, Tove

    2011-01-01

    To eliminate freezing artifacts in the proximal tubule cells, two cryotechniques were applied to normal rat kidneys, ie, freeze substitution and special freeze drying. In addition, salt depletion and salt loading were applied to groups of rats to evaluate whether the segmental structure...

  6. Distal renal tubules are deficient in aggresome formation and autophagy upon aldosterone administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Cheema

    Full Text Available Prolonged elevations of plasma aldosterone levels are associated with renal pathogenesis. We hypothesized that renal distress could be imposed by an augmented aldosterone-induced protein turnover challenging cellular protein degradation systems of the renal tubular cells. Cellular accumulation of specific protein aggregates in rat kidneys was assessed after 7 days of aldosterone administration. Aldosterone induced intracellular accumulation of 60 s ribosomal protein L22 in protein aggregates, specifically in the distal convoluted tubules. The mineralocorticoid receptor inhibitor spironolactone abolished aldosterone-induced accumulation of these aggregates. The aldosterone-induced protein aggregates also contained proteasome 20 s subunits. The partial de-ubiquitinase ataxin-3 was not localized to the distal renal tubule protein aggregates, and the aggregates only modestly colocalized with aggresome transfer proteins dynactin p62 and histone deacetylase 6. Intracellular protein aggregation in distal renal tubules did not lead to development of classical juxta-nuclear aggresomes or to autophagosome formation. Finally, aldosterone treatment induced foci in renal cortex of epithelial vimentin expression and a loss of E-cadherin expression, as signs of cellular stress. The cellular changes occurred within high, but physiological aldosterone concentrations. We conclude that aldosterone induces protein accumulation in distal renal tubules; these aggregates are not cleared by autophagy that may lead to early renal tubular damage.

  7. Role of the distal convoluted tubule in renal Mg(2+) handling: molecular lessons from inherited hypomagnesemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferre, S.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In healthy individuals, Mg(2+) homeostasis is tightly regulated by the concerted action of intestinal absorption, exchange with bone, and renal excretion. The kidney, more precisely the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), is the final determinant of plasma Mg(2+) concentrations. Positional cloning

  8. The functional role of cardiac T-tubules in a model of rat ventricular myocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pásek, Michal; Šimurda, J.; Christé, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 364, č. 1842 (2006), s. 1187-1206 ISSN 1364-503X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : accumulation-depletion of ions * transverse tubule * heart Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2006

  9. Role of CAP350 in centriolar tubule stability and centriole assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Le Clech

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Centrioles are microtubule-based cylindrical structures composed of nine triplet tubules and are required for the formation of the centrosome, flagella and cilia. Despite theirs importance, centriole biogenesis is poorly understood. Centrosome duplication is initiated at the G1/S transition by the sequential recruitment of a set of conserved proteins under the control of the kinase Plk4. Subsequently, the procentriole is assembled by the polymerization of centriolar tubules via an unknown mechanism involving several tubulin paralogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we developed a cellular assay to study centrosome duplication and procentriole stability based on its sensitivity to the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole. By using RNA interference experiments, we show that the stability of growing procentrioles is regulated by the microtubule-stabilizing protein CAP350, independently of hSAS-6 and CPAP which initiate procentriole growth. Furthermore, our analysis reveals the critical role of centriolar tubule stability for an efficient procentriole growth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CAP350 belongs to a new class of proteins which associate and stabilize centriolar tubules to control centriole duplication.

  10. Early effects of uranyl nitrate on respiration and K+ transport in rabbit proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, H.R.; Kone, B.C.; Brenner, R.M.; Gullans, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms by which uranyl nitrate (UN) is toxic to the proximal tubule are incompletely understood. To define these further we studied potassium (K+) transport and oxygen consumption (QO2) in rabbit proximal tubule suspensions in vitro immediately after exposure to UN using extracellular O2- and K+-sensitive electrodes. UN caused a cumulative dose-dependent inhibition of proximal tubule QO2, with a threshold concentration of 5 x 10(-5) M. Kinetic analysis suggested two patterns of cell injury: a higher affinity inhibition of QO2 with a Ki of 5 x 10(-4) M, and a lower affinity inhibition of QO2 with a Ki of 10 mM. QO2 was studied in detail in the presence of these Ki concentrations of UN to define the initial cellular events. The results indicated that different cellular processes displayed different sensitivities to UN. At submillimolar concentrations UN caused progressive selective inhibition of ouabain-insensitive QO2 (15% inhibition at 2 minutes). Ouabain-sensitive QO2 and nystatin-stimulated QO2 were not affected, suggesting that Na+,K+-ATPase activity and its coupling to mitochondrial ATP synthesis were intact. Direct measurement of proximal tubule net K+ flux confirmed that Na+,K+-ATPase activity was unchanged. Similarly, UN did not inhibit basal (state 4) or ADP-stimulated (state 3) mitochondrial QO2 in digitonin-permeabilized tubules, confirming that the mitochondria were intact. In contrast, higher concentrations of UN (greater than or equal to 1 mM) caused rapid inhibition of QO2 and net K+ efflux, due to inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and mitochondrial injury

  11. Specificity of the fluorescein transport process in Malpighian tubules of the cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Douglas S G; Kauffman, Ross; Kurtz, Zachary

    2005-06-01

    We demonstrate the presence of an efficient, multispecific transport system for excretion of organic anions in the Malpighian tubules of the cricket Acheta domesticus using fluorescein (FL) as a model substrate. Malpighian tubules rapidly accumulated FL via a high affinity process (Km = 7.75 micromol l(-1)); uptake was completely eliminated by the prototypical organic anion transport inhibitor probenecid (1 mmol l(-1)), but not by p-aminohippuric acid (3 mmol l(-1)). FL uptake was inhibited by monocarboxylic acids at a high concentration (3 mmol l(-1)), and inhibition was more effective with an increase in the carbon chain of the monocarboxylic acid (37% inhibition by 5-carbon valeric acid, and 89% inhibition by 7-carbon caprylic acid). Likewise, tests using a series of aliphatic glutathione conjugates indicated that only the compound with the longest side-chain (decyl-glutathione) significantly inhibited FL uptake (81% inhibition). FL uptake was inhibited by a number of xenobiotics, including a plant alkaloid (quinine), herbicides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-butyric acid), and the insecticide metabolites malathion monocarboxylic acid (MMA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA), suggesting that this transport system plays an active role in excretion of xenobiotics from Acheta by Malpighian tubules. HPLC quantification of MMA and PBA accumulation into Malpighian tubules verified that MMA accumulation was via a mediated transport process, but suggested that PBA accumulation was by nonspecific binding. The presence of a transport system in Malpighian tubules that handles at least one pesticide metabolite (MMA) suggests that transport processes could be a mechanism conferring resistance to xenobiotic exposure in insects.

  12. Tubule urate and PAH transport: sensitivity and specificity of serum protein inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, J.J.; Kennedy, J.; Cowley, B.

    1987-01-01

    Macromolecules in rabbit serum inhibit the cellular uptake and transepithelial secretion of [ 14 C]urate and p-[ 3 H]aminohippurate ([ 3 H]PAH) in rabbit S 2 proximal tubule segments. To understand better the potential role these inhibitors may have in the regulation of renal organic anion excretion, the authors examined the specificity and relative inhibitory effects on tubule urate and PAH transport of albumin and γ-globulin, the major inhibitory proteins in rabbit serum. Native rabbit serum markedly inhibited the cellular accumulation or urate and PAH by isolated nonperfused segments. Urate and PAH transport was also inhibited by bovine serum, human serum, Cohn-fractionated rabbit albumin, and rabbit γ-globulin, but not by Cohn-fractionated bovine serum albumin. α-Lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, derived from milk, also inhibited urate and PAH transport, but to a lesser extent than albumin and γ-globulin. The transport inhibitory effects of proteins were independent of their binding to urate and PAH. Unidirectional influx and the steady-state intracellular accumulation of urate and PAH in suspensions of proximal tubules were decreased by rabbit serum proteins, suggesting that these inhibitors act on the external face of the cells to diminish the uptake of the organic anions. These studies indicate that the principal plasma proteins (albumin and γ-globulin) significantly inhibit urate and PAH transporters in the basolateral membranes of S 2 proximal tubules. They suggest that circulating plasma proteins that can penetrate the basement membrane of proximal tubules may directly modulate the renal excretion of urate and PAH

  13. Targeting gene expression to specific cells of kidney tubules in vivo, using adenoviral promoter fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sumiyo; Ogasawara, Toru; Tamura, Yoshifuru; Saito, Taku; Ikeda, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Nobuchika; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Shibata, Shigeru; Chung, Ung-Il; Nangaku, Masaomi; Uchida, Shunya

    2017-01-01

    Although techniques for cell-specific gene expression via viral transfer have advanced, many challenges (e.g., viral vector design, transduction of genes into specific target cells) still remain. We investigated a novel, simple methodology for using adenovirus transfer to target specific cells of the kidney tubules for the expression of exogenous proteins. We selected genes encoding sodium-dependent phosphate transporter type 2a (NPT2a) in the proximal tubule, sodium-potassium-2-chloride cotransporter (NKCC2) in the thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH), and aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in the collecting duct. The promoters of the three genes were linked to a GFP-coding fragment, the final constructs were then incorporated into an adenovirus vector, and this was then used to generate gene-manipulated viruses. After flushing circulating blood, viruses were directly injected into the renal arteries of rats and were allowed to site-specifically expression in tubule cells, and rats were then euthanized to obtain kidney tissues for immunohistochemistry. Double staining with adenovirus-derived EGFP and endogenous proteins were examined to verify orthotopic expression, i.e. "adenovirus driven NPT2a-EGFP and endogenous NHE3 protein", "adenovirus driven NKCC2-EGFP and endogenous NKCC2 protein" and "adenovirus driven AQP2-EGFP and endogenous AQP2 protein". Owing to a lack of finding good working anti-NPT2a antibody, an antibody against a different protein (sodium-hydrogen exchanger 3 or NHE3) that is also specifically expressed in the proximal tubule was used. Kidney structures were well-preserved, and other organ tissues did not show EGFP staining. Our gene transfer method is easier than using genetically engineered animals, and it confers the advantage of allowing the manipulation of gene transfer after birth. This is the first method to successfully target gene expression to specific cells in the kidney tubules. This study may serve as the first step for safe and effective gene

  14. Bioinformatics analysis of proteomics profiles in senescent human primary proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Wang, Jingchao; Dapeng, Chen; Wu, Di; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunction of renal tubule epithelial cells is associated with renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Exploration of the proteomic profiles of senesced tubule epithelial cells is essential to elucidate the mechanism of tubulointerstitium development. Primary human proximal tubule epithelial cells from passage 3 (P3) and passage 6 (P6) were selected for evaluation. EdU and SA-β-galactosidase staining were used to detect cell senescence. p53, p21, and p16 were detected by Western blot analysis. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to examine differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between P6 and P3 cells. The expression of DEPs was examined by Western blot analysis. Bioinformatics analysis was performed by protein-protein interaction and gene ontology analyses. The majority of tubule cells from passage 6 (P6) stained positive for SA-β-galactosidase, whereas passage 3 (P3) cells were negative. Senescence biomarkers, including p53, p21, and p16, were upregulated in P6 cells relative to P3 cells. EdU staining results showed a lower rate of EdU positive cells in P6 cells than in P3 cells. LC-MS was used to examine DEPs between P6 and P3 cells. These DEPs are involved in glycolysis, response to stress, cytoskeleton regulation, oxidative reduction, ATP binding, and oxidative stress. Using Western blot analysis, we validated the down-regulation of AKR1B1, EEF2, EEF1A1, and HSP90 and the up-regulation of VIM in P6 cells seen in the LC-MS data. More importantly, we built the molecular network based on biological functions and protein-protein interactions and found that the DEPs are involved in translation elongation, stress, and glycolysis, and that they are all associated with cytoskeleton regulation, which regulates senescent cell activities such as apoptosis and EMT in tubule epithelial cells. We explored proteomic profile changes in cell culture-induced senescent cells and built senescence-associated molecular networks, which will help to elucidate the

  15. Regulatory pathways for ATP-binding cassette transport proteins in kidney proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G M

    2012-12-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transport proteins (ABC transporters) represent important determinants of drug excretion. Protective or excretory tissues where these transporters mediate substrate efflux include the kidney proximal tubule. Regulation of the transport proteins in this tissue requires elaborate signaling pathways, including genetic, epigenetic, nuclear receptor mediated, posttranscriptional gene regulation involving microRNAs, and non-genomic (kinases) pathways triggered by hormones and/or growth factors. This review discusses current knowledge on regulatory pathways for ABC transporters in kidney proximal tubules, with a main focus on P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance proteins 2 and 4, and breast cancer resistance protein. Insight in these processes is of importance because variations in transporter activity due to certain (disease) conditions could lead to significant changes in drug efficacy or toxicity.

  16. Beta-adrenoceptors in kidney tubules of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struyker-Boudier, H.A.J.; Vervoort-Peters, L.H.T.M.; Rousch, M.J.M.; Smits, J.F.M.; Thijssen, H.H.W.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor binding characteristics were determined in different fractions of rat kidney tubules using a ( 125 Iodo)-(-)-cyanopindolol (ICYP) binding assay. The highest amount of binding sites was found in a fraction containing predominantly distal tubular fragments. In a separate series of experiments the ICYP binding characteristics were compared in whole tubular fractions from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) of different ages. The maximum number of binding sites was significantly higher both in young (3 weeks) and adult (14 weeks) SHR when compared to age-matched WKY. These studies showed the presence of beta-adrenoceptor binding sites in rat kidney tubules and support the potential importance of tubular beta-adrenoceptors in the development of spontaneous hypertension and in the mechanism of antihypertensive action of beta-blockers. 35 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  17. Spontaneous Accumulation of Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in Proximal Renal Tubules in an ICR Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuga, Mayu; Asaoka, Yoshiji; Togashi, Yuko; Imura, Naoko; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Miyamoto, Yohei

    2013-12-01

    This report describes spontaneous cytoplasmic vacuolation in the proximal renal tubules of a 7-week-old male ICR [Crlj:CD1(ICR)] mouse. The contents of vacuoles were positively stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Sudan black, and the membranes were positive on immunohistochemical staining for lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2), a marker of lysosomal membrane. Electron microscopy revealed electron-dense lamellar bodies in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. These histopathological features are similar to those in α-galactosidase A-deficient mice, in which globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), a glycosphingolipid, accumulates in lysosomes. When we performed immunohistochemical staining for Gb3, the contents of vacuoles were positively stained. From these results, spontaneous cytoplasmic vacuolation in the proximal renal tubules in the mouse was identified as lysosomal accumulation of Gb3.

  18. Facilitation of Endosomal Recycling by an IRG Protein Homolog Maintains Apical Tubule Structure in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussendorf, Kelly A.; Trezza, Christopher J.; Salem, Alexander T.; Al-Hashimi, Hikmat; Mattingly, Brendan C.; Kampmeyer, Drew E.; Khan, Liakot A.; Hall, David H.; Göbel, Verena; Ackley, Brian D.; Buechner, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Determination of luminal diameter is critical to the function of small single-celled tubes. A series of EXC proteins, including EXC-1, prevent swelling of the tubular excretory canals in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, cloning of exc-1 reveals it to encode a homolog of mammalian IRG proteins, which play roles in immune response and autophagy and are associated with Crohn’s disease. Mutants in exc-1 accumulate early endosomes, lack recycling endosomes, and exhibit abnormal apical cytoskeletal structure in regions of enlarged tubules. EXC-1 interacts genetically with two other EXC proteins that also affect endosomal trafficking. In yeast two-hybrid assays, wild-type and putative constitutively active EXC-1 binds to the LIM-domain protein EXC-9, whose homolog, cysteine-rich intestinal protein, is enriched in mammalian intestine. These results suggest a model for IRG function in forming and maintaining apical tubule structure via regulation of endosomal recycling. PMID:27334269

  19. Fluid transport and ion fluxes in mammalian kidney proximal tubule: a model analysis of isotonic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E.H.; Møbjerg, N.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2006-01-01

    Aim: By mathematical modelling, we analyse conditions for near-isotonic and isotonic transport by mammalian kidney proximal tubule. Methods: The model comprises compliant lateral intercellular space (lis) and cells, and infinitely large luminal and peritubular compartments with diffusible species...... with luminal and peritubular baths of identical composition. Results: The model of the tubular epithelium with physiological water permeability and paracellular electrical resistance generates solute coupled water uptake with an approx. 3% hypertonic absorbate. This function remains unperturbed following...... simulates major physiological features of proximal tubule, including significantly lower water permeability of the AQP1-null preparation, and a ratio of net sodium uptake and oxygen consumption exceeding that predicted from stoichiometry of the Na+/K+-pump. Physical properties of interspace basement...

  20. Study of the permeability of the various parts of the tubules to sodium and potassium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Falbriard, A.

    1959-01-01

    The method of stop flow analysis has been used in rabbits together with radioactive sodium and potassium injected in the middle of a six minutes period of arrest of urine flow during an osmotic diuresis. Urine was subsequently collected in 60 ta 80 mg samples. The specific activities of sodium and potassium suggest that both ions pass directly from the renal interstitial tissue into the urine at different and distinct areas in the tubules. The whole distal segment, including the area of active reabsorption of this ion, is impermeable to sodium in the direction interstitial tissue to lumen. The adjacent, more proximal tubule is, however, extremely permeable. The distal tubular impermeability to potassium is more limited. The specific activity already having reached a maximum at the level of active sodium reabsorption. Reprint of a paper published in 'Revue Francaise d'Etudes Cliniques et Biologiques', n. 5, vol IV, p. 471-474 [fr

  1. Acute hypotension induced by aortic clamp vs. PTH provokes distinct proximal tubule Na+ transporter redistribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Patrick K K; Yang, Li E; Lin, Harrison W

    2004-01-01

    Renal parathyroid hormone (PTH) action is often studied at high doses (100 microg PTH/kg) that lower mean arterial pressure significantly, albeit transiently, complicating interpretation of studies. Little is known about the effect of acute hypotension on proximal tubule Na(+) transporters....... This study aimed to determine the effects of acute hypotension, induced by aortic clamp or by high-dose PTH (100 microg PTH/kg), on renal hemodynamics and proximal tubule Na/H exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and type IIa Na-P(i) cotransporter protein (NaPi2) distribution. Subcellular distribution was analyzed...... clearance. There was, however, no significant change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or subcellular distribution of NHE3 and NaPi2. In contrast, high-dose PTH rapidly (

  2. Properties of achetakinin binding sites on malpighian tubule membranes from the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J S; Wheeler, C H; Goldsworthy, G J; Coast, G M

    1995-01-01

    A biologically active 125I-labeled analogue of AK-II (3'-hydroxyphenyl propionic-Gly-Gly-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Trp-Gly-NH2) was used to investigate the properties of achetakinin binding sites on plasma membranes from Malpighian tubules of Acheta domesticus. With optimized conditions, binding was rapid, reversible, and specific, and saturation studies revealed a single class of binding sites with Kd 0.55 nM and Bmax 39.9 fmol/mg membrane protein. The affinities of achetakinins for binding sites on tubule membranes ranked AK-V > AK III > AK-II > AK-I > or = AK-IV, in general agreement with their potencies in functional assays. However, IC50 values were several orders of magnitude higher than corresponding values for EC50, which suggests a considerable receptor reserve.

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of kidney distal convoluted tubule and cortical collecting duct cells following long-term hormonal stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qi; Moller, Hanne; Rosenbaek, Lena Lindtoft

    2017-01-01

    , both of which modulate DCT and CCD cells differently. Mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics was used to profile the differential proteome between DCT and CCD. Mouse kidney distal convoluted tubule cells (mpkDCT) were cultured in heavy SILAC medium (Lys+6, Arg+10) while cortical collecting......The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and the cortical collecting ducts (CCD) are portions of renal tubule that are partly responsible for maintaining the systemic concentrations of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium. Despite being structurally similar, DCT and CCD cells have different transport...... and deubiquitinating enzyme identification, and kinase and transcription factor predictions, with the aim to identify cell specific proteins that define tubule-specific biological processes. Preliminary data suggests that one specific gene CHIP in mpkCCD might be involved in the regulation of AQP2....

  4. Short- and long-term influences of heavy metals on anionic drug efflux from renal proximal tubule.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlouw, S.A.; Graeff, C.; Smeets, P.H.E.; Fricker, G.; Russel, F.G.M.; Masereeuw, R.; Miller, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    We recently demonstrated in isolated killifish renal proximal tubules that two classes of nephrotoxicants, aminoglycoside antibiotics and radiocontrast agents, rapidly decrease transport mediated by multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) by causing endothelin (ET) release and signaling through an

  5. Imaging of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of living mice shows major role of T-tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans P M M; Ploug, Thorkil; Prats, Clara

    2006-01-01

    and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 P(3) (PIP(3)) production in response to insulin, here, for the first time, we delineate the temporal and spatial distribution of these processes in a living animal. We find a 10-min delay of maximal GLUT4 recruitment and translocation to t-tubules compared with sarcolemma. Time-lapse imaging......Insulin stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle by glucose transporter GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma and membrane invaginations, the t-tubules. Although muscle glucose uptake plays a key role in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, the dynamics of GLUT4 translocation...... of a fluorescent dye after intravenous injection shows that this delay is similar to the time needed for insulin diffusion into the t-tubule system. Correspondingly, immunostaining of muscle fibers shows that insulin receptors are present throughout the t-tubule system. Finally, PIP(3) production, an early event...

  6. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Pedersen, Jens; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2003-01-01

    microdomains. Deep-apical tubules were positioned close to the actin rootlets of adjacent microvilli in the terminal web region, which had a diameter of 50-100 nm, and penetrated up to 1 microm into the cytoplasm. Markers for transcytosis, IgA and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, as well as the resident...... lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electron microscopy and biochemical analyses. Novel membrane structures, deep-apical tubules, were visualized...... brush-border enzyme aminopeptidase N, were present in these deep-apical tubules. We propose that deep-apical tubules are a specialized lipid-raft microdomain in the brush-border region functioning as a hub in membrane trafficking at the brush border. In addition, the sensitivity to cholesterol depletion...

  7. Local pH domains regulate NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, James L.; McDonough, Alicia A.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2014-01-01

    The proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), located in the apical dense microvilli (brush border), plays a major role in the reabsorption of NaCl and water in the renal proximal tubule. In response to a rise in blood pressure NHE3 redistributes in the plane of the plasma membrane to the base of the brush border, where NHE3 activity is reduced. This NHE3 redistribution is assumed to provoke pressure natriuresis; however, it is unclear how NHE3 redistribution per se reduces NHE3 activity. To investigate if the distribution of NHE3 in the brush border can change the reabsorption rate, we constructed a spatiotemporal mathematical model of NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption across a proximal tubule cell and compared the model results with in vivo experiments in rats. The model predicts that when NHE3 is localized exclusively at the base of the brush border, it creates local pH microdomains that reduce NHE3 activity by >30%. We tested the model's prediction experimentally: the rat kidney cortex was loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, and cells of the proximal tubule were imaged in vivo using confocal fluorescence microscopy before and after an increase of blood pressure by ∼50 mmHg. The experimental results supported the model by demonstrating that a rise of blood pressure induces the development of pH microdomains near the bottom of the brush border. These local changes in pH reduce NHE3 activity, which may explain the pressure natriuresis response to NHE3 redistribution. PMID:25298526

  8. Aldosterone binding in isolated tubules. IV. Autoradiography along the nephron of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farman, N.; Bonvalet, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of aldosterone was studied in tubular segments isolated by microdissection from kidneys of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR, n = 8), Kyoto normotensive (KWR, n = 8), and normal Wistar (NWR, n = 6) rats with an autoradiographic technique on dry film. All animals had been previously adrenalectomized. Kidney pyramids were incubated in vitro before microdissection with collagenase and 2 X 10(-9) M [ 3 H]aldosterone in the presence or absence of an excess of unlabeled aldosterone. In addition, the displacement of the binding by 10 times excess dexamethasone or aldosterone was examined in the cortical and medullary collecting tubule of SHR and KWR to assess the specificity of binding sites. In the three groups, no specific nuclear labeling was detectable in the proximal tubule. The highest specific nuclear labeling was found in the distal portions of the nephron, and intermediate values were present along the loop of Henle. In the cortical collecting tubule, the most specific mineralocorticoid segment, the specific nuclear binding, expressed in silver grains per unit surface, was significantly elevated in SHR (16.1 +/- 1.5) and KWR (13.7 +/- 1.5) as compared with NWR (10.2 +/- 0.8, P less than 0.001 and less than 0.05, respectively). The difference between SHR and KWR did not reach statistical significance. In the medullary collecting tubule, binding was higher in SHR (14.3 +/- 1.6) than in both KWR (8.7 +/- 1.0, P less than 0.005) and NWR (10.1 +/- 0.9, P less than 0.025)

  9. Ribavirin exposure induces histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, A.

    2013-01-01

    Study objectives: The objectives of the study are to describe and compare histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of rat, with different doses of Ribavirin at different time intervals. Introduction: The chemical disturbances may affect a vast number of potential sites in male reproductive system as well as its complex hormonal regulation. Testicular toxicity may reduce the fertility of the male. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ribavirin on the histological structure of seminiferous tubules in the testes of albino rats. Materials and Methods: Seventy two sexually mature adult male albino rats weighing 180-200gms were divided into four groups: A, B, C and D; each group having 18 rats. Ribavirin was administered intraperitoneally in different doses to these groups that were 20mg, 100mg and 200mg/kg body weight, while group A was control. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to three time points which were selected for sacrifice that were 20th, 40th and 60th day from the last exposure to drug. Six randomly selected rats from each group were sacrificed on every sacrifice time. Results and Conclusion: The seminiferous tubules with degenerative changes like appearance of vacuole and necrotic material were observed in comparison to control groups, on 20th day of sacrifice in all groups. In rats sacrificed on day 40th and 60th, the sign of recovery in the form of regeneration of seminiferous epithelium was observed that was more marked in low dose groups than high dose groups which showed late recovery. We conclude that ribavirin being used as antiviral drug induces reversible degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of albino rats. (author)

  10. The Dentin Tubule System: A Replica and Scanning Electron Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-20

    this laboratory to prepare soft and calci fied tissues for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The resolution, magnification range and...several intertubular connections , originally examined at a magnification of 17,000 times (Fig. 7). In addition to the omnipresent lateral tubule...branches , and the ease of penetration therein of endodontic reagents from the pulp. Intratubular network throughout the dentin may be a route of intra

  11. Vitality of Enterococcus faecalis inside dentinal tubules after five root canal disinfection methods

    OpenAIRE

    Vatkar, Niranjan Ashok; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the vitality of Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules after subjected to five root canal disinfection methods. Materials and Methods: Dentin blocks (n = 60) were colonized with E. faecalis. After 4 weeks of incubation, the dentin blocks were divided into one control and five test groups (n = 10 each). The root canals of test groups were subjected to one of the disinfection methods, namely, normal saline (NS), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine digluconate (C...

  12. Characterization of injury in isolated rat proximal tubules during cold incubation and rewarming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bienholz

    Full Text Available Organ shortage leads to an increased utilization of marginal organs which are particularly sensitive to storage-associated damage. Cold incubation and rewarming-induced injury is iron-dependent in many cell types. In addition, a chloride-dependent component of injury has been described. This work examines the injury induced by cold incubation and rewarming in isolated rat renal proximal tubules. The tissue storage solution TiProtec® and a chloride-poor modification, each with and without iron chelators, were used for cold incubation. Incubation was performed 4°C for up to 168 h, followed by rewarming in an extracellular buffer (3 h at 37°C. After 48, 120 and 168 h of cold incubation LDH release was lower in solutions containing iron chelators. After rewarming, injury increased especially after cold incubation in chelator-free solutions. Without addition of iron chelators LDH release showed a tendency to be higher in chloride-poor solutions. Following rewarming after 48 h of cold incubation lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased and metabolic activity was tendentially better in tubules incubated with iron chelators. Morphological alterations included mitochondrial swelling and fragmentation being partially reversible during rewarming. ATP content was better preserved in chloride-rich solutions. During rewarming, there was a further decline of ATP content in the so far best conditions and minor alterations under the other conditions, while oxygen consumption was not significantly different compared to non-stored control tubules. Results show an iron-dependent component of preservation injury during cold incubation and rewarming in rat proximal renal tubules and reveal a benefit of chloride for the maintenance of tubular energy state during cold incubation.

  13. Antioxidant Effects of Selenium on Seminiferous Tubules of Immature Mice Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Kushki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The freezing of immature testis tissue and then the transplant of it can be considered as a major step in fertility preservation for young boys with cancer, the survival of animal generation exposed to extinction and cloning animalistic desirable species. One of the most prevalent of damages in during the freezing-thawing process is oxidative stress. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of selenium compound (Na2SeO3 on rate of seminiferous tubules injury in during of cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 8 BALB/c immature male mice (6 - 8 days old were randomly selected, and the testes removed surgically (n = 16. The testes divided into 2 groups: experimental group, control group (opposite testes. For each of the two experimental and control groups, two types of soluble (freezing solution and thawing solution were prepared. These solutions, which contain 2 mg/mL solution of Na2SeO3 and control solution, were prepared in the DMEM (Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium base medium. Of each group were 4 testes into fast freezing-thawing procedure and 4 testes were into slow freezing-thawing procedure. Then this testis for analyzing injury, after preparatory process, was stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results: At the slow freezing-thawing procedure, seminiferous tubules injury significantly reduced in experimental group compared to control group. At the fast freezing-thawing procedure, seminiferous tubules injury significantly reduced in experimental group compared with of control group. Conclusions: It seems that Se due to its antioxidant properties, the harmful effects of freezing-thawing process reduces and protects seminiferous tubules from oxidative injury.

  14. Tubulation repair mitigates misdirection of regenerating motor axons across a sciatic nerve gap in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dan; Mi, Daguo; Zhang, Tuanjie; Zhang, Yanping; Yan, Junying; Wang, Yaxian; Tan, Xuefeng; Yuan, Ying; Yang, Yumin; Gu, Xiaosong; Hu, Wen

    2018-01-01

    The repair of peripheral nerve laceration injury to obtain optimal function recovery remains a big challenge in the clinic. Misdirection of regenerating axons to inappropriate target, as a result of forced mismatch of endoneurial sheaths in the case of end-to-end nerve anastomosis or nerve autografting, represents one major drawback that limits nerve function recovery. Here we tested whether tubulation repair of a nerve defect could be beneficial in terms of nerve regeneration accuracy and ne...

  15. Role of delta-tubulin and the C-tubule in assembly of Paramecium basal bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beisson Janine

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A breakthrough in the understanding of centriole assembly was provided by the characterization of the UNI3 gene in Chlamydomonas. Deletion of this gene, found to encode a novel member of the tubulin superfamily, delta-tubulin, results in the loss of the C-tubule, in the nine microtubule triplets which are the hallmark of centrioles and basal bodies. Delta-tubulin homologs have been identified in the genomes of mammals and protozoa, but their phylogenetic relationships are unclear and their function is not yet known. Results Using the method of gene-specific silencing, we have inactivated the Paramecium delta-tubulin gene, which was recently identified. This inactivation leads to loss of the C-tubule in all basal bodies, without any effect on ciliogenesis. This deficiency does not directly affect basal body duplication, but perturbs the cortical cytoskeleton, progressively leading to mislocalization and loss of basal bodies and to altered cell size and shape. Furthermore, additional loss of B- and even A-tubules at one or more triplet sites are observed: around these incomplete cylinders, the remaining doublets are nevertheless positioned according to the native ninefold symmetry. Conclusions The fact that in two distinct phyla, delta-tubulin plays a similar role provides a new basis for interpreting phylogenetic relationships among delta-tubulins. The role of delta-tubulin in C-tubule assembly reveals that tubulins contribute subtle specificities at microtubule nucleation sites. Our observations also demonstrate the existence of a prepattern for the ninefold symmetry of the organelle which is maintained even if less than 9 triplets develop.

  16. Calcineurin mediates alpha-adrenergic stimulation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in renal tubule cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Aperia, A; Ibarra, F; Svensson, L B; Klee, C; Greengard, P

    1992-01-01

    The alpha-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline increased Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of single proximal convoluted tubules dissected from rat kidney. Activation of the enzyme by oxymetazoline was prevented by either the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin or the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine and was mimicked by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of oxymetazoline on Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was prevented by a specific peptide inhibitor of calcineurin, as well as by FK 506, an immun...

  17. Membrane curvature induction and tubulation are common features of synucleins and apolipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varkey, Jobin; Isas, Jose Mario; Mizuno, Naoko

    2010-01-01

    Synucleins and apolipoproteins have been implicated in a number of membrane and lipid trafficking events. Lipid interaction for both types of proteins is mediated by 11 amino acid repeats that form amphipathic helices. This similarity suggests that synucleins and apolipoproteins might have compar...... density of tubulating proteins may be important. How cellular safeguarding mechanisms prevent such potentially toxic events and whether they go awry in disease remains to be determined....

  18. CLSM assessment of tubule penetration and bacterial leakage evaluation of two resin-based sealer

    OpenAIRE

    Baldissera, Renata; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Nascimento, Angela Longo do; Kuga, Milton Carlos [UNESP; Pereira, Jéferson Ricardo; Montagner, Francisco; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aims of this study were to assess the penetration of two endodontic sealers (salicylate and epoxy resin-based sealers) into dentinal tubules using CLSM; and to evaluate the bacterial leakage of roots filled with the same sealers associated with gutta-percha. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For sealer penetrability assessment, thirty bovine roots were instrumented and divided into three groups: AHP: EDTA + filling with AH Plus and gutta-percha (n=10), MTAF: EDTA + filling with MTA Fillapex and ...

  19. Signaling by TGF-betas in tubule cultures of adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Hui; Galuska, Sebastian P; Kudipudi, Pradeep Kumar; Riaz, Mohammad Assad; Loveland, Kate L; Konrad, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    Although signal transduction of transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-βs) is well characterized in individual cell types, data about TGF-β signaling in a cellular context is still scarce. In this study, we used ex vivo tubule cultures from adult rat testis to investigate TGF-β signaling. We show for the first time in testicular tubules, that TGF-βs also signal via the BMP type I receptors, with ALK2 used by TGF-β1 and ALK3 and ALK6 by TGF-β2. This signal transduction is mediated via Smad3 as well as via Smad1. In contrast, BMPs (BMP2 and BMP7) do not signal via the high-affinity type I and type II TGFβ receptors, TBR1 or TBR2. Furthermore, treatment of tubule cultures with either TGF-β1 or TGF-β2 had profound significant stimulatory effects on secretion of plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1) through utilization of TGF-β and BMP receptors. Specific inhibitors for either TBR1 or BMP receptors yielded nearly complete inhibition of TGF-β signaling. The TBR1-TBR2 signalosome was detected with Duolink upon stimulation with either TGF-β1 or TGF-β2, predominantly in spermatogenic cells of the adult rat testis, particularly in elongated spermatids. In summary, this examination of intact rat testicular tubules demonstrated for the first time that TGF-βs signal mainly through TBR1 and TBR2 but also use BMP receptors, including for secretion of PAI-1. Whereas ALK2 participates in the TGF-β1-induced TBR1-TBR2 signalosome, ALK3 and ALK6 are involved in signaling of TGF-β2. Detection of the TBR1-TBR2 signalosome in late spermiogenic cells indicates a post-meiotic activity.

  20. Passive permeability of salicylic acid in renal proximal S2 and S3 tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatton, J.Y.; Roch-Ramel, F.

    1991-01-01

    The role of nonionic diffusion in the transport of salicylic acid across rabbit proximal S2 and S3 segments was investigated using the in vitro isolated perfused tubule technique. The [ 14 C] salicylic acid apparent reabsorptive permeability (P'I-b, 10(-5) cm/s) was measured at 19 degrees C with luminal solutions kept at different pH and bath maintained at pH 7.4. In S2 tubules, P'I-b was 25.0 +/- 3.5 when luminal pH was 6.0; P'I-b decreased to 8.1 +/- 1.4 and to 4.4 +/- 1.2 at a luminal pH of 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. In S3 tubules, P'I-b was 17.6 +/- 2.4, 5.3 +/- 1.1 and 3.4 +/- 1.1 at a luminal pH of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. There was a close correlation between P'I-b and the calculated proportion of nonionized salicylic acid present at each pH, indicating that only the nonionized molecule could diffuse in our conditions. We calculated the apparent permeability of nonionic salicylic acid and found 0.248 +/- 0.032 cm/s for S2 and 0.176 +/- 0.022 cm/s for S3 tubules. These calculated permeabilities were independent of pH

  1. Modifications of the genital kidney proximal and distal tubules for sperm transport in Notophthalmus viridescens (Amphibia, Urodela, Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Abbigail E; Siegel, Dustin S

    2014-08-01

    Male salamanders use nephrons from the genital kidney to transport sperm from the testicular lobules to the Wolffian duct. The microstructure of the epithelia of the genital kidney proximal tubule and distal tubule was studied over 1 year in a population of Notophthalmus viridescens from Crawford and Pike counties in central Missouri. Through ultrastructural analysis, we were able to support the hypothesis that the genital kidney nephrons are modified to aid in the transportation of sperm. A lack of folding of the basal plasma membrane, in both the genital kidney proximal and distal tubules when compared to the pelvic kidney proximal and distal tubules, reduces the surface area and thus likely decreases the efficiency of reabsorption in these nephron regions of the genital kidney. Ciliated epithelial cells are also present along the entire length of the genital kidney proximal tubule, but are lacking in the epithelium of the pelvic kidney proximal tubule. The exact function of these cilia remains unknown, but they may aid in mixing of seminal fluids or the transportation of immature sperm through the genital kidney nephrons. Ultrastructural analysis of proximal and distal tubules of the genital kidney revealed no seasonal variation in cellular activity and no mass production of seminal fluids throughout the reproductive cycle. Thus, we failed to support the hypothesis that the cellular activity of the epithelia lining the genital kidney nephrons is correlated to specific events in the reproductive cycle. The cytoplasmic contents and overall structure of the genital and pelvic kidney epithelial cells were similar to recent observations in Ambystoma maculatum, with the absence of abundant dense bodies apically in the epithelial cells lining the genital kidney distal tubule. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. NHE8 is an intracellular cation/H+ exchanger in renal tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarini, Peter M; Weihrauch, Dirk; Meyer, Heiko; Huss, Markus; Beyenbach, Klaus W

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify and characterize the hypothesized apical cation/H(+) exchanger responsible for K(+) and/or Na(+) secretion in the renal (Malpighian) tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. From Aedes Malpighian tubules, we cloned "AeNHE8," a full-length cDNA encoding an ortholog of mammalian Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 8 (NHE8). The expression of AeNHE8 transcripts is ubiquitous among mosquito tissues and is not enriched in Malpighian tubules. Western blots of Malpighian tubules suggest that AeNHE8 is expressed primarily as an intracellular protein, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical localizations in Malpighian tubules. AeNHE8 immunoreactivity is expressed in principal cells of the secretory, distal segments, where it localizes to a subapical compartment (e.g., vesicles or endosomes), but not in the apical brush border. Furthermore, feeding mosquitoes a blood meal or treating isolated tubules with dibutyryl-cAMP, both of which stimulate a natriuresis by Malpighian tubules, do not influence the intracellular localization of AeNHE8 in principal cells. When expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes, AeNHE8 mediates EIPA-sensitive Na/H exchange, in which Li(+) partially and K(+) poorly replace Na(+). The expression of AeNHE8 in Xenopus oocytes is associated with the development of a conductive pathway that closely resembles the known endogenous nonselective cation conductances of Xenopus oocytes. In conclusion, AeNHE8 does not mediate cation/H(+) exchange in the apical membrane of Aedes Malpighian tubules; it is more likely involved with an intracellular function.

  3. Thermoprotection of a functional epithelium: heat stress effects on transepithelial transport by flounder renal tubule in primary monolayer culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M A; Upender, R P; Hightower, L E; Renfro, J L

    1992-01-01

    Primary monolayer cultures of winter flounder renal proximal-tubule cells were used to determine whether transepithelial transport could be protected from the damaging effects of extreme temperature by previous mild heat shock. Renal tubule epithelial cells were enzymatically dispersed and reorganized as confluent monolayer sheets on native rat tail collagen. Transepithelial electrical properties (potential difference, resistance, short-circuit current, and Na(+)-dependent glucose current) an...

  4. Destruction and regeneration of seminiferous tubules after local x-irradiation of testes of the adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnosova, T.R.; Rajtsina, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    It was established that the local X-irradiation (1000 R) of testes of the adult rats results in a total destruction of seminiferous tubules. The restitution of the organ structure proceeds via formation of new seminiferous tubules in which spermatogenic epithelium later develops. Rete testis and germ cells preserved in its epithelium from embryogenesis are a source of regeneration material. The results obtained favour the suggestion about the dynamic structure of mammalian testis

  5. Subcellular distribution of folate and folate binding protein in renal proximal tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, C.; Hjelle, J.T.; Selhub, J.

    1986-01-01

    High affinity folate binding protein (FBP) found in brush border membranes derived from renal cortices is thought to be involved in the renal conservation of folate. To examine the mechanisms of folate recovery, the subcellular distribution of FBP and 3 H-folate in rabbit renal proximal tubules (PT) was examined using analytical cell fractionation techniques. Tubules contain 3.41 +/- 0.32 picomoles FBP/mg protein (X +/- S.D.; n = 5). Postnuclear supernates (PNS) of PT were layered atop Percoll-sucrose gradients, centrifuged, fractions collected and assayed for various marker enzymes and FBP. Pooled fractions from such gradients were subsequently treated with digitonin and centrifuged in a stoichiometric manner with the activity of the microvillar enzyme, alanylaminopeptidase (AAP); excess FBP distributed with more buoyant particles. Infusion of 3 H-folate into rabbit kidneys followed by tubule isolation and fractionation revealed a time dependent shift in distribution of radiolabel from the AAP-rich gradient fractions to a region containing more buoyant particles; radiolevel was not associated with lysosomal markers. EM-radioautography revealed grains over intracellular vesicles. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that folate is recovered by a process involving receptor-mediated endocytosis or transcytosis

  6. Ghrelin receptors are expressed by distal tubules of the mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Gene; Hunne, Billie; Bron, Romke; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Brock, James A; Furness, John B

    2011-10-01

    Ghrelin, a peptide hormone from the stomach, has been recently discovered to reduce sodium excretion from the kidney. Although the effects on the kidney suggest actions in the distal nephron, the sites of expression of ghrelin receptors have not been localised. In the present work we have used a mouse that expresses green fluorescent protein under the control of the ghrelin receptor promoter to locate sites of receptor expression in the kidney. Receptor expression was confined to the straight parts of the distal tubules and the thin limbs of the loops of Henle. No expression was detected in other structures, including the glomeruli, proximal tubules and collecting ducts. Ghrelin receptors were not found in extra-renal or intra-renal arteries, despite observations that ghrelin is a vasodilator. The distribution revealed by in situ hybridisation histochemistry was the same as that revealed by the reporter. In conclusion, ghrelin receptors have a restricted distribution in the kidney. The location in the straight parts of the distal tubules accords with observations that ghrelin promotes sodium retention.

  7. Diabetes Induces Aberrant DNA Methylation in the Proximal Tubules of the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumo, Takeshi; Yagi, Shintaro; Kawarazaki, Wakako; Nishimoto, Mitsuhiro; Ayuzawa, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ueda, Kohei; Hirahashi, Junichi; Hishikawa, Keiichi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Shiota, Kunio; Fujita, Toshiro

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms may underlie the progression of diabetic kidney disease. Because the kidney is a heterogeneous organ with different cell types, we investigated DNA methylation status of the kidney in a cell type-specific manner. We first identified genes specifically demethylated in the normal proximal tubules obtained from control db/m mice, and next delineated the candidate disease-modifying genes bearing aberrant DNA methylation induced by diabetes using db/db mice. Genes involved in glucose metabolism, including Sglt2, Pck1, and G6pc, were selectively hypomethylated in the proximal tubules in control mice. Hnf4a, a transcription factor regulating transporters for reabsorption, was also selectively demethylated. In diabetic mice, aberrant hypomethylation of Agt, Abcc4, Cyp4a10, Glut5, and Met and hypermethylation of Kif20b, Cldn18, and Slco1a1 were observed. Time-dependent demethylation of Agt, a marker of diabetic kidney disease, was accompanied by histone modification changes. Furthermore, inhibition of DNA methyltransferase or histone deacetylase increased Agt mRNA in cultured human proximal tubular cells. Aberrant DNA methylation and concomitant changes in histone modifications and mRNA expression in the diabetic kidney were resistant to antidiabetic treatment with pioglitazone. These results suggest that an epigenetic switch involving aberrant DNA methylation causes persistent mRNA expression of select genes that may lead to phenotype changes of the proximal tubules in diabetic kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Isolation and characterization of progenitor-like cells from human renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, David; Boström, Anna-Karin; Nilsson, Kristina; Hansson, Jennifer; Sjölund, Jonas; Möller, Christina; Jirström, Karin; Nilsson, Elise; Landberg, Göran; Axelson, Håkan; Johansson, Martin E

    2011-02-01

    The tubules of the kidney display a remarkable capacity for self-renewal on damage. Whether this regeneration is mediated by dedifferentiating surviving cells or, as recently suggested, by stem cells has not been unequivocally settled. Herein, we demonstrate that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity may be used for isolation of cells with progenitor characteristics from adult human renal cortical tissue. Gene expression profiling of the isolated ALDH(high) and ALDH(low) cell fractions followed by immunohistochemical interrogation of renal tissues enabled us to delineate a tentative progenitor cell population scattered through the proximal tubules (PTs). These cells expressed CD24 and CD133, previously described markers for renal progenitors of Bowman's capsule. Furthermore, we show that the PT cells, and the glomerular progenitors, are positive for KRT7, KRT19, BCL2, and vimentin. In addition, tubular epithelium regenerating on acute tubular necrosis displayed long stretches of CD133(+)/VIM(+) cells, further substantiating that these cells may represent a progenitor cell population. Furthermore, a potential association of these progenitor cells with papillary renal cell carcinoma was discovered. Taken together, our data demonstrate the presence of a previously unappreciated subset of the PT cells that may be endowed with a more robust phenotype, allowing increased resistance to acute renal injury, enabling rapid repopulation of the tubules. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cadmium transport by the gut and Malpighian tubules of Chironomus riparius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Erin M., E-mail: leonarem@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Pierce, Laura M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Gillis, Patricia L. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Wood, Chris M.; O' Donnell, Michael J. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2009-05-05

    Many aquatic insects are very insensitive to cadmium in short-term laboratory studies. LC50 values for larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius are over 25,000 times the Criterion Maximum Concentration in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA (2000)) species sensitivity distribution (SSD). Excretion or sequestration of cadmium may contribute to insensitivity and we have therefore examined cadmium transport by isolated guts and renal tissues of C. riparius larvae. Regional differences of Cd transport along the gut were identified using a Cd{sup 2+}-selective microelectrode in conjunction with the Scanning Ion-Selective Electrode Technique (SIET). Cd is transported into the anterior midgut (AMG) cells from the lumen and out of the cells into the hemolymph. The transport of Cd from the gut lumen to the hemolymph exposes other tissues such as the nervous system and muscles to Cd. The gut segments which remove Cd from the hemolymph at the highest rate are the posterior midgut (PMG) and the ileum. In addition, assays using an isolated Malpighian (renal) tubule preparation have shown that the Malpighian tubules (MT) both sequester and secrete Cd. For larvae bathed in 10 {mu}mol l{sup -1} Cd, the tubules can secrete the entire hemolymph burden of Cd in {approx}15 h.

  10. Cadmium transport by the gut and Malpighian tubules of Chironomus riparius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Erin M.; Pierce, Laura M.; Gillis, Patricia L.; Wood, Chris M.; O'Donnell, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic insects are very insensitive to cadmium in short-term laboratory studies. LC50 values for larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius are over 25,000 times the Criterion Maximum Concentration in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA (2000)) species sensitivity distribution (SSD). Excretion or sequestration of cadmium may contribute to insensitivity and we have therefore examined cadmium transport by isolated guts and renal tissues of C. riparius larvae. Regional differences of Cd transport along the gut were identified using a Cd 2+ -selective microelectrode in conjunction with the Scanning Ion-Selective Electrode Technique (SIET). Cd is transported into the anterior midgut (AMG) cells from the lumen and out of the cells into the hemolymph. The transport of Cd from the gut lumen to the hemolymph exposes other tissues such as the nervous system and muscles to Cd. The gut segments which remove Cd from the hemolymph at the highest rate are the posterior midgut (PMG) and the ileum. In addition, assays using an isolated Malpighian (renal) tubule preparation have shown that the Malpighian tubules (MT) both sequester and secrete Cd. For larvae bathed in 10 μmol l -1 Cd, the tubules can secrete the entire hemolymph burden of Cd in ∼15 h.

  11. Ultrastructure of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum in renal tubules of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yong; Usa, Kristie; Tian, Zhongmin; Cowley, Allen W; Liang, Mingyu

    2014-05-15

    Metabolic and functional abnormalities in the kidney precede or coincide with the initiation of overt hypertension in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. However, renal histological injury in SS rats is mild before the development of overt hypertension. We performed electron microscopy analysis in 7-wk-old SS rats and salt-insensitive consomic SS.13(BN) rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats fed a 4% NaCl diet for 7 days. Long mitochondria (>2 μm) accounted for a significantly smaller fraction of mitochondria in medullary thick ascending limbs in SS rats (4% ± 1%) than in SS.13(BN) rats (8% ± 1%, P tubules, however, were more abundant in SS rats than in SS.13(BN) and SD rats. The width of the endoplasmic reticulum, an index of endoplasmic reticulum stress, was significantly greater in medullary thick ascending limbs of SS rats (107 ± 1 nm) than in SS.13(BN) rats (95 ± 2 nm, P tubules examined were indistinguishable between rat strains under light microscopy. These data indicate that ultrastructural abnormalities occur in the medullary thick ascending limbs of SS rats before the development of histological injury in renal tubules, providing a potential structural basis contributing to the subsequent development of overt hypertension. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Response of the mitochondrial proteome of rat renal proximal convoluted tubules to chronic metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Dana M; Prenni, Jessica E; Curthoys, Norman P

    2013-01-15

    Metabolic acidosis is a common clinical condition that is caused by a decrease in blood pH and bicarbonate concentration. Increased extraction and mitochondrial catabolism of plasma glutamine within the renal proximal convoluted tubule generates ammonium and bicarbonate ions that facilitate the excretion of acid and partially restore acid-base balance. Previous studies identified only a few mitochondrial proteins, including two key enzymes of glutamine metabolism, which are increased during chronic acidosis. A workflow was developed to characterize the mitochondrial proteome of the proximal convoluted tubule. Based upon the increase in specific activity of cytochrome c oxidase, the isolated mitochondria were enriched eightfold. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was utilized to compare mitochondrial-enriched samples from control and chronic acidotic rats. Proteomic analysis identified 901 proteins in the control and acidotic samples. Further analysis identified 37 peptides that contain an N-ε-acetyl-lysine; of these, 22 are novel sites. Spectral counting analysis revealed 33 proteins that are significantly altered in abundance in response to chronic metabolic acidosis. Western blot analysis was performed to validate the calculated changes in abundance. Thus the current study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the mitochondrial proteome of the rat renal proximal convoluted tubule and its response to metabolic acidosis.

  13. Tannic acid label indicates abnormal cell development coinciding with regeneration of renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are in the focus of research as a future therapeutic option to stimulate regeneration in diseased renal parenchyma. However, current data indicate that successful seeding of implanted stem/progenitor cells is prevented by harmful interstitial fluid and altered extracellular matrix. To find out possible parameters for cell adaptation, the present investigation was performed. Renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in an artificial interstitium for perfusion culture. Exposure to chemically defined but CO2-independent culture media was tested during 13 days. Cell biological features were then analyzed by histochemistry, while structural details were investigated by transmission electron microscopy after conventional and improved fixation of specimens. Culture of renal stem/progenitor cells as well in Leibovitz's L-15 Medium as CO2 Independent Medium shows in fluorescence microscopy spatial development of numerous tubules. Specimens of both media fixed by conventional glutaraldehyde exhibit in electron microscopy a homogeneous cell population in developed tubules. In contrast, fixation by glutaraldehyde including tannic acid illuminates that dispersed dark marked cells of unknown function are present. The screening further demonstrates that the dark cell type does not comply with cells found in embryonic, maturing or matured renal parenchyma. The actual data show that development of abnormal cell features must be taken into account, when regeneration of renal tubules is simulated under in vitro conditions.

  14. Piecewise-Constant-Model-Based Interior Tomography Applied to Dentin Tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentin is a hierarchically structured biomineralized composite material, and dentin’s tubules are difficult to study in situ. Nano-CT provides the requisite resolution, but the field of view typically contains only a few tubules. Using a plate-like specimen allows reconstruction of a volume containing specific tubules from a number of truncated projections typically collected over an angular range of about 140°, which is practically accessible. Classical computed tomography (CT theory cannot exactly reconstruct an object only from truncated projections, needless to say a limited angular range. Recently, interior tomography was developed to reconstruct a region-of-interest (ROI from truncated data in a theoretically exact fashion via the total variation (TV minimization under the condition that the ROI is piecewise constant. In this paper, we employ a TV minimization interior tomography algorithm to reconstruct interior microstructures in dentin from truncated projections over a limited angular range. Compared to the filtered backprojection (FBP reconstruction, our reconstruction method reduces noise and suppresses artifacts. Volume rendering confirms the merits of our method in terms of preserving the interior microstructure of the dentin specimen.

  15. Vitality of Enterococcus faecalis inside dentinal tubules after five root canal disinfection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatkar, Niranjan Ashok; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    To compare the vitality of Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules after subjected to five root canal disinfection methods. Dentin blocks (n = 60) were colonized with E. faecalis. After 4 weeks of incubation, the dentin blocks were divided into one control and five test groups (n = 10 each). The root canals of test groups were subjected to one of the disinfection methods, namely, normal saline (NS), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser, and diode laser. The effect of disinfection methods was assessed by LIVE/DEAD BacLight stain under the confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the "zone of dead bacteria" (ZDB). Mean values were calculated for ZDB and the difference between groups was established. Penetration of E. faecalis was seen to a depth of >1000 μm. Viable bacteria were detected with NS irrigation. NaOCl and CHX showed partial ZDB. When the root canals were disinfected with Nd: YAG and diode lasers, no viable bacteria were found. E. faecalis has the ability to colonize inside dentinal tubules to a depth of >1000 μm. In contrast to conventional irrigants, both Nd: YAG and diode lasers were effective in eliminating the vitality of E. faecalis. NS, NaOCl, and CHX showed viable bacteria remaining in dentinal tubules.

  16. SNX27 mediates retromer tubule entry and endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking of signalling receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Paul; Lauffer, Ben; Jäger, Stefanie; Cimermancic, Peter; Krogan, Nevan J; von Zastrow, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Endocytic sorting of signalling receptors between recycling and degradative pathways is a key cellular process controlling the surface complement of receptors and, accordingly, the cell's ability to respond to specific extracellular stimuli. The β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is a prototypical seven-transmembrane signalling receptor that recycles rapidly and efficiently to the plasma membrane after ligand-induced endocytosis. β2AR recycling is dependent on the receptor's carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand and Rab4. This active sorting process is required for functional resensitization of β2AR-mediated signalling. Here we show that sequence-directed sorting occurs at the level of entry into retromer tubules and that retromer tubules are associated with Rab4. Furthermore, we show that sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) serves as an essential adaptor protein linking β2ARs to the retromer tubule. SNX27 does not seem to directly interact with the retromer core complex, but does interact with the retromer-associated Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. The present results identify a role for retromer in endocytic trafficking of signalling receptors, in regulating a receptor-linked signalling pathway, and in mediating direct endosome-to-plasma membrane traffic.

  17. Effects of bioactive glass with and without mesoporous structures on desensitization in dentinal tubule occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Kung, Jung-Chang; Chen, Cheng-Hwei; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Shih, Chi-Jen; Chien, Chi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glass (BG) is a potential material for treating dentin hypersensitivity due to its high ability of dissolution. In this study, conventional BG and BG with well-ordered mesopore structures (MBG) were applied for dentinal tubule occlusion. We used X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) to investigate the physiochemical properties and the dentinal tubule occlusion ability of BG and MBG groups. The results showed that the major crystallite phase of MBG and BG agents was monocalcium phosphate monohydrate. MBG pastes, mixed with 30 and 40 wt% phosphoric acid hardening solutions, had the ability to create a penetration depth greater than 50 μm. These results showed that BG with mesoporous structures turned the pastes mixed with suitable phosphoric acid solution into a material with great ability for occluding dentinal tubules; it has a short reaction time and good operability, and these agents have better potential for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity than BG without mesoporous structures.

  18. Effects of bioactive glass with and without mesoporous structures on desensitization in dentinal tubule occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, College of Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Kung, Jung-Chang [Department of Family Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chen, Cheng-Hwei [School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Yu-Cheng [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chi-Jen, E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chien, Chi-Sheng, E-mail: jannie.gissing@msa.hinet.net [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Chi Mei Foundation Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Bioactive glass (BG) is a potential material for treating dentin hypersensitivity due to its high ability of dissolution. In this study, conventional BG and BG with well-ordered mesopore structures (MBG) were applied for dentinal tubule occlusion. We used X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) to investigate the physiochemical properties and the dentinal tubule occlusion ability of BG and MBG groups. The results showed that the major crystallite phase of MBG and BG agents was monocalcium phosphate monohydrate. MBG pastes, mixed with 30 and 40 wt% phosphoric acid hardening solutions, had the ability to create a penetration depth greater than 50 μm. These results showed that BG with mesoporous structures turned the pastes mixed with suitable phosphoric acid solution into a material with great ability for occluding dentinal tubules; it has a short reaction time and good operability, and these agents have better potential for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity than BG without mesoporous structures.

  19. 50 Years of renal physiology from one man and the perfused tubule: Maurice B. Burg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kirk L; Moore, Antoni B

    2016-08-01

    Technical advancements in research techniques in science are made in slow increments. Even so, large advances from insight and hard work of an individual with a single technique can have astonishing ramifications. Here, we examine the impact of Dr. Maurice B. Burg and the isolated perfused renal tubule technique and celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication by Dr. Burg and his colleagues of their landmark paper in the American Journal of Physiology in 1966. In this study, we have taken a scientific visualization approach to study the scientific contributions of Dr. Burg and the isolated perfused tubule preparation as determining research impact by the number of research students, postdoctoral fellows, visiting scientists, and national and international collaborators. Additionally, we have examined the research collaborations (first and second generation scientists), established the migrational visualization of the first generation scientists who worked directly with Dr. Burg, quantified the metrics indices, identified and quantified the network of coauthorship of the first generation scientists with their second generation links, and determined the citations analyses of outputs of Dr. Burg and/or his first generation collaborators as coauthors. We also review the major advances in kidney physiology that have been made with the isolated perfused tubule technique. Finally, we are all waiting for the discoveries that the isolated perfused preparation technique will bring during the next 50 years. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Column-like structures following the course of tubules in human dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hals, E

    1990-10-01

    Sections, 60-180 microns thick, of permanent teeth, intact or with minor fillings, were cut parallel or transversal to the course of the dentinal tubules. Some teeth were demineralized, embedded in paraffin wax, cut in series, and stained with toluidine blue pH 5.6, hematoxylin-eosin, or PAS. Altogether, sections of 90 teeth were examined by ordinary and polarized light microscopy and contact microradiography. Alternating light and dark bands, usually 8-30 microns wide, extended from the pulpal border along the course of the tubules, gradually increasing in width, fading in the mantle dentin. Cross-sectioned bands appeared as dark and light "discs". This was the background for the term "columns". In the dark columns, usually exhibiting crowding of tubules, the intertubular dentin was dark and radiolucent; in the light columns, light and radiopaque. Dark columns contained a high amount of GAGs, assumed to have exerted an inhibitory effect on their mineralization. The columns probably represent structural elements in the architecture of dentin, possibly offering resistance against mechanical stress. It was suggested that the columns might depict functional differences in the matrix secretion and mineralization capacities of odontoblasts.

  1. Steric confinement of proteins on lipid membranes can drive curvature and tubulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Hayden, Carl C; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2010-04-27

    Deformation of lipid membranes into curved structures such as buds and tubules is essential to many cellular structures including endocytic pits and filopodia. Binding of specific proteins to lipid membranes has been shown to promote membrane bending during endocytosis and transport vesicle formation. Additionally, specific lipid species are found to colocalize with many curved membrane structures, inspiring ongoing exploration of a variety of roles for lipid domains in membrane bending. However, the specific mechanisms by which lipids and proteins collaborate to induce curvature remain unknown. Here we demonstrate a new mechanism for induction and amplification of lipid membrane curvature that relies on steric confinement of protein binding on membrane surfaces. Using giant lipid vesicles that contain domains with high affinity for his-tagged proteins, we show that protein crowding on lipid domain surfaces creates a protein layer that buckles outward, spontaneously bending the domain into stable buds and tubules. In contrast to previously described bending mechanisms relying on local steric interactions between proteins and lipids (i.e. helix insertion into membranes), this mechanism produces tubules whose dimensions are defined by global parameters: domain size and membrane tension. Our results suggest the intriguing possibility that confining structures, such as lipid domains and protein lattices, can amplify membrane bending by concentrating the steric interactions between bound proteins. This observation highlights a fundamental physical mechanism for initiation and control of membrane bending that may help explain how lipids and proteins collaborate to create the highly curved structures observed in vivo.

  2. Intra-renal slow cell-cycle cells contribute to the restoration of kidney tubules injured by ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinu; Kim, Jee In; Na, Yeon Kyung; Park, Kwon Moo

    2011-09-01

    Renal epithelial cells damaged by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) can be restored by timely and appropriate treatment. Recent studies have reported that intra renal adult kidney stem cells contribute to the restoration of tubules damaged by I/R. Here, we determined the role of adult tubular cells in the restoration of damaged tubules. We labeled slow cell-cycle cells (SCCs) with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and investigated their location in the kidneys as well as their contribution to the restoration of tubular cells damaged by I/R injury in mice. Thirty minutes of bilateral ischemia resulted in severe disruption of tubular epithelial cells along with a decline in renal function. The post-ischemic disruption of tubular epithelial cells was most severe in the S3 segment of the outer stripe of the outer medulla. Damaged tubules demonstrated gradual recovery of renal function over time. BrdU-labeled SCCs were mainly observed in tubules located at the junction of cortex and outer medulla, as well as in the inner medulla. The tubular SCCs expressed functional tubule cell markers such as Na/K-ATPase, Na-K-Cl cotransporter-2, and aquaporin 1 and 2. BrdU-labeled SCCs survived I/R injury and proliferated. These results demonstrate that SCCs present in tubules contribute to the restoration of tubular epithelial cells injured by I/R.

  3. Spatial, cellular, and intracellular localization of Na+/K+-ATPase in the sterically disposed renal tubules of Japanese eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Keitaro; Kaneko, Toyoji

    2010-08-01

    The kidney plays a crucial role in the regulation of water and ion balances in both freshwater and seawater fishes. However, the complicated structures of the kidney hamper comprehensive understanding of renal functions. In this study, to investigate the structure of sterically disposed renal tubules, we examined spatial, cellular, and intracellular localization of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the kidney of the Japanese eel. The renal tubule was composed of the first (PT-I) and second (PT-II) segments of the proximal tubule and the distal tubule (DT), followed by the collecting ducts (CDs). Light microscopic immunocytochemistry detected Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase along the renal tubules and CD; however, the subcellular distribution of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreaction varied among different segments. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry further revealed that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was distributed on the basal infoldings of PT-I, PT-II, and DT cells. Three-dimensional analyses showed that the renal tubules meandered in a random pattern through lymphoid tissues, and then merged into the CD, which was aligned linearly. Among the different segments, the DT and CD cells showed more-intense Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase immunoreaction in freshwater eel than in seawater-acclimated eel, confirming that the DT and CD segments are important in freshwater adaptation, or hyperosmoregulation.

  4. Injury induced expression of caveolar proteins in human kidney tubules - role of megakaryoblastic leukemia 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof M; Hansson, Jennifer; Nilsson, Helén; Krawczyk, Katarzyna K; Swärd, Karl; Johansson, Martin E

    2017-10-24

    Caveolae are membrane invaginations measuring 50-100 nm. These organelles, composed of caveolin and cavin proteins, are important for cellular signaling and survival. Caveolae play incompletely defined roles in human kidneys. Induction of caveolin-1/CAV1 in diseased tubules has been described previously, but the responsible mechanism remains to be defined. Healthy and atrophying human kidneys were stained for caveolar proteins, (caveolin 1-3 and cavin 1-4) and examined by electron microscopy. Induction of caveolar proteins was studied in isolated proximal tubules and primary renal epithelial cells. These cells were challenged with hypoxia or H 2 O 2 . Primary tubular cells were also subjected to viral overexpression of megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1) and MKL1 inhibition by the MKL1 inhibitor CCG-1423. Putative coregulators of MKL1 activity were investigated by Western blotting for suppressor of cancer cell invasion (SCAI) and filamin A (FLNA). Finally, correlative bioinformatic studies of mRNA expression of caveolar proteins and MKL1 were performed. In healthy kidneys, caveolar proteins were expressed by the parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of Bowman's capsule, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle. Electron microscopy confirmed caveolae in the PECs. No expression was seen in proximal tubules. In contrast, caveolar proteins were expressed in proximal tubules undergoing atrophy. Caveolar proteins were also induced in cultures of primary epithelial tubular cells. Expression was not enhanced by hypoxia or free radical stress (H 2 O 2 ), but proved sensitive to inhibition of MKL1. Viral overexpression of MKL1 induced caveolin-1/CAV1, caveolin-2/CAV2 and SDPR/CAVIN2. In kidney tissue, the mRNA level of MKL1 correlated with the mRNA levels for caveolin-1/CAV1, caveolin-2/CAV2 and the archetypal MKL1 target tenascin C (TNC), as did the MKL1 coactivator FLNA. Costaining for TNC as readout for MKL1 activity demonstrated overlap with caveolin-1/CAV1 expression in

  5. Lengths of nephron tubule segments and collecting ducts in the CD-1 mouse kidney: an ontogeny study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Sarah L; Moritz, Karen M; Bertram, John F; Singh, Reetu R

    2016-11-01

    The kidney continues to mature postnatally, with significant elongation of nephron tubules and collecting ducts to maintain fluid/electrolyte homeostasis. The aim of this project was to develop methodology to estimate lengths of specific segments of nephron tubules and collecting ducts in the CD-1 mouse kidney using a combination of immunohistochemistry and design-based stereology (vertical uniform random sections with cycloid arc test system). Lengths of tubules were determined at postnatal day 21 (P21) and 2 and 12 mo of age and also in mice fed a high-salt diet throughout adulthood. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify individual tubule segments [aquaporin-1, proximal tubules (PT) and thin descending limbs of Henle (TDLH); uromodulin, distal tubules (DT); aquaporin-2, collecting ducts (CD)]. All tubular segments increased significantly in length between P21 and 2 mo of age (PT, 602% increase; DT, 200% increase; TDLH, 35% increase; CD, 53% increase). However, between 2 and 12 mo, a significant increase in length was only observed for PT (76% increase in length). At 12 mo of age, kidneys of mice on a high-salt diet demonstrated a 27% greater length of the TDLH, but no significant change in length was detected for PT, DT, and CD compared with the normal-salt group. Our study demonstrates an efficient method of estimating lengths of specific segments of the renal tubular system. This technique can be applied to examine structure of the renal tubules in combination with the number of glomeruli in the kidney in models of altered renal phenotype. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Endothelin A receptor-like immunoreactivity on the basal infoldings of rat renal tubules and collecting ducts.

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    Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Suzuki, Hirohumi; Kubo, Yukari; Matsumoto, Aya; Uemura, Haruko

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the distribution of endothelin A (ET(A)) receptor-like immunoreactivity in the rat kidney using affinity-purified antibodies against amino acid residues 403-417 of the rat ET(A) receptor modified by the multiple antigen peptide complex system. Western blot analysis using the affinity-purified anti-ET(A) antibody detected bands of approximately 47.3 and 64.5 kDa in the rat kidney. By light microscopy, ET(A) receptor-like immunoreactivity was seen in the basal side of the renal tubules and collecting ducts. The most intense immunoreactivity was present in the distal renal tubules and inner medullary collecting ducts. In addition to the basal infoldings, immunoreactive puncta were scattered in the epithelial cells of the renal tubules and collecting ducts. Specimens prepared using the pre-embedding method were examined by electron microscopy, and some immunopositive signals were seen on the basal infodings of the renal tubules and collecting ducts. The lengths of immunopositive cytoplasmic membrane were far longer in the distal tubules and inner medullary collecting ducts than in the proximal tubules and outer medullary collecting ducts. Immunopositive signals were also sometimes observed in the thick portion of Henle's loop, but never in the thin portion. We have not previously detected immunopositive signals on the renal vascular systems with the antibody used here. These results suggest that endothelin acts on the basal infoldings through the ET(A) receptor, particularly in the distal tubules and inner medullary collecting ducts, although involvement of the ET(B) receptor cannot be excluded.

  7. Two inwardly rectifying potassium channels, Irk1 and Irk2, play redundant roles in Drosophila renal tubule function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yipin; Baum, Michel; Huang, Chou-Long

    2015-01-01

    Inwardly rectifying potassium channels play essential roles in renal physiology across phyla. Barium-sensitive K+ conductances are found on the basolateral membrane of a variety of insect Malpighian (renal) tubules, including Drosophila melanogaster. We found that barium decreases the lumen-positive transepithelial potential difference in isolated perfused Drosophila tubules and decreases fluid secretion and transepithelial K+ flux. In those insect species in which it has been studied, transcripts from multiple genes encoding inwardly rectifying K+ channels are expressed in the renal (Malpighian) tubule. In Drosophila melanogaster, this includes transcripts of the Irk1, Irk2, and Irk3 genes. The role of each of these gene products in renal tubule function is unknown. We found that simultaneous knockdown of Irk1 and Irk2 in the principal cell of the fly tubule decreases transepithelial K+ flux, with no additive effect of Irk3 knockdown, and decreases barium sensitivity of transepithelial K+ flux by ∼50%. Knockdown of any of the three inwardly rectifying K+ channels individually has no effect, nor does knocking down Irk3 simultaneously with Irk1 or Irk2. Irk1/Irk2 principal cell double-knockdown tubules remain sensitive to the kaliuretic effect of cAMP. Inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase with ouabain and Irk1/Irk2 double knockdown have additive effects on K+ flux, and 75% of transepithelial K+ transport is due to Irk1/Irk2 or ouabain-sensitive pathways. In conclusion, Irk1 and Irk2 play redundant roles in transepithelial ion transport in the Drosophila melanogaster renal tubule and are additive to Na+/K+-ATPase-dependent pathways. PMID:26224687

  8. Effects of cardiotonic steroids on isolated perfused kidney and NHE3 activity in renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alana N; Costa, Graciana T; Oliveira, Nádia O; Cardi, Bruno A; Uchoa, Daniel Esdras A; Silveira, Edilberto R; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François G; Fonteles, Manassés C; Carvalho, Krishnamurti M; Santos, Cláudia F; Lessa, Lucília M A; do Nascimento, Nilberto R F

    2017-08-01

    Cardiotonic steroids (CS) are known as modulators of sodium and water homeostasis. These compounds contribute to the excretion of sodium under overload conditions due to its natriuretic property related to the inhibition of the renal Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) pump α1 isoform. NHE3, the main route for Na + reabsorption in the proximal tubule, depends on the Na + gradient generated by the NKA pump. In the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of marinobufagin (MBG) and telocinobufagin (TBG) on the renal function of isolated perfused rat kidney and on the inhibition of NKA activity. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanisms for the cardiotonic steroid-mediated natriuretic effect, by evaluating and comparing the effects of bufalin (BUF), ouabain (OUA), MBG and TBG on NHE3 activity in the renal proximal tubule in vivo. TBG significantly increased GFR, UF, natriuresis and kaliuresis in isolated perfused rat kidney, and inhibits the activity of NKA at a much higher rate than MBG. By stationary microperfusion technique, the perfusion with BUF, OUA, TBG or MBG promoted an inhibitory effect on NHE3 activity, whereas BUF was the most effective agent, and demonstrated a dose-dependent response, with maximal inhibition at 50nM. Furthermore, our data showed the role of NKA-Src kinase pathway in the inhibition of NHE3 by CS. Finally, a downstream step, MEK1/2-ERK1/2 was also investigated, and, similar to Src inhibition, the MEK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) suppressed the BUF effect. Our findings indicate the involvement of NKA-SRc-Kinase-Ras-Raf-ERK1/2 pathway in the downregulation of NHE3 by cardiotonic steroids in the renal proximal tubule, promoting a reduction of proximal sodium reabsorption and natriuresis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc chloride rapidly stimulates efflux transporters in renal proximal tubules of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Alexander; Miller, David S; Fricker, Gert

    2017-11-01

    Multidrug resistance-related protein 2 (Mrp2) is an ATP-driven efflux pump at the luminal membrane in renal proximal tubules. It acts as detoxification mechanism by transporting xenobiotics and metabolic products into urine. The trace element zinc is essential for cellular growth, differentiation and survival. It modulates immune response and is used as dietary supplement. Here, we found that 0.1-10μM ZnCl 2 rapidly stimulated transport of the Mrp2 probe substrate Texas Red (TR) in isolated killifish renal proximal tubules, which provide an established model system to measure efflux transporter activity by using fluorescent probe substrates, confocal microscopy and image analysis. This stimulation was insensitive to the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX), but it was quickly reversed by removing ZnCl 2 from the incubation medium. ZnCl 2 -induced transport stimulation was abolished by inhibitors and antagonists of the endothelin receptor type B (ET B )/nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Moreover, ZnCl 2 -induced effects were blocked by inhibition of PKCα using Gö6976 and PKCα inhibitor peptide C2-4. Both the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY 294002 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin abolished ZnCl 2 -induced transport stimulation. Furthermore, the stimulating effects of ZnCl 2 were blocked by GSK650394, an inhibitor of the downstream target serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). ZnCl 2 also stimulated transport mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp). This is the first report about zinc affecting efflux transporter activity and demonstrates that ZnCl 2 triggers a suite of signaling events to evoke a rapid stimulation of ABC transporter-mediated efflux in killifish proximal tubules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Roles of organic anion transporters (OATs) in renal proximal tubules and their localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Naoyuki; Ouchi, Motoshi; Hayashi, Keitaro; Jutabha, Promsuk; Anzai, Naohiko

    2017-03-01

    Organic anions (OAs) are secreted in renal proximal tubules in two steps. In the first step, OAs are transported from the blood through basolateral membranes into proximal tubular cells. The prototypical substrate for renal organic anion transport systems, para-aminohippurate (PAH), is transported across basolateral membranes of proximal tubular cells via OAT1 (SLC22A6) and OAT3 (SLC22A8) against an electrochemical gradient in exchange for intracellular dicarboxylates. In the second step, OAs exit into urine through apical membranes of proximal tubules. This step is thought to be performed by multidrug efflux transporters and a voltage-driven organic anion transporter. However, the molecular nature and precise functional properties of these efflux systems are largely unknown. Recently, we characterized an orphan transporter known as human type I sodium-phosphate transporter 4, hNPT4 (SLC17A3), using the Xenopus oocyte expression system. hNPT4 acts as a voltage-driven efflux transporter ("human OATv1") for several OAs such as PAH, estrone sulfate, diuretic drugs, and urate. Here, we describe a model for an OA secretory pathway in renal tubular cells in which OAs exit cells and enter the tubular lumen via hOATv1 (hNPT4). Additionally, hOATv1 functions as a common renal secretory pathway for both urate and drugs, indicating that hOATv1 may be a leak pathway for excess urate that is reabsorbed via apical URAT1 to control the intracellular urate levels. Therefore, we propose a molecular mechanism for the induction of hyperuricemia by diuretics: the diuretics enter proximal tubular cells via basolateral OAT1 and/or OAT3 and may then interfere with the NPT4-mediated apical urate efflux in the renal proximal tubule.

  11. Histamine receptor expression in human renal tubules: a comparative pharmacological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veglia, Eleonora; Grange, Cristina; Pini, Alessandro; Moggio, Aldo; Lanzi, Cecilia; Camussi, Giovanni; Chazot, Paul L; Rosa, Arianna Carolina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of the histamine receptors, particularly focusing on the H4R in human renal tubules. The ex vivo evaluation was carried on specimens from human renal cortex. Primary and immortalized tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and the HK-2 cell line were used as in vitro models. Cells were pretreated for 10 min with chlorpheniramine maleate 10 μM (H1R antagonist), ranitidine 10 µM (H2R antagonist), GSK189254 1 µM (H3R antagonist) or JNJ7777120 10 µM (H4R antagonist), and then exposed to histamine (3 pM-10 nM) for 30 min. The ex vivo evaluation on specimens from human renal cortex was performed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of histamine receptors on primary and immortalized TECs and the HK-2 cell line was evaluated at both gene (RT-PCR) and protein (immunocytofluorescence) levels. The pharmacological analysis was performed by TR-FRET measurements of second messenger (IP3 and cAMP) production induced by histamine with or without the selective antagonists. Our data revealed the presence of all histamine receptors in human tubules; however, only TECs expressed all the receptors. Indeed, histamine elicited a sigmoid dose-response curve for IP3 production, shifted to the right by chlorpheniramine maleate, and elicited a double bell-shaped curve for cAMP production, partially suppressed by the selective H2R, H3R and H4R antagonists when each added alone, and completely ablated when combined together. Herein, we report the identification of all four histamine receptors in human renal tubules.

  12. NMR-based urine analysis in rats: prediction of proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Kai; Plötz, Thomas; Pestel, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of safety pharmacology is early detection of compound-induced side-effects. NMR-based urine analysis followed by multivariate data analysis (metabonomics) identifies efficiently differences between toxic and non-toxic compounds; but in most cases multiple administrations of the test compound are necessary. We tested the feasibility of detecting proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis with metabonomics techniques after single compound administration as an early safety pharmacology approach. Rats were treated orally, intravenously, inhalatively or intraperitoneally with different test compounds. Urine was collected at 0-8 h and 8-24 h after compound administration, and (1)H NMR-patterns were recorded from the samples. Variation of post-processing and feature extraction methods led to different views on the data. Support Vector Machines were trained on these different data sets and then aggregated as experts in an Ensemble. Finally, validity was monitored with a cross-validation study using a training, validation, and test data set. Proximal tubule kidney toxicity could be predicted with reasonable total classification accuracy (85%), specificity (88%) and sensitivity (78%). In comparison to alternative histological studies, results were obtained quicker, compound need was reduced, and very importantly fewer animals were needed. In contrast, the induction of phospholipidosis by the test compounds could not be predicted using NMR-based urine analysis or the previously published biomarker PAG. NMR-based urine analysis was shown to effectively predict proximal tubule kidney toxicity after single compound administration in rats. Thus, this experimental design allows early detection of toxicity risks with relatively low amounts of compound in a reasonably short period of time.

  13. Effect and Stability of Poly(Amido Amine-Induced Biomineralization on Dentinal Tubule Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, scientists have developed various biomaterials to remineralize human teeth to treat dentine hypersensitivity. Poly(amido amine (PAMAM dendrimers have become a research focus in this field. It has been demonstrated that PAMAM is able to create precipitates both on the surface of and within the dentinal tubules, however, there is little information about its effect on reducing dentine permeability in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effectiveness and stability of the fourth generation amine-terminated PAMAM on dentinal tubule occlusion, especially on dentine permeability. Sodium fluoride (NaF, which has been widely used as a desensitizing agent, is regarded as positive control. Demineralized sensitive dentine samples were coated with PAMAM or sodium fluoride solutions and soaked in artificial saliva (AS at 37 °C for different periods. Four weeks later, samples in each group were then equally split into two subgroups for testing using a brushing challenge and an acid challenge. Dentine permeability of each specimen was measured before and after each challenge using a fluid filtration system. Dentine morphology and surface deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and analyzed with Image-Pro Plus software. Data were evaluated through multifactorial ANOVA with repeated measures and pair-wise comparisons at a level of 5%. The results showed that PAMAM and NaF significantly reduced dentine permeability to 25.1% and 20.7%. Both of them created precipitates on dentine surfaces after AS immersion for 28 days. PAMAM-induced biomineralization not only on dentine surfaces, but also deeper in dentinal tubules, significantly reduced dentine permeability. Moreover, PAMAM-induced biomineralization elicited excellent stable occlusion effects after acid challenge. In conclusion, PAMAM demonstrated a strong ability to resist acid and showed great potential to be used in the treatment of dentine

  14. Sphingolipid signaling reduces basal P-glycoprotein activity in renal proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S

    2014-03-01

    P-glycoprotein is an ATP-driven xenobiotic export pump that is highly expressed in barrier and excretory tissues, where it greatly influences drug pharmacokinetics. Recent studies in the blood-brain and spinal cord barriers identified a sphingolipid-based signaling pathway that regulates basal activity of P-glycoprotein. Here we use an established comparative renal model that permits direct measurement of P-glycoprotein activity to determine whether such signaling occurs in another tissue, killifish renal proximal tubule. Isolated killifish tubules exposed to 0.01-1.0 μM sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) exhibited a profound decrease in P-glycoprotein transport activity, measured as specific accumulation of a fluorescent cyclosporine A derivative in the tubule lumen. Loss of activity had a rapid onset and was fully reversible when the S1P was removed. Transport mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) or a teleost fish organic anion transporter (Oat) was not affected. S1P effects were blocked by a specific S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) antagonist and mimicked by a S1PR agonist. Sphingosine also reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity and those effects were blocked by an inhibitor of sphingosine kinase and by the S1PR1 antagonist. These results for a comparative renal model suggest that sphingolipid signaling to P-glycoprotein is not just restricted to the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers, but occurs in other excretory and barrier tissues.

  15. Reconstruction of mouse testicular cellular microenvironments in long-term seminiferous tubule culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Antti Mäkelä

    Full Text Available Research on spermatogonia is hampered by complex architecture of the seminiferous tubule, poor viability of testicular tissue ex vivo and lack of physiologically relevant long-term culture systems. Therefore there is a need for an in vitro model that would enable long term survival and propagation of spermatogonia. We aimed at the most simplified approach to enable all different cell types within the seminiferous tubules to contribute to the creation of a niche for spermatogonia. In the present study we describe the establishment of a co-culture of mouse testicular cells that is based on proliferative and migratory activity of seminiferous tubule cells and does not involve separation, purification or differential plating of individual cell populations. The co-culture is composed of the constituents of testicular stem cell niche: Sertoli cells [identified by expression of Wilm's tumour antigen 1 (WT1 and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF], peritubular myoid cells (expressing alpha smooth muscle actin, αSMA and spermatogonia [expressing MAGE-B4, PLZF (promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger, LIN28, Gpr125 (G protein-coupled receptor 125, CD9, c-Kit and Nanog], and can be maintained for at least five weeks. GDNF was found in the medium at a sufficient concentration to support proliferating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs that were able to start spermatogenic differentiation after transplantation to an experimentally sterile recipient testis. Gdnf mRNA levels were elevated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH which shows that the Sertoli cells in the co-culture respond to physiological stimuli. After approximately 2-4 weeks of culture a spontaneous formation of cord-like structures was monitored. These structures can be more than 10 mm in length and branch. They are formed by peritubular myoid cells, Sertoli cells, fibroblasts and spermatogonia as assessed by gene expression profiling. In conclusion, we have managed to

  16. Cytotoxic effects of thiamethoxam in the midgut and malpighian tubules of Africanized Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catae, Aline Fernanda; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; De Oliveira, Regiane Alves; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira; Malaspina, Osmar

    2014-04-01

    Due to its expansion, agriculture has become increasingly dependent on the use of pesticides. However, the indiscriminate use of insecticides has had additional effects on the environment. These products have a broad spectrum of action, and therefore the insecticide affects not only the pests but also non-target insects such as bees, which are important pollinators of agricultural crops and natural environments. Among the most used pesticides, the neonicotinoids are particularly harmful. One of the neonicotinoids of specific concern is thiamethoxam, which is used on a wide variety of crops and is toxic to bees. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the effects of this insecticide in the midgut and Malpighian tubule cells of Africanized Apis mellifera. Newly emerged workers were exposed until 8 days to a diet containing a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam equal to 1/10 of LC₅₀ (0.0428 ng a.i./l L of diet). The bees were dissected and the organs were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that thiamethoxam is cytotoxic to midgut and Malpighian tubules. In the midgut, the damage was more evident in bees exposed to the insecticide on the first day. On the eighth day, the cells were ultrastructurally intact suggesting a recovery of this organ. The Malpighian tubules showed pronounced alterations on the eighth day of exposure of bees to the insecticide. This study demonstrates that the continuous exposure to a sublethal dose of thiamethoxam can impair organs that are used during the metabolism of the insecticide. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Variations of dietary salt and fluid modulate calcium and magnesium transport in the renal distal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Te; Lien, Yeong-Hau H; Lai, Li-Wen; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2012-01-01

    The renal distal tubule fine-tunes renal epithelial calcium transport. Dietary intake of salt and fluid varies day-to-day and the kidney adapts accordingly to maintain homeostasis. The alternations in salt and fluid balance affect calcium and magnesium transport in the distal tubule, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into high-salt, low-salt and dehydration treatment. Daily intake, water consumption and urine output were recorded. At the end of the experiment, blood and urine samples were collected for hormonal and biochemical tests. Genetic analysis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence studies were then performed to assess the alterations of calcium and magnesium transport-related molecules. High-salt treatment increased urinary sodium, calcium and magnesium excretion. Low-salt treatment and dehydration were associated with decreased urinary excretion of all electrolytes. High-salt treatment was associated with increased intact parathyroid hormone levels. A significant increase in gene expression of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28k and TRPM6 was found during high-salt treatment, while low salt and dehydration diminished expression. These findings were confirmed with immunofluorescence studies. High-salt and low-salt intake or dehydration did not cause any significant changes in WNK1, WNK3 and WNK4. Alternations in salt and water intake affect renal calcium and magnesium handling. High-salt intake increases the distal delivery of the divalent cations which upregulates distal tubule calcium and magnesium transport molecules, while the opposite effects are associated with low-salt intake or dehydration. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Variations of Dietary Salt and Fluid Modulate Calcium and Magnesium Transport in Renal Distal Tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Te; Lien, Yeong-Hau H; Lai, Li-Wen; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Chiou, Terry Ting-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background The renal distal tubule serves as the fine tuning of renal epithelial calcium transport. Dietary intake of salt and fluid varies day to day and the kidney adapts accordingly to maintain the homeostasis. The alternations in salt and fluid balance affect calcium and magnesium transport in the distal tubule, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into high salt, low salt and dehydration treatment. Daily intake, water consumption and urine output were recorded. At the end of experiment, blood and urine samples were collected for hormonal and biochemical testes. Genetic analysis, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence studies were then performed to assess the alterations of calcium and magnesium transport-related molecules. Results High salt treatment increased urinary sodium, calcium and magnesium excretion. Low salt treatment and dehydration were associated with decreased urinary excretion of all electrolytes. High salt treatment was associated with increased intact parathyroid hormone levels. Significant increase in gene expression of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28k and TRPM6 was found during high salt treatment while low salt and dehydration diminished the expression. These findings were confirmed with immunofluorescence studies. High salt and low salt intake or dehydration did not cause any significant changes in WNK1, WNK3 and WNK4. Conclusions Alternations in salt and water intake affect renal calcium and magnesium handling. High salt intake increases distal delivery of the divalent cations which upregulates distal tubule calcium and magnesium transport molecules, while the opposite effects are associated with low salt intake or dehydration. PMID:23774784

  19. Regulation of glomerulotubular balance. III. Implication of cytosolic calcium in flow-dependent proximal tubule transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhaopeng; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Weinstein, Alan M; Wang, Tong

    2015-04-15

    In the proximal tubule, axial flow (drag on brush-border microvilli) stimulates Na(+) and HCO3 (-) reabsorption by modulating both Na/H exchanger 3 (NHE3) and H-ATPase activity, a process critical to glomerulotubular balance. We have also demonstrated that blocking the angiotensin II receptor decreases baseline transport, but preserves the flow effect; dopamine leaves baseline fluxes intact, but abrogates the flow effect. In the current work, we provide evidence implicating cytosolic calcium in flow-dependent transport. Mouse proximal tubules were microperfused in vitro at perfusion rates of 5 and 20 nl/min, and reabsorption of fluid (Jv) and HCO3 (-) (JHCO3) were measured. We examined the effect of high luminal Ca(2+) (5 mM), 0 mM Ca(2+), the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), and the Ca-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin. In control tubules, increasing perfusion rate from 5 to 20 nl/min increased Jv by 62% and JHCO3 by 104%. With respect to Na(+) reabsorption, high luminal Ca(2+) decreased transport at low flow, but preserved the flow-induced increase; low luminal Ca(2+) had little impact; both BAPTA and 2-APB had no effect on baseline flux, but abrogated the flow effect; thapsigargin decreased baseline flow, leaving the flow effect intact. With respect to HCO3 (-) reabsorption, high luminal Ca(2+) decreased transport at low flow and mildly diminished the flow-induced increase; low luminal Ca(2+) had little impact; both BAPTA and 2-APB had no effect on baseline flux, but abrogated the flow effect. These data implicate IP3 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) signaling as a critical step in transduction of microvillous drag to modulate Na(+) and HCO3 (-) transport. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Locally formed dopamine inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase activity in rat renal cortical tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri, I.; Kone, B.C.; Gullans, S.R.; Aperia, A.; Brenner, B.M.; Ballermann, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dopamine, generated locally from L-dopa, inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase in permeabilized rat proximal tubules under maximum transport rate conditions for sodium. To determine whether locally formed dopamine inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase activity in intact cortical tubule cells we studied the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption rate (Qo 2 ) and 86 Rb uptake in renal cortical tubule cell suspensions. L-Dopa did not affect ouabain-insensitive Qo 2 or mitochondrial respiration. However, L-dopa inhibited ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal inhibition (K 0.5 ) of 5 x 10 -7 M and a maximal inhibition of 14.1 ± 1.5% at 10 -4 M. L-Dopa also blunted the nystatin-stimulated Qo 2 in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating the L-dopa directly inhibits Na + -K + -ATPase activity and not sodium entry. Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake was also inhibited by L-dopa. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine, eliminated the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 and 86 Rb uptake, indicating that dopamine rather than L-dopa was the active agent. The finding that the L-dopa concentration-response curve was shifted to the left by one order of magnitude in the presence of nystatin suggests that the inhibitory effect is enhanced when the intracellular sodium concentration is increased. By studying the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive Qo 2 at increasing extracellular sodium concentrations in the presence of nystatin, the authors demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of locally formed dopamine on the Na + -K + -ATPase is indeed dependent on the sodium available for the enzyme and occurs in an uncompetitive manner

  1. Quantitative mass spectrometry of diabetic kidney tubules identifies GRAP as a novel regulator of TGF-beta signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Timothy D; Barati, Michelle T; Coventry, Susan C; Salyer, Sarah A; Klein, Jon B; Powell, David W

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to define novel mediators of tubule injury in diabetic kidney disease. For this, we used state-of-the-art proteomic methods combined with a label-free quantitative strategy to define protein expression differences in kidney tubules from transgenic OVE26 type 1 diabetic and control mice. The analysis was performed with diabetic samples that displayed a pro-fibrotic phenotype. We have identified 476 differentially expressed proteins. Bioinformatic analysis indicated several clusters of regulated proteins in relevant functional groups such as TGF-beta signaling, tight junction maintenance, oxidative stress, and glucose metabolism. Mass spectrometry detected expression changes of four physiologically relevant proteins were confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Of these, the Grb2-related adaptor protein (GRAP) was up-regulated in kidney tubules from diabetic mice and fibrotic kidneys from diabetic patients, and subsequently confirmed as a novel component of TGF-beta signaling in cultured human renal tubule cells. Thus, indicating a potential novel role for GRAP in TGF-beta-induced tubule injury in diabetic kidney disease. Although we targeted a specific disease, this approach offers a robust, high-sensitivity methodology that can be applied to the discovery of novel mediators for any experimental or disease condition. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Homothorax plays autonomous and nonautonomous roles in proximodistal axis formation and migration of the Drosophila renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar-Stoopel, Adi; Gonen, Nitzan; Mahroum, Mohammed; Ben-Zvi, Doreen S; Toledano, Hila; Salzberg, Adi

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila Malpighian tubules (MpTs) serve as a functional equivalent of the mammalian renal tubules. The MpTs are composed of two pairs of epithelial tubes that bud from the midgut-hindgut boundary during embryogenesis. The MpT primordia grow, elongate and migrate through the body cavity to assume their final position and shape. The stereotypic pattern of MpT migration is regulated by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic signals, many of which are still obscure. In this work, we implicate the TALE-class homeoprotein Homothorax (Hth) in MpT patterning. We show that in the absence of Hth the tubules fail to rearrange and migrate. Hth plays both autonomous and nonautonomous roles in this developmental process. Within the tubules Hth is required for convergent extension and for defining distal versus proximal cell identities. The difference between distal and proximal cell identities seems to be required for proper formation of the leading loop. Outside the tubules, wide-range mesodermal expression of Hth is required for directing anterior migration. The nonautonomous effects of Hth on MpT migration can be partially attributed to its effects on homeotic determination along the anterior posterior axis of the embryo and to its effects on stellate cell (SC) incorporation into the MpT. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Protein p0071, an armadillo plaque protein of adherens junctions, is predominantly expressed in distal renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Britta; Krebs, Ulrike; Berger, Irina; Hofmann, Ilse

    2010-01-01

    Protein p0071 is a member of the p120-subfamily of armadillo proteins and is well known as a junctional plaque component involved in cell-cell adhesion, especially in adherens junctions. By systematic immunohistochemical analysis of mouse and human kidney tissues, p0071 was prominently detected in distinct kidney tubules. Upon double-labeling immunolocalization experiments with segment-specific markers, p0071 was predominantly localized in distal straight and convoluted tubules and to a lesser extent in proximal tubules, in the ascending thin limb of loop of Henle and in the collecting ducts. In capillaries of the kidney, p0071 co-localized with VE-cadherin an endothelium-specific cadherin. Protein p0071 was also detected in both, renal cell carcinomas derived from distal tubules and in maturing nephrons of early mouse developmental stages. Immunoblotting of total extracts of cultured cells of renal origin showed that p0071 was detected in all human and murine cells analyzed. Upon immunolocalization, p0071 was observed in adherens junctions but also in distinct cytoplasmic structures at the cell periphery of cultured cells. Possible structural and functional roles of p0071 are suggested by its preferential occurrence in distinct tubule segments, and its potential use as a cytodiagnostic cell type marker in renal pathology is discussed.

  4. Cadmium chloride inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in mouse renal proximal tubules: An in vitro metabolomic approach with (13)C NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Hassan; Boghossian, Michelle; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Ferrier, Bernard; Conjard-Duplany, Agnès

    2015-11-04

    Using isolated mouse renal proximal tubules incubated with lactate as substrate, we have found that the addition of 1-50 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in lactate utilization, in glucose production and in the cellular level of ATP, coenzyme A, acetyl-coenzyme A and glutathione (reduced and oxidized forms). Combining enzymatic and (13)C NMR measurements in a cellular metabolomic approach, we have shown that, in the presence of 10 μM CdCl2, fluxes through the key-enzymes of gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase were greatly depressed by cadmium. This was accompanied by a reduction in fluxes through the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Comparing the mouse and human renal metabolic responses to cadmium, it is interesting to observe that the mouse renal proximal tubule was much more sensitive than the human renal proximal tubule to the adverse effects of CdCl2. As far as renal gluconeogenesis is concerned, the mouse seems to be an appropriate and convenient animal model to study the mechanism of cadmium nephrotoxicity. However, the data obtained in the mouse should be extrapolated to humans with caution because the inhibition of fluxes through the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mouse tubules were not observed in human tubules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Adhesive Secretion from Cuvierian Tubules of Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskåli (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Baranowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber Holothuria forskåli possesses a specialized system called Cuvierian tubules. During mechanical stimulation white filaments (tubules are expelled and become sticky upon contact with any object. We isolated a protein with adhesive properties from protein extracts of Cuvierian tubules from H. forskåli. This protein was identified by antibodies against recombinant precollagen D which is located in the byssal threads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. To find out the optimal procedure for extraction and purification, the identified protein was isolated by several methods, including electroelution, binding to glass beads, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration. Antibodies raised against the isolated protein were used for localization of the adhesive protein in Cuvierian tubules. Immunostaining and immunogold electron microscopical studies revealed the strongest immunoreactivity in the mesothelium; this tissue layer is involved in adhesion. Adhesion of Cuvierian tubule extracts was measured on the surface of various materials. The extracted protein showed the strongest adhesion to Teflon surface. Increased adhesion was observed in the presence of potassium and EDTA, while cadmium caused a decrease in adhesion. Addition of antibodies and trypsin abolished the adhesive properties of the extract.

  6. Diglycolic acid inhibits succinate dehydrogenase activity in human proximal tubule cells leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Greg M; Dunning, Cody L; Conrad, Taylor; Hitt, Mallory J; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2013-08-29

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is a solvent used in consumer products allowing the increased risk for consumer exposure. DEG metabolism produces two primary metabolites, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (2-HEAA) and diglycolic acid (DGA). DGA has been shown to be the toxic metabolite responsible for the proximal tubule cell necrosis seen in DEG poisoning. The mechanism of DGA toxicity in the proximal tubule cell is not yet known. The chemical structure of DGA is very similar to citric acid cycle intermediates. Studies were designed to assess whether its mechanism of toxicity involves disruption of cellular metabolic pathways resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. First, DGA preferentially inhibited succinate dehydrogenase, including human kidney cell enzyme, but had no effect on other citric acid cycle enzyme activities. DGA produces a cellular ATP depletion that precedes cell death. Human proximal tubule (HPT) cells, pre-treated with increasing DGA concentrations, showed significantly decreased oxygen consumption. DGA did not increase lactate levels, indicating no effect on glycolytic activity. DGA increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HPT cells in a concentration and time dependent manner. These results indicate that DGA produced proximal tubule cell dysfunction by specific inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase and oxygen consumption. Disruption of these processes results in decreased energy production and proximal tubule cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Megalin is essential for renal proximal tubule reabsorption and accumulation of transcobalamin-B(12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birn, Henrik; Willnow, Thomas E; Nielsen, Rikke

    2002-01-01

    tubular uptake of TC-B(12). The urinary B(12) excretion is increased approximately 4-fold, resulting in an approximately 28-fold higher renal B(12) clearance. This is associated with an approximately 4-fold decrease in B(12) content in megalin-deficient kidney cortex. Thus megalin is important to prevent...... urinary loss of vitamin B(12). In addition, light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry demonstrate lysosomal accumulation of B(12) in rat and mouse proximal tubules. In rats this accumulation is correlated with vitamin intake. Thus renal lysosomal B(12) accumulation is dependent on vitamin status......, indicating a possible reserve function of this organelle in the rat kidney....

  8. Molecular basis for SNX-BAR-mediated assembly of distinct endosomal sorting tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Weering, Jan R.T.; Sessions, Richard B.; Traer, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Sorting nexins (SNXs) are regulators of endosomal sorting. For the SNX-BAR subgroup, a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain is vital for formation/stabilization of tubular subdomains that mediate cargo recycling. Here, by analysing the in vitro membrane remodelling properties of all 12 human SNX......-loop' interactions. Overall, the restricted and selective nature of these interactions provide a molecular explanation for how distinct SNX-BAR-decorated tubules are nucleated from the same endosomal vacuole, as observed in living cells. Our data provide insight into the molecular mechanism that generates...

  9. Caveolin-3 is associated with the T-tubules of mature skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Ploug, Thorkil

    1999-01-01

    Caveolae are abundant in skeletal muscle and their coat contains a specific isoform of caveolin, caveolin-3. It has been suggested that during muscle development, caveolin-3 is associated with the T-tubules, but that in adult muscle it is found on the plasma membrane only. We have studied...... the distribution of caveolin-3 in single skeletal muscle fibers from adult rat soleus by confocal immunofluorescence and by immunogold electron microscopy. We found that caveolin-3 occurs at the highest density on the plasma membrane but is also present in the core of the fibers, at the I-band/A-band interface...

  10. In-vitro maintenance and functionality of primary renal tubules and their application in the study of relative renal toxicity of nephrotoxic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsheng; Patton, David; Jackson, Simon K; Purcell, Wendy M

    2013-01-01

    The renal tubules play important roles in substance re-absorption from primary urine of the kidney, drug metabolism and gluconeogenesis in fasting and are vulnerable targets of nephrotoxic chemicals. Therefore, an appropriate functional model of renal tubules would enable the study of their functionality and chemical-induced toxicity. We have developed a method to maintain primary renal tubules and sustain their biochemical functionality in culture for an extended period of time. Primary rat renal tubules were isolated from male rat kidneys by collagenase perfusion and the tubules maintained in culture as a suspension by a gyratory culture method. The tubule fragments gradually formed renal tubule aggregates within 6days and were maintained in culture for up to 12days without apparent morphological changes. Biochemical functions including glucose release, galactose uptake and pyruvate uptake were retained for the observed period of 12days after isolation. The aggregates showed significant cytochrome P450 1A1 activity recovery from day 6 after isolation and this was maintained thereafter during the 12-day period of in-vitro culture. A new toxicity test termed the cell spreading inhibition test (CSIT) of renal tubule aggregates was developed to study the effect of toxicants on cell spreading/growth and determine the minimum concentration of each toxicant that caused cell spreading inhibition (CSI-C). The CSI-Cs of selected nephrotoxic drugs were determined as chlorpromazine (60μM), cisplatin (200μM), diclofenac (800μM), valproic acid (10mM), and gentamycin (30mM). The gyratory method of primary renal tubule aggregate culture can retain tubular cell functions such as glucose release, galactose uptake and allow cytochrome P450 1A1 activity to recover, which are essential for an in-vitro model. Therefore, renal tubule aggregates can be used as a model for studies of biochemical functions of renal tubules and relative renal toxicity of nephrotoxic agents. Copyright

  11. Vertebrate kidney tubules elongate using a planar cell polarity-dependent, rosette-based mechanism of convergent extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienkamp, Soeren S; Liu, Kun; Karner, Courtney M; Carroll, Thomas J; Ronneberger, Olaf; Wallingford, John B; Walz, Gerd

    2012-12-01

    Cystic kidney diseases are a global public health burden, affecting over 12 million people. Although much is known about the genetics of kidney development and disease, the cellular mechanisms driving normal kidney tubule elongation remain unclear. Here, we used in vivo imaging to show for the first time that mediolaterally oriented cell intercalation is fundamental to vertebrate kidney morphogenesis. Unexpectedly, we found that kidney tubule elongation is driven in large part by a myosin-dependent, multicellular rosette-based mechanism, previously only described in Drosophila melanogaster. In contrast to findings in Drosophila, however, non-canonical Wnt and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is required to control rosette topology and orientation during vertebrate kidney tubule elongation. These data resolve long-standing questions concerning the role of PCP signaling in the developing kidney and, moreover, establish rosette-based intercalation as a deeply conserved cellular engine for epithelial morphogenesis.

  12. Denervation and high-fat diet reduce insulin signaling in T-tubules in skeletal muscle of living mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans P M; Ploug, Thorkil; Ai, Hua

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insulin stimulates muscle glucose transport by translocation of GLUT4 to sarcolemma and T-tubules. Despite muscle glucose uptake playing a major role in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, the temporal and spatial changes in insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation during these co......OBJECTIVE: Insulin stimulates muscle glucose transport by translocation of GLUT4 to sarcolemma and T-tubules. Despite muscle glucose uptake playing a major role in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, the temporal and spatial changes in insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation during...... receptors. RESULTS: Denervation and high-fat diet reduced insulin-mediated glucose transport. In denervated muscle, insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 P(3) (PIP3) production was abolished in T-tubules, while PIP3 production at sarcolemma was increased 2.6-fold. Correspondingly, GLUT4-GFP...

  13. A telomerase immortalized human proximal tubule cell line with a truncation mutation (Q4004X in polycystin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittney-Shea Herbert

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is associated with a variety of cellular phenotypes in renal epithelial cells. Cystic epithelia are secretory as opposed to absorptive, have higher proliferation rates in cell culture and have some characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. In this communication we describe a telomerase immortalized cell line that expresses proximal tubule markers and is derived from renal cysts of an ADPKD kidney. These cells have a single detectable truncating mutation (Q4004X in polycystin-1. These cells make normal appearing but shorter cilia and fail to assemble polycystin-1 in the cilia, and less uncleaved polycystin-1 in membrane fractions. This cell line has been maintained in continuous passage for over 35 passages without going into senescence. Nephron segment specific markers suggest a proximal tubule origin for these cells and the cell line will be useful to study mechanistic details of cyst formation in proximal tubule cells.

  14. Gulo Acts as a de novo Marker for Pronephric Tubules in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yajun; Liu, Yuhang; Zhao, Ya; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yamin; Wang, Honglian; Li, Mi; Zhao, Hui; Zhou, Qin; Lv, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin C is an antioxidant and acts as a cofactor for several key enzymatic catalytic reactions in animals. Amphibians produce vitamin C in their kidneys, as opposed to mammals that produce vitamin C in their liver. Gulo serves as a crucial enzyme for vitamin C synthesis in mammals, but the characteristics and localization of its homologous genes during kidney development in Xenopus laevis, an amphibian, remains unknown. We aligned amino acid sequences of Gulo across different species by using bioinformatics methods and detected patterns of expression for Gulo during kidney development by using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We identified a new site on the X. laevis genome, LOC495407. Sequence alignment analysis indicated this fragment is highly conserved and homologous to gulo genes in mammals. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization results reveal that X. laevis gulo is maternally expressed during the early stages of embryonic development, particularly, in the tubules of the pronephros from the middle tail-bud stage and onward in embryos. Gulo is a novel specific marker for pronephros tubules in X. laevis, and may be used as a potential marker for kidney development studies and disease diagnosis in mammals. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Endotoxin Preconditioning Reprograms S1 Tubules and Macrophages to Protect the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hato, Takashi; Zollman, Amy; Plotkin, Zoya; El-Achkar, Tarek M; Maier, Bernhard F; Pay, S Louise; Dube, Shataakshi; Cabral, Pablo; Yoshimoto, Momoko; McClintick, Jeanette; Dagher, Pierre C

    2018-01-01

    Preconditioning with a low dose of endotoxin confers unparalleled protection against otherwise lethal models of sepsis. The mechanisms of preconditioning have been investigated extensively in isolated immune cells such as macrophages. However, the role of tissue in mediating the protective response generated by preconditioning remains unknown. Here, using the kidney as a model organ, we investigated cell type-specific responses to preconditioning. Compared with preadministration of vehicle, endotoxin preconditioning in the cecal ligation and puncture mouse model of sepsis led to significantly enhanced survival and reduced bacterial load in several organs. Furthermore, endotoxin preconditioning reduced serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, upregulated molecular pathways involved in phagocytosis, and prevented the renal function decline and injury induced in mice by a toxic dose of endotoxin. The protective phenotype involved the clustering of macrophages around S1 segments of proximal tubules, and full renal protection required both macrophages and renal tubular cells. Using unbiased S1 transcriptomic and tissue metabolomic approaches, we identified multiple protective molecules that were operative in preconditioned animals, including molecules involved in antibacterial defense, redox balance, and tissue healing. We conclude that preconditioning reprograms macrophages and tubules to generate a protective environment, in which tissue health is preserved and immunity is controlled yet effective. Endotoxin preconditioning can thus be used as a discovery platform, and understanding the role and participation of both tissue and macrophages will help refine targeted therapies for sepsis. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Peritubular uptake and brush border transport of 28Mg by flounder renal tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, J.L.; Shustock, E.

    1985-01-01

    The uptake of 28 Mg by isolated renal tubules of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, was studied by compartmental analysis. Two phases of uptake were seen in steady-state conditions. The slow-exchanging compartment was 46% of the total Mg content, and uptake into this compartment was saturable and inhibited by 10 mM CaCl 2 , dinitrophenol, and ouabain but not by furosemide, Na-free medium, or cytochalasin B. The fast-exchanging compartment was 5% of the total Mg, and uptake into this compartment showed sigmoid saturation kinetics. The fast uptake rate was inhibited by dinitrophenol, ouabain, Na-free medium, 10 mM CaCl 2 , and furosemide but stimulated by cytochalasin B. 28 Mg efflux from brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) was stimulated by both an inside positive electrical potential generated by 100 mM KCl and by 100 mM NaCl. BBMV uptake was inhibited by 10 mM CaCl 2 and unaffected by furosemide. The relationship of electrical gradient-driven and Na gradient-driven Mg transport to the Mg secretory function of these tubules is discussed

  17. FGF23 is synthesised locally by renal tubules and activates injury-primed fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward R; Tan, Sven-Jean; Holt, Stephen G; Hewitson, Tim D

    2017-06-13

    In kidney disease, higher circulating levels of the mineral-regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 are predictive of disease progression but direct pathogenic effects on the kidney are unknown. We sought evidence of local renal synthesis in response to unilateral ureteric obstruction in the mouse, and pro-fibrotic actions of FGF23 on the fibroblast in vitro. Acute tubulointerstitial injury due to unilateral ureteric obstruction stimulated renal FGF23 synthesis by tubules, and downregulated inactivating proprotein convertases, without effects on systemic mineral metabolism. In vitro, FGF23 had divergent effects on fibroblast activation in cells derived from normal and obstructed kidneys. While FGF23 failed to stimulate fibrogenesis in normal fibroblasts, in those primed by injury, FGF23 induced pro-fibrotic signalling cascades via activation of TGF-β pathways. Effects were independent of α-klotho. Tubule-derived FGF23 may amplify myofibroblast activation in acute renal injury, and might provide a novel therapeutic target in renal fibrosis.

  18. A minimally invasive, lentiviral based method for the rapid and sustained genetic manipulation of renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espana-Agusti, Judit; Tuveson, David A; Adams, David J; Matakidou, Athena

    2015-06-05

    The accelerated discovery of disease-related genes emerging from genomic studies has strained the capacity of traditional genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to provide in-vivo validation. Direct, somatic, genetic engineering approaches allow for accelerated and flexible genetic manipulation and represent an attractive alternative to GEMMs. In this study we investigated the feasibility, safety and efficiency of a minimally invasive, lentiviral based approach for the sustained in-vivo modification of renal tubular epithelial cells. Using ultrasound guidance, reporter vectors were directly injected into the mouse renal parenchyma. We observed transgene expression confined to the renal cortex (specifically proximal and distal tubules) and sustained beyond 2 months post injection. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of this methodology to induce long-term, in-vivo knockdown of candidate genes either through somatic recombination of floxed alleles or by direct delivery of specific shRNA sequences. This study demonstrates that ultrasound-guided injection of lentiviral vectors provides a safe and efficient method for the genetic manipulation of renal tubules, representing a quick and versatile alternative to GEMMs for the functional characterisation of disease-related genes.

  19. α- and β-adrenergic receptors in proximal tubules of rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, P.R.; Fortin, T.L.; Kelvie, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Proximal tubules were isolated from the rat kidney by collagenase digestion of the cortical tissue followed by Percoll gradient centrifugation. Microscopic and hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity studies proved the purity of the preparation. [ 3 H]Prazosin, [ 3 H]rauwolscine, and [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol were used to identify and quantitate respectively the α 1 -, α 2 - and β-adrenergic receptors. Proximal tubular (F 4 ) particulate fraction was compared against other cortical nephron segment (F 1 ,F 2 ) fractions and the total collagenase-digested cortex particulate suspension (F t ). Proximal tubules were enriched in α 1 - and α 2 -adrenergic receptors compared with. The fractions enriched in glomeruli and distal tubular segments had relatively low concentrations of α 1 - and α 2 -adrenergic receptors. Isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities in the different fractions corroborated well with the pattern suggested by the [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol binding studies. The results suggest that whole-cortex preparation radioligand binding studies may reflect proximal tubular α 1 - and α 2 -adrenergic receptor changes quite well. They may, however, miss or give erroneous impressions about β-adrenergic receptor changes occurring in different cortical nephron segments

  20. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of 3 H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases in inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells

  1. Stokes flow through a slit with periodic reabsorption: An application to renal tubule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haroon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the Stokes flow of an incompressible viscous fluid through a slit with periodic reabsorption at the walls. The momentum equation for the two dimensional flow is exactly solved in terms of stream function for two different cases of boundary conditions. Dimensional forms of stream function, velocity components, axial flow rate, pressure distribution, mean pressure drop, wall shear stress, fractional reabsorption and leakage flux are obtained. The points of maximum velocity components are also identified for fixed axial distance. Using physiological data of rat kidney, the theoretical values of periodic reabsorption and pressure drop for various values of fractional reabsorption are tabulated. The graphs of flow properties for both the cases are compared with the case of uniform reabsorption. It is shown that the periodic reabsorption parameter for both the cases plays a vital role in altering the flow properties, which are useful in analyzing flow behavior during the reabsorption of glomerular filtrate through a renal tubule in normal and diseased conditions. It is found that 50% reabsorption of fluid from a single nephron can be achieved by setting α=3.197500134cm for one of the cases which indicates that there is a need of artificial kidney for survival. In case 2, a minor treatment is needed as the value of α for 80% reabsorption is not possible. Streamlines are also drawn to analyze the flow behavior through an abnormal renal tubule.

  2. Early effects of aldosterone on Na-K pump in rat cortical collecting tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Takemoto, F.; Katz, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Sustained exposure to aldosterone (Aldo) increases the abundance and activity of the Na-K pump in cortical collecting tubules (CCT). However, the onset and mechanism of the early interaction of Aldo with the CCT pump, especially in adrenal-intact animals, are unclear. We evaluated the short-term effects of the hormone on Na-K-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity and on ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake, a measure of the transporting rate of the pump, in microdissected CCT from adrenal-intact rats. Incubation with Aldo (10(-8) M, 2 h) had no effect on Na-K-ATPase activity (Vmax), whereas it produced at least a twofold increase in 86Rb uptake. This effect was generated by physiological concentrations of the hormone (threshold 10(-10) M; apparent K1/2 approximately 10(-9) M), after a short lag of less than or equal to 30 min. Incubation with Aldo in the presence of amiloride or nystatin or in a Na-free medium (choline chloride) did not prevent the enhanced 86Rb uptake seen after Aldo alone; possible interpretations of these observations are discussed. We conclude that Aldo produces a rapid stimulation of pump function in CCT that precedes its induction of new pump synthesis; the physiological significance of this effect is suggested by its occurrence in tubules from adrenal-intact animals within the time frame and concentration range of the hormone's effects on electrolyte transport

  3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Seliverstova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes, and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals.

  4. Effect of Tamoxifen on Seminiferous Tubules Structure during Pregnancy in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Soleimani Rad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tamoxifen is a nonsteroidal drug which mainly treats breast cancer. It is also applied for stimulation of ovulation and remedy of infertility. Regarding the tamoxifen binding to estrogen receptors and the possible role of estrogens in spermatogenesis, the present study aimed to histologically evaluate spermatogenesis in the seminiferous ducts of mice, whose mothers had received tamoxifen during pregnancy. Methods: In the present study, 30 female and 15 male mice of NMRI race were selected for mating. Since 13th day of pregnancy, the experimental group received tamoxifen with the dosage of 5 mg/kg intra-peritoneally for 7 days, wherease the control group received normal saline. After childbirth of the mated mice, male infants were selected and monitored in the standard laboratory conditions. After reaching the age of puberty (6-8Weeks, adult mice were sacrificed by the cervical dislocation, and the testes were removed for histological evaluation of spermatogenesis. After routine histological processing, the samples were studied by the light microscope. Results: Histological studies showed that spermatogenic and Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules in control and experimental groups were significantly different, though no difference was observed in the number of Leydig cells in the both groups. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that tamoxifen exposure during development can cause histological changes in the seminiferous tubules, which can lead to infertility in the male rat.

  5. High glucose induces apoptosis via upregulation of Bim expression in proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Qian; Dong, Jian-Jun; Cai, Tian; Shen, Xue; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Liao, Lin

    2017-04-11

    Diabetic nephropathy is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease. Apoptosis of tubule epithelial cells is a major feature of diabetic nephropathy. The mechanisms of high glucose (HG) induced apoptosis are not fully understood. Here we demonstrated that, HG induced apoptosis via upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only protein Bim protein, but not bring a significant change in the baseline level of autophagy in HK2 cells. The increase of Bim expression was caused by the ugregulation of transcription factors, FOXO1 and FOXO3a. Bim expression initiates BAX/BAK-mediated mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Silence of Bim by siRNA in HK2 cells prevented HG-induced apoptosis and also sensitized HK2 cells to autophagy during HG treatment. The autophagy inhibitor 3-MA increased the injury in Bim knockdown HK2 cells by retriggering apoptosis. The above results suggest a Bim-independent apoptosis pathway in HK2 cells, which normally could be inhibited by autophagy. Overall, our results indicate that HG induces apoptosis via up-regulation of Bim expression in proximal tubule epithelial cells.

  6. Hemoglobin inhibits albumin uptake by proximal tubule cells: implications for sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbach, Megan L; Kaur, Amandeep; Rbaibi, Youssef; Tejero, Jesús; Weisz, Ora A

    2017-06-01

    Proximal tubule (PT) dysfunction, including tubular proteinuria, is a significant complication in young sickle cell disease (SCD) that can eventually lead to chronic kidney disease. Hemoglobin (Hb) dimers released from red blood cells upon hemolysis are filtered into the kidney and internalized by megalin/cubilin receptors into PT cells. The PT is especially sensitive to heme toxicity, and tubular dysfunction in SCD is thought to result from prolonged exposure to filtered Hb. Here we show that concentrations of Hb predicted to enter the tubule lumen during hemolytic crisis competitively inhibit the uptake of another megalin/cubilin ligand (albumin) by PT cells. These effects were independent of heme reduction state. The Glu7Val mutant of Hb that causes SCD was equally effective at inhibiting albumin uptake compared with wild-type Hb. Addition of the Hb scavenger haptoglobin (Hpt) restored albumin uptake in the presence of Hb, suggesting that Hpt binding to the Hb αβ dimer-dimer interface interferes with Hb binding to megalin/cubilin. BLAST searches and structural modeling analyses revealed regions of similarity between Hb and albumin that map to this region and may represent sites of Hb interaction with megalin/cubilin. Our studies suggest that impaired endocytosis of megalin/cubilin ligands, rather than heme toxicity, may be the cause of tubular proteinuria in SCD patients. Additionally, loss of these filtered proteins into the urine may contribute to the extra-renal pathogenesis of SCD. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. A bioartificial renal tubule device embedding human renal stem/progenitor cells.

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    Anna Giovanna Sciancalepore

    Full Text Available We present a bio-inspired renal microdevice that resembles the in vivo structure of a kidney proximal tubule. For the first time, a population of tubular adult renal stem/progenitor cells (ARPCs was embedded into a microsystem to create a bioengineered renal tubule. These cells have both multipotent differentiation abilities and an extraordinary capacity for injured renal cell regeneration. Therefore, ARPCs may be considered a promising tool for promoting regenerative processes in the kidney to treat acute and chronic renal injury. Here ARPCs were grown to confluence and exposed to a laminar fluid shear stress into the chip, in order to induce a functional cell polarization. Exposing ARPCs to fluid shear stress in the chip led the aquaporin-2 transporter to localize at their apical region and the Na(+K(+ATPase pump at their basolateral portion, in contrast to statically cultured ARPCs. A recovery of urea and creatinine of (20±5% and (13±5%, respectively, was obtained by the device. The microengineered biochip here-proposed might be an innovative "lab-on-a-chip" platform to investigate in vitro ARPCs behaviour or to test drugs for therapeutic and toxicological responses.

  8. Effectiveness of different final irrigation techniques and placement of endodontic sealer into dentinal tubules

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    Kauhanna Vianna de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare two irrigation techniques and four devices for endodontic sealer placement into the dentinal tubules. Ninety-nine single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and allocated to either the control (CO (n=11 or experimental groups according to the irrigation method: syringe and NaveTip needle (NT (n=44, and EndoActivator (EA (n=44. These groups were subdivided according to sealer placement into K-File (KF, lentulo spiral (LS, Easy Clean (EC, and EndoActivator (EA subgroups. Moreover, the distances of 5 mm and 2 mm from the apex were analyzed. The teeth were obturated with AH Plus and GuttaCore X3. Analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy associated to cathodoluminescence. The percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were measured. Data were evaluated by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Games-Howell test (p<0.05. EA was superior to NT in percentage of sealer penetration. EC was significantly superior to EA (subgroup for sealer penetration, and both improved the percentage of sealer penetration when compared to LS. Better sealer penetration was observed at the distance of 5 mm from the apex. Sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules was significantly improved by sonic irrigant activation.

  9. Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO 3 ) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10 -6 M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO 3 and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar 1 , Ile 8 )-Angiotensin II(10 -6 M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO 3 . Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO 3 . Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium

  10. Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide in MHC Class II tubules.

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    Tom Li Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. However, the capsular polysaccharide Sp1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 has been shown to activate CD4(+ T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II-dependent manner. The mechanism of carbohydrate presentation to CD4(+ T cells is unknown. We show in live murine dendritic cells (DCs that Sp1 translocates from lysosomal compartments to the plasma membrane in MHCII-positive tubules. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. In DM-deficient mice, retrograde transport of Sp1/MHCII complexes resulting in T cell-dependent immune responses to the polysaccharide in vitro and in vivo is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the capacity of a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen to use DC tubules as a vehicle for its transport as an MHCII/saccharide complex to the cell surface for the induction of T cell activation. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens.

  11. Cystine uptake by cultured cells originating from dog proximal tubule segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    States, B.; Reynolds, R.; Lee, J.; Segal, S.

    1990-01-01

    Large numbers of kidney epithelial cells were cultured successfully from isolated dog proximal tubule segments. Cells in primary culture and in first passage retained the cystine-dibasic amino acid co-transporter system which is found in vivo and in freshly isolated proximal tubule segments. In contrast to other cultured cells, the cystine-glutamate anti-porter was absent in primary cultures. However, this anti-porter system seemed to be developing in cells in first passage. The intracellular ratio of cysteine:reduced glutathione (CSH:GSH) was maintained at 1:36 in both primary cultures and in low passage cells. Incubation of cells in primary culture for 5 min at 37 degrees C with 0.025 mM [ 35 S]L-cystine resulted in incorporation of approximately 36 and 8.5% of the label into intracellular CSH and GSH, respectively. These cultured cells, therefore, seem to be an excellent model system for the eventual elucidation of (a) the inticacies of cystine metabolism and (b) regulation of (1) the cystine-dibasic amino acid co-transporter system and (2) the development of the cysteine-glutamate anti-porter system

  12. Effectiveness of different final irrigation techniques and placement of endodontic sealer into dentinal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Kauhanna Vianna de; Silva, Bruno Marques da; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; Crozeta, Bruno Monguilhott; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião de; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão

    2017-12-18

    The aim of this study was to compare two irrigation techniques and four devices for endodontic sealer placement into the dentinal tubules. Ninety-nine single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and allocated to either the control (CO) (n=11) or experimental groups according to the irrigation method: syringe and NaveTip needle (NT) (n=44), and EndoActivator (EA) (n=44). These groups were subdivided according to sealer placement into K-File (KF), lentulo spiral (LS), Easy Clean (EC), and EndoActivator (EA) subgroups. Moreover, the distances of 5 mm and 2 mm from the apex were analyzed. The teeth were obturated with AH Plus and GuttaCore X3. Analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy associated to cathodoluminescence. The percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were measured. Data were evaluated by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Games-Howell test (ppenetration. EC was significantly superior to EA (subgroup) for sealer penetration, and both improved the percentage of sealer penetration when compared to LS. Better sealer penetration was observed at the distance of 5 mm from the apex. Sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules was significantly improved by sonic irrigant activation.

  13. Cystogenesis and elongated primary cilia in Tsc1-deficient distal convoluted tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Eric A.; Carson, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multiorgan hamartomatous disease caused by loss of function mutations of either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Neurological symptoms of TSC predominate in younger patients, but renal pathologies are a serious aspect of the disease in older children and adults. To study TSC pathogenesis in the kidney, we inactivated the mouse Tsc1 gene in the distal convoluted tubules (DCT). At young ages, Tsc1 conditional knockout (CKO) mice have enlarged kidneys and mild cystogenesis with increased mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1 but decreased mTORC2 signaling. Treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin reduces kidney size and cystogenesis. Rapamycin withdrawal led to massive cystogenesis involving both distal as well as proximal tubules. To assess the contribution of decreased mTORC2 signaling in kidney pathogenesis, we also generated Rictor CKO mice. These animals did not have any detectable kidney pathology. Finally, we examined primary cilia in the DCT. Cilia were longer in Tsc1 CKO mice, and rapamycin treatment returned cilia length to normal. Rictor CKO mice had normal cilia in the DCT. Overall, our findings suggest that loss of the Tsc1 gene in the DCT is sufficient for renal cystogenesis. This cytogenesis appears to be mTORC1 but not mTORC2 dependent. Intriguingly, the mechanism may be cell autonomous as well as non-cell autonomous and possibly involves the length and function of primary cilia. PMID:22674026

  14. Effect of a novel bioactive glass-ceramic on dentinal tubule occlusion: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y; Liu, J; Li, X; Yin, W; He, T; Hu, D; Liao, Y; Yao, X; Wang, Y

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study aimed to assess the ability and efficacy of HX-BGC, a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (SiO2-P2 O5-CaO-Na2 O-SrO), to reduce dentine tubule permeability. Dentine discs from human third molars were etched and randomly allocated into five groups: Group 1--distilled water; Group 2--Sensodyne Repair toothpaste (containing NovaMin®); Group 3--HX-BGC toothpaste (containing 7.5% HX-BGC); Group 4--control toothpaste (without HX-BGC); and Group 5--HX-BGC powder. Specimens were treated daily by brushing with an electric toothbrush for 20 seconds. Between daily treatments (7 days total), specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours. Dentine permeability was measured at baseline, after the first treatment, after the first 24-hour immersion in artificial saliva and at the end of day 7. Dentine morphology and surface deposits were observed by scanning electron microscopy after one day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Sensodyne Repair and bioactive glass-ceramic toothpaste significantly and immediately lowered dentine permeability. The HX-BGC powder group showed the highest reduction in dentine permeability after 7 days of treatment. The novel bioactive glass-ceramic material HX-BGC is effective in reducing dentine permeability by occluding open dentine tubules, indicating that HX-BGC may be a potential treatment for dentine hypersensitivity. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  15. The interface between generating renal tubules and a polyester fleece in comparison to the interstitium of the developing kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miess, C; Glashauser, A; Denk, L; deVries, U; Minuth, W W

    2010-06-01

    An increasing number of investigations is dealing with the repair of acute and chronic renal failure by the application of stem/progenitor cells. However, accurate data concerning the cell biological mechanisms controlling the process of regeneration are scarce. For that reason new implantation techniques, advanced biomaterials and morphogens supporting regeneration of renal parenchyma are under research. Special focus is directed to structural and functional features of the interface between generating tubules and the surrounding interstitial space. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate structural features of the interstitium during generation of tubules. Stem/progenitor cells were isolated from neonatal rabbit kidney and mounted between layers of a polyester fleece to create an artificial interstitium. Perfusion culture was performed for 13 days in chemically defined Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium containing aldosterone (1 x 10(-7) M) as tubulogenic factor. Recordings of the artificial interstitium in comparison to the developing kidney were performed by morphometric analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The degree of differentiation was registered by immunohistochemistry. The data reveal that generated tubules are embedded in a complex network of fibers consisting of newly synthesized extracellular matrix proteins. Morphometric analysis further shows that the majority of tubules within the artificial interstitium develops in a surprisingly close distance between 5 and 25 mum to each other. The abundance of synthesized extracellular matrix acts obviously as a spacer keeping generated tubules in distance. For comparison, the same principle of construction is found in the developing parenchyma of the neonatal kidney. Most astonishingly, scanning electron microscopy reveals that the composition of interstitial matrix is not homogeneous but differs along a cortico-medullary axis of proceeding tubule development.

  16. Effects of two desensitizing dentifrices on dentinal tubule occlusion with citric acid challenge: Confocal laser scanning microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Anil Rajguru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dentin hypersensitivity results when patent tubules are exposed to pain-inducing external stimuli. Aim: This study aims to compare the effects of two desensitizing dentifrices containing NovaMin and arginine on dentinal tubule occlusion with and without citric acid challenge in vitro using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Materials and Methods: Forty dentin discs were randomly divided into Groups I and II containing twenty specimens each, treated with NovaMin and arginine-containing dentifrices, respectively. Groups I and II were divided into subgroups A and B where IA and IIA underwent CLSM analysis to determine the percentage of tubule occlusion while IB and IIB underwent 0.3% citric acid challenge and CLSM analysis. A novel grading system was devised to categorize tubule occlusion. Results: In Group II, the percentage of occluded tubules was highest for IIA (72.25% ± 10.57% and least for IIB (42.55% ± 8.65% having statistical significance (P < 0.0005. In Group I, the difference between IA (49.9% ± 12.96% and IB (43.15% ± 12.43% was statistically insignificant (P = 0.249. On the comparison between IB and IIB statistically indifferent result was obtained (P = 0.901, whereas the difference between IA and IIA was statistically significant (P < 0.001. The results of grading system were for IA 50% of samples belonged to Grade 2, for IIA 60% - Grade 3, and for IB 70% and for IIB 90% - Grade 2. Conclusion: Dentinal tubule occlusion with arginine-containing dentifrice was significantly higher than NovaMin. However, it could not resist citric acid challenge as effectively as NovaMin. The effects of NovaMin were more sustainable as compared to arginine-containing dentifrice, thus proving to be a better desensitizing agent.

  17. Cadmium alters the localization of N-cadherin, E-cadherin, and β-catenin in the proximal tubule epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozialeck, Walter C.; Lamar, Peter C.; Lynch, Sean M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies on proximal tubule-derived cells in culture have shown that Cd has relatively specific damaging effects on the cadherin-dependent junctions between the cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Cd can affect cadherin-dependent junctions in the proximal tubule epithelium in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received subcutaneous injections of Cd (0.6 mg/kg in isotonic saline, 5 days per week for up to 6 weeks). One day each week, 24-h urine samples were collected and analyzed for protein and creatinine. After 5-6 weeks, the Cd-treated animals developed significant proteinuria, with no change in creatinine excretion. Visualization of pan-cadherin immunoreactive materials by immunoperoxidase labeling showed that Cd caused a marked reduction in the intensity of cadherin labeling associated with the apical and the basolateral surfaces of the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but no change in the pattern of cadherin labeling in other segments of the nephron. Results of studies utilizing specific antibodies against N-cadherin, E-cadherin, and β-catenin showed changes in the localization of all three molecules in the proximal tubule. Assessment of cell membrane integrity with trypan blue and ethidium homodimer showed no overt evidence of death in the proximal tubule epithelial cells. Additional results showed that Cd caused only a slight increase in the total levels of glutathione and no significant peroxidation of membrane lipids, indicating only a modest level of oxidative stress. These results indicate that Cd can disrupt cadherin-dependent cell-cell junctions in the proximal tubule, and they raise the possibility that a loss of cadherin-mediated adhesion may contribute to the nephrotoxic effects of Cd

  18. Bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules beneath apparently intact but hypomineralized enamel in molar teeth with molar incisor hypomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagrell, Tobias G; Lingström, Peter; Olsson, Stina; Steiniger, Frank; Norén, Jörgen G

    2008-09-01

    The most common problems for a patient with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) are the collapse of enamel and cavitations, loss of fillings, and secondary caries, but most of all, severe hypersensitivity. The aim of this paper was therefore to histologically study possible bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules beneath apparently intact, but hypomineralized enamel in permanent molars with MIH. Five extracted permanent first molars diagnosed with MIH were fixated, demineralized, and sagittally serially sectioned in a bucco-lingual direction in a microtome with a thickness of 4-5 microm. Sections were stained with a modified Brown and Benn staining for bacteria, unstained sections were analysed in field emission SEM. Stained sections from the cuspal areas, below the hypomineralized enamel, the staining indicated the presence of bacteria in the dentinal tubules. The HTX staining showed that the pulp in sections without any findings was normal and free from bacteria or infiltrates from inflammatory cells. In sections where bacteria were found in the cuspal areas or deeper in the dentin, a zone of reparative dentin was found, and in sections from one tooth, the coronal pulp showed an inflammatory reaction with inflammatory cells. In sections adjacent to those without any bacterial staining, the SEM analyses revealed empty dentinal tubules without any odontoblast processes or signs of bacteria. When odontoblast processes were found, the dentinal tubules were filled with bacteria located on the surface of the odontoblast processes. In some areas, a large number of tubules were found with bacteria. No bacteria were found close to the pulp. The odontoblast processes appeared larger in areas where bacteria were found. The presence of bacteria in the dentinal tubules and inflammatory reactions in the pulp indicate that oral bacteria may penetrate through the hypomineralized enamel into the dentin, thus possibly contribute to hypersensitivity of teeth with MIH.

  19. [Ion excretion by the rat kidney in depressed reabsorption in proximal tubule and ascending protion of the loop of Henle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhmatova, E I; Natochin, Iu V; Pinegin, L E; Sokolova, M M; Tibekina, L M

    1978-03-01

    Simultaneous suppression of reabsorption in the proximal tubule with the aid of polyethylenglucole 400 (PEG) and in ascending part of Henle's loop with furosemide increased diuresis by 121 times and natri-uresis by 242 times on the average. The increase was based on changes in the tubule reabsorption and secretion. The changes of sodium and calcium excretion as well as excretion of potassium and magnesium were parallel. Excretion of sodium and calcium was lesser than the diuresis while that of magnesium and potassium exceeded it. Furosemide reduced the reabsorption of osmotically free water.

  20. Proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT1a receptors induces blood pressure responses to intracellular angiotensin II in AT1a receptor-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao C.

    2013-01-01

    The role of intracellular ANG II in proximal tubules of the kidney remains poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT1a receptors in the cortex mediates intracellular ANG II-induced blood pressure responses in AT1a receptor-deficient (Agtr1a-/-) mice. A GFP-tagged AT1a receptor, AT1aR/GFP, and an enhanced cyan fluorescent intracellular ANG II fusion protein, ECFP/ANG II, were expressed in proximal tubules of Agtr1a-/- mouse kidneys via the adenoviral transfer using a sodium and glucose cotransporter 2 promoter. Transfer of AT1aR/GFP alone or with ECFP/ANG II induced proximal tubule-dominant expression of AT1aR/GFP and/or ECFP/ANG II with a peak response at 2 wk. No significant AT1aR/GFP and/or ECFP/ANG II expression was observed in the glomeruli, medulla, or extrarenal tissues. Transfer of AT1aR/GFP alone, but not ECFP/ANG II, increased systolic blood pressure by 12 ± 2 mmHg by day 14 (n = 9, P tubule-dominant transfer of AT1aR/GFP alone (P tubules (P tubules had no effect on all indices. These results suggest that AT1a receptors and intracellular ANG II in proximal tubules of the kidney play an important physiological role in blood pressure regulation. PMID:23427083

  1. Intrarenal transfer of an intracellular fluorescent fusion of angiotensin II selectively in proximal tubules increases blood pressure in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao C.; Cook, Julia L.; Rubera, Isabelle; Tauc, Michel; Zhang, Fan

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that intrarenal adenoviral transfer of an intracellular cyan fluorescent fusion of angiotensin II (ECFP/ANG II) selectively in proximal tubules of the kidney increases blood pressure by activating AT1 (AT1a) receptors. Intrarenal transfer of ECFP/ANG II was induced in the superficial cortex of rat and mouse kidneys, and the sodium and glucose cotransporter 2 (sglt2) promoter was used to drive ECFP/ANG II expression selectively in proximal tubules. Intrarenal transfer of ECFP/ANG II induced a time-dependent, proximal tubule-selective expression of ECFP/ANG II in the cortex, which peaked at 2 wk and was sustained for 4 wk. ECFP/ANG II expression was low in the glomeruli and the entire medulla and was absent in the contralateral kidney or extrarenal tissues. At its peak of expression in proximal tubules at day 14, ANG II was increased by twofold in the kidney (P tubules (P kidney, and proximal tubule ANG II, or sodium excretion. These results provide evidence that proximal tubule-selective transfer of an intracellular ANG II fusion protein increases blood pressure by activating AT1a receptors and increasing sodium reabsorption in proximal tubules. PMID:21307128

  2. Locally formed dopamine inhibits Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase activity in rat renal cortical tubule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seri, I.; Kone, B.C.; Gullans, S.R.; Aperia, A.; Brenner, B.M.; Ballermann, B.J. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA) Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1988-10-01

    Dopamine, generated locally from L-dopa, inhibits Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase in permeabilized rat proximal tubules under maximum transport rate conditions for sodium. To determine whether locally formed dopamine inhibits Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in intact cortical tubule cells we studied the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption rate ({dot Q}o{sub 2}) and {sup 86}Rb uptake in renal cortical tubule cell suspensions. L-Dopa did not affect ouabain-insensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} or mitochondrial respiration. However, L-dopa inhibited ouabain-sensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximal inhibition (K{sub 0.5}) of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M and a maximal inhibition of 14.1 {plus minus} 1.5% at 10{sup {minus}4}M. L-Dopa also blunted the nystatin-stimulated {dot Q}o{sub 2} in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating the L-dopa directly inhibits Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity and not sodium entry. Ouabain-sensitive {sup 86}Rb uptake was also inhibited by L-dopa. Carbidopa, an inhibitor of the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine, eliminated the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} and {sup 86}Rb uptake, indicating that dopamine rather than L-dopa was the active agent. The finding that the L-dopa concentration-response curve was shifted to the left by one order of magnitude in the presence of nystatin suggests that the inhibitory effect is enhanced when the intracellular sodium concentration is increased. By studying the effect of L-dopa on ouabain-sensitive {dot Q}o{sub 2} at increasing extracellular sodium concentrations in the presence of nystatin, the authors demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of locally formed dopamine on the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase is indeed dependent on the sodium available for the enzyme and occurs in an uncompetitive manner.

  3. The effects of simulated microgravity on the seminiferous tubules of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Allan D.

    2012-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to have many adverse effects on various systems throughout the body. Because the opportunity to place research animals on board a Space Shuttle or the International Space Station is infrequent, various techniques have been designed to simulate the effects of microgravity in Earth based laboratories. A commonly used technique is known as antiorthostatic suspension, also often referred to as hind limb suspension. In this technique the hind portion of the animal is raised so that its hind limbs are non-weight bearing. This places the animal in roughly a 30° head down tilt position. This results in cephalic fluid shifts similar to those seen in actual space flight. This technique has also been shown to mimic other physiological parameters that are affected during space flight. This study examined testicular tissue from rats subjected to a 7 day antiorthostatic suspension. This tissue was acquired through a tissue sharing program and some of the experimental animals were injected with Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) which was hoped to ameliorate some of the effects of antiorthostatic suspension. The injection of IL-1ra was not expected to have any effect on testicular tissue, however this tissue was included in the morphological and statistical analysis to conduct a more complete study. All tissues were embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained using standard H&E staining. The tissue was then qualitatively ranked according to the "health" of the seminiferous tubules. Our findings indicate that 7 days of antiorthostatic suspension had adverse effects on the tissue that comprises the walls of the seminiferous tubules. It has long been known that antiorthostatic suspension has deleterious effects on testicular tissue, however this research indicates that these effects occur much faster than indicated by previous researchers. This is a significant finding because it indicates that meaningful earth based studies in this area can be

  4. Mercury Induces the Externalization of Phosphatidyl-Serine in Human Renal Proximal Tubule (HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying mechanism for the biological activity of inorganic mercury is believed to be the high affinity binding of divalent mercuric cations to thiols of sulfhydryl groups of proteins. A comprehensive analysis of published data indicates that inorganic mercury is one of the most environmentally abundant toxic metals, is a potent and selective nephrotoxicant that preferentially accumulates in the kidneys, and is known to produce cellular injury in the kidneys. Binding sites are present in the proximal tubules, and it is in the epithelial cells of these tubules that toxicants such as inorganic mercury are reabsorbed. This can affect the enzymatic activity and the structure of various proteins. Mercury may alter protein and membrane structure and function in the epithelial cells and this alteration may result in long term residual effects. This research was therefore designed to evaluate the dose-response relationship in human renal proximal tubule (HK-2 cells following exposure to inorganic mercury. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay for cell viability. The Annexin-V assay was performed by flow cytometry to determine the extent of phosphatidylserine externalization. Cells were exposed to mercury for 24 hours at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 μg/mL. Cytotoxicity experiments yielded a LD50 value of 4.65 ± 0.6 μg/mL indicating that mercury is highly toxic. The percentages of cells undergoing early apoptosis were 0.70 ± 0.03%, 10.0 ± 0.02%, 11.70 ± 0.03%, 15.20 ± 0.02%, 16.70 ± 0.03%, 24.20 ±0.02%, and 25.60 ± 0.04% at treatments of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 μg/mL of mercury respectively. This indicates a dose-response relationship with regard to mercury-induced cytotoxicity and the externalization of phosphatidylserine in HK-2 cells.

  5. Activation of hepatocyte growth factor receptor, c-met, in renal tubules is required for renoprotection after acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Tan, Roderick J; Lin, Lin; Zhou, Lili; Liu, Youhua

    2013-09-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor is a pleiotrophic protein that promotes injury repair and regeneration in multiple organs. Here, we show that after acute kidney injury (AKI), the HGF receptor, c-met, was induced predominantly in renal tubular epithelium. To investigate the role of tubule-specific induction of c-met in AKI, we generated conditional knockout mice, in which the c-met gene was specifically disrupted in renal tubules. These Ksp-met-/- mice were phenotypically normal and had no appreciable defect in kidney morphology and function. However, in AKI induced by cisplatin or ischemia/reperfusion injury, the loss of tubular c-met substantially aggravated renal injury. Compared with controls, Ksp-met-/- mice displayed higher serum creatinine, more severe morphologic lesions, and increased apoptosis, which was accompanied by an increased expression of Bax and Fas ligand and decreased phosphorylation/activation of Akt. In addition, ablation of c-met in renal tubules promoted chemokine expression and renal inflammation after AKI. Consistently, ectopic expression of hepatocyte growth factor in vivo protected the kidneys against AKI in control mice, but not in Ksp-met-/- counterparts. Thus, our results suggest that tubule-specific c-met signaling is crucial in conferring renal protection after AKI, primarily by its anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  6. In vivo study of transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) in proximal convoluted tubules of rat kidney by synchronization modulation electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausell, Mathis; Fang, Zhihui; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Synchronization modulation (SM) electric field has been shown to effectively activate function of Na(+)/K(+) pumps in various cells and tissues, including skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocyte, monolayer of cultured cell line, and peripheral blood vessels. We are now reporting the in vivo studies in application of the SM electric field to kidney of living rats. The field-induced changes in the transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) or the lumen potential from the proximal convoluted tubules were monitored. The results showed that a short time (20 s) application of the SM electric field can significantly increase the magnitude of TEPD from 1-2 mV to about 20 mV. The TEPD is an active potential representing the transport current of the Na/K pumps in epithelial wall of renal tubules. This study showed that SM electric field can increase TEPD by activation of the pump molecules. Considering renal tubules, many active transporters are driven by the Na(+) concentration gradient built by the Na(+)/K(+) pumps, activation of the pump functions and increase in the magnitude of TEPD imply that the SM electric field may improve reabsorption functions of the renal tubules.

  7. Evidence for a morphologically distinct and functionally robust cell type in the proximal tubules of human kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Jennifer; Hultenby, Kjell; Cramnert, Catharina; Pontén, Fredrik; Jansson, Hannes; Lindgren, David; Axelson, Håkan; Johansson, Martin E

    2014-02-01

    Acute tubular necrosis (ATN), elicited by ischemia and/or toxicity, is a potentially life-threatening condition. Histologically, ATN corresponds to necrosis and detachment of renal tubular epithelial cells. However, the tubules possess a considerable regenerative capacity and may be restored. We have previously identified a scattered population of progenitor-like cells within the proximal tubules, sharing marker expression with the parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule as well as with renal tubules regenerating after ATN. In the present analysis, we use transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy and immunofluorescence of human kidney cortex to further explore these cells. We demonstrate that the cells are smaller and have drastically fewer mitochondria than the surrounding proximal tubule cells. They also display strong expression of several structural proteins such as vimentin, collagen-7A1 and the tight junction protein claudin-1. To functionally assess these cells, we also developed a novel human kidney explant model of ATN demonstrating that the cells are more resilient to injury than the surrounding proximal tubular cells. Taken together the results suggest a novel robust cell type with a contrasting biological role to that of the bulk of proximal tubular epithelium. © 2014.

  8. A histological study of the effect of exogenous melatonin on gentamicin induced structural alterations of proximal tubules in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapić, Dina; Mornjaković, Zakira; Ćosović, Esad; Šahinović, Maida

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the reactive changes of rat proximal tubules caused by gentamicin and the effect of relatively low doses of melatonin. 48 adult male Wistar rats were distributed into six groups of equal size which all received one of the following daily intraperitoneal injections: vehicle (5% ethanol in Ringer solution) during 11 days (C); gentamicin (80 mg/kg) during 8 days (G), two groups which concomitantly received gentamicin (80 mg/kg) during 8 days and melatonin in two different test doses (5 or 20 mg/kg) during 11 days (GM1, GM2) and two groups treated only with melatonin in two different doses (5 or 20 mg/kg) during 11 days (M1, M2). Histological analysis included qualitative and semi-quantitative light microscopy analysis of proximal tubules. Exogenous melatonin had no significant effect on the microstructure, independently of dosis. The changes of proximal tubules microstructure induced by gentamicin were expressed in the form of granulovacuolar degeneration, necrosis and desquamation. The grade of proximal tubular changes was smaller in animals who besides gentamicin received melatonin. Melatonin has a dose dependent protective effect on the structural alterations of proximal tubules of the kidney induced by gentamicin.

  9. Elucidation of density profile of self-assembled sitosterol + oryzanol tubules with small-angle neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, A.; Gilbert, E.P.; Bouwman, W.G.; Sawalha, H.I.M.; Adel, den R.; Garamus, V.M.; Venema, P.; Linden, van der E.; Flöter, E.

    2012-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments have been performed on self-assembled tubules of sitosterol and oryzanol in triglyceride oils to investigate details of their structure. Alternative organic phases (deuterated and non-deuterated decane, limonene, castor oil and eugenol) were used to

  10. Reducing αENaC expression in kidney connecting tubule induces pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 symptoms during K+ loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle H

    2016-01-01

    Genetic inactivation of the epithelial Na(+) channel α-subunit (αENaC) in the renal collecting duct (CD) does not interfere with Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis in mice. However, inactivation in the CD and a part of the connecting tubule (CNT) induces autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1...

  11. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cabral Caldeira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species. A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.53 kg, with approximately 0.068% allocated to the testicular mass and 0.042% specifically to seminiferous tubules, which represented 87.5% of the testicular parenchyma. The albuginea comprised 12.5% of the testicular mass. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules was 236 µm, and the mean thickness of the seminiferous epithelium was 62.9 µm. Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores.

  12. The role of mammalian cardiac t-tubules in excitation–contraction coupling: experimental and computational approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orchard, C.; Pásek, Michal; Brette, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 5 (2009), s. 509-519 ISSN 0958-0670 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : cardiac cell * t-tubules * excitation-contraction coupling * mathematical modelling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.168, year: 2009

  13. Numerical variation of cell lysosomes of the proximal convoluted tubules of mice Kidneys submitted to different X-ray doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Lapa, R. de C.R. da; Pacheco, I.P.; Segreto, C.

    1984-01-01

    The number of cell lysosomes of the proximal convoluted tubules of mice Kidneys (Mus musculus) before and after whole-body irradiation with different X-ray doses is confronted. The mice were sacrificed after 72 hours and the cortex fragments were conduct to electron microscopy. A statistically significant numerical reduction of the lysosomas was observed in 72 hours. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. The single kinin receptor signals to separate and independent physiological pathways in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past we have used the leucokinins, the kinins of the cockroach Leucophaea, to evaluate the mechanism of diuretic action of kinin peptides in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Now using aedeskinins, the kinins of Aedes, are available, we find that in isolated Aede...

  15. The Tubulation Activity of a Fission Yeast F-BAR Protein Is Dispensable for Its Function in Cytokinesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. McDonald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available F-BAR proteins link cellular membranes to the actin cytoskeleton in many biological processes. Here we investigated the function of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Imp2 F-BAR domain in cytokinesis and find that it is critical for Imp2’s role in contractile ring constriction and disassembly. To understand mechanistically how the F-BAR domain functions, we determined its structure, elucidated how it interacts with membranes, and identified an interaction between dimers that allows helical oligomerization and membrane tubulation. Using mutations that block either membrane binding or tubulation, we find that membrane binding is required for Imp2’s cytokinetic function but that oligomerization and tubulation, activities often deemed central to F-BAR protein function, are dispensable. Accordingly, F-BARs that do not have the capacity to tubulate membranes functionally substitute for the Imp2 F-BAR, establishing that its major role is as a cell-cycle-regulated bridge between the membrane and Imp2 protein partners, rather than as a driver of membrane curvature.

  16. [Occluding effects of desensitizer containing NovaMin combined with fluor protector on dentinal tubules:an in vitro study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-wei; Gu, Shuang; Jia, Xing-ya

    2015-10-01

    To observe the occlusion effect, acid resistance and abrasion resistance of desensitizer containing NovaMin combined with fluor protector on dentin tubules, in order to provide theoretical basis for clinical treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Thirty extracted intact and non-carious human premolars for orthodontic treatment were selected and made into 2 mm thick dentin slices. Each slice was cut into 4 parts to form 120 sensitive dentin models and randomly divided into 4 groups (n=30). Distilled water (group A), fluor protector (group B), Ominq desensitizer (group C) and fluor protector combined with Ominq desensitizer (group D)were applied respectively on the exposed dentin surfaces. After immersed in the artificial saliva for 24 h, each group was divided into 3 subgroups randomly to undergo direct observation, acid corrosion and tooth brushing test, then the plugging rate of dentin tubules was statistically analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package. Dentin tubules in group A were completely open, while good occluding effects were found in group B, C and D. Among them, group D displayed the best occlusion effect, and ability of acid and abrasion resistance compared with other 3 groups (Pfluor protector shows better occluding effects in the dentin tubules and better ability of acid and abrasion resistance.

  17. Effect of Probenecid on Tetraethyl Ammonium (TEA) Transport Across Basolateral Membrane of Rabbit Proximal Tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae Lyong; Kim, Yong Keun

    1992-01-01

    The effect of probenecid on the transport of tetraethylammonium (TEA) was investigated in rabbit reanal cortical slices in an attempt to ascertain the interaction of organic anion with the organic cation transport system in proximal tubule. Probenecid reversibly inhibited TEA uptake by cortical slices in a dose-dependent manner over the concentration range of 1 and 5 mM. The efflux of TEA was not affected by the presence of 3 mM probenecid. Kinetic analysis indicated that probenecid decreased Vmax without a significant change in Km. Probenecid inhibited significantly tissue oxgen consumption at concentrations of 3 and 5 mM. However, probenecid did not significantly reduce TEA uptake in brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from renal cortex even at higher concentration of 10 mM. These results indicate that probenecid reduces TEA uptake in cortical slices by inhibiting the tissue metabolism rather than by the interaction with the organic cation transporter. PMID:1306074

  18. Arabidopsis dynamin-related protein 1A polymers bind, but do not tubulate, liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backues, Steven K. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 433 Babcock Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bednarek, Sebastian Y., E-mail: sybednar@wisc.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 433 Babcock Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-03-19

    The Arabidopsis dynamin-related protein 1A (AtDRP1A) is involved in endocytosis and cell plate maturation in Arabidopsis. Unlike dynamin, AtDRP1A does not have any recognized membrane binding or protein-protein interaction domains. We report that GTPase active AtDRP1A purified from Escherichia coli as a fusion to maltose binding protein forms homopolymers visible by negative staining electron microscopy. These polymers interact with protein-free liposomes whose lipid composition mimics that of the inner leaflet of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane, suggesting that lipid-binding may play a role in AtDRP1A function. However, AtDRP1A polymers do not appear to assemble and disassemble in a dynamic fashion and do not have the ability to tubulate liposomes in vitro, suggesting that additional factors or modifications are necessary for AtDRP1A's in vivo function.

  19. Self-organization of engineered epithelial tubules by differential cellular motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Hidetoshi; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Inman, Jamie L; Bissell, Mina J; Nelson, Celeste M

    2009-02-04

    Patterning of developing tissues arises from a number of mechanisms, including cell shape change, cell proliferation, and cell sorting from differential cohesion or tension. Here, we reveal that differences in cell motility can also lead to cell sorting within tissues. Using mosaic engineered mammary epithelial tubules, we found that cells sorted depending on their expression level of the membrane-anchored collagenase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14. These rearrangements were independent of the catalytic activity of MMP14 but absolutely required the hemopexin domain. We describe a signaling cascade downstream of MMP14 through Rho kinase that allows cells to sort within the model tissues. Cell speed and persistence time were enhanced by MMP14 expression, but only the latter motility parameter was required for sorting. These results indicate that differential directional persistence can give rise to patterns within model developing tissues.

  20. Proteomic-based insight into Malpighian tubules of silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-wu Zhong

    Full Text Available Malpighian tubules (MTs are highly specific organs of arthropods (Insecta, Myriapoda and Arachnida for excretion and osmoregulation. In order to highlight the important genes and pathways involved in multi-functions of MTs, we performed a systematic proteomic analysis of silkworm MTs in the present work. Totally, 1,367 proteins were identified by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and as well as by Trans Proteomic Pipeline (TPP and Absolute protein expression (APEX analyses. Forty-one proteins were further identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some proteins were revealed to be significantly associated with various metabolic processes, organic solute transport, detoxification and innate immunity. Our results might lay a good foundation for future functional studies of MTs in silkworm and other lepidoptera.

  1. Arabidopsis dynamin-related protein 1A polymers bind, but do not tubulate, liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backues, Steven K.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Arabidopsis dynamin-related protein 1A (AtDRP1A) is involved in endocytosis and cell plate maturation in Arabidopsis. Unlike dynamin, AtDRP1A does not have any recognized membrane binding or protein-protein interaction domains. We report that GTPase active AtDRP1A purified from Escherichia coli as a fusion to maltose binding protein forms homopolymers visible by negative staining electron microscopy. These polymers interact with protein-free liposomes whose lipid composition mimics that of the inner leaflet of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane, suggesting that lipid-binding may play a role in AtDRP1A function. However, AtDRP1A polymers do not appear to assemble and disassemble in a dynamic fashion and do not have the ability to tubulate liposomes in vitro, suggesting that additional factors or modifications are necessary for AtDRP1A's in vivo function.

  2. An ancestral luciferase in the Malpighi tubules of a non-bioluminescent beetle!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, V R; Prado, R A; Arnoldi, F C G; Abdalla, F C

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionary origin of beetle bioluminescence is enigmatic. Previously, weak luciferase activity was found in the non-bioluminescent larvae of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), but the detailed tissular origin and identity of the luciferase-like enzyme remained unknown. Using a closely related giant mealworm, Zophobas morio, here we show that the luciferase-like enzyme is located in the Malpighi tubules. cDNA cloning of this luciferase like enzyme, showed that it is a short AMP-ligase with weak luciferase activity which diverged long ago from beetle luciferases. The results indicate that the potential for bioluminescence in AMP-ligases is very ancient and provide a first reasonable protoluciferase model to investigate the origin and evolution of beetle luciferases.

  3. Connecting tubule-selective knockout of AQP2 causes a mild urinary concentrating defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen; Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Fenton, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is the main vasopressin-regulated water channel in the kidney connecting tubule and collecting ducts and is responsible for the regulation of final urine output. Previous studies on transgenic mice have demonstrated a crucial role of AQP2 in water handling in the collecting duct....... After 2 days of acclimatization, body weight, food and water intake and 24 hr urine were measured for 2 days. Animals where then challenged by a 24 hr water restriction, providing around 55% of baseline water intake in gelled food. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microsopy demonstrated......Osm/l), suggesting a mild urinary concentrating defect. There was no difference in bodyweight, food intake or osmolar excretion. The mean drinking volume was higher in the knockout group. However, this difference was not statistically significant. A 24-hr water restriction decreased urine volume in both the wildtype...

  4. Calcineurin mediates alpha-adrenergic stimulation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in renal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperia, A; Ibarra, F; Svensson, L B; Klee, C; Greengard, P

    1992-01-01

    The alpha-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline increased Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of single proximal convoluted tubules dissected from rat kidney. Activation of the enzyme by oxymetazoline was prevented by either the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin or the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine and was mimicked by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of oxymetazoline on Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was prevented by a specific peptide inhibitor of calcineurin, as well as by FK 506, an immunosuppressant agent known to inhibit calcineurin; these results indicate that the action of oxymetazoline is mediated via activation of calcineurin (a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase). Activation of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase by either oxymetazoline or A23187 was associated with a greater than 2-fold increase in its affinity for Na+. The results provide a biochemical mechanism by which norepinephrine, released from renal nerve terminals, stimulates Na+ retention. PMID:1380157

  5. Proximal tubule Na transporter responses are the same during acute and chronic hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyar, C E; Zhang, Y; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    2000-01-01

    Acute hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) provokes a decrease in renal proximal tubule (PT) salt and fluid reabsorption, redistribution of apical Na/H exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and Na-P(i) cotransporter type 2 (NaPi2) out of the brush border into higher density membranes, and inhibition...... of renal cortical Na-K-ATPase (NKA) activity (41). The aims of this study were to determine 1) whether an increase in arterial pressure affects distribution or activity of Na transporters in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and 2) whether development of chronic hypertension in SHR leads......) vs. adult SD and SHR. In adult hypertensive SHR NHE3 was shifted to membranes of higher densities, analogous to SD with acute hypertension, and there were no further changes with a further increase or decrease in arterial pressure. There was no change in total pool size of NHE3 in cortex in YSHR vs...

  6. Proximal tubule Na transporter responses are the same during acute and chronic hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyar, C E; Zhang, Y; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    2000-01-01

    Acute hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) provokes a decrease in renal proximal tubule (PT) salt and fluid reabsorption, redistribution of apical Na/H exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and Na-P(i) cotransporter type 2 (NaPi2) out of the brush border into higher density membranes, and inhibition...... to persistent adaptive changes in NHE3 and NaPi2 distribution and/or NKA activity. Renal cortex Na transporter protein density distributions and activities were compared by subcellular fractionation in 1) adult SHR with an acute increase or decrease in arterial pressure and 2) young SD (YSD) and young SHR (YSHR......) vs. adult SD and SHR. In adult hypertensive SHR NHE3 was shifted to membranes of higher densities, analogous to SD with acute hypertension, and there were no further changes with a further increase or decrease in arterial pressure. There was no change in total pool size of NHE3 in cortex in YSHR vs...

  7. Effects of phospho- and calciotropic hormones on electrolyte transport in the proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Justin J; Plain, Allein; Beggs, Megan R

    2017-01-01

    ), active vitamin D 3, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The organs central to this are the kidneys, intestine, and bone. In the kidney, the proximal tubule reabsorbs the majority of filtered calcium and phosphate, which amounts to more than 60% and 90%, respectively. The basic molecular mechanisms......Calcium and phosphate are critical for a myriad of physiological and cellular processes within the organism. Consequently, plasma levels of calcium and phosphate are tightly regulated. This occurs through the combined effects of the phospho- and calciotropic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH...... as their regulation of active vitamin D 3 synthesis in this nephron segment. The integrative effects of both phospho- and calciotropic hormones on proximal tubular solute transport and subsequently whole body calcium-phosphate balance thus have been further complicated. Here, we first review the molecular mechanisms...

  8. cAMP-binding proteins in medullary tubules from rat kidney: effect of ADH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapstur, S.M.; Homma, S.; Dousa, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Little is known of the regulatory steps in the cellular action of vasopressin (AVP) on the renal epithelium, subsequent to the cAMP generation. We studied cAMP-binding proteins in the medullary collecting tubule (MCT) and the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (MTAL) microdissected from the rat kidney by use of photoaffinity labeling. Microdissected tubules were homogenized and photoaffinity labeled by incubation with 1 microM 32P-labeled 8-azido-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (N3-8-[32P]-cAMP); the incorporated 32P was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Both in MCT and MTAL preparations, the analyses showed incorporation of N3-8-[32P]cAMP into two bands (Mr = 49,000 and Mr = 55,000) that comigrated with standards of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunits RI and RII. In MCT, most of the 32P (80%) was incorporated into RI, whereas in MTAL the 32P incorporated into RI and RII was equivalent. When freshly dissected MCT segments were incubated with 10(-12)-10(-6) M AVP, the subsequent photoaffinity labeling of RI with N3-8-[32P]cAMP was markedly diminished in a dose-dependent manner compared with controls. Our results suggest that cAMP binds in MCT and MTAL to regulatory subunits RI and RII of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, in MCT the dominant type of cAMP-dependent protein kinase appears to be type I. The outlined procedure is suitable to indirectly measure the occupancy of RI by endogenous cAMP generated in MCT cells in response to physiological levels (10(-12) M) of AVP

  9. Adult Human CD133/1+ Kidney Cells Isolated from Papilla Integrate into Developing Kidney Tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Heather H.; Romero, Elsa; Welford, Angela; Pickett, Gavin; Bacallao, Robert; Gattone, Vincent H.; Ness, Scott A.; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Roitbak, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 60,000 patients in the US are waiting for a kidney transplant due to genetic, immunologic and environmentally caused kidney failure. Adult human renal stem cells could offer opportunities for autologous transplant and repair of damaged organs. Current data suggest that there are multiple progenitor types in the kidney with distinct localizations. In the present study, we characterize cells derived from human kidney papilla and show their capacity for tubulogenesis. In situ, nestin+ and CD133/1+ cells were found extensively intercalated between tubular epithelia in the loops of Henle of renal papilla, but not of the cortex. Populations of primary cells from the renal cortex and renal papilla were isolated by enzymatic digestion from human kidneys unsuited for transplant and immuno-enriched for CD133/1+ cells. Isolated CD133/1+ papillary cells were positive for nestin, as well as several human embryonic stem cell markers (SSEA4, Nanog, SOX2, and OCT4/POU5F1) and could be triggered to adopt tubular epithelial and neuronal like phenotypes. Isolated papillary cells exhibited morphologic plasticity upon modulation of culture conditions and inhibition of asymmetric cell division. Labeled papillary cells readily associated with cortical tubular epithelia in co-culture and 3-dimensional collagen gel cultures. Heterologous organ culture demonstrated that CD133/1+ progenitors from the papilla and cortex, became integrated into developing kidney tubules. Tubular epithelia did not participate in tubulogenesis. Human renal papilla harbor cells with the hallmarks of adult kidney stem/progenitor cells that can be amplified and phenotypically modulated in culture while retaining the capacity to form new kidney tubules. PMID:21255643

  10. Adult human CD133/1(+) kidney cells isolated from papilla integrate into developing kidney tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Heather H; Romero, Elsa; Welford, Angela; Pickett, Gavin; Bacallao, Robert; Gattone, Vincent H; Ness, Scott A; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Roitbak, Tamara

    2011-10-01

    Approximately 60,000 patients in the United States are waiting for a kidney transplant due to genetic, immunologic and environmentally caused kidney failure. Adult human renal stem cells could offer opportunities for autologous transplant and repair of damaged organs. Current data suggest that there are multiple progenitor types in the kidney with distinct localizations. In the present study, we characterize cells derived from human kidney papilla and show their capacity for tubulogenesis. In situ, nestin(+) and CD133/1(+) cells were found extensively intercalated between tubular epithelia in the loops of Henle of renal papilla, but not of the cortex. Populations of primary cells from the renal cortex and renal papilla were isolated by enzymatic digestion from human kidneys unsuited for transplant and immuno-enriched for CD133/1(+) cells. Isolated CD133/1(+) papillary cells were positive for nestin, as well as several human embryonic stem cell markers (SSEA4, Nanog, SOX2, and OCT4/POU5F1) and could be triggered to adopt tubular epithelial and neuronal-like phenotypes. Isolated papillary cells exhibited morphologic plasticity upon modulation of culture conditions and inhibition of asymmetric cell division. Labeled papillary cells readily associated with cortical tubular epithelia in co-culture and 3-dimensional collagen gel cultures. Heterologous organ culture demonstrated that CD133/1(+) progenitors from the papilla and cortex became integrated into developing kidney tubules. Tubular epithelia did not participate in tubulogenesis. Human renal papilla harbor cells with the hallmarks of adult kidney stem/progenitor cells that can be amplified and phenotypically modulated in culture while retaining the capacity to form new kidney tubules. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Polycystic Kidney Disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tetraspanin CD63 controls basolateral sorting of organic cation transporter 2 in renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Ulf; Brast, Sabine; Grabner, Alexander; Albiker, Christian; Snieder, Beatrice; Holle, Svenja; Schlatter, Eberhard; Schröter, Rita; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Herrmann, Edwin; Lambert, Carsten; Spoden, Gilles A; Florin, Luise; Saftig, Paul; Ciarimboli, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    CD63 is a ubiquitously expressed member of the tetraspanin superfamily. Using a mating-based split-ubiquitin-yeast 2-hybrid system, pull-down experiments, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, Förster resonance energy transfer, and biotinylation assays, we found that CD63 interacts with human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2), which transports endogenous and exogenous substrates, such as neurotransmitters and drugs in several epithelial cells. CD63 overexpression affects cellular localization of hOCT2 expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells. Studies with CD63-knockout mice indicate that in renal proximal tubules, CD63 determines the insertion of the mouse ortholog of the transporter into the proper membrane domain and mediates transporter regulation by trafficking processes. In polarized Madin-Darby kidney canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells, CD63 and hOCT2 colocalize with the small GTPase Rab4, which controls the rapid recycling from sorting endosomes back to the cell surface. Suitable negative and positive control experiments were performed for each experimental approach. Empty vector transfected cells and wild-type mice were used as control. CD63 seems to play a role in the recycling of hOCT2 from endosomes to the basolateral membrane in polarized epithelia. These data indicate that CD63 has a previously uncharacterized function in regulating trafficking of specific membrane proteins in polarized cells.-Schulze, U., Brast, S., Grabner, A., Albiker, C., Snieder, B., Holle, S., Schlatter, E., Schröter, R., Pavenstädt, H., Herrmann, E., Lambert, C., Spoden, G. A., Florin, L., Saftig, P., Ciarimboli, G. Tetraspanin CD63 controls basolateral sorting of organic cation transporter 2 in renal proximal tubules. © FASEB.

  12. Dentinal Tubule Penetration of a Calcium Silicate-based Root Canal Sealer with Different Obturation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji Wook; DeGraft-Johnson, Anna; Dorn, Samuel O; Di Fiore, Peter M

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the depths of penetration of a calcium silicate-based sealer in dentinal tubules by using 3 different obturation methods. One hundred extracted human permanent anterior teeth were endodontically prepared and divided equally into 3 experimental groups and 1 control group as follows: CPoint single cone (CPSC), gutta-percha single cone (GPSC), gutta-percha vertical condensation (GPVC), all with a calcium silicate-based sealer and calcium indicator Fluo-3, and CPoint single cone with a calcium indicator Fluo-3 (CPF3) without sealer as the control. The roots of the teeth in each group were axially cross-sectioned, and the surfaces were examined under confocal laser scanning microscopy at ×10 and ×20 magnifications. The sealer penetration depths were measured at their maximum depths and at 4 circumferential depths (12, 3, 6, and 9 o'clock) by using fluorescence. Statistical analyses by using one-way analysis of variance and repeated measures analysis with linear mixed models showed no statistically significant difference among the mean maximum depth measurements (CPSC, 283.83 μm; GPSC, 318.66 μm; and GPVC, 313.03 μm; P = .7553) and among the average depths across all points (CPSC, 111.24 μm; GPSC, 135.38 μm; and GPVC, 126.62 μm; P = .5304) for the 3 experimental groups. The pressure derived from hygroscopic expansion of CPoint or warm vertical condensation did not enhance penetration depths of the calcium silicate-based sealer. Sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules occurred independent of the obturation technique. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 35Cl- and 2H NMR measurement of intracellular water volume in renal proximal tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.; Kumar, A.M.; Spitzer, A.; Gupta, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of cell water volume is essential for the calculation of concentrations of intracellular ions and metabolites in kidney tubules. The authors have developed a method which utilizes 35 Cl - NMR as a measure of extracellular volume and 2 H NMR in combination with a membrane-impermeant shift reagent Dy(DTPA) as a measure of the ratio of intra- and extracellular water volumes. Measurement of extracellular volume by 35 Cl - NMR is possible since intracellular 35 Cl - resonance is broadened beyond detection in most cells. The 2 H NMR measurements exploit the fact that only extracellular water is in direct contact with Dy(DTPA). However, rapid exchange of water across the cell membrane results in only a single 2 H 2 O resonance at a chemical shift which is a weighted average of the shifted extra- and unshifted intracellular water resonances. Denoting the extracellular volume as a fraction of the total volume by S/sub o/, and as a fraction of the total water volume by H/sub o/, the fractional cell water content, W = [(1/H/sub o/) -1]/[(1/S/sub o/)-1], can be calculated. Rat proximal tubule suspensions were prepared by the method developed in their laboratory. The water content was found to be 76.9 +/- 5% (anti +/- x SD, n = 4) at room temperature and 78.6% at 37 0 C. Increasing extracellular osmolality from 295 to 330 mosm/kg, by addition of mannitol, decreased the water content to 70.8%. The authors results are in good agreement with the previously reported values of 69-82%, obtained by other methods. Thus, NMR is an accurate, noninvasive method for measuring the water content of renal cells

  14. Efficacy of Modified Bioactive Glass for Dentin Remineralization and Obstruction of Dentinal Tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Saffarpour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study assessed the efficacy of modified bioactive glass (MBG for dentin remineralization and obstruction of dentinal tubules.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six dentin discs were made from 20 third molars and were stored in 12% lactic acid solution for two weeks to induce demineralization. The samples were divided into three groups (n=12: 1- BG, 2- BG modified with 5% strontium (Sr and 3- BG modified with 10% Sr. After applying the BG, the samples were stored in artificial saliva for 7, 14 and 21 days. Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis were used to assess remineralization. Also, 6 dentin discs were divided into three groups of BG, BG modified with 5% Sr and BG modified with 10% Sr, to examine tubular occlusion. The discs were etched using 0.5M of EDTA for two minutes and were stored in artificial saliva for 7 days. Changes in dentin surface morphology were evaluated under SEM.Results: Group 3 showed high rates of remineralization at days 7 and 14, although the rate decreased at day 21. Group 2 exhibited high rates of remineralization at days 7, 14 and 21. Dentinal tubules were partially occluded by BG and BG modified with 5% Sr, while they were almost completely obstructed after the use of BG modified with 10% Sr.Conclusions: Strontium increases remineralization. Addition of 10% Sr to BG enhances apatite formation; however, the apatite dissolves over time. Addition of 5% Sr to BG stabilizes the apatite lattice and increases the remineralization.

  15. Role of diacylglycerol in adrenergic-stimulated sup 86 Rb uptake by proximal tubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, A.D.; Drangova, R.; Ho, P. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-05-01

    We used rat proximal tubule fragments purified by Percoll centrifugation to examine the role of diacylglycerol (DAG) in noradrenergic-stimulated Na+ reabsorption. Tubular DAG concentration and ouabain-inhibitable 86Rb uptake increased within 30 s after adding norepinephrine (NE) and remained elevated for at least 5 min. NE (1 microM) increased DAG content 17% and ouabain-inhibitable 86Rb uptake 23%. Cirazoline-stimulated 86Rb uptake was not inhibited by BaCl, quinidine, or bumetanide (1-10 microM) or by the omission of HCO3- or Cl- from the medium, but it was completely inhibited by ouabain and furosemide. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol, L-alpha-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, and L-alpha-1,2-dioleoylglycerol (DOG) increased total 86Rb uptake 8-11%. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (5 nM) increased uptake by only 4%. Staurosporine at 5 nM inhibited DOG stimulation completely, whereas 50 nM staurosporine was required to inhibit NE stimulation completely. Sphingosine inhibited DOG stimulation by 66% but did not inhibit NE stimulation. Amiloride (1 mM) completely blocked DOG stimulation. Monensin increased 86Rb uptake 31% and completely blocked the DOG effect but reduced the NE effect by only 26% (P = 0.08). In tubules from salt-loaded rats, NE did not increase DAG concentration, but NE-stimulated 86Rb uptake was reduced by only 23% (P = 0.15). Thus DAG released by NE may stimulate Na+ entry through Na(+)-H+ exchange. NE predominantly stimulates Na(+)-K(+)-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) by activating a protein kinase that is insensitive to DAG and TPA and is inhibited by staurosporine but not by sphingosine. NE may also stimulate K+ efflux through a BaCl-insensitive K+ channel that is inhibited by millimolar furosemide.

  16. Outer retinal tubulation in the comparison of age-related macular degeneration treatments trials (CATT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yong; Folgar, Francisco A; Maguire, Maureen G; Ying, Gui-shuang; Toth, Cynthia A; Martin, Daniel F; Jaffe, Glenn J

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of, risk factors for, and visual acuity (VA) correlations with outer retinal tubulation (ORT) seen on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial. Patients with SD OCT images at weeks 56 and 104 in the Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT). Participants in the CATT were assigned randomly to ranibizumab (0.5 mg) or bevacizumab (1.25 mg) treatment and to a monthly or pro re nata (PRN) injection-dosing regimen. A subset of eyes was imaged with SD OCT beginning at week 56. Cirrus 512×128 or Spectralis 20°×20° volume cube scan protocols were used to acquire SD OCT images. Two independent readers at the CATT OCT reading center graded scans, and a senior reader arbitrated discrepant grades. The prevalence of ORT, identified as tubular structures seen on at least 3 consecutive Cirrus B scans or 2 consecutive Spectralis B scans, was determined. The associations of patient-specific and ocular features at baseline and follow-up with ORT were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Outer retinal tubulations. Seven of 69 eyes (10.1%) at 56 weeks and 64 of 368 eyes (17.4%) at week 104 had ORTs. Absence of diabetes, poor VA, blocked fluorescence, geographic atrophy, greater lesion size, and presence of subretinal hyperreflective material at baseline were associated independently with greater risk of ORT at 104 weeks (P Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters) was worse than the mean VA of eyes without ORT (68.8 letters; P predict ORTs. It is important to identify ORTs because eyes with ORTs have worse VA outcomes than those without this finding. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Substrate modulation of fatty acid effects on energization and respiration of kidney proximal tubules during hypoxia/reoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienholz, Anja; Al-Taweel, Ahmad; Roeser, Nancy F; Kribben, Andreas; Feldkamp, Thorsten; Weinberg, Joel M

    2014-01-01

    Kidney proximal tubules subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation develop a nonesterified fatty acid-induced energetic deficit characterized by persistent partial mitochondrial deenergization that can be prevented and reversed by citric acid cycle substrates. To further assess the role of competition between fatty acids and substrates on inner membrane substrate carriers in the deenergization and the contribution to deenergization of fatty acid effects on respiratory function, digitonin-permeabilized rabbit and mouse tubules were studied using either addition of exogenous oleate after control normoxic incubation or increases of endogenous fatty acids produced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. The results demonstrated major effects of matrix oxaloacetate accumulation on succinate-supported energization and respiration and their modification by fatty acids. Improvements of energization in the presence of fatty acids by glutamate were shown to result predominantly from lowering matrix oxaloacetate rather than from amelioration of transmembrane cycling of fatty acids and uncoupling. Mouse tubules had 2.5 fold higher rates of succinate utilization, which resulted in stronger effects of oxaloacetate accumulation than rabbit tubules. Hypoxia/reoxygenation induced respiratory inhibition that was more severe for complex I-dependent substrates. Fatty acids themselves did not acutely contribute to this respiratory inhibition, but lowering them during 60 min. reoxygenation to allow recovery of ATP during that period alleviated it. These data clarify the basis for the nonesterified fatty acid-induced mitochondrial energetic deficit in kidney proximal tubules that impairs structural and functional recovery and provide insight into interactions that need to be considered in the design of substrate-based interventions to improve mitochondrial function.

  18. Cyclosporine A induced histological changes of Cathepsin L and CD2AP expression in renal glomeruli and tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Keisuke; Miyazawa, Tomoki; Enya, Takuji; Miyazaki, Kouhei; Okada, Mitsuru; Takemura, Tsukasa

    2017-02-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is used globally as an immunosuppressant for the treatment of immune-mediated nephrotic syndrome (NS). However, its long-term use causes nephrotoxicity characterized by tubulointerstitial injury and glomerulosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between histomorphological findings and immunohistological expression of Cathepsin L (CatL) and CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) in patients with NS mediated with CsA. A total of 18 patients with child-onset NS were divided into two groups after treatment with CsA for 2 years (group A; n = 10) and more than 4 years (group B; n = 8), respectively. Analyses of relationships between tubulointerstitial disorders and expression of CatL and CD2AP proteins were performed using immunohistochemistry of paired renal specimens. Glomeruli with arteriole hyalinization were significantly increased in both groups depending on dosage periods, although degrees of tubule and interstitial injury did not differ between groups. CD2AP expression was significantly greater in podocytes (P = 0.046) and was significantly less in proximal tubule cells (P = 0.014) in patients of group B compared with those of group A. Moreover, CD2AP expression was significantly increased in lateral tubule cells in both groups (group A, P = 0.02; group B, P = 0.001), and CatL expression in glomeruli and tubule cells did not change with the duration of CsA treatment in either patient group. CD2AP expression in renal tubules may histologically associate with tissue hypoxia and reflected recovery from CsA-mediated renal injury in patients, even with mild histological features of tubulointerstitial disorder.

  19. Expression of Cyt-c-Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptosis-Related Proteins in Rat Renal Proximal Tubules during Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Feng; Tian, He; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Zhen-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis regulates embryogenesis, organ metamorphosis and tissue homeostasis. Mitochondrial signaling is an apoptotic pathway, in which Cyt-c and Apaf-1 are transformed into an apoptosome, which activates procaspase-9 and triggers apoptosis. This study evaluated Cyt-c, Apaf-1 and caspase-9 expression during renal development. Kidneys from embryonic (E) 16-, 18-, and 20-day-old fetuses and postnatal (P) 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 14-, and 21-day-old pups were obtained. Immunohistochemical analysis, dual-labeled immunofluorescence, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique assay and Western blot were performed in addition to histological analysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that Cyt-c was strongly expressed in proximal and distal tubules (DTs) at all time points. Caspase-9 and Apaf-1 were strongly expressed in proximal tubules (PTs) but only weakly expressed in DTs. Dual-labeled immunofluorescence showed that most tubules expressed both Cyt-c and Apaf-1, except for some tubules that only expressed Cyt-c. The TUNEL assay showed a greater percentage of apoptotic cells in PTs compared to DTs. Apaf-1 and cleaved caspase-9 protein expression gradually increased during the embryonic period and peaked during the early postnatal period but apparently declined from P7. Cyt-c protein expression was weak during the embryonic period but obviously increased after P1. This study showed that PTs are more sensitive to apoptosis than DTs during rat renal development, even though both tubule segments contain a large number of mitochondria. Furthermore, Cyt-c-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins play an important role in PTs during the early postnatal kidney development. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Dentinal Tubule Occluding Effect of Potassium Nitrate in Varied Forms, Frequencies and Duration: An In vitro SEM Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jesline Merly; Puranik, Manjunath P; Sowmya, K R

    2017-08-01

    Dentinal hypersensitivity is an exaggerated response to non-noxious sensory stimuli (osmotic, thermal or mechanical changes). An inverse relationship between occluding open tubules and the intensity of sensitivity has been reported. Studies on the efficacy of potassium nitrate used in different forms and frequencies to occlude dentinal tubules are scarce. To evaluate, in vitro the dentinal tubule occluding effect of potassium nitrate which differ in form, frequency and duration of application. In an in vitro study, 45 extracted human maxillary and mandibular premolars were sectioned using diamond disc to obtain 90 samples which were treated with 6% citric acid and were randomly assigned to three groups: Group 1 was treated with potassium nitrate toothpaste (once and twice daily for two minutes); Group 2 with potassium nitrate mouthwash (once and twice daily for two minutes) and Group 3 served as control (distilled water). Post-treatment, the samples were immersed in distilled water. The samples were subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) at the end of 3, 7 and 14 days. SEM photographs were analysed based on extent of tubular occlusion. Chi-square test was applied to assess the significant difference between the groups. There was detectable difference in the dentinal tubule occlusion at the end of 3 rd , 7 th and 14 th day between three groups. When compared to the mouthwash, toothpaste yielded better results. Twice daily application for a period of two minutes each was better when compared to once daily for two minutes. Potassium nitrate is effective in occluding dentinal tubules when applied twice daily in toothpaste form than mouthwash form. However, randomised control trials are needed to confirm its efficacy in human subjects.

  1. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2: differential expression and secretion in human kidney tubule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, David R.; Pastor-Soler, Nuria; Marciszyn, Allison; Wen, Xiaoyan; Gomez, Hernando; Humphries, William H.; Morrisroe, Seth; Volpe, Jacob K.

    2017-01-01

    We have characterized the expression and secretion of the acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) in human kidney epithelial cells in primary cell culture and tissue. We established cell culture model systems of primary kidney cells of proximal and distal tubule origin and observed that both proteins are indeed expressed and secreted in both tubule cell types in vitro. However, TIMP-2 is both expressed and secreted preferentially by cells of distal tubule origin, while IGFBP7 is equally expressed across tubule cell types yet preferentially secreted by cells of proximal tubule origin. In human kidney tissue, strong staining of IGFBP7 was seen in the luminal brush-border region of a subset of proximal tubule cells, and TIMP-2 stained intracellularly in distal tubules. Additionally, while some tubular colocalization of both biomarkers was identified with the injury markers kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, both biomarkers could also be seen alone, suggesting the possibility for differential mechanistic and/or temporal profiles of regulation of these early AKI biomarkers from known markers of injury. Last, an in vitro model of ischemia-reperfusion demonstrated enhancement of secretion of both markers early after reperfusion. This work provides a rationale for further investigation of these markers for their potential role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury. PMID:28003188

  2. Mouse organic cation transporter 1 determines properties and regulation of basolateral organic cation transport in renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Eberhard; Klassen, Philipp; Massmann, Vivian; Holle, Svenja K; Guckel, Denise; Edemir, Bayram; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Ciarimboli, Giuliano

    2014-08-01

    The proximal tubule of mouse kidney expresses mouse organic cation transporter 1 (mOCT1), mOCT2, and much less mOCT3. Therefore, mOCT-mediated transport across the basolateral membrane of proximal tubules reflects properties of at least mOCT1 and mOCT2. Here, we unraveled substrate affinities and modulation of transport activity by acute regulation by protein kinases on mOCT1 and mOCT2 separately and compared these findings with those from isolated proximal tubules of male and female mOCT2−/− mice. These data are also compared to our recent reports on isolated tubules from wild-type and mOCT1/2 double knockout (mOCT1/2−/−) mice. OCT-mediated transport in proximal tubules of mOCT2−/− mice was only 20 % lower compared to those isolated from wild-type mice. While mOCT1 was regulated by all five pathways examined [protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), p56lck, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and calmodulin (CaM)], mOCT2 activity was modulated by PKA, p56lck, and CaM only, however, in the same direction. As mOCT-mediated transport across the basolateral membrane of mOCT2−/− mice expressing only mOCT1 and to a small amount mOCT3 was identical to that observed for tubules isolated from wild-type mice and to that observed for human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing mOCT1, mOCT1 represents the relevant paralog for OCT-dependent organic cation transport in the mouse kidney. Gender does not play a major role in expression and activity of renal OCT-mediated transport in the mouse. Properties of mouse OCT considerably differ from those of rat or human origin, and thus, observations made in these rodents cannot directly be transferred to the human situation

  3. Influence of Ultrasonic Irrigation and Chloroform on Cleanliness of Dentinal Tubules During Endodontic Retreatment-An Invitro SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mahak; Singhal, Anurag; Gurtu, Anuraag; Vinayak, Vineet

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasonic irrigation has been proved for its remarkable cleaning efficiency in the field of endodontics. But its role in endodontic re-treatment has been understated. There is not much data available to understand the effect of ultrasonic irrigation for the evaluation of cleanliness of dentinal tubules when it is used with or without chloroform, a gutta percha solvent during endodontic retreatment. To compare the influence of ultrasonic irrigation with syringe irrigation on cleanliness of dentinal tubules after gutta perch removal for endodontic retreatment with or without the use of chloroform a gutta percha solvent using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Freshly extracted 45 human mandibular premolar teeth for periodontal and orthodontic reasons were taken and were occlusally adjusted to a working length of 19 mm. The root canals of all teeth were prepared chemo mechanically to a master apical file size 40 and were divided in various groups. In Group 1 (n = 5; control group), the canals remained unfilled. In Groups 2 and 3 (n = 20 each), the canals were filled using lateral compaction with gutta-percha and AH plus sealer, removal of root fillings was undertaken after 2 weeks using Gates Glidden drills and H files without chloroform in Group 2 and with chloroform in group 3. The specimen of Group 2 and 3 were further divided into two subgroups I and II (n=10). In subgroup I, irrigation was done using side vented needles and sodium hypochlorite. In subgroup II irrigation was done using passive ultrasonic irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. Thereafter, the roots were split and the sections were observed under SEM. The number of occluded dentinal tubules /total number of dentinal tubules were calculated for the coronal, middle and apical third of each root half. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test using standardized technique. Results indicated that the cleanest dentinal tubules were found in the control group (Group 1

  4. Structural evidence for counter-current flow in proximal tubules versus pertitubular capillaries in the rat kidney. Evaluation of the counter-current mechanism between the proximal convoluted tubules and the peritubular capillaries in the rat nephron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Hegedüs, V

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of the very high exchange of water and solutes between the proximal tubules and the peritubular capillaries, very little is known about flow directions in these two interrelated structures. We therefore developed a morphological technique suitable for the quantitative...... evaluation of a counter-current system between the proximal convoluted tubules and the peritubular capillaries in rat renal cortex. METHODS: In male pentothal-anesthetized Wistar rats (body weight 200-250 g), India ink was injected into the aorta above the renal arteries, followed by instant freezing...... of the right kidney in isopentane at -165 degrees C, and subsequent freeze-substitution in alcohol. In microscopic slides from kidneys in which only 20-55% of the cortical peritubular capillary loops was filled with ink--representing the arterial end of the capillaries--and in which the proximal tubular...

  5. Osteocyte Lacunae are Lenticular/Ellipsoid Spaces or Spiral/Helical Tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijit Kanti Guha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the current concept of bone structure, the osteocyte lacunae are lenticular or ellipsoid spaces occupied by osteocytes. These osteocytes are thought to communicate with each other through a tubular system made up of Canaliculi. The rest of the structures i.e., Haversian canal, and Volkmann’s canal are also tubular in shape. Considering this existing concept of bone microstructure described by various authors, it is highly unlikely that the lacunae alone would be lenticular/ellipsoid structure. In the present study author wanted to know that amongst the all tubular spaces, what is the reason that only the osteocyte lacunae are lenticular or ellipsoid structure? Also to investigate whether these lenticular spaces are really lenticular/ellipsoid or they are cut sections of tubes, which are lying helically or spirally. It is well known from various previous studies that Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal and Canaliculi are tubular shaped structures and how it is possible that lenticular/ellipsoid structure can present amongst them. So we thought that, it may be possible that these lenticular spaces are not actually lenticular but this lenticular shape is due to the cut sections of any type of tubule in various possible planes (i.e., transverse, longitudinal and various degrees of oblique plane. Aim: The present study was carried out to reinvestigate the shape of the osteocyte lacunae amongst the tubular system (i.e., Haversian canal, Volkmann’s canal and Canaliculi of compact bone. Materials and Methods: The study is carried out by preparing thin sections of adult bones (ground glass preparation and visualizing them under binocular light microscope and scanelectron microscope after following proper procedure. Results: We observed that the lacunae are actually spirally/helically placed tubules with several branching. These branching are considered as canaliculi. These branching are of various diameters and they

  6. Double knockout of Bax and Bak from kidney proximal tubules reduces unilateral urethral obstruction associated apoptosis and renal interstitial fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shuqin; Li, Lin; Wei, Qingqing; Hao, Jielu; Su, Yunchao; Mei, Changlin; Dong, Zheng

    2017-03-20

    Interstitial fibrosis, a common pathological feature of chronic kidney diseases, is often associated with apoptosis in renal tissues. To determine the associated apoptotic pathway and its role in renal interstitial fibrosis, we established a mouse model in which Bax and Bak, two critical genes in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, were deleted specifically from kidney proximal tubules and used this model to examine renal apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis following unilateral urethral obstruction (UUO). It was shown that double knockout of Bax and Bak from proximal tubules attenuated renal tubular cell apoptosis and suppressed renal interstitial fibrosis in UUO. The results indicate that the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis contributes significantly to the tubular apoptosis and renal interstitial fibrosis in kidney diseases.

  7. Computer-aided three-dimensional images of the helical structure in the apical tubule of absorbing epithelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Yoshinori; Hatae, Tanenori

    1990-01-01

    Computer-aided three-dimensional models of the helical structure within an apical tubule (AT) of several absorbing epithelia (kidney proximal tubule, visceral yolk sac, and ductuli efferentes) were constructed using ray-tracing graphics software to further understand the highly ordered structural configuration. Our previous electron microscopic studies using thin-section technique have first revealed the helical structure within the AT fixed in situ with a mixture of formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, and osmium tetroxide. In the present study, we construct a computer-aided three-dimensional model of the helical structure in the AT to explain quantitative data obtained by the electron microscopy. The model could well explain several aspects of electron microscopical images and enables us to understand more clearly the three-dimensional configuration of the unique structure associated with the AT. (author)

  8. The caspase 3 sensor Phiphilux G2D2 is activated non-specifically in S1 renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hato, Takashi; Sandoval, Ruben; Dagher, Pierre C

    2015-01-01

    Tubular cell apoptosis is a major phenotype of cell death in various forms of acute kidney injury. Quantifying apoptosis in fixed tissues is problematic because apoptosis evolves over time and dead cells are rapidly cleared by the phagocytic system. Phiphilux is a fluorescent probe that is activated specifically by caspase 3 and does not inhibit the subsequent activity of this effector caspase. It has been used successfully to quantify apoptosis in cell culture. Here we examined the feasibility of using Phiphilux to measure renal tubular apoptosis progression over time in live animals using intravital 2-photon microscopy. Our results show that Phiphilux can detect apoptosis in S2 tubules but is activated non-specifically in S1 tubules.

  9. The plant-derived natural compound Flavin 7 attenuates oxidative stress in cultured renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ember, Agoston; Clark, Jeb S; Varjas, Timea; Kiss, Istvan; Ember, Istvan; Baliga, Radhakrishna; Arany, Istvan

    2009-01-01

    Cancer therapies and cancer progression can increase oxidative stress that might account for renal toxicity in cancer patients. Flavin 7 (F7) is a natural polyphenol-containing dietary supplement with potential antioxidant activity. Therefore, it might help to attenuate renal toxicity of chemotherapeutics. Cultured mouse renal proximal tubule cells were subjected to H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidative stress. Potential antioxidant effects of F7 were assessed by measuring the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial depolarization and injury (lactate dehydrogenase release as well as trypan blue exclusion) in cells that were pretreated with F7 prior to treatment with H(2)O(2). F7 pretreatment significantly attenuated H(2)O(2)-induced ROS production, mitochondrial depolarization and consequent injury in renal proximal tubule cells. F7 supplementation might be beneficial for cancer patients in order to prevent renal toxicity of anticancer drug- or cancer progression-related oxidative stress.

  10. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on Morphometric and Morphologic Alterations of Seminiferous Tubules in STZ Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Kabiri Balajadeh, Babak; Ghafari, Soraya; Azarhosh, Ramin; Khori, Vahid

    2011-09-01

    Urtica dioica L. has been known as a medicinal plant in the world. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on seminiferous tubules of diabetic rats. Animals were allocated to control, diabetic and protective groups. Treated animals received extract of U. dioica (100 mg/ kg/ day) IP for the first 5 days and STZ injection on the 6th day. After 5 weeks, testes removed and stained with H&E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization, and decrease in sperm concentration observed in diabetic in comparison with control and protective groups. External seminiferous tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height significantly reduced (Pdioica, before induction of diabetes; has protective role on seminiferous tubules alterations.

  11. Data on Na,K-ATPase in primary cultures of renal proximal tubule cells treated with catecholamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Taub

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article is concerned with chronic regulation of Na,K-ATPase by catecholamines. After a chronic treatment, inhibition of Na,K-ATPase activity was observed in cultures with dopamine, while a stimulation was observed in cultures treated with norepinephrine. Following a chronic incubation with guanabenz, an α adrenergic agonist, an increase in Na,K-ATPase α and β subunit mRNAs was observed. This data supports the research article entitled, “Renal proximal tubule Na, K-ATPase is controlled by CREB regulated transcriptional coactivators as well as salt inducible kinase 1” (Taub et al. 2015 [1]. Keywords: Catecholamines, Kidney, Proximal tubule, Na,K-ATPase, Chronic

  12. The myopathy-causing mutation DNM2-S619L leads to defective tubulation in vitro and in developing zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Gibbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNM2 is a ubiquitously expressed GTPase that regulates multiple subcellular processes. Mutations in DNM2 are a common cause of centronuclear myopathy, a severe disorder characterized by altered skeletal muscle structure and function. The precise mechanisms underlying disease-associated DNM2 mutations are unresolved. We examined the common DNM2-S619L mutation using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Expression of DNM2-S619L in zebrafish led to the accumulation of aberrant vesicular structures and to defective excitation-contraction coupling. Expression of DNM2-S619L in COS7 cells resulted in defective BIN1-dependent tubule formation. These data suggest that DNM2-S619L causes disease, in part, by interfering with membrane tubulation.

  13. Manifestation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) in hepatic ductal structures and renal tubules of female rats with experimental cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, M I; Kushnareva, N S; Smirnova, O V

    2014-03-01

    Studies by the immunohistochemical method with semiquantitative analysis of images showed that hyperprolactinemia stimulated CFTR protein manifestation in the bile ducts of female rats, which was clearly expressed in experimental cholestasis of pregnancy. The expression of CFTR in the renal tubules was reduced in hyperprolactinemia under conditions of normal liver function and in cholestasis of pregnancy. Significant positive correlations between CFTR, prolactin receptor, and multiple drug resistance protein 3 were detected in the bile ducts, but not in the renal tubules. Presumably, prolactin has a direct effect on CFTR expression in the bile ducts and indirect effect in the renal tubules. Changes in CFTR protein manifestation in the hepatic ductal structures and renal tubules in experimental pregnancy cholestasis could aggravate the disease.

  14. Effect of ion concentration changes in t-tubules on intracellular signals controlling mechanical activity in a model of human ventricular cardiomyocyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabcová, D.; Pásek, Michal; Šimurda, J.; Christé, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 6 (2013), s. 481-490 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : human ventricular cardiomyocyte * t-tubules * human ventricular cell model Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  15. Fluid reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubules of mice with gene deletions of claudin-2 and/or aquaporin1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuning; Mizel, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Deletions of claudin-2 (Cldn2) and aquaporin1 (AQP1) reduce proximal fluid reabsorption (PFR) by about 30% and 50%, respectively. Experiments were done to replicate these observations and to determine in AQP1/claudin-2 double knockout mice (DKO) if the effects of deletions of these established water pores are additive. PFR was determined in inactin/ketamine-anesthetized mice by free-flow micropuncture using single-nephron I125-iothalamate (io) clearance. Animal means of PFR [% of glomerular filtration rate (GFR)] derived from TF/Piothalamate ratios in 12 mice in each of four groups [wild type (WT), Cldn2−/−, AQP1−/−, and DKO) were 45.8 ± 0.85 (51 tubules), 35.4 ± 1 (54 tubules; P tubules; P tubules; P Kidney and single-nephron GFRs (SNGFR) were significantly reduced in all mutant strains. The direct relationship between PFR and SNGFR was maintained in mutant mice, but the slope of this relationship was reduced in the absence of Cldn2 and/or AQP1. Transtubular osmotic pressure differences were not different between WT and Cldn2−/− mice, but markedly increased in DKO. In conclusion, the deletion of Cldn2, AQP1, or of both Cldn2 and AQP1 reduces PFR by 22.7%, 19.6%, and 26%, respectively. Our data are consistent with an up to 25% paracellular contribution to PFR. The reduced osmotic water permeability caused by absence of AQP1 augments luminal hypotonicity. Aided by a fall in filtered load, the capacity of non-AQP1-dependent transcellular reabsorption is sufficient to maintain PFR without AQP1 and claudin-2 at 75% of control. PMID:24049145

  16. Prominin-2 is a novel marker of distal tubules and collecting ducts of the human and murine kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jászai, József; Farkas, Lilla M; Fargeas, Christine A; Janich, Peggy; Haase, Michael; Huttner, Wieland B; Corbeil, Denis

    2010-05-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) and its paralogue, prominin-2, are pentaspan membrane glycoproteins that are strongly expressed in the kidney where they have been originally cloned from. Previously, we have described the localization of prominin-1 in proximal tubules of the nephron. The spatial distribution of prominin-2, however, has not yet been documented in the kidney. We therefore examined the expression of this molecule along distinct tubular segments of the human and murine nephron using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Our findings indicated that human prominin-2 transcripts and protein were confined to distal tubules of the nephron including the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and the distal convoluted tubule, the connecting duct and to the collecting duct system. Therein, this glycoprotein was enriched at the basolateral plasma membrane of the tubular epithelial cells with exception of the thick ascending limb where it was also found in the apical domain. This is in contrast with the exclusive apical localization of prominin-1 in epithelial cells of proximal nephron tubules. The distribution of murine prominin-2 transcripts was reminiscent of its human orthologue. In addition, a marked enrichment in the epithelium covering the papilla and in the urothelium of the renal pelvis was noted in mice. Finally, our biochemical analysis revealed that prominin-2 was released into the clinically healthy human urine as a constituent of small membrane vesicles. Collectively our data show the distribution and subcellular localization of prominin-2 within the kidney in situ and its release into the urine. Urinary detection of this protein might offer novel diagnostic approaches for studying renal diseases affecting distal segments of the nephron.

  17. Na+/HCO3- Cotransporter NBCn2 Mediates HCO3- Reclamation in the Apical Membrane of Renal Proximal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Mei; Wang, Jin-Lin; Xie, Zhang-Dong; Chen, Kang-Jing; Wang, Deng-Ke; Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F; Chen, Li-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The kidney maintains systemic acid-base balance by reclaiming from the renal tubule lumen virtually all HCO 3 - filtered in glomeruli and by secreting additional H + to titrate luminal buffers. For proximal tubules, which are responsible for about 80% of this activity, it is believed that HCO 3 - reclamation depends solely on H + secretion, mediated by the apical Na + /H + exchanger NHE 3 and the vacuolar proton pump. However, NHE3 and the proton pump cannot account for all HCO 3 - reclamation. Here, we investigated the potential contribution of two variants of the electroneutral Na + /HCO 3 - cotransporter NBCn2, the amino termini of which start with the amino acids MCDL (MCDL-NBCn2) and MEIK (MEIK-NBCn2). Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry revealed that MEIK-NBCn2 predominantly localizes at the basolateral membrane of medullary thick ascending limbs in the rat kidney, whereas MCDL-NBCn2 localizes at the apical membrane of proximal tubules. Notably, NH 4 Cl-induced systemic metabolic acidosis or hypokalemic alkalosis downregulated the abundance of MCDL-NBCn2 and reciprocally upregulated NHE 3 Conversely, NaHCO 3 -induced metabolic alkalosis upregulated MCDL-NBCn2 and reciprocally downregulated NHE 3 We propose that the apical membrane of the proximal tubules has two distinct strategies for HCO 3 - reclamation: the conventional indirect pathway, in which NHE 3 and the proton pump secrete H + to titrate luminal HCO 3 - , and the novel direct pathway, in which NBCn2 removes HCO 3 - from the lumen. The reciprocal regulation of NBCn2 and NHE 3 under different physiologic conditions is consistent with our mathematical simulations, which suggest that HCO 3 - uptake and H + secretion have reciprocal efficiencies for HCO 3 - reclamation versus titration of luminal buffers. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Single photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) for functional investigation of the proximal tubule in conscious mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouret, François; Walrand, Stéphan; Parreira, Kleber S; Courtoy, Pierre J; Pauwels, Stanislas; Devuyst, Olivier; Jamar, François

    2010-02-01

    Noninvasive analysis of renal function in conscious mice is necessary to optimize the use of mouse models. In this study, we evaluated whether single photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) using specific radionuclear tracers can be used to analyze changes in renal proximal tubule functions. The tracers included (99m)TC- dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA), which is used for cortex imaging; (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine ((99m)Tc-MAG3), used for dynamic renography; and (123)I-beta(2)-microglobulin, which monitors receptor-mediated endocytosis. (99m)Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging was shown to delineate the functional renal cortex with a approximately 1-mm spatial resolution and accumulated in the cortex reaching a plateau 5 h after injection. The cortical uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was abolished in Clcn5 knockout mice, a model of proximal tubule dysfunction. Dynamic renography with (99m)Tc-MAG3 in conscious mice demonstrated rapid extraction from blood, renal accumulation, and subsequent tubular secretion. Anesthesia induced a significant delay in the (99m)Tc-MAG3 clearance. The tubular reabsorption of (123)I-beta(2)-microglobulin was strongly impaired in the Clcn5 knockout mice, with defective tubular processing and loss of the native tracer in urine, reflecting proximal tubule dysfunction. Longitudinal studies in a model of cisplatin-induced acute tubular injury revealed a correlation between tubular recovery and (123)I-beta(2)-microglobulin uptake. These data show that SPECT imaging with well-validated radiotracers allows in vivo investigations of specific proximal tubule functions in conscious mice.

  19. Push-out bond strength and dentinal tubule penetration of different root canal sealers used with coated core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purali, Nuhan; Coşgun, Erdal; Calt, Semra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the push-out bond strength and dentinal tubule penetration of root canal sealers used with coated core materials and conventional gutta-percha. Materials and Methods A total of 72 single-rooted human mandibular incisors were instrumented with NiTi rotary files with irrigation of 2.5% NaOCl. The smear layer was removed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Specimens were assigned into four groups according to the obturation system: Group 1, EndoRez (Ultradent Product Inc.); Group 2, Activ GP (Brasseler); Group 3, SmartSeal (DFRP Ltd. Villa Farm); Group 4, AH 26 (Dentsply de Trey)/gutta-percha (GP). For push-out bond strength measurement, two horizontal slices were obtained from each specimen (n = 20). To compare dentinal tubule penetration, remaining 32 roots assigned to 4 groups as above were obturated with 0.1% Rhodamine B labeled sealers. One horizontal slice was obtained from the middle third of each specimen (n = 8) and scanned under confocal laser scanning electron microscope. Tubule penetration area, depth, and percentage were measured. Kruskall-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. Results EndoRez showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than the others (p penetration. SmartSeal showed the least penetration than the others (p penetration of resin-and glass ionomer-based sealers used with coated core was not superior to resin-based sealer used with conventional GP. Dentinal tubule penetration has limited effect on bond strength. The use of conventional GP with sealer seems to be sufficient in terms of push-out bond strength. PMID:27200279

  20. Both mitogen activated protein kinase and the mammalian target of rapamycin modulate the development of functional renal proximal tubules in matrigel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ho Jae; Sigurdson, Wade J; Nickerson, Peter A; Taub, Mary

    2004-04-01

    Tubules may arise during branching morphogenesis through several mechanisms including wrapping, budding, cavitation and cord hollowing. In this report we present evidence that is consistent with renal proximal tubule formation through a process of cord hollowing (a process that requires the concomitant establishment of apicobasal polarity and lumen formation). Pockets of lumen filled with Lucifer Yellow were observed within developing cords of rabbit renal proximal tubule cells in matrigel. The observation of Lucifer Yellow accumulation suggests functional polarization. In the renal proximal tubule Lucifer Yellow is initially transported intracellularly by means of a basolaterally oriented p-aminohippurate transport system, followed by apical secretion into the lumen of the nephron. Consistent with such polarization in developing tubules, Triticum vulgare was observed to bind to the lumenal membranes within pockets of Lucifer Yellow-filled lumens. As this lectin binds apically in the rabbit renal proximal tubule, T. vulgare binding is indicative of the emergence of an apical domain before the formation of a contiguous lumen. Both epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor stimulated the formation of transporting tubules. The stimulatory effect of both epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor on tubulogenesis was inhibited by PD98059, a mitogen activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, rather than by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Nevertheless, Lucifer Yellow-filled lumens were observed in tubules that formed in the presence of PD98059 as well as with wortmannin, indicating that these drugs did not prevent the process of cavitation. By contrast, rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, prevented the process of cavitation without affecting the frequency of formation of developing cords. Multicellular cysts were observed to form in 8-bromocyclic AMP-treated cultures. As these cysts did not similarly

  1. Dual Regulation of Gluconeogenesis by Insulin and Glucose in the Proximal Tubules of the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Motohiro; Sasako, Takayoshi; Kubota, Naoto; Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Tetsuya; Inagi, Reiko; Seki, George; Goto, Moritaka; Ueki, Kohjiro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Jomori, Takahito; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Growing attention has been focused on the roles of the proximal tubules (PTs) of the kidney in glucose metabolism, including the mechanism of regulation of gluconeogenesis. In this study, we found that PT-specific insulin receptor substrate 1/2 double-knockout mice, established by using the newly generated sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2)-Cre transgenic mice, exhibited impaired insulin signaling and upregulated gluconeogenic gene expression and renal gluconeogenesis, resulting in systemic insulin resistance. In contrast, in streptozotocin-treated mice, although insulin action was impaired in the PTs, the gluconeogenic gene expression was unexpectedly downregulated in the renal cortex, which was restored by administration of an SGLT1/2 inhibitor. In the HK-2 cells, the gluconeogenic gene expression was suppressed by insulin, accompanied by phosphorylation and inactivation of forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FoxO1). In contrast, glucose deacetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), a coactivator of FoxO1, via sirtuin 1, suppressing the gluconeogenic gene expression, which was reversed by inhibition of glucose reabsorption. These data suggest that both insulin signaling and glucose reabsorption suppress the gluconeogenic gene expression by inactivation of FoxO1 and PGC1α, respectively, providing insight into novel mechanisms underlying the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the PTs. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Effect of alphatocopherol on diameter of proximal convoluted tubules of kidney in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Saadia

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of alphatocopherol supplement on proximal convoluted tubular diameter of kidney in diabetic mice. The randomised controlled trials was conducted partly at the National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, and partly in Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from November 2009 to November 2010. Thirty adult female mice BALB/C were randomly divided into three equal groups. Group A served as the control group. Group B was made diabetic by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Group C received injection streptozotocin and was fed with alphatocopherol (vitamin E) supplemented diet. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histomorphological study. Diabetes caused significant changes in the diameter of proximal tubule of Experimental Group B (diabetic) compared to the controls in Group A, but these changes were prevented in alphatocopherol treated Group C. Tubular diameter in Group B was significantly reduced compared to theControl Group A (p 0.05). Significant difference in proximal tubular diameter of kidneys between diabetic and alphatocopherol treated diabetic mice confirm that vitamin E does extend a protective role in improving diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Increased expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 in kidney proximal tubules mediates fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyesi, Judit; Tarcsafalvi, Adel; Li, Shenyang; Hodeify, Rawad; Seng, Nang San Hti Lar; Portilla, Didier; Price, Peter M

    2015-01-15

    Tissue fibrosis is a major cause of death in developed countries. It commonly occurs after either acute or chronic injury and affects diverse organs, including the heart, liver, lung, and kidney. Using the renal ablation model of chronic kidney disease, we previously found that the development of progressive renal fibrosis was dependent on p21(WAF1/Cip1) expression; the genetic knockout of the p21 gene greatly alleviated this disease. In the present study, we expanded on this observation and report that fibrosis induced by two different acute injuries to the kidney is also dependent on p21. In addition, when p21 expression was restricted only to the proximal tubule, fibrosis after injury was induced in the whole organ. One molecular fibrogenic switch we describe is transforming growth factor-β induction, which occurred in vivo and in cultured kidney cells exposed to adenovirus expressing p21. Our data suggests that fibrosis is p21 dependent and that preventing p21 induction after stress could be a novel therapeutic target.

  4. A Subpopulation of Label-Retaining Cells of the Kidney Papilla Regenerates Injured Kidney Medullary Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Juan A; Sampogna, Rosemary V; Jalal, Sumreen; Zhang, Qing-Yin; Dahan, Alexander; Wang, Weiwei; Shen, Tian Huai; Al-Awqati, Qais

    2016-05-10

    To determine whether adult kidney papillary label-retaining cells (pLRCs) are specialized precursors, we analyzed their transcription profile. Among genes overexpressed in pLRCs, we selected candidate genes to perform qPCR and immunodetection of their encoded proteins. We found that Zfyve27, which encodes protrudin, identified a subpopulation of pLRCs. With Zfyve27-CreERT2 transgenic and reporter mice we generated bitransgenic animals and performed cell-lineage analysis. Post tamoxifen, Zfyve27-CreERT2 marked cells preferentially located in the upper part of the papilla. These cells were low cycling and did not generate progeny even after long-term observation, thus they did not appear to contribute to kidney homeostasis. However, after kidney injury, but only if severe, they activated a program of proliferation, migration, and morphogenesis generating multiple and long tubular segments. Remarkably these regenerated tubules were located preferentially in the kidney medulla, indicating that repair of injury in the kidney is regionally specified. These results suggest that different parts of the kidney have different progenitor cell pools. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased expression of intranuclear matrix metalloproteinase 9 in atrophic renal tubules is associated with renal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Pi; Liou, Jia-Hung; Kao, Wei-Tse; Wang, Shao-Chung; Lian, Jong-Da; Chang, Horng-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Reduced turnover of extracellular matrix has a role in renal fibrosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is associated with many glomerular diseases, but the histological association of MMPs and human renal fibrosis is unclear. This is a retrospective study. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the review of patients' medical records, data analysis and pathological specimens staining with waiver of informed consents. Specimens of forty-six patients were examined by immunohistochemical stain of MMP-9 in nephrectomized kidneys, and the association of renal expression of MMP-9 and renal fibrosis was determined. MMP-9 expression in individual renal components and fibrosis was graded as high or low based on MMP-9 staining and fibrotic scores. Patients with high interstitial fibrosis scores (IFS) and glomerular fibrosis scores (GFS) had significantly higher serum creatinine, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and were more likely to have chronic kidney disease (CKD) and urothelial cell carcinoma. Univariate analysis showed that IFS and GFS were negatively associated with normal and atrophic tubular cytoplasmic MMP-9 expression and IFS was positively correlated with atrophic tubular nuclear MMP-9 expression. Multivariate stepwise regression indicated that MMP-9 expression in atrophic tubular nuclei (r = 0.4, p = 0.002) was an independent predictor of IFS, and that MMP-9 expression in normal tubular cytoplasm (r = -0.465, prenal fibrosis is associated with a decline of MMP-9 expression in the cytoplasm of normal tubular cells and increased expression of MMP-9 in the nuclei of tubular atrophic renal tubules.

  6. Potassium Sensing by Renal Distal Tubules Requires Kir4.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Catherina A; Su, Xiao-Tong; Wang, Ming-Xiao; Terker, Andrew S; Lin, Dao-Hong; McCormick, James A; Yang, Chao-Ling; Ellison, David H; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2017-06-01

    The mammalian distal convoluted tubule (DCT) makes an important contribution to potassium homeostasis by modulating NaCl transport. The thiazide-sensitive Na + /Cl - cotransporter (NCC) is activated by low potassium intake and by hypokalemia. Coupled with suppression of aldosterone secretion, activation of NCC helps to retain potassium by increasing electroneutral NaCl reabsorption, therefore reducing Na + /K + exchange. Yet the mechanisms by which DCT cells sense plasma potassium concentration and transmit the information to the apical membrane are not clear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the potassium channel Kir4.1 is the potassium sensor of DCT cells. We generated mice in which Kir4.1 could be deleted in the kidney after the mice are fully developed. Deletion of Kir4.1 in these mice led to moderate salt wasting, low BP, and profound potassium wasting. Basolateral membranes of DCT cells were depolarized, nearly devoid of conductive potassium transport, and unresponsive to plasma potassium concentration. Although renal WNK4 abundance increased after Kir4.1 deletion, NCC abundance and function decreased, suggesting that membrane depolarization uncouples WNK kinases from NCC. Together, these results indicate that Kir4.1 mediates potassium sensing by DCT cells and couples this signal to apical transport processes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. p62/SQSTM1 prominently accumulates in renal proximal tubules in nephropathic cystinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanwal, Poonam; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2012-11-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis, a lysosomal storage disorder, is associated with generalized proximal tubular dysfunction and progressive renal failure. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to renal tubular injury remain largely unknown. Abnormal induction of autophagy has been shown in cystinosis. We have studied the autophagic flux in cystinosis by evaluating autophagy-specific substrates. LC3 and p62 expression was evaluated by (1) immunohistochemistry performed on kidney biopsies obtained from four nephropathic cystinosis patients, four patients with renal injury due to causes other than cystinosis, and four normal kidney tissues and (2) fluorescence imaging in cultured renal proximal tubular epithelial (RPTE) cells obtained from four nephropathic cystinosis patients and two lots of normal primary RPTE cells, both in basal and starvation conditions. p62 expression was also corroborated by western blot analysis in RPTE cells. There was a significant buildup of p62 protein in patients with nephropathic cystinosis, specifically in the proximal tubules in kidney biopsies and RPTE cells (p = 0.0004), and the accumulation was further enhanced upon starvation. Cystinotic RPTE cells exhibited a significant co-localization of p62 with LC3. Our findings indicate a potential block in the autophagic flux in cystinosis, thus providing key insights into the underlying mechanisms of tubular injury in cystinosis.

  8. Roles of Renal Proximal Tubule Transport in Acid/Base Balance and Blood Pressure Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motonobu Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from renal proximal tubules (PTs plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of systemic acid/base balance. Indeed, mutations in the Na+-HCO3- cotransporter NBCe1, which mediates a majority of bicarbonate exit from PTs, cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis associated with ocular and other extrarenal abnormalities. Sodium transport in PTs also plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. For example, PT transport stimulation by insulin may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with insulin resistance. Type 1 angiotensin (Ang II receptors in PT are critical for blood pressure homeostasis. Paradoxically, the effects of Ang II on PT transport are known to be biphasic. Unlike in other species, however, Ang II is recently shown to dose-dependently stimulate human PT transport via nitric oxide/cGMP/ERK pathway, which may represent a novel therapeutic target in human hypertension. In this paper, we will review the physiological and pathophysiological roles of PT transport.

  9. Renal telocytes contribute to the repair of ischemically injured renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Lin, Miao; Li, Long; Wang, Rulin; Zhang, Chao; Qi, Guisheng; Xu, Ming; Rong, Ruiming; Zhu, Tongyu

    2014-06-01

    Telocytes (TCs), a distinct type of interstitial cells, have been identified in many organs via electron microscopy. However, their precise function in organ regeneration remains unknown. This study investigated the paracrine effect of renal TCs on renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) in vitro, the regenerative function of renal TCs in renal tubules after ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in vivo and the possible mechanisms involved. In a renal IRI model, transplantation of renal TCs was found to decrease serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, while renal fibroblasts exerted no such effect. The results of histological injury assessments and the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 were consistent with a change in kidney function. Our data suggest that the protective effect of TCs against IRI occurs via inflammation-independent mechanisms in vivo. Furthermore, we found that renal TCs could not directly promote the proliferation and anti-apoptosis properties of TECs in vitro. TCs did not display any advantage in paracrine growth factor secretion in vitro compared with renal fibroblasts. These data indicate that renal TCs protect against renal IRI via an inflammation-independent pathway and that growth factors play a significant role in this mechanism. Renal TCs may protect TECs in certain microenvironments while interacting with other cells. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Effect of alphatocopherol on diameter of proximal convoluted tubules of kidney in diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of alphatocopherol supplement on proximal convoluted tubular diameter of kidney in diabetic mice. Methods: The randomised controlled trials was conducted partly at the National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, and partly in Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from November 2009 to November 2010. Thirty adult female mice BALB/C were randomly divided into three equal groups. Group A served as the control group. Group B was made diabetic by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Group C received injection streptozotocin and was fed with alphatocopherol (vitamin E) supplemented diet. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histomorphological study. Results: Diabetes caused significant changes in the diameter of proximal tubule of Experimental Group B (diabetic) compared to the controls in Group A, but these changes were prevented in alphatocopherol treated Group C. Tubular diameter in Group B was significantly reduced compared to the Control Group A (p 0.05). Conclusion: Significant difference in proximal tubular diameter of kidneys between diabetic and alphatocopherol treated diabetic mice confirm that vitamin E does extend a protective role in improving diabetic nephropathy. (author)

  11. Natural tubule clay template synthesis of silver nanorods for antibacterial composite coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullayev, Elshad; Sakakibara, Keita; Okamoto, Ken; Wei, Wenbo; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Lvov, Yuri

    2011-10-01

    Halloysite is naturally available clay mineral with hollow cylindrical geometry and it is available in thousands of tons. Silver nanorods were synthesized inside the lumen of the halloysite by thermal decomposition of the silver acetate, which was loaded into halloysite from an aqueous solution by vacuum cycling. Images of individual ca. 15 nm diameter silver nanorods and nanoparticles were observed with TEM. The presence of silver inside the tubes was also verified with STEM-EDX elemental mapping. Nanorods had crystalline nature with [111] axis oriented ~68° from the halloysite tubule main axis. The composite of silver nanorods encased in clay tubes with the polymer paint was prepared, and the coating antimicrobial activity combined with tensile strength increase was demonstrated. Coating containing up 5% silver loaded halloysite did not change color after light exposure contrary to the sample prepared with loading with unshelled silver nanoparticles. Halloysite tube templates have a potential for scalable manufacturing of ceramic encapsulated metal nanorods for composite materials. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Regulation of transport in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staruschenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this overview article is to summarize recent findings in renal epithelial transport, focusing chiefly on the connecting tubule (CNT) and the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Mammalian CCD and CNT are involved in fine tuning of electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and secretion. Specific transporters and channels mediate vectorial movements of water and solutes in these segments. Although only a small percent of the glomerular filtrate reaches the CNT and CCD, these segments are critical for water and electrolyte homeostasis since several hormones, e.g. aldosterone and arginine vasopressin, exert their main effects in these nephron sites. Importantly, hormones regulate the function of the entire nephron and kidney by affecting channels and transporters in the CNT and CCD. Knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological regulation of transport in the CNT and CCD and particular roles of specific channels/transporters has increased tremendously over the last two decades. Recent studies shed new light on several key questions concerning the regulation of renal transport. Precise distribution patterns of transport proteins in the CCD and CNT will be reviewed, and their physiological roles and mechanisms mediating ion transport in these segments will be also covered. Special emphasis will be given to pathophysiological conditions appearing as a result of abnormalities in renal transport in the CNT and CCD. PMID:23227301

  13. Transport of salicylate in proximal tubule (S2 segment) isolated from rabbit kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, L.; Roch-Ramel, F.

    1988-01-01

    The secretory and the reabsorptive transport of salicylate was studied in the isolated and perfused rabbit proximal tubule (S 2 segment). Salicylate secretion (J sal b→l ) fulfilled the criteria for a carrier-mediated transport system: J sal b→l was saturable, was reversibly inhibited by probenecid, and occurred against a concentration gradient. The K m and V max for this secretory transport were 80 μM and 3,200 fmol·min -1 ·mm -1 , respectively. At luminal pH of 7.4 and 6.6, salicylate reabsorption (J sal l→b ) was low. J sal l→b was stimulated by increasing the bath Pco 2 or by removing basolateral HCO 3 - ; J sal l→b was inhibited by ethoxyzolamide and by SITS in the bath. The results indicate that salicylate reabsorption depends on H + secretion, consistent with reabsorption by simple nonionic diffusion. When salicylate was present in the lumen only, J sal l→b increased after inhibition of the secretory transport by adding ouabain or probenecid in the bath or by lowering the bath temperature. These results are compatible with luminal recycling of salicylate, and suggest the presence of a mediated secretory transporter located at the luminal membrane

  14. Proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion alters basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Chaudhry, Farrukh A.; Verlander, Jill W.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4+ with glutamate to form glutamine. GS is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule (PT), suggesting ammonia recycling via GS could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of PT GS in ammonia metabolism under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. We generated mice with PT-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Under basal conditions, PT-GS-KO increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. Increased ammonia excretion occurred despite decreased expression of key proteins involved in renal ammonia generation. After the induction of metabolic acidosis, the ability to increase ammonia excretion was impaired significantly by PT-GS-KO. The blunted increase in ammonia excretion occurred despite greater expression of multiple components of ammonia generation, including SN1 (Slc38a3), phosphate-dependent glutaminase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and Na+-coupled electrogenic bicarbonate cotransporter. We conclude that 1) GS-mediated ammonia recycling in the PT contributes to both basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism and 2) adaptive changes in other proteins involved in ammonia metabolism occur in response to PT-GS-KO and cause an underestimation of the role of PT GS expression. PMID:27009341

  15. Identification of Self-Similar Regular Structures in Space: Tubules, Cages, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.; Kukushkin, A. B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of processing the available databases, including the NASA Hubble Space Telescope public library, with the help of the method of multilevel dynamical contrasting of the images [1,2a], are presented which demonstrate the abundancy of the regular self-similar structures, in a very broad range of length scales, far beyond the limits predicted by the chaotic mechanisms of their formation. Typical examples of tubules, cages and close types of structuring are given. The influence of such a structuring on the fractality of the visible matter is discussed. The similarity of observed structures to those revealed recently in various laboratory discharges [1,2] suggests (i) the presence of a long-range electromagnetism in the universe, up to superclusters of galaxies' length scales, and (ii) quantum (molecular) nature [3] of the observable rigid-body structures, which is based on the carbon nanotubes, or similar macromolecules, and their assemblies of the respective macroscopic length (see also [4] and this conference). REFERENCES: Kukushkin A.B., Rantsev-Kartinov V.A., [1] Laser and Part. Beams, 16 (1998) 445. [2] Rev. Sci. Instrum., 70 (1999) (a) p.1387, (b) p.1421. [3] Proc. 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conf., Yokohama, October 1998, IAEA-F1-CN-69/IFP/17. [4] Proc. 26-th EPS conf., Maastricht, June 1999, P2-087.

  16. Uptake of advanced glycation end products by proximal tubule epithelial cells via macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallicchio, Marisa A; Bach, Leon A

    2013-12-01

    Chronic hyperglycaemia during diabetes leads to non-enzymatic glycation of proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that contribute to nephropathy. We describe AGE uptake in LLC-PK1 and HK2 proximal tubule cell lines by macropinocytosis, a non-specific, endocytic mechanism. AGE-BSA induced dorsal circular actin ruffles and amiloride-sensitive dextran-TRITC uptake, significantly increased AGE-BSA-FITC uptake (167±20% vs BSA control, pmacropinocytosis. PAK1 and PIP5Kγ siRNA significantly decreased AGE-BSA-FITC uptake (81±6% and 64±7%, respectively, pmacropinocytosis inhibitors and a neutralising TGF-β antibody, reversed the AGE-induced decrease in surface Na(+)K(+)ATPase, suggesting AGE uptake by macropinocytosis may contribute to diabetic kidney fibrosis and/or EMT by modulating this pump. Understanding methods of cellular uptake and signalling by AGEs may lead to novel therapies for diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of mercury on lysosomal protein digestion in the kidney proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, K.M.; Christensen, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of mercury on renal lysosomal protein digestion was studied after administration of mercury in vitro and in vivo. Mercuric chloride or methylmercury chloride was added in vitro to lysosomal enzymes isolated from normal rats, and subsequently, digestion experiments were carried out using 125 I-labeled lysozyme or cytochrome c as substrate proteins. Both mercury compounds produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the degradation of the proteins, mercuric chloride being the strongest inhibitor. Mercuric chloride was also administered to rats in vivo for 5 to 8 months. Renal lysosomal enzymes from these animals also had a decreased ability to digest the two substrate proteins. Furthermore, the digestion of lysozyme intravenously injected into mercury-intoxicated rats was decreased in renal cortical slices incubated in vitro. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that intravenously injected labeled lysozyme was located primarily over lysosomes in proximal tubule cells 1 hour after injection in both control animals and mercury-intoxicated rats. These results suggest a decreased catabolism of low molecular weight proteins in the kidney during chronic mercury intoxication

  18. OUTER RETINAL TUBULATION: Characteristics in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaculli, Cristiana; Barone, Antonio; Scudieri, Marilisa; Giovanna Palumbo, Maria; Delle Noci, Nicola

    2015-10-01

    To assess the incidence, characteristics, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and retinal sensitivity correlations in patients with and without outer retinal tubulation (ORT) affected by subfoveal choroidal neovascularization due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Prospective case series including 78 eyes of 78 consecutive patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization due to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Baseline and follow-up visits included BCVA, intraocular pressure, ophthalmoscopic examination, CMT as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and retinal sensitivity tested with fundus-related perimetry (MP-1). Fluorescent angiography was performed at baseline. At the end of the follow-up period, the mean BCVA and CMT of patients with ORT were statistically different from those without ORT (BCVA: 0.61 ± 0.13 vs. 0.37 ± 1.59, P macular degeneration suggest that these parameters are statistically different in patients with ORT; this may be due to the pathogenesis of ORT formation, secondary to retinal pigment epithelial tears or photoreceptor damage. MP-1 microperimeter is a noninvasive instrument that provides useful information to better characterize the functional aspect of ORT in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

  19. Membrane dynamics in the malpighian tubules of the house cricket, acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, S R; Townsend, V R; Felgenhauer, B E; Spring, J H

    2002-01-01

    In Acheta domesticus, the Malpighian tubules (Mt) are composed of three morphologically distinct regions (proximal, mid and distal), each consisting of a single cell type. The bulk of the Mt is composed of the midtubule, which shows the greatest response to corticotropin releasing factor-related diuretic peptides (CRF-DP). We know from previous laboratory studies that the second messenger cAMP and its analog dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP) cause an approximate doubling in the secretion rate and that this is accompanied by notable ultrastructural changes in the midtubule, especially membrane reorganization in the basal area and extensive vesiculation of the cytoplasm. In this study, we examined the morphological changes in membranes both at the cell surface and internally. By enzymatically removing the basal lamina, we examined the increase in spacing between infolded membranes initiated by db-cAMP stimulation. To examine the intracellular membranes, we used a technique developed for use in invertebrate tissues. This allowed the removal of the cytoplasm for high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) while maintaining the integrity of the lipid constituents of the cell. By using HR-SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we gained a unique three-dimensional perspective of the complexity of the internal membrane system of the A. domesticus Mt in both the unstimulated and db-cAMP-stimulated states.

  20. Proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion alters basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Lamers, Wouter H; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2016-06-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4 (+) with glutamate to form glutamine. GS is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule (PT), suggesting ammonia recycling via GS could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of PT GS in ammonia metabolism under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. We generated mice with PT-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Under basal conditions, PT-GS-KO increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. Increased ammonia excretion occurred despite decreased expression of key proteins involved in renal ammonia generation. After the induction of metabolic acidosis, the ability to increase ammonia excretion was impaired significantly by PT-GS-KO. The blunted increase in ammonia excretion occurred despite greater expression of multiple components of ammonia generation, including SN1 (Slc38a3), phosphate-dependent glutaminase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and Na(+)-coupled electrogenic bicarbonate cotransporter. We conclude that 1) GS-mediated ammonia recycling in the PT contributes to both basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism and 2) adaptive changes in other proteins involved in ammonia metabolism occur in response to PT-GS-KO and cause an underestimation of the role of PT GS expression.

  1. Entosis Acts as a Novel Way within Sertoli Cells to Eliminate Spermatozoa in Seminiferous Tubule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that in vivo entosis is a novel pathway for eliminating spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules (ST during hibernation of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of LAMP1 in the testis was significantly higher during hibernation than that during non-hibernation. Immunohistochemistry reaction showed that LAMP1-positive substance was distributed within the Sertoli cells of the testis. Further examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, many degraded spermatozoa being enwrapped within large entotic vacuoles in Sertoli cells. The nucleus and the flagellum of the spermatozoa were shown to be decomposed and digested inside entotic vacuoles within Sertoli cells. More than two spermatozoa heads were always observed in each internalized vacuoles. Deserving note is that, a number of different autophagosomes, including initial autophagic vesicles and degradative autophagic vesicles were found inside the entotic vacuoles of the Sertoli cells during hibernation. At the end of hibernation, entotic vacuoles and their autophagosomes disappeared, and numerous large lipid droplets (LDs appeared within the Sertoli cells. Adherens junctions were apparent between Sertoli cells and developing germ cells, which is the ultrastructural basis of entosis. Taken together, the results presented here show that in the turtle: (1 entosis with internal autophagosomes can take place within normal body cells during hibernation; (2 spermatozoa, as a highly differentiated cell can be internalized and degraded within Sertoli cell by entosis in vivo, which is in favor of the next reproductive cycle in the turtle.

  2. Premeiotic germ cell defect in seminiferous tubules of Atm-null testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takubo, Keiyo; Hirao, Atsushi; Ohmura, Masako; Azuma, Masaki; Arai, Fumio; Nagamatsu, Go; Suda, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Lifelong spermatogenesis is maintained by coordinated sequential processes including self-renewal of stem cells, proliferation of spermatogonial cells, meiotic division, and spermiogenesis. It has been shown that ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) is required for meiotic division of the seminiferous tubules. Here, we show that, in addition to its role in meiosis, ATM has a pivotal role in premeiotic germ cell maintenance. ATM is activated in premeiotic spermatogonial cells and the Atm-null testis shows progressive degeneration. In Atm-null testicular cells, differing from bone marrow cells of Atm-null mice, reactive oxygen species-mediated p16 Ink4a activation does not occur in Atm-null premeiotic germ cells, which suggests the involvement of different signaling pathways from bone marrow defects. Although Atm-null bone marrow undergoes p16 Ink4a -mediated cellular senescence program, Atm-null premeiotic germ cells exhibited cell cycle arrest and apoptotic elimination of premeiotic germ cells, which is different from p16 Ink4a -mediated senescence

  3. Uranyl nitrate inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human and mouse renal proximal tubules: A 13C-NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renault, Sophie; Faiz, Hassan; Gadet, Rudy; Ferrier, Bernard; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Conjard-Duplany, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    As part of a study on uranium nephrotoxicity, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate in isolated human and mouse kidney cortex tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. In the millimolar range, uranyl nitrate reduced lactate removal and gluconeogenesis and the cellular ATP level in a dose-dependent fashion. After incubation in phosphate-free Krebs-Henseleit medium with 5 mM L-[1- 13 C]-, or L-[2- 13 C]-, or L-[3- 13 C]lactate, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by enzymatic and NMR spectroscopic methods. In the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate, glucose production and the intracellular ATP content were significantly reduced in both human and mouse tubules. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism revealed an inhibition of fluxes through lactate dehydrogenase and the gluconeogenic enzymes in the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate; in human and mouse tubules, fluxes were lowered by 20% and 14% (lactate dehydrogenase), 27% and 32% (pyruvate carboxylase), 35% and 36% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 39% and 45% (glucose-6-phosphatase), respectively. These results indicate that natural uranium is an inhibitor of renal lactate gluconeogenesis in both humans and mice.

  4. Patterning the embryonic kidney: BMP signaling mediates the differentiation of the pronephric tubules and duct in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Christina M; Mizeracka, Karolina; McLaughlin, Kelly A

    2008-01-01

    The Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) mediate a wide range of diverse cellular behaviors throughout development. Previous studies implicated an important role for BMP signaling during the differentiation of the definitive mammalian kidney, the metanephros. In order to examine whether BMP signaling also plays an important role during the patterning of earlier renal systems, we examined the development of the earliest nephric system, the pronephros. Using the amphibian model system Xenopus laevis, in combination with reagents designed to inhibit BMP signaling during specific stages of nephric development, we revealed an evolutionarily conserved role for this signaling pathway during renal morphogenesis. Our results demonstrate that conditional BMP inhibition after specification of the pronephric anlagen is completed, but prior to the onset of morphogenesis and differentiation of renal tissues, results in the severe malformation of both the pronephric duct and tubules. Importantly, the effects of BMP signaling on the developing nephron during this developmental window are specific, only affecting the developing duct and tubules, but not the glomus. These data, combined with previous studies examining metanephric development in mice, provide further support that BMP functions to mediate morphogenesis of the specified renal field during vertebrate embryogenesis. Specifically, BMP signaling is required for the differentiation of two types of nephric structures, the pronephric tubules and duct.

  5. Relationship of Cell Proliferating Marker Expressions with PGE(2) Receptors in Regenerating Rat Renal Tubules after Cisplatin Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Emi; Izawa, Takeshi; Juniantito, Vetnizah; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2010-12-01

    Cisplatin, an anticancer drug, is well known to have nephrotoxicity as an adverse effect. We investigated the expressions of cell cycle markers and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptors (EP) in the affected renal tubules in rats injected with a single dose (6 mg/kg body weight) of cisplatin. On days 1-3 after dosing, the affected renal epithelial cells were almost desquamated, showing necrosis. On day 5 onwards, the renal tubules were rimmed by flattened or cuboidal epithelial cells with basophilic cytoplasm; BrdU-immunopositive cells began to significantly increase, indicating regeneration. Simultaneously, TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were also seen. On days 1-5, cyclin D1-immunopositive cells were decreased with an increased expression in p21 mRNA, indicating G(1) arrest in the cell cycle. The affected renal epithelial cells began to react to EP4 receptor, but not to EP2 receptor. Some EP4 receptor-reacting epithelial cells gave a positive reaction to BrdU or cyclin D1. Collectively, the affected renal tubules underwent various alterations such as necrosis, apoptosis, regeneration and G(1) arrest; the aspects might be influenced by endogenous PGE(2) through EP4 receptor.

  6. Caspase-4 may play a role in loss of proximal tubules and renal injury in nephropathic cystinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanwal, Poonam; Kambham, Neeraja; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2010-01-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is characterized clinically by generalized proximal renal tubular dysfunction, renal Fanconi Syndrome and progressive renal failure. Glomerular-proximal tubule disconnection has been noted in renal biopsies from patients with nephropathic cystinosis. In vitro studies performed in cystinotic fibroblasts and renal proximal tubular cells support a role for apoptosis of the glomerulotubular junction, and we have further extended these studies to human native cystinotic kidney specimens. We performed semi-quantitative analysis of tubular density in kidney biopsies from patients with nephropathic cystinosis and demonstrated a significant reduction (p=0.0003) in the number of proximal tubules in the kidney tissue of patients with cystinosis compared to normal kidneys and kidneys with other causes of renal injury; this reduction appears to be associated with the over-expression of caspase-4. This study provides the first quantitative evidence of a loss of proximal tubules in nephropathic cystinosis and suggests a possible role of caspase-4 in the apoptotic loss of proximal tubular cells. Further work is needed to elucidate if this injury mechanism may be causative for the progression of renal functional decline in nephropathic cystinosis.

  7. Uric acid promotes apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells by oxidative stress and the activation of NADPH oxidase NOX 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verzola

    Full Text Available Mild hyperuricemia has been linked to the development and progression of tubulointerstitial renal damage. However the mechanisms by which uric acid may cause these effects are poorly explored. We investigated the effect of uric acid on apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2. Increased uric acid concentration decreased tubule cell viability and increased apoptotic cells in a dose dependent manner (up to a 7-fold increase, p<0.0001. Uric acid up-regulated Bax (+60% with respect to Ctrl; p<0.05 and down regulated X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Apoptosis was blunted by Caspase-9 but not Caspase-8 inhibition. Uric acid induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane, elevations in reactive oxygen species and a pronounced up-regulation of NOX 4 mRNA and protein (p<0.05. In addition, both reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis was prevented by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI as well as by Nox 4 knockdown. URAT 1 transport inhibition by probenecid and losartan and its knock down by specific siRNA, blunted apoptosis, suggesting a URAT 1 dependent cell death. In summary, our data show that uric acid increases the permissiveness of proximal tubule kidney cells to apoptosis by triggering a pathway involving NADPH oxidase signalling and URAT 1 transport. These results might explain the chronic tubulointerstitial damage observed in hyperuricaemic states and suggest that uric acid transport in tubular cells is necessary for urate-induced effects.

  8. Fabrication of Collagen Gel Hollow Fibers by Covalent Cross-Linking for Construction of Bioengineering Renal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Guoliang; Wang, Qichen; Meng, Qin

    2015-09-09

    Collagen, the most used natural biomacromolecule, has been extensively utilized to make scaffolds for cell cultures in tissue engineering, but has never been fabricated into the configuration of a hollow fiber (HF) for cell culture due to its poor mechanical properties. In this study, renal tubular cell-laden collagen hollow fiber (Col HF) was fabricated by dissolving sacrificial Ca-alginate cores from collagen shells strengthened by carbodiimide cross-linking. The inner/outer diameters of the Col HF were precisely controlled by the flow rates of core alginate/shell collagen solution in the microfluidic device. As found, the renal tubular cells self-assembled into renal tubules with diameters of 50-200 μm post to the culture in Col HF for 10 days. According to the 3D reconstructed confocal images or HE staining, the renal cells appeared as a tight tubular monolayer on the Col HF inner surface, sustaining more 3D cell morphology than the cell layer on the 2D flat collagen gel surface. Moreover, compared with the cultures in either a Transwell or polymer HF membrane, the renal tubules in Col HF exhibited at least 1-fold higher activity on brush border enzymes of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltransferase, consistent with their gene expressions. The enhancement occurred similarly on multidrug resistance protein 2 and glucose uptake. Such bioengineered renal tubules in Col HF will present great potential as alternatives to synthetic HF in both clinical use and pharmaceutical investigation.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of dendrimer-functionalized nano-hydroxyapatite and its application in dentin tubule occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuandong; Xie, Fangfang; Ma, Xueling; Hao, Yuhong; Qin, Hejia; Long, Jindong

    2017-06-01

    The occlusion of dentinal tubules is an effective method to alleviate the symptoms of dentin hypersensitivity. In this paper, we successfully modified nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAP) with carboxyl-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimers by an aqueous-based chemical method and verified by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then the demineralization dentin discs were randomly divided into 4 groups, corresponding to subsequent brushing experiments: deionized water and kept in artificial saliva (AS), dendrimer-functionalized n-HAP and stored in AS, n-HAP and saved in AS, dendrimer-functionalized n-HAP and stored in deionized water. After 7 days of simulated brushing, dentin discs followed the in vitro characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and microhardness test. These data suggested that dendrimer-functionalized n-HAP could crosslink with collagen fibers and resulted in effective dentinal tubule occlusion. Moreover, the new material can induce the HAP formation with the help of superficial carboxyl and fill the spaces in dentinal tubules furtherly. The microhardness of dendrimer-functionalized n-HAP-treated specimens was significantly higher than others. In summary, dendrimer-functionalized n-HAP can be a new therapeutic material for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

  10. An ion extract obtained from mineral trioxide aggregate induced dentin remineralization and dentin tubule occlusion in artificially demineralized bovine dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Linlin; Okiji, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the ability of a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) extract mixed with a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) system to induce remineralization and dentin tubule occlusion in artificially demineralized bovine dentin. The MTA extract solution was prepared by mixing white ProRoot MTA with distilled water (1:2) for 48 hours, before subjecting it to centrifugation. The elemental composition of the MTA extract solution was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The deposits produced by the MTA extract-PBS mixture were chemically analyzed using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the two-step application of the mixture (MTA extract solution followed by PBS) to bovine dentin samples that had been artificially demineralized with phosphoric acid (10%, 10 seconds) were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and EPMA after the specimens had been stored in PBS for 1 or 7 days. The MTA extract solution contained calcium, silicone, and aluminum (Ca>Si>Al), and the deposits produced by the MTA extract-PBS mixture contained calcium, phosphorous, sodium, silicone, and aluminum (Ca>P>Na>Si>Al) as major mineral elements. XRD also revealed that the deposits contained hydroxyapatite. The two-step application process resulted in the formation of a 2-3 microm-thick "mineral infiltration layer", together with mineral tag-like structures in the dentin tubules. The MTA extract-treated specimens exhibited a significantly higher dentin tubule occlusion rate than the untreated specimens (P < 0.05).

  11. Ultrastructural changes in the Malpighian tubules of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, at the onset of diuresis: A time study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, S R; Felgenhauer, B E; Spring, J H

    2001-01-01

    The Malpighian tubules (Mt) of insects are responsible for maintaining osmotic homeostasis and eliminating waste from the hemolymph. When stimulated by diuretic factors the tubule cells are able to transport extraordinary volumes of fluid over short periods of time. We have been studying the changes that occur within the cells that accompany and facilitate this phenomenon. We present the ultrastructural changes that occur in the mid-tubule of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, following exposure to the second messenger analog, dibutyryl cAMP, over the period from 15-420 sec. Vacuolation of the cytoplasm begins as early as 30 sec poststimulation with a significant increase in vacuolation occurring after 120 sec. As expected, there is an increase in the surface area of the basolateral membrane to facilitate the rapid movement of fluid into the cells. Other ultrastructural changes noted to accompany the onset of diuresis include the movement of mitochondria into areas adjacent to transport membranes, the vesiculation of Golgi, mobilization of CaPO(4) spherites, and a direct interaction of these spherites with active mitochondria. We discuss several possible roles for these changes in terms of rapid fluid transport. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Mechanisms of Cadmium-Induced Proximal Tubule Injury: New Insights with Implications for Biomonitoring and Therapeutic Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an important industrial agent and environmental pollutant that is a major cause of kidney disease. With chronic exposure, cadmium accumulates in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, resulting in a generalized reabsorptive dysfunction characterized by polyuria and low-molecular-weight proteinuria. The traditional view has been that as cadmium accumulates in proximal tubule cells, it produces a variety of relatively nonspecific toxic effects that result in the death of renal epithelial cells through necrotic or apoptotic mechanisms. However, a growing volume of evidence suggests that rather than merely being a consequence of cell death, the early stages of cadmium-induced proximal tubule injury may involve much more specific changes in cell-cell adhesion, cellular signaling pathways, and autophagic responses that occur well before the onset of necrosis or apoptosis. In this commentary, we summarize these recent findings, and we offer our own perspectives as to how they relate to the toxic actions of cadmium in the kidney. In addition, we highlight recent findings, suggesting that it may be possible to detect the early stages of cadmium toxicity through the use of improved biomarkers. Finally, some of the therapeutic implications of these findings will be considered. Because cadmium is, in many respects, a model cumulative nephrotoxicant, these insights may have broader implications regarding the general mechanisms through which a variety of drugs and toxic chemicals damage the kidney. PMID:22669569

  13. Effects of a potassium nitrate mouthwash on dentinal tubules--a SEM analysis using the dentine disc model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Richard; Chava, Vijay K

    2002-04-01

    The concept of tubular occlusion as a method of dentine desensitisation is a logical conclusion from the hydrodynamic hypothesis put forth by Brannström. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate qualitatively by SEM whether a 3% potassium nitrate/0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash occluded tubule orifices, and by x-ray microanalysis, to characterise the nature of the deposits if any, following application. Following the 'dentine disc model' methodology 1mm thick tooth sections from unerupted molars were obtained. These were treated with the test and control mouthwashes and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. If any deposits were seen, they were to be subjected to elemental analysis using the energy dispersive x-ray analyser. Examination of all the dentine disc surfaces, treated by water (control), active and control mouthwashes demonstrated that none of the treatments, at any of the time intervals, had any visible effect on the dentinal tubule orifices i.e. there was no dentinal tubular occlusion seen. The results suggest that potassium nitrate does not reduce dentinal hypersensitivity, at least by tubule occlusion. This could mean that there is a different mechanism of action, which could not be detected by this in vitro model.

  14. Selective renal blood perfusion induces renal tubules injury in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalder, Johannes; Kokozidou, Maria; Keschenau, Paula; Tamm, Miriam; Greiner, Andreas; Koeppel, Thomas A; Tolba, Rene; Jacobs, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Extracorporeal circulation is routinely used in thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair to preserve blood perfusion. Despite this protective measure, acute and chronic kidney disorders can develop. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a new large-animal model to assess the efficacy of selective renal perfusion (SRP) with extracorporeal circulation in a setting of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Eighteen pigs underwent a thoracolaparotomy, during with the aorta and renal arteries were exposed. The animals were divided into three cohorts of six pigs each: cohort I--control; cohort II--thoracic aortic clamping with distal aortic perfusion (DAP) using a roller pump; and cohort III--thoracic aortic clamping with DAP plus SRP. Kidney metabolism, kidney injury, and red blood cell damage were measured by oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, a marker for acute kidney damage, and serum free hemoglobin. With normal mean arterial blood pressures, flow rates in the renal arteries during perfusion decreased to 75% (group II) with DAP and to 50% (group III) with SRP compared with the control animals (group I; P = .0279 for I vs II; P = .0002 for I vs III). Microcirculation, measured by microspheres, did not differ significantly among the groups. In contrast, O2ER (P = .0021 for I vs III) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (P = .0083 for I vs III) levels were significantly increased in group III, whereas free hemoglobin was increased in groups II and III (P = .0406 for I vs II; P = .0018 for I vs III). SRP with a roller pump induces kidney tubule injury. Thus, distal aortic and SRP in our model does not provide adequate kidney protection. Furthermore, the perfusion system provokes red blood cell damage with increased free hemoglobin. Hence, the SRP perfusion technique should be revised and tested. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide accelerates the recovery of kidney tubules after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Jun; Kim, Jee In; Park, Jeen-Woo; Park, Kwon Moo

    2015-09-01

    Progression of acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with inadequate recovery of damaged kidney. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) regulates a variety of cellular signals involved in cell death, differentiation and proliferation. This study aimed to identify the role of H2S and its producing enzymes in the recovery of kidney following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mice were subjected to 30 min of bilateral renal ischemia. Some mice were administered daily NaHS, an H2S donor, and propargylglycine (PAG), an inhibitor of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), during the recovery phase. Cell proliferation was assessed via 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Ischemia resulted in decreases in CSE and cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) expression and activity, and H2S level in the kidney. These decreases did not return to sham level until 8 days after ischemia when kidney had fibrotic lesions. NaHS administration to I/R-injured mice accelerated the recovery of renal function and tubule morphology, whereas PAG delayed that. Furthermore, PAG increased mortality after ischemia. NaHS administration to I/R-injured mice accelerated tubular cell proliferation, whereas it inhibited interstitial cell proliferation. In addition, NaHS treatment reduced post-I/R superoxide formation, lipid peroxidation, level of GSSG/GSH and Nox4 expression, whereas it increased catalase and MnSOD expression. Our findings demonstrate that H2S accelerates the recovery of I/R-induced kidney damage, suggesting that the H2S-producing transsulfuration pathway plays an important role in kidney repair after acute injury. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  16. Galectin-3 preserves renal tubules and modulates extracellular matrix remodeling in progressive fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Daryl M; Pasichnyk, Katie; Lopez-Guisa, Jesus M; Collins, Sarah; Hsu, Daniel K; Liu, Fu-Tong; Eddy, Allison A

    2011-01-01

    Renal tubular cell apoptosis is a critical detrimental event that leads to chronic kidney injury in association with renal fibrosis. The present study was designed to investigate the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3), an important regulator of multiple apoptotic pathways, in chronic kidney disease induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). After UUO, Gal-3 expression significantly increased compared with basal levels reaching a peak increase of 95-fold by day 7. Upregulated Gal-3 is predominantly tubular at early time points after UUO but shifts to interstitial cells as the injury progresses. On day 14, there was a significant increase in TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells (129%) and cytochrome c release (29%), and a decrease in BrdU-positive cells (62%) in Gal-3-deficient compared with wild-type mice. The degree of renal damage was more extensive in Gal-3-deficient mice at days 14 and 21, 35 and 21% increase in total collagen, respectively. Despite more severe fibrosis, myofibroblasts were significantly decreased by 58% on day 14 in the Gal-3-deficient compared with wild-type mice. There was also a corresponding 80% decrease in extracellular matrix synthesis in Gal-3-deficient compared with wild-type mice. Endo180 is a recently recognized receptor for intracellular collagen degradation that is expressed by interstitial cells during renal fibrogenesis. Endo180 expression was significantly decreased by greater than 50% in Gal-3-deficient compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, these results suggested that Gal-3 not only protects renal tubules from chronic injury by limiting apoptosis but that it may lead to enhanced matrix remodeling and fibrosis attenuation.

  17. Loss of myotubularin function results in T-tubule disorganization in zebrafish and human myotubular myopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Dowling

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Myotubularin is a lipid phosphatase implicated in endosomal trafficking in vitro, but with an unknown function in vivo. Mutations in myotubularin cause myotubular myopathy, a devastating congenital myopathy with unclear pathogenesis and no current therapies. Myotubular myopathy was the first described of a growing list of conditions caused by mutations in proteins implicated in membrane trafficking. To advance the understanding of myotubularin function and disease pathogenesis, we have created a zebrafish model of myotubular myopathy using morpholino antisense technology. Zebrafish with reduced levels of myotubularin have significantly impaired motor function and obvious histopathologic changes in their muscle. These changes include abnormally shaped and positioned nuclei and myofiber hypotrophy. These findings are consistent with those observed in the human disease. We demonstrate for the first time that myotubularin functions to regulate PI3P levels in a vertebrate in vivo, and that homologous myotubularin-related proteins can functionally compensate for the loss of myotubularin. Finally, we identify abnormalities in the tubulo-reticular network in muscle from myotubularin zebrafish morphants and correlate these changes with abnormalities in T-tubule organization in biopsies from patients with myotubular myopathy. In all, we have generated a new model of myotubular myopathy and employed this model to uncover a novel function for myotubularin and a new pathomechanism for the human disease that may explain the weakness associated with the condition (defective excitation-contraction coupling. In addition, our findings of tubuloreticular abnormalities and defective excitation-contraction coupling mechanistically link myotubular myopathy with several other inherited muscle diseases, most notably those due to ryanodine receptor mutations. Based on our findings, we speculate that congenital myopathies, usually considered entities with similar

  18. New molecular players facilitating Mg(2+) reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaudemans, Bob; Knoers, Nine V A M; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Bindels, René J M

    2010-01-01

    The renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT) has an essential role in maintaining systemic magnesium (Mg(2+)) concentration. The DCT is the final determinant of plasma Mg(2+) levels, as the more distal nephron segments are largely impermeable to Mg(2+). In the past decade, positional candidate strategies in families with inherited forms of hypomagnesemia have led to the identification of genes involved in Mg(2+) handling. A large fraction of this resides in the DCT, namely, (i) the transient receptor potential channel melastatin subtype 6 (TRPM6), a divalent cation-permeable channel located at the luminal membrane of the DCT, facilitates Mg(2+) entry from the pro-urine into the cell; (ii) the epidermal growth factor is a novel hormone regulating active Mg(2+) transport through TRPM6; (iii) the voltage-gated K(+) channel, Kv1.1, establishes a favorable luminal membrane potential for TRPM6-mediated Mg(2+) transport; (iv) the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase gamma-subunit (gamma-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) was identified as mutated protein in a family with isolated dominant hypomagnesemia. The molecular mechanism by which gamma-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is involved in DCT Mg(2+) handling remains unknown; (v) a high percentage of patients with mutations in the renal transcription factor HNF1B (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B) gene develop hypomagnesemia; and (vi) Gitelman and EAST/SeSAME syndrome patients suffer from a similar tubulopathy due to mutations in NCC (NaCl cotransporter) and Kir4.1, respectively. In these patients, decreased expression of TRPM6 is proposed to cause hypomagnesemia. Insights into the molecular mechanisms of the identified genes, as well as the identification of novel genes, will further improve our knowledge about renal Mg(2+) handling.

  19. Transport of salicylate in proximal tubule (S sub 2 segment) isolated from rabbit kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, L.; Roch-Ramel, F. (Institut de Pharmacologie de l' Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1988-04-01

    The secretory and the reabsorptive transport of salicylate was studied in the isolated and perfused rabbit proximal tubule (S{sub 2} segment). Salicylate secretion (J{sub sal}{sup b{yields}l}) fulfilled the criteria for a carrier-mediated transport system: J{sub sal}{sup b{yields}l} was saturable, was reversibly inhibited by probenecid, and occurred against a concentration gradient. The K{sub m} and V{sub max} for this secretory transport were 80 {mu}M and 3,200 fmol{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}mm{sup {minus}1}, respectively. At luminal pH of 7.4 and 6.6, salicylate reabsorption (J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b}) was low. J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b} was stimulated by increasing the bath Pco{sub 2} or by removing basolateral HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}; J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b} was inhibited by ethoxyzolamide and by SITS in the bath. The results indicate that salicylate reabsorption depends on H{sup +} secretion, consistent with reabsorption by simple nonionic diffusion. When salicylate was present in the lumen only, J{sub sal}{sup l{yields}b} increased after inhibition of the secretory transport by adding ouabain or probenecid in the bath or by lowering the bath temperature. These results are compatible with luminal recycling of salicylate, and suggest the presence of a mediated secretory transporter located at the luminal membrane.

  20. Urine retinol-binding protein 4: a functional biomarker of the proximal renal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Anthony G W; Lapsley, Marta; Unwin, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of retinol-binding protein 4 in urine (uRBP4) is arguably the most sensitive biomarker for loss of function of the human proximal renal tubule. Megalin- and cubilin-receptor-mediated endocytosis normally absorbs > 99% of the approximately 1.5 g/24 h of protein filtered by the renal glomerulus. When this fails there is "tubular proteinuria," comprising uRBP4, albumin, and many other proteins and peptides. This tubular proteinuria is a consistent feature of the renal Fanconi syndrome (FS) and measurement of uRBP4 appears to be an excellent screening test for FS. FS occurs in rare inherited renal diseases including cystinosis, Dent disease, Lowe syndrome, and autosomal dominant FS. Acquired FS occurs in paraproteinemias, tubulointerstitial renal disease, oncogenic osteomalacia, Chinese herbs nephropathy, and Balkan endemic nephropathy. Though poorly understood, FS may be associated with HIV disease and antiretroviral treatment; cadmium poisoning may cause FS. In addition to FS, uRBP4 measurement has a different role: the early detection of acute kidney injury. Urine RBP4 comprises several isoforms, including intact plasma RBP4, MW 21.07 kDa, and C-terminal truncated forms, des-L- and des-LL-RBP4, also probably plasma derived. In FS, uRBP4 levels are about 104-fold above the upper limit of normal and small increments are frequently seen in carriers of some inherited forms of FS and in acquired disease. The very high levels in disease, frequent assay nonlinearity, lack of defined calibrants, and multiple uRBP4 isoforms make accurate assay challenging; top-down mass spectrometry has brought advances. Assays for uRBP4 with defined molecular targets allowing good interlaboratory comparisons are needed.

  1. The transcriptome of the Didelphis virginiana opossum kidney OK proximal tubule cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbach, Megan L; Sethi, Rahil; Avula, Raghunandan; Lamb, Janette; Hollingshead, Deborah J; Finegold, David N; Locker, Joseph D; Chandran, Uma R; Weisz, Ora A

    2017-09-01

    The OK cell line derived from the kidney of a female opossum Didelphis virginiana has proven to be a useful model in which to investigate the unique regulation of ion transport and membrane trafficking mechanisms in the proximal tubule (PT). Sequence data and comparison of the transcriptome of this cell line to eutherian mammal PTs would further broaden the utility of this culture model. However, the genomic sequence for D. virginiana is not available and although a draft genome sequence for the opossum Monodelphis domestica (sequenced in 2012 by the Broad Institute) exists, transcripts sequenced from both species show significant divergence. The M. domestica sequence is not highly annotated, and the majority of transcripts are predicted rather than experimentally validated. Using deep RNA sequencing of the D. virginiana OK cell line, we characterized its transcriptome via de novo transcriptome assembly and alignment to the M. domestica genome. The quality of the de novo assembled transcriptome was assessed by the extent of homology to sequences in nucleotide and protein databases. Gene expression levels in the OK cell line, from both the de novo transcriptome and genes aligned to the M. domestica genome, were compared with publicly available rat kidney nephron segment expression data. Our studies demonstrate the expression in OK cells of numerous PT-specific ion transporters and other key proteins relevant for rodent and human PT function. Additionally, the sequence and expression data reported here provide an important resource for genetic manipulation and other studies on PT cell function using these cells. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Effect of acute hypertension on sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, K M; Aynedjian, H S; Bank, N

    1968-07-01

    The effect of acute hypertension on sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule was studied in rats by means of micropuncture methods. Hypertension was induced by bilateral carotid artery ligation and cervical vagotomy. Within a few minutes after blood pressure rose (30-60 mm Hg above control levels), a moderate natriuresis and diuresis began. Proximal sodium reabsorption, measured by two independent methods, was found to be markedly suppressed, both in absolute amount per unit length and per unit of tubular volume (C/pir(2)). The ratio between tubular volume and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (pir(2)d/V(0)) was found to be increased. These observations indicate that the inhibition of proximal sodium reabsorption induced by hypertension cannot be explained by the tubular geometry hypothesis of sodium regulation. Several possible hormonal mechanisms were investigated. Intravenous d-aldosterone did not prevent the suppression of sodium transport due to acute hypertension, nor did chronic oral saline loading to reduce the renal content of renin. Constriction of the suprarenal aorta, with maintenance of a normal renal perfusion pressure, did prevent the inhibition of proximal transport during carotid artery occlusion, thus excluding an extrarenally produced natriuretic hormone as the mechanism. The observations are compatible with the view that sodium transport was inhibited either by an intrarenal natriuretic hormone or by an increase in the interstitial volume of the kidney produced by a transient hydrostatic pressure gradient across the peritubular capillaries. The latter seems more likely to us because of the rapidity of onset of the natriuresis, and because removing the renal capsule and releasing the surface interstitial fluid prevented the effect of hypertension on proximal sodium transport.

  3. Autophagy protects kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells from mitochondrial metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomonori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Namba, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Matsui, Isao; Kitamura, Harumi; Niimura, Fumio; Matsusaka, Taiji; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2013-11-01

    Chronic metabolic stress is related to diseases, whereas autophagy supplies nutrients by recycling the degradative products. Cyclosporin A (CsA), a frequently used immunosuppressant, induces metabolic stress via effects on mitochondrial respiration, and thereby, its chronic usage is often limited. Here we show that autophagy plays a protective role against CsA-induced metabolic stress in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells. Autophagy deficiency leads to decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, which coincides with metabolic abnormalities as characterized by decreased levels of amino acids, increased tricarboxylic acid (TCA) ratio (the levels of intermediates of the latter part of the TCA cycle, over levels of intermediates in the earlier part), and decreased products of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP). In addition to the altered profile of amino acids, CsA decreased the hyperpolarization of mitochondria with the disturbance of mitochondrial energy metabolism in autophagy-competent cells, i.e., increased TCA ratio and worsening of the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, coupled with decreased energy status, which suggests that adaptation to CsA employs autophagy to supply electron donors from amino acids via intermediates of the latter part of the TCA cycle. The TCA ratio of autophagy-deficient cells was further worsened with decreased levels of amino acids in response to CsA, and, as a result, the deficiency of autophagy failed to adapt to the CsA-induced metabolic stress. Deterioration of the TCA ratio further worsened energy status. The CsA-induced metabolic stress also activated regulatory genes of metabolism and apoptotic signals, whose expressions were accelerated in autophagy-deficient cells. These data provide new perspectives on autophagy in conditions of chronic metabolic stress in disease.

  4. Permeation of macromolecules into the renal glomerular basement membrane and capture by the tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Marlon G.; Altenburg, Michael K.; Sanford, Ryan; Willett, Julian D.; Bleasdale, Benjamin; Ballou, Byron; Wilder, Jennifer; Li, Feng; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Berg, Ulla B.; Smithies, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    How the kidney prevents urinary excretion of plasma proteins continues to be debated. Here, using unfixed whole-mount mouse kidneys, we show that fluorescent-tagged proteins and neutral dextrans permeate into the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in general agreement with Ogston's 1958 equation describing how permeation into gels is related to molecular size. Electron-microscopic analyses of kidneys fixed seconds to hours after injecting gold-tagged albumin, negatively charged gold nanoparticles, and stable oligoclusters of gold nanoparticles show that permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM is size-sensitive. Nanoparticles comparable in size with IgG dimers do not permeate into it. IgG monomer-sized particles permeate to some extent. Albumin-sized particles permeate extensively into the lamina densa. Particles traversing the lamina densa tend to accumulate upstream of the podocyte glycocalyx that spans the slit, but none are observed upstream of the slit diaphragm. At low concentrations, ovalbumin-sized nanoparticles reach the primary filtrate, are captured by proximal tubule cells, and are endocytosed. At higher concentrations, tubular capture is saturated, and they reach the urine. In mouse models of Pierson’s or Alport’s proteinuric syndromes resulting from defects in GBM structural proteins (laminin β2 or collagen α3 IV), the GBM is irregularly swollen, the lamina densa is absent, and permeation is increased. Our observations indicate that size-dependent permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM and the podocyte glycocalyx, together with saturable tubular capture, determines which macromolecules reach the urine without the need to invoke direct size selection by the slit diaphragm. PMID:28246329

  5. Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase-dependent sodium flux in cortical collecting tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blot-Chabaud, M.; Jaisser, F.; Gingold, M.; Bonvalet, J.P.; Farman, N. (CEntre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France))

    1988-10-01

    The instantaneous rate of efflux of intracellular Na was studied in rabbit isolated cortical collecting tubules (CCT) as a function of temperature and intracellular Na concentration ((Na){sub i}). (Na){sub i} of microdissected CCT was increased by cold and K-free exposure in the presence of {sup 22}Na and the extracellular tracer ({sup 3}H)sorbitol. (Na){sub i} rose rapidly to 40 mM at 30 min, after which it rose more slowly, reaching 120-140 mM at 6 h. Kinetics of Na efflux were studied after rapid rewarming, using a special device allowing measurements at 20-s intervals. Under control conditions, the total Na load was extruded in <8 min, whereas, in the presence of 10{sup {minus}4} M ouabain, only 50% of the load was extruded during this period of time. Ouabain-sensitive Na efflux was first evident at 13{degree}C and gradually increased between 13 and 35{degree}C. At 37{degree}C, Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase-dependent Na efflux was dependent on (Na){sub i}. This efflux gradually increased, from 0.05 to 0.5 peq{center dot}nl tubular volume{sup {minus}1}{center dot}s{sup {minus}1} as a function of (Na){sub i} and reached a plateau at 70 mM (Na){sub i}. It is concluded that (Na){sub i} is a major modulator of the pump activity in CCT; at normal levels of (Na){sub i}, the pump is operating at only a small fraction of its total capacity.

  6. Regulation of cyclic AMP metabolism by prostaglandins in rabbit cortical collecting tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenburg, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    In the rabbit cortical collecting tubule (RCCT), prostaglandin E 1 (PGE 1 ) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) at 1 nM inhibit arginine-vasopressin (AVP)-induced water reabsorption, while 100 nM PGE 1 and PGE 2 alone stimulate water reabsorption. Reported here are studies designed to investigate the molecular basis for the biphasic physiological action of PGE 1 and PGE 2 in the collecting duct. In freshly isolated RCCT cells, PGE 1 , PGE 2 , and 16,16-dimethyl-PGE 2 (DM-PGE 2 ) stimulated cAMP synthesis at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 M. Other prostaglandins including the synthetic PGE 2 analogue, sulprostone, failed to stimulate cAMP synthesis. Moreover, sulprostone did not antagonize PGE 2 -stimulated cAMP formation. In contrast, PGE 2 and sulprostone at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 nM, inhibited AVP-induced cAMP accumulation in freshly isolated RCCT cells. PGE 2 , PGE 1 , DM-PGE 2 and sulprostone at 100 nM were equally effective in inhibiting AVP-induced cAMP formation. Moreover sulprostone inhibited AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. These results suggest that PGE derivatives mediate either inhibition or activation of adenylate cyclase by stimulating different PGE receptors. To further test this concept, PGE 2 binding to freshly isolated RCCT cell membranes was characterized. Two different classes of PGE 2 binding were detected. / 3 H/PGE 2 binding to the high affinity class of sites was increased by the GTP-analogue, GTP S, while pertussis toxin pretreatment blocked the stimulatory action. In contrast, / 3 H/ PGE 2 binding to the low affinity class of sites was decreased by GTP S; this inhibitory effect was not blocked by pertussis toxin pretreatment

  7. T-tubule disruption promotes calcium alternans in failing ventricular myocytes: mechanistic insights from computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, Michael; Song, Zhen; Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin

    2015-02-01

    In heart failure (HF), T-tubule (TT) disruption contributes to dyssynchronous calcium (Ca) release and impaired contraction, but its role in arrhythmogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the effects of TT disruption and other HF remodeling factors on Ca alternans in ventricular myocytes using computer modeling. A ventricular myocyte model with detailed spatiotemporal Ca cycling modeled by a coupled Ca release unit (CRU) network was used, in which the L-type Ca channels and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels were simulated by random Markov transitions. TT disruption, which removes the L-type Ca channels from the associated CRUs, results in "orphaned" RyR clusters and thus provides increased opportunity for spark-induced Ca sparks to occur. This effect combined with other HF remodeling factors promoted alternans by two distinct mechanisms: 1) for normal sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca ATPase (SERCA) activity, alternans was caused by both CRU refractoriness and coupling. The increased opportunity for spark-induced sparks by TT disruption combined with the enhanced CRU coupling by Ca elevation in the presence or absence of increased RyR leakiness facilitated spark synchronization on alternate beats to promote Ca alternans; 2) for down-regulated SERCA, alternans was caused by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load-dependent mechanism, independent of CRU refractoriness. TT disruption and increased RyR leakiness shifted and steepened the SR Ca release-load relationship, which combines with down-regulated SERCA to promote Ca alternans. In conclusion, the mechanisms of Ca alternans for normal and down-regulated SERCA are different, and TT disruption promotes Ca alternans by both mechanisms, which may contribute to alternans at different stages of HF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MDR1 transporter protects against paraquat-induced toxicity in human and mouse proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xia; Gibson, Christopher J; Yang, Ill; Buckley, Brian; Goedken, Michael J; Richardson, Jason R; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2014-10-01

    Paraquat is a herbicide that is highly toxic to the lungs and kidneys following acute exposures. Prior studies have demonstrated that the organic cation transporter 2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 contribute to the urinary secretion of paraquat in the kidneys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/Mdr1, ABCB1, or P-glycoprotein) also participates in the removal of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against renal injury. Paraquat transport and toxicity were quantified in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) that endogenously express MDR1, HEK293 cells overexpressing MDR1, and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. In RPTEC cells, reduction of MDR1 activity using the antagonist PSC833 or siRNA transfection increased the cellular accumulation of paraquat by 50%. Reduced efflux of paraquat corresponded with enhanced cytotoxicity in PSC833-treated cells. Likewise, stable overexpression of the human MDR1 gene in HEK293 cells reduced intracellular levels of paraquat by 50%. In vivo studies assessed the renal accumulation and subsequent nephrotoxicity of paraquat (10 or 30 mg/kg ip) in wild-type and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. At 4 h after paraquat treatment, renal concentrations of paraquat in the kidneys of Mdr1a/1b knockout mice were 750% higher than wild-type mice. By 72 h, paraquat-treated Mdr1a/1b knockout mice had more extensive tubular degeneration and significantly greater mRNA expression of kidney injury-responsive genes, including kidney injury molecule-1, lipocalin-2, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, MDR1/Mdr1 participates in the elimination of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against subsequent toxicity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A SLC4-like anion exchanger from renal tubules of the mosquito (Aedes aegypti): evidence for a novel role of stellate cells in diuretic fluid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarini, Peter M; Grogan, Laura F; Lau, Kenneth; Wang, Li; Beyenbach, Klaus W

    2010-03-01

    Transepithelial fluid secretion across the renal (Malpighian) tubule epithelium of the mosquito (Aedes aegypti) is energized by the vacuolar-type (V-type) H(+)-ATPase and not the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Located at the apical membrane of principal cells, the V-type H(+)-ATPase translocates protons from the cytoplasm to the tubule lumen. Secreted protons are likely to derive from metabolic H(2)CO(3), which raises questions about the handling of HCO(3)(-) by principal cells. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that a Cl/HCO(3) anion exchanger (AE) related to the solute-linked carrier 4 (SLC4) superfamily mediates the extrusion of HCO(3)(-) across the basal membrane of principal cells. We began by cloning from Aedes Malpighian tubules a full-length cDNA encoding an SLC4-like AE, termed AeAE. When expressed heterologously in Xenopus oocytes, AeAE is both N- and O-glycosylated and mediates Na(+)-independent intracellular pH changes that are sensitive to extracellular Cl(-) concentration and to DIDS. In Aedes Malpighian tubules, AeAE is expressed as two distinct forms: one is O-glycosylated, and the other is N-glycosylated. Significantly, AeAE immunoreactivity localizes to the basal regions of stellate cells but not principal cells. Concentrations of DIDS that inhibit AeAE activity in Xenopus oocytes have no effects on the unstimulated rates of fluid secretion mediated by Malpighian tubules as measured by the Ramsay assay. However, in Malpighian tubules stimulated with kinin or calcitonin-like diuretic peptides, DIDS reduces the diuretic rates of fluid secretion to basal levels. In conclusion, Aedes Malpighian tubules express AeAE in the basal region of stellate cells, where this transporter may participate in producing diuretic rates of transepithelial fluid secretion.

  10. Insulin production and signaling in renal tubules of Drosophila is under control of tachykinin-related peptide and regulates stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Jeannette A E; Birse, Ryan T; Nässel, Dick R

    2011-05-10

    The insulin-signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved in animals and regulates growth, reproduction, metabolic homeostasis, stress resistance and life span. In Drosophila seven insulin-like peptides (DILP1-7) are known, some of which are produced in the brain, others in fat body or intestine. Here we show that DILP5 is expressed in principal cells of the renal tubules of Drosophila and affects survival at stress. Renal (Malpighian) tubules regulate water and ion homeostasis, but also play roles in immune responses and oxidative stress. We investigated the control of DILP5 signaling in the renal tubules by Drosophila tachykinin peptide (DTK) and its receptor DTKR during desiccative, nutritional and oxidative stress. The DILP5 levels in principal cells of the tubules are affected by stress and manipulations of DTKR expression in the same cells. Targeted knockdown of DTKR, DILP5 and the insulin receptor dInR in principal cells or mutation of Dilp5 resulted in increased survival at either stress, whereas over-expression of these components produced the opposite phenotype. Thus, stress seems to induce hormonal release of DTK that acts on the renal tubules to regulate DILP5 signaling. Manipulations of S6 kinase and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in principal cells also affect survival at stress, suggesting that DILP5 acts locally on tubules, possibly in oxidative stress regulation. Our findings are the first to demonstrate DILP signaling originating in the renal tubules and that this signaling is under control of stress-induced release of peptide hormone.

  11. Insulin Production and Signaling in Renal Tubules of Drosophila Is under Control of Tachykinin-Related Peptide and Regulates Stress Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Jeannette A. E.; Birse, Ryan T.; Nässel, Dick R.

    2011-01-01

    The insulin-signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved in animals and regulates growth, reproduction, metabolic homeostasis, stress resistance and life span. In Drosophila seven insulin-like peptides (DILP1-7) are known, some of which are produced in the brain, others in fat body or intestine. Here we show that DILP5 is expressed in principal cells of the renal tubules of Drosophila and affects survival at stress. Renal (Malpighian) tubules regulate water and ion homeostasis, but also play roles in immune responses and oxidative stress. We investigated the control of DILP5 signaling in the renal tubules by Drosophila tachykinin peptide (DTK) and its receptor DTKR during desiccative, nutritional and oxidative stress. The DILP5 levels in principal cells of the tubules are affected by stress and manipulations of DTKR expression in the same cells. Targeted knockdown of DTKR, DILP5 and the insulin receptor dInR in principal cells or mutation of Dilp5 resulted in increased survival at either stress, whereas over-expression of these components produced the opposite phenotype. Thus, stress seems to induce hormonal release of DTK that acts on the renal tubules to regulate DILP5 signaling. Manipulations of S6 kinase and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in principal cells also affect survival at stress, suggesting that DILP5 acts locally on tubules, possibly in oxidative stress regulation. Our findings are the first to demonstrate DILP signaling originating in the renal tubules and that this signaling is under control of stress-induced release of peptide hormone. PMID:21572965

  12. Insulin production and signaling in renal tubules of Drosophila is under control of tachykinin-related peptide and regulates stress resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette A E Söderberg

    Full Text Available The insulin-signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved in animals and regulates growth, reproduction, metabolic homeostasis, stress resistance and life span. In Drosophila seven insulin-like peptides (DILP1-7 are known, some of which are produced in the brain, others in fat body or intestine. Here we show that DILP5 is expressed in principal cells of the renal tubules of Drosophila and affects survival at stress. Renal (Malpighian tubules regulate water and ion homeostasis, but also play roles in immune responses and oxidative stress. We investigated the control of DILP5 signaling in the renal tubules by Drosophila tachykinin peptide (DTK and its receptor DTKR during desiccative, nutritional and oxidative stress. The DILP5 levels in principal cells of the tubules are affected by stress and manipulations of DTKR expression in the same cells. Targeted knockdown of DTKR, DILP5 and the insulin receptor dInR in principal cells or mutation of Dilp5 resulted in increased survival at either stress, whereas over-expression of these components produced the opposite phenotype. Thus, stress seems to induce hormonal release of DTK that acts on the renal tubules to regulate DILP5 signaling. Manipulations of S6 kinase and superoxide dismutase (SOD2 in principal cells also affect survival at stress, suggesting that DILP5 acts locally on tubules, possibly in oxidative stress regulation. Our findings are the first to demonstrate DILP signaling originating in the renal tubules and that this signaling is under control of stress-induced release of peptide hormone.

  13. Urinary loss of glucose, phosphate, and protein by diffusion into proximal straight tubules injured by D-serine and maleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, F.A.; Nakamura, S.; Goldman, B.

    1985-01-01

    In several models of acute renal failure leakage of glomerular filtrate out of the tubule is an important pathogenetic mechanism; however, bidirectional diffusion of solute to account for certain pathophysiologic features of acute renal failure has received meager attention. Using micropuncture and clearance methods, the authors assessed sequentially leakage of solutes and inulin across proximal straight tubules (PST) injured by two nephrotoxins. In d-serine-treated rats with extensive necrosis of PST, the basis for glucosuria and tubular leakage of inulin was studied. Glucose absorption by the proximal convoluted tubule and glucose delivery to the PST were normal, but glucose delivery to the distal tubule was increased nearly 8-fold, indicating diffusion of glucose from interstitial to tubular luminal fluid across the necrotic PST. Total kidney inulin clearance was greatly reduced, but single nephron glomerular filtration rate, based on proximal convoluted tubule samples, was normal, indicating tubular loss of inulin. Urinary recovery of [ 14 C]inulin infused into tubular lumina revealed that proximal convoluted tubule and distal tubule were impermeable to inulin and that inulin diffused out of the necrotic PST. The progressive return over 6 days of tubular impermeability for inulin correlated with relining of PST with new cells. In maleic acid-treated rats the site and extent of tubular necrosis and the nature of urinary loss of solutes were studied. Microdissection revealed that maleic acid caused limited necrosis of PST which averaged 7.4% of total proximal tubular length. Increased urinary excretion of protein, phosphate, and glucose and increased tubular permeability to microinfused [ 14 C]inulin occurred with the onset of PST necrosis, and return of these abnormalities to normal correlated with the degree of cellular repair of the PST

  14. The effect of L-cysteine on the portion-selective uptake of cadmium in the renal proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masataka; Sano, Kenichi; Webb, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), co-administered with an excess of L-cysteine, accumulates rapidly in the kidneys of the rat. After subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 3 μmol CdCl 2 /kg body wt the concentrations of Cd in the blood and kidneys increase with the dose of cysteine over the range 0.06-5.0 mmol/kg body wt. At cysteine doses of less than 1.5 mmol/kg body wt the ratio of the concentrations of Cd in the outer medulla and cortex of the kidney remains the same as that after the injection of Cd alone. This ratio, however, is more than doubled at dose levels of 5-10 mmol cysteine/kg body wt. Hepatic uptake of Cd is unaffected by doses of cysteine below 1.5 mmol/kg body wt but decreases markedly at higher doses. In animals that are dosed simultaneously with 5 mmol cysteine/kg body wt, renal uptake of 109 Cd is known to occur in the straight segments of the proximal tubules. At a dose level of less than 1.5 mmol cysteine/kg body wt the present autoradiographical studies show that 109 Cd is taken up predominantly by the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney cortex. At the critical dose level (1.5 mmol/kg body wt), cysteine decreases the retention of Cd at the s.c. injection site, but probably has little effect on the distribution of Cd between protein and other carrier molecules in the blood. This distribution, however, is altered at higher cysteine dose levels. It is suggested that, under the latter conditions, stable Cd-cysteine complexes are formed in the blood and are filtered readily through the glomeruli. These complexes are taken up in the kidney at the sites of cysteine reabsorption which, by studies with L-[ 35 S]-cysteine, are identified as the straight segments of the proximal tubules. (orig.)

  15. Rare case of nephrocalcinosis in the distal tubules caused by hereditary renal hypouricaemia 3 months after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Izumi; Komatsuzaki, Yo; Niikura, Takahito; Yamakawa, Takafumi; Katsumata, Haruki; Kawabe, Mayuko; Katsuma, Ai; Nakada, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Akimitsu; Koike, Yusuke; Miki, Jun; Yamada, Hiroki; Tanno, Yudo; Ohkido, Ichiro; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Yokoo, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We report a rare case of nephrocalcinosis caused by hereditary renal hypouricaemia 3 months after kidney transplantation. A 41-year-old man who underwent living-related kidney transplantation from his father was admitted to our hospital for a protocol biopsy; he had a serum creatinine (S-Cr) of 1.37 mg/dL and no proteinuria. Histologically, there was no evidence of rejection or calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, although scattered nephrocalcinosis was observed in the distal tubules. Perioperatively, the patient had a serum uric acid (S-UA) of 1.9 mg/dL with a fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) of 29% (normal, kidney transplantation. The donor also had a relatively low S-UA of 2.4 mg/dL and high FEUA of 10.3%. Subsequent DNA direct sequencing followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed that both the recipient's and donor's urate transporter 1 (URAT1) gene had a heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 5 (C889T). Further, the immunoreactivity of antibodies for the C terminus of URAT1 revealed a partial deletion. De Galantha and von Kossa staining revealed that the nephrocalcinosis was due to urate crystals and calcium stones. Therefore, we diagnosed hereditary renal hypouricaemia. We directed the patient to avoid hard exercise, drink plenty of water, and alkalize the urine. The 1-year follow-up allograft biopsy showed no evidence of nephrocalcinosis in the distal tubules. This is the first report of nephrocalcinosis in the distal tubules as a diagnostic clue to hereditary renal hypouricaemia. We also review the related literature. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  16. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 in renal proximal tubule cells: evidence for a role in the response to metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, Sara M; Trumper, Laura; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondrial ammonia synthesis in proximal tubules and its urinary excretion are key components of the renal response to maintain acid-base balance during metabolic acidosis. Since aquaporin-8 (AQP8) facilitates transport of ammonia and is localized in inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) of renal proximal cells, we hypothesized that AQP8-facilitated mitochondrial ammonia transport in these cells plays a role in the response to acidosis. We evaluated whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown by RNA interference is able to impair ammonia excretion in the human renal proximal tubule cell line, HK-2. By RT-PCR and immunoblotting, we found that AQP8 is expressed in these cells and is localized in IMM. HK-2 cells were transfected with short-interfering RNA targeting human AQP8. After 48 h, the levels of mtAQP8 protein decreased by 53% (P < 0.05). mtAQP8 knockdown decreased the rate of ammonia released into culture medium in cells grown at pH 7.4 (-31%, P < 0.05) as well as in cells exposed to acid (-90%, P < 0.05). We also evaluated mtAQP8 protein expression in HK-2 cells exposed to acidic medium. After 48 h, upregulation of mtAQP8 (+74%, P < 0.05) was observed, together with higher ammonia excretion rate (+73%, P < 0.05). In vivo studies in NH(4)Cl-loaded rats showed that mtAQP8 protein expression was also upregulated after 7 days of acidosis in renal cortex (+51%, P < 0.05). These data suggest that mtAQP8 plays an important role in the adaptive response of proximal tubule to acidosis possibly facilitating mitochondrial ammonia transport.

  17. Evidence for intercellular communication in mosquito renal tubules: a putative role of gap junctions in coordinating and regulating the rapid diuretic effects of neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarini, Peter M; Calkins, Travis L

    2014-07-01

    Adult female mosquitoes require a blood meal from a vertebrate host to successfully reproduce. During a single blood feeding, a female may ingest more than the equivalent of her own body mass, resulting in an acute stress to osmotic and ionic homeostasis. In response to this stress, the renal (Malpighian) tubules mediate a rapid diuresis that commences as soon as blood is ingested. The diuresis is regulated by neuropeptides (e.g., kinins, calcitonin-like peptide) that act on receptors in the Malpighian tubule epithelium. Interestingly, the expression of these receptors is discontinuous throughout the epithelium, which raises the question as to how Malpighian tubules mount such a rapid and synchronized response to neuropeptide stimulation. Here we propose a hypothesis that gap junctions functionally couple the epithelial cells of Malpighian tubules, resulting in a coordinated physiological response to the binding of neuropeptides. We review recent, relevant literature on the electrophysiology, physiology, and molecular biology of mosquito Malpighian tubules that indicate the presence of gap junctions in the epithelium. We also provide new physiological and immunochemical data that are consistent with the proposed hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypotonicity Stimulates Potassium Flux through the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 Kinase Cascade and the Ncc69 Sodium-Potassium-2-Chloride Cotransporter in the Drosophila Renal Tubule*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yipin; Schellinger, Jeffrey N.; Huang, Chou-Long; Rodan, Aylin R.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to osmoregulate is fundamental to life. Adult Drosophila melanogaster maintain hemolymph osmolarity within a narrow range. Osmolarity modulates transepithelial ion and water flux in the Malpighian (renal) tubules of the fly, which are in direct contact with hemolymph in vivo, but the mechanisms causing increased transepithelial flux in response to hypotonicity are unknown. Fly renal tubules secrete a KCl-rich fluid. We have previously demonstrated a requirement for Ncc69, the fly sodium-potassium-2-chloride cotransporter (NKCC), in tubule K+ secretion. Mammalian NKCCs are regulated by a kinase cascade consisting of the with-no-lysine (WNK) and Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich (SPAK)/oxidative stress response (OSR1) kinases. Here, we show that decreasing Drosophila WNK activity causes a reduction in K+ flux. Similarly, knocking down the SPAK/OSR1 homolog fray also decreases K+ flux. We demonstrate that a hierarchical WNK-Fray signaling cascade regulates K+ flux through Ncc69, because (i) a constitutively active Fray mutant rescues the wnk knockdown phenotype, (ii) Fray directly phosphorylates Ncc69 in vitro, and (iii) the effect of wnk and fray knockdown is abolished in Ncc69 mutants. The stimulatory effect of hypotonicity on K+ flux is absent in wnk, fray, or Ncc69 mutant tubules, suggesting that the Drosophila WNK-SPAK/OSR1-NKCC cascade is an essential molecular pathway for osmoregulation, through its effect on transepithelial ion flux and fluid generation by the renal tubule. PMID:25086033

  19. A 2D model of axial symmetry for proximal tubule of an average human nephron: indicative results of diffusion, convection and absorption processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insfrán, J. F.; Ubal, S.; Di Paolo, y. J.

    2016-04-01

    A simplified model of a proximal convoluted tubule of an average human nephron is presented. The model considers the 2D axisymmetric flow of the luminal solution exchanging matter with the tubule walls and the peritubular fluid by means of 0D models for the epithelial cells. The tubule radius is considered to vary along the conduit due to the trans-epithelial pressure difference. The fate of more than ten typical solutes is tracked down by the model. The Navier-Stokes and Reaction-Diffusion-Advection equations (considering the electro-neutrality principle) are solved in the lumen, giving a detailed picture of the velocity, pressure and concentration fields, along with trans-membrane fluxes and tubule deformation, via coupling with the 0D model for the tubule wall. The calculations are carried out numerically by means of the finite element method. The results obtained show good agreement with those published by other authors using models that ignore the diffusive transport and disregard a detailed calculation of velocity, pressure and concentrations. This work should be seen as a first approach towards the development of a more comprehensive model of the filtration process taking place in the kidneys, which ultimately helps in devising a device that can mimic/complement the renal function.

  20. Accelerated recovery of renal mitochondrial and tubule homeostasis with SIRT1/PGC-1α activation following ischemia–reperfusion injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, Jason A.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2013-01-01

    Kidney ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury elicits cellular injury in the proximal tubule, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological consequence of I/R. Promoting mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) as a repair mechanism after injury may offer a unique strategy to restore both mitochondrial and organ function. Rats subjected to bilateral renal pedicle ligation for 22 min were treated once daily with the SIRT1 activator SRT1720 (5 mg/kg) starting 24 h after reperfusion until 72 h–144 h. SIRT1 expression was elevated in the renal cortex of rats after I/R + vehicle treatment (IRV), but was associated with less nuclear localization. SIRT1 expression was even further augmented and nuclear localization was restored in the kidneys of rats after I/R + SRT1720 treatment (IRS). PGC-1α was elevated at 72 h–144 h in IRV and IRS kidneys; however, SRT1720 treatment induced deacetylation of PGC-1α, a marker of activation. Mitochondrial proteins ATP synthase β, COX I, and NDUFB8, as well as mitochondrial respiration, were diminished 24 h–144 h in IRV rats, but were partially or fully restored in IRS rats. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was persistently elevated in both IRV and IRS rats; however, KIM-1 tissue expression was attenuated in IRS rats. Additionally, sustained loss of Na + ,K + –ATPase expression and basolateral localization and elevated vimentin in IRV rats was normalized in IRS rats, suggesting restoration of a differentiated, polarized tubule epithelium. The results suggest that SRT1720 treatment expedited recovery of mitochondrial protein expression and function by enhancing MB, which was associated with faster proximal tubule repair. Targeting MB may offer unique therapeutic strategy following ischemic injury. - Highlights: • We examined recovery of mitochondrial and renal function after ischemia–reperfusion. • SRT1720 treatment after I/R induced mitochondrial biogenesis via SIRT1/PGC-1α. • Recovery of mitochondrial function was

  1. Accelerated recovery of renal mitochondrial and tubule homeostasis with SIRT1/PGC-1α activation following ischemia–reperfusion injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Jason A., E-mail: funkj@musc.edu [Center for Cell Death, Injury, and Regeneration, Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Schnellmann, Rick G., E-mail: schnell@musc.edu [Center for Cell Death, Injury, and Regeneration, Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29401 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Kidney ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury elicits cellular injury in the proximal tubule, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological consequence of I/R. Promoting mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) as a repair mechanism after injury may offer a unique strategy to restore both mitochondrial and organ function. Rats subjected to bilateral renal pedicle ligation for 22 min were treated once daily with the SIRT1 activator SRT1720 (5 mg/kg) starting 24 h after reperfusion until 72 h–144 h. SIRT1 expression was elevated in the renal cortex of rats after I/R + vehicle treatment (IRV), but was associated with less nuclear localization. SIRT1 expression was even further augmented and nuclear localization was restored in the kidneys of rats after I/R + SRT1720 treatment (IRS). PGC-1α was elevated at 72 h–144 h in IRV and IRS kidneys; however, SRT1720 treatment induced deacetylation of PGC-1α, a marker of activation. Mitochondrial proteins ATP synthase β, COX I, and NDUFB8, as well as mitochondrial respiration, were diminished 24 h–144 h in IRV rats, but were partially or fully restored in IRS rats. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was persistently elevated in both IRV and IRS rats; however, KIM-1 tissue expression was attenuated in IRS rats. Additionally, sustained loss of Na{sup +},K{sup +}–ATPase expression and basolateral localization and elevated vimentin in IRV rats was normalized in IRS rats, suggesting restoration of a differentiated, polarized tubule epithelium. The results suggest that SRT1720 treatment expedited recovery of mitochondrial protein expression and function by enhancing MB, which was associated with faster proximal tubule repair. Targeting MB may offer unique therapeutic strategy following ischemic injury. - Highlights: • We examined recovery of mitochondrial and renal function after ischemia–reperfusion. • SRT1720 treatment after I/R induced mitochondrial biogenesis via SIRT1/PGC-1α. • Recovery of mitochondrial function was

  2. Radiation effects on histological changes in mouse submandibular glands. Computer analysis of acini, convoluted granular tubules, and granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masaya; Nasu, Masanori [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    A single X-ray dose of 10 Gy and 20 Gy was delivered to the submandibular gland in mice. The submandibular glands were compared 3, 14, 30, 90, 180, and 270 days after irradiation by obtaining the area ratio of both the acini and convoluted granular tubules and the ratio of granules to the acini and convoluted granular tubules by an imaging analyzer. The following results were obtained. An acinar atrophy was observed 14 days after irradiation in the 10 Gy-irradiated group and at both 3 and 14 days in the 20 Gy-irradiated group. The 10 Gy-irradiated group showed a significant decrease in the area ratio of the acini to the submandibular gland at 14 days, but thereafter the values increased to the extent of the non-irradiated control group over 30 days to 270 days. The 20 Gy-irradiated group showed a significant decrease in the area ratio of the acini to the submandibular gland at 3 days. Atrophy of the convoluted granular tubules in the submandibular gland was significantly higher at 14 days in the 10 Gy-irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group, but thereafter returned to the same value as in the non-irradiated group. In the 20 Gy-irradiated group, it was lower at both 3 and 14 days than in the non-irradiated group, but the differences were not significant. The ratio of granules in the 10 Gy irradiated group was the same as that in the non-irradiated group until 30 days after irradiation, but was significantly decreased at 14 days. The ratio of granules to the convoluted granular tubules was lower in the 10 Gy-irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group until 90 days after irradiation but was the same as in the non-irradiated group at 180 and 270 days. It was markedly decreased at both 3 and 14 days after irradiation in the 20 Gy-irradiated group. (author)

  3. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment alters Na+ uptake in renal proximal tubule cells from adult offspring in a sex-specific manner

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Yixin; Bi, Jianli; Pulgar, Victor M.; Figueroa, Jorge; Chappell, Mark; Rose, James C.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown a sex-specific effect of fetal programming on Na+ excretion in adult sheep. The site of this effect in the kidney is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) from adult male sheep exposed to betamethasone (Beta) before birth have greater Na+ uptake than do RPTCs from vehicle-exposed male sheep and that RPTCs from female sheep similarly exposed are not influenced by antenatal Beta. In isolated RPTCs from 1- to 1.5-yr-old male and femal...

  4. Diquat induces renal proximal tubule injury in glutathione reductase-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Lynette K.; Bates, Carlton M.; Welty, Stephen E.; Smith, Charles V.

    2006-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been associated with many human diseases, and glutathione (GSH)-dependent processes are pivotal in limiting tissue damage. To test the hypothesis that Gr1 a1Neu (Neu) mice, which do not express glutathione reductase (GR), would be more susceptible than are wild-type mice to ROS-mediated injury, we studied the effects of diquat, a redox cycling toxicant. Neu mice exhibited modest, dose- and time-dependent elevations in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, 126 ± 36 U/l at 2 h after 5 μmol/kg of diquat, but no ALT elevations were observed in diquat-treated C3H/HeN mice for up to 6 h after 50 μmol/kg of diquat. Histology indicated little or no hepatic necrosis in diquat-treated mice of either strain, but substantial renal injury was observed in diquat-treated Neu mice, characterized by brush border sloughing in the proximal tubules by 1 h and tubular necrosis by 2 h after doses of 7.5 μmol/kg. Decreases in renal GSH levels were observed in the Neu mice by 2 h post dose (3.4 ± 0.4 vs 0.2 ± 0.0 μmol/g tissue at 0 and 50 μmol/kg, respectively), and increases in renal GSSG levels were observed in the Neu mice as early as 0.5 h after 7.5 μmol/kg (105.5 ± 44.1 vs 27.9 ± 4.8 nmol/g tissue). Blood urea nitrogen levels were elevated by 2 h in Neu mice after doses of 7.5 μmol/kg (Neu vs C3H, 32.8 ± 4.1 vs 17.9 ± 0.3 mg/dl). Diquat-induced renal injury in the GR-deficient Neu mice offers a useful model for studies of ROS-induced renal necrosis and of the contributions of GR in defense against oxidant-mediated injuries in vivo

  5. Immunohistochemical profile of some neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated by lonidamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Bronzetti, E; Saso, L; Felici, L M; D'Ambrosio, A; Forte, F; Grande, C; Ortolani, F

    2007-01-01

    Lonidamine (LND) or [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid] is an anticancer and antispermatogenic drug that exerts a large number of effects on tumor cells and germ cells. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed at 22 degrees C on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle 1 week before the experiments, with free access to food and water. LND was suspended in 0.5% methylcellulose at a concentration of 10 mg/mL and administered orally at the dose of 10 mL/kg (b.w.) as a single dose. Control rats received an equal amount of vehicle. Testes were removed, fixed for 24 h in 2% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.2 at 22 degrees C), rinsed with the same buffer, and stored at room temperature. From each sample, a block of tissue was removed by sectioning through the organ. After dehydration in ethanol at increasing concentrations (70-100%), each block was embedded in paraffin and serial 5 mm thick sections were cut using a rotatory microtome. The immunoreactivity for NTs has been observed in spermatogonia of untreated rats, while the rats treated with LND showed an immunohistochemical localization in all the stages of germinal cells. The generally well-expressed immunoreactivity for the neurotrophins receptors in treated rats observed in our study is presumably attributable to alterations of the receptors' structure and/or expression leading to changes of the activity, affinity, localization or protein interactions that may depend on sensitization of ion channels (induced by LND). Neurotrophins (NTs) appear to be interesting proteins for the modulation of sperm maturation and motility with a prominent role for the nerve growth factor (NGF), that may exert an autocrine or paracrine role. We therefore investigated the location and distribution of immunoreactivity for some neurotransmitters (SP, VIP, CGRP, nNOS, Chat), neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3) and their own receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC, p75) in the seminiferous tubules

  6. Immunohistochemical profile of some neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated by lonidamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Artico

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lonidamine (LND or [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl-1H-indazole-3- carboxylic acid] is an anticancer and antispermatogenic drug that exerts a large number of effects on tumor cells and germ cells. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed at 22°C on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle 1 week before the experiments, with free access to food and water. LND was suspended in 0.5% methylcellulose at a concentration of 10 mg/mL and administered orally at the dose of 10 mL/kg (b.w. as a single dose. Control rats received an equal amount of vehicle. Testes were removed, fixed for 24 h in 2% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.2 at 22°C, rinsed with the same buffer, and stored at room temperature. From each sample, a block of tissue was removed by sectioning through the organ. After dehydration in ethanol at increasing concentrations (70-100%, each block was embedded in paraffin and serial 5 mm thick sections were cut using a rotatory microtome. The immunoreactivity for NTs has been observed in spermatogonia of untreated rats, while the rats treated with LND showed an immunohistochemical localization in all the stages of germinal cells. The generally well-expressed immunoreactivity for the neurotrophins receptors in treated rats observed in our study is presumably attributable to alterations of the receptors’ structure and/or expression leading to changes of the activity, affinity, localization or protein interactions that may depend on sensitization of ion channels (induced by LND. Neurotrophins (NTs appear to be interesting proteins for the modulation of sperm maturation and motility with a prominent role for the nerve growth factor (NGF, that may exert an autocrine or paracrine role.We therefore investigated the location and distribution of immunoreactivity for some neurotransmitters (SP, VIP, CGRP, nNOS, Chat, neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and their own receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC, p75 in the seminiferous tubules of

  7. The role of distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption in sunitinib-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Jeannine; Lampe, Josephine; Koenen, Anna; Urbaneck, Ines; Steinbach, Antje; Rettig, Rainer; Grisk, Olaf

    2018-04-01

    Antiangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) induce arterial hypertension which may limit their use. Renal fractional sodium excretion (FENa) is reduced in early RTKI-induced hypertension, whereas fractional lithium excretion is unaltered. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that activated distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption contributes to RTKI-induced hypertension. Amiloride-sensitive and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-sensitive fractional sodium reabsorption (FRNa) and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as well as sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) abundances were determined in sunitinib-treated and control rats. The antihypertensive effects of amiloride and HCTZ were investigated by radiotelemery. After 4 days of treatment, mean arterial pressure was 20 mmHg higher, FENa was lower (0.32 ± 0.08% vs. 0.65 ± 0.14%; P < 0.05), and renal medullary-ENaC protein abundance was higher in sunitinib-treated rats than in controls. Amiloride-sensitive FRNa was 2.37 ± 0.52% in sunitinib-treated rats vs. 2.66 ± 0.44% in controls (n.s.). HCTZ increased FENa by a similar magnitude without affecting amiloride-sensitive FRNa in both groups. After 14 days of treatment, renal medullary β-ENaC protein abundance was higher in rats that received sunitinib than in controls, whereas α-ENaC, γ-ENaC, and NCC abundances were similar in both groups. Amiloride and HCTZ reduced the sunitinib-induced mean arterial pressure rise by 8 ± 3 mmHg (P < 0.05) and 12 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.05), respectively, without additive effects when combined. ENaC-dependent and thiazide-sensitive sodium-retaining mechanisms are not overactive in sunitinib-induced hypertension but ENaC blockers and in particular thiazides may be suitable for its treatment.

  8. Unique role of NADPH oxidase 5 in oxidative stress in human renal proximal tubule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiying Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidases are the major sources of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular, neural, and kidney cells. The NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5 gene is present in humans but not rodents. Because Nox isoforms in renal proximal tubules (RPTs are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, we tested the hypothesis that NOX5 is differentially expressed in RPT cells from normotensive (NT and hypertensive subjects (HT. We found that NOX5 mRNA, total NOX5 protein, and apical membrane NOX5 protein were 4.2±0.7-fold, 5.2±0.7-fold, and 2.8±0.5-fold greater in HT than NT. Basal total NADPH oxidase activity was 4.5±0.2-fold and basal NOX5 activity in NOX5 immunoprecipitates was 6.2±0.2-fold greater in HT than NT (P=<0.001, n=6–14/group. Ionomycin increased total NOX and NOX5 activities in RPT cells from HT (P<0.01, n=4, ANOVA, effects that were abrogated by pre-treatment of the RPT cells with diphenylene-iodonium or superoxide dismutase. Silencing NOX5 using NOX5-siRNA decreased NADPH oxidase activity (−45.1±3.2% vs. mock-siRNA, n=6–8 in HT. D1-like receptor stimulation decreased NADPH oxidase activity to a greater extent in NT (−32.5±1.8% than HT (−14.8±1.8. In contrast to the marked increase in expression and activity of NOX5 in HT, NOX1 mRNA and protein were minimally increased in HT, relative to NT; total NOX2 and NOX4 proteins were not different between HT and NT, while the increase in apical RPT cell membrane NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 proteins in HT, relative to NT, was much less than those observed with NOX5. Thus, we demonstrate, for the first time, that NOX5 is expressed in human RPT cells and to greater extent than the other Nox isoforms in HT than NT. We suggest that the increased expression of NOX5, which may be responsible for the increased oxidative stress in RPT cells in human essential hypertension, is caused, in part, by a defective renal dopaminergic system.

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi and myoid cells from seminiferous tubules: interaction and relation with fibrous components of extracellular matrix in experimental Chagas' disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Pereira; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lucia; Hardoim, Daiana de Jesús; Tedesco, Roberto Carlos; Mendes, Verônica Gonçalves; da Costa, Sylvio Celso Gonçalves; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The main transmission route of Trypanosoma cruzi is by triatomine bugs. However, T. cruzi is also transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplantation, ingestion of contaminated food or fluids, or is congenital. Sexual transmission, although suggested since the discovery of Chagas’ disease, has remained unproven. Sexual transmission would require T. cruzi to be located at the testes and ovaries. Here we investigated whether T. cruzi is present in the gonads of mice infected with 104 T. cruzi trypomastigotes from the CL strain. Fourteen days after experimental infection, histopathological examination showed alterations in the extracellular matrix of the lamina propria of the seminiferous tubules. Furthermore, amastigotes were present in seminiferous tubules, within myoid cells, and in the adjacencies of the basal compartment. These results indicate that T. cruzi is able to reach seminiferous tubule lumen, thus suggesting that Chagas’ disease could potentially be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Complementary studies are required to demonstrate that Chagas’ disease can be transmitted by coitus. PMID:19200251

  10. Nandrolone decanoate increases the volume but not the length of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules of the mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Leila; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Sagheb, Mehdi; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Noorafshan, Ali

    2009-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are widely used by athletes for increasing their muscle mass. These drugs are also used by some patients with chronic renal disease. But the effect of these drugs on the renal structure has received less attention. To investigate which parts of the kidney are affected by these drugs, mice kidneys were studied stereologically after injection of nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic androgenic steroid. The treated group received nandrolone decanoate intraperitoneally (solved in olive oil) in doses of 3mg/kg of body weight and administered in one, two and three doses, respectively, in the first, second and third week of treatment. The mice in the control group received an olive oil solution. One week after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized and their kidney removed. The analysis of data revealed that the weight of kidney was increased approximately 30% (p tubules (PCT) and distal convoluted tubules (DCT) volume increased approximately 25% (p < or = 0.02) and approximately 68% (p < or = 0.02) in ND treated mice. The volume of glomeruli, other ducts, connective tissues, vessels and the length of PCT, DCT, collecting and Henle's ducts and vessels did not show significant differences. ND can increase the volume of the renal cortex and its two main parts, i.e. PCT and DCT in mice.

  11. Signaling Rho-kinase mediates inflammation and apoptosis in T cells and renal tubules in cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yuji; Kinoshita, Koji; Hino, Shoichi; Yano, Tomohiro; Niki, Kaoru; Hirooka, Yasuaki; Kishimoto, Kazuya; Funauchi, Masanori; Matsumura, Itaru

    2015-04-15

    Nephrotoxicity is a frequent complication of cisplatin-induced chemotherapy, in which T cells are known to promote acute kidney injury (AKI). Apoptosis and necrosis of tubules and inflammatory events also contribute to the nephrotoxicity. A delineation of the mechanisms that underlie the inappropriate renal and tubular inflammation can thus provide important insights into potential therapies for cisplatin-induced AKI. Rho-kinases are known to act as molecular switches controlling several critical cellular functions, including cell migration, cytokine production, and apoptosis. Here, we show that the Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil attenuated cisplatin nephrotoxicity, resulting in less histological damage, improved renal function, and the infiltration of fewer leukocytes into the kidney. Renal nuclear factor-κB activation and apoptosis were reduced, and the expressions of proinflammatory renal cytokine and chemokine mRNA were decreased. Urinary and renal kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) expression was also reduced, a finding that is consistent with diminished kidney injury. In the current study, we also showed that fasudil could be protective of the impaired tubules. In vitro, fasudil reduced the apoptosis (annexin-V+PI cells) and cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor+ cells) in T cells and the apoptosis (annexin-V+PI cells) and tubular damage (Kim-1+ cells) in proximal tubular cells by flow cytometric analysis. As Rho-kinase plays an important role in promoting cisplatin nephrotoxicity, inhibiting Rho-kinase may be a therapeutic strategy for preventing cisplatin-induced AKI. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Thiazolidinediones enhance sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from renal proximal tubules via PPARγ-dependent nongenomic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yoko; Suzuki, Masashi; Yamada, Hideomi; Horita, Shoko; Kunimi, Motoei; Yamazaki, Osamu; Shirai, Ayumi; Nakamura, Motonobu; Iso-O, Naoyuki; Li, Yuehong; Hara, Masumi; Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa; Moriyama, Nobuo; Kudo, Akihiko; Kawakami, Hayato; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kume, Haruki; Enomoto, Yutaka; Homma, Yukio; Seki, George; Fujita, Toshiro

    2011-05-04

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve insulin resistance by activating a nuclear hormone receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). However, the use of TZDs is associated with plasma volume expansion through a mechanism that remains to be clarified. Here we showed that TZDs rapidly stimulate sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from the renal proximal tubule in vitro and in vivo. TZD-induced transport stimulation is dependent on PPARγ-Src-EGFR-ERK and observed in rat, rabbit and human, but not in mouse proximal tubules where Src-EGFR is constitutively activated. The existence of PPARγ-Src-dependent nongenomic signaling, which requires the ligand-binding ability, but not the transcriptional activity of PPARγ, is confirmed in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The enhancement of the association between PPARγ and Src by TZDs supports an indispensable role of Src in this signaling. These results suggest that the PPARγ-dependent nongenomic stimulation of renal proximal transport is also involved in TZD-induced volume expansion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of CO2 Laser with or without Nanohydroxyapatite Paste in the Occlusion of Dentinal Tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abbood Al-maliky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate a new treatment modality for the occlusion of dentinal tubules (DTs via the combination of 10.6 µm carbon dioxide (CO2 laser and nanoparticle hydroxyapatite paste (n-HAp. Forty-six sound human molars were used in the current experiment. Ten of the molars were used to assess the temperature elevation during lasing. Thirty were evaluated for dentinal permeability test, subdivided into 3 groups: the control group (C, laser only (L−, and laser plus n-HAp (L+. Six samples, two per group, were used for surface and cross section morphology, evaluated through scanning electron microscope (SEM. The temperature measurement results showed that the maximum temperature increase was 3.2°C. Morphologically groups (L− and (L+ presented narrower DTs, and almost a complete occlusion of the dentinal tubules for group (L+ was found. The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test for permeability test data showed statistical differences between the groups (P<0.05. For intergroup comparison all groups were statistically different from each other, with group (L+ showing significant less dye penetration than the control group. We concluded that CO2 laser in moderate power density combined with n-HAp seems to be a good treatment modality for reducing the permeability of dentin.

  14. In vitro stimulation of stage-specific deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in rat seminiferous tubule segments by interleukin-1 α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvinen, M.; Soeder, O.M.; Mali, P.; Froeysa, B.R.; Ritzen, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Levels of rat testicular interleukin-1-like factor (tIL-1) have been shown to correlate with DNA synthetic activity during the cycle of the rat seminiferous epithelium, suggesting its role as a spermatogonial or meiotic growth factor. To explore this further, a new in vitro model system was developed. Rat seminiferous tubule segments from stages I, V, VIIa, and VIII-IX of the cycle were isolated by transillumination-assisted microdissection, cultured in chemically defined serum-free medium supplemented with human recombinant IL-1 α, and labeled with [3H]thymidine. During incubation, spontaneous progression of spermatogenesis was noted. Inactive stage VIIa tubule segments differentiated to stage VIII and initiated DNA synthesis, and concomitantly started to secrete IL-1-like factor. DNA synthesis of stages VIII-IX ceased through differentiation of spermatocytes to leptotene-zygotene (stages XII-XIII of the cycle). IL-1 α stimulated DNA synthesis significantly in spermatogonia of stage I. Meiotic DNA synthesis at stage VIIa was stimulated (48 h/34 C) and maintained at stages VIII-IX (48 h/34 C). IL-1 α seems to act as a regulator of spermatogenic DNA synthesis in both mitotic and meiotic phases. It has mainly stimulating and maintaining effects, but it may also be inhibitory under certain conditions

  15. Effects of phospho- and calciotropic hormones on electrolyte transport in the proximal tubule [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and phosphate are critical for a myriad of physiological and cellular processes within the organism. Consequently, plasma levels of calcium and phosphate are tightly regulated. This occurs through the combined effects of the phospho- and calciotropic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH, active vitamin D3, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23. The organs central to this are the kidneys, intestine, and bone. In the kidney, the proximal tubule reabsorbs the majority of filtered calcium and phosphate, which amounts to more than 60% and 90%, respectively. The basic molecular mechanisms responsible for phosphate reclamation are well described, and emerging work is delineating the molecular identity of the paracellular shunt wherein calcium permeates the proximal tubular epithelium. Significant experimental work has delineated the molecular effects of PTH and FGF23 on these processes as well as their regulation of active vitamin D3 synthesis in this nephron segment. The integrative effects of both phospho- and calciotropic hormones on proximal tubular solute transport and subsequently whole body calcium-phosphate balance thus have been further complicated. Here, we first review the molecular mechanisms of calcium and phosphate reabsorption from the proximal tubule and how they are influenced by the phospho- and calciotropic hormones acting on this segment and then consider the implications on both renal calcium and phosphate handling as well as whole body mineral balance.

  16. Differential effects of selegiline on glucose synthesis in rabbit kidney-cortex tubules and hepatocytes. In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozak, Jakub; Kozlowski, Marcin; Doroszewska, Renata; Pera, Lukasz; Derlacz, Rafal; Jarzyna, Robert; Bryla, Jadwiga

    2007-12-15

    The action of selegiline, a selective and irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B, commonly applied in the therapy of Parkinson's disease, on glucose formation was investigated in isolated rabbit hepatocytes and kidney-cortex tubules, maintaining the whole body glucose homeostasis via gluconeogenic pathway activity. An intensive hepatic metabolism of selegiline resulted in formation of selegiline-N-oxide, desmethylselegiline, methamphetamine and amphetamine, whereas during slow degradation of the drug in freshly isolated renal tubules selegiline-N-oxide was mainly produced. At 100 microM concentration selegiline markedly diminished glucose synthesis in isolated renal tubules incubated with dihydroxyacetone or alanine+glycerol+octanoate (by about 60 and 30%, respectively), while at 5 microM concentration a similar degree of inhibition was achieved in renal tubules grown in primary culture under the same conditions (about 40 and 60%, respectively). Moreover, desmethylselegiline and selegiline-N-oxide considerably diminished glucose production in renal tubules whereas selegiline and its metabolites did not affect gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes. Contrary to control animals, following selegiline administration to alloxan-diabetic rabbits for 8 days (10 mg kg(-1) body wt. daily) the blood glucose and serum creatinine levels were significantly diminished, suggesting a decrease in renal gluconeogenesis and improvement of kidney functions. Since in renal tubules selegiline induced a decline in the intracellular levels of gluconeogenic intermediates and ATP content accompanied by a decrease in oxygen consumption in both kidney-cortex and hepatic mitochondria it seems possible that its inhibitory action on renal gluconeogenesis might result from an impairment of mitochondrial function, while an intensive selegiline metabolism in hepatocytes causes decrease of its concentration and in consequence no inhibition of gluconeogenesis. In view of these observations it is

  17. The role of renal proximal tubule P450 enzymes in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity: Utility of renal specific P450 reductase knockout mouse models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Senyan [Kidney Institute and Division of Nephrology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Yao, Yunyi; Lu, Shijun; Aldous, Kenneth; Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Mei, Changlin, E-mail: chlmei1954@126.com [Kidney Institute and Division of Nephrology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Gu, Jun, E-mail: jungu@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The kidney is a primary target for numerous toxic compounds. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) are responsible for the metabolic activation of various chemical compounds, and in the kidney are predominantly expressed in proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular P450s are critical for nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals such as chloroform. We developed two new mouse models, one having proximal tubule-specific deletion of the cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) gene (the enzyme required for all microsomal P450 activities), designated proximal tubule-Cpr-null (PTCN), and the other having proximal tubule-specific rescue of CPR activity with the global suppression of CPR activity in all extra-proximal tubular tissues, designated extra-proximal tubule-Cpr-low (XPT-CL). The PTCN, XPT-CL, Cpr-low (CL), and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with a single oral dose of chloroform at 200 mg/kg. Blood, liver and kidney samples were obtained at 24 h after the treatment. Renal toxicity was assessed by measuring BUN and creatinine levels, and by pathological examination. The blood and tissue levels of chloroform were determined. The severity of toxicity was less in PTCN and CL mice, compared with that of WT and XPT-CL mice. There were no significant differences in chloroform levels in the blood, liver, or kidney, between PTCN and WT mice, or between XPT-CL and CL mice. These findings indicate that local P450-dependent activities play an important role in the nephrotoxicity induced by chloroform. Our results also demonstrate the usefulness of these novel mouse models for studies of chemical-induced kidney toxicity. - Highlights: • New mouse models were developed with varying P450 activities in the proximal tubule. • These mouse models were treated with chloroform, a nephrotoxicant. • Studies showed the importance of local P450s in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity.

  18. The role of renal proximal tubule P450 enzymes in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity: Utility of renal specific P450 reductase knockout mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Senyan; Yao, Yunyi; Lu, Shijun; Aldous, Kenneth; Ding, Xinxin; Mei, Changlin; Gu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The kidney is a primary target for numerous toxic compounds. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) are responsible for the metabolic activation of various chemical compounds, and in the kidney are predominantly expressed in proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular P450s are critical for nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals such as chloroform. We developed two new mouse models, one having proximal tubule-specific deletion of the cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) gene (the enzyme required for all microsomal P450 activities), designated proximal tubule-Cpr-null (PTCN), and the other having proximal tubule-specific rescue of CPR activity with the global suppression of CPR activity in all extra-proximal tubular tissues, designated extra-proximal tubule-Cpr-low (XPT-CL). The PTCN, XPT-CL, Cpr-low (CL), and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with a single oral dose of chloroform at 200 mg/kg. Blood, liver and kidney samples were obtained at 24 h after the treatment. Renal toxicity was assessed by measuring BUN and creatinine levels, and by pathological examination. The blood and tissue levels of chloroform were determined. The severity of toxicity was less in PTCN and CL mice, compared with that of WT and XPT-CL mice. There were no significant differences in chloroform levels in the blood, liver, or kidney, between PTCN and WT mice, or between XPT-CL and CL mice. These findings indicate that local P450-dependent activities play an important role in the nephrotoxicity induced by chloroform. Our results also demonstrate the usefulness of these novel mouse models for studies of chemical-induced kidney toxicity. - Highlights: • New mouse models were developed with varying P450 activities in the proximal tubule. • These mouse models were treated with chloroform, a nephrotoxicant. • Studies showed the importance of local P450s in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity

  19. Administration of Curcumin Protects Kidney Tubules Against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury (RIRI) by Modulating Nitric Oxide (NO) Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuhe; Ni, Wenjuan; Zhang, Jiajia; Wang, Guokang; Li, Fanzhu; Ren, Wenxia

    2017-01-01

    To explore the protective effect of curcumin on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI) in rats, and its influence on nephridial tissue's NO and cGMP levels as well as downstream signaling pathway, to elucidate the possible mechanism of curcumin on RIRI. 36 Sprague Dawley rats (SD rats) were randomly divided into Sham group, Model group, curcumin (CUR +) Model group, 12 rats per group. They were all given RIRI model preparation by unilateral artery occlusion method. All groups' β2-MG in urine in 24h, serum Cr and BUN were compared, and UAER were calculated. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), Caspase-3 expression were all determined by western blot. Nitric oxide (NO), NOS and cGMP levels were also examined by using ELISA. All groups' nephridial histomorphology and kidney tubules score were evaluated and compared. β2-MG and UAER in urine, serum Cr and BUN, in renal tissue were all elevated in Model of RIRI, indicating the success of animal model of RIRI establishment, and above index in CUR + Model group were all lower than those in Model group. Furthermore, iNOS, NO, cGMP, PKG and Caspase-3 in renal tissue were all increased in Model of RIRI, indicating the NO signaling pathway was activated, which is one of the pathogenesis of RIRI, and above index in CUR + Model group were all lower than those in Model group, suggesting that inactivation of iNOS/NO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway is one of the reasons that explain the protective effect of curcumin in RIRI. The activation of iNOS/NO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway and the consequent promoted apoptosis of renal tubules are significantly involved in the pathogenesis of development of RIRI, and curcumin treatment could protect renal tubules against RIRI, at least partially, by suppressing the activated iNOS/NO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Cistatina C, PCR, Log TG/HDLc e Sindrome Metabolica estao Relacionados a Microalbuminuria na Hipertensao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Em pacientes com hipertensão arterial sistêmica, a microalbuminúria é um marcador de lesão endotelial e está associada a um risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os fatores que influenciam a ocorrência de microalbumiúria em pacientes hipertensos com creatinina sérica menor que 1,5 mg/dL. Métodos: Foram incluídos no estudo 133 pacientes brasileiros atendidos em um ambulatório multidisciplinar para hipertensos. Pacientes com creatinina sérica maior do que 1,5 mg/dL e aqueles com diabete mellitus foram excluídos do estudo. A pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica foi aferida. O índice de massa corporal (IMC e a taxa de filtração glomerular estimada pela fórmula CKD-EPI foram calculados. Em um estudo transversal, creatinina, cistatina C, colesterol total, HDL colesterol, LDL colesterol, triglicerídeos, proteína C-reativa (PCR e glicose foram mensurados em amostra de sangue. A microalbuminúria foi determinada na urina colhida em 24 horas. Os hipertensos foram classificados pela presença de um ou mais critérios para síndrome metabólica. Resultados: Em análise de regressão múltipla, os níveis séricos de cistatina C, PCR, o índice aterogênico log TG/HDLc e a presença de três ou mais critérios para síndrome metabólica foram positivamente correlacionados com a microalbuminuria (r2: 0,277; p < 0,05. Conclusão: Cistatina C, PCR, log TG/HDLc e presença de três ou mais critérios para síndrome metabólica, independentemente da creatinina sérica, foram associados com a microalbuminúria, um marcador precoce de lesão renal e de risco cardiovascular em pacientes com hipertensão arterial essencial.

  1. Metabolic radiopharmaceutical therapy in nuclear medicine; Terapia metabolica mediante radiofarmacos en medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reguera, L.; Lozano, M. L.; Alonso, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    In 1986 the National Board of Medical Specialties defined the specialty of nuclear medicine as a medical specialty that uses radioisotopes for prevention, diagnosis, therapy and medical research. Nowadays, treatment with radiopharmaceuticals has reached a major importance within of nuclear medicine. The ability to treat tumors with radiopharmaceutical, Radiation selective therapy has become a first line alternative. In this paper, the current situation of the different therapies that are sued in nuclear medicine, is reviewed. (Author)

  2. Alterações metabolicas induzidas pela cafeina durante o exercicio intermitente

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo dos Reis Silveira

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: A cafeína porser uma droga muito comum nos dias atuais e capaz de alterar a performace durante o exercicio fisico, tem sido usada como um recurso ergogênico durante as competições esportivas em várias modalidades. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de verifiar a influência da cafeína no tempo de endurance, nas concentrações plasmáticas de ácidos graxos livres antes do exercício, nas concentrações de TBARS em amostras de urina no final do exercício, nas concentrações sanguíneas de lactato ...

  3. Proximal tubule-derived colony stimulating factor-1 mediates polarization of renal macrophages and dendritic cells, and recovery in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinqiu; Chang, Jian; Yao, Bing; Niu, Aolei; Kelly, Emily; Breeggemann, Matthew C; Abboud Werner, Sherry L; Harris, Raymond C; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Infiltrating cells play an important role in both the development of and recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). Macrophages and renal dendritic cells are of particular interest because they can exhibit distinctly different functional phenotypes, broadly characterized as proinflammatory (M1) or tissue reparative (M2). Resident renal macrophages and dendritic cells participate in recovery from AKI in response to either ischemia/reperfusion or a model of selective proximal tubule injury induced by diphtheria-toxin-induced apoptosis in transgenic mice expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor on proximal tubule cells. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is an important factor mediating the recovery from AKI, and CSF-1 can stimulate macrophage and dendritic cell proliferation and polarization during the recovery phase of AKI. The kidney, and specifically the proximal tubule, is a major source of intrarenal CSF-1 production in response to AKI. We induced selective deletion of proximal tubule CSF-1 to determine its role in expansion and proliferation of renal macrophages and dendritic cells and in recovery from AKI. In both models of AKI, there was decreased M2 polarization, delayed functional and structural recovery, and increased tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Thus, intrarenal CSF-1 is an important mediator of macrophage/dendritic cell polarization and recovery from AKI.

  4. Role of t-tubules in the control of trans-sarcolemmal ion flux and intracellular Ca2+ in a model of the rat cardiac ventricular myocyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pásek, Michal; Šimurda, J.; Orchard, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2012), s. 491-503 ISSN 0175-7571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : t-tubules * rat * cardiac myocyte * computer model * calcium Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.274, year: 2012

  5. The influence of the type of oil phase on the self-assembly process of ¿-oryzanol + ß-sitosterol tubules in organogel systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.; Margry, G.; Adel, den R.; Venema, P.; Bot, A.; Flöter, E.; Linden, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol were used to structure different oils (decane, limonene, sunflower oil, castor oil and eugenol). The ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol mixtures self-assemble into double-walled hollow tubules (~10 nm in diameter) in the oil phase, which aggregate to form a network

  6. Epidermal growth factor decreases PEPT2 transport capacity and expression in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo, Silvina A; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Amstrup, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The renal peptide transporter PEPT2 plays an important role in absorption of di- and tripetides in the proximal tubule; however, knowledge of regulation of PEPT2 by growth factors and hormones is limited. In the present study, we examined the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on PEPT2 tran...

  7. The Influence of Concentration and Temperature on the Formation of ¿-Oryzanol + ß-Sitosterol Tubules in Edible Oil Organogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.; Venema, P.; Bot, A.; Flöter, E.; Linden, van der E.

    2011-01-01

    The gelation process of mixtures of ¿-oryzanol and sitosterol structurants in sunflower oil was studied using light scattering, rheology, and micro-scanning calorimetry (Micro-DSC). The relation between temperature and the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of tubule formation of ¿-oryzanol

  8. Genetic ablation of AQP2 in the mouse connecting tubules results in a mild urinary concentrating defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen; Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Miller, Lance

    Body water balance is regulated in the kidney via the vasopressin (AVP) regulated water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expressed in the connecting tubule (CNT) and the collecting duct (CD). Although crucial for the urinary concentrating mechanism, the relative role of AQP2 in the CNT and CD...... are not fully understood. To study the role of AQP2 in the CNT we generated a mouse model with a CNT-specific knock-out of AQP2. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of kidney sections demonstrated an absence of AQP2 immunolabeling in the CNT of the knock-out animals. 24 hour urine output was significantly...... in cortical kidney fractions with no compensatory changes in the AVP-regulated transporters NKCC2, AQP3 and AQP4. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that deletion of AQP2 from the CNT results in a mild urinary concentrating defect, without diminished maximal urinary concentrating ability. Our studies suggest...

  9. Adaptive regulation of taurine and beta-alanine uptake in a human kidney cell line from the proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, H; Jacobsen, Christian

    1997-01-01

    1. The underlying mechanisms involved in the adaptive regulation of beta-amino acid uptake in the human proximal tubule were examined by use of an immortalized human embryonic kidney epithelial cell line (IHKE). 2. The results indicated that the adaptive response to maintain whole-body taurine...... homeostasis occurs predominantly via changes in the activity of the high-affinity taurine transport system by alterations in the uptake capacity and with an unaffected half-saturation constant. An adaptive response was not observed for the structurally related beta-alanine. 3. Only colchicine, which...... interferes with microtubule organization, was capable of blocking the response to alterations of taurine in cell medium, whereas inhibition of protein and nucleic acid synthesis by cycloheximide and actinomycin D, respectively, did not change the adaptive pattern. 4. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA...

  10. ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi exchange catalyzed by plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase from kidney proximal tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieyra, A.; Caruso-Neves, C.; Meyer-Fernandes, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Ca(2+)-stimulated adenosine 5'-triphosphate-orthophosphate (ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi) exchange reaction was studied using a vesicular preparation derived from plasma membrane of kidney proximal tubules. With native inside-out vesicles, ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi was stimulated by micromolar Ca2+ concentrations. Treatment of the vesicles with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 that abolished Ca2+ accumulation, strongly inhibited ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi. When Ca(2+)-ATPase was solubilized with the nonionic detergent octaethylene glycol mono n-dodecyl ether, maximal activation of ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi required millimolar Ca2+ concentrations. These Ca2+ concentrations inhibited ATP hydrolysis. ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi exhibited a Michaelian dependence on Pi and Mg2+, was stimulated by ATP, and depended on the ATP/ADP ratio. ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi was modified by the osmolytes urea, trimethylamine-N-oxide, and sucrose, which are representative of the methylamines and polyols that normally accumulate in renal tissue. These compounds did not modify the apparent affinity for Pi; they affected the response to ADP in the same fashion as the overall rate of ATP in equilibrium 32Pi, and their effects depended on medium pH. These data show that the Ca(2+)-ATPase from plasma membrane kidney proximal tubules can operate simultaneously in forward and backward directions. They also show that ATP in equilibrium with 32Pi is modulated by the ligands Ca2+, ATP, ADP, Pi, Mg2+, and H+, and by organic solutes found in renal tissue

  11. 5-Lypoxygenase products are involved in renal tubulointerstitial injury induced by albumin overload in proximal tubules in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Sharon Schilling; Silva, Leandro Souza; Peruchetti, Diogo Barros; Sirtoli, Gabriela Modenesi; Moraes-Santos, Felipe; Portella, Viviane Gomes; Silva-Filho, João Luiz; Pinheiro, Carla Silva; Abreu, Thiago Pereira; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Benjamin, Claudia Farias; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia Sá; Canetti, Claudio; Caruso-Neves, Celso

    2014-01-01

    The role of albumin overload in proximal tubules (PT) in the development of tubulointerstitial injury and, consequently, in the progression of renal disease has become more relevant in recent years. Despite the importance of leukotrienes (LTs) in renal disease, little is known about their role in tubulointerstitial injury. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible role of LTs on tubulointerstitial injury induced by albumin overload. An animal model of tubulointerstitial injury challenged by bovine serum albumin was developed in SV129 mice (wild-type) and 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice (5-LO(-/-)). The changes in glomerular morphology and nestin expression observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult were also observed in 5-LO(-/-) mice. The levels of urinary protein observed in the 5-LO(-/-) mice subjected or not to kidney insult were lower than those observed in respective wild-type mice. Furthermore, the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of tubule damage, observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult did not occur in 5-LO(-/-) mice. LTB4 and LTD4, 5-LO products, decreased the uptake of albumin in LLC-PK1 cells, a well-characterized porcine PT cell line. This effect correlated with activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of protein kinase B. The level of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, increased in mice subjected to kidney insult but this effect was not modified in 5-LO(-/-) mice. However, 5-LO(-/-) mice subjected to kidney insult presented lower macrophage infiltration and higher levels of IL-10 than wild-type mice. Our results reveal that LTs have an important role in tubulointerstitial disease induced by albumin overload.

  12. FlnA binding to PACSIN2 F-BAR domain regulates membrane tubulation in megakaryocytes and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begonja, Antonija Jurak; Pluthero, Fred G; Suphamungmee, Worawit; Giannini, Silvia; Christensen, Hilary; Leung, Richard; Lo, Richard W; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Lehman, William; Plomann, Markus; Hoffmeister, Karin M; Kahr, Walter H A; Hartwig, John H; Falet, Hervé

    2015-07-02

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) and Fes-CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) proteins generate tubular membrane invaginations reminiscent of the megakaryocyte (MK) demarcation membrane system (DMS), which provides membranes necessary for future platelets. The F-BAR protein PACSIN2 is one of the most abundant BAR/F-BAR proteins in platelets and the only one reported to interact with the cytoskeletal and scaffold protein filamin A (FlnA), an essential regulator of platelet formation and function. The FlnA-PACSIN2 interaction was therefore investigated in MKs and platelets. PACSIN2 associated with FlnA in human platelets. The interaction required FlnA immunoglobulin-like repeat 20 and the tip of PACSIN2 F-BAR domain and enhanced PACSIN2 F-BAR domain membrane tubulation in vitro. Most human and wild-type mouse platelets had 1 to 2 distinct PACSIN2 foci associated with cell membrane GPIbα, whereas Flna-null platelets had 0 to 4 or more foci. Endogenous PACSIN2 and transfected enhanced green fluorescent protein-PACSIN2 were concentrated in midstage wild-type mouse MKs in a well-defined invagination of the plasma membrane reminiscent of the initiating DMS and dispersed in the absence of FlnA binding. The DMS appeared less well defined, and platelet territories were not readily visualized in Flna-null MKs. We conclude that the FlnA-PACSIN2 interaction regulates membrane tubulation in MKs and platelets and likely contributes to DMS formation. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Exposure to low-dose bisphenol A impairs meiosis in the rat seminiferous tubule culture model: a physiotoxicogenomic approach.

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    Sazan Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA is one of the most widespread chemicals in the world and is suspected of being responsible for male reproductive impairments. Nevertheless, its molecular mode of action on spermatogenesis is unclear. This work combines physiology and toxicogenomics to identify mechanisms by which BPA affects the timing of meiosis and induces germ-cell abnormalities. METHODS: We used a rat seminiferous tubule culture model mimicking the in vivo adult rat situation. BPA (1 nM and 10 nM was added to the culture medium. Transcriptomic and meiotic studies were performed on the same cultures at the same exposure times (days 8, 14, and 21. Transcriptomics was performed using pangenomic rat microarrays. Immunocytochemistry was conducted with an anti-SCP3 antibody. RESULTS: The gene expression analysis showed that the total number of differentially expressed transcripts was time but not dose dependent. We focused on 120 genes directly involved in the first meiotic prophase, sustaining immunocytochemistry. Sixty-two genes were directly involved in pairing and recombination, some of them with high fold changes. Immunocytochemistry indicated alteration of meiotic progression in the presence of BPA, with increased leptotene and decreased diplotene spermatocyte percentages and partial meiotic arrest at the pachytene checkpoint. Morphological abnormalities were observed at all stages of the meiotic prophase. The prevalent abnormalities were total asynapsis and apoptosis. Transcriptomic analysis sustained immunocytological observations. CONCLUSION: We showed that low doses of BPA alter numerous genes expression, especially those involved in the reproductive system, and severely impair crucial events of the meiotic prophase leading to partial arrest of meiosis in rat seminiferous tubule cultures.

  14. 5-Lypoxygenase products are involved in renal tubulointerstitial injury induced by albumin overload in proximal tubules in mice.

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    Sharon Schilling Landgraf

    Full Text Available The role of albumin overload in proximal tubules (PT in the development of tubulointerstitial injury and, consequently, in the progression of renal disease has become more relevant in recent years. Despite the importance of leukotrienes (LTs in renal disease, little is known about their role in tubulointerstitial injury. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible role of LTs on tubulointerstitial injury induced by albumin overload. An animal model of tubulointerstitial injury challenged by bovine serum albumin was developed in SV129 mice (wild-type and 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice (5-LO(-/-. The changes in glomerular morphology and nestin expression observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult were also observed in 5-LO(-/- mice. The levels of urinary protein observed in the 5-LO(-/- mice subjected or not to kidney insult were lower than those observed in respective wild-type mice. Furthermore, the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of tubule damage, observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult did not occur in 5-LO(-/- mice. LTB4 and LTD4, 5-LO products, decreased the uptake of albumin in LLC-PK1 cells, a well-characterized porcine PT cell line. This effect correlated with activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of protein kinase B. The level of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL-6, increased in mice subjected to kidney insult but this effect was not modified in 5-LO(-/- mice. However, 5-LO(-/- mice subjected to kidney insult presented lower macrophage infiltration and higher levels of IL-10 than wild-type mice. Our results reveal that LTs have an important role in tubulointerstitial disease induced by albumin overload.

  15. Rapid and efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into intermediate mesoderm that forms tubules expressing kidney proximal tubular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Albert Q; Freedman, Benjamin S; Morizane, Ryuji; Lerou, Paul H; Valerius, M Todd; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2014-06-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can generate a diversity of cell types, but few methods have been developed to derive cells of the kidney lineage. Here, we report a highly efficient system for differentiating human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (referred to collectively as hPSCs) into cells expressing markers of the intermediate mesoderm (IM) that subsequently form tubule-like structures. Treatment of hPSCs with the glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor CHIR99021 induced BRACHYURY(+)MIXL1(+) mesendoderm differentiation with nearly 100% efficiency. In the absence of additional exogenous factors, CHIR99021-induced mesendodermal cells preferentially differentiated into cells expressing markers of lateral plate mesoderm with minimal IM differentiation. However, the sequential treatment of hPSCs with CHIR99021 followed by fibroblast growth factor-2 and retinoic acid generated PAX2(+)LHX1(+) cells with 70%-80% efficiency after 3 days of differentiation. Upon growth factor withdrawal, these PAX2(+)LHX1(+) cells gave rise to apically ciliated tubular structures that coexpressed the proximal tubule markers Lotus tetragonolobus lectin, N-cadherin, and kidney-specific protein and partially integrated into embryonic kidney explant cultures. With the addition of FGF9 and activin, PAX2(+)LHX1(+) cells specifically differentiated into cells expressing SIX2, SALL1, and WT1, markers of cap mesenchyme nephron progenitor cells. Our findings demonstrate the effective role of fibroblast growth factor signaling in inducing IM differentiation in hPSCs and establish the most rapid and efficient system whereby hPSCs can be differentiated into cells with features characteristic of kidney lineage cells. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Antimicrobial Effect of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Enterococcus Faecalis Within the Dentinal Tubules in The Presence of Smear Layer

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    Sharifian MR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Instrumentation of the root canals results in formation of smear layer which covers the dentinal tubules. In infected teeth, it is ideal to achieve a material that has the ability to remove the smear layer besides antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Citrus aurantifolia extracts (lime juice and rind extract on Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules in the presence of smear layer.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty dentin tubes were prepared from bovine incisors. After removal the smear layer, the specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Then, the smear layer was reformed. Test solutions were used as the irrigants in study roups as follows: group 1: 5.25% NaOCl; group 2: 17% EDTA; group 3: NaOCl+EDTA; group 4: Lime juice; group 5: ethanolic rind extract of C.aurantifolia; group 6: 96% ethanol. Dentin chips were collected from inner and outer layers of dentinal walls and optical density was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane tests.Results: In outer layer of dentin, the efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. Also Lime juice was less effective than EDTA, NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. In inner layer of dentin, Lime juice was significantly less effective than NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. The efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05.Conclusion: In the presence of smear layer, the antimicrobial activity of Lime juice was less than that of NaOCl but the efficacy of rind extract was similar to that of NaOCl.

  17. Antenatal betamethasone attenuates the angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor-nitric oxide axis in isolated proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yixin; Bi, Jianli; Pulgar, Victor M; Chappell, Mark C; Rose, James C

    2017-06-01

    We previously reported a sex-specific effect of antenatal treatment with betamethasone (Beta) on sodium (Na + ) excretion in adult sheep whereby treated males but not females had an attenuated natriuretic response to angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]. The present study determined the Na + uptake and nitric oxide (NO) response to low-dose Ang-(1-7) (1 pM) in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC) from adult male and female sheep antenatally exposed to Beta or vehicle. Data were expressed as percentage of basal uptake or area under the curve for Na + or percentage of control for NO. Male Beta RPTC exhibited greater Na + uptake than male vehicle cells (433 ± 28 vs. 330 ± 26%; P 0.05). Ang-(1-7) significantly inhibited Na + uptake in RPTC from vehicle male (214 ± 11%) and from both vehicle (190 ± 14%) and Beta (209 ± 11%) females but failed to attenuate Na + uptake in Beta male cells. Beta exposure also abolished stimulation of NO by Ang-(1-7) in male but not female RPTC. Both the Na + and NO responses to Ang-(1-7) were blocked by Mas receptor antagonist d-Ala 7 -Ang-(1-7). We conclude that the tubular Ang-(1-7)-Mas-NO pathway is attenuated in males and not females by antenatal Beta exposure. Moreover, since primary cultures of RPTC retain both the sex and Beta-induced phenotype of the adult kidney in vivo they appear to be an appropriate cell model to examine the effects of fetal programming on Na + handling by the renal tubules. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Diglycolic acid is the nephrotoxic metabolite in diethylene glycol poisoning inducing necrosis in human proximal tubule cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Greg M; Martin, Sarah; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2011-11-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG), a solvent and chemical intermediate, can produce an acute toxic syndrome, the hallmark of which is acute renal failure due to cortical tubular degeneration and proximal tubular necrosis. DEG is metabolized to two primary metabolites, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (2-HEAA) and diglycolic acid (DGA), which are believed to be the proximate toxicants. The precise mechanism of toxicity has yet to be elucidated, so these studies were designed to determine which metabolite was responsible for the proximal tubule cell death. Human proximal tubule (HPT) cells in culture, obtained from normal cortical tissue and passaged 3-6 times, were incubated with increasing concentrations of DEG, 2-HEAA, or DGA separately and in combination for 48 h at pH 6 or 7.4, and various parameters of necrotic and apoptotic cell death were measured. DEG and 2-HEAA did not produce any cell death. DGA produced dose-dependent necrosis at concentrations above 25 mmol/l. DGA did not affect caspase-3 activity and increased annexin V staining only in propidium iodide-stained cells. Hence, DGA induced necrosis, not apoptosis, as corroborated by severe depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate levels. DGA is structurally similar to citric acid cycle intermediates that are taken up by specific transporters in kidney cells. HPT cells, incubated with N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid, a sodium dicarboxylate-1 transporter inhibitor showed significantly decreased cell death compared with DGA alone. These studies demonstrate that DGA is the toxic metabolite responsible for DEG-induced proximal tubular necrosis and suggest a possible transporter-mediated uptake of DGA leading to toxic accumulation and cellular dysfunction.

  19. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozialeck, Walter C.; Edwards, Joshua R.; Lamar, Peter C.; Liu, Jie; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 μmol) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12 weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase (α-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, α-GST and LDH were not increased until 8-12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule.

  20. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Katherine J.; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F.; Keezer, Susan M.; Mattingly, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser938 were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K·mg protein−1·min−1 and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser938 is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells. PMID:26582472

  1. Transcriptomic evidence for a dramatic functional transition of the malpighian tubules after a blood meal in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus.

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    Carlos J Esquivel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of a vertebrate blood meal by adult female mosquitoes is necessary for their reproduction, but it also presents significant physiological challenges to mosquito osmoregulation and metabolism. The renal (Malpighian tubules of mosquitoes play critical roles in the initial processing of the blood meal by excreting excess water and salts that are ingested. However, it is unclear how the tubules contribute to the metabolism and excretion of wastes (e.g., heme, ammonia produced during the digestion of blood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used RNA-Seq to examine global changes in transcript expression in the Malpighian tubules of the highly-invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus during the first 24 h after consuming a blood meal. We found progressive, global changes in the transcriptome of the Malpighian tubules isolated from mosquitoes at 3 h, 12 h, and 24 h after a blood meal. Notably, a DAVID functional cluster analysis of the differentially-expressed transcripts revealed 1 a down-regulation of transcripts associated with oxidative metabolism, active transport, and mRNA translation, and 2 an up-regulation of transcripts associated with antioxidants and detoxification, proteolytic activity, amino-acid metabolism, and cytoskeletal dynamics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that blood feeding elicits a functional transition of the epithelium from one specializing in active transepithelial fluid secretion (e.g., diuresis to one specializing in detoxification and metabolic waste excretion. Our findings provide the first insights into the putative roles of mosquito Malpighian tubules in the chronic processing of blood meals.

  2. The Combined Occluding Effects of Fluoride-Containing Dentin Desensitizer and Nd-yag Laser Irradiation on Human Dentinal Tubules: an In Vitro Study

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    Po-Jen Hsu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the combined occluding effects of fluoride-containing dentin desensitizer and neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG laser irradiation on human dentinal tubules. All six of the groups of dentin samples (A-F included in this study received applications of fluoride-containing dentin desensitizer. Groups B, D, and F also received Nd-YAG laser irradiation. Groups A and B served as controls, to allow observations of the occluding effects on the dentinal tubules before and after Nd-YAG laser irradiation. Groups C and D were treated with 0.5 M vitamin C solution, whereas groups E and F underwent brushing with an electric toothbrush. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that the fluoridated dentinal tubule-occluding agent (FDTOA formed a fine crystalline deposit on the dentin surface. After soaking in 0.5 M vitamin C solution for 3 hours, the crystalline deposit of the FDTOA was completely dissolved. Furthermore, brushing of the teeth 3,600 times removed most of the occluding agent. When the application of FDTOA was combined with Nd-YAG laser irradiation, the dentin melted and then recrystallized. The occluding agent was thus ‘burned into’ the dentinal tubules, and could neither be dissolved by vitamin C solution nor removed by brushing. Therefore, we concluded that the FDTOA combined with Nd-YAG laser irradiation burns the occluding agent into the dentinal tubules, thereby resisting the effects of an acidic diet and brushing, and increasing the duration of the desensitizing effect.

  3. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Katherine J; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F; Keezer, Susan M; Mattingly, Raymond R; Yingst, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser(938) were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K · mg protein(-1) · min(-1) and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser(938) is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells.

  4. Gas management of measurement system; Sistema informatizado de programacao e controle integrado de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedersberg, Luis Carlos [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Programacao e Controle Integrado; Gomes, Lea Visali [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia Executiva de Logistica de Operacoes

    2008-07-01

    This paper has for objective to present the software developed for control of measurement of natural gas in the Gas Company of the Rio Grande do Sul State - Sulgas. This paper will be presented the previous control system, developed as Microsoft Excel and the new system developed in Company's ERP. This software automated great part of the process, reducing possible mistakes, reducing the reverse-work index and improving the quality of the measurements considerably and of the revenue of the Company. (author)

  5. Stochastic programming of drilling rigs supplies; Programacao estocastica de suprimentos de sondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Bruno Ferreira; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this work is to use techniques of stochastic programming to reduce logistic costs regarding offshore drilling rigs. This theme is of great interest to Brazilian oil industry since there is an increasing number of wells that need to be perforated so that Brazilian oil production can reach its expected growth over the next ten years (PETROBRAS in particular has an ambitious strategy in this respect). Proper treatment of the uncertainties involved in the deliveries of supplies to offshore drilling rigs is essential, namely, these uncertainties need to be included in the models used in logistic models. Delays in the deliveries of products such as chemicals, perforation fluids and tubes may force drilling rigs to stop their operations what highly increases costs. The daily hiring rates of drilling rigs represent the highest cost in the perforation and completion of a well. (author)

  6. Aprendendo Programacao Orientada a Objetos com uma Abordagem Ludica Baseada em Greenfoot e Robocode

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Cleison Simoes; Santos, Allen Hichard Marques; Souza, Suenny Mascarenhas; Bittencourt, Roberto Almeida

    2017-01-01

    One the major challenges in undergraduate computing programs is the learning of object-oriented programming (OOP). This paradigm has a variety of concepts with an abstraction level usually high for most beginners, even the ones who already code in an imperative language. Furthermore, transitioning from imperative programming to OOP is a complex issue, with various inappropriate side effects. A significant effort has been pursued in the search of motivating and attractive solutions for such is...

  7. In vitro remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions and assessment of dentine tubule occlusion from NaF dentifrices with and without calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, fluoride is the most effective preventive treatment for remineralization of incipient carious lesions and dentinal hypersensitivity due to wasting disorders. The products containing fluoride, calcium and phosphate are also claim to remineralize early, non-cavitated enamel demineralization. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the efficacy of two such products, Tooth Mousse and Clinpro tooth crème on remineralization and tubule occluding ability with 5000ppm fluoride-containing toothpaste. Materials and Methods :Thirty third molar teeth were placed in demineralizing solution for 5 days such that only a window of 1mm x 5mm was exposed to the environment to produce artificial caries-like lesions and randomly assigned to three groups: Group I, 5000ppm sodium fluoride; Group II, GC MI paste plus and Group III, Clinpro tooth crème. Axial longitudinal sections of 140-160 μm of each tooth which included the artificial carious lesion taken and were photographed under polarized light microscope. The demineralized areas were then quantified with a computerized imaging system. The experimental materials were applied onto the tooth sections as a topical coating and subjected to pH-cycling for 28 days. To evaluate tubule occlusion ability, thirty dentin specimens of 2mm thickness were obtained from cervical third of sound third molars. Specimens were ultrasonicated and etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes to simulate the hypersensitive dentin. Specimens were randomly divided into above mentioned three groups (n=10. The test agents were brushed over the specimens with an electric toothbrush, prepared and observed under Scanning Electron Microscope for calculation of the percentage of occluded tubules. Results: Group I showed a significantly greater percentage of remineralization than Group III and Group II. Comparison of the remineralization potential between group II and group III were not significant.In case of dentine

  8. Visfatin Reduces Gap Junction Mediated Cell-to-Cell Communication in Proximal Tubule-Derived Epithelial Cells

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    Claire E. Hills

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the current study we examined if the adipocytokine, visfatin, alters connexin-mediated intercellular communication in proximal tubule-derived epithelial cells. Methods: The effects of visfatin (10-200ng/mL on cell viability and cytotoxicity in HK2-cells were assessed by MTT, crystal violet and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Western blot analysis was used to confirm expression of Cx26, Cx40 and Cx43. The effect of visfatin (10-200ng/mL on TGF-β1 secretion was confirmed by ELISA, and the effects of both TGF-β1 (2-10ng/mL and visfatin (10-200ng/mL on connexin expression were assessed by western blot. Functional intercellular communication was determined using transfer of Lucifer Yellow and paired-whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Results: In low glucose (5mM, visfatin (10-200ng/mL did not affect membrane integrity, cytotoxicity or cell viability at 48hrs, but did evoke a concentration-dependent reduction in Cx26 and Cx43 expression. The expression of Cx40 was unaffected. At 48hrs, visfatin (10-200ng/mL increased the secretion of TGF-β1 and the visfatin-evoked changes in connexin expression were mimicked by exogenous application of the pro-fibrotic cytokine (2-10ng/ml. Visfatin reduced dye transfer between coupled cells and decreased functional conductance, with levels falling by 63% as compared to control. Although input resistance was increased following visfatin treatment by 166%, the change was not significant as compared to control. The effects of visfatin on Cx-expression and cell-coupling were blocked in the presence of a TGF-β1 specific neutralizing antibody. Conclusions: The adipocytokine visfatin selectively evoked a non-toxic reduction in connexin expression in HK2-cells. The loss in gap-junction associated proteins was mirrored by a loss in functional conductance between coupled cells. Visfatin increased TGF-β secretion and the pattern of change for connexins expression was mimicked by exogenous

  9. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarró, Eduard, E-mail: eduard.sarro@vhir.org [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita, E-mail: conxita.jacobs@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Itarte, Emilio, E-mail: emili.itarte@uab.es [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Meseguer, Anna, E-mail: ana.meseguer@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC. Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also identified ER

  10. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarró, Eduard; Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita; Itarte, Emilio; Meseguer, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC. Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also identified ER

  11. MUC1 marks collecting tubules, renal vesicles, comma- and S-shaped bodies in human developing kidney tubules, renal vesicles, comma- and s-shaped bodies in human kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, D; Iacovidou, N; Locci, A; Gerosa, C; Nemolato, S; Van Eyken, P; Monga, G; Mellou, S; Faa, G; Fanos, V

    2012-10-26

    MUC1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, apically expressed in most epithelial cells, used in the differential diagnosis of carcinomas and for discrimination of tumors of non-epithelial origin showing epithelioid features. Little attention has been paid so far though, on its possible significance in embryonic tissues. A preliminary study from our group revealed MUC1 expression in the cap mesenchymal cells during human nephrogenesis, suggesting a role for MUC1 in the process of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. This study aimed at investigating the expression pattern of MUC1 in various developing structures of human fetal kidney. Expression of MUC1 was examined in kidneys of 5 human fetuses. MUC1 immunoreactivity was detected in ureteric bud tips, in collecting tubules, in cap mesenchymal cells undergoing the initial phases of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, in renal vesicles, comma-bodies, and S-shaped bodies. Our previous preliminary report suggested a role for MUC1 in the initial phases of the process of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. The present data suggest that MUC1 expression characterizes multiple structures during human nephrogenesis, from the ureteric bud, to the initial phases of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and that MUC1 should be added to the genes activated during the process of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in the cap mesenchyme of human kidney.

  12. Amelioration of angiotensin II-induced salt-sensitive hypertension by liver-type fatty acid-binding protein in proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Ken; Suzuki, Yusuke; Sugaya, Takeshi; Tanifuji, Chiaki; Nishiyama, Akira; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-10-01

    Inappropriate activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system induces generation of reactive oxygen species and tubulointerstitial inflammation, which contribute to salt-sensitive hypertension (SSHT). Liver-type fatty acid-binding protein is expressed in proximal tubules in humans, but not in rodents, and may play an endogenous antioxidative role. The objective of the present study was to examine the antioxidative effect of liver-type fatty acid-binding protein on post-angiotensin II SSHT model in transgenic mice with selective overexpression of human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein in the proximal tubules. The transgenic mice showed marked protection against angiotensin II-induced SSHT. Overexpression of tubular liver-type fatty acid-binding protein prevented intrarenal T-cell infiltration and also reduced reactive oxygen species generation, intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activation, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression. We also performed an in vitro study using the murine proximal tubular cell lines with or without recombinant liver-type fatty acid-binding protein and murine proximal tubular cell lines transfected with human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein, and found that gene transfection of liver-type fatty acid-binding protein and, in part, recombinant liver-type fatty acid-binding protein administration had significantly attenuated angiotensin II-induced reactive oxygen species generation and the expression of angiotensinogen and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in murine proximal tubular cell lines. These findings indicated that liver-type fatty acid-binding protein in the proximal tubules may protect against angiotensin II-induced SSHT by attenuating activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system and reducing oxidative stress and tubulointerstitial inflammation. Present data suggest that liver-type fatty acid-binding protein in the proximal tubules may be a novel therapeutic target for SSHT.

  13. Role of an apical K,Cl cotransporter in urine formation by renal tubules of the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarini, Peter M; Hine, Rebecca M; Schepel, Matthew; Miyauchi, Jeremy; Beyenbach, Klaus W

    2011-11-01

    The K,Cl cotransporters (KCCs) of the SLC12 superfamily play critical roles in the regulation of cell volume, concentrations of intracellular Cl(-), and epithelial transport in vertebrate tissues. To date, the role(s) of KCCs in the renal functions of mosquitoes and other insects is less clear. In the present study, we sought molecular and functional evidence for the presence of a KCC in renal (Malpighian) tubules of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Using RT-PCR on Aedes Malpighian tubules, we identified five alternatively spliced partial cDNAs that encode putative SLC12-like KCCs. The majority transcript is AeKCC1-A(1); its full-length cDNA was cloned. After expression of the AeKCC1-A protein in Xenopus oocytes, the Cl(-)-dependent uptake of (86)Rb(+) is 1) activated by 1 mM N-ethylmaleimide and cell swelling, 2) blocked by 100 μM dihydroindenyloxyalkanoic acid (DIOA), and 3) dependent upon N-glycosylation of AeKCC1-A. In Aedes Malpighian tubules, AeKCC1 immunoreactivity localizes to the apical brush border of principal cells, which are the predominant cell type in the epithelium. In vitro physiological assays of Malpighian tubules show that peritubular DIOA (10 μM): 1) significantly reduces both the control and diuretic rates of transepithelial fluid secretion and 2) has negligible effects on the membrane voltage and input resistance of principal cells. Taken together, the above observations indicate the presence of a KCC in the apical membrane of principal cells where it participates in a major electroneutral transport pathway for the transepithelial secretion of fluid in this highly electrogenic epithelium.

  14. RNA-Seq Comparison of Larval and Adult Malpighian Tubules of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti Reveals Life Stage-Specific Changes in Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyi; Piermarini, Peter M; Esquivel, Carlos J; Drumm, Hannah E; Schilkey, Faye D; Hansen, Immo A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The life history of Aedes aegypti presents diverse challenges to its diuretic system. During the larval and pupal life stages mosquitoes are aquatic. With the emergence of the adult they become terrestrial. This shifts the organism within minutes from an aquatic environment to a terrestrial environment where dehydration has to be avoided. In addition, female mosquitoes take large blood meals, which present an entirely new set of challenges to salt and water homeostasis. Methods: To determine differences in gene expression associated with these different life stages, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the main diuretic tissue in A. aegypti , the Malpighian tubules. We compared transcript abundance in 4th instar larvae to that of adult females and analyzed the data with a focus on transcripts that encode proteins potentially involved in diuresis, like water and solute channels as well as ion transporters. We compared our results against the model of potassium- and sodium chloride excretion in the Malpighian tubules proposed by Hine et al. (2014), which involves at least eight ion transporters and a proton-pump. Results: We found 3,421 of a total number of 17,478 (19.6%) unique transcripts with a P tubules, which have not previously been part of the transport model in this species and may play important roles in diuresis. We also identified candidates for hypothesized sodium and chloride channels. Detoxification genes were generally higher expressed in larvae. Significance: This study represents the first comparison of Malpighian tubule transcriptomes between larval and adult A. aegypti mosquitoes, highlighting key differences in their renal systems that arise as they transform from an aquatic filter-feeding larval stage to a terrestrial, blood-feeding adult stage.

  15. Fate of glutamate carbon and nitrogen in isolated guinea-pig kidney-cortex tubules. Evidence for involvement of glutamate dehydrogenase in glutamine sythesis from glutamate.

    OpenAIRE

    Baverel, G; Genoux, C; Forissier, M; Pellet, M

    1980-01-01

    1. The pathways and the fate of glutamate carbon and nitrogen were investigated in isolated guinea-pig kidney-cortex tubules. 2. At low glutamate concentration (1 mM), the glutamate carbon skeleton was either completely oxidized or converted into glutamine. At high glutamate concentration (5 mM), glucose, lactate and alanine were additional products of glutamate metabolism. 3. At neither concentration of glutamate was there accumulation of ammonia. 4. Nitrogen-balance calculations and the rel...

  16. Localization of secondary metabolites in marine invertebrates: contribution of MALDI MSI for the study of saponins in Cuvierian tubules of H. forskali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Van Dyck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several species of sea cucumbers of the family Holothuriidae possess a particular mechanical defense system called the Cuvierian tubules (Ct. It is also a chemical defense system as triterpene glycosides (saponins appear to be particularly concentrated in Ct. In the present study, the precise localization of saponins in the Ct of Holothuria forskali is investigated. Classical histochemical labeling using lectin was firstly performed but did not generate any conclusive results. Thus, MALDI mass spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI was directly applied and completed by statistical multivariate tests. A comparison between the tubules of relaxed and stressed animals was realized. RESULTS: These analyses allowed the detection of three groups of ions, corresponding to the isomeric saponins of the tubules. Saponins detected at m/z 1287 and 1303 were the most abundant and were apparently localized in the connective tissue of the tubules of both relaxed and stressed individuals. Saponins at m/z 1125 and 1141 were detected in lower amount and were present in tissues of relaxed animals. Finally, saponin ions at 1433, 1449, 1463 and 1479 were observed in some Ct of stressed holothuroids in the outer part of the connective tissue. The saponin group m/z 14xx seems therefore to be stress-specific and could originate from modifications of the saponins with m/z of 11xx. CONCLUSIONS: All the results taken together indicate a complex chemical defense mechanism with, for a single organ, different sets of saponins originating from different cell populations and presenting different responses to stress. The present study also reflects that MALDI-MSI is a valuable tool for chemical ecology studies in which specific chemical signalling molecules like allelochemicals or pheromones have to be tracked. This report represents one of the very first studies using these tools to provide a functional and ecological understanding of the role of natural products from

  17. De novo expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 in Bowman's capsule coincides with replacement of parietal epithelial cell layer with proximal tubule-like epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Niloofar M; North, Paula E; Regner, Kevin R; Kumar, Suresh N; Duris, Christine B; Blodgett, Amy B

    2014-08-01

    In kidney nephron, parietal epithelial cells line the Bowman's capsule and function as a permeability barrier for the glomerular filtrate. Bowman's capsule cells with proximal tubule epithelial morphology have been found. However, the effects of tubular metaplasia in Bowman's capsule on kidney function remain poorly understood. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) plays a major role in reabsorption of glucose in the kidney and is expressed on brush border membrane (BBM) of epithelial cells in the early segment of the proximal tubule. We hypothesized that SGLT2 is expressed in tubularized Bowman's capsule and used our novel antibody to test this hypothesis. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed with our SGLT2 antibody on C57BL/6 mouse kidney prone to have tubularized Bowman's capsules. Cell membrane was examined with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain. The results showed that SGLT2 was localized on BBM of the proximal tubules in young and adult mice. Bowman's capsules were lined mostly with normal brush border-less parietal epithelial cells in young mice, while they were almost completely covered with proximal tubule-like cells in adult mice. Regardless of age, SGLT2 was expressed on BBM of the tubularized Bowman's capsule but did not co-localize with nephrin in the glomerulus. SGLT2-expressing tubular cells expanded from the urinary pole toward the vascular pole of the Bowman's capsule. This study identified the localization of SGLT2 in the Bowman's capsule. Bowman's capsules with tubular metaplasia may acquire roles in reabsorption of filtered glucose and sodium.

  18. RNA-Seq Comparison of Larval and Adult Malpighian Tubules of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti Reveals Life Stage-Specific Changes in Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The life history of Aedes aegypti presents diverse challenges to its diuretic system. During the larval and pupal life stages mosquitoes are aquatic. With the emergence of the adult they become terrestrial. This shifts the organism within minutes from an aquatic environment to a terrestrial environment where dehydration has to be avoided. In addition, female mosquitoes take large blood meals, which present an entirely new set of challenges to salt and water homeostasis.Methods: To determine differences in gene expression associated with these different life stages, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the main diuretic tissue in A. aegypti, the Malpighian tubules. We compared transcript abundance in 4th instar larvae to that of adult females and analyzed the data with a focus on transcripts that encode proteins potentially involved in diuresis, like water and solute channels as well as ion transporters. We compared our results against the model of potassium- and sodium chloride excretion in the Malpighian tubules proposed by Hine et al. (2014, which involves at least eight ion transporters and a proton-pump.Results: We found 3,421 of a total number of 17,478 (19.6% unique transcripts with a P < 0.05 and at least a 2.5 fold change in expression levels between the two groups. We identified two novel transporter genes that are highly expressed in the adult Malpighian tubules, which have not previously been part of the transport model in this species and may play important roles in diuresis. We also identified candidates for hypothesized sodium and chloride channels. Detoxification genes were generally higher expressed in larvae.Significance: This study represents the first comparison of Malpighian tubule transcriptomes between larval and adult A. aegypti mosquitoes, highlighting key differences in their renal systems that arise as they transform from an aquatic filter-feeding larval stage to a terrestrial, blood-feeding adult stage.

  19. A novel member of the trehalose transporter family functions as an H+-dependent trehalose transporter in the reabsorption of trehalose in Malpighian tubules.

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    Shingo eKikuta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In insects, Malpighian tubules are functionally analogous to mammalian kidneys in that they not only are essential to excrete waste molecules into the lumen but also are responsible for the reabsorption of indispensable molecules, such as sugars, from the lumen to the principal cells. Among sugars, the disaccharide trehalose is highly important to insects because it is the main hemolymph sugar to serve as a source of energy and carbon. The trehalose transporter TRET1 participates in the transfer of newly synthesized trehalose from the fat body across the cellular membrane into the hemolymph. Although transport proteins must play a pivotal role in the reabsorption of trehalose in Malpighian tubules, the molecular context underlying this process remains obscure. Previously, we identified a Tret1 homolog (Nlst8 that is expressed principally in the Malpighian tubules of the brown planthopper (BPH. Here, we used the Xenopus oocyte expression system to show that NlST8 exerts trehalose transport activity that is elevated under low pH conditions. These functional assays indicate that Nlst8 encodes a proton-dependent trehalose transporter (H-TRET1. To examine the involvement of Nlst8 in trehalose reabsorption, we analyzed the sugar composition of honeydew by using BPH with RNAi gene silencing. Trehalose was detected in the honeydew as waste excreted from Nlst8-dsRNA-injected BPH under hyperglycemic conditions. However, trehalose was not expelled from GFP-dsRNA-injected BPH even under hyperglycemic conditions. We conclude that NlST8 could participate in trehalose reabsorption driven by a H+ gradient from the lumen to the principal cells of the Malpighian tubules.

  20. Fluid-phase endocytosis does not contribute to rapid fluid secretion in the malpighian tubules of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, S Renee; Spring, Jeffrey H; Felgenhauer, Bruce E

    2002-01-01

    When the Malpighian tubules (Mt) of the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) are treated with dibutyryl adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (db-cAMP; 1 mM), which causes a doubling in secretion rate, more than 50% of the cell volume is occupied by vesicles within 420 sec of exposure. In view of the fact that the increase in vesiculation occurs concomitantly with stimulated fluid transport, we set out to determine whether the vesicles are formed as a result of fluid-phase endocytosis (pinocytosis) and subsequently used to transport fluid to the lumen as one means of increasing transport rate. We used fluorescent fluid-phase markers (Lucifer Yellow Carbohydrazide [LYCH] and Alexa 488 hydrazide) and an electron dense marker (cationized ferritin) to elucidate the degree of endocytosis that occurred with db-cAMP stimulation. We found that, although some fluid is taken into the cells of the mid-tubule via endocytosis, it does not coincide with the level of vacuolation present in stimulated tubules. The amount of LYCH transported into the primary urine by the db-cAMP-stimulated Mt decreased by 40% as compared to the unstimulated transport, and the rate of transport of LYCH was only 30% of the unstimulated tubules. In summary, our findings do not support the theory that the majority of the vesicles or vacuoles comprise intracellular, endocytotic compartments formed via a basolateral endocytotic pathway. We also found no evidence to support the functioning of vesicles or vacuoles as transcellular "shuttling" mechanisms to move fluid from the basal region to the apical membrane and into the lumen. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucose metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Chichger, H.; Cleasby, M.; Srai, S.; Unwin, R.; Debnam, E.; Marks, J.

    2016-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, the influence of metabolic disruption on the expression and function of glucose transporters is largely unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? In vivo models of metabolic disruption (Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rat and junk-food diet) demonstrate increased expression of SGLT1, SGLT2 and GLUT2 in the proximal tubule brush bord...

  2. Uremia induces abnormal oxygen consumption in tubules and aggravates chronic hypoxia of the kidney via oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Fredrik; Nangaku, Masaomi; Fasching, Angelica; Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Nordquist, Lina; Hansell, Peter; Kawakami, Takahisa; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Fujita, Toshiro

    2010-08-01

    In addition to causing uremic symptoms, uremic toxins accelerate the progression of renal failure. To elucidate the pathophysiology of uremic states, we investigated the effect of indoxyl sulfate (IS), a representative uremic toxin, on oxygen metabolism in tubular cells. We demonstrated an increase in oxygen consumption by IS in freshly isolated rat and human proximal tubules. Studies utilizing ouabain, the Na-K-ATPase inhibitor, and apocynin, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, as well as the in vivo gene-silencing approach to knock down p22(phox) showed that the increase in tubular oxygen consumption by IS is dependent on Na-K-ATPase and oxidative stress. We investigated whether the enhanced oxygen consumption led to subsequent hypoxia of the kidney. An increase in serum IS concentrations in rats administered indole was associated with a decrease in renal oxygenation (8 h). The remnant kidney in rats developed hypoxia at 16 wk. Treatment of the rats with AST-120, an oral adsorbent that removes uremic toxins, reduced serum IS levels and improved oxygenation of the kidney. Amelioration of hypoxia in the remnant kidney was associated with better renal functions and less histological injury. Reduction of serum IS levels also led to a decrease in oxidative stress in the kidney. Our ex vivo and in vivo studies implicated that uremic states may deteriorate renal dysfunction via dysregulating oxygen metabolism in tubular cells. The abnormal oxygen metabolism in tubular cells by uremic toxins was, at least in part, mediated by oxidative stress.

  3. PPAR-gamma-independent inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone on glucose synthesis in primary cultured rabbit kidney-cortex tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlacz, Rafal A; Hyc, Karol; Usarek, Michal; Jagielski, Adam K; Drozak, Jakub; Jarzyna, Robert

    2008-10-01

    Therapeutic effect of rosiglitazone has been reported to result from an improvement of insulin sensitivity and inhibition of glucose synthesis. As the latter process occurs in both liver and kidney cortex the aim of this study was to elucidate the rosiglitazone action on glucose formation in both tissues. Primary cultured cells of both liver and kidney cortex grown in defined medium were use throughout. To identify the mechanism responsible for drug-induced changes, intracellular gluconeogenic intermediates and enzyme activities were determined. In contrast to hepatocytes, the administration of a 10 micromol/L concentration of rosiglitazone to renal tubules resulted in about a 70% decrease in the rate of gluconeogenesis, accompanied by an approximately 75% decrease in alanine utilization and a 35% increase in lactate synthesis. The effect of rosiglitazone was not abolished by GW9662, the PPAR-gamma irreversible antagonist, indicating that this action is not dependent on PPAR-gamma activation. In view of rosiglitazone-induced changes in gluconeogenic intermediates and a diminished incorporation of 14CO2 into pyruvate, it is likely that the drug causes a decline in flux through pyruvate carboxylase and (or) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. It is likely that the hypoglycemic action of rosiglitazone is PPAR-gamma independent and results mainly from its inhibitory effects on renal gluconeogenesis.

  4. High expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the kidney proximal tubules of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenghua; Yang, Huayu; Chen, Haiping; Zhang, Mi; Ma, Qing

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) plays important roles in many physiological and pathological processes including diabetic nephropathy (DN), in which a markedly increasing in NGAL levels in patient's serum and urine has been reported. This study investigated the expression of NGAL in the kidney of diabetic rats. Sixty-four Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: non-diabetic control groups and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Relevant indicators were separately evaluated 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after induction of diabetes. In the diabetic groups, urinary NGAL values were markedly increased even before the appearance of pathological albuminuria. Moreover, diabetic rats showed significant upregulation of NGAL mRNA expression starting at week 2 (1.0±0.03 vs. 3.09±0.40, NGAL/β-actin, Pkidney NGAL mRNA and protein levels were increased to 5.95-fold and 1.24-fold of the control groups, respectively. Observable ultrastructural alterations of renal tubules were not detected until week 4, while pathological changes gradually became apparent in the course of the study. Strong positive immunohistochemical staining of NGAL was visualized in the proximal tubular cells of diabetic rats at week 12. High expression of NGAL in the kidney is associated with diabetic kidney injury in STZ rats, suggesting NGAL may play a role in tubular injury of DN. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  5. Fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with renal tubules contributes to renal dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomohisa; Fujimiya, Mineko; Nagaishi, Kanna; Ataka, Koji; Tanaka, Marenao; Yoshida, Hideaki; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2012-04-01

    Although diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease, the mechanism of dysfunction has not yet been clarified. We previously reported that in diabetes proinsulin-producing bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) fuse with hepatocytes and neurons. Fusion cells are polyploidy and produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, ultimately causing diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed whether the same mechanism is involved in DN. We performed bone marrow transplantation from male GFP-Tg mice to female C57BL/6J mice and produced diabetes by streptozotocin (STZ) or a high-fat diet. In diabetic kidneys, massive infiltration of BMDCs and tubulointerstitial injury were prominent. BMDCs and damaged tubular epithelial cells were positively stained with proinsulin and TNF-α. Cell fusion between BMDCs and renal tubules was confirmed by the presence of Y chromosome. Of tubular epithelial cells, 15.4% contain Y chromosomes in STZ-diabetic mice, 8.6% in HFD-diabetic mice, but only 1.5% in nondiabetic mice. Fusion cells primarily expressed TNF-α and caspase-3 in diabetic kidney. These in vivo findings were confirmed by in vitro coculture experiments between isolated renal tubular cells and BMDCs. It was concluded that cell fusion between BMDCs and renal tubular epithelial cells plays a crucial role in DN.

  6. A computationally identified compound antagonizes excess FGF-23 signaling in renal tubules and a mouse model of hypophosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhousheng; Riccardi, Demian; Velazquez, Hector A; Chin, Ai L; Yates, Charles R; Carrick, Jesse D; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome; Quarles, L Darryl

    2016-11-22

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) interacts with a binary receptor complex composed of α-Klotho (α-KL) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) to regulate phosphate and vitamin D metabolism in the kidney. Excess FGF-23 production, which causes hypophosphatemia, is genetically inherited or occurs with chronic kidney disease. Among other symptoms, hypophosphatemia causes vitamin D deficiency and the bone-softening disorder rickets. Current therapeutics that target the receptor complex have limited utility clinically. Using a computationally driven, structure-based, ensemble docking and virtual high-throughput screening approach, we identified four novel compounds predicted to selectively inhibit FGF-23-induced activation of the FGFR/α-KL complex. Additional modeling and functional analysis found that Zinc13407541 bound to FGF-23 and disrupted its interaction with the FGFR1/α-KL complex; experiments in a heterologous cell expression system showed that Zinc13407541 selectivity inhibited α-KL-dependent FGF-23 signaling. Zinc13407541 also inhibited FGF-23 signaling in isolated renal tubules ex vivo and partially reversed the hypophosphatemic effects of excess FGF-23 in a mouse model. These chemical probes provide a platform to develop lead compounds to treat disorders caused by excess FGF-23. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Histological Study of Toxic Effects of Solder Fumes on Thickness of Germinal Epithelium in Seminiferous Tubule in Rat

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    Mohammad Reza Arab

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic fumes generating during soldering contains various contaminants. The aim of the study was to determine toxic effects of solder fumes in thickness of semniferous tubule in Rat. Materials and Methods 48 male adult rats were randomly divided into experimental (n=30 and control (n=18 groups. Based on exposure time, each group was further divided into three subgroups such as 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The concentrations of toxic fumes were measured by standard method. Rats of experimental group were exposed to solder fumes for 1 hour/day. According to time table rats of experimental and control subgroups were killed. After fixation of testis, paraffin sections were stained by Hematoxylin & Eosin. The thicknesses of germinal epithelium were measured and data were analyzed by SPSS software version 17 with Mann Whitney test. Results: The results showed that the concentration of fumes was 0.193 mg/m3 for formaldehyde, 0.35 mg/m3 for Stanum (Sn and 3 mg/m3 for Pb. Although there was no significant difference for weight of rats’ testis between control and experimental subgroups, there was only a significant difference for the thickness of germinal epithelium between 6 week experimental and control subgroups ( p<0.02. Conclusion: The results of study showed that solder fumes can change the structure and thickness of seminiferous epithelium in experimental groups in a time dependent manner.

  8. Construction of bioartificial renal tubule assist device in vitro and its function of transporting sodium and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinggang; Chen, Jianghua; He, Qiang; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Wei

    2009-08-01

    To explore a new way of constructing bioartificial renal tubule assist device (RAD) in vitro and its function of transporting sodium (Na(+)) and glucose and to evaluate the application of atomic force microscope in the RAD construction, rat renal tubular epithelial cell line NRK-52E was cultured in vitro, seeded onto the outer surfaces of hollow fibers in a bioreactor, and then cultured for two weeks to construct RAD. Bioreactor hollow fibers without NRK-52E cells were used as control. The morphologies of attached cells were observed with scanning electron microscope, and the junctions of cells and polysulfone membrane were observed with atomic force microscope. Transportation of Na(+) and glucose was measured. Oubaine and phlorizin were used to inhibit the transporting property. The results showed that NRK-52E cells and polysulfone membrane were closely linked, as observed under atomic force microscope. After exposure to oubaine and phlorizin, transporting rates of Na(+) and glucose were decreased significantly in the RAD group as compared with that in the control group (Pconstructed successfully in vitro, and it is able to selectively transport Na(+) and glucose.

  9. Malpighian Tubule Cells in Overwintering Cave Crickets Troglophilus cavicola (Kollar, 1833) and T. neglectus Krauss, 1879 (Rhaphidophoridae, Ensifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovšek, Saška; Novak, Tone; Janžekovič, Franc; Weiland, Nina; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    During winter, cave cricket larvae undergo dormancy in subterranean habitats; this dormancy is termed diapause in second year Troglophilus cavicola larvae because they mature during this time, and termed quiescence in T. neglectus, because they mature after dormancy. Here we used electron microscopy to analyze ultrastructural changes in the epithelial cells in the Malpighian tubules (MTs) of T. cavicola during diapause, in order to compare them with previous findings on T. neglectus. Moreover, the autophagosomes were studied with immunofluorescence microscopy in both species. Although the basic ultrastructure of the cells was similar, specific differences appeared during overwintering. During this natural starvation period, the nucleus, rER, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria did not show structural changes, and the spherites were exploited. The abundances of autophagic structures in both species increased during overwintering. At the beginning of overwintering, in both species and sexes, the rates of cells with autophagic structures (phagophores, autophagosomes, autolysosomes and residual bodies) were low, while their rates increased gradually towards the end of overwintering. Between sexes, in T. cavicola significant differences were found in the autophagosome abundances in the middle and at the end, and in T. neglectus at the end of overwintering. Females showed higher rates of autophagic cells than males, and these were more abundant in T. cavicola. Thus, autophagic processes in the MT epithelial cells induced by starvation are mostly parallel in diapausing T. cavicola and quiescent T. neglectus, but more intensive in diapausing females.

  10. IGF-II receptors in luminal and basolateral membranes isolated from pars convoluta and pars recta of rabbit proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian; Jessen, H; Flyvbjerg, A

    1995-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor-II (125I-IGF-II) to luminal and basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from pars convoluta and the straight part (pars recta) of rabbit proximal tubule was investigated. Analyses of the binding data by use of the general stoichiometric binding...... equation revealed, that in all preparations IGF-II was bound to one high-affinity binding site and other sites with lower affinities. The specificity of the high-affinity 125I-IGF-II binding to the membrane vesicles assessed by displacement by unlabeled IGF-II, IGF-I and insulin showed that IGF-I displaced...... 125I-IGF-II in the range 22.5-47.9 nM (IC50) whereas insulin did not effect 125I-IGF-II binding at all. beta-Galactosidase inhibited the 125I-IGF-II binding with half-maximal inhibition of 20-30 nM beta-galactosidase. D-Mannose 6-phosphate increased the binding of 125I-IGF-II and reversed...

  11. Comprehensive analyses of how tubule occlusion and advanced glycation end-products diminish strength of aged dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinno, Yuko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Saito, Mitsuru; Uemura, Reo; Arino, Masumi; Marumo, Keishi; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    In clinical dentistry, since fracture is a major cause of tooth loss, better understanding of mechanical properties of teeth structures is important. Dentin, the major hard tissue of teeth, has similar composition to bone. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of human dentin not only in terms of mineral density but also using structural and quality parameters as recently accepted in evaluating bone strength. Aged crown and root dentin (age ≥ 40) exhibited significantly lower flexural strength and toughness than young dentin (age alignment of the c-axis in hydroxyapatite exhibited high fracture strength, possibly because the aligned apatite along the collagen fibrils may reinforce the intertubular dentin. Aged dentin, showing a high advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) level in its collagen, recorded low flexural strength. We first comprehensively identified significant factors, which affected the inferior mechanical properties of aged dentin. The low mechanical strength of aged dentin is caused by the high mineral density resulting from occlusion of dentinal tubules and accumulation of AGEs in dentin collagen.

  12. Physiological Functions and Regulation of the Na+/H+ Exchanger [NHE1] in Renal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G Vallés

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform-1 [NHE1] is a ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane protein that plays a central role in intracellular pH and cell volume homeostasis by catalyzing an electroneutral exchange of extracellular sodium and intracellular hydrogen. Outside of this important physiological function, the NHE1 cytosolic tail domain acts as a molecular scaffold regulating cell survival and actin cytoskeleton organization through NHE1-dependent signaling proteins. NHE1 plays main roles in response to physiological stress conditions which in addition to cell shrinkage and acidification, include hypoxia and mechanical stimuli, such as cell stretch. NHE1-mediated modulation of programmed cell death results from the exchanger-mediated changes in pHi, cell volume, and/or [Na+]I; and, it has recently become known that regulation of cellular signaling pathways are involved as well. This review focuses on NHE1 functions and regulations. We describe evidence showing how these structural actions integrate with ion translocation in regulating renal tubule epithelial cell survival.

  13. Localization of a Drosophila DRIP-like aquaporin in the Malpighian tubules of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

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    Spring, Jeffrey H; Robichaux, S Renee; Kaufmann, Nancy; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2007-09-01

    Malpighian tubules (Mt) are the primary excretory and osmoregulatory organs of insects, capable of rapidly transporting extraordinary volumes of fluid when stimulated by diuretic factors. In the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, the Mt are composed of three morphologically distinct regions (proximal, mid, and distal). Unlike the dipteran Mt, which have both primary and stellate cells, each region of the Acheta Mt consists of a morphologically uniform cell type. The mid and distal regions are both secretory in function and increase secretion rate in response to dibutyryl cAMP (cAMP). Achetakinin-2, while acting synergistically with cAMP on the mid-Mt, inhibits secretion by the distal Mt, and the effects can be reversed by cAMP. Using an antibody to the water-specific Drosophila aquaporin (DRIP), we demonstrated that DRIP-like immunoreactivity was found in both the distal and mid-Mt. The distribution of the aquaporin altered in response to stimulation and was consistent with the secretory data. The regulation of secretion in Acheta Mt is quite different from that of Drosophila, with both cation and anion/water transport occurring in the same cells. This is the first demonstration of the presence of an insect aquaporin, namely DRIP, in the Mt of an order other than the Diptera.

  14. Serotonin has kinin-like activity in stimulating secretion by Malpighian tubules of the house cricket Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Geoffrey

    2011-03-01

    Serotonin stimulates secretion by Malpighian tubules (MT) of a number of insects, and functions as a diuretic hormone in Rhodnius prolixus and in larval Aedes aegypti. Serotonin is here shown to be a potent stimulant of secretion by MT of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, with an apparent EC(50) of 9.4 nmol L(-1), although its diuretic activity is just 25% of the maximum achievable with either the native CRF-related peptide, Achdo-DH, or a crude extract of the corpora cardiaca. In this respect, the diuretic activity of serotonin is similar to that of the cricket kinin Achdo-KI, and when tested together their actions are not additive, which suggests they target the same transport process. Consistent with this suggestion, the activity of serotonin is chloride-dependent and is associated with a non-selective stimulation of NaCl and KCl transport. In common with Achdo-KI, serotonin has no effect on cAMP production by isolated MT, and both act synergistically with exogenous 8bromo-cAMP in stimulating fluid secretion, most likely by promoting the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. A number of serotonin agonists and antagonists were tested to determine the pharmacological profile of receptors on cricket MT. The results are consistent with the diuretic activity of serotonin being mediated through a 5-HT(2)-like receptor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Urinary Excretion of Tetrodotoxin Modeled in a Porcine Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cell Line, LLC-PK1

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    Takuya Matsumoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the urinary excretion of tetrodotoxin (TTX modeled in a porcine renal proximal tubule epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1. Time course profiles of TTX excretion and reabsorption across the cell monolayers at 37 °C showed that the amount of TTX transported increased linearly for 60 min. However, at 4 °C, the amount of TTX transported was approximately 20% of the value at 37 °C. These results indicate that TTX transport is both a transcellular and carrier-mediated process. Using a transport inhibition assay in which cell monolayers were incubated with 50 µM TTX and 5 mM of a transport inhibitor at 37 °C for 30 min, urinary excretion was significantly reduced by probenecid, tetraethylammonium (TEA, l-carnitine, and cimetidine, slightly reduced by p-aminohippuric acid (PAH, and unaffected by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+, oxaliplatin, and cefalexin. Renal reabsorption was significantly reduced by PAH, but was unaffected by probenecid, TEA and l-carnitine. These findings indicate that TTX is primarily excreted by organic cation transporters (OCTs and organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTNs, partially transported by organic anion transporters (OATs and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs, and negligibly transported by multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporters (MATEs.

  16. Acid/base transport in a model of the proximal tubule brush border: impact of carbonic anhydrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, T A; Weinstein, A M

    1996-02-01

    A mathematical model of the brush border of the proximal tubule (T. A. Krahn, P. S. Aronson, and A. M. Weinstein. Bull. Math. Biol, 56: 459-490, 1994) has been extended by the inclusion of CO2 and H2CO3 as diffusible species and by the inclusion of finite rate constants for the hydration of CO2. This permits the simulation of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and its inhibition. We confirm the result of our previous study, which is that, in the presence of CA, the unstirred layer has only a modest effect on the observed formic acid permeability. CA inhibition results in disequilibrium pH gradients, and the effect of these gradients on formic acid permeability depends on the presence of other membrane transport proteins. We also examined the impact of CA activity on the flux of total CO2 through the brush border. Under physiological conditions, CA inhibition depressed NaHCO3 reabsorption through the brush border by interfering with the HCO3(-)-facilitated diffusion of CO2. However, the determination of brush-border CO2 permeability, using an imposed CO2 gradient, was relatively uninfluenced by CA activity. Finally, we inserted a kinetic representation of the Na+/H+ exchanger into the brush-border model. Even when luminal and cytosolic diffusion coefficients were increased 1,000-fold, there was no effect on brush-border Na+ flux. This suggests that variations in the unstirred layer cannot be responsible for the flow dependence of Na+ reabsorption.

  17. Evaluation of “Dream Herb,” Calea zacatechichi, for Nephrotoxicity Using Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Mossoba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent surge in the use of dietary supplements, including herbal remedies, necessitates investigations into their safety profiles. “Dream herb,” Calea zacatechichi, has long been used in traditional folk medicine for a variety of purposes and is currently being marketed in the US for medicinal purposes, including diabetes treatment. Despite the inherent vulnerability of the renal system to xenobiotic toxicity, there is a lack of safety studies on the nephrotoxic potential of this herb. Additionally, the high frequency of diabetes-associated kidney disease makes safety screening of C. zacatechichi for safety especially important. We exposed human proximal tubule HK-2 cells to increasing doses of this herb alongside known toxicant and protectant control compounds to examine potential toxicity effects of C. zacatechichi relative to control compounds. We evaluated both cellular and mitochondrial functional changes related to toxicity of this dietary supplement and found that even at low doses evidence of cellular toxicity was significant. Moreover, these findings correlated with significantly elevated levels of nephrotoxicity biomarkers, lending further support for the need to further scrutinize the safety of this herbal dietary supplement.

  18. Synthesis and secretion of proteins by perifused caput epididymal tubules, and association of secreted proteins with spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinefelter, G.R.; Hamilton, D.W.

    1985-11-01

    We have used perifusion organ culture of proximal and distal caput epididymal tubules of the rat to study the secretion of proteins by epididymal epithelium and uptake of the luminal radioactive proteins by sperm. The amount of incorporation of L-(35S)methionine into luminal fluid proteins was time dependent and completely inhibited by cycloheximide. The association of labeled proteins with cultured sperm was also dependent on time and continuous, with sperm still acquiring labeled luminal proteins after protein synthesis was arrested. A Mr = 46,000 molecule was found to be heavily labeled in luminal fluid and sperm extracts. Fluorograms of all L-(35S)methionine extracts immunoprecipitated using an antiepididymal alpha-lactalbumin antibody (Klinefelter and Hamilton, 1984) showed labeling of an Mr = 18,000 molecule and, in addition, the Mr = 46,000 molecule, but immunostaining was specific only for the Mr = 18,000 molecule and the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin. We suggest that the Mr = 46,000 molecule may be galactosyltransferase. Galactose oxidase-NaB(3H)4 labeling of the cultured caput sperm cell surface revealed a Mr = 23,000 molecule that was able to be immunoprecipitated with antiepididymal alpha-lactalbumin antibody. Our data suggest that this cell surface molecule is similar to one component of the fluid epididymal alpha-lactalbumin-like complex and, in addition, show that glycosylation of the sperm surface can occur in the caput epididymidis.

  19. WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Is Required for Integration of CD24+ Renal Progenitor Cells into Glycerol-Damaged Adult Renal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Iglesias, Diana M; Corsini, Rachel; Chu, LeeLee; Goodyer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    During development, nephron progenitor cells (NPC) are induced to differentiate by WNT9b signals from the ureteric bud. Although nephrogenesis ends in the perinatal period, acute kidney injury (AKI) elicits repopulation of damaged nephrons. Interestingly, embryonic NPC infused into adult mice with AKI are incorporated into regenerating tubules. Since WNT/β-catenin signaling is crucial for primary nephrogenesis, we reasoned that it might also be needed for the endogenous repair mechanism and for integration of exogenous NPC. When we examined glycerol-induced AKI in adult mice bearing a β-catenin/TCF reporter transgene, endogenous tubular cells reexpressed the NPC marker, CD24, and showed widespread β-catenin/TCF signaling. We isolated CD24+ cells from E15 kidneys of mice with the canonical WNT signaling reporter. 40% of cells responded to WNT3a in vitro and when infused into glycerol-injured adult, the cells exhibited β-catenin/TCF reporter activity when integrated into damaged tubules. When embryonic CD24+ cells were treated with a β-catenin/TCF pathway inhibitor (IWR-1) prior to infusion into glycerol-injured mice, tubular integration of cells was sharply reduced. Thus, the endogenous canonical β-catenin/TCF pathway is reactivated during recovery from AKI and is required for integration of exogenous embryonic renal progenitor cells into damaged tubules. These events appear to recapitulate the WNT-dependent inductive process which drives primary nephrogenesis.

  20. Assessment of the effect of 24-hour aldosterone administration on protein abundance in fluorescence-sorted mouse distal renal tubules by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Thomas B; Pisitkun, Trairak; Hoffert, Jason D; Jensen, Uffe B; Fenton, Robert A; Praetorius, Helle A; Knepper, Mark A; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    Aldosterone exerts multiple long-term effects on the distal renal tubules. The aim of this study was to establish a method for identifying proteins in these tubules that change in abundance by only 24-hour aldosterone administration. Mice endogenously expressing green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting ducts were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 2.0 mg/kg aldosterone or vehicle (n = 5), and sacrificed 24 h later. Suspensions of single cells were obtained enzymatically, and eGFP-positive cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Samples of 100 µg of proteins were digested with trypsin and labeled with 8-plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation reagents and processed for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). FACS yielded 1.4 million cells per mouse. The LC-MS/MS spectra were matched to peptides by the SEQUEST search algorithm, which identified 3,002 peptides corresponding to 506 unique proteins, of which 20 significantly changed abundance 24 h after aldosterone injection. We find the method suitable and useful for studying hormonal effects on protein abundance in distal tubular segments. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Penetration Depth of Sodium Hypochlorite in Dentinal Tubules after Conventional Irrigation, Passive Ultrasonic Agitation and Nd:YAG Laser Activated Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Sohrabi, Khosro; Chiniforush, Nasim; Ghafari, Sarvenaz; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Noroozi, Niusha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The penetration depth of irrigating solutions in dentinal tubules is limited; consequently, bacteria can remain inside dentinal tubules after the cleaning and shaping of the root canal system. Therefore, new irrigation systems are required to increase the penetration depth of irrigating solutions in dentinal tubules. Methods: A comparative study regarding the penetration depth of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution in dentinal tubules using four methods, (1) conventional irrigation (CI), (2) smear layer removal plus conventional irrigation (gold standard), (3) passive ultrasonic agitation (PUA) and (4) Nd:YAG laser activated irrigation (LAI), took place on 144 extracted mandibular teeth with a single root canal. After decoronation with a diamond disc and working length determination, the apical foramen was sealed with wax. The canals were prepared up to #35 Mtwo rotary file and 5.25% NaOCl was used for irrigation during preparation. To study the penetration depth of NaOCl, smear layer was eliminated in all samples. Dentinal tubules were stained with crystal violet and after longitudinal sectioning of teeth, the two halves were reassembled and root canal preparation was performed up to #40 Mtwo rotary file. Then the samples were distributed into four experimental groups. Depth of the bleached zone was evaluated by stereomicroscope (20X). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The highest and lowest average for NaOCl penetration depth in all three coronal, middle and apical sections belonged to CI + smear layer removal and CI. A statistically significant difference was seen when comparing the penetration depth of CI + smear layer removal group to CI and PUA groups in coronal and middle third, in which the average NaOCl penetration depth of the gold standard group was higher (P < 0.05). A statistically significant difference was seen between CI + smear layer removal group and the other three groups including CI, PUA and LAI in apical third

  2. A de novo transcriptome of the Malpighian tubules in non-blood-fed and blood-fed Asian tiger mosquitoes Aedes albopictus: insights into diuresis, detoxification, and blood meal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Carlos J; Cassone, Bryan J; Piermarini, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Background. In adult female mosquitoes, the renal (Malpighian) tubules play an important role in the post-prandial diuresis, which removes excess ions and water from the hemolymph of mosquitoes following a blood meal. After the post-prandial diuresis, the roles that Malpighian tubules play in the processing of blood meals are not well described. Methods. We used a combination of next-generation sequencing (paired-end RNA sequencing) and physiological/biochemical assays in adult female Asian tiger mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus) to generate molecular and functional insights into the Malpighian tubules and how they may contribute to blood meal processing (3-24 h after blood ingestion). Results/Discussion. Using RNA sequencing, we sequenced and assembled the first de novo transcriptome of Malpighian tubules from non-blood-fed (NBF) and blood-fed (BF) mosquitoes. We identified a total of 8,232 non-redundant transcripts. The Malpighian tubules of NBF mosquitoes were characterized by the expression of transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis (e.g., ion transporters, water channels, V-type H(+)-ATPase subunits), xenobiotic detoxification (e.g., cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, ATP-binding cassette transporters), and purine metabolism (e.g., xanthine dehydrogenase). We also detected the expression of transcripts encoding sodium calcium exchangers, G protein coupled-receptors, and septate junctional proteins not previously described in mosquito Malpighian tubules. Within 24 h after a blood meal, transcripts associated with active transepithelial fluid secretion/diuresis exhibited a general downregulation, whereas those associated with xenobiotic detoxification and purine catabolism exhibited a general upregulation, suggesting a reinvestment of the Malpighian tubules' molecular resources from diuresis to detoxification. Physiological and biochemical assays were conducted in mosquitoes and isolated Malpighian tubules

  3. Oxidative stress increases megalin expression in the renal proximal tubules during the normoalbuminuric stage of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Yoshifumi; Imoto, Akemi; Kawakami, Fumitaka; Yokoba, Masanori; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Ichikawa, Takafumi; Katagiri, Masato; Ishii, Naohito

    2018-03-01

    Megalin, an endocytic receptor expressed in proximal tubule cells, plays a critical role in renal tubular protein reabsorption and is associated with the albuminuria observed in diabetic nephropathy. We have previously reported increased oxidant production in the renal cortex during the normoalbuminuric stage of diabetes mellitus (DM); however, the relationship between oxidative stress and renal megalin expression during the normoalbuminuric stage of DM remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated whether oxidative stress affects megalin expression in the normoalbuminuric stage of DM in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model and in immortalized human proximal tubular cells (HK-2). We demonstrated that increased expression of renal megalin accompanies oxidative stress during the early stage of DM, before albuminuria development. Telmisartan treatment prevented the diabetes-induced elevation in megalin level, possibly through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. In HK-2 cells, hydrogen peroxide significantly increased megalin levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner; however, the elevation in megalin expression was decreased following prolonged exposure to severe oxidative stress induced by 0.4 mmol/l hydrogen peroxide. High-glucose treatment also significantly increased megalin expression in HK-2 cells. Concurrent administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine blocked the effects of high glucose on megalin expression. Furthermore, the hydrogen peroxide-induced increase in megalin expression was blocked by treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt inhibitors. Increase of phosphorylated Akt expression was also seen in the renal cortex of diabetic rats. Taken together, our results indicate that mild oxidative stress increases renal megalin expression through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway in the normoalbuminuric stage of DM.

  4. Cadmium chloride inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human renal proximal tubules: a cellular metabolomic approach with 13C-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Hassan; Conjard-Duplany, Agnès; Boghossian, Michelle; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Ferrier, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    As part of a study on cadmium nephrotoxicity, we studied the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in isolated human renal proximal tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. Dose-effect experiments showed that 10-500 μM CdCl2 reduced lactate removal, glucose production and the cellular levels of ATP, coenzyme A, acetyl-coenzyme A and of reduced glutathione in a dose-dependent manner. After incubation with 5 mM L: -[1-(13)C]-, or L: -[2-(13)C]-, or L: -[3-(13)C] lactate or 5 mM L: -lactate plus 25 mM NaH(13)CO3 as substrates, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by both enzymatic and carbon 13 NMR methods. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism previously validated showed that 100 μM CdCl2 caused an inhibition of flux through lactate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase and through the entire gluconeogenic pathway; fluxes were diminished by 19% (lactate dehydrogenase), 28% (alanine aminotransferase), 28% (pyruvate carboxylase), 42% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 52% (glucose-6-phosphatase). Such effects occurred without altering the oxidation of the lactate carbons or fluxes through enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle despite a large fall of the cellular ATP level, a marker of the energy status and of the viability of the renal cells. These results that were observed at clinically relevant tissue concentrations of cadmium provide a biochemical basis for a better understanding of the cellular mechanism of cadmium-induced renal proximal tubulopathy in humans chronically exposed to cadmium.

  5. Uroguanylin inhibits H-ATPase activity and surface expression in renal distal tubules by a PKG-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Lima, Vanessa; Crajoinas, Renato O; Carraro-Lacroix, Luciene R; Godinho, Alana N; Dias, João L G; Dariolli, Rafael; Girardi, Adriana C C; Fonteles, Manassés C; Malnic, Gerhard; Lessa, Lucília M A

    2014-09-15

    Cumulative evidence suggests that guanylin peptides play an important role on electrolyte homeostasis. We have previously reported that uroguanylin (UGN) inhibits bicarbonate reabsorption in a renal distal tubule. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the bicarbonaturic effect of UGN is at least in part attributable to inhibition of H(+)-ATPase-mediated hydrogen secretion in the distal nephron. By in vivo stationary microperfusion experiments, we were able to show that UGN inhibits H(+)-ATPase activity by a PKG-dependent pathway because KT5823 (PKG inhibitor) abolished the UGN effect on distal bicarbonate reabsorption and H89 (PKA inhibitor) was unable to prevent it. The in vivo results were confirmed by the in vitro experiments, where we used fluorescence microscopy to measure intracellular pH (pHi) recovery after an acid pulse with NH4Cl. By this technique, we observed that UGN and 8 bromoguanosine-cGMP (8Br-cGMP) inhibited H(+)-ATPase-dependent pHi recovery and that the UGN inhibitory effect was abolished in the presence of the PKG inhibitor. In addition, by using RT-PCR technique, we verified that Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-C11 cells express guanylate cyclase-C. Besides, UGN stimulated an increase of both cGMP content and PKG activity but was unable to increase the production of cellular cAMP content and PKA activity. Furthermore, we found that UGN reduced cell surface abundance of H+-ATPase B1 subunit in MDCK-C11 and that this effect was abolished by the PKG inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggest that UGN inhibits H(+)-ATPase activity and surface expression in renal distal cells by a cGMP/PKG-dependent pathway. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Comparisons of the Retreatment Efficacy of Calcium Silicate and Epoxy Resin-based Sealers and Residual Sealer in Dentinal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsuk; Kim, Euiseong; Lee, Seung-Jong; Shin, Su-Jung

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the retreatment efficacy and amount of residual sealer in a single canal filled with either EndoSequence BC (Brasseler, Savannah, GA) or AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany). Canal obturation with gutta-percha and sealer was performed in 28 human teeth using the continuous wave technique. Group 1 (n = 13) used AH Plus sealer, and group 2 (n = 15) used EndoSequence BC sealer. After 7 days, the root fillings were removed using Gates Glidden drills and a nickel-titanium rotary system. Retreatment time was measured in seconds. Canal cleanliness was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The remaining debris in the canal space and penetration into dentinal tubules were evaluated by confocal microscopy. Retreatment time was compared using the Student t test, and differences in sealer penetration and remaining debris between the groups were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (P < .05). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the amount of dentin penetration, amount of debris, or retreatment time. With respect to penetration depth, the AH Plus group showed a slightly higher percentage than the BC group, with a significant difference only in the portion 6 mm from the apex (P < .05). Scanning electron microscopic images showed significant debris remaining on canal walls in both groups, whereas canal patency in retreatment was achieved in every specimen. The present study shows that EndoSequence BC sealer and AH Plus sealer have similar efficacy in dentin penetration and retreatment efficacy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Signaling cascade of insulin-induced stimulation of L-dopa uptake in renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Andrea; Musolino, Patricia L; Villar, Marcelo; Nowicki, Susana

    2008-12-01

    The inward l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) transport supplies renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs) with the precursor for dopamine synthesis. We have previously described insulin-induced stimulation of L-dopa uptake into PTCs. In the present paper we examined insulin-related signaling pathways involved in the increase of l-dopa transport into isolated rat PTCs. Insulin (50-500 microU/ml) increased L-dopa uptake by PTCs, reaching the maximal increment (60% over the control) at 200 microU/ml. At this concentration, insulin also increased insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Both effects were abrogated by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein (5 microM). In line, inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphatase by pervanadate (0.2-100 microM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in both the uptake of L-dopa (up to 400%) and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. A synergistic effect between pervanadate and insulin on L-dopa uptake was observed only when threshold (0.2 microM), but not maximal (5 microM), concentrations of pervanadate were assayed. Insulin-induced stimulation of L-dopa uptake was also abolished by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K; 100 nM wortmannin, and 25 microM LY-294002) and protein kinase C (PKC; 1 microM RO-318220). Insulin-induced activation of PKC-zeta was confirmed in vitro by its translocation from the cytosol to the membrane fraction, and in vivo by immunohistochemistry studies. Insulin caused a wortmannin-sensitive increase in Akt/protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) phosphorylation and a dose-dependent translocation of Akt/PKB to the membrane fraction. Our findings suggest that insulin activates PKC-zeta, and Akt/PKB downstream of PI3K, and that these pathways contribute to the insulin-induced increase of L-dopa uptake into PTCs.

  8. Superresolution microscope image reconstruction by spatiotemporal object decomposition and association: application in resolving t-tubule structure in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhai; Huang, Jiaqing; Bunyak, Filiz; Gumpper, Kristyn; De, Gejing; Sermersheim, Matthew; Liu, George; Lin, Pei-Hui; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Ma, Jianjie

    2014-05-19

    One key factor that limits resolution of single-molecule superresolution microscopy relates to the localization accuracy of the activated emitters, which is usually deteriorated by two factors. One originates from the background noise due to out-of-focus signals, sample auto-fluorescence, and camera acquisition noise; and the other is due to the low photon count of emitters at a single frame. With fast acquisition rate, the activated emitters can last multiple frames before they transiently switch off or permanently bleach. Effectively incorporating the temporal information of these emitters is critical to improve the spatial resolution. However, majority of the existing reconstruction algorithms locate the emitters frame by frame, discarding or underusing the temporal information. Here we present a new image reconstruction algorithm based on tracklets, short trajectories of the same objects. We improve the localization accuracy by associating the same emitters from multiple frames to form tracklets and by aggregating signals to enhance the signal to noise ratio. We also introduce a weighted mean-shift algorithm (WMS) to automatically detect the number of modes (emitters) in overlapping regions of tracklets so that not only well-separated single emitters but also individual emitters within multi-emitter groups can be identified and tracked. In combination with a maximum likelihood estimator method (MLE), we are able to resolve low to medium density of overlapping emitters with improved localization accuracy. We evaluate the performance of our method with both synthetic and experimental data, and show that the tracklet-based reconstruction is superior in localization accuracy, particularly for weak signals embedded in a strong background. Using this method, for the first time, we resolve the transverse tubule structure of the mammalian skeletal muscle.

  9. Intracellular Na+, K+ and Cl- activities in Acheta domesticus Malpighian tubules and the response to a diuretic kinin neuropeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Geoffrey M

    2012-08-15

    The mechanism of primary urine production and the activity of a diuretic kinin, Achdo-KII, were investigated in malpighian tubules of Acheta domesticus by measuring intracellular Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) activities, basolateral membrane voltage (V(b)), fluid secretion and transepithelial ion transport. Calculated electrochemical gradients for K(+) and Cl(-) across the basolateral membrane show they are actively transported into principal cells, and basolateral Ba(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels do not contribute to net transepithelial K(+) transport and fluid secretion. A basolateral Cl(-) conductance was revealed after the blockade of K(+) channels with Ba(2+), and a current carried by the passive outward movement of Cl(-) accounts for the hyperpolarization of V(b) in response to Ba(2+). Ion uptake via Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransport, driven by the inwardly directed Na(+) electrochemical gradient, is thermodynamically feasible, and is consistent with the actions of bumetanide, which reduces fluid secretion and both Na(+) and K(+) transport. The Na(+) gradient is maintained by its extrusion across the apical membrane and by a basolateral ouabain-sensitive Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Achdo-KII has no significant effect on the intracellular ion activities or V(b). Electrochemical gradients across the apical membrane were estimated from previously published values for the levels of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) in the secreted fluid. The electrochemical gradient for Cl(-) favours passive movement into the lumen, but falls towards zero after stimulation by Achdo-KII. This coincides with a twofold increase in Cl(-) transport, which is attributed to the opening of an apical Cl(-) conductance, which depolarises the apical membrane voltage.

  10. Interactive toxicity of inorganic mercury and trichloroethylene in rat and human proximal tubules: Effects on apoptosis, necrosis, and glutathione status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, Lawrence H.; Putt, David A.; Hueni, Sarah E.; Payton, Scott G.; Zwickl, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous or prior exposure to one chemical may alter the concurrent or subsequent response to another chemical, often in unexpected ways. This is particularly true when the two chemicals share common mechanisms of action. The present study uses the paradigm of prior exposure to study the interactive toxicity between inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and trichloroethylene (TRI) or its metabolite S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) in rat and human proximal tubule. Pretreatment of rats with a subtoxic dose of Hg 2+ increased expression of glutathione S-transferase-α1 (GSTα1) but decreased expression of GSTα2, increased activities of several GSH-dependent enzymes, and increased GSH conjugation of TRI. Primary cultures of rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells exhibited both necrosis and apoptosis after incubation with Hg 2+ . Pretreatment of human proximal tubular (hPT) cells with Hg 2+ caused little or no changes in GST expression or activities of GSH-dependent enzymes, decreased apoptosis induced by TRI or DCVC, but increased necrosis induced by DCVC. In contrast, pretreatment of hPT cells with TRI or DCVC protected from Hg 2+ by decreasing necrosis and increasing apoptosis. Thus, whereas pretreatment of hPT cells with Hg 2+ exacerbated cellular injury due to TRI or DCVC by shifting the response from apoptosis to necrosis, pretreatment of hPT cells with either TRI or DCVC protected from Hg 2+ -induced cytotoxicity by shifting the response from necrosis to apoptosis. These results demonstrate that by altering processes related to GSH status, susceptibilities of rPT and hPT cells to acute injury from Hg 2+ , TRI, or DCVC are markedly altered by prior exposures

  11. Gestational Undernourishment Modifies the Composition of Skeletal Muscle Transverse Tubule Membranes and the Mechanical Properties of Muscles in Newborn Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tonathiu Ramírez-Oseguera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud/Aims: Skeletal muscle (SM constitutes more than 40% of the body weight in adulthood. Transports dietary glucose mainly through the insulin-dependent glucose transporter (Glut-4 located in the Transverse tubule membrane system (TT. The TT development ends shortly after birth. The TT membrane hosts the proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling and glucose uptake. Glycaemic regulation through movement is a key function of fully developed skeletal muscle. In this study, we aimed to characterize the effect of gestational undernourishment (GUN in rats GLUT-4 expression and on the protein/lipid content of the TT membranes. We also examined the effect of GUN on the mechanical properties of muscles as an indication of the metabolic condition of the SM at birth. Methods: Isolated TT membrane from SM of GUN rats were used to study lipid/protein content and protein stability by differential scanning calorimetry. The effect of GUN on the SM mechanical properties was determined in isolated Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL muscle. Results: We demonstrate that compared to control, GUN in the new-born produces; i decreases body weight; ii diminution in SM mass; iii decreases the formation of TT membranes; iv expresses TT membrane proteins with higher thermal stability. The TT membrane expression of GLUT-4 in GUN offspring was twice that of controls. The isolated EDL of GUN offspring was 20% stronger as measured by contractile force and more resistant to fatigue relative to controls. Conclusion; These results provide the first evidence of adaptive changes of the SM in new-borns exposed to severe gestational food restriction. The effects of GUN on muscle at birth are the first step toward detrimental SM metabolic function, contributing to the physiopathology of metabolic diseases in adulthood.

  12. Influence of extracellular HCO3- and pH on lysine (LYS) and leucine (LEU) uptake and metabolism in swine renal tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patience, J.F.; Esteve-Garcia, E.; Austic, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fragments of renal tubules prepared by collagenase treatment of renal cortex were suspended to Krebs-Henseleit buffers which were modified to contain 10, 25 and 35 mM HCO 3 - at pH 7.4, or 25 mM HCO 3 - at pH 7.1, 7.4 and 7.7. Buffers were oxygenated with O 2 -CO 2 gas mixtures varying in carbon dioxide concentration prior to incubation. Approximately 100 mg tubules were incubated with shaking at 37 0 C for 30 min in serum-stoppered 25 ml Erlenmeyer flasks in 3.0 ml of buffer containing 0.1% dialyzed bovine serum albumin, 5 mM D-glucose and 0.3 mM L-[U- 14 C]-lysine or L-[1- 14 C]-leucine. The incorporation of carbon-14 into CO 2 and into 10% sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-soluble and SSA-insoluble fractions of the incubation mixture was determined. Low (10mM) bicarbonate reduced the incorporation of lys and leu into protein but did not substantially affect the recovery of 14 CO 2 from either amino acid. High pH (7.7) resulted in reduced incorporation of lys and leu into protein, and decreased the oxidation of lys but not leu. The specific activity of lys (leu was not determined) in the SSA-soluble fraction was unaffected by bicarbonate or pH. The authors conclude that variations in extracellular pH and HCO 3 - (or pCO 2 ) affect the metabolism of amino acids by renal tubules and that low extracellular HCO 3 - (or pCO 2 ) may depress the incorporation of amino acids into protein

  13. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling to predict concentrations and actions of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin in human intestines and renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazumi; Saito, Ryuta; Nakamaru, Yoshinobu; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Canagliflozin is a recently developed sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor that promotes renal glucose excretion and is considered to inhibit renal SGLT2 from the luminal side of proximal tubules. Canagliflozin reportedly inhibits SGLT1 weakly and suppresses postprandial plasma glucose, suggesting that it also inhibits intestinal SGLT1. However, it is difficult to measure the drug concentrations of these assumed sites of action directly. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships of canagliflozin remain poorly characterized. Therefore, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of canagliflozin was developed based on clinical data from healthy volunteers and it was used to simulate luminal concentrations in intestines and renal tubules. In small intestine simulations, the inhibition ratios for SGLT1 were predicted to be 40%-60% after the oral administration of clinical doses (100-300 mg/day). In contrast, inhibition ratios of canagliflozin for renal SGLT2 and SGLT1 were predicted to be approximately 100% and 0.2%-0.4%, respectively. These analyses suggest that canagliflozin only inhibits SGLT2 in the kidney. Using the simulated proximal tubule luminal concentrations of canagliflozin, the urinary glucose excretion rates in canagliflozin-treated diabetic patients were accurately predicted using the renal glucose reabsorption model as a PD model. Because the simulation of canagliflozin pharmacokinetics was successful, this PBPK methodology was further validated by successfully simulating the pharmacokinetics of dapagliflozin, another SGLT2 inhibitor. The present results suggest the utility of this PBPK/PD model for predicting canagliflozin concentrations at target sites and help to elucidate the pharmacological effects of SGLT1/2 inhibition in humans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The effect of final irrigation on the penetrability of an epoxy resin-based sealer into dentinal tubules: a confocal microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Alexander Pompermayer; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Wagner, Márcia; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of QMix, BioPure MTAD, 17 % EDTA, and saline on the penetrability of a resin-based sealer into dentinal tubules using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and to describe the cleaning of root canal walls by SEM. Eighty distobuccal roots from upper molars were selected and randomly divided into four groups (n = 20) before root canal preparation according to the solution used in the final rinse protocol (FRP): QG (QMix), MG (BioPure MTAD), EG (17 % EDTA), and CG (control group: saline). Ten roots of each group were prepared for SEM, and images (×2000) from the canal walls were acquired. The remaining canals were filled with a single gutta-percha cone and AH Plus with 0.1 % Rhodamine B. The specimens were horizontally sectioned at 4 mm from the apex, and the slices were analyzed in CLSM (×10). Sealer penetration was analyzed with Adobe Photoshop software. QG and EG presented similar amounts of sealer penetration (P > .05). MG and CG presented the lowest penetrability values (P < .05). The best results for smear layer removal of the apical third of the root canal were achieved by the QG and EG groups when compared with MG and CG (P < .05). Seventeen percent EDTA and QMix promoted sealer penetration superior to that achieved by BioPure MTAD and saline. Despite studies have not confirmed the relationship between sealing ability of endodontic sealers and their penetration in dentinal tubules, sealer penetration assumes importance, since endodontic sealers, unlike gutta-percha, are able to penetrate in dentinal tubules, isthmus, and accessory canals, filling the root canal system.

  15. 'Special K' and a Loss of Cell-To-Cell Adhesion in Proximal Tubule-Derived Epithelial Cells: Modulation of the Adherens Junction Complex by Ketamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Claire E.; Jin, Tianrong; Siamantouras, Eleftherios; Liu, Issac K-K; Jefferson, Kieran P.; Squires, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine, a mild hallucinogenic class C drug, is the fastest growing ‘party drug’ used by 16–24 year olds in the UK. As the recreational use of Ketamine increases we are beginning to see the signs of major renal and bladder complications. To date however, we know nothing of a role for Ketamine in modulating both structure and function of the human renal proximal tubule. In the current study we have used an established model cell line for human epithelial cells of the proximal