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Sample records for tsetse reproductive fitness

  1. Transcriptome analysis of reproductive tissue and intrauterine developmental stages of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yineng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tsetse flies, vectors of African trypanosomes, undergo viviparous reproduction (the deposition of live offspring. This reproductive strategy results in a large maternal investment and the deposition of a small number of progeny during a female's lifespan. The reproductive biology of tsetse has been studied on a physiological level; however the molecular analysis of tsetse reproduction requires deeper investigation. To build a foundation from which to base molecular studies of tsetse reproduction, a cDNA library was generated from female tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans reproductive tissues and the intrauterine developmental stages. 3438 expressed sequence tags were sequenced and analyzed. Results Analysis of a nonredundant catalogue of 1391 contigs resulted in 520 predicted proteins. 475 of these proteins were full length. We predict that 412 of these represent cytoplasmic proteins while 57 are secreted. Comparison of these proteins with other tissue specific tsetse cDNA libraries (salivary gland, fat body/milk gland, and midgut identified 51 that are unique to the reproductive/immature cDNA library. 11 unique proteins were homologus to uncharacterized putative proteins within the NR database suggesting the identification of novel genes associated with reproductive functions in other insects (hypothetical conserved. The analysis also yielded seven putative proteins without significant homology to sequences present in the public database (unknown genes. These proteins may represent unique functions associated with tsetse's viviparous reproductive cycle. RT-PCR analysis of hypothetical conserved and unknown contigs was performed to determine basic tissue and stage specificity of the expression of these genes. Conclusion This paper identifies 51 putative proteins specific to a tsetse reproductive/immature EST library. 11 of these proteins correspond to hypothetical conserved genes and 7 proteins are tsetse specific.

  2. A farewell to tsetse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The tsetse fly, a blood sucking insect which transmits a lethal disease, Trypanosomiasis, to animals and people, is found in vast areas of Africa. A promising method to get rid of this pest is the sterile insect technique where millions of sterile but competitive male flies break the reproductive cycle. This technique was successfully used on the island of Zanzibar for the eradication of tsetse fly in 1996

  3. Mycetomes and symbionts of tsetse flies maintained on a membrane feeding system and the agents interfering with natural reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldan, T.; Matha, V.; Weyda, F.

    1990-01-01

    Mycetomes from male and female adults and puparia of Glossina palpalis palpalis were dissected from specimens obtained from the IAEA Laboratory at Seibersdorf, Austria. The structure and ultrastructure of the mycetocytes and endosymbionts and their quantitative changes are described and compared with other species of tsetse fly. Pronounced degenerative morphological changes can be caused by, among other factors, starvation. Irradiation by gamma rays produced only slight structural changes and non-significant changes in the endosymbiont number. In organ culture (Leibowitz medium), mycetomes of unfed females release spherical clusters of mycetocytes and lose their dense cover of microvilli. The ultrastructural changes of individual endosymbionts under these conditions are described in detail. The results of basic bioassays showing intensive DNA synthesis and in vitro production of several de novo synthesized proteins of molecular weights of 52-159 kilodalton are given. The possible role of endosymbionts in reproduction and their transmission to the offspring are discussed. While the necessity of a functional mycetome in females can, at least partially, be explained by the production of proteins necessary for reproduction, the role of the mycetome in males remains unclear. The function of the tsetse fly mycetome is shown to be much more complex than earlier supposed and further detailed data on its reproductive function are needed. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs

  4. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  5. Africa and the tsetse fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  6. Differential fitness costs of reproduction between the sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Dustin J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2006-01-01

    Natural selection does not necessarily favor maximal reproduction because reproduction imposes fitness costs, reducing parental survival, and offspring quality. Here, we show that parents in a preindustrial population in North America incurred fitness costs from reproduction, and women incurred greater costs than men. We examined the survivorship and reproductive success (Darwinian fitness) of 21,684 couples married between 1860 and 1895 identified in the Utah Population Database. We found th...

  7. Sterility induction in tsetse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C F [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK); Langley, P A [Bristol Univ. (UK)

    1982-01-01

    The first laboratory and field experiments on genetic control were with tsetse flies, and they made use of the sterility in crosses and hybrids between closely related species of the Glossina morsitans complex. Backcrosses indicate that there are two separate sterility mechanisms involved: (a) genetic incompatibility between a mother and the products of alien genes in the embryo or larva in the uterus; (b) inability of hybrid males to inseminate due to incompatibility of their X-chromosomes with an alien Y or autosomes. The two largest sterile male release programmes have been in Tanzania and Upper Volta, and have used irradiation at the pupal or adult stage, respectively, for the production of sterility. Male tsetse are remarkably resistant to radiosterilization and, with the doses required to induce dominant lethals in more than 95% of sperms, premature senescence and lethargic behaviour of the males tends to result. With G. morsitans irradiated at the puparial stage these effects can be alleviated by the use of a nitrogen atmosphere during irradiation. If the puparia are then transferred to air at 11/sup 0/C for transport to the release site, immediate emergence occurs on re-warming after arrival. This advantageous procedure was used for the releases in Tanzania. In addition to dominant lethals, irradiation also produces chromosome translocations which cause inherited partial sterility. A homozygous translocation line was selected but this example did not have sufficient fitness to be used in a mass rearing programme. Chemosterilants can be applied by pupal dipping, adult contact with deposits or in aerosols. Studies are now in progress on their use in association with odour-baited traps or pheromone-baited decoys as a means of sterilizing the wild population and thus avoiding the costly and difficult process of mass rearing tsetse.

  8. Tsetse eradication: Zanzibar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) continue to make livestock production difficult or impossible throughout a very large part of Africa. One of the most promising techniques for eradicating tsetse from certain locations is the environmentally safe Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). In collaboration with the Tanzanian authorities, the Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate tsetse from Zanzibar using the SIT. (IAEA)

  9. Sex recombination, and reproductive fitness: an experimental study using Paramecium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, D.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of sex and recombination on reproductive fitness are measured using five wild stocks of Paramecium primaurelia. Among the wild stocks there were highly significant differences in growth rates. No hybrid had as low a fitness as the least fit parental stock. Recombination produced genotypes of higher fitness than those of either parent only in the cross between the two stocks of lowest fitness. The increase in variance of fitness as a result of recombination was almost exclusively attributable to the generation lines with low fitness. The fitness consequences of sexuality and mate choice were stock specific; some individuals leaving the most descendants by inbreeding, others by outcrossing. For most crosses the short-term advantage of sex, if any, accrue from the fusion of different gametes (hybrid vigor) and not from recombination. Since the homozygous genotype with the highest fitnes left the most progeny by inbreeding (no recombination), the persistence of conjugation in P. primaurelia is paradoxical. (JMT)

  10. Corticosterone-mediated reproductive decisions: sex allocation, the cost of reproduction and maternal fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Oliver P.

    2007-01-01

    Managing reproductive investment within the scope of an individual’s energetic condition is required to maximize fitness. To be successful, individuals must make the correct decisions about when to reproduce, when to abandon an attempt, how many resources to invest in current and future attempts and where those resources should be allocated. These reproductive decisions therefore involve complex life-history trade-offs between an individual’s condition and current reproduction, future reprodu...

  11. Toxoplasma gondii decreases the reproductive fitness in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Šídlová, A.; Děd, Lukáš; Hladovcová, D.; Vieweg, M.; Weidner, W.; Steger, K.; Stopka, P.; Paradowska-Dogan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), s. 1-11 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Toxoplasma gondii * reproductive fitness * DNA methylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  12. Cross-Generational Reproductive Fitness Enforced by Microchimeric Maternal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Jeremy M; Jiang, Tony T; Ertelt, James M; Xin, Lijun; Strong, Beverly S; Shaaban, Aimen F; Way, Sing Sing

    2015-07-30

    Exposure to maternal tissue during in utero development imprints tolerance to immunologically foreign non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA) that persists into adulthood. The biological advantage of this tolerance, conserved across mammalian species, remains unclear. Here, we show maternal cells that establish microchimerism in female offspring during development promote systemic accumulation of immune suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) with NIMA specificity. NIMA-specific Tregs expand during pregnancies sired by males expressing alloantigens with overlapping NIMA specificity, thereby averting fetal wastage triggered by prenatal infection and non-infectious disruptions of fetal tolerance. Therefore, exposure to NIMA selectively enhances reproductive success in second-generation females carrying embryos with overlapping paternally inherited antigens. These findings demonstrate that genetic fitness, canonically thought to be restricted to Mendelian inheritance, is enhanced in female placental mammals through vertically transferred maternal cells that promote conservation of NIMA and enforce cross-generational reproductive benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The video gives general information on the reproductive anatomy and the reproductive cycles of tsetse flies, shows in detail the steps to make a membrane for food supply of mass-reared flies, and explains how their feed is prepared and processed. The different stages of mass-rearing of flies, including their irradiation and the effects of irradiation on eggs and spermatozoa, are demonstrated. The video also introduces the insect sterilization programme BICOT carried out in Nigeria

  14. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against tsetse flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-12-31

    The video gives general information on the reproductive anatomy and the reproductive cycles of tsetse flies, shows in detail the steps to make a membrane for food supply of mass-reared flies, and explains how their feed is prepared and processed. The different stages of mass-rearing of flies, including their irradiation and the effects of irradiation on eggs and spermatozoa, are demonstrated. The video also introduces the insect sterilization programme BICOT carried out in Nigeria

  15. Mapping Landscape Friction to Locate Isolated Tsetse Populations that are Candidates for Elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Dicko, Ahmadou H.; Cecchi, Giuliano; Ravel, Sophie; Solano, Philippe; Guerrini, Laure; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; De Meeûs, Thierry; Lancelot, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of deadly human and animal trypanosomes in sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse control is a key component for the integrated management of both plagues, but local eradication successes have been limited to less than 2% of the infested area. This is attributed to either resurgence of residual populations that were omitted from the eradication campaign or reinvasion from neighboring infested areas. Here we focused on Glossina palpalis gambiensis, a riverine tsetse species representing the main vector of trypanosomoses in West Africa. We mapped landscape resistance to tsetse genetic flow, hereafter referred to as friction, to identify natural barriers that isolate tsetse populations. For this purpose, we fitted a statistical model of the genetic distance between 37 tsetse populations sampled in the region, using a set of remotely sensed environmental data as predictors. The least-cost path between these populations was then estimated using the predicted friction map. The method enabled us to avoid the subjectivity inherent in the expert-based weighting of environmental parameters. Finally, we identified potentially isolated clusters of G. p. gambiensis habitat based on a species distribution model and ranked them according to their predicted genetic distance to the main tsetse population. The methodology presented here will inform the choice on the most appropriate intervention strategies to be implemented against tsetse flies in different parts of Africa. It can also be used to control other pests and to support conservation of endangered species. (author)

  16. The forms and fitness cost of senescence : Age-specific recapture, survival, reproduction, and reproductive value in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Choquet, Remi; Sheldon, Ben C.; Verhulst, Simon

    Longitudinal studies of senescence accumulate rapidly from natural populations. However, it is largely unknown whether different fitness components senesce in parallel, how reproductive and survival senescence contribute to declines in reproductive value, and how large the fitness cost of senescence

  17. [Fitness of sexual reproduction of Toona ciliata var. pubescens natural populations and their sexual reproduction and regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong Lan; Zhang, Lu; Jia, Li Ming; Liang, Yue-Long; Cai, Jun Huo

    2018-04-01

    To examine the reproduction fitness coefficients and individual-level fitness of Toona ciliata var. pubescens, their sexual reproduction and natural regeneration were investigated during 2006-2016, with four natural populations in Jiulianshan National Reserve as test objects. The results showed that there were only 2-10 trees for the natural populations of T. ciliata var. pubescens with a small initial number of fruiting plants (3-9 trees), which were from the initial fruiting plants or their first/second generation. The sexual reproduction of these isolated populations were significantly different, and their seed production capacities tended to decline over time. With the maturing of communities, soil seed banks and seed germinations were extremely poor, and the number of trees that could be growing to mature stage was nearly zero. The optimum maturity age of T. ciliata var. pubescens was about 40 a, and the fitness coefficients (2.0-2.8) rapidly increased in early development stage, but then was sharply reduced (0.3-0.5), and then gradually dropped to almost 0. There were significant differences in the fitness at individual level (0-14 tree·cm -2 ) among different populations, but their values were low (close to zero). Based on the existing reproduction rate, the actual values of sexual reproduction and regeneration fitness were much lower than the predicted ones. Due to the low level of genetic fitness, the sexual reproductive ability of different populations all showed decreasing trends. The natural sexual regeneration ability tended to decline, while the fitness of T. ciliata var. pubescens further decreased. All those factors suggested higher investment risks. Therefore, the systems of sexual reproduction became unbalanced and deteriorating. We proposed that more studies, including breeding mating, pollination, seed setting, and genetic diversity evaluation, are needed. Moreover, we should provide suitable forest environment through cleaning up litter in the

  18. Genome sequence of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans ): Vector of African trypanosomiasis

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Junichi

    2014-04-24

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. Notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. Here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina morsitans morsitans genome. Analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein-encoding genes led to multiple discoveries, including chromosomal integrations of bacterial (Wolbachia) genome sequences, a family of lactation-specific proteins, reduced complement of host pathogen recognition proteins, and reduced olfaction/chemosensory associated genes. These genome data provide a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.

  19. Genome sequence of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans ): Vector of African trypanosomiasis

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Junichi; Hattori, Masahira; Berriman, Matthew; Lehane, Michael J.; Hall, Neil; Solano, Philippe; Aksoy, Serap; Hide, Winston; Touré , Yé ya Tié moko; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Darby, Alistair Charles; Toyoda, Atsushi; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Larkin, Denis M.; Cotton, James A.; Sanders, Mandy J.; Swain, Martin T.; Quail, Michael A.; Inoue, Noboru; Ravel, Sophie; Taylor, Todd Duane; Srivastava, Tulika P.; Sharma, Vineet Kumar; Warren, Wesley C.; Wilson, Richard K.; Suzuki, Yutaka; Lawson, Daniel; Hughes, Daniel Seth Toney; Megy, Karyn; Masiga, Daniel K.; Mireji, Paul Odhiambo; Hansen, Immo Alex; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Benoit, Joshua B.; Bourtzis, Kostas; Obiero, George F O; Robertson, Hugh M.; Jones, Jeffery W.; Zhou, Jingjiang; Field, Linda M.; Friedrich, Markus; Nyanjom, Steven R G; Telleria, Erich Loza; Caljon, Guy; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Ooi, Cherpheng; Rose, Clair; Price, David P.; Haines, Lee Rafuse; Christoffels, Alan G.; Sim, Cheolho; Pham, Daphne Q D; Denlinger, David L.; Geiser, Dawn L.; Omedo, Irene A.; Winzerling, Joy J.; Peyton, Justin T.; Marucha, Kevin K.; Jonas, Mario; Meuti, Megan E.; Rawlings, Neil David; Zhang, Qirui; Macharia, Rosaline Wanjiru; Michalkova, Veronika; Dashti, Zahra Jalali Sefid; Baumann, Aaron A.; Gä de, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.; Caers, Jelle; Schoofs, Liliane; Riehle, Michael A.; Hu, Wanqi; Tu, Zhijian; Tarone, Aaron M.; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Kibet, Caleb K.; Scolari, Francesca; Koekemoer, J. J. O.; Willis, Judith H.; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Falchetto, Marco; Scott, Maxwell J.; Fu, Shuhua; Sze, Singhoi; Luiz, Thiago; Weiss, Brian L.; Walshe, Deirdre P.; Wang, Jingwen; Wamalwa, Mark; Mwangi, Sarah; Ramphul, Urvashi N.; Snyder, Anna K.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Thomas, Gavin H.; Tsiamis, George; Arensburger, Peter; Rio, Rita V M; Macdonald, Sandy J.; Panji, Sumir; Kruger, Adele F.; Benkahla, Alia; Balyeidhusa, Apollo Simon Peter; Msangi, Atway R.; Okoro, Chinyere K.; Stephens, Dawn; Stanley, Eleanor J.; Mpondo, Feziwe; Wamwiri, Florence N.; Mramba, Furaha; Siwo, Geoffrey H.; Githinji, George; Harkins, Gordon William; Murilla, Grace Adira; Lehvä slaiho, Heikki; Malele, Imna I.; Auma, Joanna Eseri; Kinyua, Johnson K.; Ouma, Johnson O.; Okedi, Loyce M A; Manga, Lucien; Aslett, Martin A.; Koffi, Mathurin; Gaunt, Michael W.; Makgamathe, Mmule; Mulder, Nicola Jane; Manangwa, Oliver; Abila, Patrick P.; Wincker, Patrick; Gregory, Richard I.; Bateta, Rosemary; Sakate, Ryuichi; Ommeh, Sheila; Lehane, Stella M.; Imanishi, Tadashi; Osamor, Victor Chukwudi; Kawahara, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human African trypanosomiasis throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Both sexes of adult tsetse feed exclusively on blood and contribute to disease transmission. Notable differences between tsetse and other disease vectors include obligate microbial symbioses, viviparous reproduction, and lactation. Here, we describe the sequence and annotation of the 366-megabase Glossina morsitans morsitans genome. Analysis of the genome and the 12,308 predicted protein-encoding genes led to multiple discoveries, including chromosomal integrations of bacterial (Wolbachia) genome sequences, a family of lactation-specific proteins, reduced complement of host pathogen recognition proteins, and reduced olfaction/chemosensory associated genes. These genome data provide a foundation for research into trypanosomiasis prevention and yield important insights with broad implications for multiple aspects of tsetse biology.

  20. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  1. Tsetse flies and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D J; Hendrickx, G; Slingenbergh, J H

    1994-12-01

    The authors use a quantitative modelling framework to describe and explore the features of the biology of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) which are important in determining the rate of transmission of the African trypanosomiases between hosts. Examples are presented of the contribution of previous research on tsetse to quantified epidemiological and epizootiological understanding, and areas of current ignorance are identified for future study. Spatial and temporal variations in risk are important (but rarely-studied) determinants of the impact of trypanosomiasis on humans, domestic animals and agricultural activities. Recent grid-based sampling surveys to Togo provide valuable data sets on tsetse, cattle and trypanosomiasis throughout the country. A combination of ground-based meterological and remotely-sensed satellite data, within linear discriminant analytical models, enables description of the observed distributions of the five species of tsetse occurring in Togo, with accuracies of between 72% (Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides) and 98% (G. fusca). Abundance classes of the two most widespread species, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides, are described with accuracies of between 47% and 83%. This is especially remarkable given the relatively small differences between the average values of the predictor variables in areas of differing fly abundance. Similar analyses could be used to predict the occurrence and abundance of flies in other areas, which have not been surveyed to date, in order to plan tsetse control campaigns or explore development options. Finally, some recent tsetse control campaigns are briefly reviewed. The shift of emphasis from fly eradication to fly control is associated with a devolution of responsibility for control activities from central government to local areas, communities or even individuals. The future role of central governments will remain crucial, however, in determining the areas in which different control options are practised, in

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on the tsetse fly, Glossina palpalis palpalis (Rob.-Desv.)(Diptera, Glossinidae) with observations on the reproductive biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vloedt, A.M.V. van der; Taher, M.; Tenabe, S.O.

    1978-01-01

    The sterility of male G. p, palpalis irradiated in the pupal stage and as adults with gamma doses of 4-12 krad given in air was investigated. The treatments did not reduce viability, mating effectiveness and longevity. Fertility showed a dose-dependent reduction with increasing dose. The doses required to reduce fertility to 5% or less in males treated as -10 or +5 day-old flies were about 6 and 12 krad respectively. Indirect effect on their mates was demonstrated by the extrusion of dead embryonated eggs at irregular intervals following ovulation and the occurrence of aberrations in the reproductive system as a direct consequence of incompleted pregnancy cycles. (author)

  3. The Slavic NBN Founder Mutation: A Role for Reproductive Fitness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Seemanova

    Full Text Available The vast majority of patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS are of Slavic origin and carry a deleterious deletion (c.657del5; rs587776650 in the NBN gene on chromosome 8q21. This mutation is essentially confined to Slavic populations and may thus be considered a Slavic founder mutation. Notably, not a single parenthood of a homozygous c.657del5 carrier has been reported to date, while heterozygous carriers do reproduce but have an increased cancer risk. These observations seem to conflict with the considerable carrier frequency of c.657del5 of 0.5% to 1% as observed in different Slavic populations because deleterious mutations would be eliminated quite rapidly by purifying selection. Therefore, we propose that heterozygous c.657del5 carriers have increased reproductive success, i.e., that the mutation confers heterozygote advantage. In fact, in our cohort study of the reproductive history of 24 NBS pedigrees from the Czech Republic, we observed that female carriers gave birth to more children on average than female non-carriers, while no such reproductive differences were observed for males. We also estimate that c.657del5 likely occurred less than 300 generations ago, thus supporting the view that the original mutation predated the historic split and subsequent spread of the 'Slavic people'. We surmise that the higher fertility of female c.657del5 carriers reflects a lower miscarriage rate in these women, thereby reflecting the role of the NBN gene product, nibrin, in the repair of DNA double strand breaks and their processing in immune gene rearrangements, telomere maintenance, and meiotic recombination, akin to the previously described role of the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2.

  4. Low dose TBT exposure decreases amphipod immunocompetence and reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Therese; Sundelin, Brita; Yang, Gongda; Ford, Alex T

    2011-01-17

    The antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) is a highly toxic pollutant present in many aquatic ecosystems. Despite of regulations on the usage of TBT, it remains in high concentrations in sediments both in harbors and in off-shore sites. The toxicity of TBT in mollusks is well documented. However, adverse effects in other aquatic organisms, such as crustaceans, are less well known. This study is an effort to assess the effects of environmentally realistic concentrations of TBT on an ecologically important species in Swedish fresh and brackish water ecosystems, the benthic amphipod Monoporeia affinis. Field collected animals were exposed during gonad maturation to TBT (70 and 170 ng/g sediment d wt) for five weeks in static microcosms with natural sediment. Exposure concentrations were chosen to reflect effects at concentrations found in Swedish coastal sediment, but below expected effects on survival. TBT exposure resulted in a statistically significant adverse effect on oocyte viability and a doubling of the prevalence of microsporidian parasites in females, from 17% in the control to 34% in the 170 ng TBT/g sediment d wt exposure. No effects on survival were observed. Borderline significant effects were observed on male sexual maturation in the 70 ng TBT/g d wt exposure and on ecdysteroid levels in the 170 ng/g sediment d wt exposure. Both reproduction and parasite infection effects are of ecological importance since they have the potential to affect population viability in the field. This study gives further evidence to the connection between low dose contaminant exposure and increases in microsporidian parasite infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. No intra-locus sexual conflict over reproductive fitness or ageing in field crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Zajitschek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the ways in which males and females maximize evolutionary fitness can lead to intra-locus sexual conflict in which genes delivering fitness benefits to one sex are costly when expressed in the other. Trade-offs between current reproductive effort and future reproduction and survival are fundamental to the evolutionary biology of ageing. This leads to the prediction that sex differences in the optimization of age-dependent reproductive effort may generate intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing rates. Here we test for intra-locus sexual conflict over age-dependent reproductive effort and longevity in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Using a half-sib breeding design, we show that the most important components of male and female reproductive effort (male calling effort and the number of eggs laid by females were positively genetically correlated, especially in early adulthood. However, the genetic relationships between longevity and reproductive effort were different for males and females, leading to low genetic covariation between male and female longevity. The apparent absence of intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing suggests that male and female longevity can evolve largely independently of one another.

  6. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  7. Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place. Copyright © 2012 International Atomic Energy Agency. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The self-perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) theory of substance use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Newlin, David B.

    2002-01-01

    A new theory of substance use disorders is proposed—the SPFit theory—that is based on evolutionary biology and adaptive systems. Self‐perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) is proposed as a human psychobiological construct that prioritizes and organizes (i.e. motivates) behavior, but is highly vulnerable to temporary, artificial activation by drugs of abuse. Autoshaping/ sign‐tracking/feature positive phenomena are proposed to underlie the development of craving and expec...

  9. Genetics of tsetse fly. Part of a coordinated programme on sterile insect techniques for tsetse fly control or eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, W.

    1977-08-01

    Genetic variation in the tsetse fly, Glossina m. morsitans was studied using isoenzyme patterns. As the investigators intended to show that the method could be used for field collected material, several factors which may affect isoenzyme analysis such as fly age, reproductive status, nutrition, storage at low temperatures etc. were studied. Fifteen enzyme systems were included. Seven of these showed genetic polymorphism and some differences were related to geographic distribution. Because of interference from various factors, it is recommended that pupae be collected and that flies be analyzed at least 24 hours after the last blood meal. Methods of holding material for analysis are suggested

  10. The homeodomain protein ladybird late regulates synthesis of milk proteins during pregnancy in the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Attardo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina, the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1 by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This

  11. Evidence required for establishing the absence of tsetse and trypanosomosis associated with tsetse eradication programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers entomological and epidemiological criteria for establishing the absence of tsetse and trypanosomosis associated with tsetse eradication programmes. The sampling goal is simple - to maximise the probability of detecting tsetse flies in the field or trypanosomes in hosts, if they exist. Sampling strategies cannot guarantee the absence of tsetse and trypanosomes but they can be used to estimate the probability of their eradication. Because tsetse eradication programmes are targeted at defined areas, geographical information system (GIS) tools are very useful in guiding spatial sampling strategies. Two approaches to assess tsetse eradication are discussed. The first depends only on information on the sensitivity of tsetse trapping methods used. The second combines information on pre-eradication tsetse trapping and the proportion of time during which no tsetse have been trapped, assuming either a stable or declining (preferred) pre-eradication tsetse population. For establishing the absence of trypanosomosis in host populations, there are standard sampling techniques that can be adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the trypanosome detection methods used. Required sample sizes can be calculated for both direct trypanosome detection methods of 100% specificity or indirect tests with imperfect sensitivity and specificity. For the latter, both the sample size and the number of reactors (assumed to be false positive) are estimated for the required confidence level. These entomological and epidemiological methods were then applied to assess the eradication of tsetse and trypanosomosis from Unguja island of Zanzibar using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Pre- and post-eradication data collected were sufficient to establish with 95% confidence that both tsetse and trypanosomosis were eradicated. (author)

  12. Success in Zanzibar: Eradication of tsetse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msangi, A.R.; Kiwia, N.; Malele, I.I.; Mramba, F.; Saleh, K.M.; Mussa, W.A.; Juma, K.G.; Dyck, V.A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Parker, A.G.; Feldmann, U.; Zhu, Z.R.; Pan, H.

    2000-01-01

    There are about 22 species of tsetse flies found nowhere else in the world except in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Tsetse flies transmit a debilitating and often fatal disease, trypanosomosis, which causes tremendous losses of livestock, and severely limits agricultural production (it reduces output of milk and meat, causes mortality, infertility and abortion in livestock, deprives the rural population of draught power and manure to improve and increase crop production). Tsetse flies also transmit human trypanosomosis, commonly known as 'sleeping sickness'. It is estimated that over 55 million people living in rural sub-Saharan Africa are at risk from this fatal disease. Tanzania's Zanzibar Island is situated 35 km off the eastern coast and comprises two main islands, Unguja and Pemba. Previous surveys revealed that out of the seven tsetse species found on mainland Tanzania, only Glossina austeni Newstead infested Unguja Island. No tsetse fly was found on the island of Pemba. The fly is responsible for the cyclical transmission of trypanosomosis in livestock, the causative agents being mainly Trypanosoma congolense and, to a lesser extent, T. vivax. It is estimated that in Zanzibar, the disease causes annual losses of US$2 million. Since fly suppression by conventional techniques has often resulted in short-term success, Tanzania has always appreciated that the long-term solution to the trypanosomosis problem is the eradication of tsetse flies in the country. In 1994, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United Republic of Tanzania embarked on a project with the objective of eradicating tsetse flies from Zanzibar Island by applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) (Dyck et al. 1995, in press). Previous tsetse eradication efforts in Tanzania using SIT, enabled the establishment of a modest capacity on tsetse mass rearing in Tanga (Williamson et al. 1983). The Zanzibar tsetse project was successfully completed in 1997. The estimated cost was

  13. What shapes fitness costs of reproduction in long-lived iteroparous species? A case study on the Alpine ibex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Alexandre; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gauthier, Dominique; Besnard, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    The fitness costs of reproduction can be masked by individual differences, and may only become apparent during adverse environmental conditions. Individual differences, however, are usually assessed by reproductive success, so how fitness costs are influenced by the interplay between the environmental context and overall individual differences requires further investigation. Here, we evaluated fitness costs of reproduction based on 15 yr of monitoring of individual Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) during a period when the population was affected by a severe disease outbreak (pneumonia). We quantified fitness costs using a novel multi-event capture-mark-recapture (CMR) modeling approach that accounted for uncertainty in reproductive status to estimate the survival and reproductive success of female ibex while also accounting for overall individual heterogeneity using mixture models. Our results show that the ability of females to reproduce was highly heterogeneous. In particular, one group including 76% of females had a much higher probability of giving birth annually (between 0.66 and 0.77, depending on the previous reproductive status) than females of the second group (24% of females, between 0 and 0.05 probability of giving birth annually). Low reproductive costs in terms of future reproduction occurred and were independent of the pneumonia outbreak. There was no survival cost of reproduction either before or after the epizootic, but the cost was high during the epizootic. Our findings indicate that adverse environmental conditions, such as disease outbreaks, may lead to survival costs of reproduction in long-lived species and select against females that have a high reproductive effort. Thereby, the occurrence of adverse conditions increases the diversity of reproductive tactics within a population.

  14. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  15. Towards greater realism in inclusive fitness models: the case of worker reproduction in insect societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Helanterä, Heikki; Alves, Denise A.; Dueñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Pamilo, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    The conflicts over sex allocation and male production in insect societies have long served as an important test bed for Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness, but have for the most part been considered separately. Here, we develop new coevolutionary models to examine the interaction between these two conflicts and demonstrate that sex ratio and colony productivity costs of worker reproduction can lead to vastly different outcomes even in species that show no variation in their relatedness structure. Empirical data on worker-produced males in eight species of Melipona bees support the predictions from a model that takes into account the demographic details of colony growth and reproduction. Overall, these models contribute significantly to explaining behavioural variation that previous theories could not account for. PMID:24132088

  16. The self-perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) theory of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin, David B

    2002-04-01

    A new theory of substance use disorders is proposed-the SPFit theory-that is based on evolutionary biology and adaptive systems. Self-perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) is proposed as a human psychobiological construct that prioritizes and organizes (i.e. motivates) behavior, but is highly vulnerable to temporary, artificial activation by drugs of abuse. Autoshaping/sign-tracking/feature positive phenomena are proposed to underlie the development of craving and expectations about drugs as the individual learns that abused drugs will easily and reliably inflate SPFit. The cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system and its modulating interconnections are viewed as the biological substrate of SPFit; it is proposed to be a survival and reproductive motivation system rather than a reward center or reward pathway. Finally, the concept of modularity of mind is applied to the SPFit construct. Although considerable empirical data are consistent with the theory, new research is needed to test specific hypotheses derived from SPFit theory.

  17. The behaviour of tsetse flies in an odour plume

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendijk, C.A.

    1996-01-01


    The tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westw. (Diptera: Glossinidae) are obligatory blood feeding insects that do not live in close association with their hosts (mainly mammals). Tsetse flies are relatively long lived insects and have to take a blood meal regularly. Tsetse flies use smell and vision to find their hosts. In the last decade, many aspects of tsetse foraging and host-location behaviour have been elucida...

  18. Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  19. The effective eradication and control strategies for tsetse and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I conducted an extensive literature review on the effective tsetse and trypanosomiasis eradication method strategies in Africa in 2010 as i embarked on my research that coincided with the formulation of the Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Strategy for Kenya spearheaded by Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis ...

  20. Tsetse and trypanosomosis in Africa: the challenges, the opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilemobade, A A

    2009-03-01

    Tsetse-fly and the disease it transmits, trypanosomosis, remain an enormous disease challenge in the 37 countries of sub-Saharan Africa where the impact continues to be manifest in disease burden, increased level of poverty and decreased agricultural productivity. The impact also extends over an estimated 10 million km2 (a third of the African continent) of land area, a third of which contains some well-watered part of the continent, thus denying humans and livestock of potentially rich arable and pastureland. The disease is a threat to an estimated 50 million people and 48 million cattle with estimated annual losses in cattle production alone of 1-1.2 billion US$. These losses are due to stock mortality and depressed productivity, which may be of meat, milk, reproduction or traction. Beyond its direct effects on humans and livestock is its impact on African agriculture and the livelihood of the rural population in the affected countries: the fly and the disease influence where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock, and the intensity and the mix of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use and environment which may, in turn, affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. Trypanosomosis is, therefore, both a public health and an agricultural development constraint. The challenges that the elimination or control of tsetse fly and trypanosomosis pose as well as the opportunities to develop appropriate intervention technologies are discussed in this presentation.

  1. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive value is an integrated measure of survival and reproduction fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics, but little is known about intraspecific variation in reproductive value and factors explaining such variation, if any. By applying generalized additive mixed models to longitudinal individual-based data of the common tern Sterna hirundo, we estimated age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive performance, based on which we calculated age-specific reproductive values. We investigated effects of sex and recruitment age (RA) on each trait. We found age effects on all traits, with survival and breeding probability declining with age, while reproductive performance first improved with age before levelling off. We only found a very small, marginally significant, sex effect on survival probability, but evidence for decreasing age-specific breeding probability and reproductive performance with RA. As a result, males had slightly lower age-specific reproductive values than females, while birds of both sexes that recruited at the earliest ages of 2 and 3 years (i.e. 54% of the tern population) had somewhat higher fitness prospects than birds recruiting at later ages. While the RA effects on breeding probability and reproductive performance were statistically significant, these effects were not large enough to translate to significant effects on reproductive value. Age-specific reproductive values provided evidence for senescence, which came with fitness costs in a range of 17-21% for the sex-RA groups. Our study suggests that intraspecific variation in reproductive value may exist, but that, in the common tern, the differences are small. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  2. Seasonal temperature variations influence tapetum mitosis patterns associated with reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, Umesh C; Basu, Surochita; Kushwaha, Jyotsana Singh; Lavania, Seshu

    2014-09-01

    Environmental stress in plants impacts many biological processes, including male gametogenesis, and affects several cytological mechanisms that are strongly interrelated. To understand the likely impact of rising temperature on reproductive fitness in the climate change regime, a study of tapetal mitosis and its accompanying meiosis over seasons was made to elucidate the influence of temperature change on the cytological events occurring during microsporogenesis. For this we used two species of an environmentally sensitive plant system, i.e., genus Cymbopogon Sprengel (Poaceae), namely Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle var. confertiflorus (Steud.) Bor (2n = 20) and Cymbopogon jwaruncusha (Jones) Schult. (2n = 20). Both species flower profusely during extreme summer (48 °C) and mild winter (15 °C) but support low and high seed fertility, respectively, in the two seasons. We have shown that tapetal mitotic patterns over seasons entail differential behavior for tapetal mitosis. During the process of tapetum development there are episodes of endomitosis that form either (i) an endopolyploid genomically imbalanced uninucleate and multinucleate tapetum, and (or) (ii) an acytokinetic multinucleate genomically balanced tapetum, with the progression of meiosis in the accompanying sporogenous tissue. The relative frequency of occurrence of the two types of tapetum mitosis patterns is significantly different in the two seasons, and it is found to be correlated with the temperature conditions. Whereas, the former (genomically imbalanced tapetum) are prevalent during the hot summer, the latter (genomically balanced tapetum) are frequent under optimal conditions. Such a differential behaviour in tapetal mitosis vis-à-vis temperature change is also correspondingly accompanied by substantial disturbances or regularity in meiotic anaphase disjunction. Both species show similar patterns. The study underpins that tapetal mitotic behaviour per se could be a reasonable indicator to

  3. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera: Reproductive Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. T. Darbah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination, while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%. Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  4. Vitamin D status predicts reproductive fitness in a wild sheep population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Ian; Watt, Kathryn A; Pilkington, Jill G; Pemberton, Josephine M; Macrae, Alastair; Scott, Philip; McNeilly, Tom N; Berry, Jacqueline L; Clements, Dylan N; Nussey, Daniel H; Mellanby, Richard J

    2016-01-13

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the development of many human diseases, and with poor reproductive performance in laboratory rodents. We currently have no idea how natural selection directly acts on variation in vitamin D metabolism due to a total lack of studies in wild animals. Here, we measured serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in female Soay sheep that were part of a long-term field study on St Kilda. We found that total 25(OH)D was strongly influenced by age, and that light coloured sheep had higher 25(OH)D3 (but not 25(OH)D2) concentrations than dark sheep. The coat colour polymorphism in Soay sheep is controlled by a single locus, suggesting vitamin D status is heritable in this population. We also observed a very strong relationship between total 25(OH)D concentrations in summer and a ewe's fecundity the following spring. This resulted in a positive association between total 25(OH)D and the number of lambs produced that survived their first year of life, an important component of female reproductive fitness. Our study provides the first insight into naturally-occurring variation in vitamin D metabolites, and offers the first evidence that vitamin D status is both heritable and under natural selection in the wild.

  5. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-04-13

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

  6. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives. The IAEA Helps Ethiopia Prepare for Tsetse Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  7. Eradicating tsetse flies: Senegal nears first victory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock. “I have not seen a single tsetse fly for a year now,” said cattle farmer Oumar Sow. “This is in contrast to earlier, when they increased in numbers, especially during the cold season. The flies were really a nuisance to our animals and we had to carefully select the time for milking. Now, there is no problem with that.” The tsetse fly is a bloodsucking insect that kills more than three million livestock in sub-Saharan Africa every year, costing the agriculture industry more than US $4 billion annually. The tsetse fly transmits parasites that cause a wasting disease called nagana in cattle. In some parts of Africa the fly also causes over 75 000 cases of human ‘sleeping sickness’, which affects the central nervous system, and causes disorientation, personality changes, slurred speech, seizures, difficulty walking and talking, and ultimately death.

  8. When stress predicts a shrinking gene pool, trading early reproduction for longevity can increase fitness, even with lower fecundity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Ratcliff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Stresses like dietary restriction or various toxins increase lifespan in taxa as diverse as yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and rats, by triggering physiological responses that also tend to delay reproduction. Food odors can reverse the effects of dietary restriction, showing that key mechanisms respond to information, not just resources. Such environmental cues can predict population trends, not just individual prospects for survival and reproduction. When population size is increasing, each offspring produced earlier makes a larger proportional contribution to the gene pool, but the reverse is true when population size is declining.We show mathematically that natural selection can favor facultative delay in reproduction when environmental cues predict a decrease in total population size, even if lifetime fecundity decreases with delay. We also show that increased reproduction from waiting for better conditions does not increase fitness (proportional representation when the whole population benefits similarly.We conclude that the beneficial effects of stress on longevity (hormesis in diverse taxa are a side-effect of delaying reproduction in response to environmental cues that population size is likely to decrease. The reversal by food odors of the effects of dietary restriction can be explained as a response to information that population size is less likely to decrease, reducing the chance that delaying reproduction will increase fitness.

  9. Reproductive fitness and dietary choice behavior of the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans under semi-natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyth, Katharina; Janowitz, Tim; Nunes, Frank; Voss, Melanie; Heinick, Alexander; Bertaux, Joanne; Scheu, Stefan; Paul, Rüdiger J

    2010-10-01

    Laboratory breeding conditions of the model organism C. elegans do not correspond with the conditions in its natural soil habitat. To assess the consequences of the differences in environmental conditions, the effects of air composition, medium and bacterial food on reproductive fitness and/or dietary-choice behavior of C. elegans were investigated. The reproductive fitness of C. elegans was maximal under oxygen deficiency and not influenced by a high fractional share of carbon dioxide. In media approximating natural soil structure, reproductive fitness was much lower than in standard laboratory media. In seminatural media, the reproductive fitness of C. elegans was low with the standard laboratory food bacterium E. coli (γ-Proteobacteria), but significantly higher with C. arvensicola (Bacteroidetes) and B. tropica (β-Proteobacteria) as food. Dietary-choice experiments in semi-natural media revealed a low preference of C. elegans for E. coli but significantly higher preferences for C. arvensicola and B. tropica (among other bacteria). Dietary-choice experiments under quasi-natural conditions, which were feasible by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of bacteria, showed a high preference of C. elegans for Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides, Firmicutes, and β-Proteobacteria, but a low preference for γ-Proteobacteria. The results show that data on C. elegans under standard laboratory conditions have to be carefully interpreted with respect to their biological significance.

  10. Paratransgenesis applied for control of tsetse transmitted sleeping sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Serap; Weiss, Brian; Attardo, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Subsaharan Africa for human and animal health. In the absence of effective vaccines and efficacious drugs, vector control is an alternative intervention tool to break the disease cycle. This chapter describes the vectorial and symbiotic biology of tsetse with emphasis on the current knowledge on tsetse symbiont genomics and functional biology, and tsetse's trypanosome transmission capability. The ability to culture one of tsetse's commensal symbiotic microbes, Sodalis in vitro has allowed for the development of a genetic transformation system for this organism. Tsetse can be repopulated with the modified Sodalis symbiont, which can express foreign gene products (an approach we refer to as paratransgenic expression system). Expanding knowledge on tsetse immunity effectors, on genomics of tsetse symbionts and on tsetse's parasite transmission biology stands to enhance the development and potential application of paratransgenesis as a new vector-control strategy. We describe the hallmarks of the paratransgenic transformation technology where the modified symbionts expressing trypanocidal compounds can be used to manipulate host functions and lead to the control of trypanosomiasis by blocking trypanosome transmission in the tsetse vector.

  11. Evolution of sociality by natural selection on variances in reproductive fitness: evidence from a social bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Mark I

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Central Limit Theorem (CLT is a statistical principle that states that as the number of repeated samples from any population increase, the variance among sample means will decrease and means will become more normally distributed. It has been conjectured that the CLT has the potential to provide benefits for group living in some animals via greater predictability in food acquisition, if the number of foraging bouts increases with group size. The potential existence of benefits for group living derived from a purely statistical principle is highly intriguing and it has implications for the origins of sociality. Results Here we show that in a social allodapine bee the relationship between cumulative food acquisition (measured as total brood weight and colony size accords with the CLT. We show that deviations from expected food income decrease with group size, and that brood weights become more normally distributed both over time and with increasing colony size, as predicted by the CLT. Larger colonies are better able to match egg production to expected food intake, and better able to avoid costs associated with producing more brood than can be reared while reducing the risk of under-exploiting the food resources that may be available. Conclusion These benefits to group living derive from a purely statistical principle, rather than from ecological, ergonomic or genetic factors, and could apply to a wide variety of species. This in turn suggests that the CLT may provide benefits at the early evolutionary stages of sociality and that evolution of group size could result from selection on variances in reproductive fitness. In addition, they may help explain why sociality has evolved in some groups and not others.

  12. Evolution of sociality by natural selection on variances in reproductive fitness: evidence from a social bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark I; Hogendoorn, Katja; Schwarz, Michael P

    2007-08-29

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is a statistical principle that states that as the number of repeated samples from any population increase, the variance among sample means will decrease and means will become more normally distributed. It has been conjectured that the CLT has the potential to provide benefits for group living in some animals via greater predictability in food acquisition, if the number of foraging bouts increases with group size. The potential existence of benefits for group living derived from a purely statistical principle is highly intriguing and it has implications for the origins of sociality. Here we show that in a social allodapine bee the relationship between cumulative food acquisition (measured as total brood weight) and colony size accords with the CLT. We show that deviations from expected food income decrease with group size, and that brood weights become more normally distributed both over time and with increasing colony size, as predicted by the CLT. Larger colonies are better able to match egg production to expected food intake, and better able to avoid costs associated with producing more brood than can be reared while reducing the risk of under-exploiting the food resources that may be available. These benefits to group living derive from a purely statistical principle, rather than from ecological, ergonomic or genetic factors, and could apply to a wide variety of species. This in turn suggests that the CLT may provide benefits at the early evolutionary stages of sociality and that evolution of group size could result from selection on variances in reproductive fitness. In addition, they may help explain why sociality has evolved in some groups and not others.

  13. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  14. Consultants' Group Meeting on Tsetse Genetics in Relation to Tsetse/Trypanosomiasis Control/Eradication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    The FAO and IAEA have long recognized the need for methods for insect and pest control based upon approaches other than simply the widespread use of insecticides. Through the past several years the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has expended a considerable amount of effort in the development of a SIT programme applicable to tsetse. Such programmes have proved to be a highly successful component of the integrated control of tsetse flies. However, the pilot programmes undertaken to date have been applied to areas of limited size and future integrated control programmes for tsetse must cover much larger regions. The Consultants' Group was cognisant of the continued need for improvements in the cost effectiveness in the mass production of tsetse, particularly for SIT programmes. The Consultants' Goup recognized also that FAO/IAEA plays an important leadership role in the development of new technologies for the control of insect pest populations, and in the transfer of such technologies to assist in the improvement of agricultural production, particularly in developing countries. In addition to research on the development of methods for insect control (emphasizing application of the Sterile Insect Technique), the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has established and implemented five 'Co-ordinated Research Programmes' on tsetse and has, from time to time, convened groups of consultants to discuss and make recommendations on specific subjects. At least two such meetings (in July 1975 and November 1987) focused on genetic methods of insect control. The recent, rapid developments in molecular biology have stimulated interest in the application of genetic techniques to the problem of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in Africa.

  15. Consultants' Group Meeting on Tsetse Genetics in Relation to Tsetse/Trypanosomiasis Control/Eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The FAO and IAEA have long recognized the need for methods for insect and pest control based upon approaches other than simply the widespread use of insecticides. Through the past several years the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has expended a considerable amount of effort in the development of a SIT programme applicable to tsetse. Such programmes have proved to be a highly successful component of the integrated control of tsetse flies. However, the pilot programmes undertaken to date have been applied to areas of limited size and future integrated control programmes for tsetse must cover much larger regions. The Consultants' Group was cognisant of the continued need for improvements in the cost effectiveness in the mass production of tsetse, particularly for SIT programmes. The Consultants' Goup recognized also that FAO/IAEA plays an important leadership role in the development of new technologies for the control of insect pest populations, and in the transfer of such technologies to assist in the improvement of agricultural production, particularly in developing countries. In addition to research on the development of methods for insect control (emphasizing application of the Sterile Insect Technique), the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has established and implemented five 'Co-ordinated Research Programmes' on tsetse and has, from time to time, convened groups of consultants to discuss and make recommendations on specific subjects. At least two such meetings (in July 1975 and November 1987) focused on genetic methods of insect control. The recent, rapid developments in molecular biology have stimulated interest in the application of genetic techniques to the problem of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in Africa.

  16. Juvenile hormone and insulin suppress lipolysis between periods of lactation during tsetse fly pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Aaron A; Benoit, Joshua B; Michalkova, Veronika; Mireji, Paul; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Moulton, John K; Wilson, Thomas G; Aksoy, Serap

    2013-06-15

    Tsetse flies are viviparous insects that nurture a single intrauterine progeny per gonotrophic cycle. The developing larva is nourished by the lipid-rich, milk-like secretions from a modified female accessory gland (milk gland). An essential feature of the lactation process involves lipid mobilization for incorporation into the milk. In this study, we examined roles for juvenile hormone (JH) and insulin/IGF-like (IIS) signaling pathways during tsetse pregnancy. In particular, we examined the roles for these pathways in regulating lipid homeostasis during transitions between non-lactating (dry) and lactating periods. The dry period occurs over the course of oogenesis and embryogenesis, while the lactation period spans intrauterine larvigenesis. Genes involved in the JH and IIS pathways were upregulated during dry periods, correlating with lipid accumulation between bouts of lactation. RNAi suppression of Forkhead Box Sub Group O (FOXO) expression impaired lipolysis during tsetse lactation and reduced fecundity. Similar reduction of the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant (Met), but not its paralog germ cell expressed (gce), reduced lipid accumulation during dry periods, indicating functional divergence between Met and gce during tsetse reproduction. Reduced lipid levels following Met knockdown led to impaired fecundity due to inadequate fat reserves at the initiation of milk production. Both the application of the JH analog (JHA) methoprene and injection of insulin into lactating females increased stored lipids by suppressing lipolysis and reduced transcripts of lactation-specific genes, leading to elevated rates of larval abortion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to address the molecular physiology of JH and IIS in a viviparous insect, and specifically to provide a role for JH signaling through Met in the regulation of lipid metabolism during insect lactation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tsetse immune system maturation requires the presence of obligate symbionts in larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Weiss

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial microbial symbionts serve important functions within their hosts, including dietary supplementation and maintenance of immune system homeostasis. Little is known about the mechanisms that enable these bacteria to induce specific host phenotypes during development and into adulthood. Here we used the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, and its obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia glossinidia, to investigate the co-evolutionary adaptations that influence the development of host physiological processes. Wigglesworthia is maternally transmitted to tsetse's intrauterine larvae through milk gland secretions. We can produce flies that lack Wigglesworthia (Gmm(Wgm- yet retain their other symbiotic microbes. Such offspring give rise to adults that exhibit a largely normal phenotype, with the exception being that they are reproductively sterile. Our results indicate that when reared under normal environmental conditions Gmm(Wgm- adults are also immuno-compromised and highly susceptible to hemocoelic E. coli infections while age-matched wild-type individuals are refractory. Adults that lack Wigglesworthia during larval development exhibit exceptionally compromised cellular and humoral immune responses following microbial challenge, including reduced expression of genes that encode antimicrobial peptides (cecropin and attacin, hemocyte-mediated processes (thioester-containing proteins 2 and 4 and prophenoloxidase, and signal-mediating molecules (inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, Gmm(Wgm- adults harbor a reduced population of sessile and circulating hemocytes, a phenomenon that likely results from a significant decrease in larval expression of serpent and lozenge, both of which are associated with the process of early hemocyte differentiation. Our results demonstrate that Wigglesworthia must be present during the development of immature progeny in order for the immune system to function properly in adult tsetse. This phenomenon provides

  18. Mapping the distribution of tsetse and animal trypanosomosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While effective control measures such as chemotherapy, tsetse-trapping and restricted insecticide-treatment of livestock exist, implementation of such measures en masse has become increasingly impractical. Therefore mapping the distribution of tsetse and trypanosomosis hotspots was undertaken to ease targeting control ...

  19. Preliminary survey on tsetse flies and trypanosomosis at grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary survey on tsetse flies and trypanosomosis were conducted between. July and August 2007 at grazing fields and villages in and around the Nech Sar national park, with the ultimate intention of forwarding baseline information on the extent of the problem and possible control strategies. . Entomological (Tsetse.

  20. The behaviour of tsetse flies in an odour plume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, C.A.

    1996-01-01


    The tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westw. (Diptera: Glossinidae) are obligatory blood feeding insects that do not live in close association with their hosts (mainly mammals). Tsetse flies are relatively long lived

  1. Effects of sexual reproduction of the inferior competitor Brachionus calyciflorus on its fitness against Brachionus angularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Niu, Cuijuan

    2015-03-01

    Sexual reproduction adversely affects the population growth of cyclic parthenogenetic animals. The density-dependent sexual reproduction of a superior competitor could mediate the coexistence. However, the cost of sex may make the inferior competitor more vulnerable. To investigate the effect of sexual reproduction on the inferior competitor, we experimentally paired the competition of one Brachionus angularis clone against three Brachionus calyciflorus clones. One of the B. calyciflorus clones showed a low propensity for sexual reproduction, while the other two showed high propensities. The results show that all B. calyciflorus clones were excluded in the competition for resources at low food level. The increased food level promoted the competition persistence, but the clones did not show a clear pattern. Both the cumulative population density and resting egg production increased with the food level. The cumulative population density decreased with the mixis investment, while the resting egg production increased with the mixis investment. A trade-off between the population growth and sexual reproduction was observed in this research. The results indicate that although higher mixis investment resulted in a lower population density, it would not determinately accelerate the exclusion process of the inferior competitor. On the contrary, higher mixis investment promoted resting egg production before being excluded and thus promised a long-term benefit. In conclusion, our results suggest that mixis investment, to some extent, favored the excluded inferior competitor under fierce competition or some other adverse conditions.

  2. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  3. Wolbachia symbiont infections induce strong cytoplasmic incompatibility in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Alam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are vectors of the protozoan parasite African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness disease in humans and nagana in livestock. Although there are no effective vaccines and efficacious drugs against this parasite, vector reduction methods have been successful in curbing the disease, especially for nagana. Potential vector control methods that do not involve use of chemicals is a genetic modification approach where flies engineered to be parasite resistant are allowed to replace their susceptible natural counterparts, and Sterile Insect technique (SIT where males sterilized by chemical means are released to suppress female fecundity. The success of genetic modification approaches requires identification of strong drive systems to spread the desirable traits and the efficacy of SIT can be enhanced by identification of natural mating incompatibility. One such drive mechanism results from the cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI phenomenon induced by the symbiont Wolbachia. CI can also be used to induce natural mating incompatibility between release males and natural populations. Although Wolbachia infections have been reported in tsetse, it has been a challenge to understand their functional biology as attempts to cure tsetse of Wolbachia infections by antibiotic treatment damages the obligate mutualistic symbiont (Wigglesworthia, without which the flies are sterile. Here, we developed aposymbiotic (symbiont-free and fertile tsetse lines by dietary provisioning of tetracycline supplemented blood meals with yeast extract, which rescues Wigglesworthia-induced sterility. Our results reveal that Wolbachia infections confer strong CI during embryogenesis in Wolbachia-free (Gmm(Apo females when mated with Wolbachia-infected (Gmm(Wt males. These results are the first demonstration of the biological significance of Wolbachia infections in tsetse. Furthermore, when incorporated into a mathematical model, our results confirm that Wolbachia can

  4. When the Seasons Don't Fit: Speedy Molt as a Routine Carry-Over Cost of Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, M.W.; Rogers, K.G.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus islandica, between reproduction and wing feather molt carried out in the non-breeding period in the Dutch Wadden Sea. We compared primary molt duration between bi...

  5. Translocation of heavy metals from soils into floral organs and rewards of Cucurbita pepo: Implications for plant reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Erna; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhao, Jimin; Guo, Jixun

    2017-11-01

    Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction. The results showed that metals taken up by squash did translocate into its floral organs and rewards, although metal accumulation varied depending on different metal types and concentrations as well as floral organ/reward types. Mean foraging time of honey bees to each male and female flower of squash grown in metal-supplemented soils was shorter relative to that of plants grown in control soils, although the visitation rate of honeybees to both male and female flowers was not affected by metal treatments. Pollen viability, pollen removal and deposition as well as mean mass per seed produced by metal-treated squash that received pollen from plants grown in control soils decreased with elevated soil-supplemented metal concentrations. The fact that squash could translocate soil-supplemented heavy metals into floral organs and rewards indicated possible reproductive consequences caused either directly (i.e., decreasing pollen viability or seed mass) or indirectly (i.e., affecting pollinators' visitation behavior to flowers) to plant fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Better Together: Association With 'Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus' Increases the Reproductive Fitness of Its Insect Vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz-Stelinski, K S; Killiny, N

    2016-05-01

    The duration of the evolutionary association between a pathogen and vector can be inferred based on the strength of their mutualistic interactions. A well-adapted pathogen is likely to confer some benefit or, at a minimum, exhibit low pathogenicity toward its host vector. Coevolution of the two toward a mutually beneficial association appears to have occurred between the citrus greening disease pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama). To better understand the dynamics facilitating transmission, we evaluated the effects of Las infection on the fitness of its vector. Diaphorina citri harboring Las were more fecund than their uninfected counterparts; however, their nymphal development rate and adult survival were comparatively reduced. The finite rate of population increase and net reproductive rate were both greater among Las-infected D. citri as compared with uninfected counterparts, indicating that overall population fitness of infected psyllids was improved given the greater number of offspring produced. Previous reports of transovarial transmission, in conjunction with increased fecundity and population growth rates of Las-positive D. citri found in the current investigation, suggest a long evolutionary relationship between pathogen and vector. The survival of Las-infected adult D. citri was lower compared with uninfected D. citri , which suggests that there may be a fitness trade-off in response to Las infection. A beneficial effect of a plant pathogen on vector fitness may indicate that the pathogen developed a relationship with the insect before secondarily moving to plants.

  7. Rainfall during parental care reduces reproductive and survival components of fitness in a passerine bird

    OpenAIRE

    ?berg, Meit; Arlt, Debora; P?rt, Tomas; Laugen, Ane T; Eggers, S?nke; Low, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions during parental care may have direct consequences for offspring production, but longer-term effects on juvenile and parental survival are less well known. We used long-term data on reproductive output, recruitment, and parental survival in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate the effects of rainfall during parental care on fledging success, recruitment success (juvenile survival), and parental survival, and how these effects related to nestling age,...

  8. THE MODULATED SOUNDS MADE BY THE TSETSE FLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11), but by conditioning them beforehand the response was improved. Since the acoustic .... had a meaJ, the abdomen was transparent and therefore contained only air. She only lived four ..... The natural history of tsetse flies. London, Lewis.

  9. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  10. Monitoring of tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes in south easter Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuna, N.M.; Magona, J.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 3035 cattle, 2733 from a tsetse infested area and 302 from a tsetse free area, were screened for trypanosomosis by the buffy coat technique (BCT). In addition, sample from the tsetse free area were analysed for the presence of trypasonome antigens by antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA). Using the BCT, trypanosome were detected in 64 cattle from the tsetse infested are and none were detected in the animals from the tsetse free area. However, using the Ag-ELISA, 17(5.6%) of the cattle from the tsetse free area were found positive for T. brucei, one (0.3%) for T. vivax and none for T. congolense. The results indicate that the tsetse and animal trypanosomosis situation has improved markedly since the control programme started in 1990. However both tsetse and animal trypanosomosis still occur particularly in the souther zones of the control area. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. The Dynamics of TseTse Fly in and Around Intensive Suppression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vector tsetse was done by entomological survey between December-Jan, 2008 .... transmission of the disease between tsetse flies and domestic ruminants ... pigs, horses, camels, dogs, cats, and monkeys are susceptible to African animal.

  12. Monitoring of tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes in south easter Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuna, N M; Magona, J [Livestock Health Research Inst. (LIRI), Tororo (Uganda)

    1997-02-01

    A total of 3035 cattle, 2733 from a tsetse infested area and 302 from a tsetse free area, were screened for trypanosomosis by the buffy coat technique (BCT). In addition, sample from the tsetse free area were analysed for the presence of trypasonome antigens by antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA). Using the BCT, trypanosome were detected in 64 cattle from the tsetse infested are and none were detected in the animals from the tsetse free area. However, using the Ag-ELISA, 17(5.6%) of the cattle from the tsetse free area were found positive for T. brucei, one (0.3%) for T. vivax and none for T. congolense. The results indicate that the tsetse and animal trypanosomosis situation has improved markedly since the control programme started in 1990. However both tsetse and animal trypanosomosis still occur particularly in the souther zones of the control area. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Rainfall during parental care reduces reproductive and survival components of fitness in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora; Pärt, Tomas; Laugen, Ane T; Eggers, Sönke; Low, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions during parental care may have direct consequences for offspring production, but longer-term effects on juvenile and parental survival are less well known. We used long-term data on reproductive output, recruitment, and parental survival in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate the effects of rainfall during parental care on fledging success, recruitment success (juvenile survival), and parental survival, and how these effects related to nestling age, breeding time, habitat quality, and parental nest visitation rates. While accounting for effects of temperature, fledging success was negatively related to rainfall (days > 10 mm) in the second half of the nestling period, with the magnitude of this effect being greater for breeding attempts early in the season. Recruitment success was, however, more sensitive to the number of rain days in the first half of the nestling period. Rainfall effects on parental survival differed between the sexes; males were more sensitive to rain during the nestling period than females. We demonstrate a probable mechanism driving the rainfall effects on reproductive output: Parental nest visitation rates decline with increasing amounts of daily rainfall, with this effect becoming stronger after consecutive rain days. Our study shows that rain during the nestling stage not only relates to fledging success but also has longer-term effects on recruitment and subsequent parental survival. Thus, if we want to understand or predict population responses to future climate change, we need to consider the potential impacts of changing rainfall patterns in addition to temperature, and how these will affect target species' vital rates.

  14. When the seasons don't fit: speedy molt as a routine carry-over cost of reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurine W Dietz

    Full Text Available The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus islandica, between reproduction and wing feather molt carried out in the non-breeding period in the Dutch Wadden Sea. We compared primary molt duration between birds undertaking the full migratory and breeding schedule with birds that forego breeding because they are young or are maintained in captivity. Molt duration was ca. 71 days in breeding adults, which was achieved by an accelerated feather replacement strategy. Second-year birds and captive adults took ca. 22% and 27% longer, respectively. Second-year birds start molt in late June, more than four weeks before captive adults, and almost seven weeks before adults that return from breeding in late July-August. Adults finish molt in October when steeply increasing thermostatic costs and reductions in food availability occur. Primary molt duration was longer in female than in male knots (all ages, which was accordance with the somewhat larger body size of females. Since fast growth leads to lower quality feathers, the speedy wing molt shown by Arctic-breeding birds may represent a time constraint that is an unavoidable and routine cost of reproduction. So far it was hypothesized that only birds over 1 kg would have difficulty fitting molt within a year. Here we show that in birds an order of magnitude smaller, temporal imperatives may impose the adoption of non-optimal life-cycle routines in the entire actively breeding population.

  15. When the seasons don't fit: speedy molt as a routine carry-over cost of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Maurine W; Rogers, Ken G; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus islandica, between reproduction and wing feather molt carried out in the non-breeding period in the Dutch Wadden Sea. We compared primary molt duration between birds undertaking the full migratory and breeding schedule with birds that forego breeding because they are young or are maintained in captivity. Molt duration was ca. 71 days in breeding adults, which was achieved by an accelerated feather replacement strategy. Second-year birds and captive adults took ca. 22% and 27% longer, respectively. Second-year birds start molt in late June, more than four weeks before captive adults, and almost seven weeks before adults that return from breeding in late July-August. Adults finish molt in October when steeply increasing thermostatic costs and reductions in food availability occur. Primary molt duration was longer in female than in male knots (all ages), which was accordance with the somewhat larger body size of females. Since fast growth leads to lower quality feathers, the speedy wing molt shown by Arctic-breeding birds may represent a time constraint that is an unavoidable and routine cost of reproduction. So far it was hypothesized that only birds over 1 kg would have difficulty fitting molt within a year. Here we show that in birds an order of magnitude smaller, temporal imperatives may impose the adoption of non-optimal life-cycle routines in the entire actively breeding population.

  16. Impact of artificial rearing systems on the developmental and reproductive fitness of the predatory bug, Orius laevigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Maarten; De Clercq, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of several substrate types and moisture sources on the developmental and reproductive fitness of the zoophytophagous predator Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) when fed a factitious prey (i.e. unnatural prey) Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) eggs, or a meridic artificial diet based on hen's egg yolk. O. laevigatus is known to feed on plants as an alternative food source and to oviposit in plants. E. kuehniella eggs were superior to the artificial diet. Supplementary feeding on plant materials did not compensate for the nutritional shortcomings of the artificial diet. Survival rates showed that oviposition substrates such as bean pods or lipophilic surfaces such as wax paper and plastic were more suitable for rearing O. laevigatus than household paper. The use of green bean pods as a plant substrate did not have a beneficial effect on O. laevigatus. The results indicated that O. laevigatus can successfully complete its nymphal development and realize its full reproductive potential in the absence of plant material. However, plant materials would still be required for oviposition, unless a reliable and cost-effective artificial oviposition substrate were made available. The omission of plant materials from the rearing procedures may reduce production cost of this species and other heteropteran predators.

  17. Japanese, UN support for Ethiopian tsetse fly removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Japanese Government and the United Nations have committed 1,760,000 dollars to a joint IAEA FAO project to remove the tsetse fly and the diseases it transmits from the Southern Rift Valley in Ethiopia. The money is being made available through the UN Trust Fund for Human Security, which has distributed 256 million dollars since it was established in the UN Secretariat at the initiative of the Japanese Government in 1999. Ridding the Southern Rift Valley of the tsetse fly will reduce pressure on overcrowded hillsides to which farmers have retreated to escape the spread of the tsetse fly leaving fertile river valleys unused. The tsetse fly transmits the trypanosome parasite. In Ethiopia trypanosomosis causes a devastating disease among domestic livestock. Elsewhere in some of the 37 sub-Sahara Africa countries infested by the tsetse fly trypanosomosis also causes sleeping sickness in humans. Welcoming the Japanese commitment IAEA and FAO officials said that the assistance marks the conclusion of years of consensus building on the right approach to follow in fighting the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem. It also follows a major effort by the Ethiopian Government to invite international agencies to agree on a national approach to be pursued in the tsetse infested Southern Rift Valley. The programme in Ethiopia will integrate the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), which involves the release of colony bred sterilised flies with other control methods to suppress the wild population coupled with the development of a programme for sustainable use of newly available land. (FAO/IAEA)

  18. The tsetse fly and African trypanosomosis: Towards a lasting solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabayo, John P.; Agubuzu, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    Tsetse flies carry and transmit infective microscopic parasitic microorganisms, called trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness in man and a similar devastating disease in domestic animals, known as nagana. Over the past couple of centuries, periodic epidemic outbreaks of sleeping sickness wiped out entire communities in villages and settlements in various parts of Africa and caused massive depopulation of many areas. Many communities lost their domestic animals to trypanosomosis and gave up livestock production altogether; they concentrated on crop production, preferring to settle in elevated areas where they were comparatively safe from the diseases commonly found in low-lying areas. Other communities persisted with livestock production and settled in areas, e.g. savanna plains, where the limited vegetation cover was relatively tsetse-free. Over the years, this pattern of settlement, and the attendant separation of crop production from livestock production, has changed. Tsetse eradication was declared in Zanzibar in September 1997, after a 3-year campaign that involved a combination of suppression of the tsetse population with conventional insecticide-based methods and the Sterile Insect Technique. Since then, reports of an economic turnaround for the island have attracted attention and confirmed the view that tsetse eradication has indeed been the missing key in Africa's rural development schemes. In the absence of tsetse flies on Zanzibar, farmers have introduced exotic breeds of livestock and have reported increases in milk production. This success has inspired countries in the rest of Africa to initiate programmes aimed at eradicating tsetse flies and eliminating the associated constraints to land use and agricultural productivity

  19. Lightweight males of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae neglect lightweight females due low reproductive fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual choice by male stink bugs is important because females that experience food shortages lay fewer eggs with lower viability compared with well-fed females. In this study, we investigated whether Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae males fed with a low-quality diet during its nymphal stage show selectivity for sexual partners resulting in high-quality progeny. Lightweight males and females were obtained from nymphs fed weekly with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. By contrast, heavyweight males and females were fed three times a week and received an extra nutritional source: cotton leaves, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae. Lightweight males preferred to mate with heavy females (77.78 ± 14.69%, whereas heavyweight males did not discriminated between light or heavyweight females. Females mated with lightweight males showed similar levels of reproduction to those mated with heavyweight males. The results provide an indication of the importance of male and female body weight for sexual selection in Asopinae stink bugs.

  20. Quality Control for Expanded Tsetse Production, Sterilization and Field Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the control of pest insects as part of an integrated, area-wide approach is widely accepted. Its application for the eradication of different tsetse flies, the vectors of human sleeping sickness and African animal trypanosomosis, is attracting increasing interest. Following several initial demonstrations of the application of the SIT for tsetse control the technique was applied on the island of Unguja, Zanzibar, in the mid-1990s and, as the final component of an integrated control programme, led to the eradication of the only tsetse species on the island, Glossina austeni. This successful programme encouraged a number of countries to embark on projects with an SIT component for tsetse control, most Ethiopia. In 2001 the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) was launched by the Organization of African Unity (now African Union, AU) and, subsequently, six countries obtained funding from the African Development Bank (AfDB) in 2005 to support control programmes with an SIT component. A further six countries have subsequently requested AfDB funding for their programmes. The FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on Automation for Tsetse Mass Rearing For Use in Sterile Insect Technique Programmes, which was completed in 2001, led to the development of a semi-automated system for tsetse production. Using this new system, a large rearing facility was established in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to supply sterile males for an elimination programme in the southern Rift Valley. The development of large-scale rearing highlighted the need for improved quality control procedures and, with this in mind, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture established a CRP in 2003 entitled Improved and Harmonized Quality Control for Expanded Tsetse Production, Sterilization and Field Application with the Objective of Improving and Expanding the Quality Control Sections of the FAO

  1. Quality Control for Expanded Tsetse Production, Sterilization and Field Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the control of pest insects as part of an integrated, area-wide approach is widely accepted. Its application for the eradication of different tsetse flies, the vectors of human sleeping sickness and African animal trypanosomosis, is attracting increasing interest. Following several initial demonstrations of the application of the SIT for tsetse control the technique was applied on the island of Unguja, Zanzibar, in the mid-1990s and, as the final component of an integrated control programme, led to the eradication of the only tsetse species on the island, Glossina austeni. This successful programme encouraged a number of countries to embark on projects with an SIT component for tsetse control, most Ethiopia. In 2001 the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) was launched by the Organization of African Unity (now African Union, AU) and, subsequently, six countries obtained funding from the African Development Bank (AfDB) in 2005 to support control programmes with an SIT component. A further six countries have subsequently requested AfDB funding for their programmes. The FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on Automation for Tsetse Mass Rearing For Use in Sterile Insect Technique Programmes, which was completed in 2001, led to the development of a semi-automated system for tsetse production. Using this new system, a large rearing facility was established in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to supply sterile males for an elimination programme in the southern Rift Valley. The development of large-scale rearing highlighted the need for improved quality control procedures and, with this in mind, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture established a CRP in 2003 entitled Improved and Harmonized Quality Control for Expanded Tsetse Production, Sterilization and Field Application with the Objective of Improving and Expanding the Quality Control Sections of the FAO

  2. Parturition in Tsetse Flies: Endocrine Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zd' arek, J; Cvacka, J; Sanda, M [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, AV CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Takac, P; Keszeliova, D; Simo, L; Roller, L [Institute of Zoology, SAV, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    A problem in tsetse mass rearing facilities is the increased incidence of abortions of underdeveloped larvae or pupariation of larvae within the mother's uterus. We analysed the problem by investigating neural, hormonal and environmental factors controlling parturition. Input from the mother's brain is essential for normal parturition, since a female whose brain is disconnected by ligation fails to deposit her larva. The expulsion of a larva is stimulated by a putative parturition hormone present within the female's uterus. The hormone also elicits abortion when injected into neck ligated females at earlier stages of pregnancy. This report describes attempts to reveal the chemical nature of this hormone by purification of extracts of uteri of Glossina females and identification of behaviourally active fractions using a MALDI-MS instrument. Genomic (BLAST) analysis of the identified sequences did not reveal a significant match with any protein with bioactive properties in other species. However, similarity with various enzymes or structural proteins (and hypothetical proteins) was detected occasionally. In the Glossina genomic and cDNA databases no nucleotide sequence corresponding to the deduced AA sequences was found. Perhaps the deduced sequences are too short to obtain more significant hits both in protein and nucleotide databases. We also made investigations to elucidate environmental influences and physiological mechanisms associated with tsetse parturition. We found that the circadian rhythm of parturition of flies kept in Bratislava (G. m. morsitans, G. f. fuscipes and G. pallidipes) is less pronounced than under natural conditions. The loss of synchrony in the laboratory may have three possible causes: (i) genetic - absence of selective pressure, (ii) environmental - low intensity or absence of an entraining light or temperature stimulus, and (iii) physiological - impaired sensitivity to olfactory stimulation by a hypothetical 'oviposition' pheromone that

  3. Antibiotic treatment of the tick vector Amblyomma americanum reduced reproductive fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Zhong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lone star tick Amblyomma americanum is a common pest and vector of infectious diseases for humans and other mammals in the southern and eastern United States. A Coxiella sp. bacterial endosymbiont was highly prevalent in both laboratory-reared and field-collected A. americanum. The Coxiella sp. was demonstrated in all stages of tick and in greatest densities in nymphs and adult females, while a Rickettsia sp. was less prevalent and in lower densities when present. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We manipulated the numbers of both bacterial species in laboratory-reared A. americanum by injecting engorged nymphs or engorged, mated females with single doses of an antibiotic (rifampin or tetracycline or buffer alone. Burdens of the bacteria after molting or after oviposition were estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with primers and probes specific for each bacterial species or, as an internal standard, the host tick. Post-molt adult ticks that had been treated with rifampin or tetracycline had lower numbers of the Coxiella sp. and Rickettsia sp. and generally weighed less than ticks that received buffer alone. Similarly, after oviposition, females treated previously with either antibiotic had lower burdens of both bacterial species in comparison to controls. Treatment of engorged females with either antibiotic was associated with prolonged time to oviposition, lower proportions of ticks that hatched, lower proportions of viable larvae among total larvae, and lower numbers of viable larvae per tick. These fitness estimators were associated with reduced numbers of the Coxiella sp. but not the Rickettsia sp. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings indicate that the Coxiella sp. is a primary endosymbiont, perhaps provisioning the obligately hematophagous parasites with essential nutrients. The results also suggest that antibiotics could be incorporated into an integrated pest management plan for control of these and other

  4. A pilot study to delimit tsetse target populations in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Chikowore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse (Glossina sensu stricto are cyclical vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses, that are presently targeted by the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC coordinated by the African Union. In order to achieve effective control of tsetse, there is need to produce elaborate plans to guide intervention programmes. A model intended to aid in the planning of intervention programmes and assist a fuller understanding of tsetse distribution was applied, in a pilot study in the Masoka area, Mid-Zambezi valley in Zimbabwe, and targeting two savannah species, Glossina morsitans morsitans and Glossina pallidipes.The field study was conducted between March and December 2015 in 105 sites following a standardized grid sampling frame. Presence data were used to study habitat suitability of both species based on climatic and environmental data derived from MODIS and SPOT 5 satellite images. Factors influencing distribution were studied using an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA whilst habitat suitability was predicted using a Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt model at a spatial resolution of 250 m. Area Under the Curve (AUC, an indicator of model performance, was 0.89 for G. m. morsitans and 0.96 for G. pallidipes. We then used the predicted suitable areas to calculate the probability that flies were really absent from the grid cells where they were not captured during the study based on a probability model using a risk threshold of 0.05. Apart from grid cells where G. m. morsitans and G. pallidipes were captured, there was a high probability of presence in an additional 128 km2 and 144 km2 respectively.The modelling process promised to be useful in optimizing the outputs of presence/absence surveys, allowing the definition of tsetse infested areas with improved accuracy. The methodology proposed here can be extended to all the tsetse infested parts of Zimbabwe and may also be useful for other PATTEC national initiatives in other

  5. Eradicating the tsetse fly on Zanzibar Island: A model project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Tsetse flies infest vast areas of Africa and transmit a parasitic disease which devastates livestock herds and spreads debilitating 'sleeping sickness' amongst people. Past efforts to control the disease - Trypanosomosis - and the carrier insects have met with only limited success. But now an environmentally friendly technology called the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) may provide a lasting solution to this scourge. Working with the Tanzanian Government and Zanzibar authorities, the Department of Technical Co-operation has sponsored a 'Model Project', with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the tsetse fly completely from Zanzibar Island by applying SIT. (IAEA)

  6. Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough Brings Hope for African Farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have cracked the genetic code of the bloodsucking tsetse fly, prompting hope that the breakthrough will help future efforts to control one of the most devastating livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa spread by the insect. The tsetse genome was sequenced and annotated during a 10-year international collaborative effort that involved the Insect Pest Control Laboratory run jointly by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The achievement allows scientists to better study the fly's genes and their functions, knowledge that should open the door for researching ways to control the insect

  7. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugenyi Albert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM. Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  8. Tryptophan metabolism in tsetse flies and the consequences of its derangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Gooding

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature comparing salmon and wild type Glossina morsitans morsitans and that comparing tan and wild type Glossina palpalis palpalis is reviewed. New information is presented on behaviour and biochemistry of salmon and wild type G. m. morsitans. The eye color mutants result from two lesions in the tryptophan to xanthommatin pathway: lack of tryptophan oxygenase in G. m morsitans and failure to produce or retain xanthommatin in eyes (but not in testes of G. p. palpalis. The salmon allele in G. m. morsitans is pleiotropic and profoundly affects many aspects of fly biology including longevity, reproductive capacity, vision, vectorial capacity and duration of flight, but not circadian rhythms. The tan allele in G. p. palpalis has little effect upon the biology of flies under laboratory conditions, except that tan flies appear less active than normal. Adult tsetse flies metabolize tryptophan to kynurenine which is excreted; fluctuations in activities of the enzymes producing kynurenine suggest this pathway is under metabolic control.

  9. THE MODULATED SOUNDS MADE BY THE TSETSE FLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsetse flies produce modulated sounds, variously described as singing, buzzing, squeaking or pinging. The calls are closely related to the vital functions of the community namely hunting, feeding, mating and larviposition. The ecological significance of this faculty, therefore, needs further investigation. The flight sounds ...

  10. Molecular identification of tsetse fly ( Diptera: Glossinidae ) species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspite of the few mixed clusters, the pattern produced in the phylogenetic trees can provide a good guide to support any other method of Glossina identification. It was recommended that evaluations be made to validate other genetic markers that can produce better resolutions to identify tsetse fly species using phylogenetic ...

  11. Dual control of ticks and tsetse flies using deltamethrin through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dual control of ticks and tsetse flies using deltamethrin through community participatory methods. M Ocaido, C P Otim, N M Okuna, C Ssekitto, D Kakaire, J Erume, R Z O Wafula, J Walubengo, G Musisi, Okello Bwangamoi, S Okure, W Ebiaru, G Monrad ...

  12. Geospatial forecast model for tsetse-transmitted animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that GIS model developed for parasitic diseases based on growing degree day (GDD) concept can be applied to tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis. GIS for animal trypanosomosis was created using Food and Agriculture Organization – Crop Production System Zones (FAO-CPSZ) database and Normalized ...

  13. Fifty years of Tsetse control in Tanzania: challenges and prospects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even after 50 years of independence, Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or Sleeping Sickness is still one of the major public health problems with about 300 cases being reported annually. Tsetse control has been sporadic and uncoordinated hence no tangible results have been accrued since independence despite ...

  14. Stoichiometric estimates of the biochemical conversion efficiencies in tsetse metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custer Adrian V

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time varying flows of biomass and energy in tsetse (Glossina can be examined through the construction of a dynamic mass-energy budget specific to these flies but such a budget depends on efficiencies of metabolic conversion which are unknown. These efficiencies of conversion determine the overall yields when food or storage tissue is converted into body tissue or into metabolic energy. A biochemical approach to the estimation of these efficiencies uses stoichiometry and a simplified description of tsetse metabolism to derive estimates of the yields, for a given amount of each substrate, of conversion product, by-products, and exchanged gases. This biochemical approach improves on estimates obtained through calorimetry because the stoichiometric calculations explicitly include the inefficiencies and costs of the reactions of conversion. However, the biochemical approach still overestimates the actual conversion efficiency because the approach ignores all the biological inefficiencies and costs such as the inefficiencies of leaky membranes and the costs of molecular transport, enzyme production, and cell growth. Results This paper presents estimates of the net amounts of ATP, fat, or protein obtained by tsetse from a starting milligram of blood, and provides estimates of the net amounts of ATP formed from the catabolism of a milligram of fat along two separate pathways, one used for resting metabolism and one for flight. These estimates are derived from stoichiometric calculations constructed based on a detailed quantification of the composition of food and body tissue and on a description of the major metabolic pathways in tsetse simplified to single reaction sequences between substrates and products. The estimates include the expected amounts of uric acid formed, oxygen required, and carbon dioxide released during each conversion. The calculated estimates of uric acid egestion and of oxygen use compare favorably to

  15. Developing Quality Control Procedures to Sustain a Supply of High Quality Blood for Mass Rearing Tsetse Flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Beer, C J; Venter, G J; Potgieter, F T [ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Old Soutpans Road, Private Bag X05, 0110 Onderstepoort (South Africa)

    2012-07-15

    Mass rearing tsetse flies Glossina spp. is dependent on the sustained availability of a high quality blood diet. In any mass rearing facility, the logistics for obtaining sterile, high quality fresh blood is challenging. An added complication is the influence of potential chemical, physical and microbiological elements present in the blood of donors, as well as contamination during collection, handling and storage. Research at the Agricultural Research Council - Onderstepoort Veterinary institute (ARC-OVI) is directed towards the development of quality control procedures for the supply of the in vitro diet used to maintain productive colonies of Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead. Factors that may influence the blood diet, e.g. defibrination, feeding times, collection of blood in anticoagulants, treatment of blood with taste stimuli, repeated freezing and thawing of blood, effect of bovine growth hormones, and also a preference for bovine or porcine blood were tested. A 25 day bioassay was used to determine the effects of these factors on tsetse survival and reproduction. Defibrination of the blood for 10 to 15 minutes gave the best results for both species. It was found that G. brevipalpis should be fed three times per week for 5 minutes each time, and G. austeni three times per week for 10 minutes. Heparin, acid citrate dextrose (ACD), citric acid, citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA) and a combination of sodium citrate and citric acid were effective anticoagulants in the blood diets of G. brevipalpis and G. austeni. Blood treated with inosine triphosphate (ITP) gave the highest quality factor (QFC) values for both G. austeni and G. brevipalpis. Repeated freezing and thawing of blood definitely affects pupal production negatively; G. brevipalpis especially produced significantly smaller pupae. A premixed diet of equal amounts of bovine and porcine blood was found to be best suited for G. brevipalpis, and for G. austeni a mixture of

  16. Updating the Northern Tsetse Limit in Burkina Faso (1949–2009: Impact of Global Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Courtin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The northern distribution limit of tsetse flies was updated in Burkina Faso and compared to previous limits to revise the existing map of these vectors of African trypanosomiases dating from several decades ago. From 1949 to 2009, a 25- to 150-km shift has appeared toward the south. Tsetse are now discontinuously distributed in Burkina Faso with a western and an eastern tsetse belt. This range shift can be explained by a combination of decreased rainfall and increased human density. Within a context of international control, this study provides a better understanding of the factors influencing the distribution of tsetse flies.

  17. On the Least-Squares Fitting of Slater-Type Orbitals with Gaussians: Reproduction of the STO-NG Fits Using Microsoft Excel and Maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Cory C.; Mercer, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    The symbolic algebra program Maple and the spreadsheet Microsoft Excel were used in an attempt to reproduce the Gaussian fits to a Slater-type orbital, required to construct the popular STO-NG basis sets. The successes and pitfalls encountered in such an approach are chronicled. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  18. Recording and Analysis of Tsetse Flight Responses in Three Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, P M; Gurba, A; Harraca, V; Perret, J -L [Institute of Biology, University of Neuchatel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, Case Postale 158, 2009 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Casera, S; Donnet, S [Institute of Informatics, University of Neuchatel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, Case Postale 158, 2009 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    Recording and analysing three dimensional (3D) motions of tsetse flies in flight are technically challenging due to their speed of flight. However, video recording of tsetse fly flight responses has already been made in both wind tunnels and the field. The aim of our research was to study the way tsetse flies exploit host odours and visual targets during host searching. Such knowledge can help in the development of better trapping devices. We built a wind tunnel where it is possible to control environmental parameters, e.g. temperature, relative humidity and light. The flight of the flies was filmed from above with two high speed Linux-embedded cameras equipped with fish-eye objectives viewing at 60o from one another. The synchronized stereo images were used to reconstruct the trajectory of flies in 3D and in real time. Software permitted adjustment for parameters such as luminosity and size of the tsetse species being tracked. Interpolation permitted us to calculate flight coordinates and to measure modifications of flight parameters such as acceleration, velocity, rectitude, angular velocity and curvature according to the experimental conditions. Using this system we filmed the responses of Glossina brevipalpis Newstead obtained from a colony at the IAEA Entomology Unit, Seibersdorf, Austria to human breath presented with and without a visual target. Flights lasting up to 150 s duration and covering up to 153 m were recorded. G. brevipalpis flights to human breath were characterized by wide undulations along the course. When a visual target was placed in the plume of breath, flights of G. brevipalpis were more tightly controlled, i.e. slower and more directed. This showed that after multiple generations in a laboratory colony G. brevipalpis was still capable of complex behaviours during bloodmeal searching. (author)

  19. Low fertility awareness in United States reproductive-aged women and medical trainees: creation and validation of the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Chernyak, Elizabeth; McAvey, Beth

    2017-10-01

    To create, validate, and use a fertility awareness survey based on current U.S. Cross-sectional study. Not applicable. Phase 1 included U.S. women ages 18-45; phase 2 included female medical students and obstetrics and gynecology trainees at two urban academic programs. Survey including demographics, the Fertility & Infertility Treatment Knowledge Score (FIT-KS) instrument, and General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire. Knowledge of natural fertility and infertility treatments. The FIT-KS was validated through detailed item and validity analyses. In phase 1, 127 women participated; their median age was 31 years, and 43.7% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 16.2 ± 3.5 (55.9% correct). In phase 2, 118 medical trainees participated; their median age was 25 years, and 12.4% had children. Their mean FIT-KS score was 18.8 ± 2.1 (64.9% correct), with year of training correlating to a higher score (r=0.40). Participant awareness regarding lifestyle factors varied, but it was particularly low regarding the effects of lubricants. The majority underestimated the spontaneous miscarriage rate and overestimated the fecundability of 40-year-old women. There was general overestimation of success rates for assisted reproductive technologies, particularly among medical trainees. The FIT-KS is validated to current U.S. data for use in both general and medical populations as a quick assessment of fertility knowledge. The knowledge gaps demonstrated in this study correlate with national trends in delayed childbearing and time to initiate treatment. For medical trainees, these results raise concerns about the quality of fertility counseling they may be able to offer patients. Greater educational outreach must be undertaken to enhance fertility awareness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis of trypanosome prevalence in tsetse flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The optimisation of trypanosomosis control programs warrants a good knowledge of the main vector of animal and human trypanosomes in sub-Saharan Africa, the tsetse fly. An important aspect of the tsetse fly population is its trypanosome infection prevalence, as it determines the intensit...

  1. Effects of exposure to short-term heat stress on male reproductive fitness in a soil arthropod.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zizzari, Z.V.; Ellers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient temperature is a key environmental factor influencing a variety of aspects of the ecology and evolution of ectotherms. Reproductive traits have been suggested to be more sensitive to thermal stress than other life history traits. This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of

  2. Better Together: Association With ‘Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus’ Increases the Reproductive Fitness of Its Insect Vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz-Stelinski, K. S.; Killiny, N.

    2016-01-01

    The duration of the evolutionary association between a pathogen and vector can be inferred based on the strength of their mutualistic interactions. A well-adapted pathogen is likely to confer some benefit or, at a minimum, exhibit low pathogenicity toward its host vector. Coevolution of the two toward a mutually beneficial association appears to have occurred between the citrus greening disease pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama). To better understand the dynamics facilitating transmission, we evaluated the effects of Las infection on the fitness of its vector. Diaphorina citri harboring Las were more fecund than their uninfected counterparts; however, their nymphal development rate and adult survival were comparatively reduced. The finite rate of population increase and net reproductive rate were both greater among Las-infected D. citri as compared with uninfected counterparts, indicating that overall population fitness of infected psyllids was improved given the greater number of offspring produced. Previous reports of transovarial transmission, in conjunction with increased fecundity and population growth rates of Las-positive D. citri found in the current investigation, suggest a long evolutionary relationship between pathogen and vector. The survival of Las-infected adult D. citri was lower compared with uninfected D. citri, which suggests that there may be a fitness trade-off in response to Las infection. A beneficial effect of a plant pathogen on vector fitness may indicate that the pathogen developed a relationship with the insect before secondarily moving to plants. PMID:27418697

  3. Perspectives on the behavior of entomopathogenic nematodes from dispersal to reproduction: traits contributing to nematode fitness and biocontrol efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Christine T

    2012-06-01

    The entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are widely used for the biological control of insect pests and are gaining importance as model organisms for studying parasitism and symbiosis. In this paper recent advances in the understanding of EPN behavior are reviewed. The "foraging strategy" paradigm (distinction between species with ambush and cruise strategies) as applied to EPN is being challenged and alternative paradigms proposed. Infection decisions are based on condition of the potential host, and it is becoming clear that already-infected and even long-dead hosts may be invaded, as well as healthy live hosts. The state of the infective juvenile (IJ) also influences infection, and evidence for a phased increase in infectivity of EPN species is mounting. The possibility of social behavior - adaptive interactions between IJs outside the host - is discussed. EPNs' symbiotic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) are important for killing the host and rendering it suitable for nematode reproduction, but may reduce survival of IJs, resulting in a trade-off between survival and reproduction. The symbiont also contributes to defence of the cadaver by affecting food-choice decisions of insect and avian scavengers. I review EPN reproductive behavior (including sperm competition, copulation and evidence for attractive and organizational effects of pheromones), and consider the role of endotokia matricida as parental behavior exploited by the symbiont for transmission.

  4. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance in tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimelis Dagnachew

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Northwestern region of Ethiopia is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA or isometamidium chloride (ISM. In the present work; questionnaire survey, cross-sectional and experimental studies were carried out to; a assess the utilization of trypanocidal drugs; b determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and; c assess the drug resistant problems respectively in Tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas on NW Ethiopia. A total of 100 respondents were included for the survey and the questionnaires focused on the drug utilization practices for the control of Trypanosomosis. Blood from cattle 640 (324 cattle tested in 2011, 316 cattle tested in 2012 and 795 (390 cattle tested in 2011, 405 cattle tested in 2012 were examined from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas respectively using the buffy coat technique and thin blood smear for the detection of trypanosomes and measurement of packed cell volume (PCV. For the assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance three isolates, one from tsetse (TT and two from non-tsetse (NT areas were used on thirty six trypanosome naïve calves. The experimental animals were divided randomly into six groups of six animals (TT-ETBS2-DA, TT-ETBS2-ISM, NT-ETBD2-DA, NT-ETBD2-ISM, NT-ETBD3-DA and NT-ETBD3-ISM, which were infected with T. vivax isolated from a tsetse-infested or non-tsetse infested area with 2 × 106 trypanosomes from donor animals, and in each case treated with higher dose of DA or ISM. The results of the questionnaire survey showed trypanosomosis was a significant animal health constraint for 84% and 100% of the farmers questioned in non-tsetse and tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia respectively. Responses on trypanocidal drug utilization practices indicated that risk

  5. When the Seasons Don't Fit: Speedy Molt as a Routine Carry-Over Cost of Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, M.W.; Rogers, K.G.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant

  6. When the seasons don't fit : Speedy molt as a routine carry-over cost of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Rogers, Ken G.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant

  7. Optimal strategies for controlling riverine tsetse flies using targets: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn A Vale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies occur in much of sub-Saharan Africa where they transmit the trypanosomes that cause the diseases of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. One of the most economical and effective methods of tsetse control is the use of insecticide-treated screens, called targets, that simulate hosts. Targets have been ~1 m2, but recently it was shown that those tsetse that occupy riverine situations, and which are the main vectors of sleeping sickness, respond well to targets only ~0.06 m2. The cheapness of these tiny targets suggests the need to reconsider what intensity and duration of target deployments comprise the most cost-effective strategy in various riverine habitats.A deterministic model, written in Excel spreadsheets and managed by Visual Basic for Applications, simulated the births, deaths and movement of tsetse confined to a strip of riverine vegetation composed of segments of habitat in which the tsetse population was either self-sustaining, or not sustainable unless supplemented by immigrants. Results suggested that in many situations the use of tiny targets at high density for just a few months per year would be the most cost-effective strategy for rapidly reducing tsetse densities by the ~90% expected to have a great impact on the incidence of sleeping sickness. Local elimination of tsetse becomes feasible when targets are deployed in isolated situations, or where the only invasion occurs from populations that are not self-sustaining.Seasonal use of tiny targets deserves field trials. The ability to recognise habitat that contains tsetse populations which are not self-sustaining could improve the planning of all methods of tsetse control, against any species, in riverine, savannah or forest situations. Criteria to assist such recognition are suggested.

  8. The prevalence of African animal trypanosomoses and tsetse presence in Western Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seck, M.T.; Bouyer, J.; Sall, B.; Bengaly, Z.; Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the Government of Senegal initiated a tsetse eradication campaign in the Niayes and La Petite Côte aiming at the removal of African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT), which is one of the main constraints to the development of more effective cattle production systems. The target area has particular meteorological and ecological characteristics that provide great potential for animal production, but it is unfortunately still infested by the riverine tsetse species Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae). The tsetse project in Senegal has adopted an area- wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach that targets the entire tsetse population within a delimited area. During the first phase of the programme, a feasibility study was conducted that included the collection of entomological, veterinary, population genetics, environmental and socio-economic baseline data. This paper presents the parasitological and serological prevalence data of AAT in cattle residing inside and outside the tsetse-infested areas of the target zone prior to the control effort. At the herd level, a mean parasitological prevalence of 2.4 % was observed, whereas a serological prevalence of 28.7 %, 4.4 %, and 0.3 % was obtained for Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei brucei, respectively. The observed infection risk was 3 times higher for T. congolense and T. vivax in the tsetse-infested than in the assumed tsetse-free areas. Moreover, AAT prevalence decreased significantly with distance from the nearest tsetse captured which indicated that cyclical transmission of the parasites by tsetse was predominant over mechanical transmission by numerous other biting flies present. The importance of these results for the development of a control strategy for the planned AW-IPM campaign is discussed. (Authors) [fr

  9. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Migliaccio

    Full Text Available Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6 and 3.6 x 10(-5 M, respectively on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals.

  10. Current tsetse control operations in Botswana and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allsopp, R.; Phillemon-Motsu, T.K.

    2000-01-01

    Several tsetse control methods have been used in Botswana over the past 70 years, ranging from bush clearing and selective game elimination, ground spraying with residual insecticides, aerial spraying with non-residual insecticides to the present odour-bait approach. Sequential aerial spraying, initially with endosulfan or mixtures of endosulfan with one of the synthetic pyrethroids, effectively controlled tsetse but did not achieve eradication. Aerial spraying was suspended in 1991 when the tsetse population had been reduced to a relatively small population along the Linyanti and Kwando rivers bordering Namibia and to an area of 4,000-5,000 km 2 in the Okavango Delta. After the 1991 aerial spraying operation the Tsetse Control Division switched to the use of odour-baited, insecticide-impregnated targets as well as localised, ground based thermal fogging. There has been no incidence of human and bovine trypanosomiasis since the mid-1980s and no significant insect population recovery since targets were introduced

  11. Potential for area-wide control or eradication of tsetse flies in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabayo, J.P.; Feldmann, U.

    2000-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Glossina) are found in Africa over an area, estimated by various authors, of 7-11 million sq. km. The northern limit of this area corresponds closely to the southern edges of the Sahara and Somali Deserts, running along 14 deg. N and extending across the continent from Senegal in the west to Somalia in the east. The southern limit of tsetse distribution corresponds closely to the northern edges of the Kalahari and Namibian Deserts in the west and runs generally at 20-30 deg. S to the east of the continent (Ford and Katondo 1977). This tsetse fly belt covers the following 38 countries (listed below) in which the tsetse flies spread African trypanosomosis, a severe disease that affects man and his domestic livestock, and is among the factors responsible for limiting the pace and extent of development in those countries. The disease is of a major economic importance. Throughout the affected countries within the fly belt, areas that are heavily infested by the tsetse fly are virtually devoid of cattle and other species of domestic livestock. Distribution of livestock in all countries on the African continent where densely infested foci exist is almost exactly the reverse of the distribution of the fly (Finelle 1974, Brunhes et al. 1994). Attempts to control African trypanosomosis date back to the beginning of this century. Several different methods of control, some aimed at the disease-causing organism and other aimed at the vector, were employed (Nagel 1995, Jordan 1986). Until after the Second World War, when insecticides became available for use in tsetse control campaigns, the most widely used control measure against tsetse flies was habitat destruction (involving felling trees and bush-clearing), the elimination of host animals (involving killing of wild game) and, to a certain extent, the use of various trapping devices to catch the flies. The tsetse control campaigns mounted in the 40s, 50s and 60s were invariably extensive 'roll up the country

  12. The impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse abundance on the plateau of eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducheyne, E; Mweempwa, C; De Pus, C; Vernieuwe, H; De Deken, R; Hendrickx, G; Van den Bossche, P

    2009-09-01

    Tsetse-transmitted human or livestock trypanosomiasis is one of the major constraints to rural development in sub-Saharan Africa. The epidemiology of the disease is determined largely by tsetse fly density. A major factor, contributing to tsetse population density is the availability of suitable habitat. In large parts of Africa, encroachment of people and their livestock resulted in a destruction and fragmentation of such suitable habitat. To determine the effect of habitat change on tsetse density a study was initiated in a tsetse-infested zone of eastern Zambia. The study area represents a gradient of habitat change, starting from a zone with high levels of habitat destruction and ending in an area where livestock and people are almost absent. To determine the distribution and density of the fly, tsetse surveys were conducted throughout the study area in the dry and in the rainy season. Landsat ETM+ imagery covering the study area were classified into four land cover classes (munga, miombo, agriculture and settlements) and two auxiliary spectral classes (clouds and shadow) using a Gaussian Maximum Likelihood Classifier. The classes were regrouped into natural vegetation and agricultural zone. The binary images were overlaid with hexagons to obtain the spatial spectrum of spatial pattern. Hexagonal coverage was selected because of its compact and regular form. To identify scale-specific spatial patterns and associated entomological phenomena, the size of the hexagonal coverage was varied (250 and 500 m). Per coverage, total class area, mean patch size, number of patches and patch size standard deviation were used as fragmentation indices. Based on the fragmentation index values, the study zone was classified using a Partitioning Around Mediods (PAM) method. The number of classes was determined using the Wilks' lambda coefficient. To determine the impact of habitat fragmentation on tsetse abundance, the correlation between the fragmentation indices and the index

  13. Standard Operating Procedures for Preparing and Handling Sterile Male Tsetse flies for Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiles-Herrero, Rafa; Leak, Stephen G.A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures involved in preparing tsetse flies reared in a breeding facility for release in the field for the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of Area-Wide Insect pest Management (AW-IPM). Following the procedures which are outlined will help to ensure that the released sterile male tsetse flies are of optimal quality.

  14. Campaign launched to eliminate tsetse fly, which has turned much of Africa into a green desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A new campaign to control the deadly tsetse fly in Africa, parasitic carrier of sleeping sickness, has been launched by the Organization of African Unity (OAU). African sleeping sickness affects as many as 500,000 people, 80 percent of whom eventually die, and the bite of the fly causes more than $4 billion in economic losses annually. The tsetse fly has turned much of the fertile African landscape into an uninhabited 'green desert', spreading sleeping sickness -- and killing 3 million livestock animals every year. The fly is the carrier of the single cell parasite, trypanosome, which attacks the blood and nervous system of its victims, causing sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. The biting tsetse fly transmits it when its seeks a blood meal. Despite various drastic efforts over the past 100 years to eradicate the tsetse fly, most of the time it has recovered. The tsetse, about the size of a house fly, infests 37 sub-Saharan African countries - 32 of them among the 42 most Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) in the world. Much of Africa's best land - particularly in river valleys and moist areas, where the potential for mixed farming is good - lies uncultivated, while tsetse free areas face collapse from overuse by humans. The range of the fly is expanding and in some parts of Africa renewed outbreaks of sleeping sickness are killing more people than any other disease. In 1997 the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar was declared free of the tsetse after conventional methods reduced its numbers and the release of hundreds of thousands of infertile male flies into the wild - sterilized using a nuclear technology - clinched its success. In Burkina Faso in 2001, the Organization of African Unity, inaugurated the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC), based on the successful Zanzibar program

  15. Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough: The FAO and IAEA Crack the Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2014-01-01

    With the breakthrough in sequencing the genome of the tsetse fly species Glossina morsitans in April 2014, another milestone has been achieved in helping to solve a problem that has had horrendous ramifications for Africa. Finding a solution to the havoc created by tsetse flies to livestock has been a major challenge for the combined scientific efforts of the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), as well as for the World Health Organization (WHO), which has focused on combating human sleeping sickness. Joint research over the past decades to block the spread of severe infection from tsetse flies resulted in the introduction by the FAO and IAEA of the environmentally friendly sterile insect technique (SIT), a biologically-based method for the management of key insect pests of agricultural, medical and veterinary importance. A form of insect birth control, the SIT involves releasing mass-bred male flies that have been sterilized by low doses of radiation into infested areas, where they mate with wild females. These do not produce offspring and, as a result, the technique can suppress and, if applied systematically on an area-wide basis, eventually eradicate populations of wild flies. The newly acquired knowledge of the tsetse fly genome provides a wealth of information for the improvement of the entire SIT package and can help unravel interactions between tsetse flies, symbionts and trypanosomes. The decoding of the genome was detailed in a press release issued by the IAEA on 24 April 2014 entitled Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough Brings Hope for African Farmers. Tsetse flies were successfully eradicated in 1997 from the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar using the SIT. Ethiopia and Senegal are making significant progress in infested areas with the same method. The FAO and IAEA are helping 14 countries control tsetse populations through applying area-wide integrated pest management approaches

  16. Evolution of postmating reproductive isolation: measuring the fitness effects of chromosomal regions containing hybrid male sterility factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N A; Wu, C I

    1993-08-01

    At least six regions of the X chromosome can cause male sterility when introgressed from Drosophila mauritiana into Drosophila simulans. In this article, we present the results of the other fitness effects caused by two X-linked regions that contain hybrid male sterility factors. In both regions, females that are heterozygous for an introgression with such a sterility factor produce substantially-fewer offspring than females heterozygous for an introgression that lacks the sterility factor. Thus, the hybrid male sterility factors, or other genes nearby, have substantial effects on female productivity. In contrast, hybrid male sterility factors have little or no effect on the relative viabilities of either sex. The evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Use of gamma-irradiated blood for feeding tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, B.; Iwannek, K.H.; Hamann, H.J.; Adamsky, G.

    1980-01-01

    Freshly collected pig blood was sterilized by 60 Co gamma irradiation. A dose of 100 krad proved to be effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations of at least 4.7x10 5 /ml. Glossina morsitans morsitans (Westw.) were maintained on this blood by feeding them five days per week on silicone membrane for nine months. Their performance was compared with a control fed untreated blood. In spite of the slightly faster haemolysis of the irradiated blood, the results from the experimental group compared favourably with the control. This was especially true for the percentage of daily mortality. The irradiation seems to offer a promising approach for the establishment of mass rearing plants in Africa based on in vitro feeding provided the blood from donor animals is suitable for tsetse flies. (author)

  18. Description of a nanobody-based competitive immunoassay to detect tsetse fly exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the main vectors of human and animal African trypanosomes. The Tsal proteins in tsetse fly saliva were previously identified as suitable biomarkers of bite exposure. A new competitive assay was conceived based on nanobody (Nb technology to ameliorate the detection of anti-Tsal antibodies in mammalian hosts.A camelid-derived Nb library was generated against the Glossina morsitans morsitans sialome and exploited to select Tsal specific Nbs. One of the three identified Nb families (family III, TsalNb-05 and TsalNb-11 was found suitable for anti-Tsal antibody detection in a competitive ELISA format. The competitive ELISA was able to detect exposure to a broad range of tsetse species (G. morsitans morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. fuscipes and did not cross-react with the other hematophagous insects (Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanus yao. Using a collection of plasmas from tsetse-exposed pigs, the new test characteristics were compared with those of the previously described G. m. moristans and rTsal1 indirect ELISAs, revealing equally good specificities (> 95% and positive predictive values (> 98% but higher negative predictive values and hence increased sensitivity (> 95% and accuracy (> 95%.We have developed a highly accurate Nb-based competitive immunoassay to detect specific anti-Tsal antibodies induced by various tsetse fly species in a range of hosts. We propose that this competitive assay provides a simple serological indicator of tsetse fly presence without the requirement of test adaptation to the vertebrate host species. In addition, the use of monoclonal Nbs for antibody detection is innovative and could be applied to other tsetse fly salivary biomarkers in order to achieve a multi-target immunoprofiling of hosts. In addition, this approach could be broadened to other pathogenic organisms for which accurate serological diagnosis remains a bottleneck.

  19. Expression and extracellular release of a functional anti-trypanosome Nanobody® in Sodalis glossinidius, a bacterial symbiont of the tsetse fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vooght Linda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodalis glossinidius, a gram-negative bacterial endosymbiont of the tsetse fly, has been proposed as a potential in vivo drug delivery vehicle to control trypanosome parasite development in the fly, an approach known as paratransgenesis. Despite this interest of S. glossinidius as a paratransgenic platform organism in tsetse flies, few potential effector molecules have been identified so far and to date none of these molecules have been successfully expressed in this bacterium. Results In this study, S. glossinidius was transformed to express a single domain antibody, (Nanobody® Nb_An33, that efficiently targets conserved cryptic epitopes of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Next, we analyzed the capability of two predicted secretion signals to direct the extracellular delivery of significant levels of active Nb_An33. We show that the pelB leader peptide was successful in directing the export of fully functional Nb_An33 to the periplasm of S. glossinidius resulting in significant levels of extracellular release. Finally, S. glossinidius expressing pelBNb_An33 exhibited no significant reduction in terms of fitness, determined by in vitro growth kinetics, compared to the wild-type strain. Conclusions These data are the first demonstration of the expression and extracellular release of functional trypanosome-interfering Nanobodies® in S. glossinidius. Furthermore, Sodalis strains that efficiently released the effector protein were not affected in their growth, suggesting that they may be competitive with endogenous microbiota in the midgut environment of the tsetse fly. Collectively, these data reinforce the notion for the potential of S. glossinidius to be developed into a paratransgenic platform organism.

  20. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  1. A desk evaluation review of project URT/5/007 tsetse fly eradication. Project desk evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    Project URT/5/007 was initiated in 1984 to assist the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania in developing membrane feeding technology for the mass breeding of tsetse flies, which is required for the application of the sterile insect technique to eradicate the tsetse fly from the island of Zanzibar. As the project progressed the objectives focused on the development of inter-related management practices with SIT to control and eventually eradicate the tsetse species infesting Zanzibar. As depicted by the project title, tsetse fly eradication on Zanzibar is the ultimate goal of on-going work of project URT/5/007; however, tsetse fly eradication is not the immediate objective of this project. The total budget of the project for the years 1984 through 1994 includes 53 man-months of expert services, $402,755 for equipment, and $1,959 for fellowship training. Additional funds for 57 man-months of fellowship training were provided from sources outside of the project. Resources provided by the United Republic of Tanzania for the project included staff, local facilities, and local running costs. A Desk Evaluation Review (DER) of Project URT/5/007 was requested by the Africa Section to provide an assessment of project achievements and to determine to what end the project may lead in the near future. Also the review could help determine how experiences gained during the developments of this project might be utilized in the management and implementation of similar projects in Tanzania or the region.

  2. Tsetse elimination: its interest and feasibility in the historical sleeping sickness focus of Loos islands, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagbadouno M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Guinea is the West African country which is currently the most prevalent for sleeping sickness. The littoral area is the region where most of the recent sleeping sickness cases have been described, especially the mangrove sleeping sickness foci of Dubreka and Boffa where Glossina palpalis gambiensis is the vector. Loos islands constitute a small archipelago 5 km apart from the capital, Conakry. Medical, animal, and entomological surveys were implemented in these islands in Oct-Nov 2006. No pathogenic trypanosomes were found in these surveys. The locally very high tsetse densities (up to more than 100 tsetse/trap/day linked to pig rearing, constitute a high potential risk for humans (taking into account populations movements with neighboring active sleeping sickness foci of the Guinea littoral, and the history of sleeping sickness on these islands, and for the economically important pig rearing, as well as a danger for tourism. This situation, associated to the possibility of elimination of these tsetse populations due to low possibility of reinvasion, led the National Control Program to launch a tsetse elimination project following an “area wide” strategy for the first time in West Africa, which participates in the global objective of the PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  3. A desk evaluation review of project URT/5/007 tsetse fly eradication. Project desk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project URT/5/007 was initiated in 1984 to assist the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania in developing membrane feeding technology for the mass breeding of tsetse flies, which is required for the application of the sterile insect technique to eradicate the tsetse fly from the island of Zanzibar. As the project progressed the objectives focused on the development of inter-related management practices with SIT to control and eventually eradicate the tsetse species infesting Zanzibar. As depicted by the project title, tsetse fly eradication on Zanzibar is the ultimate goal of on-going work of project URT/5/007; however, tsetse fly eradication is not the immediate objective of this project. The total budget of the project for the years 1984 through 1994 includes 53 man-months of expert services, $402,755 for equipment, and $1,959 for fellowship training. Additional funds for 57 man-months of fellowship training were provided from sources outside of the project. Resources provided by the United Republic of Tanzania for the project included staff, local facilities, and local running costs. A Desk Evaluation Review (DER) of Project URT/5/007 was requested by the Africa Section to provide an assessment of project achievements and to determine to what end the project may lead in the near future. Also the review could help determine how experiences gained during the developments of this project might be utilized in the management and implementation of similar projects in Tanzania or the region

  4. Partnerships for fighting rural poverty. Africa steps up campaign against the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabayo, J.P.; Boussaha, A.

    2002-01-01

    A Plan of Action to guide the process of implementing the decision by the African Heads of State on tsetse eradication was designed by an OAU's Task Force of 22 experts drawn from different African countries. The Plan proposes the initiation and co-ordination of a Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) and describes the key activities along with recommendations regarding the effective methods of work in the execution of the campaign. It recognizes the trans-boundary nature of the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem and advocates an area-wide approach, involving the identification and targeting of individual zones of tsetse infestations and the application of cost-effective tsetse suppression methods integrated with the Sterile Insect Technique. While the African tsetse belt covers an area of about 10 million km 2 , stretching from Senegal in the north to South Africa in the south, tsetse infestation is not continuous and uniform over the entire expanse of the tsetse belt. The tsetse belt is in the form of pockets, 'islands' or discrete zones of infestation under the influence of ecological, geographical, physical or biological factors. The application of the area-wide principle to systematically eliminate tsetse infestations in each individual area at a time will create an ever-expanding tsetse-free zone, with minimal risks of re-invasion from neighbouring areas or re-infestation from relic populations in the treated areas. This systematic elimination of tsetse populations from these areas, one at a time, will ultimately cover Africa's entire tsetse belt. The tsetse eradication activities in each identified area will be managed as an independent project, with emphasis on setting clear targets, involving clear goals and deadlines, designed to ensure short-term success while maintaining focus on the long-term objective. The Plan of Action recognizes the need for one coordinated campaign whose operational unit will be at the level of project

  5. Developing Product Quality Control for Standardization of Tsetse Mass Production. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The recent Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) provides a mechanism within which SIT will be one of the major components of an integrated areawide approach to the establishment of tsetse fly-free areas. Currently world-wide tsetse production is 1/40 of the projected requirement in 2006. To achieve this objective it is essential that quality control (QC) measures suitable for the expanded production be in place. Therefore, improved QC methodology has become a top priority. Improvements in QC methodology will help to ensure the attainment of these production goals and improve quality of rearing, minimize production costs and generate trained QC and production staff required to successfully produce flies and monitor their quality and suitability for release. The proposed CRP is designed to address these issues.

  6. Bloodstream form pre-adaptation to the tsetse fly inTrypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eRico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomes are sustained in the bloodstream of their mammalian hosts by their extreme capacity for antigenic variation. However, for life cycle progression, trypanosomes also must generate transmission stages called stumpy forms that are pre-adapted to survive when taken up during the bloodmeal of the disease vector, tsetse flies. These stumpy forms are rather different to the proliferative slender forms that maintain the bloodstream parasitaemia. Firstly, they are non proliferative and morphologically distinct, secondly, they show particular sensitivity to environmental cues that signal entry to the tsetse fly and, thirdly, they are relatively robust such that they survive the changes in temperature, pH and proteolytic environment encountered within the tsetse midgut. These characteristics require regulated changes in gene expression to pre-adapt the parasite and the use of environmental sensing mechanisms, both of which allow the rapid initiation of differentiation to tsetse midgut procyclic forms upon transmission. Interestingly, the generation of stumpy forms is also regulated and periodic in the mammalian blood, this being governed by a density-sensing mechanism whereby a parasite-derived signal drives cell cycle arrest and cellular development both to optimise transmission and to prevent uncontrolled parasite multiplication overwhelming the host.In this review we detail recent developments in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underpin the production of stumpy forms in the mammalian bloodstream and their signal perception pathways both in the mammalian bloodstream and upon entry into the tsetse fly. These discoveries are discussed in the context of conserved eukaryotic signalling and differentiation mechanisms. Further, their potential to act as targets for therapeutic strategies that disrupt parasite development either in the mammalian bloodstream or upon their transmission to tsetse flies is also discussed.

  7. Major surface glycoproteins of insect forms of Trypanosoma brucei are not essential for cyclical transmission by tsetse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vassella

    Full Text Available Procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei reside in the midgut of tsetse flies where they are covered by several million copies of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins known as procyclins. It has been proposed that procyclins protect parasites against proteases and/or participate in tropism, directing them from the midgut to the salivary glands. There are four different procyclin genes, each subject to elaborate levels of regulation. To determine if procyclins are essential for survival and transmission of T. brucei, all four genes were deleted and parasite fitness was compared in vitro and in vivo. When co-cultured in vitro, the null mutant and wild type trypanosomes (tagged with cyan fluorescent protein maintained a near-constant equilibrium. In contrast, when flies were infected with the same mixture, the null mutant was rapidly overgrown in the midgut, reflecting a reduction in fitness in vivo. Although the null mutant is patently defective in competition with procyclin-positive parasites, on its own it can complete the life cycle and generate infectious metacyclic forms. The procyclic form of T. brucei thus differs strikingly from the bloodstream form, which does not tolerate any perturbation of its variant surface glycoprotein coat, and from other parasites such as Plasmodium berghei, which requires the circumsporozoite protein for successful transmission to a new host.

  8. Neural coding in antennal olfactory cells of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, K.E; Noorman, N; Mastebroek, H.A K; van Schoot, N.E.G.; den Otter, C.J

    1998-01-01

    Spike trains from individual antennal olfactory cells of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) obtained during steady-state conditions (spontaneous as well as during stimulation with 1-octen-3-ol) and dynamic stimulation with repetitive pulses of 1-octen-3-ol were investigated by studying the spike frequency

  9. Does the silver moss Bryum argenteum exhibit sex-specific patterns in vegetative growth rate, asexual fitness or prezygotic reproductive investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly; Stark, Lloyd R; McLetchie, D Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    Expected life history trade-offs associated with sex differences in reproductive investment are often undetected in seed plants, with the difficulty arising from logistical issues of conducting controlled experiments. By controlling genotype, age and resource status of individuals, a bryophyte was assessed for sex-specific and location-specific patterns of vegetative, asexual and sexual growth/reproduction across a regional scale. Twelve genotypes (six male, six female) of the dioecious bryophyte Bryum argenteum were subcultured to remove environmental effects, regenerated asexually to replicate each genotype 16 times, and grown over a period of 92 d. Plants were assessed for growth rates, asexual and sexual reproductive traits, and allocation to above- and below-ground regenerative biomass. The degree of sexual versus asexual reproductive investment appears to be under genetic control, with three distinct ecotypes found in this study. Protonemal growth rate was positively correlated with asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction, whereas asexual reproduction was negatively correlated (appeared to trade-off) with vegetative growth (shoot production). No sex-specific trade-offs were detected. Female sex-expressing shoots were longer than males, but the sexes did not differ in growth traits, asexual traits, sexual induction times, or above- and below-ground biomass. Males, however, had much higher rates of inflorescence production than females, which translated into a significantly higher (24x) prezygotic investment for males relative to females. Evidence for three distinct ecotypes is presented for a bryophyte based on regeneration traits. Prior to zygote production, the sexes of this bryophyte did not differ in vegetative growth traits but significantly differed in reproductive investment, with the latter differences potentially implicated in the strongly biased female sex ratio. The disparity between males and females for prezygotic reproductive investment is

  10. Ecology of Glossina species inhabiting peridomestic agroecosystems in relation to options for tsetse fly control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madubunyi, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    Unbaited blue biconical traps were used to sample populations of Glossina once a week from April 1984 to March 1988 in three peridomestic agroecosystems of the Nsukka area, Nigeria. Serological analysis of 1764 fly midgut contents revealed that G. tachinoides had fed on reptiles, birds and mammals, with the domestic pig accounting for 88.08% of the 730 identifiable bloodmeals. The frequency distribution of flies in various stages of the trophic cycle showed that males and females feed at 2.88 ± 0.42 and 2.43 ± 0.44 day intervals, respectively. Flies were caught in greater numbers in biotopes containing domestic pigs, while the presence of man depressed trap catches. The larger the pig population in an agroecosystem, the larger the G. tachinoides population. However, reduction in the pig population to below five triggered the collapse of one of the G. tachinoides populations, which disappeared following the removal of all the pigs. The fly populations exhibited marked seasonal fluctuations in apparent density, largely caused by routine agronomic practices. These density fluctuations undermine recruitment of new adults into the population, especially during the wet season. It is suggested that tsetse populations in this area, already being kept at low density by routine agricultural procedures, could be further reduced by combining insecticides impregnated traps or targets with insect proofing of the piggeries. Methods aimed at undermining the recruitment of young adults into tsetse populations, capitalizing on naturally occurring sex ratio distortion as well as on maintaining populations of preferred hosts of the tsetse fly at low levels, should form part of integrated tsetse control packages. Selection of sterile male release sites and the number of sterile males to be released in them during sterile insect technique campaigns should take into account the sex ratio dynamics of target tsetse populations. 28 ref, 9 figs, 8 tabs

  11. Tsetse salivary gland proteins 1 and 2 are high affinity nucleic acid binding proteins with residual nuclease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    Full Text Available Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2 display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with K(D values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents.

  12. Trypanosome infection establishment in the tsetse fly gut is influenced by microbiome-regulated host immune barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Weiss

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. vector pathogenic African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in domesticated animals. Additionally, tsetse harbors 3 maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria that modulate their host's physiology. Tsetse is highly resistant to infection with trypanosomes, and this phenotype depends on multiple physiological factors at the time of challenge. These factors include host age, density of maternally-derived trypanolytic effector molecules present in the gut, and symbiont status during development. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that result in tsetse's resistance to trypanosomes. We found that following parasite challenge, young susceptible tsetse present a highly attenuated immune response. In contrast, mature refractory flies express higher levels of genes associated with humoral (attacin and pgrp-lb and epithelial (inducible nitric oxide synthase and dual oxidase immunity. Additionally, we discovered that tsetse must harbor its endogenous microbiome during intrauterine larval development in order to present a parasite refractory phenotype during adulthood. Interestingly, mature aposymbiotic flies (Gmm(Apo present a strong immune response earlier in the infection process than do WT flies that harbor symbiotic bacteria throughout their entire lifecycle. However, this early response fails to confer significant resistance to trypanosomes. Gmm(Apo adults present a structurally compromised peritrophic matrix (PM, which lines the fly midgut and serves as a physical barrier that separates luminal contents from immune responsive epithelial cells. We propose that the early immune response we observe in Gmm(Apo flies following parasite challenge results from the premature exposure of gut epithelia to parasite-derived immunogens in the absence of a robust PM. Thus, tsetse's PM appears to regulate the timing of host immune induction following parasite challenge. Our results

  13. Tsetse flies, biodiversity and the control of sleeping sickness. Structure of a Glossina guild in southwest Côte d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, Jean-Paul; Jarry, Marc

    1998-10-01

    Tsetse fly guilds usually comprise two or three species. However, the presence of only one species often indicates that anthropic modifications have occurred in the habitat. On the other hand, more than three species are seldom observed in the same zone and the presence of five is extremely rare. Previous detailed studies have always focused on a single species, without taking into account interactions between species. The authors present the results of observations carried out in Côte d'Ivoire on a guild consisting of Glossina palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. longipalpis and G. fusca. Glossina have unusual physiological characteristics: both sexes feed exclusively on blood, they have a highly developed larviparity associated with a slow rhythm of reproduction (one larva about every ten days) and a long life expectancy (up to nine months). The authors report on the size of the flies, the hosts, feeding habits, ecodistribution, resting-places, flying heights, circadian activity and seasonal dynamics of tsetse fly populations in order to understand the organization of this guild. Each species feeds indiscriminately on a wide spectrum of hosts without a particular preference. Different species shared habitat (ecodistribution) and time (circadian and annual cycles). Thus, during an annual cycle, there is always a slight time-lag between the density peaks of G. palpalis and G. pallicera, the peak of the dominant species immediately preceding that of the dominated species. In a village area, 77% of the variations in density of G. pallicera were accounted for by the previous variations in density of the dominant species ( G. palpalis). Experiments show that G. pallicera and G. nigrofusca immediately invade anthropic areas from which G. palpalis has been partially removed by trapping. These species thus appear to confront each other in a global dynamic equilibrium. This suggests that there is a 'conflicting coexistence' between the cohabiting species. Whereas the

  14. Studies on the infection rates and transmission characteristics of pathogenic trypanosomes in laboratory reared tsetse flies as part of the SIT programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloo, S.K.

    1981-04-01

    Investigations were conducted on the infection rates and transmission characteristics of sterile male Glossina morsitans morsitans for T. vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei. Pupae were irradiated after the first flush of female emergences to 7, 10 or 13 krad in a Caesium 137 radiation source under normal room conditions. The male emergences were fed on the T. vivax infected goat at peak parasitaemia. They were mated when 8 days old with 3 days old normal virgin females. A batch of sexually fertile males which had been infected as tenerals on the goat at the same time were similarly mated to serve as control. All the tsetse were maintained on rabbits' ears; the survival and reproductive performance were monitored for 7 age group periods of 9 days each. The sterility rates of the males were 73%, 91% and 98% for the 7, 10 and 13 krad radiation; the percentage infection rates were 78.3, 82.3 and 74.4, respectively. For the control males, the fecundity of the mated females was 90%; the infection rate 75.7%. In all other experiments, 10 krad dose was selected since both the survival and the sterility of the irradiated males were good. The T. vivax challenged cows and goats died with anaemic condition at death. There was no difference in the transmission characteristics between sterile and fertile vectors. Also, there was no significant difference in the infection rates and the transmission frequency of T. congolense and T. brucei to cattle, goats and mice between the sterile and normal males. The results are discussed from viewpoint of the use of Sterile Insect Release method alone or integrated with insecticidal spraying for tsetse eradication operations in terms of the impact on the environment including the trypanosomiasis epidemiology

  15. Estimating the costs of tsetse control options: an example for Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A P M; Torr, S J; Waiswa, C; Cecchi, G; Wint, G R W; Mattioli, R C; Robinson, T P

    2013-07-01

    Decision-making and financial planning for tsetse control is complex, with a particularly wide range of choices to be made on location, timing, strategy and methods. This paper presents full cost estimates for eliminating or continuously controlling tsetse in a hypothetical area of 10,000km(2) located in south-eastern Uganda. Four tsetse control techniques were analysed: (i) artificial baits (insecticide-treated traps/targets), (ii) insecticide-treated cattle (ITC), (iii) aerial spraying using the sequential aerosol technique (SAT) and (iv) the addition of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to the insecticide-based methods (i-iii). For the creation of fly-free zones and using a 10% discount rate, the field costs per km(2) came to US$283 for traps (4 traps per km(2)), US$30 for ITC (5 treated cattle per km(2) using restricted application), US$380 for SAT and US$758 for adding SIT. The inclusion of entomological and other preliminary studies plus administrative overheads adds substantially to the overall cost, so that the total costs become US$482 for traps, US$220 for ITC, US$552 for SAT and US$993 - 1365 if SIT is added following suppression using another method. These basic costs would apply to trouble-free operations dealing with isolated tsetse populations. Estimates were also made for non-isolated populations, allowing for a barrier covering 10% of the intervention area, maintained for 3 years. Where traps were used as a barrier, the total cost of elimination increased by between 29% and 57% and for ITC barriers the increase was between 12% and 30%. In the case of continuous tsetse control operations, costs were estimated over a 20-year period and discounted at 10%. Total costs per km(2) came to US$368 for ITC, US$2114 for traps, all deployed continuously, and US$2442 for SAT applied at 3-year intervals. The lower costs compared favourably with the regular treatment of cattle with prophylactic trypanocides (US$3862 per km(2) assuming four doses per annum at 45

  16. Acoustic Method for Testing the Quality of Sterilized Male Tsetse Flies Glossina Pallidipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochvil, H [Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, Halsriegelstr. 34, Vienna A-1090 (Austria); Noll, A [Institut fuer Schallforschung, Oe Ak d Wiss, Wohllebengasse 12-14, Vienna A-1040 (Austria); Bolldorf, J [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, Vienna A-1090 (Austria); Parker, A G [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf A-2444 (Austria)

    2012-07-15

    Tsetse flies are able to emit different acoustic signals. An acoustic method to test the quality of sterilized male tsetse flies was developed. Differences in the sound characteristics between males and females, between sterilized and unsterilized males, and between males sterilized in air and nitrogen, were determined. Also, the acoustic parameters (frequency, time, sound pressure level) of the sounds that are useful as criteria for quality control were determined. It was demonstrated that only the so-called 'feeding sounds' can be used as a quality criterion. Both sexes emitted feeding sounds while feeding on a host. These sounds were also used to find sexual partners, and had an effect on male copulation success. An acoustic sound analysis programme was developed; it automatically measured sound activity (only feeding sounds) under standard conditions (random sample, relative humidity, temperature, light intensity). (author)

  17. The use of the antigen ELISA for monitoring tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, R; Nqindi, J [Central Veterinary Lab., Causeway, Harare (Zimbabwe)

    1997-02-01

    Blood and serum samples from cattle originating from tsetse free and tsetse infested areas were analyzed using the Buffy Coat technique and an ELISA to detect trypanosomes and trypanosomal antigens, respectively. The results of the two tests were compared and apparent sensitivity and trypanosomal prevalence were calculated. The BCT seemed to be the most suitable test to detect acute infections, while the antigen capture ELISA (Ag-ELISA) was able to detect more chronic infections. The specificity of the Ag-ELISA was found to be very good, but the sensitivity of the test should be improved. One way to detect more T. congolense and T. vivax infections was to lower the cut-off point of percent positivity from 10 to 5%. (author). 1 ref., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  18. The use of the antigen ELISA for monitoring tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, R.; Nqindi, J.

    1997-01-01

    Blood and serum samples from cattle originating from tsetse free and tsetse infested areas were analyzed using the Buffy Coat technique and an ELISA to detect trypanosomes and trypanosomal antigens, respectively. The results of the two tests were compared and apparent sensitivity and trypanosomal prevalence were calculated. The BCT seemed to be the most suitable test to detect acute infections, while the antigen capture ELISA (Ag-ELISA) was able to detect more chronic infections. The specificity of the Ag-ELISA was found to be very good, but the sensitivity of the test should be improved. One way to detect more T. congolense and T. vivax infections was to lower the cut-off point of percent positivity from 10 to 5%. (author). 1 ref., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  19. Socially selected ornaments and fitness: Signals of fighting ability in paper wasps are positively associated with survival, reproductive success, and rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Forrest, Taylor; Vernier, Cassondra; Jinn, Judy; Madagame, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Many animals have ornaments that mediate choice and competition in social and sexual contexts. Individuals with elaborate sexual ornaments typically have higher fitness than those with less elaborate ornaments, but less is known about whether socially selected ornaments are associated with fitness. Here, we test the relationship between fitness and facial patterns that are a socially selected signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominula wasps. We found wasps that signal higher fighting ability have larger nests, are more likely to survive harsh winters, and obtain higher dominance rank than wasps that signal lower fighting ability. In comparison, body weight was not associated with fitness. Larger wasps were dominant over smaller wasps, but showed no difference in nest size or survival. Overall, the positive relationship between wasp facial patterns and fitness indicates that receivers can obtain diverse information about a signaler's phenotypic quality by paying attention to socially selected ornaments. Therefore, there are surprisingly strong parallels between the information conveyed by socially and sexually selected signals. Similar fitness relationships in social and sexually selected signals may be one reason it can be difficult to distinguish the role of social versus sexual selection in ornament evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Midgut absorption of proteins by tsetse flies, Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogge, G.; Giannetti, M.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine how far tsetse flies are able to absorb undigested proteins from the midgut and to transport into the haemolymph. Comparison of the protein pattern of blood serum and haemolymph as revealed by electrophoresis shows no congruency except for the albumin fraction, which is about 10% of the total protein contents. The peritrophic membrane of tsetse flies allows the passage of FITC-conjugated dextrans up to but not greater than a molecular weight of approximately 45,000. It can be concluded therefore that complete serum globulins cannot pass through the peritrophic membrane, but fragments of globulins and albumin might do so. The presence of serum proteins in the haemolymph of tsetse flies after oral administration was investigated by immunological techniques. With the help of immunoelectrophoresis as well as Ouchter-Lony tests, albumin, Fab-, and Fc-fragments were found to be present in the haemolymph. Tsetse flies usually fed on bovine blood replace bovine albumin present in their haemolymph by human albumin when fed on human blood. Quantitative determinations with the aid of rocket immunoelectrophoresis after Laurell revealed the occurrence of human albumin in relation to the size and number of blood meals. When fed continuously on human blood, the amount of human albumin rises following eight to ten blood meals after which the achieved level is maintained. Human albumin disappears from the haemolymph and is replaced by bovine albumin when the flies are fed again with bovine blood. On the basis of these results the amount of albumin absorbed from a single blood meal lies in the range of 0.01 to 0.035% of its albumin contents. (author)

  1. Properties Of A Midgut Trypanolysin From The Tsetse Fly Glossina Morsitans Morsitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahamat H.Abakar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a bloodmeal-induced trypanolysin from the midgut of the tsetse G. m. morsitans was studied in vitro. The semi-purified trypanolysin from twice-fed tsetse had the highest trypanolysin activity against bloodstream trypanosomes followed by those once-fed and the unfed flies. Serum found to display trypanolysin activity. The trypanolysin had no trypsin activity nor even affected by the enzyme. In addition trypanolysin was not affected by protease inhibitors such as soy bean trypsin inhibitor STI N-a-p-Tosyl-L-lysine chromethyl ketone TLCK phenylmethyl sulphonyl fluoride PMSF diisopropyl fluoro-phosphate DFP and tosylamide-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone TPCK. However the activity was completely inhibited by diethyl pyrocarbonate DEPC and partially by aprotinin. The induction of trypanolysin activity by bloodmeal increased gradually reaching a peak at 72-120 h after the bloodmeal and then decreased rapidly with only 25 of the peak activity remaining after 192 h. The trypanolysin was inactivated during storage at 27amp8451 and 4amp8451 after 15 and 32 days respectively. Similarly heating the midguts trypanolysin to 60 - 80amp8451 led to loss of activity. On the other hand 50amp8451 was found to be the optimum temperature for trypanolysin activity. The activity was also unstable by freeze-thaw at 80amp8451 -70amp8451 -20amp8451 and 0amp8451 after 33 41 55 and 63 days respectively. Trypanolysin caused lyses of bloodstream-form T. b. brucei while the procyclic trypanosomes were unaffected. The highest trypanolysin activity in different tsetse species was found with Glossina longipennis followed by Glossina pallidipes Glossina morsitans centralis Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. m. morsitans. When the midgut homogenate was separated by anion-exchange chromatography the trypanolysin activity was recovered in the bound fraction. These results suggest that the midgut trypanolysin plays an important role in the establishment of

  2. Where, when and why do tsetse contact humans? Answers from studies in a national park of Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Torr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleeping sickness, also called human African trypanosomiasis, is transmitted by the tsetse, a blood-sucking fly confined to sub-Saharan Africa. The form of the disease in West and Central Africa is carried mainly by species of tsetse that inhabit riverine woodland and feed avidly on humans. In contrast, the vectors for the East and Southern African form of the disease are usually savannah species that feed mostly on wild and domestic animals and bite humans infrequently, mainly because the odours produced by humans can be repellent. Hence, it takes a long time to catch many savannah tsetse from people, which in turn means that studies of the nature of contact between savannah tsetse and humans, and the ways of minimizing it, have been largely neglected. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The savannah tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes, were caught from men in the Mana Pools National park of Zimbabwe. Mostly the catch consisted of young G. m. morsitans, with little food reserve. Catches were increased by 4-8 times if the men were walking, not stationary, and increased about ten times more if they rode on a truck at 10 km/h. Catches were unaffected if the men used deodorant or were baited with artificial ox odour, but declined by about 95% if the men were with an ox. Surprisingly, men pursuing their normal daily activities were bitten about as much when in or near buildings as when in woodland. Catches from oxen and a standard ox-like trap were poor indices of the number and physiological state of tsetse attacking men. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The search for new strategies to minimize the contact between humans and savannah tsetse should focus on that occurring in buildings and vehicles. There is a need to design a man-like trap to help to provide an index of sleeping sickness risk.

  3. 2013 Annual Report: Project to combat the Tsetse Fly and Trypanosomiasis in the Niayes Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    The period 2009-2010 was a transition phase, used to analyze the basic data collected, in particular those relating to entomology and parasitology, in order to define a control strategy. An entomological and parasitological follow-up aimed at understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of the system before the struggle has thus been put in place. Similarly, socio-economic studies have continued with the finalization of the survey and test reports produced by certain breeders. On the basis of the results of the feasibility study which confirmed the presence of Glossina palpalis gambiensis on the Dakar-Thies-Kayar triangle and the disease it transmits (trypanosomiasis) and Isolated from the area in relation to other tsetse infested areas, the fighting phase started in 2010 in block I (Kayar) and then in 2012 in block II (Sebikotane, Diacsaw Peulh, Pout) with the deployment of impregnated traps Deltamethrin and livestock ''on'' treatment. Entomological controls (monthly measurements of apparent densities) showed a significant decrease in tsetse populations in the target areas.The phase of elimination of tsetse flies began in 2011 in the Kayar area with weekly releases of sterile males to the soil. Operational air releases began in 2013 with cardboard boxes. They will continue in 2014 with an automatic machine specially designed by a Mexican company specializing in the release of fruit flies.On the parasitological level, sick animals are detected and treated, in order to reduce the prevalence of the disease. (Author)

  4. Mass rearing and radiation sterilization of tsetse flies. Part of a coordinated programme on control and eradication of tsetse flies by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offori, E.

    1980-12-01

    Studies were conducted with the tsetse flies Glossina palpalis palpalis, G.p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides to evaluate the practicality in Ghana of various laboratory and field procedures used to conduct a sterile insect release programme. Investigations revealed that in colony rearing rabbits, guinea pigs and goats could be used as host animals and that alternation of hosts had little effect on colony performance. Over 90% sterility in 10-day-old males irradiated at 12 kR was obtained with little or no effect on survival. At 15 kR, 98% sterility was obtained but with some loss in viability observed. In mating experiments, G. p. palpalis and G. p. gambiensis mated readily with each other and indicated that sterile males of one sub-species could be released with advantage into an area predominantly occupied by the other sub-species. In field tests, the moving vehicle traps proved most efficient of the various sampling techniques evaluated. It was noted that in spite of the rapid expansion of the city of Accra, tsetse flies were still present within a distance of 4 km of the city

  5. FAO/IAEA Consultants Group Meeting on The Potential for Tsetse Flies to Develop Resistance to Insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are playing an increasingly important role in control of tsetse flies (Glossina spp), vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis in large regions of Africa. Although insecticide resistance has not yet been reported in tsetse, there is no cause for complacency regarding its occurrence in the future. As new reports of insecticide resistance in other disease vectors and agronomic pests continue to accumulate at a rapid rate, it is increasingly clear that no comprehensive approach to tsetse control can afford to ignore the potential resistance problem, as the loss of insecticides from the limited set of options for control would be disastrous. it is likely that one or more of the pyrethroid resistance mechanisms already known from several other species of Diptera will manifest itself in tsetse, in response to the increased selection engendered by the wider adoption of deltamethrin-treated targets in tsetse control at the local level and in eradication efforts. Also, selection for behavioural avoidance of traps and targets could result in decreased control efficiency, although the mechanisms that might cause such behavioural resistance are poorly understood at present. There is thus an increasingly urgent need for information on the potential for resistance development in tsetse, on accurate and feasible methods for detection, monitoring, and characterization of resistance, on properties of resistant strains, and on appropriate tactics for resistance prevention and management. Because of the extraordinary difficulties in rearing posed by tsetse life history, it is essential that these research efforts get underway immediately. The Consultants Group on the Possibility of Development of Insecticide Resistance in Tsetse has accordingly prepared this report with a consideration of the present state of knowledge, a discussion of the essential elements of a resistance research program, and specific recommendations. A summary of the recommendations in

  6. FAO/IAEA Consultants Group Meeting on The Potential for Tsetse Flies to Develop Resistance to Insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    Chemical insecticides are playing an increasingly important role in control of tsetse flies (Glossina spp), vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis in large regions of Africa. Although insecticide resistance has not yet been reported in tsetse, there is no cause for complacency regarding its occurrence in the future. As new reports of insecticide resistance in other disease vectors and agronomic pests continue to accumulate at a rapid rate, it is increasingly clear that no comprehensive approach to tsetse control can afford to ignore the potential resistance problem, as the loss of insecticides from the limited set of options for control would be disastrous. it is likely that one or more of the pyrethroid resistance mechanisms already known from several other species of Diptera will manifest itself in tsetse, in response to the increased selection engendered by the wider adoption of deltamethrin-treated targets in tsetse control at the local level and in eradication efforts. Also, selection for behavioural avoidance of traps and targets could result in decreased control efficiency, although the mechanisms that might cause such behavioural resistance are poorly understood at present. There is thus an increasingly urgent need for information on the potential for resistance development in tsetse, on accurate and feasible methods for detection, monitoring, and characterization of resistance, on properties of resistant strains, and on appropriate tactics for resistance prevention and management. Because of the extraordinary difficulties in rearing posed by tsetse life history, it is essential that these research efforts get underway immediately. The Consultants Group on the Possibility of Development of Insecticide Resistance in Tsetse has accordingly prepared this report with a consideration of the present state of knowledge, a discussion of the essential elements of a resistance research program, and specific recommendations. A summary of the recommendations in

  7. Spatial distribution and trypanosome infection of tsetse flies in the sleeping sickness focus of Zimbabwe in Hurungwe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Shereni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zimbabwe, cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are caused by the unicellular protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, sub-species T. b. rhodesiense. They are reported from the tsetse-infested area in the northern part of the country, broadly corresponding to the valley of the Zambezi River. Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes, in particular T. congolense and T. vivax, also cause morbidity and mortality in livestock, thus generating poverty and food insecurity. Two species of tsetse fly, Glossina morsistans morsitans and G. pallidipes, are known to be present in the Zambezi Valley, although their distributional patterns and densities have not been investigated in detail. The present study tries to address this gap by providing some insight into the dynamics of trypanosomiasis in humans and livestock. Methods Tsetse distribution and trypanosome infections were studied using traps and fixed fly rounds located at 10 km intervals along a 110 km long transect straddling the southern escarpment of the Zambezi Valley. Three km long fly rounds were conducted on 12 sites, and were repeated 11 times over a 7-month period. Additional traps were deployed and monitored in selected sites. Microscopic examination of 2092 flies for trypanosome infections was conducted. Results Surveys confirmed the presence of G. morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes in the Zambezi Valley floor. Moving south, the apparent density of tsetse flies appears to peak in the vicinity of the escarpment, then drops on the highlands. Only one fly was caught south of the old game fence separating protected and settled areas. A trypanosome infection rate of 6.31% was recorded in tsetse flies dissected. Only one infection of the T. brucei-type was detected. Conclusions Tsetse fly distribution in the study area appears to be driven by ecological factors such as variation in land use and altitude-mediated climatic patterns. Although targeted control of tsetse flies have played

  8. The effects of quantitative fecundity in the haploid stage on reproductive success and diploid fitness in the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M G; Shaw, A J

    2016-06-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how mating patterns affect the fitness of offspring. However, in animals and seed plants it is virtually impossible to investigate the effects of specific gamete genotypes. In bryophytes, haploid gametophytes grow via clonal propagation and produce millions of genetically identical gametes throughout a population. The main goal of this research was to test whether gamete identity has an effect on the fitness of their diploid offspring in a population of the aquatic peat moss Sphagnum macrophyllum. We observed a heavily male-biased sex ratio in gametophyte plants (ramets) and in multilocus microsatellite genotypes (genets). There was a steeper relationship between mating success (number of different haploid mates) and fecundity (number of diploid offspring) for male genets compared with female genets. At the sporophyte level, we observed a weak effect of inbreeding on offspring fitness, but no effect of brood size (number of sporophytes per maternal ramet). Instead, the identities of the haploid male and haploid female parents were significant contributors to variance in fitness of sporophyte offspring in the population. Our results suggest that intrasexual gametophyte/gamete competition may play a role in determining mating success in this population.

  9. New systems for the large-scale production of male tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opiyo, E.; Luger, D.; Robinson, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Tsetse flies, vectors of trypanosomiasis, infest 36 African countries and their distribution covers approximately 10 million km 2 . Trypanosomiasis is a debilitating and often fatal disease of domestic livestock and humans and is considered the most important limiting factor for the development of the livestock sector in Africa. Approximately 50 million cattle and scores of millions of small ruminants are at risk of contracting trypanosomiasis. Direct losses in meat production, milk yield and traction power and the cost of control programmes are estimated to amount to more than US$500 million each year (FAO 1994). In addition, 100 million people are at risk of contracting the disease. According to the World Health Organization, about 300,000 new cases of human trypanosomiasis occur annually (WHO 1997). If the lost potential in livestock production is combined with that of crop production through loss of traction power, trypanosomiasis is estimated to cost Africa US$4 billion or more each year (FAO 1994). The available and environmentally accepted intervention methods for the management of tsetse and trypanosomiasis include parasite control using drugs, the promotion of trypanotolerant livestock and vector control. Parasite control is plagued by the development of resistance to the available drugs and programmes for the development of new drugs are limited. Vector control and eradication involve application of insecticide treated attractive devices on animals including cattle, and the sterile insect technique (SIT). In spite of the efforts spent on the control of the disease and the vector, tsetse flies remain a threat to agricultural development of the region. Experience indicates that only a combination of several of these intervention methods can effectively support sustainable agricultural systems. The feasibility of rearing tsetse flies in Africa for use in SIT was first demonstrated in Tanzania (Williamson et al. 1983) where a colony of 60,000 Glossina

  10. Consultants Group Meeting on Development of Cost-Effective Diets for Use in Mass Production of Tsetse Flies. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    The increasing demand for employing tsetse SIT for area-wide tsetse and trypanosomosis management programmes on mainland Africa has compelled the IAEA to concentrate on the development of semi-automated processes for standardising laborious and quality sensitive components of the sterile male mass production. The size of facilities required to produce the sterile males will continue to increase with time and demand. The current diet for tsetse is decontaminated vertebrate blood and it will need to be supplied to centres without access to a suitable local blood source. In view of the increasing demand for sterile male tsetse and uncertainty of obtaining high quality decontaminated blood locally, ways need to be explored to ensure availability of inexpensive, standard quality diets. Towards this goal a consultants group meeting on the development of cost-effective diets for tsetse was held at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Austria from 17 to 21 July 2000. The major objective of the consultants group meeting was to identify research that is needed to ensure the availability of large quantities of high quality diet for tsetse mass production. Seven papers were presented and discussed. A visit was made to the Entomology Unit, at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories, Seibersdorf to see the present tsetse rearing facility and the various steps of blood processing and quality assurance used in the evaluation of blood quality before use for colony feeding. The meeting noted that commercially available products are used to prepare standard diets for screwworm mass production. These products have not yet been adequately evaluated for tsetse. However, it is necessary to improve the current procedure applied to the use fresh blood. Possibilities of utilising commercially available dietary ingredients should also be explored. A three-step approach was proposed: Improvement and optimisation of the current blood collection, processing etc.; Use of additives

  11. Application of the antigen ELISA for monitoring the effectiveness of the tsetse and trypanosomosis control campaign in Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyangwe, L N; Munyama, G M; Mubanga, J [Central Veterinary Research Inst. (CVRI), Lusaka (Zambia)

    1997-02-01

    Antibody and antigen-detection ELISA were used to screen sera originating from a tsetse free area. In addition, bovine samples from tsetse infested areas were analysed using the Buffy Coat Technique (BCT) and the antigen ELISA. Few samples from a negative control population were detected positive resulting in a very good specificity for both tests. When screening a trypanosome infected population the BCT detected more acute and the Ag-ELISA more chronic infections. In conclusion, the antigen ELISA should be used in combination with the BCT, especially in geographical areas where the BCT does not detect any patent infections. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs.

  12. Application of the antigen ELISA for monitoring the effectiveness of the tsetse and trypanosomosis control campaign in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyangwe, L.N.; Munyama, G.M.; Mubanga, J.

    1997-01-01

    Antibody and antigen-detection ELISA were used to screen sera originating from a tsetse free area. In addition, bovine samples from tsetse infested areas were analysed using the Buffy Coat Technique (BCT) and the antigen ELISA. Few samples from a negative control population were detected positive resulting in a very good specificity for both tests. When screening a trypanosome infected population the BCT detected more acute and the Ag-ELISA more chronic infections. In conclusion, the antigen ELISA should be used in combination with the BCT, especially in geographical areas where the BCT does not detect any patent infections. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of Trypanosoma brucei Development in the Tsetse Fly Vector Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F Savage

    Full Text Available African trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals, have a complex digenetic life cycle between a mammalian host and an insect vector, the blood-feeding tsetse fly. Although the importance of the insect vector to transmit the disease was first realized over a century ago, many aspects of trypanosome development in tsetse have not progressed beyond a morphological analysis, mainly due to considerable challenges to obtain sufficient material for molecular studies. Here, we used high-throughput RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq to profile Trypanosoma brucei transcript levels in three distinct tissues of the tsetse fly, namely the midgut, proventriculus and salivary glands. Consistent with current knowledge and providing a proof of principle, transcripts coding for procyclin isoforms and several components of the cytochrome oxidase complex were highly up-regulated in the midgut transcriptome, whereas transcripts encoding metacyclic VSGs (mVSGs and the surface coat protein brucei alanine rich protein or BARP were extremely up-regulated in the salivary gland transcriptome. Gene ontology analysis also supported the up-regulation of biological processes such as DNA metabolism and DNA replication in the proventriculus transcriptome and major changes in signal transduction and cyclic nucleotide metabolism in the salivary gland transcriptome. Our data highlight a small repertoire of expressed mVSGs and potential signaling pathways involving receptor-type adenylate cyclases and members of a surface carboxylate transporter family, called PADs (Proteins Associated with Differentiation, to cope with the changing environment, as well as RNA-binding proteins as a possible global regulators of gene expression.

  14. The influence of sex and fly species on the development of trypanosomes in tsetse flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Peacock

    Full Text Available Unlike other dipteran disease vectors, tsetse flies of both sexes feed on blood and transmit pathogenic African trypanosomes. During transmission, Trypanosoma brucei undergoes a complex cycle of proliferation and development inside the tsetse vector, culminating in production of infective forms in the saliva. The insect manifests robust immune defences throughout the alimentary tract, which eliminate many trypanosome infections. Previous work has shown that fly sex influences susceptibility to trypanosome infection as males show higher rates of salivary gland (SG infection with T. brucei than females. To investigate sex-linked differences in the progression of infection, we compared midgut (MG, proventriculus, foregut and SG infections in male and female Glossina morsitans morsitans. Initially, infections developed in the same way in both sexes: no difference was observed in numbers of MG or proventriculus infections, or in the number and type of developmental forms produced. Female flies tended to produce foregut migratory forms later than males, but this had no detectable impact on the number of SG infections. The sex difference was not apparent until the final stage of SG invasion and colonisation, showing that the SG environment differs between male and female flies. Comparison of G. m. morsitans with G. pallidipes showed a similar, though less pronounced, sex difference in susceptibility, but additionally revealed very different levels of trypanosome resistance in the MG and SG. While G. pallidipes was more refractory to MG infection, a very high proportion of MG infections led to SG infection in both sexes. It appears that the two fly species use different strategies to block trypanosome infection: G. pallidipes heavily defends against initial establishment in the MG, while G. m. morsitans has additional measures to prevent trypanosomes colonising the SG, particularly in female flies. We conclude that the tsetse-trypanosome interface works

  15. Odorant and gustatory receptors in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F O Obiero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies use olfactory and gustatory responses, through odorant and gustatory receptors (ORs and GRs, to interact with their environment. Glossina morsitans morsitans genome ORs and GRs were annotated using homologs of these genes in Drosophila melanogaster and an ab initio approach based on OR and GR specific motifs in G. m. morsitans gene models coupled to gene ontology (GO. Phylogenetic relationships among the ORs or GRs and the homologs were determined using Maximum Likelihood estimates. Relative expression levels among the G. m. morsitans ORs or GRs were established using RNA-seq data derived from adult female fly. Overall, 46 and 14 putative G. m. morsitans ORs and GRs respectively were recovered. These were reduced by 12 and 59 ORs and GRs respectively compared to D. melanogaster. Six of the ORs were homologous to a single D. melanogaster OR (DmOr67d associated with mating deterrence in females. Sweet taste GRs, present in all the other Diptera, were not recovered in G. m. morsitans. The GRs associated with detection of CO2 were conserved in G. m. morsitans relative to D. melanogaster. RNA-sequence data analysis revealed expression of GmmOR15 locus represented over 90% of expression profiles for the ORs. The G. m. morsitans ORs or GRs were phylogenetically closer to those in D. melanogaster than to other insects assessed. We found the chemoreceptor repertoire in G. m. morsitans smaller than other Diptera, and we postulate that this may be related to the restricted diet of blood-meal for both sexes of tsetse flies. However, the clade of some specific receptors has been expanded, indicative of their potential importance in chemoreception in the tsetse.

  16. Candidatus Sodalis melophagi sp. nov.: phylogenetically independent comparative model to the tsetse fly symbiont Sodalis glossinidius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Chrudimský

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Sodalis live in symbiosis with various groups of insects. The best known member of this group, a secondary symbiont of tsetse flies Sodalis glossinidius, has become one of the most important models in investigating establishment and evolution of insect-bacteria symbiosis. It represents a bacterium in the early/intermediate state of the transition towards symbiosis, which allows for exploring such interesting topics as: usage of secretory systems for entering the host cell, tempo of the genome modification, and metabolic interaction with a coexisting primary symbiont. In this study, we describe a new Sodalis species which could provide a useful comparative model to the tsetse symbiont. It lives in association with Melophagus ovinus, an insect related to tsetse flies, and resembles S. glossinidius in several important traits. Similar to S. glossinidius, it cohabits the host with another symbiotic bacterium, the bacteriome-harbored primary symbiont of the genus Arsenophonus. As a typical secondary symbiont, Candidatus Sodalis melophagi infects various host tissues, including bacteriome. We provide basic morphological and molecular characteristics of the symbiont and show that these traits also correspond to the early/intermediate state of the evolution towards symbiosis. Particularly, we demonstrate the ability of the bacterium to live in insect cell culture as well as in cell-free medium. We also provide basic characteristics of type three secretion system and using three reference sequences (16 S rDNA, groEL and spaPQR region we show that the bacterium branched within the genus Sodalis, but originated independently of the two previously described symbionts of hippoboscoids. We propose the name Candidatus Sodalis melophagi for this new bacterium.

  17. Candidatus Sodalis melophagi sp. nov.: phylogenetically independent comparative model to the tsetse fly symbiont Sodalis glossinidius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrudimský, Tomáš; Husník, Filip; Nováková, Eva; Hypša, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Sodalis live in symbiosis with various groups of insects. The best known member of this group, a secondary symbiont of tsetse flies Sodalis glossinidius, has become one of the most important models in investigating establishment and evolution of insect-bacteria symbiosis. It represents a bacterium in the early/intermediate state of the transition towards symbiosis, which allows for exploring such interesting topics as: usage of secretory systems for entering the host cell, tempo of the genome modification, and metabolic interaction with a coexisting primary symbiont. In this study, we describe a new Sodalis species which could provide a useful comparative model to the tsetse symbiont. It lives in association with Melophagus ovinus, an insect related to tsetse flies, and resembles S. glossinidius in several important traits. Similar to S. glossinidius, it cohabits the host with another symbiotic bacterium, the bacteriome-harbored primary symbiont of the genus Arsenophonus. As a typical secondary symbiont, Candidatus Sodalis melophagi infects various host tissues, including bacteriome. We provide basic morphological and molecular characteristics of the symbiont and show that these traits also correspond to the early/intermediate state of the evolution towards symbiosis. Particularly, we demonstrate the ability of the bacterium to live in insect cell culture as well as in cell-free medium. We also provide basic characteristics of type three secretion system and using three reference sequences (16 S rDNA, groEL and spaPQR region) we show that the bacterium branched within the genus Sodalis, but originated independently of the two previously described symbionts of hippoboscoids. We propose the name Candidatus Sodalis melophagi for this new bacterium.

  18. 2010 Annual Report: Project to combat the Tsetse Fly and Trypanosomiasis in the Niayes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    Several control campaigns were carried out in the 70-80 years in the Niayes area to rid it of the only tsetse species that lives there, Glossina palpalis gambiensis.The tsetse or tsetse fly is responsible for trypanosomiasis in animals and sleeping sickness in humans. Untreated, disease leads to death. After a 15 - year respite following the aforementioned control campaigns, the presence of the vector and the disease it transmits has again been detected in the area thanks to studies carried out in 1999 with FAO support.To solve the problem in a sustainable way, the Ministry of Livestock set up a new program in 2006, with the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), based on the use of the Sterile Insect.This program is coordinated by the Department of Veterinary Services (DSV) in partnership with the Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research (ISRA) for the research component and the Ecological Monitoring Center (CSE) for the Geographic Information System (GIS). The Center for International Cooperation in Agronomic Research for Development (CIRAD) provides scientific support to the project. The environmental study started in 2010 with the implementation of the protocol on the environmental impact assessment and the preparation of the dossier of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). During the phase of control preparation, currently underway, a suppression device was tested on a small area in Kayar, and experimental releases of sterile males were set up at two sites to assess their survival and competitiveness, after having set up a transport system running the irradiated pupae of the CIRDES insectarium (Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso) to that of Senegalese Institute for Agricultural Research (ISRA). (Author)

  19. Generic Design, Technical Guidelines and Optimal Location of Tsetse Fly Mass-Rearing Facilities. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) severely affect human health - sleeping sickness - and there is evidence for a causal relationship of T and T with food insecurity, rural poverty and overall development constraints for people living in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Direct annual losses in livestock production and the cost of continuous control measures have been estimated to range between US$ 600 million and $1.2 billion, and the lost potential in agriculture and livestock productivity may be as high as $ 4.75 billion per year. T and T must be considered and treated as one of the most serious pest problems and development constraints in the world today. Several developments in recent years contributed to an increased feasibility and sustainability of efforts against the T and T problem: 1. Following a decision of the African Heads of State and Government at their Lome summit in 2000, to eventually eradicate tsetse flies from Africa, there is an increased commitment among the national and international authorities and other stakeholders to solve the T and T problem in a sustainable manner through the creation and subsequent expansion of T and T free zones. 2. The concept of areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM), including a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, where feasible and justifiable, was adopted for intervention against the T and T problem in the context of overall efforts towards sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD). 3. The AU-Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) and the Programme Against African Trypanosomiases (PAAT; a forum used by AU, FAO, IAEA and WHO to harmonize their efforts against T and T) jointly developed criteria and guidelines for identifying priority areas for T and T intervention, where there is high potential for agriculture and livestock development and where intervention measures would likely result in early and sustainable success. SIT will likely play a role in several

  20. Efficacy of Electrocuting Devices to Catch Tsetse Flies (Glossinidae and Other Diptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn A Vale

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of insect vectors has an important bearing on the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit, and on the opportunities for vector control. Two sorts of electrocuting device have been particularly useful for studying the behaviour of tsetse flies (Glossina spp, the vectors of the trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. Such devices consist of grids on netting (E-net to catch tsetse in flight, or on cloth (E-cloth to catch alighting flies. Catches are most meaningful when the devices catch as many as possible of the flies potentially available to them, and when the proportion caught is known. There have been conflicting indications for the catching efficiency, depending on whether the assessments were made by the naked eye or assisted by video recordings.Using grids of 0.5m2 in Zimbabwe, we developed catch methods of studying the efficiency of E-nets and E-cloth for tsetse, using improved transformers to supply the grids with electrical pulses of ~40kV. At energies per pulse of 35-215mJ, the efficiency was enhanced by reducing the pulse interval from 3200 to 1ms. Efficiency was low at 35mJ per pulse, but there seemed no benefit of increasing the energy beyond 70mJ. Catches at E-nets declined when the fine netting normally used became either coarser or much finer, and increased when the grid frame was moved from 2.5cm to 27.5cm from the grid. Data for muscoids and tabanids were roughly comparable to those for tsetse.The catch method of studying efficiency is useful for supplementing and extending video methods. Specifications are suggested for E-nets and E-cloth that are ~95% efficient and suitable for estimating the absolute numbers of available flies. Grids that are less efficient, but more economical, are recommended for studies of relative numbers available to various baits.

  1. Use of a trypanosomal antigen ELISA to monitor tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaho-Mukani, W; Munga, L K; Nyanga` O, J N.M.; Ouma, J O; Masika, P; Okech, G; Ndungu, J M [Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Inst., Kikuyu (Kenya)

    1997-02-01

    The capture Antigen-ELISA was used to monitor serum samples originating from three study areas in Kenya. At the Galana ranch the test was used to assess re-invasion of an area previously cleared of Glossina pallidipes. In Busia district the Ag-ELISA is being used to monitor the progress of a tsetse and trypanosomosis control programme. At Taita and Tara ranches the capture Antigen ELISA and the buffy coat technique (BCT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial Cypermethrin dip for the control of Glossina pallidipes. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  2. An update of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae distribution and African animal trypanosomosis prevalence in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel J. de Beer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unpredicted outbreak of African animal trypanosomosis or nagana in 1990 in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal necessitated an emergency control programme, utilising the extensive cattledipping system in the area, as well as a reassessment of the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem in the province. Since 1990, sporadic blood sampling of cattle at the dip tanks in the naganainfested areas were undertaken to identify trypanosome species involved and to determine the infection prevalence in cattle. The distribution and species composition of the tsetse populations in the area were also investigated. From November 2005 to November 2007 selected dip tanks were surveyed for trypanosome infection prevalence. During April 2005 to August 2009 the distribution and abundance of tsetse populations were assessed with odour-baited H traps. The tsetse and trypanosome distribution maps were updated and potential correlations between tsetse apparent densities (ADs and the prevalence of trypanosomosis were assessed. Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead were recorded in locations where they have not previously been collected. No significant correlation between tsetse relative abundance and nagana prevalence was found, which indicated complex interactions between tsetse fly presence and disease prevalence. This was epitomised by data that indicated that despite large differences in the ADs of G. austeni and G. brevipalpis, trypanosome infection prevalence was similar in all three districts in the area. This study clearly indicated that both tsetse species play significant roles in trypanosome transmission and that it will be essential that any control strategy, which aims at sustainable management of the disease, should target both species. Keywords: Tsetse distribution; Glossina brevipalpis; Glossina austeni; trypanosome infection prevalence

  3. Search for tsetse attractants : A structure-activity study on 1-octen-3-ol in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanNaters, WMVG; Bootsma, L; denOtter, CJ; Belemtougri, RG

    Trapping tsetse flies belonging to the palpalis group still relies totally upon luring by visual cues even though odor-baited trapping is used effectively against the morsitans-group species. Forty-three percent of the antennal olfactory cells of Glossina f. fuscipes, a member of the palpalis group,

  4. Electroantennogram responses of tsetse flies (Glossina pallidipes) to host odours in an open field and riverine woodland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, K.E; den Otter, C.J; Noorman, N

    The present study was initiated to gain insight into the way in which tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) sense odours at different locations in odour plumes in both an open field and a wooded area. We recorded the antennal responses (EAGs) from stationary living female G. pallidipes 15 m upwind and at

  5. Adaptations in the glucose metabolism of procyclic Trypanosoma brucei isolates from Tsetse flies and during differentiation of bloodstream forms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, K.W.A.; van den Abbeele, J.; van den Bossche, P.; van Hellemond, J.J.; Tielens, A.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei isolated from the midguts of infected tsetse flies, or freshly transformed from a strain that is close to field isolates, do not use a complete Krebs cycle. Furthermore, short stumpy bloodstream forms produce acetate and are apparently metabolically preadapted

  6. Macrogeographic population structure of the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouma, J.O.; Marquez, J.G.; Krafsur, E.S

    2005-01-01

    Tsetse flies are confined to sub-Saharan Africa where they occupy discontinuous habitats. In anticipation of area-wide control programmes, estimates of gene flow among tsetse populations are necessary. Genetic diversities were partitioned at eight microsatellite loci and five mitochondrial loci in 21 Glossina pallidipes Austin populations. At microsatellite loci, Nei's unbiased gene diversity averaged over loci was 0.659 and the total number of alleles was 214, only four of which were shared among all populations. The mean number of alleles per locus was 26.8. Random mating was observed within but not among populations (fixation index FST=0.18) and 81% of the genetic variance was within populations. Thirty-nine mitochondrial variants were detected. Mitochondrial diversities in populations varied from 0 to 0.85 and averaged 0.42, and FST=0.51. High levels of genetic differentiation were characteristic, extending even to subpopulations separated by tens and hundreds of kilometres, and indicating low rates of gene flow. (author)

  7. Towards an Early Warning System for Rhodesian Sleeping Sickness in Savannah Areas: Man-Like Traps for Tsetse Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Glyn A.; Hall, David R.; Chamisa, Andrew; Torr, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Background In the savannahs of East and Southern Africa, tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) transmit Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense which causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness, the zoonotic form of human African trypanosomiasis. The flies feed mainly on wild and domestic animals and are usually repelled by humans. However, this innate aversion to humans can be undermined by environmental stresses on tsetse populations, so increasing disease risk. To monitor changes in risk, we need traps designed specifically to quantify the responsiveness of savannah tsetse to humans, but the traps currently available are designed to simulate other hosts. Methodology/Principal Findings In Zimbabwe, two approaches were made towards developing a man-like trap for savannah tsetse: either modifying an ox-like trap or creating new designs. Tsetse catches from a standard ox-like trap used with and without artificial ox odor were reduced by two men standing nearby, by an average of 34% for Glossina morsitans morsitans and 56% for G. pallidipes, thus giving catches more like those made by hand-nets from men. Sampling by electrocuting devices suggested that the men stopped flies arriving near the trap and discouraged trap-entering responses. Most of human repellence was olfactory, as evidenced by the reduction in catches when the trap was used with the odor of hidden men. Geranyl acetone, known to occur in human odor, and dispensed at 0.2 mg/h, was about as repellent as human odor but not as powerfully repellent as wood smoke. New traps looking and smelling like men gave catches like those from men. Conclusion/Significance Catches from the completely new man-like traps seem too small to give reliable indices of human repellence. Better indications would be provided by comparing the catches of an ox-like trap either with or without artificial human odor. The chemistry and practical applications of the repellence of human odor and smoke deserve further study. PMID:23301107

  8. Towards an early warning system for Rhodesian sleeping sickness in savannah areas: man-like traps for tsetse flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn A Vale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the savannahs of East and Southern Africa, tsetse flies (Glossina spp. transmit Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense which causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness, the zoonotic form of human African trypanosomiasis. The flies feed mainly on wild and domestic animals and are usually repelled by humans. However, this innate aversion to humans can be undermined by environmental stresses on tsetse populations, so increasing disease risk. To monitor changes in risk, we need traps designed specifically to quantify the responsiveness of savannah tsetse to humans, but the traps currently available are designed to simulate other hosts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Zimbabwe, two approaches were made towards developing a man-like trap for savannah tsetse: either modifying an ox-like trap or creating new designs. Tsetse catches from a standard ox-like trap used with and without artificial ox odor were reduced by two men standing nearby, by an average of 34% for Glossina morsitans morsitans and 56% for G. pallidipes, thus giving catches more like those made by hand-nets from men. Sampling by electrocuting devices suggested that the men stopped flies arriving near the trap and discouraged trap-entering responses. Most of human repellence was olfactory, as evidenced by the reduction in catches when the trap was used with the odor of hidden men. Geranyl acetone, known to occur in human odor, and dispensed at 0.2 mg/h, was about as repellent as human odor but not as powerfully repellent as wood smoke. New traps looking and smelling like men gave catches like those from men. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Catches from the completely new man-like traps seem too small to give reliable indices of human repellence. Better indications would be provided by comparing the catches of an ox-like trap either with or without artificial human odor. The chemistry and practical applications of the repellence of human odor and smoke deserve further study.

  9. Dynamics of tsetse natural infection rates in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso, in relation with environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy eBouyer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Burkina Faso, the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomoses (AAT are riverine tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (G.p.g. and Glossina tachinoides Westwood (G. t. (Diptera: Glossinidae. Experimental work demonstrated that environmental stress can increase the sensitivity of tsetse to trypanosome infection.Seasonal variations of the tsetse infection rates were monitored monthly over 17 months (May 2006-Sept 2007 in two sites (Douroula and Kadomba. In total, 1,423 flies were dissected and the infection of the proboscis, middle intestine and salivary glands was noted. All the positive organs were analyzed using monospecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers. To investigate the role of different environmental factors, fly infection rates were analyzed using generalized linear mixed binomial models using the species, sex, and monthly averages of the maximal, minimal and mean daily temperatures, rainfalls, Land Surface Temperature day (LSTd and night (LSTn as fixed effects and the trap position as a random effect.The overall infection rate was 10% from which the predominant species was T. congolense (7.6% of the flies, followed by T. vivax (2.2% of the flies. The best model (lowest AICc for the global infection rates was the one with the maximal daily temperature only as fixed effect (p<0.001. For T. congolense, the best model was the one with the tsetse species, sex, maximal daily temperature and rainfalls as fixed effect, where the maximal daily temperature was the main effect (p<0.001. The number of T. vivax infections was too low to allow the models to converge. The maturation rate of T. congolense was very high (94%, and G. t. harbored a higher maturation rate (p=0.03.The results are discussed in view of former laboratory studies showing that temperature stress can increase the susceptibility of tsetse to trypanosomes, as well as the possibility to improve AAT risk mapping using satellite images.

  10. Study of competitiveness, survival and dispersal of a strain of sterile males from Burkina Faso in Senegal with a view to a project for the eradication of tsetse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaila; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Lo, Mbargou; Vreysen, Marc; Lancelot, Renaud; Bouyer, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study defines the context in which the ''project to combat the tsetse in the zone of the Niayes in Senegal'' was launched. This project has benefited from the scientific and technical support of ISRA, IAEA and CIRAD. This study defines the context in which the ''project to combat the tsetse in the zone of the Niayes in Senegal'' was launched. This project has benefited from the scientific and technical support of ISRA, IAEA, CIRAD. In the same vein, it highlights the implementation strategy and the problem on the definition of the target population, the compatibility of the tsetse to livestock from Burkina Faso (BKF strain) confirmed in experimental conditions and competitiveness of the tsetse to livestock from Burkina Faso (BKF strain) in these conditions.

  11. Potential impact of tsetse fly control involving the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, U.; Dyck, V.A.; Mattioli, R.C.; Jannin, J.

    2005-01-01

    Hunger and poverty persist in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Many affected communities could produce enough food for themselves, and even for sale, if they had the basics - livestock and crops. In most of these communities, the presence of tsetse flies and the disease they vector, trypanosomosis, prevents optimal productive livestock-keeping and mixed farming, resulting in inadequate local food production. Since a vast majority of the rural communities depends on agriculture, the removal of a key development problem like tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) will permit increased local agricultural production, socio-economic and market development, and alleviate hunger and poverty. A sustained alleviation, if possible a complete, lasting removal of the T and T problem, is therefore considered a prerequisite to rural self-sufficient agriculture, in which productive livestock can provide milk, meat, draught power to cultivate the land, and eventually generate higher income and market opportunities. Hence the removal of such a key problem would catalyse overall development in rural areas. However, the poverty and food security status of communities in Africa is rather heterogeneous, and reflects the impact of various constraining factors, including T and T on the current agricultural production process and human well-being, as well as on the overall development potential. Correspondingly, the benefits to sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD), resulting from an elimination of the T and T problem, will also vary from area to area. In view of the substantial finding required over the next decades to address this key problem, and the need for early 'success stories' that show tangible benefits, it is important that the initial T and T control areas are carefully selected according to technical feasibility, and to the predicted potential in the context of SARD. Trypanosomosis is a major, but technically solvable, development problem, and the effectiveness of the

  12. Integrated cost-benefit analysis of tsetse control and herd productivity to inform control programs for animal African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne; Holt, Hannah R; Oumarou, Farikou; Chilongo, Kalinga; Gilbert, William; Fauron, Albane; Mumba, Chisoni; Guitian, Javier

    2018-03-07

    Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) and its tsetse vector are responsible for annual losses estimated in billions of US dollars ($). Recent years have seen the implementation of a series of multinational interventions. However, actors of AAT control face complex resource allocation decisions due to the geographical range of AAT, diversity of ecological and livestock systems, and range of control methods available. The study presented here integrates an existing tsetse abundance model with a bio-economic herd model that captures local production characteristics as well as heterogeneities in AAT incidence and breed. These models were used to predict the impact of tsetse elimination on the net value of cattle production in the districts of Mambwe, in Zambia, and Faro et Déo in Cameroon. The net value of cattle production under the current situation was used as a baseline, and compared with alternative publicly funded control programmes. In Zambia, the current baseline is AAT control implemented privately by cattle owners (Scenario Z0). In Cameroon, the baseline (Scenario C0) is a small-scale publicly funded tsetse control programme and privately funded control at farm level. The model was run for 10 years, using a discount rate of 5%. Compared to Scenario C0, benefit-cost ratios (BCR) of 4.5 (4.4-4.7) for Scenario C1 (tsetse suppression using insecticide treatment of cattle (ITC) and traps + maintenance with ITC barrier), and 3.8 (3.6-4.0) for Scenario C2 (tsetse suppression using ITC and traps + maintenance with barrier of targets), were estimated in Cameroon. For Zambia, the benefit-cost ratio calculated for Scenarios Z1 (targets, ITC barrier), Z2 (targets, barrier traps), Z3 (aerial spraying, ITC barrier), and Z4 (aerial spraying, barrier traps) were 2.3 (1.8 - 2.7), 2.0 (1.6-2.4), 2.8 (2.3-3.3) and 2.5 (2.0-2.9), respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the profitability of the projects is relatively resistant to variations in the costs of the

  13. Radiation effects in blood used for the in vitro feeding of tsetse flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, H J [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenbotanink; Bickhardt, K [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.)

    1983-05-01

    Freshly collected and ..gamma..-sterilized (dose 100 krad) pig's blood, usually fed to tsetse flies, was tested for radiation induced changes of the following parameters: count of red cells and leucocytes; differential count of white cells; haematocrit ratio; concentrations of haemoglobin, protein, glucose and lactate in the serum; activities of glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and creatine kinase. The tests were performed on the day of irradiation and, after storage at 4/sup 0/C, two and seven days later. Unequivocal radiation damage was observed in the case of haematocrit value, erythrocyte count and creatine kinase activity. The concentration of glucose and lactate are not influenced by the irradiation but only by the time elapsed.

  14. Evaluation of antigen and antibody ELISA's for epidemiological surveys of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisler, M.C.; Hopkins, J.S.; Machila, N.; Bossche, P. van den; Peregrine, A.S.; Luckins, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity of the FAO/IAEA antigen-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for diagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis were investigated using sera from experimental cattle infected by tsetse challenge with cloned populations of Trypanosoma congolense (3 populations) or T. vivax (1 population). The kits are based on monoclonal antibodies that recognise internal antigens of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes. Ten cattle were infected with each trypanosome population for at least 60 days, and in combination with uninfected cohorts (n=16) were used in a double-blind study design. Sensitivity and specificity of the tests depended on the choice of positive-negative thresholds expressed as percent positivity with respect to the median OD of 4 replicates of the strong positive reference serum provided with the kit. In general, while overall specificities were high, sensitivities of the antigen-ELISA's were poor. For example, at a cut-off of 5% positivity, the sensitivities of the antigen-ELISA's were 11% for samples (n=1162) from T. congolense infected cattle (n=30), and 24% for samples (n=283) from T. vivax infected cattle (n=10). The corresponding specificity values were 95% and 79%, respectively. There were no values of the positive-negative threshold at which both sensitivity and specificity were satisfactory. Trypanosome species-specificities of the antigen-ELISA's were also poor. Sensitivity and species-specificity of the antigen-ELISA for T. brucei infections were not investigated. The indirect ELISA for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum was adapted for use with dried blood spots on filter paper, and standardised using a strong positive reference serum and the percent positivity system of data expression. The antibody-ELISA was evaluated in Zambia for use in epidemiological surveys of the prevalence of tsetse-transmitted bovine trypanosomosis. Known negative samples (sera, n=209; blood spots, n=466) were

  15. Labelling of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis palpalis by activable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, H.J.; Iwannek, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Tsetse flies of the species Glossina palpalis palpalis Rob. Desv. were subjected to various treatments with an aim of achieving labelling with the activable stable elements dysprosium, europium or lanthanum. The substances were injected as chlorides or nitrates, they were added to the food of the flies or applied externally to pupae or adults by dipping, or by spraying with the solutions. Feeding with the labelling substance was in principle the easiest method to handle a large number of flies. Only lanthanum salts have been tested so far and it was found that they were excreted relatively fast. They gave detectable labelling for 4 days after application only. The spraying of adults with lanthanum-containing aerosols was a technique which could be used on a mass-production scale. A fairly homogeneous degree of labelling was achieved, which was so high that during mating a clearly measurable amount of lanthanum was transferred from the labelled male to the female. (Auth.)

  16. Variations in the Peritrophic Matrix Composition of Heparan Sulphate from the Tsetse Fly, Glossina morsitans morsitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Rogerson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the principal insect vectors of African trypanosomes—sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in cattle. One of the tsetse fly species, Glossina morsitans morsitans, is host to the parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, a major cause of African trypanosomiasis. Precise details of the life cycle have yet to be established, but the parasite life cycle involves crossing the insect peritrophic matrix (PM. The PM consists of the polysaccharide chitin, several hundred proteins, and both glycosamino- and galactosaminoglycan (GAG polysaccharides. Owing to the technical challenges of detecting small amounts of GAG polysaccharides, their conclusive identification and composition have not been possible until now. Following removal of PMs from the insects and the application of heparinases (bacterial lyase enzymes that are specific for heparan sulphate (HS GAG polysaccharides, dot blots with a HS-specific antibody showed heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs to be present, consistent with Glossina morsitans morsitans genome analysis, as well as the likely expression of the HSPGs syndecan and perlecan. Exhaustive HS digestion with heparinases, fluorescent labeling of the resulting disaccharides with BODIPY fluorophore, and separation by strong anion exchange chromatography then demonstrated the presence of HS for the first time and provided the disaccharide composition. There were no significant differences in the type of disaccharide species present between genders or between ages (24 vs. 48 h post emergence, although the HS from female flies was more heavily sulphated overall. Significant differences, which may relate to differences in infection between genders or ages, were evident, however, in overall levels of 2-O-sulphation between sexes and, for females, between 24 and 48 h post-emergence, implying a change in expression or activity for the 2-O-sulphotransferase enzyme. The presence of significant quantities of disaccharides containing the

  17. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  18. Study of trypanosome and anaemia indicators during the eradication of tsetse flies from Unguja island, United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwinger, R.H.; Holland, W.G.; Ndegwa, T.K.; Wint, W.; Kassim, S.S.; Hongjie, P.; Slingenbergh, J.H.W.

    2000-01-01

    A large number of cattle has been monitored regularly during a ten-year period on Unguja island, United Republic of Tanzania, as part of a number of consecutive programmes to initially control and eventually eradicate tsetse and trypanosomosis. Haematological and parasitological results were used among others to monitor and adjust the control and eradication programmes from 1988 to 1997. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was applied to the data set to assess changes of animal health parameters in time and space. Analysis of the data showed significant changes over the years in infection status and degree of anaemia. Moreover, differences in health status of cattle populations between adjacent geographic areas were detected. Regular monitoring using standardized protocols by a multidisciplinary team resulted eventually in the eradication of tsetse flies from the island. (author)

  19. Green tea proanthocyanidins cause impairment of hormone-regulated larval development and reproductive fitness via repression of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, insulin-like peptide and cytochrome P450 genes in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson M Muema

    Full Text Available Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto mosquitoes with an aim to unravel the probable molecular targets. Based on the induced phenotypic effects, genes selected for study targeted juvenile hormone (JH biosynthesis, signal transduction, oxidative stress response and xenobiotic detoxification in addition to vitellogenesis in females. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure of larval stages (L3/L4 to sublethal dose of 5 ppm dramatically extended larval developmental period for up to 12 days, slowed down pupation rates, induced abnormal larval-pupal intermediates and caused 100% inhibition of adult emergence. Further, females exhibited significant interference of fecundity and egg hatchability relative to controls (p < 0.001. Using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, our findings show that PA-treated larvae exhibited significant repression of AgamJHAMT (p < 0.001, AgamILP1 (p < 0.001 and AgamCYP6M2 (p < 0.001 with up-regulation of Hsp70 (p < 0.001. Females exposed as larvae demonstrated down-regulation of AgamVg (p = 0.03, AgamILP1 (p = 0.009, AgamCYP6M2 (p = 0.05 and AgamJHAMT (p = 0.02. Our findings support that C. sinensis proanthocyanidins affect important vectorial capacity components such as mosquito survival rates and reproductive fitness thus could be potentially used for controlling populations of malaria vectors.

  20. [Ecology of Glossina palpalis VANDERPLANK, 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) in mangrove area of Guinea: influence of tides on tsetse densities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagbadouno, S M; Salou, E; Rayaisse, J B; Courtin, F; Sanon, A; Solano, P; Camara, M

    2016-05-01

    The mangrove area on the Guinea littoral constitutes a favourable habitat for transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiens, the parasite causing sleeping sickness also called Human African Trypanosmosis (HAT), due the simultaneous presence of the vector (tsetse flies) and the human hosts. In order to assess the influence of the sea tides on the densities of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Gpg), major vector of HAT in the mangrove, entomological surveys were performed using two transects, according to tides coefficient (great and small) and tide daily fluctuations (high and low). On each transect, 12 biconical traps were deployed through the mangrove to the continent. In total, up to 612 Gpg were caught, giving a density of 2.13 flies/trap/day (f/t/d). Highest captures were recorded during small tides and more tsetse were caught during the dry season than in the wet season. There were significant differences between captures when considering the different biotopes, and highest tsetse densities were recorded at the junction of the river and the channel of the mangrove (6.17±5.24); and in the channels of mangrove (3.50±3.76), during high tides of small coefficients. The results of this study may be used to improve vector control methods.

  1. Prevalence of mixed Trypanosoma congolense infections in livestock and tsetse in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gillingwater

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma congolense causes the most economically important animal trypanosomosis in Africa. In South Africa, a rinderpest pandemic of the 1890s removed many host animals, resulting in the near-eradication of most tsetse species. Further suppression was achieved through spraying with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT; however, residual populations of Glossina austeni and G. brevipalpis remained in isolated pockets. A total of 506 of these tsetse flies were captured in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the St Lucia Wetland Park and Boomerang commercial farm. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to determine the infection rate and frequency of mixed infections of these flies. Additionally, 473 blood samples were collected from cattle at communal diptanks and a commercial farm in the area and each one examined by the haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT. Furthermore, buffy coats from these blood samples were spotted onto FTA Elute cards and the DNA extracted from each one tested using 3 separate PCRs. The HCT revealed the presence of trypanosomes in only 6.6 % of the blood samples; by contrast, species-specific PCR detected trypanosome DNA in 50 % of the samples. The species-specific PCR detected trypanosome DNA in 17 % of the tsetse flies, compared with the nested PCR targeting rDNA which detected trypanosome DNA in only 14 % of the samples. Over time, the transmission of Savannah-type T. congolense and Kilifi-type T. congolense as mixed infections could have an impact on disease manifestation in different hosts in the area.

  2. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  3. Conflict of interest: use of pyrethroids and amidines against tsetse and ticks in zoonotic sleeping sickness endemic areas of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin; Waiswa, Charles; Welburn, Susan C

    2013-07-10

    Caused by trypanosomes and transmitted by tsetse flies, Human African Trypanosomiasis and bovine trypanosomiasis remain endemic across much of rural Uganda where the major reservoir of acute human infection is cattle. Following elimination of trypanosomes by mass trypanocidal treatment, it is crucial that farmers regularly apply pyrethroid-based insecticides to cattle to sustain parasite reductions, which also protect against tick-borne diseases. The private veterinary market is divided between products only effective against ticks (amidines) and those effective against both ticks and tsetse (pyrethroids). This study explored insecticide sales, demand and use in four districts of Uganda where mass cattle treatments have been undertaken by the 'Stamp Out Sleeping Sickness' programme. A mixed-methods study was undertaken in Dokolo, Kaberamaido, Serere and Soroti districts of Uganda between September 2011 and February 2012. This included: focus groups in 40 villages, a livestock keeper survey (n = 495), a veterinary drug shop questionnaire (n = 74), participatory methods in six villages and numerous semi-structured interviews. Although 70.5% of livestock keepers reportedly used insecticide each month during the rainy season, due to a variety of perceptions and practices nearly half used products only effective against ticks and not tsetse. Between 640 and 740 litres of insecticide were being sold monthly, covering an average of 53.7 cattle/km(2). Sales were roughly divided between seven pyrethroid-based products and five products only effective against ticks. In the high-risk HAT district of Kaberamaido, almost double the volume of non-tsetse effective insecticide was being sold. Factors influencing insecticide choice included: disease knowledge, brand recognition, product price, half-life and mode of product action, product availability, and dissemination of information. Stakeholders considered market restriction of non-tsetse effective products the most

  4. Evaluation of the antigen ELISA as a tool for assessing the impact of tsetse control programmes on the incidence of trypanosome infections in livestock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diall, O; Diarra, B; Sanogo, Y [Laboratoire Central Veterinaire du Mali, Bamako (Mali)

    1997-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the suitability of the antigen ELISA as a method for assessing the efficacy of a tsetse control programme, based on the use of traps and screens impregnated with Deltamethrine. The efficacy of a tsetse control programme can be measured by monitoring the tsetse density on the one hand and by monitoring the infection rate and packed red cell volume (PCV) level of cattle on the other hand. We have used both monitoring methods as reference points to evaluate the Ag-ELISA, by determining how results of the Ag-ELISA correlated with those of the two reference methods. The monitoring was carried out in 8 localities. The results were collected over a 12-month-study period. In the Deltamethrine treated area the tsetse density was reduced by nearly 95% after one month of control and virtually no tsetse fly could be caught after 12 months of tsetse control. A similar tendency was observed for the trypanosome infection rate in cattle, which decreased from 6% to 2% in the treated area, but increased from 3% to 10% in the untreated area. At the beginning of the experiment, the average PCV values (29.4%) were identical for animals in the treated and the untreated areas. Following 12 months of tsetse control, the average PCV value of animals in the treated area was 4.7 percentage units higher than of animals in the untreated area. The study of antigenaemia covered the first three months of the experiment. The rate of antigen positivity did not seem to correlate with trypanosome infection rates in cattle, nor with tsetse fly densities. This may be attributed to the low sensitivity of the test, while the specificity as studied on sera from tsetse free areas was high (98%). The monitoring period using the Ag-ELISA should be extended to cover the entire 12-month-study period to verify the preliminary conclusion. In addition, studies on the sensitivity of the test should be carried out. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  5. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  6. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  7. More than one rabbit out of the hat: Radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based approaches for sustainable management of mosquito and tsetse fly populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourtzis, K.; Lees, R.S.; Hendrichs, J.; Vreysen, M.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are bloodsucking vectors of human and animal pathogens. Mosquito-borne diseases (malaria, filariasis, dengue, chikungunya and Zika) cause severe mortality and morbidity annually, and tsetse fly-borne diseases (African trypanosomes causing sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock) cost Sub-Saharan Africa an estimated US$ 4750 million annually. Current reliance on insecticides for vector control is unsustainable: due to increasing insecticide resistance and growing concerns about health and environmental impacts of chemical control there is a growing need for novel, effective and safe biologically- based methods that are more sustainable. The integration of the sterile insect technique has proven successful to manage crop pests and disease vectors, particularly tsetse flies, and is likely to prove effective against mosquito vectors, particularly once sexseparation methods are improved. Transgenic and symbiont-based approaches are in development, and more advanced in (particularly Aedes) mosquitoes than in tsetse flies; however, issues around stability, sustainability and biosecurity have to be addressed, especially when considering population replacement approaches. Regulatory issues and those relating to intellectual property and economic cost of application must also be overcome. Standardised methods to assess insect quality are required to compare and predict efficacy of the different approaches. Different combinations of these three approaches could be integrated to maximise their benefits, and all have the potential to be used in tsetse and mosquito area-wide integrated pest management programmes. (author)

  8. The use of antigen ELISA to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley, Western Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewelde, N; Kebede, A; Tsegaye, A [National Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Investigation and Control Centre (NTTICC), Bedelle (Ethiopia)

    1997-02-01

    Blood and serum samples were collected from a tsetse free zone in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The samples were collected to determine the specificity and establish percentage positivity cut-off points of the antigen ELISA. Blood samples collected from these areas were negative for trypanosomosis using Standard Trypanosome Detection Methods (STDM). Ag-ELISA, in contrast, detected circulating trypanosomal antigens in 7.6% of the serum samples collected. Similarly, samples were collected from a tsetse infested zone in the upper Didessa valley, western Ethiopia, to assess the sensitivity of the Ag-ELISA. STDM detected trypanosomal infections in the range of 15.8 and 16.7% of blood samples from this zone. On the other hand, Ag-ELISA, indicated the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in 38.6% of serum samples tested. Moreover, Ag-ELISA was used to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley. There were great differences in the prevalence rates of trypanosomosis, as revealed by the STDM and Ag-ELISA, between the tsetse controlled and tsetse infested zones of the upper Didessa valley. Generally, the Ag-ELISA revealed the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in only 43.7% of patent infections. Nevertheless, the test detected 318 more cases which were not diagnosed by any one of the STDM used. More interestingly, Ag-ELISA indicated the widespread presence of T. brucei in the cattle sampled in all zones. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs.

  9. The use of antigen ELISA to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley, Western Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewelde, N.; Kebede, A.; Tsegaye, A.

    1997-01-01

    Blood and serum samples were collected from a tsetse free zone in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The samples were collected to determine the specificity and establish percentage positivity cut-off points of the antigen ELISA. Blood samples collected from these areas were negative for trypanosomosis using Standard Trypanosome Detection Methods (STDM). Ag-ELISA, in contrast, detected circulating trypanosomal antigens in 7.6% of the serum samples collected. Similarly, samples were collected from a tsetse infested zone in the upper Didessa valley, western Ethiopia, to assess the sensitivity of the Ag-ELISA. STDM detected trypanosomal infections in the range of 15.8 and 16.7% of blood samples from this zone. On the other hand, Ag-ELISA, indicated the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in 38.6% of serum samples tested. Moreover, Ag-ELISA was used to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse control campaign in the upper Didessa valley. There were great differences in the prevalence rates of trypanosomosis, as revealed by the STDM and Ag-ELISA, between the tsetse controlled and tsetse infested zones of the upper Didessa valley. Generally, the Ag-ELISA revealed the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens in only 43.7% of patent infections. Nevertheless, the test detected 318 more cases which were not diagnosed by any one of the STDM used. More interestingly, Ag-ELISA indicated the widespread presence of T. brucei in the cattle sampled in all zones. (author). 11 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Theoretical and Practical Studies on a Possible Genetic Method for Tsetse Fly Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C. F. [Tsetse Research Laboratory, School of Veterinary Science, University Of Bristol, Langford, Bristol (United Kingdom); Hill, W. G. [Institute of Animal Genetics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1968-06-15

    Chromosome translocations may be useful in pest control because they are a common type of mutation in a variety of organisms and, frequently, the heterozygote is semi-sterile and the homo- zygote folly fertile. It might be possible to induce such a translocation in a pest species, to breed from a selected ancestral pair of translocation homozygotes a large number of the homozygotes and to release these into a wild population. This would cause the production of heterozygotes in the wild population and hence would reduce the fertility of the population. This reduction would persist for a number of generations. Calculations, based on simplified assumptions, showed that this method of fertility reduction might be more economical than the use of sterilized males. In the present paper a theoretical comparison is made of the translocation and sterilized-male methods for the control of tsetse flies (Glossina sp.). A computer model has been set up which simulates, as far as possible, the known facts about birth, mating and death in a wild tsetse population. The predicted effects of releases of sterilized males and of translocation homozygotes are described and the modifications which would be caused by density-dependent mortality, migration and reduced viability of the translocation genotypes and sterilized males are indicated. It is concluded that to eradicate a well isolated wild population the numbers of translocation homozygotes required might well be considerably less than the number of sterilized males required for the same task. However, immigration into the population would greatly reduce the efficiency of the translocation method. The progress so far in attempting to produce a suitable translocation in Glossina austeni is described. Males have been treated with 5-7 krad of gamma radiation and a number of semi-sterile individuals have been selected from among their progeny. The semi-sterility is inherited and, by analogy with the results in other organisms, is

  11. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  12. Factors affecting the efficiency of the sterile insect release method for tsetse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Data are reviewed on the levels of sterility, survival and competitiveness of Glossina males after irradiation with various gamma-ray doses delivered in air or nitrogen. A simple population model helps in the choice of the optimum dose. Field studies of mating competitiveness require a measure of the ratio of sterile to fertile males and of sterile to fertile matings, and both ratio estimates will be subject to sampling error. Data on multiple mating of female Glossina are reviewed. There is some degree of precedence for sperm from the first mating but sterile sperm are fully competitive for fertilization and, following the early death of an embryo, the timing of the next ovulation is only advanced to a slight extent. Thus in an isolated population the occurrence or non-occurrence of female polygamy would be of almost no consequence. Where mated females were immigrating into the release area female polygamy would be advantageous. The low recovery potential of tsetse populations is the main reason for thinking them suitable for control by the introduction of sterility. In trying to measure this recovery potential it is important to distinguish it from natural seasonal increase. If natural population fluctuations are studied to detect density dependent effects it is important not to confuse cause with effect. Non-isolation of the 'target' population is almost certainly the most serious obstacle to practical application of the sterile insect release method, and a steady 'rolling forward' of the release area may be a possible solution. (author)

  13. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  14. Achievements 2006-Activities 2007: Feasibility study on the application of the sterile insect technique for the establishment of a zone free of tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sall, Baba

    2007-01-01

    The Project ''Feasibility study on the application of the sterile insect technique for the creation of a zone free of tsetse flies'' aims to eradicate the tsetse fly and the trypanosomiasis it transmits from the Niayes area and part of the small coast. These areas were re-infested after several decades of lull following the eradication campaigns of the 1970s and 1980s. The project began in 2006 for a period of 4 years.This document presents the achievements of 2006 and the activities planned in 2007 within the framework of the project.

  15. Effect of rearing diet on the infection rate in flies released for the control of tsetse populations by sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, I.

    1990-01-01

    In areas where sleeping sickness is endemic, it is the practice of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes to give sterilized males a bloodmeal before release into the wild in order to reduce the risk of these released flies acting as disease vectors. This strategy has been adopted because of experimental evidence which showed that it was essential to infect flies at their first feed to establish a Tripanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b rhodesiense infection in tsetse flies. The aim of the work was to test artificial tsetse diets produced in the IAEA Laboratory at Seibersdorf in order to determine whether they were as effective as whole blood in inhibiting T. brucei sensu lato (sl) infections in flies. Seven artificial diets were tested with T.b. rhodesiense; Glossina morsitans morsitans males were fed one meal of the diet and then starved for 3 days before the infective feed. None of these diets significantly altered the infection rate of the treated flies and the seven groups produced statistically homogeneous results, with a mean midgut rate of 16% (control flies fed pig blood: 17%). Flies infected as tenerals with the same trypanosome stock produced midgut rates of 61%. Three of the diets were also tested with a T. congolense stock. There were no significant differences between flies fed artificial (mean midgut infection rate: 15%) and whole blood diets (19%). G. m. morsitans infected as tenerals with this trypanosome stock produced midgut rates of 66%. As with T. brucei sl infections, teneral flies were far more likely to develop a T. congolense infection than fed flies; this result suggests that all the tsetse flies used in SIT programmes should be fed before release in order to reduce the risk both to man and his livestock. Artificial diets are as effective as whole blood in inhibiting trypanosome infections. The effect of bloodmeal on the fly infection rates is discussed in relation to lectin production in fed flies. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  18. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  19. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  20. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  1. Franchising reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-12-01

    Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context.

  2. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  3. Development of High Temperature Short Time Vertebrate-Blood Pasteurization Equipment for Tsetse Fly Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moravek, I; Lach, J [Department of Manufacturing Systems, Slovak Technical University Namestie Slobody 17 812 31 Bratislava (Slovakia); Takac, P [Institute of Zoology, SAV, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    Tsetse flies feed only on vertebrate blood, but the collection and processing of blood is expensive, it must be stored at -20{sup o}C requiring costly storage rooms and reliable electricity, and it must be irradiated to reduce bacterial contamination. This is tolerable for small colonies, but as colony size increases to service large- scale programmes, the supply and processing of blood becomes critical. Blood is normally collected from cattle at slaughter. This process is necessarily not aseptic, and large-scale collection is only possible where the animals are suspended for bleeding. One alternative to blood decontamination is using the High Temperature Short time Pasteurization (HTST) method. The food processing industry uses pasteurization to reduce bacterial load in a wide range of products. Our previous results indicated that for the control of the blood pasteurization process, to reach satisfactory bacteriological purity and at the same time to prevent the blood from coagulating, it is important to study temperature and time and also some other parameters that could predict blood coagulation. Crucial for blood coagulation is to study blood viscosity. Classical heat exchangers are not suitable for blood pasteurization. In such equipment the blood coagulation depends on temperature and time. Besides the relatively low temperatures, blood is coagulating with cumulative time until total shutdown of blood flow. After a series of experiments we found a solution using microwave systems. To verify the microwave heating concept, we built an experimental workstation. First we verified the accuracy of the applicator design from the aspect of output adaptation to the power source. Also we installed measuring equipment. This system complies with the requirements of quick heating with sufficiently high heat accumulation. By utilizing standard components for the base of the microwave generator, it is possible to markedly reduce the final price of the equipment. (author)

  4. Laboratory colonisation and genetic bottlenecks in the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ciosi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The IAEA colony is the only one available for mass rearing of Glossina pallidipes, a vector of human and animal African trypanosomiasis in eastern Africa. This colony is the source for Sterile Insect Technique (SIT programs in East Africa. The source population of this colony is unclear and its genetic diversity has not previously been evaluated and compared to field populations.We examined the genetic variation within and between the IAEA colony and its potential source populations in north Zimbabwe and the Kenya/Uganda border at 9 microsatellites loci to retrace the demographic history of the IAEA colony. We performed classical population genetics analyses and also combined historical and genetic data in a quantitative analysis using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC. There is no evidence of introgression from the north Zimbabwean population into the IAEA colony. Moreover, the ABC analyses revealed that the foundation and establishment of the colony was associated with a genetic bottleneck that has resulted in a loss of 35.7% of alleles and 54% of expected heterozygosity compared to its source population. Also, we show that tsetse control carried out in the 1990's is likely reduced the effective population size of the Kenya/Uganda border population.All the analyses indicate that the area of origin of the IAEA colony is the Kenya/Uganda border and that a genetic bottleneck was associated with the foundation and establishment of the colony. Genetic diversity associated with traits that are important for SIT may potentially have been lost during this genetic bottleneck which could lead to a suboptimal competitiveness of the colony males in the field. The genetic diversity of the colony is lower than that of field populations and so, studies using colony flies should be interpreted with caution when drawing general conclusions about G. pallidipes biology.

  5. Peptidomics of Neuropeptidergic Tissues of the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans morsitans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caers, Jelle; Boonen, Kurt; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Schoofs, Liliane; Van Hiel, Matthias B.

    2015-12-01

    Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are essential signaling molecules that regulate nearly all physiological processes. The recent release of the tsetse fly genome allowed the construction of a detailed in silico neuropeptide database (International Glossina Genome Consortium, Science 344, 380-386 (2014)), as well as an in-depth mass spectrometric analysis of the most important neuropeptidergic tissues of this medically and economically important insect species. Mass spectrometric confirmation of predicted peptides is a vital step in the functional characterization of neuropeptides, as in vivo peptides can be modified, cleaved, or even mispredicted. Using a nanoscale reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to a Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer, we detected 51 putative bioactive neuropeptides encoded by 19 precursors: adipokinetic hormone (AKH) I and II, allatostatin A and B, capability/pyrokinin (capa/PK), corazonin, calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CT/DH), FMRFamide, hugin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, natalisin, neuropeptide-like precursor (NPLP) 1, orcokinin, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and tachykinin. In addition, propeptides, truncated and spacer peptides derived from seven additional precursors were found, and include the precursors of allatostatin C, crustacean cardioactive peptide, corticotropin releasing factor-like diuretic hormone (CRF/DH), ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), ion transport peptide (ITP), neuropeptide F, and proctolin, respectively. The majority of the identified neuropeptides are present in the central nervous system, with only a limited number of peptides in the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata and midgut. Owing to the large number of identified peptides, this study can be used as a reference for comparative studies in other insects.

  6. Serratia glossinae sp. nov., isolated from the midgut of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A; Fardeau, M-L; Falsen, E; Ollivier, B; Cuny, G

    2010-06-01

    We report the isolation of a novel bacterium, strain C1(T), from the midgut of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis, one of the vector insects responsible for transmission of the trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan African countries. Strain C1(T) is a motile, facultatively anaerobic, rod-like bacterium (0.8-1.0 microm in diameter; 2-6 microm long) that grows as single cells or in chains. Optimum growth occurred at 25-35 degrees C, at pH 6.7-8.4 and in medium containing 5-20 g NaCl l(-1). The bacterium hydrolysed urea and used L-lysine, L-ornithine, citrate, pyruvate, D-glucose, D-mannitol, inositol, D-sorbitol, melibiose, amygdalin, L-arabinose, arbutin, aesculin, D-fructose, D-galactose, glycerol, maltose, D-mannose, raffinose, trehalose and d-xylose; it produced acetoin, reduced nitrate to nitrite and was positive for beta-galactosidase and catalase. The DNA G+C content was 53.6 mol%. It was related phylogenetically to members of the genus Serratia, family Enterobacteriaceae, the type strain of Serratia fonticola being its closest relative (99 % similarity between 16S rRNA gene sequences). However, DNA-DNA relatedness between strain C1(T) and S. fonticola DSM 4576(T) was only 37.15 %. Therefore, on the basis of morphological, nutritional, physiological and fatty acid analysis and genetic criteria, strain C1(T) is proposed to be assigned to a novel Serratia species, Serratia glossinae sp. nov. (type strain C1(T) =DSM 22080(T) =CCUG 57457(T)).

  7. Effects of flow rate and temperature on cyclic gas exchange in tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, John S; Chown, Steven L

    2010-05-01

    Air flow rates may confound the investigation and classification of insect gas exchange patterns. Here we report the effects of flow rates (50, 100, 200, 400 ml min(-1)) on gas exchange patterns in wild-caught Glossina morsitans morsitans from Zambia. At rest, G. m. morsitans generally showed continuous or cyclic gas exchange (CGE) but no evidence of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE). Flow rates had little influence on the ability to detect CGE in tsetse, at least in the present experimental setup and under these laboratory conditions. Importantly, faster flow rates resulted in similar gas exchange patterns to those identified at lower flower rates suggesting that G. m. morsitans did not show DGE which had been incorrectly identified as CGE at lower flow rates. While CGE cycle frequency was significantly different among the four flow rates (prate treatment variation. Using a laboratory colony of closely related, similar-sized G. morsitans centralis we subsequently investigated the effects of temperature, gender and feeding status on CGE pattern variation since these factors can influence insect metabolic rates. At 100 ml min(-1) CGE was typical of G. m. centralis at rest, although it was significantly more common in females than in males (57% vs. 43% of 14 individuals tested per gender). In either sex, temperature (20, 24, 28 and 32 degrees C) had little influence on the number of individuals showing CGE. However, increases in metabolic rate with temperature were modulated largely by increases in burst volume and cycle frequency. This is unusual among insects showing CGE or DGE patterns because increases in metabolic rate are usually modulated by increases in frequency, but either no change or a decline in burst volume. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patterns of Genome-Wide Variation in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Tsetse Flies from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gloria-Soria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff is the insect vector of the two forms of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT that exist in Uganda. Understanding Gff population dynamics, and the underlying genetics of epidemiologically relevant phenotypes is key to reducing disease transmission. Using ddRAD sequence technology, complemented with whole-genome sequencing, we developed a panel of ∼73,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distributed across the Gff genome that can be used for population genomics and to perform genome-wide-association studies. We used these markers to estimate genomic patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD in Gff, and used the information, in combination with outlier-locus detection tests, to identify candidate regions of the genome under selection. LD in individual populations decays to half of its maximum value (r2max/2 between 1359 and 2429 bp. The overall LD estimated for the species reaches r2max/2 at 708 bp, an order of magnitude slower than in Drosophila. Using 53 infected (Trypanosoma spp. and uninfected flies from four genetically distinct Ugandan populations adapted to different environmental conditions, we were able to identify SNPs associated with the infection status of the fly and local environmental adaptation. The extent of LD in Gff likely facilitated the detection of loci under selection, despite the small sample size. Furthermore, it is probable that LD in the regions identified is much higher than the average genomic LD due to strong selection. Our results show that even modest sample sizes can reveal significant genetic associations in this species, which has implications for future studies given the difficulties of collecting field specimens with contrasting phenotypes for association analysis.

  9. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  10. A tsetse and tabanid fly survey of African great apes habitats reveals the presence of a novel trypanosome lineage but the absence of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, J.; Rádrová, J.; Skalický, T.; Jirků, M.; Jirsová, D.; Mihalca, A. D.; D'Amico, G.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, D.; Lukeš, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 12 (2015), s. 741-748 ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Trypanosoma * Tsetse * Tabanids * African great apes * Gorillas * Transmission * Bloodmeal * Feeding preference Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 4.242, year: 2015

  11. Population Genetics as a Tool to Select Tsetse Control Strategies: Suppression or Eradication of Glossina palpalis gambiensis in the Niayes of Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Philippe; Kaba, Dramane; Ravel, Sophie; Sall, Baba; Mathu Ndung'u, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Senegal has initiated the ''Projet de lutte contre les glossines dans les Niayes'' to remove the trypanosomosis problem from this area in a sustainable way. Due to past failures to sustainably eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area, controversies remain as to the best strategy implement, i.e. ''eradication'' versus ''supression''.To inform this debate, we used population genetics to measure genetic differentiation between G. palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes and those from the southern tsetse belt (Missira).Three different markers (microsatellite DNA, mitochondrial CO1 DNA, and geometric morphometrics of the wings) were used on 153 individuals and revealed that the G. p. gambiensis populations of the Niayes were genetically isolated from the nearest proximate known population of Missira. The genetic differentiation measured between these two areas (h=0.12 using microsatellites) was equivalent to a between-taxa differentiation. We also demonstrated that within the Niayes, the population from Dakar Hann was isolated from the others and had probably experienced a bottleneck.The information presented in this paper leads to the recommendation that an eradication strategy for the Niayes populations is advisable. This kind of study may be repeated in other habitats and for other tsetse species to help decision on appropriate tsetse control strategies and find other possible discontinuities in tsetse distribution.

  12. Horizontally Transferred Genetic Elements in the Tsetse Fly Genome: An Alignment-Free Clustering Approach Using Batch Learning Self-Organising Map (BLSOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Ryo; Abe, Takashi; Funayama, Shunsuke; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    Tsetse flies ( Glossina spp.) are the primary vectors of trypanosomes, which can cause human and animal African trypanosomiasis in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to explore the genome of Glossina morsitans morsitans for evidence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from microorganisms. We employed an alignment-free clustering method, that is, batch learning self-organising map (BLSOM), in which sequence fragments are clustered based on the similarity of oligonucleotide frequencies independently of sequence homology. After an initial scan of HGT events using BLSOM, we identified 3.8% of the tsetse fly genome as HGT candidates. The predicted donors of these HGT candidates included known symbionts, such as Wolbachia , as well as bacteria that have not previously been associated with the tsetse fly. We detected HGT candidates from diverse bacteria such as Bacillus and Flavobacteria, suggesting a past association between these taxa. Functional annotation revealed that the HGT candidates encoded loci in various functional pathways, such as metabolic and antibiotic biosynthesis pathways. These findings provide a basis for understanding the coevolutionary history of the tsetse fly and its microbes and establish the effectiveness of BLSOM for the detection of HGT events.

  13. Challenging the Wigglesworthia, Sodalis, Wolbachia symbiosis dogma in tsetse flies: Spiroplasma is present in both laboratory and natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudoumis, V; Blow, F; Saridaki, A; Augustinos, A; Dyer, N A; Goodhead, I; Solano, P; Rayaisse, J-B; Takac, P; Mekonnen, S; Parker, A G; Abd-Alla, A M M; Darby, A; Bourtzis, K; Tsiamis, G

    2017-07-05

    Profiling of wild and laboratory tsetse populations using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing allowed us to examine whether the "Wigglesworthia-Sodalis-Wolbachia dogma" operates across species and populations. The most abundant taxa, in wild and laboratory populations, were Wigglesworthia (the primary endosymbiont), Sodalis and Wolbachia as previously characterized. The species richness of the microbiota was greater in wild than laboratory populations. Spiroplasma was identified as a new symbiont exclusively in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. tachinoides, members of the palpalis sub-group, and the infection prevalence in several laboratory and natural populations was surveyed. Multi locus sequencing typing (MLST) analysis identified two strains of tsetse-associated Spiroplasma, present in G. f. fuscipes and G. tachinoides. Spiroplasma density in G. f. fuscipes larva guts was significantly higher than in guts from teneral and 15-day old male and female adults. In gonads of teneral and 15-day old insects, Spiroplasma density was higher in testes than ovaries, and was significantly higher density in live versus prematurely deceased females indicating a potentially mutualistic association. Higher Spiroplasma density in testes than in ovaries was also detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization in G. f. fuscipes.

  14. Blood Collection from Local Abattoirs for Mass Production of Tsetse Flies to be used in the Sterile Insect Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamungu, M B; Kiimbisa, B; Matembo, S; Mashenga, G [Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, P.O. Box 1026, Tanga (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    The mass production of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires a supply of quality blood. For some years already cattle blood has been used as food for laboratory reared flies. The blood is collected from an abattoir using standard procedures. The collection procedures, handling and storage require aseptic conditions to avoid contamination of the blood, which could be fatal to the flies. Fly mortality caused by low quality blood endangers the success of mass rearing. To rear healthy flies with good survival and production the blood should be of good quality - free of contamination and with a packed cell volume (PCV) above 25%. The present work involved the seasonal collection of blood from abattoirs in the United Republic of Tanzania (Tanga, Arusha, Dodoma, Dar-es-salaam). Dodoma was identified as having the best conditions for blood collection. To assess the quality of the blood as a diet for tsetse, blood was screened for the presence of bacteria, and the pathogens were identified. Protocols were developed for blood quality assurance. (author)

  15. Monitoring of a tsetse and trypanosomosis control programme in plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, using antigen ELISA and parasitological techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, S A; Ogedengbe, J D; Dogo, G I [National Veterinary Research Inst., Vom, Plateau State (Nigeria). Parasitology Div.; Frame, I A [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Med. Parasitol

    1997-02-01

    Between July 1994 and January 1995 a total of 1153 samples were collected from cattle in Plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosome infections using parasitological (Buffy Coat Technique [BCT] and blood film smears) and serological techniques (Ag-ELISA). A simple random sampling technique was employed. Tsetse flies and other insects were trapped during the same period using NITSE and biconical traps. Twenty two tsetse flies (6 Glossina p. palpalis, 3 G. longipalpis and 13 G. tachinoides) were caught, identified and dissected to check for trypanosomal infections. The results obtained using parasitological techniques showed an average prevalence rate in the two states surveyed of 3.4%. The antigen-capture ELISA technique (Ag-ELISA) was used to analyze 280 serum samples which were negative for trypanosomes when checked by BCT. Of these samples none were positive for T. congolense and 4 (1.4%) were detected positive for T. brucei. A subset of 120 samples was analyzed for the presence of T. vivax and 3 (2.5%) were found to be positive. The relative specificity of the Ag-ELISA for T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax was 98.5% 100% and 97.5%, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Monitoring of a tsetse and trypanosomosis control programme in plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, using antigen ELISA and parasitological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, S.A.; Ogedengbe, J.D.; Dogo, G.I.; Frame, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    Between July 1994 and January 1995 a total of 1153 samples were collected from cattle in Plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosome infections using parasitological (Buffy Coat Technique [BCT] and blood film smears) and serological techniques (Ag-ELISA). A simple random sampling technique was employed. Tsetse flies and other insects were trapped during the same period using NITSE and biconical traps. Twenty two tsetse flies (6 Glossina p. palpalis, 3 G. longipalpis and 13 G. tachinoides) were caught, identified and dissected to check for trypanosomal infections. The results obtained using parasitological techniques showed an average prevalence rate in the two states surveyed of 3.4%. The antigen-capture ELISA technique (Ag-ELISA) was used to analyze 280 serum samples which were negative for trypanosomes when checked by BCT. Of these samples none were positive for T. congolense and 4 (1.4%) were detected positive for T. brucei. A subset of 120 samples was analyzed for the presence of T. vivax and 3 (2.5%) were found to be positive. The relative specificity of the Ag-ELISA for T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax was 98.5% 100% and 97.5%, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  18. More than one rabbit out of the hat: Radiation, transgenic and symbiont-based approaches for sustainable management of mosquito and tsetse fly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtzis, Kostas; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-05-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are bloodsucking vectors of human and animal pathogens. Mosquito-borne diseases (malaria, filariasis, dengue, zika, and chikungunya) cause severe mortality and morbidity annually, and tsetse fly-borne diseases (African trypanosomes causing sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock) cost Sub-Saharan Africa an estimated US$ 4750 million annually. Current reliance on insecticides for vector control is unsustainable: due to increasing insecticide resistance and growing concerns about health and environmental impacts of chemical control there is a growing need for novel, effective and safe biologically-based methods that are more sustainable. The integration of the sterile insect technique has proven successful to manage crop pests and disease vectors, particularly tsetse flies, and is likely to prove effective against mosquito vectors, particularly once sex-separation methods are improved. Transgenic and symbiont-based approaches are in development, and more advanced in (particularly Aedes) mosquitoes than in tsetse flies; however, issues around stability, sustainability and biosecurity have to be addressed, especially when considering population replacement approaches. Regulatory issues and those relating to intellectual property and economic cost of application must also be overcome. Standardised methods to assess insect quality are required to compare and predict efficacy of the different approaches. Different combinations of these three approaches could be integrated to maximise their benefits, and all have the potential to be used in tsetse and mosquito area-wide integrated pest management programmes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tsetse GmmSRPN10 has anti-complement activity and is important for successful establishment of trypanosome infections in the fly midgut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher-Pheng Ooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complement cascade in mammalian blood can damage the alimentary tract of haematophagous arthropods. As such, these animals have evolved their own repertoire of complement-inactivating factors, which are inadvertently exploited by blood-borne pathogens to escape complement lysis. Unlike the bloodstream stages, the procyclic (insect stage of Trypanosoma brucei is highly susceptible to complement killing, which is puzzling considering that a tsetse takes a bloodmeal every 2-4 days. In this study, we identified four tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans serine protease inhibitors (serpins from a midgut expressed sequence tag (EST library (GmmSRPN3, GmmSRPN5, GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10 and investigated their role in modulating the establishment of a T. brucei infection in the midgut. Although not having evolved in a common blood-feeding ancestor, all four serpins have an active site sharing remarkable homology with the human complement C1-inhibitor serpin, SerpinG1. RNAi knockdown of individual GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10 genes resulted in a significant decreased rate of infection by procyclic form T. brucei. Furthermore, recombinant GmmSRPN10 was both able to inhibit the activity of human complement-cascade serine proteases, C1s and Factor D, and to protect the in vitro killing of procyclic trypanosomes when incubated with complement-activated human serum. Thus, the secretion of serpins, which may be part of a bloodmeal complement inactivation system in tsetse, is used by procyclic trypanosomes to evade an influx of fresh trypanolytic complement with each bloodmeal. This highlights another facet of the complicated relationship between T. brucei and its tsetse vector, where the parasite takes advantage of tsetse physiology to further its chances of propagation and transmission.

  20. Tsetse GmmSRPN10 has anti-complement activity and is important for successful establishment of trypanosome infections in the fly midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cher-Pheng; Haines, Lee R; Southern, Daniel M; Lehane, Michael J; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The complement cascade in mammalian blood can damage the alimentary tract of haematophagous arthropods. As such, these animals have evolved their own repertoire of complement-inactivating factors, which are inadvertently exploited by blood-borne pathogens to escape complement lysis. Unlike the bloodstream stages, the procyclic (insect) stage of Trypanosoma brucei is highly susceptible to complement killing, which is puzzling considering that a tsetse takes a bloodmeal every 2-4 days. In this study, we identified four tsetse (Glossina morsitans morsitans) serine protease inhibitors (serpins) from a midgut expressed sequence tag (EST) library (GmmSRPN3, GmmSRPN5, GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10) and investigated their role in modulating the establishment of a T. brucei infection in the midgut. Although not having evolved in a common blood-feeding ancestor, all four serpins have an active site sharing remarkable homology with the human complement C1-inhibitor serpin, SerpinG1. RNAi knockdown of individual GmmSRPN9 and GmmSRPN10 genes resulted in a significant decreased rate of infection by procyclic form T. brucei. Furthermore, recombinant GmmSRPN10 was both able to inhibit the activity of human complement-cascade serine proteases, C1s and Factor D, and to protect the in vitro killing of procyclic trypanosomes when incubated with complement-activated human serum. Thus, the secretion of serpins, which may be part of a bloodmeal complement inactivation system in tsetse, is used by procyclic trypanosomes to evade an influx of fresh trypanolytic complement with each bloodmeal. This highlights another facet of the complicated relationship between T. brucei and its tsetse vector, where the parasite takes advantage of tsetse physiology to further its chances of propagation and transmission.

  1. Protecting cows in small holder farms in East Africa from tsetse flies by mimicking the odor profile of a non-host bovid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder K Saini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, differential attraction of pathogen vectors to vertebrate animals is investigated for novel repellents which when applied to preferred host animals turn them into non-hosts thereby providing a new paradigm for innovative vector control. For effectively controlling tsetse flies (Glossina spp., vectors of African trypanosomosis, causing nagana, repellents more powerful than plant derived, from a non-host animal the waterbuck, Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa, have recently been identified. Here we investigate these repellents in the field to protect cattle from nagana by making cattle as unattractive as the buck.To dispense the waterbuck repellents comprising guaiacol, geranylacetone, pentanoic acid and δ-octalactone, (patent application we developed an innovative collar-mounted release system for individual cattle. We tested protecting cattle, under natural tsetse challenge, from tsetse transmitted nagana in a large field trial comprising 1,100 cattle with repellent collars in Kenya for 24 months. The collars provided substantial protection to livestock from trypanosome infection by reducing disease levels >80%. Protected cattle were healthier, showed significantly reduced disease levels, higher packed cell volume and significantly increased weight. Collars >60% reduced trypanocide use, 72.7% increase in ownership of oxen per household and enhanced traction power (protected animals ploughed 66% more land than unprotected. Land under cultivation increased by 73.4%. Increase in traction power of protected animals reduced by 69.1% acres tilled by hand per household per ploughing season. Improved food security and household income from very high acceptance of collars (99% motivated the farmers to form a registered community based organization promoting collars for integrated tsetse control and their commercialization.Clear demonstration that repellents from un-preferred hosts prevent contact between host and vector, thereby

  2. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  3. The Explanatory Value of Inclusive Fitness for Evolutionary Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of evolutionary theory is the concept of 'fitness', which is, standardly, an organism's reproductive success. Many evolutionary theorists argue, however, that to explain the evolution of social traits, such as altruism, we must use a different notion of fitness. This 'inclusive fitness', which includes the reproductive success of relatives, is seen as indispensable for studying social evolution. Recently, however, both biologists and philosophers have critically scrutinized its s...

  4. Report of the workshop on strategic planning of area-wide tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a disease unique to Africa affecting both humans and animals. This disease occurs in about 10 million km 2 in 37 sub-Saharan countries corresponding approximately to one-third of Africa's total land area, and threatens an estimated 50 million people, 48 million cattle and a countless population of other domestic animal species. Trypanosomiasis has a severe impact on African agriculture; estimated annual losses in cattle production alone are in the range of 1.0-1.2 billion dollars. To this, we have to add the indirect negative effects engendered by trypanosomiasis on total crop production. The disease influences where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock and the intensity of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use, environment and affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. FAO has identified the reinforcement of agriculture as a key element in the fight against poverty and the improvement of food security in developing countries. The need to reduce poverty is particularly felt in tsetse infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this region half of the population suffers from food insecurity. Approximately 85% of the poor are located in rural areas and more than 80% of the population depends on agricultural production for their livelihood. In order to respond to the need in the fight against tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T and T) in people as well as livestock, the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) was endorsed in November 1997 by the FAO Conference. The Programme seeks to combine the forces of FAO, IAEA, OAU/IBAR and WHO in order to: promote and co-ordinate international alliances and efforts assisting in harmonised interventions against T and T; effectively combat the disease in Africa; and delineate the polity framework, strategies and guiding pest management principles. This workshop was primarily concerned with the development of

  5. Options for Tsetse Eradication in the Moist Savannah Zone of West Africa: Technical and Economic Feasibility, Phase 1 - GIS-Based Study. Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This desk study was initiated with two objectives: - To examine the economic costs and benefits of a range of different sized tsetse eradication projects in the Moist Savannah Zone of West Africa (MSZ), and; - To test the hypothesis that larger tsetse control projects are more economically efficient than smaller projects in that region. The limited nature of the study precluded detailed examination of the socio-cultural and environmental issues relating to controlling trypanosomosis although these are briefly considered; nor did it aim to compare vector control with other methods of combating trypanosomosis such as the therapeutic or prophylactic use of drugs. However, by computing benefits over just 10 years an indirect comparison is made with the strategy that maintains that eradicating tsetse flies is not justified as, sooner or later, rapidly increasing population pressure will autonomously eradicate tsetse flies and hence trypanosomosis. This analysis suggests that such a strategy is not justified economically. As the basis of the economic evaluation was a study of projects in defined areas it was first necessary to iteratively examine the technical and economic issues relating to project selection and design. In this respect, the re-invasion issue was considered to be the major influence as it threatens both the sustainability and economic performance of tsetse eradication. Consequently, it was considered that the river basin was the smallest size of project that would optimise economic performance. This particular observation relates uniquely to the MSZ and may not apply to more southerly areas where fly distribution is more ubiquitous or to other parts of Africa. By basing the economic analysis on an evaluation of projects, albeit hypothetical, it was possible to use real data as the baseline database and the projects could be designed in response to actual tsetse and trypanosomosis scenarios. The group of study areas were chosen to be representative of the

  6. Progeny reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on clarification of importance of different harmful factors of radiation and chemical nature on the function of progeny reproduction, growth and development are presented. Intake of radionuclides to organism, of white mices and rats in concentrations corresponding to 10 6 PCsub(s) ( 90 Sr, 210 Po, 210 Pb and other) is shown to result in 100% sterility of females, 10 5 -10 4 PCsub(s) concentrations cause damaging effect of different degrees of expression at later stages of effect. Smaller contents of radionuclides (10 3 -10 2 PCsub(s)) did not result in noticeable changes in reproductivity of animals. Similar regularities were observed under effect of different concentrations of chemical agent. Some peculiarities of animal physiology should be taken into account to obtain data of estimation of damaging effect of harmful factors on reproduction function

  7. Field trial of a synthetic tsetse-repellent technology developed for the control of bovine trypanosomosis in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, B; Randolph, T F; Irungu, P; Nyamwaro, S O; Kitala, P; Gathuma, J; Grace, D; Vale, G; Hargrove, J; McDermott, J

    2010-12-01

    We conducted a field trial among Maasai cattle-keepers in Nkuruman and Nkineji areas of Kenya to evaluate the effectiveness of a synthetic tsetse-repellent technology developed for the control of trypanosomosis in cattle. The technology was a repellent (2-methoxy 4-methylphenol) emitted from dispensers attached to collars worn by cattle. Treatment was allocated at the herd level to ensure adequate protection of all the animals in a herd, with measurements of effectiveness conducted at the individual-animal level. The trial began in April 2005 and ran for 16 months including a baseline phase of 4 months. We recruited 12 herds in each area using a restricted random-sampling technique and distributed them equally into intervention (repellent) and control groups. Sample size was determined using a formal power calculation. Effectiveness or minimal worthwhile difference was defined as a 50% reduction in the incidence of trypanosome infection in the treated versus control group (effectiveness below which the technology was considered by experts as not viable compared to existing control techniques). All the animals in the recruited herds were screened monthly (buffy-coat technique) for trypanosome infections. The analysis followed the principle of intention-to-treat by which subjects are analysed according to their initial treatment assignment, regardless of the mechanical performance of the device. Crude and adjusted effects of the technology were 23% (ptechnology estimated in this study did not achieve the threshold of 50% reduction in the trypanosome infection incidence set a priori to indicate effectiveness (ptechnology package was not sufficiently effective in reducing trypanosome infection incidence under natural tsetse challenge to merit commercial development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Research Results from the Tsetse Fly Mass Rearing Laboratory at Cirdes and their Application during 2003-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bance, A Z; Kabore, I; Sidibe, I; Rayaisse, J B; Bengaly, Z [Centre International de Recherche-Developpement sur l' Elevage en Zone Subhumide, No559, rue 5-31 angle avenue du Gouverneur Louveau 01, B.P. 454, Bobo Dioulasso 01 (Burkina Faso)

    2012-07-15

    Some reduction in feeding frequency was possible. Glossina morsitans submorsitans Newstead easily tolerated a reduction from six to three days per week (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) without reducing female productivity. However, Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank and Glossina tachinoides Westwood tolerated a reduction from six to only four days per week. Even without ATP, blood that had been frozen enabled tsetse flies to achieve a high level of productivity. Using ATP unnecessarily increased the cost of producing Glossina by about 0.027 Euros per fly. Regarding handling tsetse flies, the procedure of day-zero-mating, which aims to minimize fly manipulation with one's hands, was applied to both G. m. submorsitans and G. p. gambiensis. The results showed that using emerging males (zero days old) for mating has no negative effect on female productivity. The optimal fly density in each new TPU-3 cage was 64 females and 16 males, i.e. 80 flies per box for all three species. Regarding applying the sterile insect technique (SIT), experiments with irradiated males of G. p. gambiensis showed that the percentage sterility induced to inseminated females was 89.8, 94.3 and 95.2% at doses of 102, 112 and 122 Gy, respectively. Biological parameters linked to sexual activity, e.g. insemination rate, spermathecal filling rate and survival rate, were not changed by the different irradiation doses. Finally, validation of the TPU-3 holding/feeding system showed that it reduced the feeding time considerably (by 80%) when compared with the old manual system. Productivity parameters of G. p. gambiensis using the TPU-3 system were: pupal weight 28.1{+-}0.6 mg and adult emergence 89.0{+-}1.7%. (author)

  9. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  10. A tsetse and tabanid fly survey of African great apes habitats reveals the presence of a novel trypanosome lineage but the absence of Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Rádrová, Jana; Skalický, Tomáš; Jirků, Milan; Jirsová, D.; Mihalca, A. D.; D'Amico, G.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, OCT 2015 (2015), s. 741-748 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0300 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma * Tsetse * Tabanids * African great apes * Gorillas * Transmission * Bloodmeal * Feeding preference Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.242, year: 2015

  11. Selection of priority areas for tsetse control in Africa; A decision tool using GIS in Didessa Valley, Ethiopia, as a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkelens, A.M.; Dwinger, R.H.; Bedane, B.; Slingenbergh, J.H.W.; Wint, W.

    2000-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is one of the main constraints to livestock production, particularly in the sub-humid and the semi-arid zones in Africa. To study the impact of the disease and the people economically affected by the disease GIS has proven to be a valuable decision tool to prioritise intervention areas and to select control or eradication methods. In this study a GIS and remote sensing based model have been used in the Didessa Valley and southwestern Ethiopia to study valley specific relationships of all factors (host, vector, disease, human population/activity) with geography, environment and farming systems to answer the following questions: Where does trypanosomosis have a negative effect on (agricultural) development? In which areas will control measures have the highest impact/economical benefit? These findings have been extrapolated to set priority areas for tsetse control for Ethiopia as a whole, using a multi-criterion evaluation technique and a Boolean disease data-set to create signatures (training sets) to predict the probability of agricultural suitability and disease suitability based on a set of environmental predictors. Data sets have been validated through ground-truthing using a random data-set for the specified window of Southwestern Ethiopia. A logical expression has been used to combine the factors (vector distribution, agricultural suitability, climatically disease suitability, control area suitability) to select the priority areas for tsetse control. Areas permanently infested by malaria, one of the life-threatening human diseases in Africa, have been considered as not suitable for intervention, The result, a Boolean representation of the priority areas for southwestern Ethiopia can be prioritised further by the decision maker (government, donor, specialist) using criteria such as cost/benefit, administrative organisation and control method. The unique altitude related dynamic tsetse situation in Ethiopia, makes wider extrapolation using the

  12. Farmers' perception of impacts of bovine trypanosomosis and tsetse fly in selected districts in Baro-Akobo and Gojeb river basins, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Terefe, Getachew; Ashenafi, Hagos

    2013-10-20

    Trypanosomosis, via causing anaemia, emaciation, production loss and death, is arguably the most important constraint to livestock development in Sub-Saharan countries, including Ethiopia and its impact in Baro-Akobo and Gojeb river basins (endemic areas for tsetse flies) is unknown. This study was carried out from November 2011 to April 2012 to assess farmers' perception on the presence, impact, management and the need of intervention programs of bovine trypanosomosis and tsetse fly in selected districts located in Baro-Akobo and Gojeb river basins, Southwestern Ethiopia. A standardized questionnaire survey was employed to collect the relevant information from the farmers. The result of this study showed that 94.1% of the respondents considered bovine trypanosomosis as an economically important cattle disease which accounted for 64.6% of the total annual deaths in the year 2011/2012. Estimated mean annual financial loss via mortality due to trypanosomosis was reported to be 3501 Ethiopian Birr (US$200)/household. The reported trypanosomosis suggestive signs were consistent with published reports and farmers strongly associated the occurrence of the disease with biting flies (particularly, tsetse fly). Respondents also explained that the seasonality of the disease and its vectors, i.e. May and June are peak risk months of the year. Chemotherapy was reported the major method to combating the problem, mean frequency of treatment being 5.7 times per animal per year. Because of the economic burden of the disease, farmers expressed their strong interest and support for the establishment of intervention program in their area. The study revealed that livestock keepers are familiar with bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors as well as its impacts. Thus, trypanosomosis and tsetse control strategies should be integrated with the local communities' participation to minimize the impacts of the disease and its vectors in the area.

  13. Reproductive Life Planning: Raising the Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jessica E; Moos, Merry-K

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Unintended pregnancy has been a concerning public health problem for decades. As we begin to understand the complexities of pregnancy intention and how women experience these pregnancies, reproductive life planning offers a paradigm shift. Methods Reproductive life planning is a patient-centered approach that places a patient's reproductive preferences-whether concrete or ambivalent-at the forefront of her clinical care. Results This process grants women and men the opportunity to consider how reproduction fits within the context of their broader lives. Within a clinical encounter, reproductive life planning allows counseling and care to be tailored to patient preferences. Discussion Although there is great potential for positive public health impacts in unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use and improved preconception health, the true benefit lies within reinforcing reproductive empowerment. Despite recommendations for universal adoption, many questions remain regarding implementation, equity and outcomes.

  14. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, James T

    2013-01-01

    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  15. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  16. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  17. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  18. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  19. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  20. Improvements on an ELISA to detect trypanosomal antigens and its use as a monitoring tool in tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwinger, R H; Rebeski, D; Winger, E [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Animal Production and Health Section

    1997-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed at epitopes of Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax have been used to capture and detect trypanosomal antigens in bovine blood samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed elsewhere. The test has been transformed in a ready-to-use kit format for distribution among a network of 15 African research institutes. The specificity of the test was assessed under experimental and field conditions and found to be 96% ({+-} 2%) for T. brucei, 99.5% ({+-}1%) for T. congolense and 99% ({+-}1%) for T. vivax. Following a validation period under field conditions, adjustments were made to the protocol to increase the sensitivity of the ELISA and to improve the suitability of the test for laboratory use under African conditions. Presently the ag-ELISA is being applied in conjunction with conventional parasitological techniques such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) to monitor progress in various tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes and in a tsetse eradication effort on the island of Zanzibar. The two tests complement each other; the serological test tends to produce more false negatives during subacute infections, while the parasitological techniques tend to produce more false negatives during chronic infections. Since the sensitivity of the ELISA is not optimal, research efforts at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory will be focused on improving this aspect. However, these efforts are severely hampered by the lack of a diagnostic test that can be used as a ``gold standard``. The use of the polymerase chain reaction for verifying doubtful test results and as a possible candidate for a ``gold standard`` to diagnose trypanosomosis are discussed. Finally, future plans are outlined to initiate the use of geographical information systems to assess the impact of tsetse control and eradication programmes on land use and disease distribution. (author). 8 refs.

  1. Improvements on an ELISA to detect trypanosomal antigens and its use as a monitoring tool in tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwinger, R.H.; Rebeski, D.; Winger, E.

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed at epitopes of Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax have been used to capture and detect trypanosomal antigens in bovine blood samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed elsewhere. The test has been transformed in a ready-to-use kit format for distribution among a network of 15 African research institutes. The specificity of the test was assessed under experimental and field conditions and found to be 96% (± 2%) for T. brucei, 99.5% (±1%) for T. congolense and 99% (±1%) for T. vivax. Following a validation period under field conditions, adjustments were made to the protocol to increase the sensitivity of the ELISA and to improve the suitability of the test for laboratory use under African conditions. Presently the ag-ELISA is being applied in conjunction with conventional parasitological techniques such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) to monitor progress in various tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes and in a tsetse eradication effort in the United Republic of Tanzania, on the island of Zanzibar. The two tests complement each other, since infections not detected by one test may be detected by the other. In general, the serological test tends to produce more false negatives during subacute infections, while the parasitological techniques tend to produce more false negatives during chronic infections. Since the sensitivity of the ELISA is not optimal, research efforts at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory will be focused on improving this aspect. However, these efforts are severely hampered by the lack of a diagnostic test that can be used as a ''gold standard''. The use of the polymerase chain reaction for verifying doubtful test results and as a possible candidate for a ''gold standard'' to diagnose trypanosomosis are discussed. Finally, future plans are outlined to initiate the use of geographical information systems to assess the impact of tsetse control and

  2. Identification of different trypanosome species in the mid-guts of tsetse flies of the Malanga (Kimpese sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Gustave

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malanga sleeping sickness focus of the Democratic Republic of Congo has shown an epidemic evolution of disease during the last century. However, following case detection and treatment, the prevalence of the disease decreased considerably. No active survey has been undertaken in this focus for a couple of years. To understand the current epidemiological status of sleeping sickness as well as the animal African trypanosomiasis in the Malanga focus, we undertook the identification of tsetse blood meals as well as different trypanosome species in flies trapped in this focus. Methods Pyramidal traps were use to trap tsetse flies. All flies caught were identified and live flies were dissected and their mid-guts collected. Fly mid-gut was used for the molecular identification of the blood meal source, as well as for the presence of different trypanosome species. Results About 949 Glossina palpalis palpalis were trapped; 296 (31.2% of which were dissected, 60 (20.3% blood meals collected and 57 (19.3% trypanosome infections identified. The infection rates were 13.4%, 5.1%, 3.5% and 0.4% for Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, Trypanosoma brucei s.l., Trypanosoma congolense forest type and Trypanosoma vivax, respectively. Three mixed infections including Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type, and one mixed infection of Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense savannah type were identified. Eleven Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections were identified; indicating an active circulation of this trypanosome subspecies. Of all the identified blood meals, about 58.3% were identified as being taken on pigs, while 33.3% and 8.3% were from man and other mammals, respectively. Conclusion The presence of Trypanosoma brucei in tsetse mid-guts associated with human blood meals is indicative of an active transmission of this parasite between tsetse and man. The considerable number of pig blood meals combined

  3. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  4. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  5. Colony Establishment of Glossina Fuscipes Fuscipes and Glossina Pallidipes (Origin Tororo) at Kaliti Tsetse Rearing and Irradiation Center, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekonnen, S [Kaliti Tsetse Rearing and Irradiation Center, STEP, P.O. Box 19917, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2012-07-15

    Colonies of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Newstead and Glossina pallidipes Austen (origin Tororo) were established at Kaliti Center by acquiring pupae from Bratislava, Slovakia. The main objectives of the introduction of these species were to strengthen the release activities in the adjacent area where G. f. fuscipes exists, and to establish a back-up for the Arba Minch strain of G. pallidipes. Since April 2008, 20 300 G. f. fuscipes and 5300 G. pallidipes pupae were delivered to Kaliti. In week 38 the tsetse fly colony of G. f. fuscipes reached 14 800 females, and that of G. pallidipes reached 1500. The physical holding conditions for both species were 24{+-}1{sup o}C and 80-85% RH. The flies were kept in PVC cages at a density of 60 females/cage for G. f. fuscipes and 48 females/cage for G. pallidipes, with a male to female ratio of 1:4. They were fed 5 days per week on whole defibrinated bovine blood that was collected aseptically and irradiated at 0.5-1.5 kGy before storage at -20{sup o}C. The blood was presented to the flies through a silicone membrane at 35-37{sup o}C. Females of G. f. fuscipes, when 3 days old, were mated with 7 days old males, and females of G. pallidipes, when 7 days old, were mated with 10-12 days old males. The establishment of these two species was monitored by measuring regularly the following parameters: pupal production, pupal weight, emergence rate, PPIF, P/F/10 days and daily mortality. (author)

  6. Cost of reproduction in a long-lived bird: incubation effort reduces immune function and future reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hanssen, S A; Hasselquist, Dennis; Folstad, I; Erikstad, K E

    2005-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that increased current reproductive effort should lead to a fitness cost. This cost of reproduction may be observed as reduced survival or future reproduction, and may be caused by temporal suppression of immune function in stressed or hard-working individuals. In birds, consideration of the costs of incubating eggs has largely been neglected in favour of the costs of brood rearing. We manipulated incubation demand in two breeding seasons (2000 and 2001) in female...

  7. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  8. Wildlife conservation and reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Pickard, Amanda R; Prather, Randall S

    2004-03-01

    Reproductive cloning, or the production of offspring by nuclear transfer, is often regarded as having potential for conserving endangered species of wildlife. Currently, however, low success rates for reproductive cloning limit the practical application of this technique to experimental use and proof of principle investigations. In this review, we consider how cloning may contribute to wildlife conservation strategies. The cloning of endangered mammals presents practical problems, many of which stem from the paucity of knowledge about their basic reproductive biology. However, situations may arise where resources could be targeted at recovering lost or under-represented genetic lines; these could then contribute to the future fitness of the population. Approaches of this type would be preferable to the indiscriminate generation of large numbers of identical individuals. Applying cloning technology to non-mammalian vertebrates may be more practical than attempting to use conventional reproductive technologies. As the scientific background to cloning technology was pioneered using amphibians, it may be possible to breed imminently threatened amphibians, or even restore extinct amphibian species, by the use of cloning. In this respect species with external embryonic development may have an advantage over mammals as developmental abnormalities associated with inappropriate embryonic reprogramming would not be relevant.

  9. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  10. Love Influences Reproductive Success in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Butovskaya, Marina; Karwowski, Maciej; Groyecka, Agata; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Pawłowski, Bogusław

    2017-01-01

    As love seems to be universal, researchers have attempted to find its biological basis. However, no studies till date have shown its direct association with reproductive success, which is broadly known to be a good measure of fitness. Here, we show links between love, as defined by the Sternberg Triangular Theory of Love, and reproductive success among the Hadza—traditional hunter-gatherer population. We found that commitment and reproductive success were positively and consistently related in both sexes, with number of children showing negative and positive associations with intimacy and passion, respectively, only among women. Our study may shed new light on the meaning of love in humans' evolutionary past, especially in traditional hunter-gatherer societies in which individuals, not their parents, were responsible for partner choice. We suggest that passion and commitment may be the key factors that increase fitness, and therefore, that selection promoted love in human evolution. However, further studies in this area are recommended. PMID:29209243

  11. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Field validation of antibody ELISA's for diagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis and monitoring the efficacy of a tsetse and trypanosomosis control campaign in the agropastoral zone of Yale, Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengaly, Z.; Sidibe, I.; Duvallet, G.

    2000-01-01

    Four trypanosomal antibody-detection-ELISA's systems based on the use of either native or denatured crude lysate antigens prepared from in-vitro propagated T. congolense bloodstream forms and in-vitro propagated T. vivax epimastigote forms, have been validated for their diagnostic performance and their utility for monitoring the efficacy of a tsetse and trypanosomosis control program. For that purpose, 600 samples of which 34 were parasite-positive, collected at different intervals in an area where tsetse eradication was implemented, were analysed. In addition, 200 sera from non-infected cattle in tsetse-free-area were also analysed. Except the native T. vivax antigen which showed high background and unreliable data, the three other ELISA assays were found acceptable for trypanosomal antibody detection. The cut-off values determined by doubling the mean of the known negative population were slightly lower than those obtained by visual analysis. The sensitivity ranged from 91% to 100% while the specificity was between 95% and 98% depending on the assay system used. For monitoring the efficacy of the tsetse control program, the other three antigens were found suitable but only denatured T. vivax antigens showed a significant decrease of the seroprevalence of T. vivax infection between the beginning and the end of the control program. The native and denatured T. congolense assay systems suggested that T. congolense infections might occur at a chronic stage and were being controlled by the cattle. (author)

  13. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in an Appendix.

  14. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  15. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  16. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  17. Age-dependent terminal declines in reproductive output in a wild bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Richardson, David S.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In many iteroparous species individual fitness components, such as reproductive output, first increase with age and then decline during late-life. However, individuals differ greatly in reproductive lifespan, but reproductive declines may only occur in the period just before their death as a result

  18. Life-history strategies of North American elk: trade-offs associated with reproduction and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina Morano; Kelley M. Stewart; James S. Sedinger; Christopher A. Nicolai; Marty Vavra

    2013-01-01

    The principle of energy allocation states that individuals should attempt to maximize fitness by allocating resources optimally among growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Such allocation may result in trade-offs between survival and reproduction, or between current and future reproduction. We used a marked population of North American elk (Cervus elaphus...

  19. Alternative reproductive tactics and the propensity of hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, K; Raatikainen, K J; Häkkilä, M; Haukilehto, E; Kotiaho, J S

    2009-12-01

    One explanation for hybridization between species is the fitness benefits it occasionally confers to the hybridizing individuals. This explanation is possible in species that have evolved alternative male reproductive tactics: individuals with inferior tactics might be more prone to hybridization provided it increases their reproductive success and fitness. Here we experimentally tested whether the propensity of hybridization in the wild depends on male reproductive tactic in Calopteryx splendens damselflies. Counter to our expectation, it was males adopting the superior reproductive tactic (territoriality) that had greatest propensity to hybridize than males adopting the inferior tactics (sneakers and floaters). Moreover, among the territorial males, the most ornamented males had greatest propensity to hybridize whereas the pattern was reversed in the sneaker males. Our results suggest that there is fluctuating selection on male mate discrimination against heterospecific females depending on both ornament size and the male's reproductive tactic.

  20. Consultants Group Meeting on Production System Analysis and Economics for Tsetse Fly Mass-Rearing and the Use of the Sterile Insect Technique in Eradication Programmes in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    A consultants' group met in Vienna from 23 September - 3 October 1991 to explore 'Production System Analysis and Economics for Tsetse Fly Mass-rearing and the Use of the Sterile Insect Technique in Eradication Programmes in Africa'. This report is based on their observations during working visits to the Entomology Unit of the IAEA Agricultural Laboratory at Seibersdorf, and on information supplied by the tsetse team and staff of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's Insect and Pest Control Section. The consultants conducted a technical, operational and financial review of present rearing methods, equipment, philosophies and production capacities, taking into account one of the recommendations made at the 6th Session of the ''FAO Commission on African Animal Trypanosomiasis'' held in June 1991 in Harare, Zimbabwe. This recommendation, related to the use of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), states that {sup F}AO, through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, should further investigate and improve the use of sterile insects to strengthen the efficacy of tsetse surveys and, where applicable, consider teh use of the SIT to support eradication campaigns where other techniques on their own will not achieve this objective''. In investigating the potential for improved tsetse mass-rearing and analyzing the present costs of pupa/distributable sterile fly production, the consultants noted that: 1. The Seibersdorf Tsetse Unit is conducting an effective research and development programme which strives to emulate a production facility while continuing to pursue R and D. The capacity of the present facility in Seibersdorf is practically limited to a colony size of about 150,000 breeding females. The release of sterile males in an eradication campaign of economical relevance would require a colony containing more than 500,000 female flies. Such a population can only be maintained in an organizational, operational and financially justifiable manner if the rearing technology is transferred from an

  1. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-08-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in Appendix A. An example problem file and its solution is given in Appendix B.

  2. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  3. Children's Concepts of Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James E.; Kendall, Diane G.

    1971-01-01

    Results of this study provide little support for either Freudian or Piagetian theorizing about what the young child thinks of reproduction. Implications for sex education and reproduction information are presented. (Author/CJ)

  4. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  5. The three faces of ecological fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Kent A

    2011-03-01

    This paper argues that fitness is most usefully understood as those properties of organisms that are explanatory of survival in the broadest sense, not merely descriptive of reproductive success. Borrowing from Rosenberg and Bouchard (2009), fitness in this sense is ecological in that it is defined by the interactions between organisms and environments. There are three sorts of ecological fitness: the well-documented ability to compete, the ability to cooperate (as in mutualistic symbiosis), and a third sense of fitness that has received insufficient attention in evolutionary theory, the ability to construct. Following Lotka, it can be understood thermodynamically as the ability to maintain or enlarge the energy-circulating capacity of an ecosystem. An organism that does this could end with its gene frequency unchanged but its probability of survival enhanced since it would sustain or increase the total carrying capacity of its ecosystem. Photosynthesizers and other autotrophs are obvious candidates for organisms that are fit in the constructive sense, but any organisms, including heterotrophs, can exhibit constructive fitness if they have some mechanism for channeling external flows of free energy into their ecosystems. I will briefly examine the prospects for the human species in the light of these considerations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  7. A Novel Quantitative Approach to Women’s Reproductive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Fritha H.; Judge, Debra S.

    2012-01-01

    The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment) is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented ‘short-term mating strategy’, ‘early onset of sexual activity’, ‘reproductive output’, ‘timing of childbearing’, ‘breastfeeding’, and ‘child spacing’. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child) similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births) for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these

  8. A novel quantitative approach to women's reproductive strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritha H Milne

    Full Text Available The patterned way in which individuals allocate finite resources to various components of reproduction (e.g. mating effort, reproductive timing and parental investment is described as a reproductive strategy. As energy is limited, trade-offs between and within aspects of reproductive strategies are expected. The first aim of this study was to derive aspects of reproductive strategies using complete reproductive histories from 718 parous Western Australian women. Factor analysis using a subset of these participants resulted in six factors that represented 'short-term mating strategy', 'early onset of sexual activity', 'reproductive output', 'timing of childbearing', 'breastfeeding', and 'child spacing'. This factor structure was internally validated by replication using a second independent subset of the data. The second aim of this study examined trade-offs between aspects of reproductive strategies derived from aim one. Factor scores calculated for each woman were incorporated in generalised linear models and interaction terms were employed to examine the effect of mating behaviour on the relationships between reproductive timing, parental investment and overall reproductive success. Early sexual activity correlates with early reproductive onset for women displaying more long-term mating strategies. Women with more short-term mating strategies exhibit a trade-off between child quantity and child quality not observed in women with a long-term mating strategy. However, women with a short-term mating strategy who delay reproductive timing exhibit levels of parental investment (measured as breastfeeding duration per child similar to that of women with long-term mating strategies. Reproductive delay has fitness costs (fewer births for women displaying more short-term mating strategies. We provide empirical evidence that reproductive histories of contemporary women reflect aspects of reproductive strategies, and associations between these strategic

  9. Recreational fishing selectively captures individuals with the highest fitness potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, David A H; Suski, Cory D; Philipp, David P; Klefoth, Thomas; Wahl, David H; Kersten, Petra; Cooke, Steven J; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2012-12-18

    Fisheries-induced evolution and its impact on the productivity of exploited fish stocks remains a highly contested research topic in applied fish evolution and fisheries science. Although many quantitative models assume that larger, more fecund fish are preferentially removed by fishing, there is no empirical evidence describing the relationship between vulnerability to capture and individual reproductive fitness in the wild. Using males from two lines of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) selectively bred over three generations for either high (HV) or low (LV) vulnerability to angling as a model system, we show that the trait "vulnerability to angling" positively correlates with aggression, intensity of parental care, and reproductive fitness. The difference in reproductive fitness between HV and LV fish was particularly evident among larger males, which are also the preferred mating partners of females. Our study constitutes experimental evidence that recreational angling selectively captures individuals with the highest potential for reproductive fitness. Our study further suggests that selective removal of the fittest individuals likely occurs in many fisheries that target species engaged in parental care. As a result, depending on the ecological context, angling-induced selection may have negative consequences for recruitment within wild populations of largemouth bass and possibly other exploited species in which behavioral patterns that determine fitness, such as aggression or parental care, also affect their vulnerability to fishing gear.

  10. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  11. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  12. Energetic fitness: Field metabolic rates assessed via 3D accelerometry complement conventional fitness metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémillet, David; Lescroël, Amelie; Ballard, Grant; Dugger, Katie M.; Massaro, Melanie; Porzig, Elizabeth L.; Ainley, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating the fitness of organisms is an essential step towards understanding their responses to environmental change. Connections between energy expenditure and fitness have been postulated for nearly a century. However, testing this premise among wild animals is constrained by difficulties in measuring energy expenditure while simultaneously monitoring conventional fitness metrics such as survival and reproductive output.We addressed this issue by exploring the functional links between field metabolic rate (FMR), body condition, sex, age and reproductive performance in a wild population.We deployed 3D accelerometers on 115 Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae during four breeding seasons at one of the largest colonies of this species, Cape Crozier, on Ross Island, Antarctica. The demography of this population has been studied for the past 18 years. From accelerometry recordings, collected for birds of known age and breeding history, we determined the vector of the dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA) and used it as a proxy for FMR.This allowed us to demonstrate relationships among FMR, a breeding quality index (BQI) and body condition. Notably, we found a significant quadratic relationship between mean VeDBA during foraging and BQI for experienced breeders, and individuals in better body condition showed lower rates of energy expenditure.We conclude that using FMR as a fitness component complementary to more conventional fitness metrics will yield greater understanding of evolutionary and conservation physiology.

  13. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H.; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival ove...

  14. Automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1995-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    The rearing of tsetse flies for the sterile insect technique has been a laborious procedure in the past. The purpose of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) 'Automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes' was to develop appropriate semiautomated procedures to simplify the rearing, reduce the cost and standardize the product. Two main objectives were accomplished. The first was to simplify the handling of adults at emergence. This was achieved by allowing the adults to emerge directly into the production cages. Selection of the appropriate environmental conditions and timing allowed the manipulation of the emergence pattern to achieve the desired ratio of four females to one male with minimal un-emerged females remaining mixed with the male pupae. Tests demonstrated that putting the sexes together at emergence, leaving the males in the production cages, and using a ratio of 4:1 (3:1 for a few species) did not adversely affect pupal production. This has resulted in a standardized system for the self stocking of production cages. The second was to reduce the labour involved in feeding the flies. Three distinct systems were developed and tested in sequence. The first tsetse production unit (TPU 1) was a fully automated system, but the fly survival and fecundity were unacceptably low. From this a simpler TPU 2 was developed and tested, where 63 large cages were held on a frame that could be moved as a single unit to the feeding location. TPU 2 was tested in various locations, and found to satisfy the basic requirements, and the adoption of Plexiglas pupal collection slopes resolved much of the problem due to light distribution. However the cage holding frame was heavy and difficult to position on the feeding frame and the movement disturbed the flies. TPU 2 was superseded by TPU 3, in which the cages remain stationary at all times, and the blood is brought to the flies. The blood feeding system is mounted on rails to make it

  15. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Nearby grandmother enhances calf survival and reproduction in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-06-10

    Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effects is rare and only a few tests of the hypothesis in such species exist. Here we investigate the grandmother effects in Asian elephants. Using a multigenerational demographic dataset on semi-captive elephants in Myanmar, we found that grandcalves from young mothers (years) had 8 times lower mortality risk if the grandmother resided with her grandcalf compared to grandmothers residing elsewhere. Resident grandmothers also decreased their daughters' inter-birth intervals by one year. In contrast to the hypothesis predictions, the grandmother's own reproductive status did not modify such grandmother benefits. That elephant grandmothers increased their inclusive fitness by enhancing their daughter's reproductive rate and success irrespective of their own reproductive status suggests that fitness-enhancing grandmaternal effects are widespread, and challenge the view that grandmother effects alone select for menopause coupled with long post-reproductive lifespan.

  17. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  18. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  19. Social context and reproductive potential affect worker reproductive decisions in a eusocial insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yagound

    Full Text Available Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps, the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation

  20. Fitness differences due to allelic variation at Esterase-4 locus in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAVITA KRISHNAMOORTI

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Keywords. esterases; null allele; reproductive fitness; natural selection; Drosophila ananassae. .... cific substrate (1-naphthylacetate AR) and stain (fast blue. RR). On the ... transferred to fresh food vials and eggs were counted.

  1. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  2. Effect of Feeding Blood Treated with Isometamidium Chloride to Glossina Morsitans Morsitans on the Flies' Subsequent Vectorial Capacity, and Evaluation of an In Vitro Feeding System for the Maintenance of Infected Tsetse Flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Bossche, P; Van Den Abbeele, J; De Deken, R [Veterinary and Parasitology Departments, Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-07-15

    A repercussion of the release of large numbers of sterile male tsetse flies is the sudden increase in the number of disease vectors. To avoid the potential creation of a trypanosomosis epidemic, studies were conducted aimed at reducing the vectorial capacity of male tsetse flies by offering them a single bloodmeal containing the prophylactic trypanocidal drug isometamidium chloride. Experiments using the pair G. m. morsitans and T. congolense or T. b. brucei showed that a single treatment with isometamidium chloride protected flies from infection with susceptible and resistant trypanosomes for up to 5 days post-treatment. Starvation of isometamidium-treated flies increased their susceptibility to infection with T. congolense. Studies evaluating in vitro feeding of infected flies on citrated bovine blood showed that this feeding regime adversely affected the capacity of trypanosomes to develop in the fly. (author)

  3. Fitness consequences of divorce in the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, Dik; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Ens, Bruno J.

    We investigated the fitness consequences of divorce in oystercatchers. We made a distinction between two types of divorce: in desertions the disruption of the pair bond is initiated by one of the pair members, and in usurpations by a conspecific individual. Survival and reproduction prospects for

  4. GOSSIP: SED fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco

    2012-10-01

    GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

  5. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  6. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  7. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoreg...

  8. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  9. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  10. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for maintaining ... Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- ... Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  11. Driver fitness medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This guide provides guidance to assist licensing agencies in making decisions about an individuals fitness for driving. This is the first attempt to produce a consolidated document covering medical conditions included in the task agreement between...

  12. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  13. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. The Langley Fitness Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  15. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  16. Race, genetics, and human reproductive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J P

    1996-02-01

    The international literature on racial differences is reviewed, novel data are reported, and a distinct pattern is found. People of east Asian ancestry and people of African ancestry average at opposite ends of a continuum, with people of European ancestry averaging intermediately, albeit with much variability within each major race. The racial matrix emerges from measures taken of reproductive behavior, sex hormones, twinning rate, speed of physical maturation, personality, family stability, brain size, intelligence, law abidingness, and social organization. An evolutionary theory of human reproduction is proposed, familiar to biologists as the r-K scale of reproductive strategies. At one end of this scale are r-strategies, which emphasize high reproductive rates; at the other end are K-strategies, which emphasize high levels of parental investment. This scale is generally used to compare the life histories of widely disparate species, but here it is used to describe the immensely smaller variations among human races. It is hypothesized that, again on average, Mongoloid people are more K-selected than Caucasoids, who are more K-selected than Negroids. The r-K scale of reproductive strategies is also mapped on to human evolution. Genetic distances indicate that Africans emerged from the ancestral hominid line about 200,000 years ago, with an African/non-African split about 110,000 years ago, and a Caucasoid/Mongoloid split about 41,000 years ago. Such an ordering fits with and explains how and why the variables cluster.

  17. Facultative symbiont infections affect aphid reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jean-Christophe; Boutin, Sébastien; Tsuchida, Tsutomu; Koga, Ryuichi; Le Gallic, Jean-François; Frantz, Adrien; Outreman, Yannick; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-01-01

    Some bacterial symbionts alter their hosts reproduction through various mechanisms that enhance their transmission in the host population. In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum harbors several facultative symbionts influencing several aspects of host ecology. Aphids reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis whereby clonal and sexual reproduction alternate within the annual life cycle. Many species, including the pea aphid, also show variation in their reproductive mode at the population level, with some lineages reproducing by cyclical parthenogenesis and others by permanent parthenogenesis. While the role of facultative symbionts has been well studied during the parthenogenetic phase of their aphid hosts, very little is known on their possible influence during the sexual phase. Here we investigated whether facultative symbionts modulate the capacity to produce sexual forms in various genetic backgrounds of the pea aphid with controlled symbiont composition and also in different aphid genotypes from natural populations with previously characterized infection status and reproductive mode. We found that most facultative symbionts exhibited detrimental effects on their hosts fitness under sex-inducing conditions in comparison with the reference lines. We also showed that the loss of sexual phase in permanently parthenogenetic lineages of A. pisum was not explained by facultative symbionts. Finally, we demonstrated that Spiroplasma infection annihilated the production of males in the host progeny by inducing a male-killing phenotype, an unexpected result for organisms such as aphids that reproduce primarily through clonal reproduction.

  18. Facultative symbiont infections affect aphid reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Simon

    Full Text Available Some bacterial symbionts alter their hosts reproduction through various mechanisms that enhance their transmission in the host population. In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum harbors several facultative symbionts influencing several aspects of host ecology. Aphids reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis whereby clonal and sexual reproduction alternate within the annual life cycle. Many species, including the pea aphid, also show variation in their reproductive mode at the population level, with some lineages reproducing by cyclical parthenogenesis and others by permanent parthenogenesis. While the role of facultative symbionts has been well studied during the parthenogenetic phase of their aphid hosts, very little is known on their possible influence during the sexual phase. Here we investigated whether facultative symbionts modulate the capacity to produce sexual forms in various genetic backgrounds of the pea aphid with controlled symbiont composition and also in different aphid genotypes from natural populations with previously characterized infection status and reproductive mode. We found that most facultative symbionts exhibited detrimental effects on their hosts fitness under sex-inducing conditions in comparison with the reference lines. We also showed that the loss of sexual phase in permanently parthenogenetic lineages of A. pisum was not explained by facultative symbionts. Finally, we demonstrated that Spiroplasma infection annihilated the production of males in the host progeny by inducing a male-killing phenotype, an unexpected result for organisms such as aphids that reproduce primarily through clonal reproduction.

  19. Herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction shape the life history of an iteroparous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Louda, Svata M

    2008-02-01

    Plant reproduction yields immediate fitness benefits but can be costly in terms of survival, growth, and future fecundity. Life-history theory posits that reproductive strategies are shaped by trade-offs between current and future fitness that result from these direct costs of reproduction. Plant reproduction may also incur indirect ecological costs if it increases susceptibility to herbivores. Yet ecological costs of reproduction have received little empirical attention and remain poorly integrated into life-history theory. Here, we provide evidence for herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction, and we develop theory to examine how these costs influence plant life-history strategies. Field experiments with an iteroparous cactus (Opuntia imbricata) indicated that greater reproductive effort (proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction) led to greater attack by a cactus-feeding insect (Narnia pallidicornis) and that damage by this herbivore reduced reproductive success. A dynamic programming model predicted strongly divergent optimal reproductive strategies when ecological costs were included, compared with when these costs were ignored. Meristem allocation by cacti in the field matched the optimal strategy expected under ecological costs of reproduction. The results indicate that plant reproductive allocation can strongly influence the intensity of interactions with herbivores and that associated ecological costs can play an important selective role in the evolution of plant life histories.

  20. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  1. Investigating Climate Change and Reproduction: Experimental Tools from Evolutionary Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Y. Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now generally acknowledged that climate change has wide-ranging biological consequences, potentially leading to impacts on biodiversity. Environmental factors can have diverse and often strong effects on reproduction, with obvious ramifications for population fitness. Nevertheless, reproductive traits are often neglected in conservation considerations. Focusing on animals, recent progress in sexual selection and sexual conflict research suggests that reproductive costs may pose an underestimated hurdle during rapid climate change, potentially lowering adaptive potential and increasing extinction risk of certain populations. Nevertheless, regime shifts may have both negative and positive effects on reproduction, so it is important to acquire detailed experimental data. We hence present an overview of the literature reporting short-term reproductive consequences of exposure to different environmental factors. From the enormous diversity of findings, we conclude that climate change research could benefit greatly from more coordinated efforts incorporating evolutionary approaches in order to obtain cross-comparable data on how individual and population reproductive fitness respond in the long term. Therefore, we propose ideas and methods concerning future efforts dealing with reproductive consequences of climate change, in particular by highlighting the advantages of multi-generational experimental evolution experiments.

  2. Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  3. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  4. The Future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  5. The future of human reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overall, Christine

    1989-01-01

    ... Contradictions III SOCIAL POLICY QUESTIONS Pregnancy as Justification for Loss of Juridical Autonomy Sanda Rodgers 174 Prenatal Diagnosis: Reproductive Choice? Reproductive Control? Abby Lippman ...

  6. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard

    2003-05-22

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.

  7. Improving NEC Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    TAD Temporary Additional Duty TFMMS Total Force Manpower Management System UIC Unit Identification Code USFFC United States Fleet Forces Command...not include sailors on temporary additional duty ( TAD ). In addition, for class average Fit, we excluded units that had billets but no onboard

  8. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  9. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Dorado, Jimena; V?zquez, Diego P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occ...

  10. Selective Reproductive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2014-01-01

    From a historical perspective, selective reproduction is nothing new. Infanticide, abandonment, and selective neglect of children have a long history, and the widespread deployment of sterilization and forced abortion in the twentieth century has been well documented. Yet in recent decades select......, discussing how selective reproduction engages with issues of long-standing theoretical concern in anthropology, such as politics, kinship, gender, religion, globalization, and inequality....... (ARTs), what we term selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) are of a more specific nature: Rather than aiming to overcome infertility, they are used to prevent or allow the birth of certain kinds of children. This review highlights anthropological research into SRTs in different parts of the world...

  11. Lifespan and reproduction of isoclonal individual E.coli in different environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    Lifespan and reproduction are key fitness components, both of which are influences by genetics and the environment. Tracking large numbers of genotypically known individuals throughout their lives in known environments has been challenging. Here we show for isogenic individual E. coli bacteria...... under controlled environments how demographic parameters and distributions in reproduction and survival change across environments. We achieve this by using a microfluidic device that traps thousands of individual E. coli cells and tracks their division (reproduction) over their lifespan. Our results...

  12. Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, College of Science and Health (United States); Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2010-04-15

    PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

  13. Environmental chemicals and their effects on female reproductive health: Searching for molecular mechanisms and effect biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith

    Incorrect developmental programming of the female reproductive tract can lead to compromised reproductive fitness later in life. It has been suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in utero can disrupt ovarian programming in humans, which is supported by several animal st...

  14. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  15. Environment, epigenetics and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K

    2017-07-01

    A conference summary of the third biannual Kenya Africa Conference "Environment, Epigenetics and Reproduction" is provided. A partial special Environmental Epigenetics issue containing a number of papers in Volume 3, Issue 3 and 4 are discussed.

  16. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  17. Reproductive data for groundfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ROCKFISH database houses data from rockfish species collected by the SWFSC FED along the California coast as part of a reproductive study originating in the...

  18. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the surrogate and to the male partner. Surrogacy can be used when the female of the ... party reproduction (sperm, egg, and embryo donation and surrogacy): A guide for patients . Retrieved May 31, 2016, ...

  19. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known

  20. Reproductive Liberty and Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Carol A. Kates

    2004-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence pointing to a looming Malthusian catastrophe, governmental measures to reduce population have been opposed both by religious conservatives and by many liberals, especially liberal feminists. Liberal critics have claimed that 'utilitarian' population policies violate a 'fundamental right of reproductive liberty'. This essay argues that reproductive liberty should not be considered a fundamental human right, or certainly not an indefeasible right. It should, instead...

  1. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  2. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  3. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Vijayan Kumara; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...

  4. Fit-for-Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    ; completeness to cover the total jurisdiction; and credibility in terms of reliable data being trusted by the users. Accuracy can then be incrementally improved over time when relevant and justified by serving the needs of citizen, business and society in general. Such a fit-for-purpose approach is fundamental...... systems act within adopted land policies that define the legal regulatory pattern for dealing with land issues. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a spatial framework to operate. This framework provides the fundamental information for dealing with land issues...... concepts may well be seen as the end target but not as the point of entry. When assessing the technology and investment choices the focus should be on building a fit-for-purpose framework that will meet the needs of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time....

  5. Convolution based profile fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  6. MixFit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...

  7. Effects of foliar herbivory by insects on the fitness of Raphanus raphanistrum: damage can increase male fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y; Conner, J K; Lehtilä, K P

    2001-11-01

    Generally, effects of herbivory on plant fitness have been measured in terms of female reproductive success (seed production). However, male plant fitness, defined as the number of seeds sired by pollen, contributes half of the genes to the next generation and is therefore crucial to the evolution of natural plant populations. This is the first study to examine effects of insect herbivory on both male and female plant reproductive success. Through controlled field and greenhouse experiments and genetic paternity analysis, we found that foliar damage by insects caused a range of responses by plants. In one environment, damaged plants had greater success as male parents than undamaged plants. Neither effects on pollen competitive ability nor pollinator visitation patterns could explain the greater siring success of these damaged plants. Success of damaged plants as male parents appeared to be due primarily to changes in allocation to flowers versus seeds after damage. Damaged plants produced more flowers early in the season, but not more seeds, than undamaged plants. Based on total seed production, male fitness measures from the first third of the season, and flower production, we estimated that damaged and undamaged plants had equal total reproductive success at the end of the season in this environment. In a second, richer environment, damaged and undamaged plants had equal male and female plant fitness, and no traits differed significantly between the treatments. Equal total reproductive success may not be ecologically or evolutionarily equivalent if it is achieved differentially through male versus female fitness. Genes from damaged plants dispersed through pollen may escape attack from herbivores, if such attack is correlated spatially from year to year.

  8. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  9. Passerine birds breeding under chronic noise experience reduced fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schroeder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fitness in birds has been shown to be negatively associated with anthropogenic noise, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. It is however crucial to understand the mechanisms of how urban noise impinges on fitness to obtain a better understanding of the role of chronic noise in urban ecology. Here, we examine three hypotheses on how noise might reduce reproductive output in passerine birds: (H1 by impairing mate choice, (H2 by reducing territory quality and (H3 by impeding chick development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used long-term data from an island population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus, in which we can precisely estimate fitness. We found that nests in an area affected by the noise from large generators produced fewer young, of lower body mass, and fewer recruits, even when we corrected statistically for parental genetic quality using a cross-fostering set-up, supporting H3. Also, individual females provided their young with food less often when they bred in the noisy area compared to breeding attempts by the same females elsewhere. Furthermore, we show that females reacted flexibly to increased noise levels by adjusting their provisioning rate in the short term, which suggests that noise may be a causal factor that reduces reproductive output. We rejected H1 and H2 because nestbox occupancy, parental body mass, age and reproductive investment did not differ significantly between noisy and quiet areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: OUR RESULTS SUGGEST A PREVIOUSLY UNDESCRIBED MECHANISM TO EXPLAIN HOW ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE CAN REDUCE FITNESS IN PASSERINE BIRDS: by acoustically masking parent-offspring communication. More importantly, using a cross-fostering set-up, our results demonstrate that birds breeding in a noisy environment experience significant fitness costs. Chronic noise is omnipresent around human habitation and may produces similar fitness consequences in a wide range of urban bird species.

  10. Demographic consequences of greater clonal than sexual reproduction in Dicentra canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Miriti, Maria N; Goodell, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Clonality is a widespread life history trait in flowering plants that may be essential for population persistence, especially in environments where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. Frequent clonal reproduction, however, could hinder sexual reproduction by spatially aggregating ramets that compete with seedlings and reduce inter-genet pollination. Nevertheless, the role of clonality in relation to variable sexual reproduction in population dynamics is often overlooked. We combined population matrix models and pollination experiments to compare the demographic contributions of clonal and sexual reproduction in three Dicentra canadensis populations, one in a well-forested landscape and two in isolated forest remnants. We constructed stage-based transition matrices from 3 years of census data to evaluate annual population growth rates, λ. We used loop analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of different reproductive pathways to λ. Despite strong temporal and spatial variation in seed set, populations generally showed stable growth rates. Although we detected some pollen limitation of seed set, manipulative pollination treatments did not affect population growth rates. Clonal reproduction contributed significantly more than sexual reproduction to population growth in the forest remnants. Only at the well-forested site did sexual reproduction contribute as much as clonal reproduction to population growth. Flowering plants were more likely to transition to a smaller size class with reduced reproductive potential in the following year than similarly sized nonflowering plants, suggesting energy trade-offs between sexual and clonal reproduction at the individual level. Seed production had negligible effects on growth and tuber production of individual plants. Our results demonstrate that clonal reproduction is vital for population persistence in a system where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. The bias toward clonality may be driven by low fitness returns

  11. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Body Fat, Physical Fitness and Energy Requirement in Military and Civilian Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butte, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    ...) during postpartum weight loss. Physical activity, weight, FFM and fat mass, fitness, strength, and iron status will be measured in women with low to high pre-pregnancy BMI through a complete reproductive cycle...

  12. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Body Fat, Physical Fitness and Energy Requirements in Military and Civilian Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butte, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    ...) during postpartum weight loss. Physical activity, weight, FFM and fat mass, fitness, strength, and iron status will be measured in women with low to high pre-pregnancy BMI through a complete reproductive cycle...

  13. Aphid reproductive investment in response to mortality risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Aphids are striking in their prodigious reproductive capacity and reliance on microbial endosymbionts, which provision their hosts with necessary amino acids and provide protection against parasites and heat stress. Perhaps as a result of this bacterial dependence, aphids have limited immune function that may leave them vulnerable to bacterial pathogens. An alternative, non-immunological response that may be available to infected aphids is to increase reproduction, thereby ameliorating fitness loss from infection. Such a response would reduce the need to mount a potentially energetically costly immune response, and would parallel that of other hosts that alter life-history traits when there is a risk of infection. Here we examined whether pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) respond to immunological challenges by increasing reproduction. As a comparison to the response to the internal cue of risk elicited by immunological challenge, we also exposed pea aphids to an external cue of risk - the aphid alarm pheromone (E)-β-farnesene (EBF), which is released in the presence of predators. For each challenge, we also examined whether the presence of symbionts modified the host response, as maintaining host fitness in the face of challenge would benefit both the host and its dependent bacteria. Results We found that aphids stabbed abdominally with a sterile needle had reduced fecundity relative to control aphids but that aphids stabbed with a needle bearing heat-killed bacteria had reproduction intermediate, and statistically indistinguishable, to the aphids stabbed with a sterile needle and the controls. Aphids with different species of facultative symbiotic bacteria had different reproductive patterns overall, but symbionts in general did not alter aphid reproduction in response to bacterial exposure. However, in response to exposure to alarm pheromone, aphids with Hamiltonella defensa or Serratia symbiotica symbiotic infections increased reproduction but those

  14. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Dorado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Materials and Methods: Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site, and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Results: Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Discussion: Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the

  15. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Jimena; Vázquez, Diego P

    2016-01-01

    Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site), and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the diversity-stability relationship, given that elevation had a positive effect on

  16. Evolutionary fitness as a function of pubertal age in 22 subsistence-based traditional societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlik Aneta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context The age of puberty has fallen over the past 130 years in industrialized, western countries, and this fall is widely referred to as the secular trend for earlier puberty. The current study was undertaken to test two evolutionary theories: (a the reproductive system maximizes the number of offspring in response to positive environmental cues in terms of energy balance, and (b early puberty is a trade-off response for high mortality rate and reduced resource availability. Methods Using a sample of 22 natural-fertility societies of mostly tropical foragers, horticulturalists, and pastoralists from Africa, South America, Australia, and Southeastern Asia, this study compares indices of adolescence growth and menarche with those of fertility fitness in these non-industrial, traditional societies. Results The average age at menarche correlated with the first reproduction, but did not correlate with the total fertility rate TFR or reproductive fitness. The age at menarche correlated negatively with their average adult body mass, and the average adult body weight positively correlated with reproductive fitness. Survivorship did not correlate with the age at menarche or age indices of the adolescent growth spurt. The population density correlated positively with the age at first reproduction, but not with menarche age, TFR, or reproductive fitness. Conclusions Based on our analyses, we reject the working hypotheses that reproductive fitness is enhanced in societies with early puberty or that early menarche is an adaptive response to greater mortality risk. Whereas body mass is a measure of resources is tightly associated with fitness, the age of menarche is not.

  17. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  18. Circadian rhythms and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Michael J; Kennaway, David J

    2006-09-01

    There is a growing recognition that the circadian timing system, in particular recently discovered clock genes, plays a major role in a wide range of physiological systems. Microarray studies, for example, have shown that the expression of hundreds of genes changes many fold in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, liver heart and kidney. In this review, we discuss the role of circadian rhythmicity in the control of reproductive function in animals and humans. Circadian rhythms and clock genes appear to be involved in optimal reproductive performance, but there are sufficient redundancies in their function that many of the knockout mice produced do not show overt reproductive failure. Furthermore, important strain differences have emerged from the studies especially between the various Clock (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycle Kaput) mutant strains. Nevertheless, there is emerging evidence that the primary clock genes, Clock and Bmal1 (Brain and Muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as Mop3), strongly influence reproductive competency. The extent to which the circadian timing system affects human reproductive performance is not known, in part, because many of the appropriate studies have not been done. With the role of Clock and Bmal1 in fertility becoming clearer, it may be time to pursue the effect of polymorphisms in these genes in relation to the various types of infertility in humans.

  19. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.

  20. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  1. Reproductive prognosis in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjordt Hansen, Maj V; Dalsgaard, Torur; Hartwell, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproductive long-term prognosis of women with and without endometriosis, to explore changes over time, and to quantify the contribution of artificial reproductive techniques. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark 1977-2009. SAMPLE: Data retrieved from four national...... registries. Among 15-49-year-old women during the period 1977-82, 24 667 were diagnosed with endometriosis and 98 668 (1:4) women without endometriosis were age-matched. METHODS: To assess long-term reproductive prognosis, all pregnancy outcomes were identified among the women with and without endometriosis...... until the end of 2009. To explore changes over time, the endometriosis cohorts were followed for 15 years from the years 1980, 1986, 1992 and 1998, with the corresponding control cohorts. All pregnancy outcomes were categorized into naturally or artificially conceived pregnancies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  2. Changing reproductive effort within a semelparous reproductive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M

    2014-08-01

    • Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  4. Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ásgeirsson, Hrafn; Nordal, Salvör

    2015-01-01

    During the past few years, reproductive technology and surrogacy have emerged in a number of European countries as issues of debate. There has been a steady increase in the use of reproductive technology in the Nordic countries, as well as an increase in the use of cross-border medical treatment in order to achieve pregnancy. At the same time, a number of ethical issues have been raised concerning the rights of the participants, including the children. In the fall of 2013, the Nordic Committe...

  5. Functional Amyloids in Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewetson, Aveline; Do, Hoa Quynh; Myers, Caitlyn; Muthusubramanian, Archana; Sutton, Roger Bryan; Wylie, Benjamin J; Cornwall, Gail A

    2017-06-29

    Amyloids are traditionally considered pathological protein aggregates that play causative roles in neurodegenerative disease, diabetes and prionopathies. However, increasing evidence indicates that in many biological systems nonpathological amyloids are formed for functional purposes. In this review, we will specifically describe amyloids that carry out biological roles in sexual reproduction including the processes of gametogenesis, germline specification, sperm maturation and fertilization. Several of these functional amyloids are evolutionarily conserved across several taxa, including human, emphasizing the critical role amyloids perform in reproduction. Evidence will also be presented suggesting that, if altered, some functional amyloids may become pathological.

  6. Dance your way to fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance your way to fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  7. Competency profile of Fitness Instructor

    OpenAIRE

    Peterová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Title: COMPETENCY PROFILE OF FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Objectives: The aim of this work is to find out competencies of fitness instructor and make a competency profile, containing competencies, which are important for excellent fitness instructor. Methods: I applied the method of interview and the method of research in my thesis. The interview was used to make a list of competencies of fitness instructor. The research was applied in the final part of making competency profile, for an attestation of ...

  8. The evaluation of GM6-based ELISA and ICT as diagnostic methods on a Mongolian farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasuren, Batdorj; Amgalanbaatar, Tovuu; Musinguzi, Simon Peter; Suganuma, Keisuke; Otgonsuren, Davaajav; Mossaad, Ehab; Narantsatsral, Sandagdorj; Battur, Banzragch; Battsetseg, Badgar; Xuan, Xuenan; Inoue, Noboru

    2017-09-15

    Trypanosoma equiperdum, which is the etiological agent of dourine, spreads through sexual intercourse in equines. Dourine (T. equiperdum) has been reported in Mongolia, where it is considered an economically important disease of horses. T. evansi has also been reported in Mongolian domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential application of recombinant T. evansi GM6 (rTeGM6-4r)-based diagnostic methods on a farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis. Ninety-seven percent homology was found between the amino acid sequences of T. equiperdum GM6 and the GM6 of another Trypanozoon, which also shared the same cellular localization. This finding suggests the utility of rTeGM6-4r-based serodiagnostic methods for epidemiological studies and the diagnosis of both surra and dourine in Equidae. Fifty blood samples were examined from a herd of horses. The diagnostic value of an rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA and an rTeGM6-4r-based immunochromatographic test (ICT) were measured in comparison to a T. evansi crude antigen-based ELISA, which is a diagnostic method recommended by the OIE. However, this is not a perfect diagnostic method for trypanosomosis. Positive serum samples were detected in 46%, 42% and 28% of the tested horses using an rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA, crude antigen-based ELISA and rTeGM6-4r-based ICT, respectively. The sensitivity of rTeGM6-based ELISA was 81%, the specificity was 79%, and the agreement was moderate. We conclude that rTeGM6-4r-based ELISA and ICT represent alternative options for baseline epidemiological studies and the on-site diagnosis of horse trypanosomoses in the field, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Riboflavin Provisioning Underlies Wolbachia's Fitness Contribution to Its Insect Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Minoru; Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Fukatsu, Takema

    2015-11-10

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia represent the most successful symbiotic bacteria in the terrestrial ecosystem. The success of Wolbachia has been ascribed to its remarkable phenotypic effects on host reproduction, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, whereby maternally inherited bacteria can spread in their host populations at the expense of their host's fitness. Meanwhile, recent theoretical as well as empirical studies have unveiled that weak and/or conditional positive fitness effects may significantly facilitate invasion and spread of Wolbachia infections in host populations. Here, we report a previously unrecognized nutritional aspect, the provision of riboflavin (vitamin B2), that potentially underpins the Wolbachia-mediated fitness benefit to insect hosts. A comparative genomic survey for synthetic capability of B vitamins revealed that only the synthesis pathway for riboflavin is highly conserved among diverse insect-associated Wolbachia strains, while the synthesis pathways for other B vitamins were either incomplete or absent. Molecular phylogenetic and genomic analyses of riboflavin synthesis genes from diverse Wolbachia strains revealed that, in general, their phylogenetic relationships are concordant with Wolbachia's genomic phylogeny, suggesting that the riboflavin synthesis genes have been stably maintained in the course of Wolbachia evolution. In rearing experiments with bedbugs (Cimex lectularius) on blood meals in which B vitamin contents were manipulated, we demonstrated that Wolbachia's riboflavin provisioning significantly contributes to growth, survival, and reproduction of the insect host. These results provide a physiological basis upon which Wolbachia-mediated positive fitness consequences are manifested and shed new light on the ecological and evolutionary relevance of Wolbachia infections. Conventionally, Wolbachia has been regarded as a parasitic bacterial endosymbiont that manipulates the host insect's reproduction in a

  10. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  11. Fitness for duty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Matney, C.

    1991-01-01

    A Fitness For Duty training program was developed to satisfy the requirements of the NRC, 10 CFR 26, 10 CFR 707 and to meet requirements at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Interactive videodisc technology was selected as the training medium using the TenCore authoring language. Computer-based training was chosen because of the large number of trainees, the advantages of the reduced overall cost, and the increased trainee retention of course material compared to traditional instruction. The resulting training program utilizes extensive role playing exercises in which employees and supervisors are exposed to real life situations. Extensive interactions by the trainees are required in that they must answer questions concerning the behav ior of individuals, random and for-cause drug testing, and the employee assistance program. Feedback is given in each case. Emphasis is placed on recognition of deteriorating job performance

  12. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  13. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  14. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  16. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Reproduction and Fixed Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the 'sixties, the reproduction model was often the subject of analysis and discussion in economic literat­ ure. Discussion was by criticism of the neo-classical concept of capital as well as by a renewed interest in the labour theory of value. Criticism of the use of a homogeneous concept of

  18. Male Reproductive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, B. A.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…

  19. Perceptually optimal color reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    What requirements do people place on optimal color reproduction of real-life scenes? We suggest that when people look at images containing familiar categories of objects, two primary factors shape their subjective impression of how optimal colors are reproduced: perceived naturalness and perceived

  20. Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ken A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-04-01

    While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide-a potent antiherbivore defense. We conducted a common garden experiment with 185 clonal families of T. repens that included cyanogenic and acyanogenic genotypes. We quantified resistance to herbivores, and selection on six floral traits and phenology via male and female fitness. Cyanogenesis reduced herbivory but did not alter the expression of reproductive traits through allocation trade-offs. However, the presence of cyanogenic defenses altered natural selection on petal morphology and the number of flowers within inflorescences via female fitness. Herbivory influenced selection on flowers and phenology via female fitness independently of cyanogenesis. Our results demonstrate that both herbivory and antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits. We discuss the significance of these results for understanding how antiherbivore defenses interact with herbivores and pollinators to shape floral evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Age-dependent terminal declines in reproductive output in a wild bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Hammers

    Full Text Available In many iteroparous species individual fitness components, such as reproductive output, first increase with age and then decline during late-life. However, individuals differ greatly in reproductive lifespan, but reproductive declines may only occur in the period just before their death as a result of an age-independent decline in physiological condition. To fully understand reproductive senescence it is important to investigate to what extent declines in late-life reproduction can be explained by age, time until death, or both. However, the study of late-life fitness performance in natural populations is challenging as the exact birth and death dates of individuals are often not known, and most individuals succumb to extrinsic mortality before reaching old age. Here, we used an exceptional long-term longitudinal dataset of individuals from a natural, closed, and predator-free population of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis to investigate reproductive output, both in relation to age and to the time until the death of an individual (reverse-age approach. We observed an initial age-dependent increase in reproductive output that was followed by a decline in old age. However, we found no significant decline in reproductive output in the years directly preceding death. Although post-peak reproductive output declined with age, this pattern differed between terminal and non-terminal reproductive attempts, and the age-dependence of the terminal breeding attempt explained much of the variation in age-specific reproductive output. In fact, terminal declines in reproductive output were steeper in very old individuals. These results indicate that not only age-dependent, but also age-independent factors, such as physiological condition, need to be considered to understand reproductive senescence in wild-living animals.

  2. African Journal of Reproductive Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Reproductive Health (AJRH) is published by the Women's Health and ... review articles, short reports and commentaries on reproductive health in Africa. ... Social norms and adolescents' sexual health: an introduction for ...

  3. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  4. Advances in reproductive science for wild carnivore conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comizzoli, P; Crosier, A E; Songsasen, N; Gunther, M Szykman; Howard, J G; Wildt, D E

    2009-07-01

    Knowledge about reproduction is critical for predicting the viability of wildlife populations in nature and for managing breeding programmes in captivity. Intensive species-based studies are the priority, because reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse, even within the same taxonomic family. Carnivores deserve more attention as such species are highly vulnerable to environmental change and human persecution. The present review provides contemporary illustrations of how reproductive science is contributing to understand unique reproductive mechanisms that are both of fundamental and applied interest. In the case of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) free-living in South Africa, non-invasive faecal corticosteroid assessments have yielded new insights about the impact of animal relocation and reintroduction on adaptive responses, reproductive fitness and survival. For the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), advances have been made in characterizing and comparing reproductive traits in free-ranging vs captive individuals. For the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), recent studies have focused on the cryosensitivity of sperm and the ability to develop a field-friendly sperm cryo-method. The by-product has been a large-scale frozen repository of sperm from wild-caught cheetahs useful for infusing new genes into ex situ populations. Finally, rigorous, multi-disciplinary and cross-institutional reproductive studies of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), including the use of artificial insemination, have contributed to the remarkable recovery and restoration of this species, once on the brink of extinction. In summary, advances in reproductive science are not necessarily related to 'assisted breeding'. However, understanding the unique ways of carnivore reproduction greatly contributes to species management and conservation.

  5. Female Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  6. Plumage polymorphism and fitness in Swainson's hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C W; Collopy, M W; Woodbridge, B

    2011-10-01

    We examine the maintenance of a plumage polymorphism, variation in plumages among the same age and sex class within a population, in a population of Swainson's Hawks. We take advantage of 32 years of data to examine two prevalent hypotheses used to explain the persistence of morphs: apostatic selection and heterozygous advantage. We investigate differences in fitness among three morph classes of a melanistic trait in Swainson's Hawks: light (7% of the local breeding population), intermediate (57%) and dark (36%). Specifically, we examined morph differences in adult apparent survival, breeding success, annual number of fledglings produced, probability of offspring recruitment into the breeding population and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). If apostatic selection were a factor in maintaining morphs, we would expect that individuals with the least frequent morph would perform best in one or more of these fitness categories. Alternatively, if heterozygous advantage played a role in the maintenance of this polymorphism, we would expect heterozygotes (i.e. intermediate morphs) to have one or more increased rates in these categories. We found no difference in adult apparent survival between morph classes. Similarly, there were no differences in breeding success, nest productivity, LRS or probability of recruitment of offspring between parental morph. We conclude that neither apostatic selection nor heterozygous advantage appear to play a role in maintaining morphs in this population. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between.This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development.Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health.The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  8. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vijayan K; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development. Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health. The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  9. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion

  10. Reproductive Conflict and the Evolution of Menopause in Killer Whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Darren P; Johnstone, Rufus A; Ellis, Samuel; Nattrass, Stuart; Franks, Daniel W; Brent, Lauren J N; Mazzi, Sonia; Balcomb, Kenneth C; Ford, John K B; Cant, Michael A

    2017-01-23

    Why females of some species cease ovulation prior to the end of their natural lifespan is a long-standing evolutionary puzzle [1-4]. The fitness benefits of post-reproductive helping could in principle select for menopause [1, 2, 5], but the magnitude of these benefits appears insufficient to explain the timing of menopause [6-8]. Recent theory suggests that the cost of inter-generational reproductive conflict between younger and older females of the same social unit is a critical missing term in classical inclusive fitness calculations (the "reproductive conflict hypothesis" [6, 9]). Using a unique long-term dataset on wild resident killer whales, where females can live decades after their final parturition, we provide the first test of this hypothesis in a non-human animal. First, we confirm previous theoretical predictions that local relatedness increases with female age up to the end of reproduction. Second, we construct a new evolutionary model and show that given these kinship dynamics, selection will favor younger females that invest more in competition, and thus have greater reproductive success, than older females (their mothers) when breeding at the same time. Third, we test this prediction using 43 years of individual-based demographic data in resident killer whales and show that when mothers and daughters co-breed, the mortality hazard of calves from older-generation females is 1.7 times that of calves from younger-generation females. Intergenerational conflict combined with the known benefits conveyed to kin by post-reproductive females can explain why killer whales have evolved the longest post-reproductive lifespan of all non-human animals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Constraints, Trade-offs and the Currency of Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerenza, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Understanding evolutionary trajectories remains a difficult task. This is because natural evolutionary processes are simultaneously affected by various types of constraints acting at the different levels of biological organization. Of particular importance are constraints where correlated changes occur in opposite directions, called trade-offs. Here we review and classify the main evolutionary constraints and trade-offs, operating at all levels of trait hierarchy. Special attention is given to life history trade-offs and the conflict between the survival and reproduction components of fitness. Cellular mechanisms underlying fitness trade-offs are described. At the metabolic level, a linear trade-off between growth and flux variability was found, employing bacterial genome-scale metabolic reconstructions. Its analysis indicates that flux variability can be considered as the currency of fitness. This currency is used for fitness transfer between fitness components during adaptations. Finally, a discussion is made regarding the constraints which limit the increase in the amount of fitness currency during evolution, suggesting that occupancy constraints are probably the main restrictions.

  12. Epidemia de fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanja Bastos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre uma condição naturalizada e disseminada principalmente pelo campo da nova promoção à saúde e reforçada nos espaços de atuação da educação física, a que se denominou epidemia de fitness. O termo refere-se a hábitos e comportamentos obsessivos com a saúde, beleza e vitalidade, tornando-se alvo de exercício de controle por parte de especialistas. Para discuti-la realizou-se um estudo de caso em que foram submetidos à análise semiótica, por meio do método de leitura isotópica, 59 materiais de divulgação, impressos, coletados na Expo Wellness Rio 2009, uma feira de negócios inserida no Congresso Wellness Rio 2009. As categorias isotópicas que emergiram a partir da análise são as seguintes: saúde/beleza e tecnologia, saúde/beleza e especialidade e saúde/beleza e longevidade. Elas apontam para a potencialização da vitalidade humana como mola propulsora das estratégias discursivas, assim como valor recorrente que embasa ações voltadas para a melhoria das condições de saúde, imbricadas à ideia de longevidade e beleza.

  13. Genetic diversity and reproductive success in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, M; Setchell, J M; Prugnolle, F; Knapp, L A; Wickings, E J; Peignot, P; Hossaert-McKey, M

    2005-11-15

    Recent studies of wild animal populations have shown that estimators of neutral genetic diversity, such as mean heterozygosity, are often correlated with various fitness traits, such as survival, disease susceptibility, or reproductive success. We used two estimators of genetic diversity to explore the relationship between heterozygosity and reproductive success in male and female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in a semifree ranging setting in Gabon. Because social rank is known to influence reproductive success in both sexes, we also examined the correlation between genetic diversity and social rank in females, and acquisition of alpha status in males, as well as length of alpha male tenure. We found that heterozygous individuals showed greater reproductive success, with both females and males producing more offspring. However, heterozygosity influenced reproductive success only in dominant males, not in subordinates. Neither the acquisition of alpha status in males, nor social rank in females, was significantly correlated with heterozygosity, although more heterozygous alpha males showed longer tenure than homozygous ones. We also tested whether the benefits of greater genetic diversity were due mainly to a genome-wide effect of inbreeding depression or to heterosis at one or a few loci. Multilocus effects best explained the correlation between heterozygosity and reproductive success and tenure, indicating the occurrence of inbreeding depression in this mandrill colony.

  14. Reproduction in moose at their southern range limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Joel S.; Hersey, Kent R.; Hafen, Konrad; Monteith, Kevin L.; DeCesare, Nicholas J.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; MacNulty, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is a critical fitness component in large herbivores. Biogeographic models predict that populations occurring at the edges of the range may have compromised reproductive rates because of inferior habitat at range peripheries. When reproductive rates are chronically low, ungulate populations may lack the resiliency to rebound quickly after periods of environmental stress, and this effect may be greatest for heat-sensitive organisms at their southern range limit. To assess the demographic vulnerability of moose ( Alces alces ), we studied relationships between reproductive rates, maternal age, and rump fat in the southernmost naturally occurring moose population in North America. For prime-aged moose in our study, pregnancy rates were high (92%), but moose aged 9 years had low pregnancy rates (32% and 38%, respectively). The relationship between rump fat and pregnancy was nonlinear such that a threshold of at least 2mm of rump fat yielded a high probability of being pregnant midwinter. In contrast, among pregnant moose, the probability of both producing a calf and recruiting it until spring increased linearly with rump fat. We also conducted a meta-analysis of pregnancy and twinning rates for adult (≥ 2 years) moose across a latitudinal gradient to compare reproductive rates from our study to other populations in North America. Moose living at southern latitudes tended to have lower reproductive rates than those living in the core of moose range, implying that southern moose populations may be demographically more vulnerable than northern moose populations.

  15. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G

    1999-01-01

    To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.

  16. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  17. [Reproduction and psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders can have a close connection to reproduction, especially for women but also for men. The most frequent disorders or problems are described, i.e., mental problems during pregnancy and after delivery, during the menstrual cycle and around menopause. Possible consequences of miscarriage, stillbirth and induced abortion are presented as well as the special problem of a wish for a child in mentally ill women and their treatment during pregnancy.

  18. Leading a Culture of Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    professional fighting force. Numerous studies indicate physical fitness improves cognitive function, the ability to handle stress, injury recovery...4 ―What is Fitness?‖ The CrossFit Journal (October 2002) http://www.crossfit.com (accessed 11 February, 2011). An excellent article beyond the...scope of this paper. Although our definition was derived from Crossfit , it is our position that Crossfit is not, and should not be, the only method to

  19. Physical Fitness in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-17

    in fitness as the absence of disease or injury . The coach defines fitness as §l’Jse factors responsible for success in a sport. The leader is...lower back and legs to gradually increase your body’s level of activity. This will reduce the risk of injury and prevent unnecessary soreness. Also, a...flexibility. Let’s discuss the importance of muscular fitness and how we can achieve this kind of fitneas through weightlifting or calisthenics. Remember

  20. Reproductive concessions between related and unrelated members promote eusociality in bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Aline C R; Miranda, Elder A; Del Lama, Marco A; Nascimento, Fábio S

    2016-05-23

    Animal societies exhibit remarkable variation in their breeding strategies. Individuals can maximize their fitness by either reproducing or by helping relatives. Social hymenopterans have been key taxa for the study of Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory because the haplodiploid sex-determination system results in asymmetric relatedness among breeders producing conflict over the partitioning of reproduction. In small cooperative groups of insects, totipotent individuals may maximize their inclusive fitness by controlling reproduction despotically rather than helping their relatives. Here, we demonstrate that the dominant females of the primitively eusocial bee Euglossa melanotricha (Apidae: Euglossini) control reproduction, but concede part of the reproductive output with their related and unrelated subordinates. As expected, a dominant female capitalizes on the direct reproduction of related subordinates, according to her interests. We found that reproductive skew was positively correlated with relatedness. The concessions were highly reduced in mother-daughter and sibling nests (relatedness r ± s.d. = 0.54 ± 0.02 and 0.79 ± 0.02, respectively) but much more egalitarian in unrelated associations (r = -0.10 ± 0.01). We concluded that reproductive skew in these primitively eusocial bees is strongly related to the genetic structure of associations, and also that females are able to assess pairwise relatedness, either directly or indirectly, and use this information to mediate social contracts.

  1. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  2. Folate and human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tsunenobu; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2006-05-01

    The influence of folate nutritional status on various pregnancy outcomes has long been recognized. Studies conducted in the 1950s and 1960s led to the recognition of prenatal folic acid supplementation as a means to prevent pregnancy-induced megaloblastic anemia. In the 1990s, the utility of periconceptional folic acid supplementation and folic acid food fortification emerged when they were proven to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. These distinctively different uses of folic acid may well be ranked among the most significant public health measures for the prevention of pregnancy-related disorders. Folate is now viewed not only as a nutrient needed to prevent megaloblastic anemia in pregnancy but also as a vitamin essential for reproductive health. This review focuses on the relation between various outcomes of human reproduction (ie, pregnancy, lactation, and male reproduction) and folate nutrition and metabolism, homocysteine metabolism, and polymorphisms of genes that encode folate-related enzymes or proteins, and we identify issues for future research.

  3. Influence of adult nutrition on the relationship between body size and reproductive parameters in a parasitoid wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Mills, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    1. An important constraint upon life-history evolution in parasitoids is the limit imposed by body size on allocation of limited metabolic resources to different fitness-related physiological functions such as reproduction and survival. 2. The influence of adult nutrition on reproductive and

  4. Heparin for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad A; Sur, Shyamaly; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim G; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-08-17

    Heparin as an adjunct in assisted reproduction (peri-implantation heparin) is given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer during assisted reproduction. Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes.  It has been proposed that heparin enhances the intra-uterine environment by improving decidualisation with an associated activation of growth factors and a cytokine expression profile in the endometrium that is favourable to pregnancy. To investigate whether the administration of heparin around the time of implantation (peri-implantation heparin) improves clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. A comprehensive and exhaustive search strategy was developed in consultation with the Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG). The strategy was used in an attempt to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, and in progress). Relevant trials were identified from both electronic databases and other resources (last search 6 May 2013). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included where peri-implantation heparin was given during assisted reproduction. Peri-implantation low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during IVF/ICSI was given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer in the included studies. Live birth rate was the primary outcome. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials and extracted relevant data. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE methods. Three RCTs (involving 386 women) were included in the review.Peri-implantation LMWH administration during assisted reproduction was associated with a significant improvement in live birth rate compared with placebo or no LMWH (odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 2.90, three studies, 386 women, I(2) = 51%, very low quality evidence with high

  5. A model for estimating the minimum number of offspring to sample in studies of reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph H; Ward, Eric J; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular parentage permits studies of selection and evolution in fecund species with cryptic mating systems, such as fish, amphibians, and insects. However, there exists no method for estimating the number of offspring that must be assigned parentage to achieve robust estimates of reproductive success when only a fraction of offspring can be sampled. We constructed a 2-stage model that first estimated the mean (μ) and variance (v) in reproductive success from published studies on salmonid fishes and then sampled offspring from reproductive success distributions simulated from the μ and v estimates. Results provided strong support for modeling salmonid reproductive success via the negative binomial distribution and suggested that few offspring samples are needed to reject the null hypothesis of uniform offspring production. However, the sampled reproductive success distributions deviated significantly (χ(2) goodness-of-fit test p value reproductive success distribution at rates often >0.05 and as high as 0.24, even when hundreds of offspring were assigned parentage. In general, reproductive success patterns were less accurate when offspring were sampled from cohorts with larger numbers of parents and greater variance in reproductive success. Our model can be reparameterized with data from other species and will aid researchers in planning reproductive success studies by providing explicit sampling targets required to accurately assess reproductive success.

  6. Exceptional longevity in female Rottweiler dogs is not encumbered by investment in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengeri, S S; Maras, A H; Suckow, C L; Chiang, E C; Waters, D J

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the potential trade-off between female reproductive investment and longevity in an emerging model of human healthspan, we studied pet dogs to determine whether intensity of reproduction (total number of offspring) encumbered the likelihood of exceptional longevity. This hypothesis was tested by collecting and analyzing lifetime medical histories, including complete reproductive histories, for a cohort of canine "centenarians"--exceptionally long-lived Rottweiler dogs that lived more than 30% longer than the breed's average life expectancy. Reproductive intensity (number of litters, total number of pups) and tempo of reproductive effort (age at first reproduction, mean interbirth interval, age at last reproduction) in 78 exceptionally long-lived female Rottweilers (>13 years old) were compared to a cohort of 97 female Rottweilers that had usual longevity (age at death 8.0-10.75 years). We found no evidence that a mother's physiological investment in offspring was associated with disadvantaged longevity. Instead, similar to some studies in women, our data showed an inverted U-shaped trend, suggesting that moderate investment in reproduction may promote longevity. Late reproductive success, a much-studied surrogate of maternal fitness in women, was not a strong predictor of longevity in this canine cohort. Instead, independent of reproductive investment, the duration of lifetime ovary exposure was significantly associated with highly successful aging. Our results from exceptionally long-lived pet dogs provide rationale for further investigative efforts to understand the ovary-sensitive biological factors that promote healthy longevity in women and pet dogs.

  7. Interannual variability of growth and reproduction in Bursera simaruba: the role of allometry and resource variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Stegen, James C; Swenson, Nathan G; Enquist, Carolyn A F; Enquist, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    Plants are expected to differentially allocate resources to reproduction, growth, and survival in order to maximize overall fitness. Life history theory predicts that the allocation of resources to reproduction should occur at the expense of vegetative growth. Although it is known that both organism size and resource availability can influence life history traits, few studies have addressed how size dependencies of growth and reproduction and variation in resource supply jointly affect the coupling between growth and reproduction. In order to understand the relationship between growth and reproduction in the context of resource variability, we utilize a long-term observational data set consisting of 670 individual trees over a 10-year period within a local population of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. We (1) quantify the functional form and variability in the growth-reproduction relationship at the population and individual-tree level and (2) develop a theoretical framework to understand the allometric dependence of growth and reproduction. Our findings suggest that the differential responses of allometric growth and reproduction to resource availability, both between years and between microsites, underlie the apparent relationship between growth and reproduction. Finally, we offer an alternative approach for quantifying the relationship between growth and reproduction that accounts for variation in allometries.

  8. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  9. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described whereby end fittings are formed from lattices of mutually perpendicular plates. At the plate intersections, sockets are secured to the end fittings in a manner that permits the longitudinal axes of each of the sockets to align with the respective lines of intersection of the plates. The sockets all protrude above one of the surfaces of the end fitting. Further, a detent is formed in the proturding sides of each of the sockets. Annular grooves are formed in each of the ends of the fuel rods that are to be mounted between the end fittings. The socket detents protrude into the respective annular grooves, thus engaging the grooves and retaining the fuel rods and end fittings in one integral structure. (auth)

  10. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  11. Fitness Doping and Body Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    This PhD thesis examines in a first paper the conceptualization of fitness doping and its current limitations. Based on a review of studies on bodywork and fitness doping it is emphasised that the definition of doping does not provide insights into bodywork of both men and women. Moreover......, it is argued that the social and a cultural context are missing in the many epidemiological studies on the prevalence of doping. The second paper explores the difficulties of implementing an anti-doping policy, which was originally formulated in an elite sport context, in a fitness context and more......-based fitness centres. Based on a survey in ten Danish club-based fitness centres and on narratives from semi-structured interviews, it is highlighted that the objectives of bodywork differ according to the users’ age and gender. Two different ways of investing in the body are explored in the paper, namely...

  12. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  13. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  14. Reproductive Medicine in Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotek, Zdenek; Cermakova, Eva; Oliveri, Matteo

    2017-05-01

    Common reproductive problems in captive male lizards are hemipenile plugs in hemipenial sac, unilateral prolapse of hemipenis, or bilateral prolapse of hemipene. Although the orchiectomy is performed as a treatment for testicular disease, the effectiveness in reducing aggressive behavior is unclear. Female captive lizards suffer from cloacal prolapse, preovulatory follicular stasis, or dystocia. The veterinarian must differentiate between the disorders because the treatment differs. Mating, physical, or visual contact with the male stimulates ovulation and prevents preovulatory follicular stasis. Surgical intervention is usually required for dystocia. This article discusses selected procedures and use of ultrasonography and diagnostic endoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational reproductive health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, K; Kerr, M J

    1993-01-01

    The potentially harmful effects on women of certain workplace exposures are widely appreciated, and steps to control these have included legislative efforts such as right-to-know laws of well as corporate policies mandating selective restriction of fertile women, which are illegal under federal civil rights laws. This chapter reviews the various occupational health risks reproductive women face in the workplace but also considers the effects of other genetic, medical, social, infectious, and environmental factors which may be of even greater concern than most occupational factors.

  16. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P.; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. W...

  17. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproduct...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance....

  18. The validity and value of inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Andrew F G

    2011-11-22

    Social evolution is a central topic in evolutionary biology, with the evolution of eusociality (societies with altruistic, non-reproductive helpers) representing a long-standing evolutionary conundrum. Recent critiques have questioned the validity of the leading theory for explaining social evolution and eusociality, namely inclusive fitness (kin selection) theory. I review recent and past literature to argue that these critiques do not succeed. Inclusive fitness theory has added fundamental insights to natural selection theory. These are the realization that selection on a gene for social behaviour depends on its effects on co-bearers, the explanation of social behaviours as unalike as altruism and selfishness using the same underlying parameters, and the explanation of within-group conflict in terms of non-coinciding inclusive fitness optima. A proposed alternative theory for eusocial evolution assumes mistakenly that workers' interests are subordinate to the queen's, contains no new elements and fails to make novel predictions. The haplodiploidy hypothesis has yet to be rigorously tested and positive relatedness within diploid eusocial societies supports inclusive fitness theory. The theory has made unique, falsifiable predictions that have been confirmed, and its evidence base is extensive and robust. Hence, inclusive fitness theory deserves to keep its position as the leading theory for social evolution.

  19. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  20. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Mercer

    Full Text Available Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking

  1. Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L.; Emry, D. Jason; Snow, Allison A.; Kost, Matthew A.; Pace, Brian A.; Alexander, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  2. Cost of reproduction in a long-lived bird: incubation effort reduces immune function and future reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Hasselquist, Dennis; Folstad, Ivar; Erikstad, Kjell Einar

    2005-05-22

    Life-history theory predicts that increased current reproductive effort should lead to a fitness cost. This cost of reproduction may be observed as reduced survival or future reproduction, and may be caused by temporal suppression of immune function in stressed or hard-working individuals. In birds, consideration of the costs of incubating eggs has largely been neglected in favour of the costs of brood rearing. We manipulated incubation demand in two breeding seasons (2000 and 2001) in female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) by creating clutches of three and six eggs (natural range 3-6 eggs). The common eider is a long-lived sea-duck where females do not eat during the incubation period. Mass loss increased and immune function (lymphocyte levels and specific antibody response to the non-pathogenic antigens diphtheria and tetanus toxoid) was reduced in females incubating large clutches. The increased incubation effort among females assigned to large incubation demand did not lead to adverse effects on current reproduction or return rate in the next breeding season. However, large incubation demand resulted in long-term fitness costs through reduced fecundity the year after manipulation. Our data show that in eiders, a long-lived species, the cost of high incubation demand is paid in the currency of reduced future fecundity, possibly mediated by reduced immune function.

  3. Transgenderism and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TʼSjoen, Guy; Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien

    2013-12-01

    The development of new reproductive medicine techniques creates opportunities for preserving fertility in transgender persons. Before, losing fertility was accepted as the price to pay for transitioning. The desire for children is present in many trans persons, as in the general population. Ethical concerns are sometimes raised against the preservation of fertility; however, the only unique aspect of this group is the gender transition of one of the parents. All other elements such as same sex parenthood, use of donor gametes, social stigma, etc., can be found in other groups of parents. Not all reproductive options for all trans persons are equal because not only the gametes are of importance, but also the sex of the (future) partner. In trans women, the best option to preserve gametes is cryopreservation of sperm by preference initiated before starting hormonal therapy. In trans men, donor sperm is most often used, but in theory, there are three options available to preserve fertility: oocyte banking, embryo banking and banking of ovarian tissue. Fertility is possible for both trans men and women, but it requires timely cryopreservation of gametes or stopping cross-sex hormones and possible fertility treatments which are costly and may be unpleasant. Centers should elucidate their policy and inform trans persons on the possibilities and limitations.

  4. Epigenetics of reproductive infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Laxmidhar; Parbin, Sabnam; Pradhan, Nibedita; Kausar, Chahat; Patra, Samir K

    2017-06-01

    Infertility is a complex pathophysiological condition. It may caused by specific or multiple physical and physiological factors, including abnormalities in homeostasis, hormonal imbalances and genetic alterations. In recent times various studies implicated that, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms are associated with reproductive infertility. There might be transgenerational effects associated with epigenetic modifications of gametes and studies suggest the importance of alterations in epigenetic modification at early and late stages of gametogenesis. To determine the causes of infertility it is necessary to understand the altered epigenetic modifications of associated gene and mechanisms involved therein. This review is devoted to elucidate the recent mechanistic advances in regulation of genes by epigenetic modification and emphasizes their possible role related to reproductive infertility. It includes environmental, nutritional, hormonal and physiological factors and influence of internal structural architecture of chromatin nucleosomes affecting DNA and histone modifications in both male and female gametes, early embryogenesis and offspring. Finally, we would like to emphasize that research on human infertility by gene knock out of epigenetic modifiers genes must be relied upon animal models.

  5. Testing Cort-Fitness and Cort-Adaptation hypotheses in a habitat suitability gradient for roe deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Virgós, Emilio; Lara-Romero, Carlos; Lozano, Jorge; Barja, Isabel; Cuadra, Felipe S.; Puerta, Marisa

    2013-11-01

    According to the Cort-Fitness Hypothesis, higher stress levels (glucocorticoids) in vertebrates are correlated to lower fitness. However, recent studies have failed to validate this hypothesis. A proposed wider framework suggests that reproduction can be perceived as an overload adds up to other environmental challenges that individuals must adjust to. In this case, elevated glucocorticoids could help individuals to allocate resources to reproduction without comprising other functions, leading to the expectation of a positive cort-fitness relationship. This has been proposed as the Cort-Adaptation Hypothesis. Stress levels result from a complex interaction between the environment and the neuroendocrine system of animals. Accounting for physiological functions involved in how animals cope with their environment would help to clarify the relationship between glucocorticoids and animal performance. We used roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) inhabiting diverse habitats in the Iberian Peninsula to: i) test the Cort-Fitness and Cort-Adaptation hypotheses by indexing fitness using a comprehensive physiological approach which takes into account fundamental physiological functions and their trade-offs; and ii) evaluate the link between primary productivity and individuals' condition in a seasonal environment. We evaluated spatial and temporal variation in stress levels, reproductive hormone levels, nutritional status and immune function from fecal samples collected in 2010. Lower stress levels were related to better condition in non-reproductive seasons but not to higher primary productivity. In contrast, stress levels were always positively related to reproductive condition, which was better in most productive habitats. Summer and winter were the less productive seasons and the more challenging for the species in the habitat gradient studied. In winter, reproductive condition traded off against immune function being biased toward immune function in less productive habitats. In

  6. Genetics of Pathogen Fitness: Correlations with Virulence and Effects of Host Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plant pathology, a large body of work has focused on changes in virulence, the traits allowing infection of otherwise resistant hosts, while relatively few studies have examined changes in quantitative fitness traits, those affecting the reproductive success of the pathogen after infection has oc...

  7. Hybridization rapidly reduces fitness of a native trout in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, C.C.; Kalinowski, S.T.; McMahon, T.E.; Taper, M.L.; Painter, S.; Leary, R.F.; Allendorf, F.W.

    2009-01-01

    Human-mediated hybridization is a leading cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. How hybridization affects fitness and what level of hybridization is permissible pose difficult conservation questions with little empirical information to guide policy and management decisions. This is particularly true for salmonids, where widespread introgression among non-native and native taxa has often created hybrid swarms over extensive geographical areas resulting in genomic extinction. Here, we used parentage analysis with multilocus microsatellite markers to measure how varying levels of genetic introgression with non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) affect reproductive success (number of offspring per adult) of native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) in the wild. Small amounts of hybridization markedly reduced fitness of male and female trout, with reproductive success sharply declining by approximately 50 per cent, with only 20 per cent admixture. Despite apparent fitness costs, our data suggest that hybridization may spread due to relatively high reproductive success of first-generation hybrids and high reproductive success of a few males with high levels of admixture. This outbreeding depression suggests that even low levels of admixture may have negative effects on fitness in the wild and that policies protecting hybridized populations may need reconsideration. ?? 2009 The Royal Society.

  8. Male Seychelles warblers use territory budding to maximize lifetime fitness in a saturated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Edelaar, P

    2001-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, helping at the nest and budding off part of the natal territory have been advanced as strategies to increase fitness in an environment that is saturated with territories. The importance of helping or territory budding as a determinant of lifetime reproductive

  9. Opas CrossFit -harjoitteluun

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    CrossFit on laji, joka pyrkii edistämään terveyttä ja kuntoa. CrossFit saleja löytyy mailmalta yli 10 000 kappaletta. CrossFit -harjoittelussa pyritään parantamaan ihmisen kuntoa mahdollisimman laajalla skaalalla kehittämällä mm. voimaa, kestävyyttä, tarkkuutta, tasapainoa ja eri aineenvaihduntareittejä samanaikaisesti. Terveyden ja kunnon kehittämiseen kuuluu kuntoilun lisäksi myös muita osa-alueita. Ruokavalio ja kehonhuolto ovat tärkeitä osa-alueita hyvän kunnon saavuttamiseksi. Ruokav...

  10. Respirators. Does your face fit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, N M; Else, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.

  11. Reproductive Rights or Reproductive Justice? Lessons from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lynn

    2015-06-11

    Argentine sexual and reproductive rights activists insist on using the language and framework of "human rights," even when many reproductive rights activists in the US and elsewhere now prefer the framework of "reproductive justice." Reflecting on conversations with Argentine feminist anthropologists, social scientists, and reproductive rights activists, this paper analyzes why the Argentine movement to legalize abortion relies on the contested concept of human rights. Its conclusion that "women's rights are human rights" is a powerful claim in post-dictatorship politics where abortion is not yet legal and the full scope of women's rights has yet to be included in the government's human rights agenda. Argentine feminist human rights activists have long been attentive to the ways that social class, gender, migration, and racism intersect with reproduction. Because their government respects and responds to a human rights framework, however, they have not felt it necessary--as U.S. feminists have--to invent a new notion of reproductive justice in order to be heard. Given the increasing popularity of reproductive justice in health and human rights, the Argentine case shows that rights-based claims can still be politically useful when a State values the concept of human rights. Copyright 2015 Morgan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  12. Does hybridization of endophytic symbionts in a native grass increase fitness in resource-limited environments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeth, Stanley H.; Oberhofer, Martina; Saari, Susanna Talvikki

    2017-01-01

    to their grass hosts, especially in stressful environments. We tested the hybrid fitness hypothesis (HFH) that hybrid endophytes enhance fitness in stressful environments relative to non-hybrid endophytes. In a long-term field experiment, we monitored growth and reproduction of hybrid-infected (H+), non......-hybrid infected (NH+), naturally endophyte free (E-) plants and those plants from which the endophyte had been experimentally removed (H- and NH-) in resource-rich and resource-poor environments. Infection by both endophyte species enhanced growth and reproduction. H+ plants outperformed NH+ plants in terms...... of growth by the end of the experiment, supporting HFH. However, H+ plants only outperformed NH+ plants in the resource-rich treatment, contrary to HFH. Plant genotypes associated with each endophyte species had strong effects on growth and reproduction. Our results provide some support the HFH hypothesis...

  13. Host and food searching in a parasitic wasp Venturia canescens: a trade-off between current and future reproduction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desouhant, E.; Driessen, G.J.J.; Amat, I.; Bernstein, C.

    2005-01-01

    Whether to invest in current or future reproduction is an important trade-off in life history evolution. For insect parasitoids, this trade-off is determined, among other factors, by the decision whether to search for hosts (immediate gain of fitness) or food (delayed fitness gains). Although host

  14. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  15. Voice and Handgrip Strength Predict Reproductive Success in a Group of Indigenous African Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Mberira, Mara; Bartels, Astrid; Gallup, Gordon G.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary accounts of human traits are often based on proxies for genetic fitness (e.g., number of sex partners, facial attractiveness). Instead of using proxies, actual differences in reproductive success is a more direct measure of Darwinian fitness. Certain voice acoustics such as fundamental frequency and measures of health such as handgrip strength correlate with proxies of fitness, yet there are few studies showing the relation of these traits to reproduction. Here, we explore whether the fundamental frequency of the voice and handgrip strength account for differences in actual reproduction among a population of natural fertility humans. Our results show that both fundamental frequency and handgrip strength predict several measures of reproductive success among a group of indigenous Namibian females, particularly amongst the elderly, with weight also predicting reproductive outcomes among males. These findings demonstrate that both hormonally regulated and phenotypic quality markers can be used as measures of Darwinian fitness among humans living under conditions that resemble the evolutionary environment of Homo sapiens. We also argue that these findings provide support for the Grandmother Hypothesis. PMID:22870251

  16. Population density shapes patterns of survival and reproduction in Eleutheria dichotoma (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dańko, Aleksandra; Schaible, Ralf; Pijanowska, Joanna; Dańko, Maciej J

    2018-01-01

    Budding hydromedusae have high reproductive rates due to asexual reproduction and can occur in high population densities along the coasts, specifically in tidal pools. In laboratory experiments, we investigated the effects of population density on the survival and reproductive strategies of a single clone of Eleutheria dichotoma . We found that sexual reproduction occurs with the highest rate at medium population densities. Increased sexual reproduction was associated with lower budding (asexual reproduction) and survival probability. Sexual reproduction results in the production of motile larvae that can, in contrast to medusae, seek to escape unfavorable conditions by actively looking for better environments. The successful settlement of a larva results in starting the polyp stage, which is probably more resistant to environmental conditions. This is the first study that has examined the life-history strategies of the budding hydromedusa E. dichotoma by conducting a long-term experiment with a relatively large sample size that allowed for the examination of age-specific mortality and reproductive rates. We found that most sexual and asexual reproduction occurred at the beginning of life following a very rapid process of maturation. The parametric models fitted to the mortality data showed that population density was associated with an increase in the rate of aging, an increase in the level of late-life mortality plateau, and a decrease in the hidden heterogeneity in individual mortality rates. The effects of population density on life-history traits are discussed in the context of resource allocation and the r/K-strategies' continuum concept.

  17. The Status of Women's Reproductive Rights and Adverse Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve Ellen; Evans, Melissa Goldin; Theall, Katherine

    Reproductive rights-the ability to decide whether and when to have children-shape women's socioeconomic and health trajectories across the life course. The objective of this study was to examine reproductive rights in association with preterm birth (PTB; birth weight (LBW; births in the United States in 2012 grouped by state. A reproductive rights composite index score was assigned to records from each state based on the following indicators for the year before birth (2011): mandatory sex education, expanded Medicaid eligibility for family planning services, mandatory parental involvement for minors seeking abortion, mandatory abortion waiting periods, public funding for abortion, and percentage of women in counties with abortion providers. Scores were ranked by tertile with the highest tertile reflecting states with strongest reproductive rights. We fit logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PTB and LBW associated with reproductive rights score controlling for maternal race, age, education, and insurance and state-level poverty. States with the strongest reproductive rights had the lowest rates of LBW and PTB (7.3% and 10.6%, respectively) compared with states with more restrictions (8.5% and 12.2%, respectively). After adjustment, women in more restricted states experienced 13% to 15% increased odds of PTB and 6% to 9% increased odds of LBW compared with women in states with the strongest rights. State-level reproductive rights may influence likelihood of adverse birth outcomes among women residents. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  19. Desirable design of hose fittings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the primary functionality of a hose fitting. There has been made a discussion about the different parts of the hose assembly - the nipple, the hose and the outer compression parts. The last subject covered is which criteria should be put up for determining what is a good hose...... fittings. There has been made an uncompleted list of 'Voice of Customer' to this respect. Observations and interviews in industry should expand this list....

  20. The 'fitting problem' in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.F.R.; Stoeger, W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper considers the best way to fit an idealised exactly homogeneous and isotropic universe model to a realistic ('lumpy') universe; whether made explicit or not, some such approach of necessity underlies the use of the standard Robertson-Walker models as models of the real universe. Approaches based on averaging, normal coordinates and null data are presented, the latter offering the best opportunity to relate the fitting procedure to data obtainable by astronomical observations. (author)

  1. Body size, performance and fitness in galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-07-01

    Complex organismal traits such as body size are influenced by innumerable selective pressures, making the prediction of evolutionary trajectories for those traits difficult. A potentially powerful way to predict fitness in natural systems is to study the composite response of individuals in terms of performance measures, such as foraging or reproductive performance. Once key performance measures are identified in this top-down approach, we can determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and gain predictive power over long-term evolutionary processes. Here we use marine iguanas as a model system where body size differs by more than one order of magnitude between island populations. We identified foraging efficiency as the main performance measure that constrains body size. Mechanistically, foraging performance is determined by food pasture height and the thermal environment, influencing intake and digestion. Stress hormones may be a flexible way of influencing an individual's response to low-food situations that may be caused by high population density, famines, or anthropogenic disturbances like oil spills. Reproductive performance, on the other hand, increases with body size and is mediated by higher survival of larger hatchlings from larger females and increased mating success of larger males. Reproductive performance of males may be adjusted via plastic hormonal feedback mechanisms that allow individuals to assess their social rank annually within the current population size structure. When integrated, these data suggest that reproductive performance favors increased body size (influenced by reproductive hormones), with an overall limit imposed by foraging performance (influenced by stress hormones). Based on our mechanistic understanding of individual performances we predicted an evolutionary increase in maximum body size caused by global warming trends. We support this prediction using specimens collected during 1905. We also show in a common

  2. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the under......The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified...

  3. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affecting the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  4. Veterinary management of snake reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Scott J

    2002-09-01

    The reptile veterinarian should approach the breeder with a comprehensive plan involving a review of proper husbandry, nutrition, record keeping, and a thorough prebreeding evaluation of the snakes. In addition, an evaluation of the reproductive strategy, assistance with confirming and monitoring gestation, and a review of potential reproductive complications will help to prepare the snake owner for a successful breeding season.

  5. Modeling reproductive decisions with simple heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Todd

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Many of the reproductive decisions that humans make happen without much planning or forethought, arising instead through the use of simple choice rules or heuristics that involve relatively little information and processing. Nonetheless, these heuristic-guided decisions are typically beneficial, owing to humans' ecological rationality - the evolved fit between our constrained decision mechanisms and the adaptive problems we face. OBJECTIVE This paper reviews research on the ecological rationality of human decision making in the domain of reproduction, showing how fertility-related decisions are commonly made using various simple heuristics matched to the structure of the environment in which they are applied, rather than being made with information-hungry mechanisms based on optimization or rational economic choice. METHODS First, heuristics for sequential mate search are covered; these heuristics determine when to stop the process of mate search by deciding that a good-enough mate who is also mutually interested has been found, using a process of aspiration-level setting and assessing. These models are tested via computer simulation and comparison to demographic age-at-first-marriage data. Next, a heuristic process of feature-based mate comparison and choice is discussed, in which mate choices are determined by a simple process of feature-matching with relaxing standards over time. Parental investment heuristics used to divide resources among offspring are summarized. Finally, methods for testing the use of such mate choice heuristics in a specific population over time are then described.

  6. Micro-educational reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the persistence of educational inequality in advanced industrialized societies with expanding and differentiated education systems. Using Denmark as a case, we investigate changes in immobility patterns for cohorts born 1960–1981 and develop a new micro-educational classificat...... forms of reproduction. In addition, the micro-educational approach far better explains the immobility of sons than it explains that of daughters, revealing important gender differences in the immobility patterns for sons and daughters......., in particular for sons. We also find great variation in immobility for specific micro-educations within the university level. Studies of educational immobility would therefore benefit from paying attention to micro-educational classifications, because they capture patterns of multidimensional, disaggregated...

  7. Reproduction or opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard; Karen, David; Nielsen, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    introduced and, as of 2015, SportsClasses were available for talented athletes in Grades 7-9 in designated public schools. The SportsClasses attempt to balance collaboration between two different organizations: Danish public schools and sports clubs. The sports clubs’ main purpose is to develop talented...... youth who can compete nationally and internationally, while the purpose of the Danish schools is to educate all students and enable their versatile – i.e. athletic AND academic - development. To evaluate this program, in 2013, the largest survey of SportsClass students was undertaken (N=1206...... what key experiences and relationships lead students to abandon or sustain their interest in careers related to sports and how this differs for boys and girls. By applying Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and types of capital, we conclude that there are elements of both reproduction...

  8. Agonistic reciprocity is associated with reduced male reproductive success within haremic social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Willis, Madelyne C.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    While individual variation in social behaviour is ubiquitous and causes social groups to differ in structure, how these structural differences affect fitness remains largely unknown. We used social network analysis of replicate bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) harems to identify the reproductive correlates of social network structure. In stable groups, we quantified agonistic behaviour, reproduction and steroid hormones, which can both affect and respond to social/reproductive cues. We identified distinct, optimal social structures associated with different reproductive measures. Male hatching success (HS) was negatively associated with agonistic reciprocity, a network structure that describes whether subordinates ‘reciprocated’ agonism received from dominants. Egg laying was associated with the individual network positions of the male and dominant female. Thus, males face a trade-off between promoting structures that facilitate egg laying versus HS. Whether this reproductive conflict is avoidable remains to be determined. We also identified different social and/or reproductive roles for 11-ketotestosterone, 17β-oestradiol and cortisol, suggesting that specific neuroendocrine mechanisms may underlie connections between network structure and fitness. This is one of the first investigations of the reproductive and neuroendocrine correlates of social behaviour and network structure in replicate, naturalistic social groups and supports network structure as an important target for natural selection. PMID:26156769

  9. Male reproductive health and yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility.

  10. Measured, modeled, and causal conceptions of fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes partial answers to the following questions: in what senses can fitness differences plausibly be considered causes of evolution?What relationships are there between fitness concepts used in empirical research, modeling, and abstract theoretical proposals? How does the relevance of different fitness concepts depend on research questions and methodological constraints? The paper develops a novel taxonomy of fitness concepts, beginning with type fitness (a property of a genotype or phenotype), token fitness (a property of a particular individual), and purely mathematical fitness. Type fitness includes statistical type fitness, which can be measured from population data, and parametric type fitness, which is an underlying property estimated by statistical type fitnesses. Token fitness includes measurable token fitness, which can be measured on an individual, and tendential token fitness, which is assumed to be an underlying property of the individual in its environmental circumstances. Some of the paper's conclusions can be outlined as follows: claims that fitness differences do not cause evolution are reasonable when fitness is treated as statistical type fitness, measurable token fitness, or purely mathematical fitness. Some of the ways in which statistical methods are used in population genetics suggest that what natural selection involves are differences in parametric type fitnesses. Further, it's reasonable to think that differences in parametric type fitness can cause evolution. Tendential token fitnesses, however, are not themselves sufficient for natural selection. Though parametric type fitnesses are typically not directly measurable, they can be modeled with purely mathematical fitnesses and estimated by statistical type fitnesses, which in turn are defined in terms of measurable token fitnesses. The paper clarifies the ways in which fitnesses depend on pragmatic choices made by researchers. PMID:23112804

  11. Comparing Person Organization Fit and Person Job Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ardıç

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been many studies conducted to analyze the effects of person-organization fit (POF and person-job fit (PJF on individual outcomes, little is known about which of these fit associates stronger with individual variables (i.e., intention to quit job, IQJ, and perceived individual performance, PIP. Therefore the purpose of the study is to compare the relationships of PJF and POF with IQJ and PIP. The sample of the study consists of security guards working at a private company's civil aviation safety department. Totally 98 security guards participated to the research. Results indicated that, the relationships of PJF and POF with IQJ and PIP were not significantly different. Consequently the results indicate that POF and PJF associate similarly with critical individual outcomes.

  12. Who benefits from reduced reproduction in parasitized hosts? An experimental test using the Pasteuria ramosa-Daphnia magna system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageroy, Jon H; Grepperud, Eldfrid J; Jensen, Knut Helge

    2011-12-01

    We investigated whether parasites or hosts benefit from reduced reproduction in infected hosts. When parasites castrate their hosts, the regain of host reproduction is necessary for castration to be a host adaptation. When infecting Daphnia magna with Pasteuria ramosa, in a lake water based medium, 49 2% of the castrated females regained reproduction. We investigated the relationship between castration level, and parasite and host fitness proxies to determine the adaptive value of host castration. Hosts which regained reproduction contained less spores and had a higher lifetime reproduction than permanently castrated hosts. We also found a negative correlation between parasite and host lifetime reproduction. For hosts which regained reproduction we found no optimal level of castration associated with lifetime reproduction. These results support the view that host castration only is adaptive to the parasite in this system. In addition, we suggest that permanent castration might not be the norm under natural conditions in this system. Finally, we argue that a reduction in host reproduction is more likely to evolve as a property favouring parasites rather than hosts. To our knowledge this is the only experimental study to investigate the adaptive value of reduced host reproduction when castrated hosts can regain reproduction.

  13. Hamilton's inclusive fitness maintains heritable altruism polymorphism through rb = c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changcao; Lu, Xin

    2018-02-20

    How can altruism evolve or be maintained in a selfish world? Hamilton's rule shows that the former process will occur when rb > c -the benefits to the recipients of an altruistic act b , weighted by the relatedness between the social partners r , exceed the costs to the altruists c -drives altruistic genotypes spreading against nonaltruistic ones. From this rule, we infer that altruistic genotypes will persist in a population by forming a stable heritable polymorphism with nonaltruistic genotypes if rb = c makes inclusive fitness of the two morphs equal. We test this prediction using the data of 12 years of study on a cooperatively breeding bird, the Tibetan ground tit Pseudopodoces humilis , where helping is performed by males only and kin-directed. Individual variation in ever acting as a helper was heritable ( h 2 = 0.47), and the resultant altruism polymorphism remained stable as indicated by low-level annual fluctuation of the percentage of helpers among all adult males (24-28%). Helpers' indirect fitness gains from increased lifetime reproductive success of related breeders statistically fully compensated for their lifetime direct fitness losses, suggesting that rb = c holds. While our work provides a fundamental support for Hamilton's idea, it highlights the equivalent inclusive fitness returns to altruists and nonaltruists mediated by rb = c as a theoretically and realistically important mechanism to maintain social polymorphism.

  14. The FitTrack Index as fitness indicator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dina Christina Janse van Rensburg

    d Institute for Sports Research, Faculty of Humanities, University of Pretoria, South Africa e Institute for Food ... The American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for health/fitness .... It is important to stress that the focus of this study was not.

  15. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary “forensic endocrine” analysis of events relevant to our specialty.

  16. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  17. Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Porzecanski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management (AM promises to improve our ability to cope with the inherent uncertainties of managing complex dynamic systems such as watersheds. However, despite the increasing adherence and attempts at implementation, the AM approach is rarely successful in practice. A one-size-fits-all AM strategy fails because some watersheds are better positioned at the outset to succeed at AM than others. We introduce a diagnostic tool called the Index of Management Condition (IMC and apply it to twelve diverse watersheds in order to determine their AM "fitness"; that is, the degree to which favorable adaptive management conditions are in place in a watershed.

  18. Physical Work Demands and Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Korshøj

    . The effects were evaluated with objective physiological or diurnal data in an intention-to-treat analysis using multi-adjusted mixed models. The results indicated that the intervention led to several improvements in risk factors for cardiovascular disease, e.g. enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness, reduced...... exposed to high relative aerobic workloads obtained more pronounced increases of resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, an unaltered cardiorespiratory fitness and a reduced sleeping heart rate. The enhanced resting and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure may be explained as a potential...

  19. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (pfit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23....... Researchers should be aware of the amount of noise in indirect tests that estimate aerobic fitness....

  20. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  1. Fitness costs linked to dinitroaniline resistance mutation in Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, H; Picard, J C; Wang, T

    2011-07-01

    A mutant Thr-239-Ileu at the α2-tubulin gene was found to confer resistance to dinitroanilines, a family of mitosis-disrupting herbicides. However, mutations affecting microtubule polymerization and cell division are expected to impact growth and reproduction, that is, the fitness of a resistant weed or the yield of a tolerant crop, although it has not been demonstrated yet. This study was designed to test this hypothesis for the growth and reproduction of near-isogenic resistant and susceptible materials that were created in F(2) and F(3) generations after a Setaria viridis x S. italica cross. Differential growth was noticeable at the very onset of seedling growth. The homozygous resistant plants, grown both in a greenhouse cabinet and in the field, were smaller and had lower 1000-grain weight and therefore a lower yield. This fitness penalty is certainly due to modified cell division kinetics. Although the presence of the mutant allele accounted for 20% yield losses, there were also measurable benefits of dinitroaniline resistance, and these benefits are discussed.

  2. Introduction: Obesity and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, David R

    2017-04-01

    Women bear the predominant burden of our obesogenic environment, with a higher incidence of obesity than men, more impact on their fertility and success with treatment, and significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this series, the causes, consequences, and solutions regarding the obesity pandemic, the mechanisms of the effect of obesity on the female and male, the epigenetic consequences of male obesity, the marked effects on perinatal outcomes, and the effects of weight loss before conception and during pregnancy are explored. Lifestyle modifications, in particular a healthy diet and exercise during the 3-6 months before conception and during treatment, should result in better outcomes than requiring weight loss before fertility treatments. Such fundamental changes toward a healthier lifestyle will achieve steady and sustainable weight loss and long-term benefits for general health. The role of bariatric surgery before pregnancy requires careful consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Disentangling the effects of date, individual, and territory quality on the seasonal decline in fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärt, Tomas; Knape, Jonas; Low, Matthew; Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora

    2017-08-01

    The seasonal timing of reproduction is a major fitness factor in many organisms. Commonly, individual fitness declines with time in the breeding season. We investigated three suggested but rarely tested hypotheses for this seasonal fitness decline: (1) time per se (date hypothesis), (2) late breeders are of lower quality than early ones (individual quality hypothesis), and (3) late breeders are breeding at poorer territories than early breeders (territory quality hypothesis). We used Bayesian variance component analyses to examine reproductive output (breeding success, number fledged, and number of recruits) from repeated observations of female Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and individual territories from a 20-yr population study. The major part of the observed seasonal decline in reproductive output seemed to be driven by date-related effects, whereas female age and territory type (i.e., known indicators of temporary quality) contributed to a smaller degree. Other, persistent effects linked to individual and territory identity did not show any clear patterns on the seasonal decline in reproductive output. To better disentangle the quality effects (persistent and temporary) of individual and territory from effects caused by the deterioration of the environment we suggest a protocol combining experimental manipulation of breeding time with a variance-covariance partitioning method used here. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Stable social relationships between unrelated females increase individual fitness in a cooperative bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina; Strong, Meghan J

    2018-04-11

    Social animals often form long-lasting relationships with fellow group members, usually with close kin. In primates, strong social bonds have been associated with increased longevity, offspring survival and reproductive success. However, little is known about the fitness effects of social bonds between non-kin, especially outside of mammals. In this study, we use long-term field research on a cooperatively breeding bird, the greater ani ( Crotophaga major ), to ask whether adult females benefit by remaining in long-term associations with unrelated, co-breeding females. We find that females that have previously nested together synchronize their reproduction more rapidly than those nesting with unfamiliar partners, which leads to lower competition and higher fledging success. Importantly, although previous experience with a co-breeding female influenced reproductive synchrony, the degree of reproductive synchrony did not influence whether co-breeding females remained together in subsequent years, ruling out the alternate hypothesis that highly synchronized females are simply more likely to remain together. These results indicate that switching groups is costly to females, and that social familiarity improves reproductive coordination. Stable social relationships therefore have significant fitness consequences for cooperatively nesting female birds, suggesting that direct benefits alone may favour the evolution of associations between non-relatives and contribute to long-term group stability. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Reproductive acclimation to increased water temperature in a tropical reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Donelson

    Full Text Available Understanding the capacity of organisms to cope with projected global warming through acclimation and adaptation is critical to predicting their likely future persistence. While recent research has shown that developmental acclimation of metabolic attributes to ocean warming is possible, our understanding of the plasticity of key fitness-associated traits, such as reproductive performance, is lacking. We show that while the reproductive ability of a tropical reef fish is highly sensitive to increases in water temperature, reproductive capacity at +1.5°C above present-day was improved to match fish maintained at present-day temperatures when fish complete their development at the higher temperature. However, reproductive acclimation was not observed in fish reared at +3.0°C warmer than present-day, suggesting limitations to the acclimation possible within one generation. Surprisingly, the improvements seen in reproduction were not predicted by the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance hypothesis. Specifically, pairs reared at +1.5°C, which showed the greatest capacity for reproductive acclimation, exhibited no acclimation of metabolic attributes. Conversely, pairs reared at +3.0°C, which exhibited acclimation in resting metabolic rate, demonstrated little capacity for reproductive acclimation. Our study suggests that understanding the acclimation capacity of reproductive performance will be critically important to predicting the impacts of climate change on biological systems.

  6. Oosorption in response to poor food: complexity in the trade-off between reproduction and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patricia J; Attisano, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Plasticity in reproductive physiology is one avenue by which environmental signals, such as poor quality food, can be coordinated with adaptive responses. Insects have the ability to resorb oocytes that are not oviposited. Oosorption is proposed to be an adaptive mechanism to optimize fitness in hostile environments, recouping resources that might otherwise be lost, and reinvesting them into future reproductive potential. We tested the hypothesis that oosorption is an evolved mechanism by which females can reallocate resources from current reproductive effort to survival and future reproduction, when conditions for reproduction are poor, by examining the reproductive physiology and life-history outcome under poor quality food in populations of the milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus) that have adapted to live on sunflower seed. Females fed a diet of pumpkin seeds, known to be a poor host food, had higher levels of ovarian apoptosis (oosorption), lower reproductive output, but no reduction in life span under poor nutrition, as predicted under the oosorption hypothesis. However, the schedule of reproduction was surprising given the “wait to reproduce” assumption of oosorption as early fecundity was unaffected. PMID:22393481

  7. A role for glucocorticoids in stress-impaired reproduction: beyond the hypothalamus and pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whirledge, Shannon; Cidlowski, John A

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the well-characterized role of the sex steroid receptors in regulating fertility and reproduction, reproductive events are also mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to an individual's environment. Glucocorticoid secretion in response to stress contributes to the well-characterized suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis through central actions in the hypothalamus and pituitary. However, both animal and in vitro studies indicate that other components of the reproductive system are also regulated by glucocorticoids. Furthermore, in the absence of stress, it appears that homeostatic glucocorticoid signaling plays a significant role in reproduction and fertility in all tissues comprising the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Indeed, as central regulators of the immune response, glucocorticoids are uniquely poised to integrate an individual's infectious, inflammatory, stress, nutritional, and metabolic status through glucocorticoid receptor signaling in target tissues. Endocrine signaling between tissues regulating the immune and stress response and those determining reproductive status provides an evolutionary advantage, facilitating the trade-off between reproductive investment and offspring fitness. This review focuses on the actions of glucocorticoids in tissues important for fertility and reproduction, highlighting recent studies that show glucocorticoid signaling plays a significant role throughout the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and characterizing these effects as permissive or inhibitory in terms of facilitating reproductive success.

  8. Physical Fitness: Get Your Body Moving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Fitness: Get Your Body Moving; Exercise; does exercise help quit smoking; exercises after quitting smoking; exercise after smoking; exercise and quitting smoking; exercise and smoking; smoking articles; articles about smoking; articles on smoking; articles about smoking; article on smoking; health articles on smoking; smoking article; benefits of physical activity; benefits for physical activity; benefit of physical activity; benefits to physical activity; daily physical activities; daily physical activity; healthy physical activities; healthy physical activity; health activities; activity for health; exercise physical activity and health; health activities; health activities for kids; health and fitness activities; health benefits for physical activity; health benefits from physical activity; health benefits of physical activity; health benefits physical activity; health promotion activities; physical exercise; exercise and physical activity; exercise and physical health; exercise for physical fitness; health benefits of physical fitness; how to do physical exercise; physical activity and exercise; physical activity exercise; physical health; physical health and fitness; physical health and wellness; physical health benefits; physical Health fitness; what are the benefits of physical fitness; physical fitness; about physical fitness; benefits of physical fitness; how to improve physical fitness; physical fitness; physical fitness article; fitness; fitness article; fitness articles; fitness plans; health and fitness; exercise; benefits of regular exercise on health; exercise plan; exercise tips; routine; best work out routine for overweight women

  9. Bodies of Knowledge in Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    -economic concerns about fulfilling desired fertility rates, maintaining high levels of human capital, and supporting fiscal and pension systems. This article investigates professionals addressing declining fertility through assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including doctors, demographers and economists...

  10. Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Romundstad, Liv Bente

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modification controls gene activity without changes in the DNA sequence. The genome undergoes several phases of epigenetic programming during gametogenesis and early embryo development coinciding with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatments. Imprinting disorders have been...

  11. EDITORIAL REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AWARENESS AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-07-01

    Jul 1, 2003 ... abuse and lack of access to reproductive health services. ... more than 10% of all births are to women 15 to 19 years of age(1). The high ... From a human rights ... Indian adolescents, other contextual considerations are.

  12. Sports Potentials for Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This report, one of a series on research into specific physical activities and their efficacy in improving and maintaining physical fitness, examines sport participation and the potential it has for developing muscular strength, muscular endurance, and circulatory-respiratory endurance. The activities consist primarily of the following twelve…

  13. Civilian Fitness: A Readiness Enabler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-24

    bonus to make working out convenient and facilitate work / life balance . This was secondary to the hope that a fitness program would produce healthier...workforce; and 3) become an employer of choice and promote work life balance .88 34 Strategic plans and supporting objectives of the Army Installation

  14. Hotels Make Room for Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Hotels, in hopes of gaining a competitive edge, are offering workout rooms, exercise equipment, fitness trails, and jogging tracks, but no standards have been set for safety of the facilities or staff preparedness in exercise screening, equipment use, injury prevention, or first aid. (MT)

  15. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  16. In a Peak Fitness Condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    managerial efforts with regard to Danish elite sports? The analysis finds the Danish elite sports organization, Team Danmark, well prepared and fit for the future challenges. Still, though, areas such as talent identification and development and division of roles and responsibilities, are in need...

  17. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbot, P.; Wrangham, R.; Abe, J.

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However...

  18. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  19. Reciprocal sign epistasis between frequently experimentally evolved adaptive mutations causes a rugged fitness landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kvitek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The fitness landscape captures the relationship between genotype and evolutionary fitness and is a pervasive metaphor used to describe the possible evolutionary trajectories of adaptation. However, little is known about the actual shape of fitness landscapes, including whether valleys of low fitness create local fitness optima, acting as barriers to adaptive change. Here we provide evidence of a rugged molecular fitness landscape arising during an evolution experiment in an asexual population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identify the mutations that arose during the evolution using whole-genome sequencing and use competitive fitness assays to describe the mutations individually responsible for adaptation. In addition, we find that a fitness valley between two adaptive mutations in the genes MTH1 and HXT6/HXT7 is caused by reciprocal sign epistasis, where the fitness cost of the double mutant prohibits the two mutations from being selected in the same genetic background. The constraint enforced by reciprocal sign epistasis causes the mutations to remain mutually exclusive during the experiment, even though adaptive mutations in these two genes occur several times in independent lineages during the experiment. Our results show that epistasis plays a key role during adaptation and that inter-genic interactions can act as barriers between adaptive solutions. These results also provide a new interpretation on the classic Dobzhansky-Muller model of reproductive isolation and display some surprising parallels with mutations in genes often associated with tumors.

  20. Reproduction Symposium: developmental programming of reproductive and metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, V; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2014-08-01

    Inappropriate programming of the reproductive system by developmental exposure to excess steroid hormones is of concern. Sheep are well suited for investigating developmental origin of reproductive and metabolic disorders. The developmental time line of female sheep (approximately 5 mo gestation and approximately 7 mo to puberty) is ideal for conducting sequential studies of the progression of metabolic and/or reproductive disruption from the developmental insult to manifestation of adult consequences. Major benefits of using sheep include knowledge of established critical periods to target adult defects, a rich understanding of reproductive neuroendocrine regulation, availability of noninvasive approaches to monitor follicular dynamics, established surgical approaches to obtain hypophyseal portal blood for measurement of hypothalamic hormones, and the ability to perform studies in natural setting thereby keeping behavioral interactions intact. Of importance is the ability to chronically instrument fetus and mother for determining early endocrine perturbations. Prenatal exposure of the female to excess testosterone (T) leads to an array of adult reproductive disorders that include LH excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, multifollicular ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction culminating in early reproductive failure. At the neuroendocrine level, all 3 feedback systems are compromised. At the pituitary level, gonadotrope (LH secretion) sensitivity to GnRH is increased. Multifollicular ovarian morphology stems from persistence of follicles as well as enhanced follicular recruitment. These defects culminate in progressive loss of cyclicity and reduced fecundity. Prenatal T excess also leads to fetal growth retardation, an early marker of adult reproductive and metabolic diseases, insulin resistance, hypertension, and behavioral deficits. Collectively, the reproductive and metabolic deficits of prenatal T-treated sheep provide proof of

  1. Radioligand assay in reproductive biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenman, S.G.; Sherman, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Radioligand assays have been developed for the principal reproductive steroids and peptide hormones. Specific binding reagents have included antibodies, plasma binders, and intracellular receptors. In each assay, problems of specificity, sensitivity, and nonspecific inhibitors were encountered. Many features of the endocrine physiology in childhood, during puberty, and in adulthood have been characterized. Hormonal evaluations of endocrine disorders of reproduction are characterized on the basis of their characteristic pathophysiologic alterations. (U.S.)

  2. Reproductive autonomy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Hall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive autonomy (RA has been challenged by the availability of genetic information, disability and the ethics of selective reproduction. Utilitarian and rights-based approaches, as well as procreative beneficence (PB fail to provide compelling reasons for infringing RA, and may even be likened to dangerous eugenics. Parents are not morally obliged to prevent the birth of a disabled child. Society should rather adopt inclusivity, recognising and providing persons with disabilities opportunities for capability and worthwhile lives.

  3. Occupational reproductive epidemiology: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Eve; Doyle, Pat

    1993-01-01

    The authors review the current state of knowledge about possible adverse effects of hazardous paternal workplace exposures on human reproduction is scant. The methodology for studying possible association between occupational exposures and adverse reproductive events is not well developed. More detailed laboratory and epidemiological research is clearly required, and better collaboration between these two disciplines is needed. Associations suggested in the course of epidemiological research need to be tested in the laboratory, and vice versa. (author)

  4. ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-20

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.

  5. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Keidser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  6. Zika virus and assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Christina N; Bano, Rashda; Washington Cross, Chantel I; Segars, James H

    2017-06-01

    Due to the fact that the Zika virus can be sexually transmitted, there is a potential risk for disease transmission at several stages of assisted reproduction. Such a possibility poses a serious challenge to couples pursing fertility with reproductive technologies. Here, we discuss what is known regarding Zika virus infection with respect to sexual transmission and correlate this knowledge with recent recommendations in the realm of infertility treatment. Zika virus can be transmitted from infected men and women through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse. Zika virus RNA has been detected in blood, semen, cervical mucus and vaginal fluid. Currently, the Centers for Disease Control recommends that infected men wait 6 months, and infected women 8 weeks, prior to attempting pregnancy. Reproductive tissue donors should wait 6 months before giving a specimen. Further study of Zika virus transmission in different reproductive tissues and establishment of validated testing methods for viral disease transmissibility are urgently needed. Reproductive technologists need to establish screening, testing and laboratory protocols aimed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission during assisted reproduction.

  7. 32 CFR 310.20 - Reproduction fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction fees. 310.20 Section 310.20... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Access by Individuals § 310.20 Reproduction fees. (a) Assessing fees. (1) Charge the individual only the direct cost of reproduction. (2) Do not charge reproduction fees if...

  8. Ethics in reproductive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J C; Evans, M I

    1992-12-01

    Ethics in reproductive genetics comprise descriptive ethics and normative ethics. Ethical problems before prenatal diagnosis involve genetic counseling and informed consent for the choice patients must make. Prenatal diagnosis using amniocentesis is controversial. An international survey of geneticists showed that 25% would do prenatal diagnosis for sex selection, and 17% would refer the couple elsewhere. Hungary (60%), India (37%), the US (34%), Canada (30%), Greece (29%), and Sweden (28%) would do prenatal diagnosis. The statistical incidence of positive findings after prenatal diagnosis does not exceed 4% of all cases when most couples choose abortion. Respect for parental choice and for nondirective counseling was supported in responses to 3 cases in the international survey that also had disclosure dilemmas included with abortion choices. 84% of respondents would be nondirective for XYY and 88% for XO. In India, Hungary, Turkey, and Norway, 46%, 40%, 40%, and 33%, respectively, would advise aborting an XO (Turner) fetus. A survey of 737 genetics and obstetricians and ethicists and clergy showed acceptability of abortion in singleton pregnancies and in twins associated strongly with the trimester of pregnancy, indication for selective termination, and fetal number. Prior group review of risks and benefits of experimental fetal therapy, case selection for experimental fetal therapy, the optimal informed-consent process for fetal therapy, twin pregnancies, refusal of proven fetal therapy, the lack of federal support for research in fetal diagnosis (preimplantation embryo diagnosis) and therapy, and sources of a moral obligation are also addressed. The Belmont Report on the ethics of biomedical research in the US proposed ethical principles to guide research with human subjects including the fetus: respect for parsons, beneficence, and justice.

  9. Reproductive ecology of lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys typically spawn in riffle habitats during the spring. Spawning activity and diel (i.e., during daylight and at night) behavioral patterns are initiated when spring water temperatures increase to levels that coincide with optimal embryologic development. Nests are constructed in gravel substrate using the oral disc to move stones and the tail to fan sediment out of the nest. Spawning habitat used by individual species is generally a function of adult size, where small-bodied species construct nests in shallower water with slower flow and smaller gravel than large-bodied species. The mating system of lampreys is primarily polygynandrous (i.e., where multiple males mate with multiple females). Lamprey species with adult total length less than 30 cm generally spawn communally, where a nest may contain 20 or more individuals of both sexes. Lamprey species with adult sizes greater than 35 cm generally spawn in groups of two to four. Operational sex ratios of lampreys are highly variable across species, populations, and time, but are generally male biased. The act of spawning typically starts with the male attaching with his oral disc to the back of the female’s head; the male and female then entwine and simultaneously release gametes. However, alternative mating behaviors (e.g., release of gametes without paired courtship and sneaker males) have been observed. Future research should determine how multiple modalities of communication among lampreys (including mating pheromones) are integrated to inform species recognition and mate choice. Such research could inform both sea lamprey control strategies and provide insight into possible evolution of reproductive isolation mechanisms between paired lamprey species in sympatry.

  10. Correlated genetic effects on reproduction define a domestication syndrome in a forest tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-del-Blanco, Luis; Alía, Ricardo; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Sampedro, Luis; Lario, Francisco; Climent, José

    2015-01-01

    Compared to natural selection, domestication implies a dramatic change in traits linked to fitness. A number of traits conferring fitness in the wild might be detrimental under domestication, and domesticated species typically differ from their ancestors in a set of traits known as the domestication syndrome. Specifically, trade-offs between growth and reproduction are well established across the tree of life. According to allocation theory, selection for growth rate is expected to indirectly alter life-history reproductive traits, diverting resources from reproduction to growth. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the genetic change and correlated responses of reproductive traits as a result of selection for timber yield in the tree Pinus pinaster. Phenotypic selection was carried out in a natural population, and progenies from selected trees were compared with those of control trees in a common garden experiment. According to expectations, we detected a genetic change in important life-history traits due to selection. Specifically, threshold sizes for reproduction were much higher and reproductive investment relative to size significantly lower in the selected progenies just after a single artificial selection event. Our study helps to define the domestication syndrome in exploited forest trees and shows that changes affecting developmental pathways are relevant in domestication processes of long-lived plants. PMID:25926884

  11. The most common diet results in low reproduction in a generalist seabird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, S.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; van der Meer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary specialization has been described across a wide range of taxa in the animal kingdom. Fitness consequences are, however, not well documented. We examined the reproductive consequences of different dietary specializations in the herring gull Larus argentatus, an omnivorous seabird, using an

  12. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J; Tropf, Felix C; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F; Chasman, Daniel I; Nolte, Ilja M; Tragante, Vinicius; van der Laan, Sander W; Perry, John R B; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F; McMahon, George; Meddens, S Fleur W; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A; Monnereau, Claire; van der Most, Peter J; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buring, Julie E; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M; de Geus, Eco J C; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, Denis A; Faul, Jessica D; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J F; de Haan, Hugoline G; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B; Heath, Andrew C; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; de Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Ring, Susan M; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D; Starr, John M; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tung, Joyce Y; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J; Weir, David R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F; Zondervan, Krina T; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F; Lee, James J; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D; den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the

  13. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; De Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Tragante, Vinicius; Van Der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R B; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S. Fleur W; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; Van Der Most, Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; De Geus, Eco J C; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J F; De Haan, Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G.; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrikke; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; De Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Roy Thurik, A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior - age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) - has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the

  14. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; Vlaming, de Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Tragante, Vinicius; Laan, van der Sander W.; Perry, John R.B.; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S.F.W.; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; Most, van der Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Duijn, van Cornelia M.; Geus, de Eco J.C.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; Haan, de Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; Bianca, la Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G.; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; Mutsert, de Renée; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A.R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Hoed, den Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior—age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)—has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the

  15. 63 a review of reproduction and gamete management in the african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-02-16

    Feb 16, 2005 ... gariepinus show altrical or continuum of alternative reproductive style (Bruton, 1989). The fish is an egg scatterer which awaits suitable environmental condition before ... associated the increased number of granules and globules to ..... produce fingerlings with decreased fitness noticeable after only a few ...

  16. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meret Huber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg. decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha, and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground.

  17. A Latex Metabolite Benefits Plant Fitness under Root Herbivore Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Meret; Epping, Janina; Schulze Gronover, Christian; Fricke, Julia; Aziz, Zohra; Brillatz, Théo; Swyers, Michael; Köllner, Tobias G; Vogel, Heiko; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Triebwasser-Freese, Daniella; Robert, Christelle A M; Verhoeven, Koen; Preite, Veronica; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce large amounts of secondary metabolites in their shoots and roots and store them in specialized secretory structures. Although secondary metabolites and their secretory structures are commonly assumed to have a defensive function, evidence that they benefit plant fitness under herbivore attack is scarce, especially below ground. Here, we tested whether latex secondary metabolites produced by the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) decrease the performance of its major native insect root herbivore, the larvae of the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha), and benefit plant vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Across 17 T. officinale genotypes screened by gas and liquid chromatography, latex concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) were negatively associated with M. melolontha larval growth. Adding purified TA-G to artificial diet at ecologically relevant concentrations reduced larval feeding. Silencing the germacrene A synthase ToGAS1, an enzyme that was identified to catalyze the first committed step of TA-G biosynthesis, resulted in a 90% reduction of TA-G levels and a pronounced increase in M. melolontha feeding. Transgenic, TA-G-deficient lines were preferred by M. melolontha and suffered three times more root biomass reduction than control lines. In a common garden experiment involving over 2,000 T. officinale individuals belonging to 17 different genotypes, high TA-G concentrations were associated with the maintenance of high vegetative and reproductive fitness under M. melolontha attack. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a latex secondary metabolite benefits plants under herbivore attack, a result that provides a mechanistic framework for root herbivore driven natural selection and evolution of plant defenses below ground.

  18. The ecology and evolutionary endocrinology of reproduction in the human female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J

    2009-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology (HRE) is the study of the mechanisms that link variation in reproductive traits with variation in local habitats. Empirical and theoretical contributions from biological anthropology, physiology, and demography have established the foundation necessary for developing a comprehensive understanding, grounded in life history theory (LHT), of temporal, individual, and populational variation in women's reproductive functioning. LHT posits that natural selection leads to the evolution of mechanisms that tend to allocate resources to the competing demands of growth, reproduction, and survival such that fitness is locally maximized. (That is, among alternative allocation patterns exhibited in a population, those having the highest inclusive fitness will become more common over generational time.) Hence, strategic modulation of reproductive effort is potentially adaptive because investment in a new conception may risk one's own survival, future reproductive opportunities, and/or current offspring survival. The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is the principal neuroendocrine pathway by which the human female modulates reproductive functioning according to the changing conditions in her habitat. Adjustments of reproductive investment in a potential conception are manifested in temporal and individual variation in ovarian cycle length, ovulation, hormone levels, and the probability of conception. Understanding the extent and causes of adaptive and non-adaptive variation in ovarian functioning is fundamental to ascertaining the proximate and remote determinants of human reproductive patterns. In this review I consider what is known and what still needs to be learned of the ecology of women's reproductive biology, beginning with a discussion of the principal explanatory frameworks in HRE and the biometry of ovarian functioning. Turning next to empirical studies, it is evident that marked variation between cycles, women, and populations is the

  19. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse and...

  20. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  1. 14 CFR 31.43 - Fitting factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factor. 31.43 Section 31.43... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.43 Fitting factor. (a) A fitting factor of at least... structure. This factor applies to all parts of the fitting, the means of attachment, and the bearing on the...

  2. Leptin and reproduction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, Stergios; Chan, Jean L; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2002-03-01

    To review recent advances in understanding the role of leptin in the physiology and pathophysiology of reproduction, with a focus on relevant clinical situations. A MEDLINE computer search was performed to identify relevant articles. Leptin, an adipocyte hormone important in regulating energy homeostasis, interacts with the reproductive axis at multiple sites, with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and inhibitory actions at the gonads. More recently, leptin has been shown to play a role in other target reproductive organs, such as the endometrium, placenta, and mammary gland, with corresponding influences on important physiologic processes such as menstruation, pregnancy, and lactation. As a marker of whether nutritional stores are adequate, leptin may act in concert with gonadotropins and the growth hormone axis to initiate the complex process of puberty. Conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise-induced amenorrhea, and functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, are associated with low serum leptin levels; and conditions with excess energy stores or metabolic disturbances, such as obesity and polycystic ovarian syndrome, often have elevated serum or follicular fluid leptin levels, raising the possibility that relative leptin deficiency or resistance may be at least partly responsible for the reproductive abnormalities that occur with these conditions. Leptin may act as the critical link between adipose tissue and the reproductive system, indicating whether adequate energy reserves are present for normal reproductive function. Future interventional studies involving leptin administration are expected to further clarify this role of leptin and may provide new therapeutic options for the reproductive dysfunction associated with states of relative leptin deficiency or resistance.

  3. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869 to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir, coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reproductive strategy was generally followed during the stem phase of the domestic cycle, when one or both grandparents were present, especially when the family head was in the senior generation. By contrast, a son-first strategy was favored when childbearing began in the conjugal phase of the cycle. This suggests grandparental influence on the junior couple's reproductive decisions in favor of the cultural ideal. I find that the senior couple's decision to marry the heir early or late strongly affects the reproductive strategies followed by him after marriage. I show that when a grandmother is present at the onset of childbearing, especially if she is relatively young, the junior couple ends up with more offspring on average. A controlled analysis of infanticiding behavior is interpreted in terms of conjugal power and coalition formation. It appears that a grandmother gets her way only when she and her son gang up on the daughter-in-law, but such a coalition is likely only when her son dominates the conjugal relationship (which in turn reflects the grandmother's success in binding the son tightly to her emotionally and in delaying his marriage. Otherwise, the grandmother may be shut out from reproductive decision-making by the solidary conjugal coalition.

  4. Fit to Electroweak Precision Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erler, Jens

    2006-01-01

    A brief review of electroweak precision data from LEP, SLC, the Tevatron, and low energies is presented. The global fit to all data including the most recent results on the masses of the top quark and the W boson reinforces the preference for a relatively light Higgs boson. I will also give an outlook on future developments at the Tevatron Run II, CEBAF, the LHC, and the ILC

  5. Back school for fitness treinees

    OpenAIRE

    Líbalová, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    In introductory chapters the work deals with theoretical starting points of exercising in fitness centres. It focuses on anatomical and physiological basis of exercises and neuromuscular imbalances which may be caused by inadequate exertion. In further chapters the work enlightens about the rudiments of sport training, training of strength and model form of a training unit. In final chapters suitable techniques of exercises of individual muscular systems are discussed. Common mistakes done by...

  6. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong

    2016-05-01

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  7. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale,School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-05-05

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  8. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.

    1990-01-01

    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  9. Reproduction in females bufalinas: artificial insemination and assisted reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in females bufalinas has been studied for the detection of estrus. A system that works through radio telemetry has been developed and proposed to replace the daily visual observation to determine the estrous phase with efficiency and precision. The method used is the fixation on the back of the female with a sensor that emits radio waves every time suffer a pressure exerted by the mountain. Waves have been captured by an antenna and sent to a computer system. The knowledge that has been developed on the management and use of reproductive biotechnologies of reproduction in buffalo, have enabled the technicians and breeders evaluate and indicate which procedures can be used successfully, and increase the application of the fixed-time artificial insemination during the year [es

  10. Does possession of assets increase women's participation in reproductive decision-making? Perceptions of Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeje, Joachim C; Oshi, Sarah N; Oshi, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on a population-based, descriptive questionnaire survey, the objective of which was to elicit the perceptions of women in south-eastern Nigeria on whether possession of economic/household assets by women enhanced their capacity to negotiate reproductive issues with their husbands. The findings show that the respondents believed that possession of economic/household assets by women in their communities might not necessarily increase their negotiation power in their reproductive decision-making. Other factors tend to attenuate the effects of women's possession of economic/household assets on their reproductive bargaining power. Notable among these may be social norms that implicitly arrogate control of the assets owned by the conjugal couple to the man, even when they are bought by the women. Planners of reproductive health intervention projects, policy-makers and researchers need to be aware of such sociocultural specific phenomena, which do not fit with widely held international beliefs.

  11. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H

    2016-03-28

    Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.

  12. Reproductive life of Bhoksa women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, S K; Tyagi, D; Sankhyan, A R

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses the reproductive life of 111 ever-married Bhoksa women. The mean age at marriage for women of all ages among Bhoksas, like other tribal populations, is high, unlike the caste populations. The mean ages at first birth of the pooled sample and of the completed fertility cases suggest late and early marriages of the older and younger generations. The maximum number of marriages occur between 15 and 19 years and of first births between 16 and 20 years. Percentage of reproductive wastage is high in both the lower and higher age groups. Young mothers with low birth orders and older mothers with high birth orders display a high frequency of reproductive wastage. Evidently, both birth order and the age of the mother have effects on reproductive wastage. Average number of children ever born (including stillbirth but not abortion or miscarriage) per mother of all ages is the highest among Bhoksas of all the studied ethnic groups of India. The Bhoksa, like caste populations, show a high number of children ever born per mother of completed fertility. Quite a high masculinity in the secondary sex ratio, like other mongoloid population is noticed. The contribution of mortality component to the Total Index of Opportunity for Selection is more than that of the fertility component. Bhoksas conform to the general low range of net reproductive index, which is however greater than unity, suggesting that they are in a growth stage.

  13. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel; Lanske, Beate; Juul, Anders; Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2017-09-15

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus of this review. Current evidence is primarily based on small human association studies and rodent models. This highlights the need for randomized clinical trials, but also functional animal and human in vitro studies, and larger, prospective cohort studies are warranted. Given the high number of men and women suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unisexual reproduction in Huntiella moniliformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A M; Godlonton, T; van der Nest, M A; Wilken, P M; Wingfield, M J; Wingfield, B D

    2015-07-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is controlled by genes present at the mating type (MAT) locus, which typically harbors transcription factors that influence the expression of many sex-related genes. The MAT locus exists as two alternative idiomorphs in ascomycetous fungi and sexual reproduction is initiated when genes from both idiomorphs are expressed. Thus, the gene content of this locus determines whether a fungus is heterothallic (self-sterile) or homothallic (self-fertile). Recently, a unique sub-class of homothallism has been described in fungi, where individuals possessing a single MAT idiomorph can reproduce sexually in the absence of a partner. Using various mycological, molecular and bioinformatic techniques, we investigated the sexual strategies and characterized the MAT loci in two tree wound-infecting fungi, Huntiella moniliformis and Huntiella omanensis. H. omanensis was shown to exhibit a typically heterothallic sexual reproductive cycle, with isolates possessing either the MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 idiomorph. This was in contrast to the homothallism via unisexual reproduction that was shown in H. moniliformis, where only the MAT1-2-1 gene was present in sexually reproducing cultures. While the evolutionary benefit and mechanisms underpinning a unisexual mating strategy remain unknown, it could have evolved to minimize the costs, while retaining the benefits, of normal sexual reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Lopez, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  17. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349

  18. Statistical aspects of evolution under natural selection, with implications for the advantage of sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Daniel J M

    2017-10-27

    The prevalence of sexual reproduction remains mysterious, as it poses clear evolutionary drawbacks compared to reproducing asexually. Several possible explanations exist, with one of the most likely being that finite population size causes linkage disequilibria to randomly generate and impede the progress of natural selection, and that these are eroded by recombination via sexual reproduction. Previous investigations have either analysed this phenomenon in detail for small numbers of loci, or performed population simulations for many loci. Here we present a quantitative genetic model for fitness, based on the Price Equation, in order to examine the theoretical consequences of randomly generated linkage disequilibria when there are many loci. In addition, most previous work has been concerned with the long-term consequences of deleterious linkage disequilibria for population fitness. The expected change in mean fitness between consecutive generations, a measure of short-term evolutionary success, is shown under random environmental influences to be related to the autocovariance in mean fitness between the generations, capturing the effects of stochastic forces such as genetic drift. Interaction between genetic drift and natural selection, due to randomly generated linkage disequilibria, is demonstrated to be one possible source of mean fitness autocovariance. This suggests a possible role for sexual reproduction in reducing the negative effects of genetic drift, thereby improving the short-term efficacy of natural selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of sex on the mean and variance of fitness in facultatively sexual rotifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becks, L; Agrawal, A F

    2011-03-01

    The evolution of sex is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. While this topic has been the focus of much theoretical work, there is a serious dearth of empirical data. A simple yet fundamental question is how sex affects the mean and variance in fitness. Despite its importance to the theory, this type of data is available for only a handful of taxa. Here, we report two experiments in which we measure the effect of sex on the mean and variance in fitness in the monogonont rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus. Compared to asexually derived offspring, we find that sexual offspring have lower mean fitness and less genetic variance in fitness. These results indicate that, at least in the laboratory, there are both short- and long-term disadvantages associated with sexual reproduction. We briefly review the other available data and highlight the need for future work. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Diploidy and the selective advantage for sexual reproduction in unicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Maya; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2009-11-01

    This article develops mathematical models describing the evolutionary dynamics of both asexually and sexually reproducing populations of diploid unicellular organisms. The asexual and sexual life cycles are based on the asexual and sexual life cycles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Baker's yeast, which normally reproduces by asexual budding, but switches to sexual reproduction when stressed. The mathematical models consider three reproduction pathways: (1) Asexual reproduction, (2) self-fertilization, and (3) sexual reproduction. We also consider two forms of genome organization. In the first case, we assume that the genome consists of two multi-gene chromosomes, whereas in the second case, we consider the opposite extreme and assume that each gene defines a separate chromosome, which we call the multi-chromosome genome. These two cases are considered to explore the role that recombination has on the mutation-selection balance and the selective advantage of the various reproduction strategies. We assume that the purpose of diploidy is to provide redundancy, so that damage to a gene may be repaired using the other, presumably undamaged copy (a process known as homologous recombination repair). As a result, we assume that the fitness of the organism only depends on the number of homologous gene pairs that contain at least one functional copy of a given gene. If the organism has at least one functional copy of every gene in the genome, we assume a fitness of 1. In general, if the organism has l homologous pairs that lack a functional copy of the given gene, then the fitness of the organism is kappa(l). The kappa(l) are assumed to be monotonically decreasing, so that kappa(0) = 1 > kappa(1) > kappa(2) > cdots, three dots, centered > kappa(infinity) = 0. For nearly all of the reproduction strategies we consider, we find, in the limit of large N, that the mean fitness at mutation-selection balance is max{2e(-mu) - 1,0} where N is the number of genes in the haploid set of