WorldWideScience

Sample records for tryonii bailey hyperaccumulator

  1. L. H. Bailey's citations to Gregor Mendel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoberts, M H

    1984-01-01

    L. H. Bailey cited Mendel's 1865 and 1869 papers in the bibliography that accompanied his 1892 paper, Cross-Breeding and Hybridizing, and Mendel is mentioned once in the 1895 edition of Bailey's "Plant-Breeding." Bailey claimed to have copied his 1892 references to Mendel from Focke. It seems, however, that while he may have first encountered references to Mendel's work in Focke, he actually copied them from the Royal Society "Catalogue of Scientific Papers." Bailey also saw a reference to Mendel's 1865 paper in Jackson's "Guide to the Literature of Botany." Bailey's 1895 mention of Mendel occurs in a passage he translated from Focke's "Die Pflanzen-Mischlinge."

  2. The civilizing process in London's Old Bailey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenstein, Sara; Hitchcock, Tim; DeDeo, Simon

    2014-07-01

    The jury trial is a critical point where the state and its citizens come together to define the limits of acceptable behavior. Here we present a large-scale quantitative analysis of trial transcripts from the Old Bailey that reveal a major transition in the nature of this defining moment. By coarse-graining the spoken word testimony into synonym sets and dividing the trials based on indictment, we demonstrate the emergence of semantically distinct violent and nonviolent trial genres. We show that although in the late 18th century the semantic content of trials for violent offenses is functionally indistinguishable from that for nonviolent ones, a long-term, secular trend drives the system toward increasingly clear distinctions between violent and nonviolent acts. We separate this process into the shifting patterns that drive it, determine the relative effects of bureaucratic change and broader cultural shifts, and identify the synonym sets most responsible for the eventual genre distinguishability. This work provides a new window onto the cultural and institutional changes that accompany the monopolization of violence by the state, described in qualitative historical analysis as the civilizing process.

  3. Phytoremediation and Potency of Hyperaccumulator Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is defined as cleaning up of pollutants mediated primarily by plants. It is an emerging technology for environmental remediation that offers a low-cost technique suitable for use against different types of contaminants in a variety of media. Phytoremediation is potentially applicable to a diversity of substances, involving hyperaccumulators heavy metals and radionuclides. It is also applicable to other inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, various salts and nutrients, and a variety of organic contaminants, including explosives, petroleum hydrocarbons and pesticides. At least there are one taxon of plant as hyperaccumulator for Cd, 28 taxa for Co, 37 taxa for Cu, 9 taxa for Mg, 317 taxa for Ni, and 11 taxa for Zn. Extensive progress were done in characterizing physiology of plants which hyperaccumulate or hypertolerate metals. Hypertolerance is fundamental to hyperaccumulator, and high rates of uptake and translocation are observed in hyperaccumulator plants. Hyperaccumulator plants and agronomic technology were undertaken to improve the annual rate of phytoextraction and to allow recycling of soil toxic metals accumulated in plant biomass. These techniques are very likely to support commercial environmental remediation. Most phytoremediation systems are still in development, or in the stage of plant breeding to improve the cultivars for field use. However, application for commercial purposes has already been initiated. Many opportunities have also been identified for research and development to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation

  4. A comparison of lead accumulation and tolerance among heavy metal hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtadi, A.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to compare lead accumulation and tolerance among heavy metal hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes. Methods: To this purpose, we compared Pb tolerance and accumulation in hydroponics among calamine and non-calamine populations of Silene

  5. Supervised Classification: The Naive Beyesian Returns to the Old Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilja Hulden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A few years back, William Turkel wrote a series of blog posts called A Naive Bayesian in the Old Bailey, which showed how one could use machine learning to extract interesting documents out of a digital archive. This tutorial is a kind of an update on that blog essay, with roughly the same data but a slightly different version of the machine learner. The idea is to show why machine learning methods are of interest to historians, as well as to present a step-by-step implementation of a supervised machine learner. This learner is then applied to the Old Bailey digital archive, which contains several centuries’ worth of transcripts of trials held at the Old Bailey in London. We will be using Python for the implementation.

  6. Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fones

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm. Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose-response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead-zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants.

  7. Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator grey poplar (Populus × canescens) was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method. Young Populus × canescens were grown and hydroponic experiments were conducted under four Cd2+ concentrations (10, 30, 50, and 70 μM) ...

  8. Selenium hyperaccumulation reduces plant arthropod loads in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeas, Miriam L; Klamper, Erin M; Bennett, Lindsay E; Freeman, John L; Kondratieff, Boris C; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2008-01-01

    The elemental defense hypothesis proposes that some plants hyperaccumulate toxic elements as a defense mechanism. In this study the effectiveness of selenium (Se) as an arthropod deterrent was investigated under field conditions. Arthropod loads were measured over two growing seasons in Se hyperaccumulator habitats in Colorado, USA, comparing Se hyperaccumulator species (Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata) with nonhyperaccumulators (Camelina microcarpa, Astragalus americanus, Descurainia pinnata, Medicago sativa, and Helianthus pumilus). The Se hyperaccumulating plant species, which contained 1000-14 000 microg Se g(-1) DW, harbored significantly fewer arthropods (c. twofold) and fewer arthropod species (c. 1.5-fold) compared with nonhyperaccumulator species that contained 10-fold lower Se concentrations than their hyperaccumulator hosts. Several arthropod species contained > 100 microg Se g(-1) DW, indicating Se tolerance and perhaps feeding specialization. These results support the elemental defense hypothesis and suggest that invertebrate herbivory may have contributed to the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation.

  9. Roger Bailey takes over as head of CAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Established at the beginning of 1983, the CERN Accelerator School has developed to include two courses per year offered to hundreds of students from all over the world. Following the successful management of Daniel Brandt, Roger Bailey joins the newly formed Office of the Director of Accelerators and Technology (DAT) and becomes the new Head of the CERN Accelerator School (CAS).   Roger Bailey, the new Head of the CERN Accelerator School.  After 8 years of successful growth in popularity for the School, Daniel Brandt has handed on the baton to Roger Bailey. “The success of the CERN Accelerator School has been the result of a fantastic team effort,” says Brandt. “Along with my assistant - initially Suzanne von Wartburg and then Barbara Strasser - I had help from an advisory committee to decide both on the specialist topic and the venue for each workshop, and dedicated programme committees to help find the expert lecturers for the courses. Their support has ...

  10. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Colin F; Freeman, John L; Reynolds, Ray JB; Cappa, Jennifer J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Lindblom, Stormy D; Quinn, Erin K; Bennett, Lindsay E; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth AH

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf pe...

  11. Kunsti lastekodu / Stuart Bailey, Peter Bilak ; intervjueerinud Kristjan Mändmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bailey, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisest disainiajakirjast Dot Dot Dot. Väljaandjate slovakkia disaineri ja tüpograafi Peter Bilaki ja inglise disaineri Stuart Bailey eluloolisi andmeid. Korraldavad õpikoja Eesti Kunstiakadeemias

  12. Hyperaccumulators of metal and metalloid trace elements: facts and fiction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ent, A.; Baker, A.J.M.; Reeves, R.D.; Pollard, A.J.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plants that accumulate metal and metalloid trace elements to extraordinarily high concentrations in their living biomass have inspired much research worldwide during the last decades. Hyperaccumulators have been recorded and experimentally confirmed for elements such as nickel, zinc,

  13. Hyperaccumulation of radioactive isotopes by marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Hirano, Shigeki; Watabe, Teruhisa

    2003-01-01

    Hyperaccumlators are effective indicator organisms for monitoring marine pollution by heavy metals and artificial radionuclides. We found a green algae, Bryopsis maxima that hyperaccumulate a stable and radioactive isotopes such as Sr-90, Tc-99, Ba-138, Re-187, and Ra-226. B. maxima showed high concentration factors for heavy alkali earth metals like Ba and Ra, compared with other marine algae in Japan. Furthermore, this species had the highest concentrations for Tc-99 and Re-187. The accumulation and excretion patterns of Sr-85 and Tc-95m were examined by tracer experiments. The chemical states of Sr and Re in living B. maxima were analyzed by HPLC-ICP/MS, LC/MS, and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis using synchrotron radiation. (author)

  14. The civilizing process in London’s Old Bailey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenstein, Sara; Hitchcock, Tim; DeDeo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The jury trial is a critical point where the state and its citizens come together to define the limits of acceptable behavior. Here we present a large-scale quantitative analysis of trial transcripts from the Old Bailey that reveal a major transition in the nature of this defining moment. By coarse-graining the spoken word testimony into synonym sets and dividing the trials based on indictment, we demonstrate the emergence of semantically distinct violent and nonviolent trial genres. We show that although in the late 18th century the semantic content of trials for violent offenses is functionally indistinguishable from that for nonviolent ones, a long-term, secular trend drives the system toward increasingly clear distinctions between violent and nonviolent acts. We separate this process into the shifting patterns that drive it, determine the relative effects of bureaucratic change and broader cultural shifts, and identify the synonym sets most responsible for the eventual genre distinguishability. This work provides a new window onto the cultural and institutional changes that accompany the monopolization of violence by the state, described in qualitative historical analysis as the civilizing process. PMID:24979792

  15. Kunsti lastekodu / Stuart Bailey, Peter Bil'ak ; interv. Kristjan Mändmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bailey, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisest disainiajakirjast Dot Dot Dot. Väljaandjate slovakkia disaineri ja tüpograafi Peter Bil'aki ja inglise disaineri Stuart Bailey eluloolisi andmeid. Korraldavad õpikoja Eesti Kunstiakadeemias

  16. Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating ferns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nandita [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Ma, Lena Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.ed [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Vu, Joseph C. [Chemistry Research Unit, CMAVE, USDA-ARS, Gainesville, FL 32608-1069 and Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0500 (United States); Raj, Anshita [Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2009-08-15

    This study investigated the effects of arsenic on the in vitro activities of the enzymes (nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) involved in nitrate metabolism in the roots, rhizomes, and fronds of four-month old Pteris vittata (arsenic - hyperaccumulator) and Pteris ensiformis (non-arsenic--hyperaccumulator) plants. The arsenic treatments (0, 150, and 300 muM as sodium arsenate) in hydroponics had adverse effects on the root and frond dry weights, and this effect was more evident in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of arsenate-treated plants were reduced more in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. This effect was accompanied by similar decreases in tissue NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. Therefore, this decrease is interpreted as being indirect, i.e., the consequence of the reduced NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake and translocation in the plants. The study shows the difference in the tolerance level of the two Pteris species with varying sensitivity to arsenic. - Arsenic reduced the activity of nitrate and nitrite reductase more in Pteris ensiformis than Pteris vittata.

  17. Nickel solubilizing capacity and characterization of rhizobacteria isolated from hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating subspecies of Alyssum serpyllifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Castro, C; Prieto-Fernández, A; Alvarez-Lopez, V; Monterroso, C; Cabello-Conejo, M I; Acea, M J; Kidd, P S

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of three populations of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum (A. pintodasilvae; M, S, and L), one population of Ni-hyperaccumulator A. serpyllifolium subsp. malacitanum (A. malacitanum; SB), and one population of the non-hyperaccumulator A. serpyllifolium subsp. serpyllifolium (A. serpyllifolium; SN). Isolates were characterized genotypically by BOX-PCR genomic DNA fingerprinting and comparative sequence analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene, and phenotypically by their Ni tolerance (0-10 mM), presence of plant growth promoting traits (indoleacetic acid (IAA)-, siderophore-, or organic acid-production, and phosphate solubilization) or capacity to produce biosurfactants. Among the collection of rhizobacteria, 84 strains were selected (according to their BOX-PCR profiles and phenotypic characteristics) to assess their ability to modify Ni extractability from Ni-rich (serpentine) soils. Metabolites produced by 13 of the isolates mobilized soil Ni (originating from the rhizosphere of both Ni-hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulator). In contrast, Ni extraction using culture medium filtrates which had supported the growth of 29 strains was significantly reduced. The remaining strains had no effect on Ni mobility. Bacterial induced Ni mobilization was not related to Ni resistance or the phenotypic traits tested. Isolates with potential use in phytoremediation techniques will be further studied in a plant-microorganism-soil system.

  18. Plant selenium hyperaccumulation- Ecological effects and potential implications for selenium cycling and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Jason B; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2018-04-25

    Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation occurs in ~50 plant taxa native to seleniferous soils in Western USA. Hyperaccumulator tissue Se levels, 1000-15,000 mg/kg dry weight, are typically 100 times higher than surrounding vegetation. Relative to other species, hyperaccumulators also transform Se more into organic forms. We review abiotic and biotic factors influencing soil Se distribution and bioavailability, soil being the source of the Se in hyperaccumulators. Next, we summarize the fate of Se in plants, particularly hyperaccumulators. We then extensively review the impact of plant Se accumulation on ecological interactions. Finally, we discuss the potential impact of Se hyperaccumulators on local community composition and Se cycling. Selenium (hyper)accumulation offers ecological advantages: protection from herbivores and pathogens and competitive advantage over other plants. The extreme Se levels in and around hyperaccumulators create a toxic environment for Se-sensitive ecological partners, while offering a niche for Se-resistant partners. Through these dual effects, hyperaccumulators may influence species composition in their local environment, as well as Se cycling. The implied effects of Se hyperaccumulation on community assembly and local Se cycling warrant further investigations into the contribution of hyperaccumulators and general terrestrial vegetation to global Se cycling and may serve as a case study for how trace elements influence ecological processes. Furthermore, understanding ecological implications of plant Se accumulation are vital for safe implementation of biofortification and phytoremediation, technologies increasingly implemented to battle Se deficiency and toxicity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effect of cadmium hyperaccumulation on antioxidative defense and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in cadmium (Cd) accumulation, the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll and free proline in Solanum nigrum, Cd-hyperaccumulator were examined and compared with a ...

  20. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Colin F; Freeman, John L; Reynolds, Ray J B; Cappa, Jennifer J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Lindblom, Stormy D; Quinn, Erin K; Bennett, Lindsay E; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2010-08-27

    Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf periphery, making them potentially more susceptible to some herbivore feeding modes than others. In this study we investigate the protective function of Se in the Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus against two cell disrupting herbivores, the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). Astragalus bisulcatus and S. pinnata with high Se concentrations (greater than 650 mg Se kg(-1)) were less subject to thrips herbivory than plants with low Se levels (less than 150 mg Se kg(-1)). Furthermore, in plants containing elevated Se levels, leaves with higher concentrations of Se suffered less herbivory than leaves with less Se. Spider mites also preferred to feed on low-Se A. bisulcatus and S. pinnata plants rather than high-Se plants. Spider mite populations on A. bisulcatus decreased after plants were given a higher concentration of Se. Interestingly, spider mites could colonize A. bisulcatus plants containing up to 200 mg Se kg(-1) dry weight, concentrations which are toxic to many other herbivores. Selenium distribution and speciation studies using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) mapping and Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the spider mites accumulated primarily methylselenocysteine, the relatively non-toxic form of Se that is also the predominant form of Se in hyperaccumulators. This is the first reported study investigating the protective effect of hyperaccumulated Se against cell

  1. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Colin F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf periphery, making them potentially more susceptible to some herbivore feeding modes than others. In this study we investigate the protective function of Se in the Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus against two cell disrupting herbivores, the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae. Results Astragalus bisulcatus and S. pinnata with high Se concentrations (greater than 650 mg Se kg-1 were less subject to thrips herbivory than plants with low Se levels (less than 150 mg Se kg-1. Furthermore, in plants containing elevated Se levels, leaves with higher concentrations of Se suffered less herbivory than leaves with less Se. Spider mites also preferred to feed on low-Se A. bisulcatus and S. pinnata plants rather than high-Se plants. Spider mite populations on A. bisulcatus decreased after plants were given a higher concentration of Se. Interestingly, spider mites could colonize A. bisulcatus plants containing up to 200 mg Se kg-1 dry weight, concentrations which are toxic to many other herbivores. Selenium distribution and speciation studies using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μXRF mapping and Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the spider mites accumulated primarily methylselenocysteine, the relatively non-toxic form of Se that is also the predominant form of Se in hyperaccumulators. Conclusions This is the first reported study investigating the

  2. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf periphery, making them potentially more susceptible to some herbivore feeding modes than others. In this study we investigate the protective function of Se in the Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus against two cell disrupting herbivores, the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). Results Astragalus bisulcatus and S. pinnata with high Se concentrations (greater than 650 mg Se kg-1) were less subject to thrips herbivory than plants with low Se levels (less than 150 mg Se kg-1). Furthermore, in plants containing elevated Se levels, leaves with higher concentrations of Se suffered less herbivory than leaves with less Se. Spider mites also preferred to feed on low-Se A. bisulcatus and S. pinnata plants rather than high-Se plants. Spider mite populations on A. bisulcatus decreased after plants were given a higher concentration of Se. Interestingly, spider mites could colonize A. bisulcatus plants containing up to 200 mg Se kg-1 dry weight, concentrations which are toxic to many other herbivores. Selenium distribution and speciation studies using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) mapping and Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the spider mites accumulated primarily methylselenocysteine, the relatively non-toxic form of Se that is also the predominant form of Se in hyperaccumulators. Conclusions This is the first reported study investigating the protective effect of

  3. Nickel and zinc isotope fractionation in hyperaccumulating and nonaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Cloquet, Christophe; Tang, Ye-Tao; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Estrade, Nicolas; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-10-21

    Until now, there has been little data on the isotope fractionation of nickel (Ni) in higher plants and how this can be affected by plant Ni and zinc (Zn) homeostasis. A hydroponic cultivation was conducted to investigate the isotope fractionation of Ni and Zn during plant uptake and translocation processes. The nonaccumulator Thlaspi arvense, the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale and the Ni and Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens were grown in low (2 μM) and high (50 μM) Ni and Zn solutions. Results showed that plants were inclined to absorb light Ni isotopes, presumably due to the functioning of low-affinity transport systems across root cell membrane. The Ni isotope fractionation between plant and solution was greater in the hyperaccumulators grown in low Zn treatments (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.90 to -0.63‰) than that in the nonaccumulator T. arvense (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.21‰), thus indicating a greater permeability of the low-affinity transport system in hyperaccumulators. Light isotope enrichment of Zn was observed in most of the plants (Δ(66)Zn(plant-solution) = -0.23 to -0.10‰), but to a lesser extent than for Ni. The rapid uptake of Zn on the root surfaces caused concentration gradients, which induced ion diffusion in the rhizosphere and could result in light Zn isotope enrichment in the hyperaccumulator N. caerulescens. In high Zn treatment, Zn could compete with Ni during the uptake process, which reduced Ni concentration in plants and decreased the extent of Ni isotope fractionation (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.11 to -0.07‰), indicating that plants might take up Ni through a low-affinity transport system of Zn. We propose that isotope composition analysis for transition elements could become an empirical tool to study plant physiological processes.

  4. Kuidas hoida meie ühiseid väärtusi? / Catherine Todd Bailey

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Todd Bailey, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    USA Läti suursaadiku Catherine Todd Bailey 16. oktoobril peetud kõne Läti Ülikooli aulas, kus ta kritiseeris teravalt Läti poliitilist olukorda ja hoiatas riiki USA-ga ühiste väärtuste hajumise eest

  5. Basal Settings Control Fast Ice Flow in the Recovery/Slessor/Bailey Region, East Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diez, Anja; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Ferraccioli, Fausto

    2018-01-01

    The region of Recovery Glacier, Slessor Glacier, and Bailey Ice Stream, East Antarctica, has remained poorly explored, despite representing the largest potential contributor to future global sea level rise on a centennial to millennial time scale. Here we use new airborne radar data to improve...

  6. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John L; Quinn, Colin F; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2006-11-21

    Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  7. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  8. Elevated expression of metal transporter genes in three accessions of the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves Leite de Assunção, A.; Costa Martins, Da P.; Folter, de S.; Vooijs, R.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is an intriguing and poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. We describe the cloning and isolation of three zinc transporter cDNAs from the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. The

  9. Elevated expression of metal transporter genes in three accessions of the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assunção, A.G.L.; Da Costa Martins, P.; de Folter, S.; Schat, H.; Vooijs, H.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is an intriguing and poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. We describe the cloning and isolation of three zinc transporter cDNAs from the Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. The

  10. Multivariate analysis of protein profiles of metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens accessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuomainen, M.H.; Nunan, N.; Lehesranta, S.J.; Tervahauta, A.I.; Hassinen, V.H.; Schat, H.; Koistinen, K.M.; Auriola, S.; McNicol, J.; Karenlampi, S.O.

    2006-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is increasingly acknowledged as one of the best models for studying metal hyperaccumulation in plants. In order to study the mechanisms underlying metal hyper-accumulation, we used proteomic profiling to identify differences in protein intensities among three T caerulescens

  11. Nickel biopathways in tropical nickel hyperaccumulating trees from Sabah (Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Antony; Callahan, Damien L; Noller, Barry N; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J; Barnabas, Alban; Harris, Hugh H

    2017-02-16

    The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16.9% Ni in phloem sap in Phyllanthus balgooyi) in all three species. However, the species differ in their leaves - in P. balgooyi the highest Ni concentration is in the phloem, but in P. securinegioides and R. bengalensis in the epidermis and in the spongy mesophyll (R. bengalensis). The chemical speciation of Ni 2+ does not substantially differ between the species nor between the plant tissues and transport fluids, and is unambiguously associated with citrate. This study combines ion microbeam (PIXE and RBS) and metabolomics techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS) with synchrotron methods (XAS) to overcome the drawbacks of the individual techniques to quantitatively determine Ni distribution and Ni 2+ chemical speciation in hyperaccumulator plants.

  12. Nickel biopathways in tropical nickel hyperaccumulating trees from Sabah (Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Antony; Callahan, Damien L.; Noller, Barry N.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Barnabas, Alban; Harris, Hugh H.

    2017-02-01

    The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16.9% Ni in phloem sap in Phyllanthus balgooyi) in all three species. However, the species differ in their leaves - in P. balgooyi the highest Ni concentration is in the phloem, but in P. securinegioides and R. bengalensis in the epidermis and in the spongy mesophyll (R. bengalensis). The chemical speciation of Ni2+ does not substantially differ between the species nor between the plant tissues and transport fluids, and is unambiguously associated with citrate. This study combines ion microbeam (PIXE and RBS) and metabolomics techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS) with synchrotron methods (XAS) to overcome the drawbacks of the individual techniques to quantitatively determine Ni distribution and Ni2+ chemical speciation in hyperaccumulator plants.

  13. Molecular Dissection of The Cellular Mechanisms Involved In Nickel Hyperaccumulation in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Salt

    2002-04-08

    Hyperaccumulator plant species are able to accumulate between 1-5% of their biomass as metal. However, these plants are often small, slow growing, and do not produce a high biomass. Phytoextraction, a cost-effective, in situ, plant based approach to soil remediation takes advantage of the remarkable ability of hyperaccumulating plants to concentrate metals from the soil and accumulate them in their harvestable, above-ground tissues. However, to make use of the valuable genetic resources identified in metal hyperaccumulating species, it will be necessary to transfer this material to high biomass rapidly growing crop plants. These plants would then be ideally suited to the phytoremediation process, having the ability to produce large amount of metal-rich plant biomass for rapid harvest and soil cleanup. Although progress is being made in understanding the genetic basis of metal hyperaccumulation a more complete understanding will be necessary before we can take full advantage of the genetic potential of these plants.

  14. Plants that Hyperaccumulate Heavy Metals: Their Role in Phytoremediation, Microbiology, Archaeology, Mineral Exploration and Phytomining

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brooks, Robert R

    1998-01-01

    This book brings together for the first time in one volume all the relevant information on hyperaccumulators and describes the new disciplines, methods and uses for them which continue to be explored...

  15. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)]. E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt; Serrano, Helena Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Pinto, Manuel Joao [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Martins-Loucao, Maria Amelia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal)

    2007-03-15

    The several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied to a rare and endangered species, Plantago almogravensis, and to the 3rd most abundant element in the earth crust, Al. Using the most common criteria, P. almogravensis undoubtedly is an Al hyperaccumulator plant. If the recent proposed requirements were considered, most of them matching those for a plant to be used in phytoextraction, it can only be considered an unusual accumulator of Al. A discussion is made concerning the several criteria of a hyperaccumulator plant in order to include rare and endemic ones and abundant elements. In ecological terms, the enrichment in Al and Fe observed may account for the differences in the vegetation pattern. Due to the rarity and endangered nature of this plant, the contribution of this work is also relevant for the ecological understanding and the development of conservation options of this endemic species. - Revisiting plant hyperaccumulation criteria.

  16. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branquinho, Cristina; Serrano, Helena Cristina; Pinto, Manuel Joao; Martins-Loucao, Maria Amelia

    2007-01-01

    The several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied to a rare and endangered species, Plantago almogravensis, and to the 3rd most abundant element in the earth crust, Al. Using the most common criteria, P. almogravensis undoubtedly is an Al hyperaccumulator plant. If the recent proposed requirements were considered, most of them matching those for a plant to be used in phytoextraction, it can only be considered an unusual accumulator of Al. A discussion is made concerning the several criteria of a hyperaccumulator plant in order to include rare and endemic ones and abundant elements. In ecological terms, the enrichment in Al and Fe observed may account for the differences in the vegetation pattern. Due to the rarity and endangered nature of this plant, the contribution of this work is also relevant for the ecological understanding and the development of conservation options of this endemic species. - Revisiting plant hyperaccumulation criteria

  17. CARACTERÍSTICAS NUTRICIONALES Y ANTIOXIDANTES DE LA FRUTA CURUBA LARGA (Passiflora mollisima Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA CAROLINA CHAPARRO R

    Full Text Available La presente revisión muestra el valor nutricional y el impacto para la salud humana del consumo de la fruta curuba larga (Passiflora mollisima Bailey, con base a las características nutricionales y antioxidantes. Pertenece a la familia de las pasifloráceas, es originaria de la zona andina del continente americano y en Colombia se cultiva principalmente en las cordilleras oriental y occidental. Esta fruta es fuente de vitaminas A, C y riboflavina; contiene potasio, fósforo, magnesio, sodio, cloro, hierro; aporta cantidades moderadas de carbohidratos y calóricas. El contenido de fenoles, flavonoides y carotenoides confiere la capacidad de captar radicales libres causantes del estrés oxidativo, éste relacionado con el origen y desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares, neurodegenerativas y el cáncer.

  18. New observations on frustule morphology of Eupodiscus radiatus Bailey and Fryxelliella floridana Prasad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes L. F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the diatoms Eupodiscus radiatus Bailey and Fryxelliella floridana Prasad, mainly focussing on the mantle and cingulum, provided new morphological information. In E. radiatus dendritic structures and two types of a palisade-like structure fixed to silica rings were found on the lower valve mantle. Cingulum presented 1-3 bands with areolae arranged in decussate rows. Furthermore, the pars interior of the valvocopula is fimbriate; and the external openings of the rimoportulae are located along the rim of the scalloped extension. The valvocopula of F. floridana is open and its copula is ligulate. Both bands possess poroid areolae similar in size to the cribral pores on the valve face. The genus Eupodiscus is compared to Fryxelliella, based on material sampled in estuaries of Southern Brazil.

  19. 75 FR 69063 - Port Bailey Wild Enterprises, LLC; PB Energy, Inc.; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Port Bailey Wild Enterprises, LLC; PB Energy, Inc.; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene November 3, 2010. On October...

  20. Lead, zinc and cadmium accumulation from two metalliferous soils with contrasting calcium contents in hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes: a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtadi, A.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and background: We previously compared metallicolous (M) and non-metallicolous (NM) populations of Noccaea (=Thlaspi) caerulescens, Silene vulgaris, and Matthiola flavida for their abilities to tolerate and (hyper)-accumulate lead (Pb) in hydroponics. In the present study we aimed 1) to check

  1. The bacterial rhizobiome of hyperaccumulators: future perspectives based on omics analysis and advanced microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna eVisioli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperaccumulators are plants that can extract heavy metal ions from the soil and translocate those ions to the shoots, where they are sequestered and detoxified. Hyperaccumulation depends not only on the availability of mobilized metal ions in the soil, but also on the enhanced activity of metal transporters and metal chelators which may be provided by the plant or its associated microbes. The rhizobiome is captured by plant root exudates from the complex microbial community in the soil, and may colonize the root surface or infiltrate the root cortex. This community can increase the root surface area by inducing hairy root proliferation. It may also increase the solubility of metals in the rhizosphere and promote the uptake of soluble metals by the plant. The bacterial rhizobiome, a subset of specialized microorganisms that colonize the plant rhizosphere and endosphere, makes an important contribution to the hyperaccumulator phenotype. In this review, we discuss classic and more recent tools that are used to study the interactions between hyperaccumulators and the bacterial rhizobiome, and consider future perspectives based on the use of omics analysis and microscopy to study plant metabolism in the context of metal accumulation. Recent data suggest that metal-resistant bacteria isolated from the hyperaccumulator rhizosphere and endosphere could be useful in applications such as phytoextraction and phytoremediation, although more research is required to determine whether such properties can be transferred successfully to non-accumulator species.

  2. Recent advances in the analysis of metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance in plants using proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eDalCorso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperaccumulator/hypertolerant plant species have evolved strategies allowing them to grow in metal-contaminated soils, where they accumulate high concentrations of heavy metals in their shoots without signs of toxicity. The mechanisms that allow enhanced metal uptake, root-to-shoot translocation and detoxification in these species are not fully understood. Complementary approaches such as transcriptomic-based DNA microarrays and proteomics have recently been used to gain insight into the molecular pathways evolved by metal hyperaccumulator/hypertolerant species. Proteomics has the advantage of focusing on the translated portion of the genome and it allows to analyze complex networks of proteins. This review discusses the recent analysis of metal hyperaccumulator/hypertolerant plant species using proteomics. Changes in photosynthetic proteins, sulfur and glutathione metabolism, transport, biotic and xenobiotic defenses as well as the differential regulation of proteins involved in signaling and secondary metabolism are discussed in relation to metal hyperaccumulation. We also consider the potential contribution of several proteins to the hyperaccumulation phenotype.

  3. Actephila alanbakeri (Phyllanthaceae): a new nickel hyperaccumulating plant species from localised ultramafic outcrops in Sabah (Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Antony; van Balgooy, Max; van Welzen, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The Malaysian state of Sabah on the Island of Borneo is emerging as a hotspot for nickel hyperaccumulator species with at least 25 such species discovered to date. New discoveries of the hyperaccumulation trait in described taxa, as well as taxonomical novelties that are nickel hyperaccumulators, continue to be made. Here we describe a new nickel hyperaccumulating species of Actephila (Phyllanthaceae) originating from two known populations on ultramafic soils in Sabah. The most characteristic feature of Actephila alanbakeri are its knobbly fruits, but other diagnostic morphological characters are discussed and information about its ecology and rhizosphere and plant tissue chemistry is provided. This new species is one of the strongest known nickel hyperaccumulator plants in Southeast Asia with up to 14,700 μg g -1 (1.47 %) nickel in its leaves. The occurrences of Actephila alanbakeri on just two sites, both of which lie outside protected areas and are disturbed by recurring forest fires, combined with the small total numbers of individuals, render this species Endangered (EN) on the basis of IUCN Red List Criteria.

  4. Real-time distributed simulation using the Modular Modeling System interfaced to a Bailey NETWORK 90 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Turso, J.A.; Garcia, H.E.; Ghie, M.H.; Dharap, S.; Lee, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Modular Modeling System was adapted for real-time simulation testing of diagnostic expert systems in 1987. The early approach utilized an available general purpose mainframe computer which operated the simulation and diagnostic program in the multitasking environment of the mainframe. That research program was subsequently expanded to intelligent distributed control applications incorporating microprocessor based controllers with the aid of an equipment grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF). The Bailey NETWORK 90 microprocessor-based control system, acquired with the NSF grant, has been operational since April of 1990 and has been interfaced to both VAX mainframe and PC simulations of power plant processes in order to test and demonstrate advanced control and diagnostic concepts. This paper discusses the variety of techniques that have been used and which are under development to interface simulations and other distributed control functions to the Penn State Bailey system

  5. Chemical studies on curuba (Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L. H. Bailey) fruit flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Martínez, Natalia; Sinuco, Diana Cristina; Osorio, Coralia

    2014-08-15

    The odour-active volatiles of curuba fruit (Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L. H. Bailey) were isolated by solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GC-MS analyses identified linalool, hexyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, and butyl acetate as key aroma compounds of this fruit. Other odorants relevant because of their contribution to the overall aroma were: 2-methylpropyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Sulphur compounds, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate and methional, were reported here for first time as odour-active volatiles in curuba. By HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of glycosidic mixtures and GC-MS analyses of volatiles released enzymatically with a glucosidase, (Z)-3-hexenyl β-D-glucopyranoside and linalyl β-D-glucopyranoside were identified as aroma precursors in P. mollissima fruit. Thermal treatment of the glycosidic mixture at native pH of fruit gave furanoid cis- and trans-linalool oxides, as well as, α-terpineol, compounds that exhibit flowery odour notes. Biogenic relationships among odour-active volatiles and their glycosidic precursors were also proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of callogenesis and indirect regeneration of Freesia × hybrida Bailey ‘Argenta’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourkhaloee Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to study the effects of explant sources, plant growth regulators, carbohydrates and light conditions on indirect cormlet regeneration and the induction of embryogenic callus of freesia (Freesia × hybrida Bailey ‘Argenta’. Sections of two different types of explants, corms and pupae (cold storage-produced corms, were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS media containing different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The results showed that the highest percentage of callus induction (100%, the highest callus growth (15 mm diameter and the best type of calli were achieved for pupa explants grown on the medium that contained 4 mg L−1 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and 2 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP in the dark. Increasing BAP up to 3 to 4.5 mg L−1 resulted in the maximum number of regenerated cormlets from 1 cm2 calli (2 cormlets under light conditions. Overall, the best rooting of regenerated cormlets was achieved on MS media supplemented with 1 mg L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. In the next stage, high quality calli were subcultured on MS media containing sorbitol, sucrose, maltose and mannitol (0, 5, 10 and 15 g L−1. The results indicated that 15 g L−1 maltose was able to induce the highest percentage of embryogenic callus, with an average of 88.9% on media containing 2 mg L−1 BAP and 1 mg L−1 NAA.

  7. Entry layout in the history of English lexicography: Bailey 1736, Martin 1749 and Johnson 1755

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Vişan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the history of lexicography and proposes a comparative analysis of three significant English dictionaries of the 18th century: Nathan Bailey’s Dictionarium Britannicum (second edition, 1736, Benjamin Martin’s Lingua Britannica Reformata (first edition, 1749, Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language (first edition, 1755. The paper discusses the structure of the entries in these texts, concentrating on the changes undergone from Bailey to Johnson, and attempts to show that the increased complexity of Martin’s and Johnson’s lexicographic entries marks a departure from the model of the “universal” dictionary. While the structure of universal dictionaries such as Bailey’s retains important similarities with that of the encyclopaedias of the time, later 18th century dictionaries, such as those of Johnson, are closer in structure to contemporary dictionaries of the English language, indicating a more complete separation of what starts to count as “linguistic” from what starts to count as “encyclopaedic”.

  8. Foliar Mn accumulation in eastern Australian herbarium specimens: prospecting for 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators and potential applications in taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Guymer, Gordon; Reeves, Roger D; Woodrow, Ian E; Baker, Alan J; Batianoff, George N

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of herbarium specimens has previously been used to prospect for 'new' hyperaccumulators, while the use of foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations as a taxonomic tool has been suggested. On the basis of their geographic and taxonomic affiliations to known Mn hyperaccumulators, six eastern Australian genera from the Queensland Herbarium collection were sampled for leaf tissue analyses. ICP-OES was used to measure Mn and other elemental concentrations in 47 species within the genera Austromyrtus, Lenwebbia, Gossia (Myrtaceae), Macadamia (Proteaceae), Maytenus and Denhamia (Celastraceae). The resulting data demonstrated (a) up to seven 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators, mostly tropical rainforest species; (b) that one of these 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators also had notably elevated foliar Ni concentrations; (c) evidence of an interrelationship between foliar Mn and Al uptake among the Macadamias; (d) considerable variability of Mn hyperaccumulation within Gossia; and (e) the possibility that Maytenus cunninghamii may include subspecies. Gossia bamagensis, G. fragrantissima, G. sankowsiorum, G. gonoclada and Maytenus cunninghamii were identified as 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators, while Gossia lucida and G. shepherdii are possible 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators. Of the three Myrtaceae genera examined, Mn hyperaccumulation appears restricted to Gossia, supporting its recent taxonomic revision. In the context of this present investigation and existing information, a reassesment of the general definition of Mn hyperaccumulation may be warranted. Morphological variation of Maytenus cunninghamii at two extremities was consistent with variation in Mn accumulation, indicating two possible 'new' subspecies. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, surveying herbarium specimens by chemical analysis has provided an effective means of assessing foliar Mn accumulation. These findings should be followed up by field studies.

  9. Foliar Mn accumulation in eastern Australian herbarium specimens: prospecting for ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators and potential applications in taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R.; Guymer, Gordon; Reeves, Roger D.; Woodrow, Ian E.; Baker, Alan J.; Batianoff, George N.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The analysis of herbarium specimens has previously been used to prospect for ‘new’ hyperaccumulators, while the use of foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations as a taxonomic tool has been suggested. On the basis of their geographic and taxonomic affiliations to known Mn hyperaccumulators, six eastern Australian genera from the Queensland Herbarium collection were sampled for leaf tissue analyses. Methods ICP-OES was used to measure Mn and other elemental concentrations in 47 species within the genera Austromyrtus, Lenwebbia, Gossia (Myrtaceae), Macadamia (Proteaceae), Maytenus and Denhamia (Celastraceae). Key Results The resulting data demonstrated (a) up to seven ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, mostly tropical rainforest species; (b) that one of these ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators also had notably elevated foliar Ni concentrations; (c) evidence of an interrelationship between foliar Mn and Al uptake among the Macadamias; (d) considerable variability of Mn hyperaccumulation within Gossia; and (e) the possibility that Maytenus cunninghamii may include subspecies. Conclusions Gossia bamagensis, G. fragrantissima, G. sankowsiorum, G. gonoclada and Maytenus cunninghamii were identified as ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, while Gossia lucida and G. shepherdii are possible ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators. Of the three Myrtaceae genera examined, Mn hyperaccumulation appears restricted to Gossia, supporting its recent taxonomic revision. In the context of this present investigation and existing information, a reassesment of the general definition of Mn hyperaccumulation may be warranted. Morphological variation of Maytenus cunninghamii at two extremities was consistent with variation in Mn accumulation, indicating two possible ‘new’ subspecies. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, surveying herbarium specimens by chemical analysis has provided an effective means of assessing foliar Mn accumulation. These findings should be

  10. Plants as extreme environments? Ni-resistant bacteria and Ni-hyperaccumulators of serpentine flora.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengoni, A.; Schat, H.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-01-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing interest in the bacterial communities occurring in unusual, often extreme, environments. On serpentine outcrops around the world, a high diversity of plant species showing the peculiar features of metal hyperaccumulation is present. These metal

  11. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Bidens pilosa L. as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuebing; Zhou Qixing; Wang Lin; Liu Weitao

    2009-01-01

    Recently, researchers are becoming interested in using hyperaccumulators for decontamination of heavy metal polluted soils, whereas few species that hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd) has been identified in the plant kingdom. In this study, the physiological mechanisms at the seedling stage and growth responses and Cd uptake and accumulation at flowering and mature stages of Bidens pilosa L. under Cd treatments were investigated. At the seedling stage, when soil Cd was lower than 16 mg kg -1 , the plant did not show obvious symptom of phytoxicity, and the alterations of chlorophyll (CHL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and soluble protein (SP) did not have significant differences when compared with the control. At the flowering and mature stages, under low Cd treatments (≤16 mg kg -1 ), the application of Cd could facilitate plant growth, resulting in 3.9-11.0% and 5.9-13.8%, respectively, increase in shoots dry biomass compared with the control. The Cd concentrations in stems, leaves and shoots exceeded 100 mg kg -1 when soil Cd was at 8 mg kg -1 , and they were positively correlated with Cd concentration in soils, the bioaccumulation factor (BF) and translocation factor (TF) values were all greater than 1.0. Thus, it is clear that B. pilosa has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator. All the results elementarily indicated that B. pilosa is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulating plant

  12. The leguminous species Anthyllis vulneraria as a Zn-hyperaccumulator and eco-Zn catalyst resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Claire M; Mazel, Marine; Sellini, Amandine; Escande, Vincent; Biton, Jacques; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Anthyllis vulneraria was highlighted here as a Zn-hyperaccumulator for the development of a pilot phytoextraction process in the mine site of Les Avinières in the district of Saint-Laurent-Le-Minier. A. vulneraria appeared to hyperaccumulate the highest concentration of Zn in shoots with a better metal selectivity relative to Cd and Pb than the reference Zn-hyperaccumulator Noccea caerulescens. A bigger biomass production associated to a higher Zn concentration conducted A. vulneraria to the highest total zinc gain per hectare per year. As a legume, A. vulneraria was infected by rhizobia symbionts. Inoculation of A. vulneraria seeds showed a positive impact on Zn hyperaccumulation. A large-scale culture process of symbiotic rhizobia of A. vulneraria was investigated and optimized to allow large-scale inoculation process. Contaminated shoots of A. vulneraria were not considered as wastes and were recovered as Eco-Zn catalyst in particular, examples of organic synthesis, electrophilic aromatic substitution. Eco-Zn catalyst was much more efficient than conventional catalysts and allowed greener chemical processes.

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of cadmium stress response in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gao

    Full Text Available The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd, as well as zinc (Zn and lead (Pb in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≥ 2.0 and down-regulated (Fold Change hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE. Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE shoots.

  14. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in Excluder Thlaspi arvense and various accessions of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seregin, I.V.; Kozhevnikova, A.D.; Zhukovskaya, V.; Schat, H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation and tolerance were analyzed in hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens F.K. Mey and excluder Thlaspi arvense L. Five accessions of N. caerulescens (La Calamine (LC, Belgium), Saint Félix de Palliéres (SF, France), Col du Mas de l’Aire (CMA, France), Ganges (GA, France) from

  15. The metal hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia can broaden our understanding of nickel accumulation in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy eJaffré

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While an excess of metals such as zinc, cadmium or nickel (Ni is toxic for most plants, about 500 plant species called hyperaccumulators are able to accumulate high amounts of these metals. These plants and the underlying mechanisms are receiving an increasing interest because of their potential use in sustainable biotechnologies such as biofortification, phytoremediation and phytomining. Among hyperaccumulators, about 400 species scattered in 40 families accumulate Ni. Despite this wide diversity, our current knowledge of the mechanisms involved in Ni accumulation is still limited and mostly restricted to temperate herbaceous Brassicaceae. New Caledonia is an archipelago of the tropical southwest pacific with a third of its surface (5500 km2 covered by Ni-rich soils originating from ultramafic rocks. The rich New Caledonia flora contains 2145 species adapted to these soils, among which 65 are Ni hyperaccumulators, including lianas, shrubs or trees, mostly belonging to the orders Celastrales, Oxalidales, Malpighiales and Gentianales. We present here our current knowledge on Ni hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia and the latest molecular studies developed to better understand the mechanisms of Ni accumulation in these plants.

  16. Unique Rhizosphere Micro-characteristics Facilitate Phytoextraction of Multiple Metals in Soil by the Hyperaccumulating Plant Sedum alfredii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dandi; Wang, Kai; Liu, Ting; Wang, Haixin; Lin, Zhi; Qian, Jie; Lu, Lingli; Tian, Shengke

    2017-05-16

    Understanding the strategies that the roots of hyperaccumulating plants use to extract heavy metals from soils is important for optimizing phytoremediation. The rhizosphere characteristics of Sedum alfredii, a hyperaccumulator, were investigated 6 months after it had been planted in weathered field soils contaminated with 5.8 μg of Cd g -1 , 1985.1 μg of Zn g -1 , 667.5 μg of Pb g -1 , and 698.8 μg of Cu g -1 . In contrast with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE), the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) of S. alfredii was more tolerant to the metals, and higher levels of Cd and Zn accumulated. The HE was characterized by a unique rhizosphere, including extensive root systems, a reduced soil pH, a higher metal bioavailability, and increased rhizomicrobial activity. The bioavailability of metals was significantly correlated with the HE's unique bacterial communities (P heavy metal phytoextraction.

  17. Sedimentology and Rock Magnetism of Bailey River Peat Cores, Sudbury Area: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtseven, A.; Cioppa, M. T.; Dean, K.

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic measurements on peat can reveal atmospheric anthropogenic contamination. Two cores were collected from a marsh surrounding the Bailey River, 10 km north of Sudbury, Ontario, using a Russian peat borer. The BR1 core (1.4 m) was collected right at the river's edge, whereas the BR2 core (2.5 m) was collected about 50 m away from the river's edge, close to the edge of the marsh and near the forest. Significant sedimentological variation between the two cores was observed: core BR1 had several centimeter to decimeter scale fine to coarse grey sand layers at 0.14 m, 0.46 m and 0.87 m between thicker organic-rich (peat) zones, whereas core BR2 had only one 5 cm sand-rich layer at 0.94 m within the organic-rich material. The cores were subsampled at 2.5 cm intervals for laboratory magnetic analysis. Volume susceptibility was measured using a Bartington MS2B meter, and mass-specific susceptibility was then calculated. In core BR1, the sand layers had relatively higher susceptibility (13 x 10-8 m3/kg) , while the organic rich layers had very low susceptibility (0 - 2 x 10-8 m3/kg). In core BR2, which had little sand, the susceptibility variation was dominated by higher values near-surface (10 x 10-8 m3/kg), and very low susceptibility (0.3 x 10-8 m3/kg) below 0.3 m depth. Since the lithology in this core did not vary substantially, susceptibility variations may be controlled by anthropogenic deposition in the near-surface during the peak mining and smelting decades. These preliminary results suggest that any anthropogenic signal in core BR1 appears to be masked by the sedimentological variation. On pilot results from eight samples in core BR1, saturation isothermal remanence acquisition showed 95% saturation by 200 mT, and the S-ratios (0.3T/0.9T) were above 0.93, suggesting that magnetite is the major magnetization carrier. In core BR2, six out of eight samples showed similar results; however, two samples had slightly more higher coercivity minerals (90% saturation

  18. The potential use of indigenous nickel hyperaccumulators for small-scale mining in The Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of nickel and three other heavy metals (copper, cobalt, and chromium was examined in 33 species of the common and rare native vascular plants growing in an ultramafic area currently subjected to mining in Zambales Province, Luzon, Philippines. Leaf tissue samples were initially screened in the field using filter paper impregnated with dimethylglyoxime (1% solution in 70% ethyl alcohol and later analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. One species was found to be a hypernickelophore (>10,000 µg/g, eight species were nickel hyperaccumulators (>1,000 µg/g, nineteen species were hemi-accumulators (>100-1,000 µg/g, and five species were non-accumulators (<100 µg/g. This paper significantly adds to the list of hyperaccumulator species first reported for the Philippines in 1992. The findings will be discussed in context of using indigenous species for post mining ecological restoration and nickel phytoextraction in small-scale mining in the Philippines

  19. A more complete picture of metal hyperaccumulation through next-generation sequencing technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eVerbruggen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanistic understanding of metal hyperaccumulation has benefitted immensely from the use of molecular genetics tools developed for Arabidopsis thaliana. The revolution in DNA sequencing will enable even greater strides in the near future, this time not restricted to the family Brassicaceae. Reference genomes are within reach for many ecologically interesting species including heterozygous outbreeders. They will allow deep RNA-seq transcriptome studies and the re-sequencing of contrasting individuals to unravel the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. Cell-type specific transcriptome analyses, which will be essential for the dissection of metal translocation pathways in hyperaccumulators, can be achieved through the combination of RNA-seq and translatome approaches. Affordable high-resolution genotyping of many individuals enables the elucidation of quantitative trait loci in intra- and interspecific crosses as well as through genome-wide association mapping across large panels of accessions. Furthermore, genome-wide scans have the power to detect loci under recent selection. Together these approaches will lead to a detailed understanding of the evolutionary path towards the emergence of hyperaccumulation traits.

  20. Uptake, sequestration and tolerance of cadmium at cellular levels in the hyperaccumulator plant species Sedum alfredii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shengke; Xie, Ruohan; Wang, Haixin; Hu, Yan; Hou, Dandi; Liao, Xingcheng; Brown, Patrick H.; Yang, Hongxia; Lin, Xianyong; Labavitch, John M.; Lu, Lingli

    2017-04-01

    Sedum alfredii is one of a few plant species known to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd). Uptake, localization, and tolerance of Cd at cellular levels in shoots were compared in hyperaccumulating (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating (NHE) ecotypes of Sedum alfredii. X-ray fluorescence images of Cd in stems and leaves showed only a slight Cd signal restricted within vascular bundles in the NHEs, while enhanced localization of Cd, with significant tissue- and age-dependent variations, was detected in HEs. In contrast to the vascular-enriched Cd in young stems, parenchyma cells in leaf mesophyll, stem pith and cortex tissues served as terminal storage sites for Cd sequestration in HEs. Kinetics of Cd transport into individual leaf protoplasts of the two ecotypes showed little difference in Cd accumulation. However, far more efficient storage of Cd in vacuoles was apparent in HEs. Subsequent analysis of cell viability and hydrogen peroxide levels suggested that HE protoplasts exhibited higher resistance to Cd than those of NHE protoplasts. These results suggest that efficient sequestration into vacuoles, as opposed to rapid transport into parenchyma cells, is a pivotal process in Cd accumulation and homeostasis in shoots of HE S. alfredii. This is in addition to its efficient root-to-shoot translocation of Cd.

  1. Application of rhizosphere interaction of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens to remediate cadmium-contaminated agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Wang, Wei; Li, Hua-Fen

    2011-10-01

    There is an urgent requirement for selecting appropriate technologies to solve food safety problems due to soil contamination. In this study, the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and a high Cd accumulator pakchoi cultivar (Brassica rapa L. spp. Chinenesis cv.) were grown in a moderately Cd-contaminated soil with three planting systems (monocrop, inter-crop, and crop-rotation) and three growing durations (25, 50, and 75 days) to study the role of rhizosphere interaction of both species on the uptake of Cd. The Cd accumulations in the shoot of pakchoi were significantly reduced in the inter-crop treatment, also the decreased percentage increased with rhizosphere interaction between the two species. In the inter-crop systems of 75 days, the Cd concentration and amount in the shoot of pakchoi represented 54% and 83% reduction, respectively, while the total depletion of Cd decreased by approximate 19%. Although the Cd concentration and amount in the shoot of pakchoi were significantly reduced by 52% and 44%, respectively, in the crop-rotation treatment, the decreased percentage were markedly lower than in the inter-crop treatment. Therefore, the rhizosphere interaction of hyperaccumulator with non-hyperaccumulator may reduce the risk of vegetable contamination during making full use of or remediating the contaminated soil.

  2. Effect of cadmium toxicity on nitrogen metabolism in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a newly found cadmium hyperaccumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Zhou Qixing; Ding Lingling; Sun Yuebing

    2008-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators are ideal plant species used for phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A full understanding of metal tolerance mechanisms of hyperaccumulators will facilitate enhancing their phytoremediation efficiency. However, how Cd affects N metabolism and which role plays the response of N metabolism to Cd toxicity in the tolerance of hyperaccumulators are still unknown. To clarify these questions, this study investigated the effects of various soil Cd levels on the concentrations of N forms and the activity of key enzymes involved in N metabolism in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. The results showed that its growth and all N metabolism indicators were normal at low Cd exposure (≤12 mg kg -1 ). At 24 mg Cd kg -1 soil, nitrate assimilation indicators (nitrate concentration and activity of nitrate reductase) were reduced significantly, whereas most ammonia assimilation indicators (ammonium concentration and activity of glutamine synthetase) remained normal. However, when exposed to a higher Cd level (48 mg kg -1 ), growth and most N metabolism indicators were reduced significantly. Therefore, N metabolism in leaves of S. nigrum could be tolerant of Cd toxicity to a certain extent (soil Cd concentration ≤12 mg kg -1 ), and this might be involved in the Cd-tolerance of this Cd-hyperaccumulator

  3. Effect of anoxia and Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass tincture on the activity of tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in isolated pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasauskas, Artūras; Rodovicius, Hiliaras; Viezeliene, Dale; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effect of anoxia and Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass tincture on the activities of different tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in isolated pig heart. The isolated pig heart was perfused according to the modified method of Langendorf, using an artificial blood circulation apparatus. Anoxia 20 min in duration was performed by perfusion of isolated heart with Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer saturated with gas mixture (95% N(2) and 5% CO(2)). Control heart was perfused with the same buffer saturated with gas mixture (95% O(2) and 5% CO(2)). Effect of Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass tincture was evaluated by perfusion of isolated heart with a buffer containing tincture. Total tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were isolated from pig heart. Activities of tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were measured by the aminoacylation reaction using C(14)-amino acids. Anoxia 20 min in duration has caused a decrease in the acceptor activity of tRNA and increase in the activities of aminacyl-tRNA synthetases. Polyscias filicifolia Bailey tincture did not affect the acceptor activity of tRNA and activities aminacyl-tRNA synthetases. After 20-min anoxic perfusion with the buffer containing Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass tincture, the acceptor activities of tRNA increased to the control value and activities of aminacyl-tRNA synthetases reached the control value. The acceptor activity of tRNA from isolated pig heart decreased and activities of aminacyl-tRNA synthetases increased under anoxia. Perfusion with buffer containing tincture of Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass restored acceptor activities of tRNA and activities of aminacyl-tRNA synthetases.

  4. A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators.

  5. Manganese uptake and accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, S.G.; Chen, Y.X.; Reeves, Roger D.; Baker, Alan J.M.; Lin, Q.; Fernando, Denise R.

    2004-01-01

    The perennial herb Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae), which occurs in Southern China, has been found to be a new manganese hyperaccumulator by means of field surveys on Mn-rich soils and by glasshouse experiments. This species not only has remarkable tolerance to Mn but also has extraordinary uptake and accumulation capacity for this element. The maximum Mn concentration in the leaf dry matter was 19,300 μg/g on Xiangtan Mn tailings wastelands, with a mean of 14,480 μg/g. Under nutrient solution culture conditions, P. acinosa could grow normally with Mn supplied at a concentration of 8000 μmol/l, although with less biomass than in control samples supplied with Mn at 5 μmol/l. Manganese concentration in the shoots increased with increasing external Mn levels, but the total mass of Mn accumulated in the shoots first increased and then decreased. At an Mn concentration of 5000 μmol/l in the culture solution, the Mn accumulation in the shoot dry matter was highest (258 mg/plant). However, the Mn concentration in the leaves reached its highest value (36,380 μg/g) at an Mn supply level of 12,000 μmol/l. These results confirm that P. acinosa is an Mn hyperaccumulator which grows rapidly, has substantial biomass, wide distribution and a broad ecological amplitude. This species provides a new plant resource for exploring the mechanism of Mn hyperaccumulation, and has potential for use in the phytoremediation of Mn-contaminated soils

  6. X-ray elemental mapping techniques for elucidating the ecophysiology of hyperaccumulator plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Antony; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J; de Jonge, Martin D; Harris, Hugh H; Ryan, Chris G; Tylko, Grzegorz; Paterson, David J; Barnabas, Alban D; Kopittke, Peter M; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta

    2018-04-01

    Contents Summary 432 I. Introduction 433 II. Preparation of plant samples for X-ray micro-analysis 433 III. X-ray elemental mapping techniques 438 IV. X-ray data analysis 442 V. Case studies 443 VI. Conclusions 446 Acknowledgements 449 Author contributions 449 References 449 SUMMARY: Hyperaccumulators are attractive models for studying metal(loid) homeostasis, and probing the spatial distribution and coordination chemistry of metal(loid)s in their tissues is important for advancing our understanding of their ecophysiology. X-ray elemental mapping techniques are unique in providing in situ information, and with appropriate sample preparation offer results true to biological conditions of the living plant. The common platform of these techniques is a reliance on characteristic X-rays of elements present in a sample, excited either by electrons (scanning/transmission electron microscopy), protons (proton-induced X-ray emission) or X-rays (X-ray fluorescence microscopy). Elucidating the cellular and tissue-level distribution of metal(loid)s is inherently challenging and accurate X-ray analysis places strict demands on sample collection, preparation and analytical conditions, to avoid elemental redistribution, chemical modification or ultrastructural alterations. We compare the merits and limitations of the individual techniques, and focus on the optimal field of applications for inferring ecophysiological processes in hyperaccumulator plants. X-ray elemental mapping techniques can play a key role in answering questions at every level of metal(loid) homeostasis in plants, from the rhizosphere interface, to uptake pathways in the roots and shoots. Further improvements in technological capabilities offer exciting perspectives for the study of hyperaccumulator plants into the future. © 2017 University of Queensland. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Waste or substrate for metal hyperaccumulating plants - The potential of phytomining on waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kisser, Johannes; Wenzel, Walter W; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Phytomining could represent an innovative low-cost technology for the selective recovery of valuable trace elements from secondary resources. In this context the potential of phytomining from waste incineration bottom ash was tested in a pot experiment. Fresh bottom ash was acidified, leached to reduce salinity and amended with organic material to obtain a suitable substrate for plant growth. Two hyperaccumulator species, Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum and Sedum plumbizincicola as well as three metal tolerant species, Brassica napus, B. juncea and Nicotiana tabacum were tested for their phytomining potential on the pre-treated and amended bottom ashes from municipal solid waste and hazardous waste incineration. The hyperaccumulators had severe difficulties to establish on the bottom ash and to produce sufficient biomass, likely due to salinity and Cu toxicity. Nevertheless, concentrations of Ni in A. serpyllifolium and Zn in S. plumbizincicola were high, but total metal removal was limited by the low biomass production and was clearly less than on metalliferous soils. The Brassica species proved to be more tolerant to salinity and high Cu concentrations and produced considerably higher biomass, but total metal removal was limited by rather low shoot concentrations. The observed limitations of the phytomining process along with currently low market prices of Ni and Zn suggest that further optimisation of the process is required in order to make phytomining economically feasible on the tested waste incineration bottom ashes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular dissection of the role of histidine in nickel hyperaccumulation in Thalspi goesingense (Halacsy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persans, M.W.; Yan, X.; Patnoe, J.M.M.L.; Kraemer, U.; Salt, D.E.

    1999-12-01

    To understand the role of free histidine (His) in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, the authors investigated the regulation of His biosynthesis at both the molecular and biochemical levels. Three T. goesingense cDNAs encoding the following His biosynthetic enzymes, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase, and histidinol dehydrogenase, were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli His autotrophs. Northern analysis of THJG1, THD1, and THB1 gene expression revealed that each gene is expressed in both roots and shoots, but at the concentrations and dosage times of Ni treatment used in this study, these genes failed to show any regulation by Ni. The authors were also unable to observe any increases in the concentration of free His in root, shoot, or xylem sap of T. goesingense in response to Ni exposure. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of root and shoot tissue from T. goesingense and the non-accumulator species Thlaspi reverse revealed no major differences in the coordination of Ni by His in these tissues. They therefore conclude that the Ni hyperaccumulation phenotype in T. goesingense is not determined by the overproduction of His in response to Ni.

  9. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of chromium in a cordgrass Cr-hyperaccumulator, Spartina argentinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana@us.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Vecino-Bueno, Inmaculada [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Feldman, Susana R. [Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y CIUNR, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Spain)

    2011-01-30

    The cordgrass Spartina argentinensis, which occurs in inland marshes of the Chaco-Pampean regions of Argentina, has been found to be a new chromium hyperaccumulator. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of Cr{sup 6+} from 0 to 20 mmol l{sup -1} on growth and photosynthetic apparatus of S. argentinensis by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. Boron, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium and phosphorous concentrations were also determined. S. argentinensis showed phytotoxicity at tiller concentration of 4 mg g{sup -1} Cr, and symptoms of stress at tiller concentration of 1.5 mg g{sup -1} Cr, as well as reductions in leaf gas exchange, in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, in photosynthetic pigment contents and in the uptake of essential nutrients. Reductions in net photosynthetic rate could be accounted for by non-stomatal limitations. Moreover, the bioaccumulator factors exceeded greatly the critical value (1.0) for all Cr treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has a higher ability to transfer Cr from roots to tillers at higher Cr concentrations. These results confirmed that S. argentinensis is a chromium hyperaccumulator and that it may be useful for restoring Cr-contaminated sites.

  10. Potential hyperaccumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in endurant plants distributed in an old smeltery, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuang; Zhou, Qixing; Chao, Lei

    2007-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in some endurant weed plant species that survived in an old smeltery in Liaoning, China, were systematically investigated. Potential hyperaccumulative characteristics of these species were also discussed. The results showed that metal accumulation in plants differed with species, tissues and metals. Endurant weed plants growing in this contaminated site exhibited high metal adaptability. Both the metal exclusion and detoxification tolerance strategies were involved in the species studied. Seven species for Pb and four species for Cd were satisfied for the concentration time level standard for hyperaccumulator. Considering translocation factor (TF) values, one species for Pb, seven species for Zn, two species for Cu and five species for Cd possessed the characteristic of hyperaccumulator. Particularly, Abutilon theophrasti Medic, exhibited strong accumulative ability to four heavy metals. Although enrichment coefficients of all samples were lesser than 1 and the absolute concentrations didn’t reach the standard, species mentioned above were primarily believed to be potential hyperaccumulators.

  11. Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study, we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with...

  12. Addition of straw from hyperaccumulator plants to cadmium-contaminated soil increases cadmium uptake by loquat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijin; Liao, Ming'an; Lv, Xiulan; Liang, Dong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Jin; Wang, Xun

    2017-05-01

    The straw from three different cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulators (Galinsoga parviflora, Youngia erythrocarpa, and Solanum photeinocarpum) was added to Cd-contaminated soil, and its effects on plant growth and Cd accumulation in loquat seedlings were evaluated. Straw from each of G. parviflora, Y. erythrocarpa, and S. photeinocarpum was added to Cd-contaminated soil before planting seedlings of two varieties of loquat (Dawuxing and Chuanzao). Addition of straw from G. parviflora and S. photeinocarpum increased the root and shoot biomasses of both loquat varieties, compared with that in the control. Addition of straw also increased Cd uptake by loquat seedlings. The treatments could be ranked, from highest Cd contents in roots and shoots of loquat seedlings to lowest, as follows: S. photeinocarpum straw > Y. erythrocarpa straw > G. parviflora straw > control. All three types of hyperaccumulator straw increased the amount of Cd extracted by shoots of two loquat seedlings, with the maximum effect in the S. photeinocarpum straw treatment. Addition of hyperaccumulator straw also resulted in increased soil invertase, urease, and catalase activities to varying degrees. Among the three types of hyperaccumulator straw, S. photeinocarpum straw was the most effective to increase Cd accumulation in loquat seedlings. Therefore, this material has the potential to increase the phytoremediation capacity of loquat seedlings in Cd-contaminated orchards.

  13. Protein Biochemistry and Expression Regulation of Cadmium/Zinc Pumping ATPases in the Hyperaccumulator Plants Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, Archana; Küpper, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, May 22 (2017), č. článku 835. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000336 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cellular compartmentation * zinc homeostasis * cadmium * metal hyperaccumulator plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  14. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex F. Muell.) F.M. Bailey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Frezza, Claudio; Campanelli, Chiara; Foddai, Sebastiano; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-07-01

    This work reports the phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex F. Muell.) F.M. Bailey. The methodology utilised during this study comprised classical chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Six compounds were identified: agathisflavone (1), 7″-O-methyl-agathisflavone (2), cupressuflavone (3), rutin (4), shikimic acid (5) and (2S)-1,2-Di-O-[(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoyl]-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl glycerol (6). These belong to four major classes of natural compounds: bi-flavonoids (1-3); diglycosidic flavonoids (4); cycloexen-carboxylic acids (5); glycerol-glycolipids (6). To the best of our knowledge, compounds (3-6) were identified for the first time in this study as constituents of A. robusta. Anyway, the majority of these compounds has chemotaxonomic relevance and is mostly in accordance with the current botanical classification of this species. Moreover, they also present several pharmacological properties among which, the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and protective ones are the most important and may explain why this species is used in the ethno-medicinal field.

  15. Forging the bonds of sympathy: Spirituality, individualism and empiricism in the ecological thought of Liberty Hyde Bailey and its implications for environmental education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelvandre, John Paul

    Through an examination of the life and work of Liberty Hyde Bailey, this study examines the possibility of an alternate ontological and epistemological foundation for environmental ethics and education that can adequately address the twin concerns of the status of the individual and of the social or biological whole of which the individual is a part. The thesis presented in this study is that a holistic approach that is conceived in terms of monistic idealism will not serve as well as a pluralistic approach that recognizes distinct individuals causally interconnected to form an ecological whole. The term "spirituality" is proposed as indicative of the mode of connection between individuals and wholes conceived in a pluralistic rather than monistic sense. Beginning with a critique of modern environmental philosophy as primarily oriented toward a holistic or monistic ontology, the study proceeds to an intellectual biography of Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858--1954), an important early thinker in environmental ethics and environmental education. The analysis of Bailey's life and work reveals his indebtedness both to Darwinian science, to certain strands of eighteenth century thought passed on through the agency of Freemasonry and to the liberal Protestant Christianity of the late 19th century. His mature philosophy was strongly individualistic, empirical and spiritual, where the "spiritual" is the mode of connection between self and other. Positive connections are drawn between Bailey's contemporaries John Dewey and Alfred North Whitehead, bolstering claims that the distinctly American philosophy exhibited by all three thinkers has important ramifications for environmental philosophy today. Recommendations for environmental ethics and environmental education for the twenty-first century conclude the study.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pseudomonas moraviensis subsp. stanleyae, a bacterial endophyte of hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata, is capable of efficient selenite reduction to elemental selenium under aerobic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staicu, L. C.; Ackerson, C. J.; Cornelis, P.; Ye, L.; Berendsen, R. L.; Hunter, W. J.; Noblitt, S. D.; Henry, C. S.; Cappa, J. J.; Montenieri, R. L.; Wong, A. O.; Musilova, L.; Sura-de Jong, M.; van Hullebusch, E. D.; Lens, P. N L; Reynolds, R. J B; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To identify bacteria with high selenium tolerance and reduction capacity for bioremediation of wastewater and nanoselenium particle production. Methods and Results: A bacterial endophyte was isolated from the selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) growing on seleniferous

  18. Adaptative evolution of metallothionein 3 in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosens, N.H.; Bernard, C.; Verbruggen, N. [Lab. de Physiologie et Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Leplae, R. [Service de Conformation des Macromolecules Biologiques et Bioinformatique, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-04-01

    A functional screening in yeast allowed to identify various cDNAs from the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. TcMT3 displayed high identity with its closest homologue in Arabidopsis thaliana but variation in its Cys residues. Functional analysis in yeast supported a higher binding capacity for Cu, but not for Cd or Zn, of TcMT3 compared to AtMT3. Expression analysis in plants indicated that metallothionein 3 (MT3) like all the other T. caerulescens genes from the screen studied is overexpressed in all studied populations of T. caerulescens compared to A. thaliana. TcMT3 was induced by Cu, but not by Cd. Moreover significant variation in expression within T. caerulescens populations that have contrasting tolerance and accumulation capacities indicated a possible local adaptation of MT3. (orig.)

  19. Manganese uptake and interactions with cadmium in the hyperaccumulator-Phytolacca Americana L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Kejian [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hunan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences Changsha 410004 (China); Luo Chunling [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); You Wuxin [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lian Chunlan [Asian Natural Environmental Science Center, University of Tokyo, 1-1-8 Midori-cho, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Shen Zhenguo [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail: zgshen@njau.edu.cn

    2008-06-15

    In the present study, the accumulation of Mn and other metals by Phytolacca Americana L. from contaminated soils in Hunan Province, South China, was investigated. Results showed that the average concentrations of Mn in the leaves and roots reached 2198 and 80.4 mg kg{sup -1} (dry weight), respectively, with a maximum 13,400 mg kg{sup -1} in the leaves. A significant correlation was found between Mn concentrations in the plant leaves and those in the corresponding soils. Hydroponic experiments were also conducted to study the Cd uptake ability and interactions between Mn and Cd in the plant. It was found that P. americana hyperaccumulated not only Mn, but also Cd in the leaves. In the presence of Cd, adding Mn to the solution significantly improved the plant growth and reduced the concentrations of Cd in all organs of the plant.

  20. Clonación y micropropagación de curuba (Passiflora mollissima Bailey a partir de embriones somáticos provenientes de hojas | Cloning and micropropagation of banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima Bailey from leaf somatic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Pilar Acosta-Zambrano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The banana passionfruit (Passiflora mollissima Bailey is a fruit from the Andean region and is used as raw material for the preparation of various food products. Tests were carried out for its in vitro multiplication using somatic embryos obtained from its leaves. A disinfection using sodium hypochlorite for 5 minutes and Murashige and Skoog (MS growth medium protocols with 1 mg/L of gibberellins was designed in order to induce germination. Vitro explants were selected for the multiplication in the MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of benzyl aminopurine and 1 mg/L of naphthenic acid. The stronger leaves were selected and inoculated in the MS medium and Woody Plant (WPM. The formation of embryos was observed since the third week. The formed plants were inoculated in a WPM medium with 1 mg/L of benzyl aminopurine. A 2-ip WPM 1 mg/L medium was used for the rooting period. Finally, they were acclimatized in peat with earth or pearlite, and then planted in pots with earth for further studies. Seed disinfection using sodium hypochlorite presented 20% contamination and 80% of plants germination, proving to be the best disinfectant (p < 0.05. From this last procedure, somatic embryos of leaves in a 2-ip WPM with 1 mg/L were obtained. The ideal acclimatization occurred in the medium with peat and earth, in which case the survival level obtained was 100% by comparison with earth and pearlite, in which no plant growth was observed. Micropropagation represents an economic and effective technique in the breeding of pathogen-free plants.

  1. A comprehensive set of transcript sequences of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YA-FEN eLIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noccaea caerulescens is an extremophile plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It has adapted to grow on soils containing high, normally toxic, concentrations of metals such as nickel, zinc and cadmium. Next to being extremely tolerant to these metals, it is one of the few species known to hyperaccumulate these metals to extremely high concentrations in their aboveground biomass. In order to provide additional molecular resources for this model metal hyperaccumulator species to study and understand the mechanism of heavy metal exposure adaptation, we aimed to provide a comprehensive database of transcript sequences for N. caerulescens. In this study, 23830 transcript sequences (isotigs with an average length of 1025 bps were determined for roots, shoots and inflorescences of N. caerulescens accession ‘Ganges’ by Roche GS-FLEX 454 pyrosequencing. These isotigs were grouped into 20,378 isogroups, representing potential genes. This is a large expansion of the existing N. caerulescens transcriptome set consisting of 3705 unigenes. When compared to a Brassicaceae proteome set, 22,232 (93.2% of the N. caerulescens isotigs (corresponding to 19191 isogroups had a significant match and could be annotated accordingly. Of the remaining sequences, 98 isotigs resembled non-plant sequences and 1386 had no significant similarity to any sequence in the GenBank database. Among the annotated set there were many isotigs with similarity to metal homeostasis genes or genes for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Only for transcripts similar to Metallothionein3 (MT3, clear evidence for an additional copy was found. This comprehensive set of transcripts is expected to further contribute to the discovery of mechanisms used by N. caerulescens to adapt to heavy metal exposure.

  2. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Xie

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  3. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  4. Contrasted zinc hyperaccumulation levels between metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Arabidopsis halleri is driven by divergent selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst-Kostecka, Alicja; Waldmann, Patrik; Pauwels, Maxime; Schat, Henk; Bourceaux, Angélique; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Frérot, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 400 species that can survive and reproduce in metalliferous environments have developed "metal hyperaccumulation" capacity, allowing them to allocate large amounts of trace elements to their aerial parts without showing severe toxicity symptoms. The potential of hyperaccumulators to be applied in phytoremediation efforts is of great research and commercial interest. Yet, the genetic basis and evolutionary significance of this trait are to date insufficiently understood. This lack of knowledge limits the efficiency and large-scale use of such plants in reducing soil pollution through "green and clean technologies" (phytoremediation). In this context, the objective of this study was to find some evidence of selection acting on metal hyperaccumulation, thus supporting the existence of genetic adaptation for this trait. Here, we collected six metallicolous and five non-metallicolous populations of the pseudometallophyte model species Arabidopsis halleri in Poland that are genetically and geographically close. We asexually propagated genotypes that were sampled in natural populations to produce several clones of each individual. These were subsequently used in a soil culture experiment with artificially zinc-contaminated compost for accumulation assessment. The zinc content of shoots was determined after five weeks of culture using the colorimetric reagent zincon. The heritability and the genetic differentiation of the zinc accumulation trait were estimated (Qst statistic) and the latter was compared to the differentiation at neutral molecular markers (Fst statistic). Despite significantly (Pselection, supporting the occurrence of local adaptation. These findings encourage further genetic and genomic research to uncover the genetic basis of local adaptation of A. halleri to contaminated environments. In particular, due to their enhanced zinc hyperaccumulation capacities non-metallicolous populations may be particularly promising for phytoremediation

  5. Characterization of Zinc and Cadmium hyperaccumulation in three Noccaea populations from non-metalliferous sites in the eastern Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eMartos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Southern slope of the Pyrenees is the meridional limit for the distribution of Noccaea populations. However, the systematic description of these populations and their hyperaccumulation mechanisms are not well established. Morphological and genetic analysis (ITS and 3 chloroplast regions were used to identify Noccaea populations localized on non-metallicolous soils during a survey in the Catalonian Pyrenees. Cd and Zn concentrations were analysed in soils and plants both sampled in the field and grown hydroponically. The expression of selected metal transporter genes was assessed by quantitative PCR. The populations were identified as Noccaea brachypetala (Jord. F.K. Mey by conspicuous morphological traits. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation among N. brachypetala, Noccaea caerulescens J. & C. Presl and Noccaea occitanica (Jord. F.K. Mey., three Noccaea species reported in the Pyrenees. Contrastingly, ITS and cpDNA analyses were unable to clearly differentiate these taxa. Differences in the expression of the metal transporter genes HMA3, HMA4, and MTP1 between N. caerulescens and N. brachypetala, and those amongst the N. brachypetala populations suggest differences in the strategies for handling enhanced Cd and Zn availability. This is the first report demonstrating Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by N. brachypetala both in the field and in hydroponics. This comprehensive study based on taxonomic, molecular, and physiological data allows both the correct identification of this species and the characterization of population differences in hyperaccumulation and tolerance of Zn and Cd.

  6. The effect of Polyscias filicifolia bailey biomass tincture on the protein synthesis process in the heterogeneous system from the isolated pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašauskas, Artūras; Mongirdienė, Aušra

    2013-01-01

    An insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart influences the process of protein synthesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass tincture on the protein synthesis process in a heterogeneous translation system from the isolated pig heart. The effect of anoxia was evaluated after 20- and 90-minute anoxia. With the aim to determine the effect of Polyscias, the pig hearts were perfused with a buffer containing the Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass tincture. To determine the rate and the level of translation, the incorporation of [(14)C]-leucine into translational products in a cell-free system was measured. The protein synthesis level decreased by 23%-42% when the translation system containing cytosol from the anoxic heart was used. When the translation system containing a ribosomal fraction after 20-minutes anoxia was used, the protein synthesis level was the same as in the control. In the case of 90-minute anoxia, it decreased by 16%. The protein synthesis rate and the level in the translation system containing cytosol from the heart after 20-minute anoxic perfusion with the buffer containing Polyscias was the same as in the control. A decrease in the protein synthesis rate and the level after 20-minute anoxia was determined by changes in cytosol. On the other hand, 90-minute anoxia caused changes in cytosol and the ribosomal fraction. The Polyscias filicifolia Bailey biomass tincture restored the protein synthesis process acting on the components of the translation system in cytosol and the ribosomal fraction.

  7. Molecular Characterization of MYB28 Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are Brassicaceae-specific secondary metabolites that act as crop protectants, flavor precursors, and cancer-prevention agents, which shows strong evidences of anticarcinogentic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. MYB28, the R2R3-MYB28 transcription factor, directly activates genes involved in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In this study, the MYB28 homology (BoaMYB28 was identified in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence indicated that the cDNA of BoaMYB28 was 1257 bp with an ORF of 1020 bp. The deduced BoaMYB28 protein was a polypeptide of 339 amino acid with a putative molecular mass of 38 kDa and a pI of 6.87. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that BoaMYB28 was most closely related to MYB28 homologs from the Brassicaceae family. The expression levels of BoaMYB28 varies across the tissues and developmental stages. BoaMYB28 transcript levels were higher in leaves and stems compared with those in cotyledons, flowers, and siliques. BoaMYB28 was expressed across all developmental leaf stages, with higher transcript accumulation in mature and inflorescence leaves. Over-expression and RNAi studies showed that BoaMYB28 retains the basic MYB28 gene function as a major transcriptional regulator of aliphatic glucosinolate pathway. The results indicated that over-expression and RNAi lines showed no visible difference on plant morphology. The contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes increased in over-expression lines and decreased in RNAi lines. In over-expression lines, aliphatic glucosinolate contents were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than those in the wild-type, while expression levels of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes were 1.5- to 4-fold higher than those in the wild-type. In contrast, the contents of aliphatic glucosinolates and transcript levels of aliphatic glucosinolate

  8. An Open Access Source for the Study of Religion and the Law: The Proceedings of the Old Bailey: London's Central Criminal Court 1674-1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Guyette

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The work of theological librarians is in a state of rapid flux as collections of digitized texts become more widely available, and as theological education continues to shift from paper to a more electronic research environment. /The Proceedings of the/ /Old Bailey, London 1674-1913 /is a rich collection of court records, now freely available on the World Wide Web (http://www.oldbaileyonline.org.uk/ . The study of a small, but meaningful selection of texts from the /OBP/ shows how theological librarians can use this resource to advance the conversation between religion and law. Five examples are offered to indicate how this might be done.

  9. Phytomining of valuable metals from waste incineration residues using hyperaccumulator plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide the availability of primary sources of certain economically important metals is decreasing, resulting in high supply risks and increasing prices for this materials. Therefore, an alternative way of retrieving these high valuable technical metals is the recycling and use of anthropogenic secondary sources, such as waste incineration residues. Phytomining offers an environmentally sound and cheap technology to recover such metals from secondary sources. Thus, the aim of our research work is to investigate the potential of phytomining from waste incineration slags by growing metal hyperaccumulating plants on this substrates and use the metal enriched biomass as a bio-ore. As a first stage, material from Vienna's waste incineration plants was sampled and analyzed. Residues from municipal wastes as well as residues from hazardous waste incineration and sewage sludge incineration were analyzed. In general, the slags can be characterized by a very high pH, high salinity and high heavy metal concentrations. Our work is targeting the so-called critical raw materials defined by the European Commission in 2014. Thus, the target metal species in our project are amongst others cobalt, chromium, antimony, tungsten, gallium, nickel and selected rare earth elements. This elements are present in the slags at moderate to low concentrations. In order to optimize the substrate for plant growth the high pH and salt content as well as the low nitrogen content in the slags need to be controlled. Thus, different combinations of amendments, mainly from the waste industry, as well as different acidifying agents were tested for conditioning the substrate. Washing the slags with diluted nitric acid turned out to be effective for lowering the pH. The acid treated substrate in combination with material from mechanical biological waste treatment and biochar, is currently under investigation in a greenhouse pot experiment. The experimental setup consists of a full factorial design

  10. X-ray microanalysis of high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted, Ni hyperaccumulating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, S.D.; Crawford, S.A.; Woodrow, I.E.; Sommer-Knudsen, J.; Marshall, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The preparation of plant material for the x-ray microanalysis of diffusible elements is notoriously difficult, especially where cells are highly vacuolated. It is shown that leaves of a Ni hyperaccumulator, Hybanthus floribundus, are well preserved at the ultrastructural level by high-pressure freezing followed by an anhydrous freeze-substitution protocol (Marshall, 1980) Dry cut sections were subjected to x-ray microanalysis in a Jeol 1200EX STEM to produce quantitative element distribution maps. Element distribution maps showed that Ni was predominantly localised in the vacuoles of epidermal cells in the leaves. Quantitation of Ni revealed concentrations up to 275 mmol kg -1 (embedded tissue) in some epidermal vacuoles. The accumulation of Ni in these cells was associated with a decrease in the concentration of Na and K. There was no indication that Ni was associated with P, S or Cl in the vacuoles Ni also concentrated on the outside of cell walls throughout the leaf section, indicating that apoplastic compartmentation is also involved in Ni tolerance and accumulation in this plant. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  11. Repeated phytoextraction of four metal-contaminated soils using the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Zhang, Hao; Christie, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator extracted metals from four contaminated soils over three years in a glasshouse experiment. Changes in plant metal uptake and soil total (aqua regia-extractable) and available metals were investigated. Plant Cd concentrations in a high-Cd acid soil and plant Zn concentrations in two acid soils decreased during repeated phytoextraction and were predicted by soil available metal concentrations. However, on repeated phytoextraction, plant Cd concentrations remained constant in lightly Cd-polluted acid soils, as did plant Cd and Zn in alkaline soils, although soil available metal concentrations decreased markedly. After phytoextraction acid soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiencies, indicating possible suitability of phytoextraction for acid soils. However, DGT-testing, which takes soil metal re-supply into consideration, showed substantial removal of available metal and distinct decreases in metal supply capacity in alkaline soils after phytoextraction, suggesting that a strategy based on lowering the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible. - Highlights: • Plant shoot Cd decreased in high-Cd acid soil and also plant Zn did in two acid soils. • Plant shoot Cd remained constant in low-Cd acid soil and also plant Zn did in alkaline soils. • Acidic soils showed much higher total metal removal efficiency than the alkaline soils. - Acid soil has high total metal phytoremediation efficiency while a strategy based on stripping of the bioavailable contaminant might be feasible for alkaline soil phytoremediation

  12. Arsenic removal from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata biomass: Coupling extraction with precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Evandro B; de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Wilkie, Ann C; Liu, Yungen; Ma, Lena Q

    2018-02-01

    Proper disposal of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata biomass (Chinese brake fern) enhances its application in phytoremediation. The goal of this study was to optimize As removal from P. vittata (PV) biomass by testing different particle sizes, extractants, extraction times and solid-to-liquid ratios. PV biomass was extracted using different extractants followed by different Mg-salts to recover soluble As via precipitation. Water-soluble As in PV biomass varied from 6.8% to 61% of total As depending on extraction time, with 99% of As being arsenate (AsV). Extraction with 2.1% HCl, 2.1% H 3 PO 4 , 1 M NaOH and 50% ethanol recovered 81, 78, 47 and 14% of As from PV biomass. A follow-up extraction using HCl recovered 27-32% with ethanol recovering only 5%. Though ethanol showed the lowest extractable As, residual As in the biomass was also the lowest. Among the extractants, 35% ethanol was the best to remove As from PV biomass. Approximately 90% As was removed from PV biomass using particle size biomass prior to disposal helps make phytoremediation more feasible. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Field evaluation of Cd and Zn phytoextraction potential by the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, S.P.; Lombi, E.; Gray, C.W.; Caille, N.; Dunham, S.J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Field trials were undertaken to investigate the effect of the application of metal mobilizing agents, different sowing strategies and length of growing season on the extraction of Cd and Zn from soils by Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri. None of the mobilizing agents used enhanced metal accumulation by T. caerulescens. Between 1998 and 2000, on average across plots where Cd or Zn exceeded allowable limits, T. caerulescens removed 1.3 and 0.3% of the total soil Cd and Zn. In one season when T. caerulescens was grown for 14 months, 21.7 and 4.4% of the total soil Cd and Zn was removed. This was larger than values found when T. caerulescens was grown for 4 months. A. halleri accumulated similar concentrations of Zn, but lower Cd concentrations than T. caerulescens. The results indicate that metal phytoextraction using T. caerulescens can be used to clean up soils moderately contaminated by Cd. - The hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (the Ganges ecotype) is more efficient at phytoextracting Cd than Zn from contaminated soil

  14. Interactions of mycorrhizal fungi with Pteris vittata (As hyperaccumulator) in As-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, H.M.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse trial was conducted to investigate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) in aiding arsenic (As) uptake and tolerance by Pteris vittata (As hyperaccumulator) and Cynodon dactylon (a multi-metal root accumulator). Plants inoculated with lived and killed native mycorrhizas isolated from an As mine site were grown in a sterile and slightly acidic soil. The infectious percentage of mycorrhizas (0 mg/kg As: 26.4%, 50 mg/kg As: 30.3%, 100 mg/kg As: 40.6%) and the average biomass of shoots in infected P. vittata increased (0 mg/kg As: 2.45 g/pot, 50 mg/kg As: 2.48 g/pot, 100 mg/kg As: 10.9 g/pot) according to the increase of As levels when compared to control. The indigenous mycorrhizas enhanced As accumulation (0 mg/kg As: 3.70 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg As: 58.3 mg/kg; 100 mg/kg As: 88.1 mg/kg) in the As mine populations of P. vittata and also sustained its growth by aiding P absorption. For C. dactylon, As was mainly accumulated in mycorrhizal roots and translocation to shoots was inhibited. - Indigenous mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in As tolerance

  15. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Luo

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd. S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress.

  16. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana@us.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of A. macrostachyum by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. We also determined ash, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc concentrations, and C/N ratio. A. macrostachyum demonstrated hypertolerance to cadmium stress; it did not show phytotoxicity at shoot concentration as high as 70 mg kg{sup -1}. The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) for all Cd treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has higher ability to transfer Cd from roots to shoots at lower Cd concentrations. At 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} Cd A. macrostachyum showed 25% biomass reduction after a month of treatment. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate (P{sub N}). Reductions in P{sub N} could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. macrostachyum has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator and may be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated sites.

  17. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhu [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Longhua, E-mail: lhwu@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Pengjie [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai 264003 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Low Cu has no significant effect on Sedum plumbizincicola plant growth and Cd and Zn uptake. • Plant held Cu in unactive areas and insoluble forms as de-toxification mechanisms. • Influence of Cu on Zn and Cd uptake and translocation were different. • Cu accumulation in leaf veins may restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves -- Abstract: Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5–50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola.

  18. In vivo localization of manganese in the hyperaccumulator Gossia bidwillii (Benth.) N. Snow & Guymer (Myrtaceae) by cryo-SEM/EDAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Batianoff, George N; Baker, Alan J; Woodrow, Ian E

    2006-05-01

    Gossia bidwillii (Myrtaceae) is a manganese (Mn)-hyperaccumulating tree native to subtropical eastern Australia. It typically contains foliar Mn levels in excess of 1% dry weight. However, in G. bidwillii and other Mn-hyperaccumulating species, the cellular and subcellular localization of Mn has not been measured. Quantitative in vivo cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was used to localize Mn and other elements in tissue collected from mature trees growing in a natural population. Cryo-SEM showed that the leaf mesophyll is differentiated as a double-layer palisade mesophyll above spongy mesophyll. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the palisade and epidermal cells are highly vacuolated. EDAX data were used to estimate in situ vacuolar Mn concentrations of all cell types in fresh cryo-fixed leaf tissues. The highest average vacuolar Mn concentration of over 500 mM was found in the upper-layer palisade mesophyll, while the lowest concentration of around 100 mM was found in the spongy mesophyll. Qualitative in vivo cryo-SEM/EDAX was employed to further investigate the spatial distribution of Mn in fresh leaf tissues and young bark tissue, which was also found to have a high Mn concentration. It is concluded that Mn distribution in G. bidwillii is quantitatively different to metal distribution in other hyperaccumulating species where the highest localized concentrations of these elements occur in non-photosynthmetic tissues such as epidermal cells and associated dermal structures including trichomes and leaf hairs.

  19. Characterization of three distinct metallothionein genes of the Ag-hyperaccumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita strobiliformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložková, Kateřina; Matěnová, Michaela; Žáčková, Petra; Strnad, Hynek; Hršelová, Hana; Hroudová, Miluše; Kotrba, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms evolved in eukaryotes to handle heavy metals involve cytosolic, metal-binding metallothioneins (MTs). We have previously documented that the sequestration of silver (Ag) in the Ag-hyperaccumulating Amanita strobiliformis is dominated by 34-amino-acid (AA) AsMT1a, 1b, and 1c isoforms. Here we show that in addition to AsMT1a, 1b, and 1c isogenes, the fungus has two other MT genes: AsMT2 encoding a 34-AA AsMT2 similar to MTs known from other species, but unrelated to AsMT1s; AsMT3 coding for a 62-AA AsMT3 that shares substantial identity with as-yet-uncharacterized conserved peptides predicted in agaricomycetes. Transcription of AsMT1s and AsMT3 in the A. strobiliformis mycelium was specifically inducible by treatments with Ag or copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) or cadmium (Cd), respectively; AsMT2 showed a moderate upregulation in the presence of Cd. Expression of AsMTs in the metal-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that all AsMTs confer increased Cd tolerance (AsMT3 proved the most effective) and that, unlike AsMT1 and AsMT2, AsMT3 can protect the yeasts against Zn toxicity. The highest level of Cu tolerance was observed with yeasts expressing AsMT1a. Our data indicate that A. strobiliformis can specifically employ different MT genes for functions in the cellular handling of Ag and Cu (AsMT1s) and Zn (AsMT3). Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lewis acid catalysis and Green oxidations: sequential tandem oxidation processes induced by Mn-hyperaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, Vincent; Renard, Brice-Loïc; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Among the phytotechnologies used for the reclamation of degraded mining sites, phytoextraction aims to diminish the concentration of polluting elements in contaminated soils. However, the biomass resulting from the phytoextraction processes (highly enriched in polluting elements) is too often considered as a problematic waste. The manganese-enriched biomass derived from native Mn-hyperaccumulating plants of New Caledonia was presented here as a valuable source of metallic elements of high interest in chemical catalysis. The preparation of the catalyst Eco-Mn1 and reagent Eco-Mn2 derived from Grevillea exul exul and Grevillea exul rubiginosa was investigated. Their unusual polymetallic compositions allowed to explore new reactivity of low oxidative state of manganese-Mn(II) for Eco-Mn1 and Mn(IV) for Eco-Mn2. Eco-Mn1 was used as a Lewis acid to catalyze the acetalization/elimination of aldehydes into enol ethers with high yields; a new green and stereoselective synthesis of (-)-isopulegol via the carbonyl-ene cyclization of (+)-citronellal was also performed with Eco-Mn1. Eco-Mn2 was used as a mild oxidative reagent and controlled the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols into aldehydes with quantitative yields. Oxidative cleavage was interestingly noticed when Eco-Mn2 was used in the presence of a polyol. Eco-Mn2 allowed direct oxidative iodination of ketones without using iodine, which is strongly discouraged by new environmental legislations. Finally, the combination of the properties in the Eco-Mn catalysts and reagents gave them an unprecedented potential to perform sequential tandem oxidation processes through new green syntheses of p-cymene from (-)-isopulegol and (+)-citronellal; and a new green synthesis of functionalized pyridines by in situ oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines.

  1. Hyperaccumulators of mercury in the industrial area of a PVC factory in Vlora (Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehu Julian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by heavy metals is one of the major threats to soil and water as well as human health. Much attention is being paid to metal-accumulating plants that may be used for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Some plants can accumulate remarkable levels of metals, 100-1000-fold the levels normally accumulated in most species. This study evaluated the potential of mercury accumulation of 17 plant species growing on contaminated sites in the ex-industrial area of the PVC Factory, Vlora, Albania. Plant roots, shoots and soil samples were collected and analyzed for the selected metal concentration values. The biological accumulation coefficient (BAC was calculated to evaluate the potential use of plant species for phytoremediation purposes. The concentration of Hg in soils inside the contaminated area varied from 45-301 mg/kg-1. The concentration of Hg in plant shoots and roots varied from 0.1 to 12.9 mg/kg-1 and 0.1 to 4.2 mg/kg-1, respectively. Species Medicago sativa L. and Dittrichia viscosa (L. W. Greuter were found to be the most suitable plants for phytoremediation of the site contaminated with mercury (BAC values varied from 30-10 percent, respectively. Considering the BAC values, none of the plant species was found to be a hyperaccumulator; however, plants with high BCF (metal concentration ratio of plant root to soil and low BTC (metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to roots have the potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction. The results of this study can be used for the management and decontamination of soils with mercury using plant species having phytoremediation potential/characteristics.

  2. PIXE study on absorption of arsenate and arsenite by arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.

    2008-01-01

    Pytoremediation using an arsenic hyperaccumulator, Petris vittata L., has generated an increasing interest worldwide due to both environmentally sound and cost effectiveness. However the mechanism of arsenic accumulation by this fern is not clear at this time. This study examined the uptake of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) by a hydroponic culture of Pteris vittata using both in-air submilli-PIXE for different parts of the fern and in-air micro-PIXE for the tissue cells. These PIXE analysis systems used 3 MeV proton beams from a 4.5-MV single-ended Dynamitron accelerator at Tohoku University, Japan. The fern took up both arsenate and arsenite from hydroponic solutions which were spiked with 50 mg of arsenic per litter. Final amount of arsenic accumulation in the fern is 1,500 mg per kg (wet weight) of the plant biomass in arsenite treatment and 1,100 mg per kg in arsenate treatment. Arsenic accumulation was not observed at the root parts of the ferns. The in-vivo mapping of elements by submilli-PIXE analyses on the fern laminas showed the arsenic accumulation in the edges of a pinna. The micro-PIXE analyses revealed arsenic maps homogeneously distributed in cells of the lamina, stem and rhizome of the fern. These results indicate that arsenic, both arsenate and arsenite in a contaminated medium are translocated quickly from roots to fronds of Pteris vittata, and distributes homogeneously into tissue cells of the fern laminas. (author)

  3. Interaction of cadmium and zinc on accumulation and sub-cellular distribution in leaves of hyperaccumulator Potentilla griffithii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Rongliang, E-mail: eesqrl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Thangavel, Palaniswamy; Hu Pengjie; Senthilkumar, Palaninaicker; Ying Rongrong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Tang Yetao [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Potentilla griffithii Hook is a newly found hyperaccumulator plant capable of high tolerance and accumulation of Zn and Cd. We investigated the interactive effects between Cd and Zn on accumulation and vacuolar sequestration in P. griffithii. Stimulatory effect of growth was noted at 0.2 mM Cd and 1.25 and 2.5 mM Zn tested. Accumulation of Zn and Cd in roots, petioles and leaves were increased significantly with addition of these metals individually. However, the Zn supplement decreased root Cd accumulation but increased the concentration of Cd in petioles and leaves. The results from sub-cellular distribution showed that up to 94% and 70% of the total Zn and Cd in the leaves were present in the protoplasts, and more than 90% Cd and Zn in the protoplasts were localized in the vacuoles. Nearly, 88% and 85% of total Cd and Zn were extracted in the cell sap of the leaves suggesting that most of the Cd and Zn in the leaves were available in soluble form. The present results indicate that Zn supplement significantly enhanced the petiole accumulation of Cd and further vacuolar sequestration plays an important role in tolerance, detoxification and hyperaccumulation of these metals in P. griffithii.

  4. Interaction of Nickel and Manganese in Accumulation and Localization in Leaves of the Ni Hyperaccumulators Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadhurst, C.; Tappero, R; Maugel, T; Erbe, E; Sparks, D; Chaney, R

    2009-01-01

    The genus Alyssum contains >50 Ni hyperaccumulator species; many can achieve >2.5% Ni in dry leaf. In soils with normal Mn levels, Alyssum trichome bases were previously observed to accumulate Ni and Mn to high levels. Here we report concentration and localization patterns in A. murale and A. corsicum grown in soils with nonphytotoxic factorial additions of Ni and Mn salts. Four leaf type subsets based on size and age accumulated Ni and Mn similarly. The greatest Mn accumulation (10 times control) was observed in A. corsicum with 40 mmol Mn kg-1 and 40 mmol Ni kg-1 added to potting soil. Whole leaf Ni concentrations decreased as Mn increased. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of whole fresh leaves showed localized in distinct high-concentration Mn spots associated with trichomes, Ni and Mn distributions were strongly spatially correlated. Standard X-ray fluorescence point analysis/mapping of cryofractured and freeze-dried samples found that Ni and Mn were co-located and strongly concentrated only in trichome bases and in cells adjacent to trichomes. Nickel concentration was also strongly spatially correlated with sulfur. Results indicate that maximum Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum may be reduced in soils with higher phytoavailable Mn, and suggest that Ni hyperaccumulation in Alyssum species may have developed from a Mn handling system.

  5. Tonoplast- and plasma membrane-localized aquaporin-family transporters in blue hydrangea sepals of aluminum hyperaccumulating plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Negishi

    Full Text Available Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is tolerant of acidic soils in which toxicity generally arises from the presence of the soluble aluminum (Al ion. When hydrangea is cultivated in acidic soil, its resulting blue sepal color is caused by the Al complex formation of anthocyanin. The concentration of vacuolar Al in blue sepal cells can reach levels in excess of approximately 15 mM, suggesting the existence of an Al-transport and/or storage system. However, until now, no Al transporter has been identified in Al hyperaccumulating plants, animals or microorganisms. To identify the transporter being responsible for Al hyperaccumulation, we prepared a cDNA library from blue sepals according to the sepal maturation stage, and then selected candidate genes using a microarray analysis and an in silico study. Here, we identified the vacuolar and plasma membrane-localized Al transporters genes vacuolar Al transporter (VALT and plasma membrane Al transporter 1 (PALT1, respectively, which are both members of the aquaporin family. The localization of each protein was confirmed by the transient co-expression of the genes. Reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblotting results indicated that VALT and PALT1 are highly expressed in sepal tissue. The overexpression of VALT and PALT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana conferred Al-tolerance and Al-sensitivity, respectively.

  6. Expression of the Znt1 zinc transporter from the metal hyperaccumulator noccaea caerulescens confers enhanced zinc and cadmium tolerance and accumulation to arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Ya Fen; Hassan, Zeshan; Talukdar, S.; Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Prompt regulation of transition metal transporters is crucial for plant zinc homeostasis. NcZNT1 is one of such transporters, found in the metal hyperaccumulator Brassicaceae species Noccaea caerulescens. It is orthologous to AtZIP4 from Arabidopsis thaliana, an important actor in Zn homeostasis.

  7. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Regvar, Marjana

    2006-01-01

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. - Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved nutrient and reduced Cd and Zn uptake

  8. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Leigh Broadhurst

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50, many of which can achieve 30 g kg-1 Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu and Mn uptake.We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg-1 Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg-1. A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient

  9. Effect of microbial siderophore DFO-B on Cd accumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens hyperaccumulator in the presence of zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Lotfollah; Heilmeier, Hermann; Merkel, Broder J

    2012-07-01

    Hyperaccumulators are grown in contaminated soil and water in order that contaminants are taken up and accumulated. Transport of metals from soil to plant is initially dependent on the solubility and mobility of metals in soil solution which is controlled by soil and metal properties and plant physiology. Complexation with organic and inorganic ligands may increase mobility and availability of metals for plants. In this work the influence of desferrioxamine-B (DFO-B), which naturally is produced in the rhizosphere, and zeolite on Cd accumulation in root and shoot of Thlaspi caerulescens (Cd hyperaccumulator) was investigated. Plants were grown in pots with clean quartz sand, amended with 1% zeolite; treatment solutions included 0, 10, and 100 μM Cd and 70 μM DFO-B. Addition of zeolite to the quartz sand significantly reduced Cd concentration in plant tissues and translocation from root to shoot. On contrary, DFO-B considerably enhanced Cd sorption by roots and translocation to aerial part of plants. Treating the plants with zeolite and DFO-B together at 10 μM Cd resulted in reduction of the bioaccumulation factor but enhancement of Cd translocation from root to shoot at the rate of 13%. In contrast, at 100 μM Cd in the solution both bioaccumulation and translocation factors decreased. Total metal accumulation as a key factor for evaluating the efficiency of phytoremediation was highly influenced by treatments. Presence of zeolite in pots significantly decreased total Cd accumulation by plants, whereas, DFO-B clearly enhanced it. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathways of root uptake and membrane transport of Cd2+in the zinc/cadmium hyperaccumulating plant Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Zhen; Tu, Chen; Wu, Long-Hua; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Ebbs, Stephen; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Uptake and membrane transport of cadmium (Cd) in roots of the hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola X.H. Guo et S.B. Zhou ex L.H. Wu was characterized by assessing the impact of various inhibitors and ion channel blockers on Cd accumulation as well as the real-time net Cd 2+ flux at the roots with application of the scanning ion-selective electrode technique. The uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol and P-type adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor Na 3 VO 4 significantly limited Cd 2+ uptake and transport kinetics in the root of S. plumbizincicola. These findings indicate that Cd is actively taken up into the roots. The Cd content in plant was significantly decreased with pretreatments of the Ca 2+ channel blocker La 3+ or Gd 3+ and the K + channel blocker tetraethylammonium, as well as in the presence of higher concentration of Ca 2+ and K + . These findings indicated that uptake of Cd 2+ into the root of S. plumbizincicola proceeds through ion channels that are permeable to both Ca 2+ and K + as confirmed by the direct evidence of real-time net Cd 2+ fluxes at the root surface in the treatments with ion channel inhibitors, as well as in the presence of elevated concentrations of Ca 2+ and K + . In addition, the results suggested a role for phytochelatin and protein synthesis in mediating Cd 2+ uptake by S. plumbizincicola. These findings increase the understanding of Cd 2+ uptake and membrane transport pathways in roots of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator S. plumbizincicola. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1038-1046. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. A significant positive correlation between endogenous trans-zeatin content and total arsenic in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica var. nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongbin; Li, Qinchun; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Yanyan

    2017-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the content of endogenous trans-zeatin (Z), plant arsenic (As) uptake and physiological indices in the fronds of As-hyperaccumulator (Pteris cretica var. nervosa) and non-hyperaccumulator (Pteris ensiformis). Furthermore, a stepwise regression method was used to study the relationship among determined indices, and the time-course effect of main indices was also investigated under 100mg/kg As stress with time extension. In the 100-200mg/kg As treatments, plant height showed no significant difference and endogenous Z content significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa compared to the control, but a significant decrease of height and endogenous Z was observed in P. ensiformis. The concentrations of As (III) and As (V) increased significantly in the fronds of two plants, but this increase was much higher in P. cretica var. nervosa. Compared to the control, the contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein were significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa but decreased in P. ensiformis in the 200mg/kg As treatment, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the contents of endogenous Z and total As in P. cretica var. nervosa, but such a correlation was not found in P. ensiformis. Additionally, in the time-course effect experiment, a peak value of each index was appeared in the 43rd day in two plants, except for chlorophyll in P. ensiformis, but this value was significantly higher in P. cretica var. nervosa than that in P. ensiformis. In conclusion, a higher endogenous Z content contributed to As accumulation of P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of zinc and cadmium interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in a hyperaccumulating species under hydroponic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Tingqiang, E-mail: litq@zju.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yang Xiaoe; Lu Lingli [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Islam, Ejazul [Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tandojam, 48800 Hyderabad (Pakistan); He Zhenli [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, Florida 34945 (United States)

    2009-09-30

    Effects of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of S. alfredii were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Specific root lengths (SRL), specific root surface areas (SRA) and specific root volumes (SRV) of the HE increased significantly when plant were treated with 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn, whereas these root parameters were significantly decreased for the NHE when plant were treated with 100 {mu}M Cd, 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn. SRL and SRA of the HE were mainly constituted by roots with diameter between 0.2-0.4 mm (diameter class 3 and 4) which were significantly increased in treatment of 500 {mu}M Zn or 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn, whereas in the NHE, metal treatments caused a significant decrease in SRL and SRA of the finest diameter class root (diameter between 0.1-0.3 mm). The HE of S. alfredii could maintain a fine, widely branched root system under contaminated conditions compared with the NHE. Relative root growth, net Cd uptake and translocation rate in the HE were significantly increased by adding 500 {mu}M Zn, as compared with the second growth period, where 100 {mu}M Cd was supplied alone. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the HE were 12-16 times and 22-27 times higher than those of the NHE under 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn combined treatment. These results indicate strong positive interactions of Zn and Cd occurred in the HE under 100 {mu}M Cd + 500 {mu}M Zn treatment and Cd uptake and translocation was enhanced by adding 500 {mu}M Zn.

  13. Effects of zinc and cadmium interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in a hyperaccumulating species under hydroponic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tingqiang; Yang Xiaoe; Lu Lingli; Islam, Ejazul; He Zhenli

    2009-01-01

    Effects of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) interactions on root morphology and metal translocation in the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of S. alfredii were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Specific root lengths (SRL), specific root surface areas (SRA) and specific root volumes (SRV) of the HE increased significantly when plant were treated with 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn, whereas these root parameters were significantly decreased for the NHE when plant were treated with 100 μM Cd, 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn. SRL and SRA of the HE were mainly constituted by roots with diameter between 0.2-0.4 mm (diameter class 3 and 4) which were significantly increased in treatment of 500 μM Zn or 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn, whereas in the NHE, metal treatments caused a significant decrease in SRL and SRA of the finest diameter class root (diameter between 0.1-0.3 mm). The HE of S. alfredii could maintain a fine, widely branched root system under contaminated conditions compared with the NHE. Relative root growth, net Cd uptake and translocation rate in the HE were significantly increased by adding 500 μM Zn, as compared with the second growth period, where 100 μM Cd was supplied alone. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the HE were 12-16 times and 22-27 times higher than those of the NHE under 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn combined treatment. These results indicate strong positive interactions of Zn and Cd occurred in the HE under 100 μM Cd + 500 μM Zn treatment and Cd uptake and translocation was enhanced by adding 500 μM Zn.

  14. Hyperaccumulator of Pb in native plants growing on Peruvian mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Boluda, Rafael; Tume, Pedro; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sanchez, Isidoro

    2014-05-01

    samples were taken at four locations (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4) with different levels of Pb. The Pb soil content (mean ± standard deviation) in mg•kg-1 is as follows: CA1 3992 ± 301; CA2 10128 ± 2247, CA3 14197 ± 895, CA4 16060 ± 810. The non-polluted value around the mine was Pb 124 mg•kg-1. Unusual elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg-1) and TF greater than one were detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens). The location CA4 has the maximum content of Pb in the shoots of Ageratina sp. (5045±77 mg•kg-1), C. apalothica (3367±188 mg•kg-1), E. denticulatum (13599±848 mg•kg-1), T. officinalis (2533±47 mg•kg-1) and T. repens (2839±231 mg•kg-1). However, the BF (Bioaccumulation Factor) was smaller than one. Despite the low BF index, the great TFs for Pb indicate that these plant species effectively translocate this metal (i.e., 2.4 for Ageratina sp., 2.3 for C. apalothica, 1.6 for T. repens, 1.5 for A. alata, 1.3 for T. officinalis and 1.2 for E. denticulatum). It seems that the BF is not a reliable index when the metal soil concentration is extremely large. Controlled-environment studies must be performed to definitively confirm the Pb hyperaccumulation character of cited plant species.

  15. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika

    2015-04-01

    observed in so-called hyperaccumulating metalophytes, which are studied for its suitability to be incorporated in metal recovery processes of elements that diffusely occur in different waste streams. In a systematic series of tests under laboratory conditions the accumulation behaviour for many different elements including rare earth metals of a selection of candidate plants growing on sewage sludge, incineration residues and industrial leftovers was assessed (quantitavely and qualitatively). Growth performance of these plants as well as the most suitable substrate properties were evaluated. The results of this project provided the groundwork for further research and development steps that might bring to practical implementation a technological option with potentially huge benefits: The recovery of valuable metal resources from sewage sludge, incineration ashes and metal rich wastewaters by environmentally friendly and low energy means. Simultaneous decontamination of the input substrates from heavy metals, opening the possibility for these nutrient streams to be redirected to biological regeneration processes (for example use as fertilizers in agriculture) without fear of polluting soils with heavy metal loads. Generation of biomass on contaminated substrates can yield usable energy surplus through incineration during or after processing.

  16. Elemental distribution in reproductive and neural organs of the Epilachna nylanderi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a phytophage of nickel hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asterales: Asteraceae) by micro-PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Augustyniak, Maria; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Tarnawska, Monika; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech; Migula, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal hyperaccumulation by plants is often explained by a pathogen or herbivore defense hypothesis. However, some insects feeding on metal hyperaccumulating plants are adapted to the high level of metals in plant tissues. Former studies on species that feed on the leaves of Berkheya coddii Roessler 1958 (Asteraceae), a nickel-hyperaccumulating plant, demonstrated several protective mechanisms involved in internal distribution, immobilization, and elimination of Ni from the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These species are mainly coleopterans, including the lady beetle, Epilachna nylanderi (Mulsant 1850) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), collected from the ultramafic ecosystem near Barberton in South Africa. By performing particle-induced X-ray emission microanalysis elemental microanalysis (PIXE), this study examined whether Ni may be harmful to internal body systems that decide on insect reactivity (central nervous system [CNS]), their reproduction, and the relationships between Ni and other micronutrients. Data on elemental distribution of nine selected elements in target organs of E. nylanderi were compared with the existing data for other insect species adapted to the excess of metals. Micro-PIXE maps of seven regions of the CNS showed Ni mainly in the neural connectives, while cerebral ganglia were better protected. Concentrations of other bivalent metals were lower than those of Ni. Testis, compared with other reproductive organs, showed low amounts of Ni. Zn was effectively regulated at physiological dietary levels. In insects exposed to excess dietary Zn, it was also accumulated in the reproductive organs. Comparison of E. nylanderii with other insects that ingest hyperaccumulating plants, especially chrysomelid Chrysolina clathrata (Clark) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), showed lower protection of the CNS and reproductive organs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Speciation and localization of Zn in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii by extended X-ray absorption fine structure and micro-X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingli; Liao, Xingcheng; Labavitch, John; Yang, Xiaoe; Nelson, Erik; Du, Yonghua; Brown, Patrick H; Tian, Shengke

    2014-11-01

    Differences in metal homeostasis among related plant species can give important information of metal hyperaccumulation mechanisms. Speciation and distribution of Zn were investigated in a hyperaccumulating population of Sedum alfredii by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure and micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), respectively. The hyperaccumulator uses complexation with oxygen donor ligands for Zn storage in leaves and stems, and variations in the Zn speciation was noted in different tissues. The dominant chemical form of Zn in leaves was most probably a complex with malate, the most prevalent organic acid in S. alfredii leaves. In stems, Zn was mainly associated with malate and cell walls, while Zn-citrate and Zn-cell wall complexes dominated in the roots. Two-dimensional μ-XRF images revealed age-dependent differences in Zn localization in S. alfredii stems and leaves. In old leaves of S. alfredii, Zn was high in the midrib, margin regions and the petiole, whereas distribution of Zn was essentially uniform in young leaves. Zinc was preferentially sequestered by cells near vascular bundles in young stems, but was highly localized to vascular bundles and the outer cortex layer of old stems. The results suggest that tissue- and age-dependent variations of Zn speciation and distribution occurred in the hyperaccumulator S. alfredii, with most of the Zn complexed with malate in the leaves, but a shift to cell wall- and citric acid-Zn complexes during transportation and storage in stems and roots. This implies that biotransformation in Zn complexation occurred during transportation and storage processes in the plants of S. alfredii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Clemens; Giehren, Franziska; Krämer, Ute; Müller, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Plants that are able to hyperaccumulate heavy metals show increased concentrations of these metals in their leaf tissue. However, little is known about the concentrations of heavy metals and of organic defence metabolites in the phloem sap of these plants in response to either heavy metal-amendment of the soil or biotic challenges such as aphid-infestation. In this study, we investigated the effects of heavy metal-exposure and of aphid-infestation on phloem exudate composition of the metal hyperaccumulator species Arabidopsis halleri L. O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz (Brassicaceae). The concentrations of elements and of organic defence compounds, namely glucosinolates, were measured in phloem exudates of young and old (mature) leaves of plants challenged either by amendment of the soil with cadmium and zinc and/or by an infestation with the generalist aphid Myzus persicae. Metal-amendment of the soil led to increased concentrations of Cd and Zn, but also of two other elements and one indole glucosinolate, in phloem exudates. This enhanced defence in the phloem sap of heavy metal-hyperaccumulating plants can thus potentially act as effective protection against aphids, as predicted by the elemental defence hypothesis. Aphid-infestation also caused enhanced Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates. This result provides first evidence that metal-hyperaccumulating plants can increase heavy metal concentrations tissue-specifically in response to an attack by phloem-sucking herbivores. Overall, the concentrations of most elements, including the heavy metals, and glucosinolates were higher in phloem exudates of young leaves than in those of old leaves. This defence distribution highlights that the optimal defence theory, which predicts more valuable tissue to be better defended, is applicable for both inorganic and organic defences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A field-scale study of cadmium phytoremediation in a contaminated agricultural soil at Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand: (1) Determination of Cd-hyperaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaokaew, Saengdao; Landrot, Gautier

    2015-11-01

    The cadmium (Cd) phytoremediation capabilities of Gynura pseudochina, Chromolaena odorata, Conyza sumatrensis, Crassocephalum crepidioides and Nicotiana tabacum were determined by conducting in-situ experiments in a highly Cd-contaminated agricultural field at Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Most of these five plant species, which are commonly found in Thailand, previously demonstrated Cd-hyperaccumulating capacities under greenhouse conditions. This study represented an important initial step in determining if any of these plants could, under field-conditions, effectively remove Cd from the Mae Sot contaminated fields, which represent a health threat to thousands of local villagers. All plant species had at least a 95% survival rate on the final harvest day. Additionally, all plant species, except C. odorata, could hyperaccumulate the extractable Cd amounts present in the soil, based on their associated Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF), Translocation Factor (TF), and background Vegetation Factor (VF). Therefore, the four Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species identified in this study may successfully treat a majority of contaminated fields at Mae Sot, as it was previously reported that Cd amounts present in a number of these soils were mostly available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impaired leaf CO2 diffusion mediates Cd-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Ying, Rong-Rong; Jiang, Dan; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Morel, Jean-Louis; Tang, Ye-Tao; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms of cadmium (Cd)-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata were investigated using photosynthesis limitation analysis. P. divaricata seedlings were grown in nutrient solution containing 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, or 75 μM Cd for 2 weeks. Total limitations to photosynthesis (TL) increased from 0% at 5 μM Cd to 68.8% at 75 μM Cd. CO2 diffusional limitation (DL) made the largest contribution to TL, accounting for 93-98% of TL in the three highest Cd treatments, compared to just 2-7% of TL attributable to biochemical limitation (BL). Microscopic imaging revealed significantly decreased stomatal density and mesophyll thickness in the three highest Cd treatments. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters related to photosynthetic biochemistry (Fv/Fm, NPQ, ΦPSII, and qP) were not significantly decreased by increased Cd supply. Our results suggest that increased DL in leaves is the main cause of Cd-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in P. divaricata, possibly due to suppressed function of mesophyll and stomata. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that Cd supply had little effect on photochemistry parameters, suggesting that the PSII reaction centers are not a main target of Cd inhibition of photosynthesis in P. divaricata. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. STUDIES REGARDING THE CHELATE-INDUCED HYPERACCUMULATION OF CU AND FE USING LOLIUM PERENNE SPECIES IN MINING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-DIANA PRICOP

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The plant capacity to absorb high amounts of metal for a short period of time is the major factor that influences the efficiency of phytoextraction. The hyperaccumulating plants uptake high amounts in their tissues correlated to the metal concentrations in soil. Chelating agents have the capacity to induce the metal accumulation in biomass. They increase metal bioavailability for plants by releasing the metal in accessible forms. The present study emphasizes that in the case of EDTA use, the obtained biomass is smaller compared to the other variants, showing a lower tolerance to this chelating agent of Lolium perenne species. Cu and Fe phytoextraction by Lolium perenne species is higher in the case of EDTA use. Cu bioaccumulation has higher values in variants with compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:4 in comparison with Fe. In the case of the best compost-sterile mixture ratio of 1:3 the highest biomass is obtained in all the variants, biosolids’ effect being stronger compared to the chelating agent.

  2. Manganese (Mn) stress toward hyperaccumulators plants combination (HPC) using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition on soybean (Glycine max) seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Tania Sylviana; Zahroh, Tata Taqiyyatuz; Merindasya, Mirza; Masfaridah, Ririn; Hartanti, Dyah Ayu Sri; Arum, Sekar; Nurhatika, Sri; Muhibuddin, Anton; Surtiningsih, Tini; Arifiyanto, Achmad

    2017-06-01

    Heavy metals were a metal bracket which had a specific gravity greater than 5 g / cm3. Manganese was one of them because it has a specific gravity of 7.4 g / cm3. Together with widespread cases of soil contamination caused by heavy metals as well as increased development of the science of breeding ground rapidly, then the alternative rehabilitation techniques were relatively cheap and effective it needs to be developed and even some cases of contaminated management soil using a combination of plants with microorganisms to be more effective. Thus it was necessary to develop research on plants that were able to accumulate heavy metals and other toxic materials, such as Mn so that the land becomes safe for health and the environment. Based on above reason this research aimed to see the influence of hyperaccumulators combination of plants using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition to stressed by manganese (Mn) on soybean (Glycine max). Observations of growth, chlorophyll content and heavy metals analysis performed on nine treatments (P1-P9) and one control (P0). The results showed a combination of hyperaccumulators under mychorrizal helped overcome the stress of manganese (Mn) in the leaves of soybean (G. max). It gave an influence on the number of leaves and chlorophyll content of soybean (G. max), but no effect performed on the height and the roots of soybean (G. max). The use of plants in small amounts hyperaccumulators (P1;1 jatropha and 1 lamtoro) was sufficient to cope with stress of Mn in the leaves of soybean (G. max).

  3. Effects of compost and phosphate amendments on arsenic mobility in soils and arsenic uptake by the hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xinde; Ma, Lena Q.; Shiralipour, Aziz

    2003-01-01

    Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), an arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator, has shown the potential to remediate As-contaminated soils. This study investigated the effects of soil amendments on the leachability of As from soils and As uptake by Chinese brake fern. The ferns were grown for 12 weeks in a chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil or in As spiked contaminated (ASC) soil. Soils were treated with phosphate rock, municipal solid waste, or biosolid compost. Phosphate amendments significantly enhanced plant As uptake from the two tested soils with frond As concentrations increasing up to 265% relative to the control. After 12 weeks, plants grown in phosphate-amended soil removed >8% of soil As. Replacement of As by P from the soil binding sites was responsible for the enhanced mobility of As and subsequent increased plant uptake. Compost additions facilitated As uptake from the CCA soil, but decreased As uptake from the ASC soil. Elevated As uptake in the compost-treated CCA soil was related to the increase of soil water-soluble As and As(V) transformation into As(III). Reduced As uptake in the ASC soil may be attributed to As adsorption to the compost. Chinese brake fern took up As mainly from the iron-bound fraction in the CCA soil and from the water-soluble/exchangeable As in the ASC soil. Without ferns for As adsorption, compost and phosphate amendments increased As leaching from the CCA soil, but had decreased leaching with ferns when compared to the control. For the ASC soil, treatments reduced As leaching regardless of fern presence. This study suggest that growing Chinese brake fern in conjunction with phosphate amendments increases the effectiveness of remediating As-contaminated soils, by increasing As uptake and decreasing As leaching. - Phosphate amendment increases the effectiveness of Chinese brake fern to remediate As-contaminated soils, by increasing As uptake and decreasing As leaching

  4. Characteristics of metal-tolerant plant growth-promoting yeast (Cryptococcus sp. NSE1) and its influence on Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Qingling; Hou, Jinyu; Wu, Longhua; Wood, Jennifer L; Luo, Yongming; Franks, Ashley E

    2016-09-01

    Plant growth-promoting yeasts are often over looked as a mechanism to improve phytoremediation of heavy metals. In this study, Cryptococcus sp. NSE1, a Cd-tolerant yeast with plant growth capabilities, was isolated from the rhizosphere of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola. The yeast exhibited strong tolerance to a range of heavy metals including Cd, Cu, and Zn on plate assays. The adsorption rate Cd, Cu, Zn by NSE1 was 26.1, 13.2, and 25.2 %, respectively. Irregular spines were formed on the surface of NSE1 when grown in MSM medium supplemented with 200 mg L(-1) Cd. NSE1 was capable of utilizing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) as a sole nitrogen source and was capable of solubilization of inorganic phosphate at rates of 195.2 mg L(-1). Field experiments demonstrated that NSE1 increased phytoremediation by increasing the biomass of Cd hyperaccumulator S. plumbizincicola (46 %, p heavy metal content in soils significantly without overall significant changes to the microbial community.

  5. Rhizobium metallidurans sp. nov., a symbiotic heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from the Anthyllis vulneraria Zn-hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Claire M; Jackson, Stephen; Merlot, Sylvain; Dobson, Alan; Grison, Claude

    2015-05-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (ChimEc512(T)) was isolated from 56 host seedlings of the hyperaccumulating Anthyllis vulneraria legume, which was on an old zinc mining site at Les Avinières, Saint-Laurent-Le-Minier, Gard, South of France. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain ChimEc512(T) was shown to belong to the genus Rhizobium and to be most closely related to Rhizobium endophyticum CCGE 2052(T) (98.4%), Rhizobium tibeticum CCBAU 85039(T) (98.1%), Rhizobium grahamii CCGE 502(T) (98.0%) and Rhizobium mesoamericanum CCGE 501(T) (98.0%). The phylogenetic relationships of ChimEc512(T) were confirmed by sequencing and analyses of recA and atpD genes. DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain ChimEc512(T) with R. endophyticum CCGE 2052(T), R. tibeticum CCBAU 85039(T), R. mesoamericanum CCGE 52(T), Rhizobium grahamii CCGE 502(T), Rhizobium etli CCBAU 85039(T) and Rhizobium radiobacter KL09-16-8-2(T) were 27, 22, 16, 18, 19 and 11%, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain ChimEc512(T) was 58.9 mol%. The major cellular fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c, characteristic of the genus Rhizobium . The polar lipid profile included phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine and moderate amounts of aminolipids, phospholipid and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Although ChimEc512(T) was able to nodulate A. vulneraria, the nodC and nifH genes were not detected by PCR. The rhizobial strain was tolerant to high concentrations of heavy metals: up to 35 mM Zn and up to 0.5 mM Cd and its growth kinetics was not impacted by Zn. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain ChimEc512(T) from species of the genus Rhizobium with validly published names. Strain ChimEc512(T), therefore, represents a novel species, for which the name Rhizobium metallidurans sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain

  6. Chromate and phosphate inhibited each other's uptake and translocation in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Letúzia M. de; Lessl, Jason T.; Gress, Julia; Tisarum, Rujira; Guilherme, Luiz R.G.; Ma, Lena Q.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of chromate (CrVI) and phosphate (P) on their uptake and translocation in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). Plants were exposed to 1) 0.10 mM CrVI and 0, 0.25, 1.25, or 2.50 mM P or 2) 0.25 mM P and 0, 0.50, 2.5 or 5.0 mM CrVI for 24 h in hydroponics. PV accumulated 2919 mg/kg Cr in the roots at CrVI 0.10 , and 5100 and 3500 mg/kg P in the fronds and roots at P 0.25 . When co-present, CrVI and P inhibited each other's uptake in PV. Increasing P concentrations reduced Cr root concentrations by 62–82% whereas increasing CrVI concentrations reduced frond P concentrations by 52–59% but increased root P concentrations by 11–15%. Chromate reduced P transport, with more P being accumulated in PV roots. Though CrVI was supplied, 64−78% and 92−93% CrIII were in PV fronds and roots. Based on X-ray diffraction, Cr 2 O 3 was detected in the roots confirming CrVI reduction to CrIII by PV. In short, CrVI and P inhibited each other in uptake and translocation by PV, and CrVI reduction to CrIII in PV roots served as its detoxification mechanism. The finding helps to understand the interactions of P and Cr during their uptake in PV. - Highlights: • Phosphate and CrVI inhibited each other in uptake and translocation by Pteris vittata. • P. vittata was more efficient in CrVI uptake than CrIII, but little Cr being translocated to the fronds. • CrVI was provided in the media, but 64–78% and 92–93% CrIII were in the fronds and roots of P. vittata. • CrVI was taken up by P. vittata and reduced to CrIII in the roots possibly as Cr 2 O 3 . - Pteris vittata was efficient in CrVI uptake, concentrating in the roots after reducing to CrIII

  7. Response Paper: Bailey, J.O. "What Happens in "The Fall of the House of Usher"?" American Literature 35.4 (1964: 445-66. Academic Search Complete. Web. 9 March. 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available J. O. Bailey in "What Happens in "The Fall of the House of Usher"?" (1964 explains the possibilities of reading The Fall of the House of Usher  from different angles and perspectives. It tackles the way the story is presented to the reader and the approaches Poe uses towards the psychological as well as the gothic perspectives of fear. The author’s pivotal point in the article focuses on the main characters of the story such as Roderick, Madeline and the narrator's inwardly and outwardly sense of terror, fear, and haunting. He explains that each one of these characters represents different possibilities, and, therefore, requires approaching the text from multifarious perspectives, such as going back to Poe’s autobiographical life and the history of his education, and the knowledge that Poe was exposed to during his life time.

  8. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species, Quarterly technical progress report, December 20, 1995--March 20, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochian, L.; Brady, D.; Last, M.; Ebbs, S.

    1995-12-01

    Although the period covered by this progress report began on December 20, 1994, which was the date that DOE approved the Interagency Agreement, the agreement was not approved by USDA until January 9, 1995 and the first scientists working on the project were not hired until February 1, 1995. The first goal of the research supported by the Interagency Agreement is to use hydroponic techniques to identify plant species and genotypes with potential for heavy metal hyperaccumulation for planting on a test site at Silverbow Creek and for radionuclide ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation on a test site at INEL, Idaho, later this year. The second goal of this research is to identify soil amendment procedures that will enhance the bioavailability of heavy metals and radionuclides in the soil without increasing the movement of the contaminants of concern (COC`s) into the groundwater. Our initial research covered in this report focuses on the first goal.

  9. ZnT2-overexpression represses the cytotoxic effects of zinc hyper-accumulation in malignant metallothionein-null T47D breast tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Veronica; Foolad, Farnaz; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2011-05-01

    Human breast tumors accumulate abnormally high levels of zinc (Zn). As a result, numerous studies have implicated Zn hyper-accumulation in the etiology of breast cancer. Zinc accumulation can be cytotoxic, therefore cells have Zn-buffering mechanisms, such as metallothioneins (MT) and vesicular sequestration, which tightly regulate Zn homeostasis. The Zn transporter ZnT2 sequesters Zn into intracellular vesicles and thus can protect cells from Zn cytotoxicity. Herein, we report that malignant breast tumor (T47D) cells do not express MT but have approximately 4-fold greater Zn levels compared with non-malignant breast (MCF-10A) cells. Zinc accumulation coincided with ZnT2 over-expression and increased vesicular Zn pools. In this study, we hypothesized that ZnT2 suppression would eliminate protection from Zn accumulation and result in cytotoxicity in malignant breast tumor cells. Suppression of ZnT2 significantly increased cytoplasmic Zn pools (1.6-fold) as assessed with a Zn-responsive reporter assay containing four metal response elements (4X-MRE) fused to luciferase. Increased cytoplasmic Zn pools activated apoptosis in a caspase-independent manner. We observed significant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (2.3-fold), lysosomal swelling and cathepsin D leakage in ZnT2-attenuated compared with ZnT2-expressing cells. Most importantly, tumor cell viability and tumor formation were significantly decreased (approximately 25%) in ZnT2-attenuated cells compared with ZnT2-expressing cells. Our data indicate that ZnT2 over-expression protects malignant MT-null breast tumor cells from Zn hyper-accumulation by sequestering Zn into intracellular vesicles. Moreover, our results implicate Zn compartmentalizing mechanisms as novel targets for breast cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of up-regulated genes from the metal-hyperaccumulator aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker, in response to lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Martínez-Hernández, A; Calderón-Vázquez, C L; Uh-Ramos, D; Fuentes, G; Ramírez-Prado, J H; Sáenz-Carbonell, L; Santamaría, J M

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most serious environmental pollutants. The aquatic fern Salvinia minima Baker is capable to hyper-accumulate Pb in their tissues. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its Pb accumulation and tolerance capacity are not fully understood. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms that are activated by S. minima in response to Pb, we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization library (SSH) in response to an exposure to 40μM of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 for 12h. 365 lead-related differentially expressed sequences tags (ESTs) were isolated and sequenced. Among these ESTs, 143 unique cDNA (97 were registered at the GenBank and 46 ESTs were not registered, because they did not meet the GenBank conditions). Those ESTs were identified and classified into 3 groups according to Blast2GO. In terms of metabolic pathways, they were grouped into 29 KEGG pathways. Among the ESTs, we identified some that might be part of the mechanism that this fern may have to deal with this metal, including abiotic-stress-related transcription factors, some that might be involved in tolerance mechanisms such as ROS scavenging, membrane protection, and those of cell homeostasis recovery. To validate the SSH library, 4 genes were randomly selected from the library and analyzed by qRT-PCR. These 4 genes were transcriptionally up-regulated in response to lead in at least one of the two tested tissues (roots and leaves). The present library is one of the few genomics approaches to study the response to metal stress in an aquatic fern, representing novel molecular information and tools to understand the molecular physiology of its Pb tolerance and hyperaccumulation capacity. Further research is required to elucidate the functions of the lead-induced genes that remain classified as unknown, to perhaps reveal novel molecular mechanisms of Pb tolerance and accumulation capacity in aquatic plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M.; Babczynska, A.; Przybylowicz, W.; Augustyniak, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides

  12. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: Evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Andrew C.; Bell, Thomas; Heywood, Chloe A.; Smith, J.A.C.; Thompson, Ian P.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. - Alyssum lesbiacum was shown to phytoextract nickel from PAH-contaminated soils from which the pool of nickel accessed for phytoextraction is closely modelled by a histidine-soil extract

  13. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: Evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Andrew C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: acsi@ceh.ac.uk; Bell, Thomas [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom); Heywood, Chloe A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom); Smith, J.A.C. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian P. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. - Alyssum lesbiacum was shown to phytoextract nickel from PAH-contaminated soils from which the pool of nickel accessed for phytoextraction is closely modelled by a histidine-soil extract.

  14. Effect of metal stress on photosynthetic pigments in the Cu-hyperaccumulating lichens Cladonia humilis and Stereocaulon japonicum growing in Cu-polluted sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Yoshitani, Azusa; Itoh, Kiminori

    2013-11-01

    To understand the ecology and physiology of metal-accumulating lichens growing in Cu-polluted sites, we investigated lichens near temple and shrine buildings with Cu roofs in Japan and found that Stereocaulon japonicum Th. Fr. and Cladonia humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon grow in Cu-polluted sites. Metal concentrations in the lichen samples collected at some of these sites were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). UV-vis absorption spectra of pigments extracted from the lichen samples were measured, and the pigment concentrations were estimated from the spectral data using equations from the literature. Secondary metabolites extracted from the lichen samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector. We found that S. japonicum and C. humilis are Cu-hyperaccumulating lichens. Differences in pigment concentrations and their absorption spectra were observed between the Cu-polluted and control samples of the 2 lichens. However, no correlation was found between Cu and pigment concentrations. We observed a positive correlation between Al and Fe concentrations and unexpectedly found high negative correlations between Al and pigment concentrations. This suggests that Al stress reduces pigment concentrations. The concentrations of secondary metabolites in C. humilis growing in the Cu-polluted sites agreed with those in C. humilis growing in the control sites. This indicates that the metabolite concentrations are independent of Cu stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on transportation and accumulation mechanism of cadmium in metal-hyperaccumulating fern, Athyrium yokoscense, by synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taoka, Hiroki; Nakai, Izumi; Hokura, Akiko; Goto, Fumiyuki; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Abe, Tomoko; Terada, Yasuko

    2012-01-01

    High energy synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (HE-SR-μ-XRF) analysis and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis were applied to reveal accumulation mechanism of Cd in a generated callus of Cd hyperaccumulator fern Athyrium yokoscense. The effects of plant age on the distributions and the chemical forms of Cd were examined using the plant grown in the 1/2 M Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 200 μM Cd. The callus grew vigorously with periodical medium change. The μ-XRF imaging of the mature and young root showed that Cd was located around the cell wall of the epidermis, cortex, endodermis and vascular bundles. It is estimated that Cd absorbed from the root was transported to the shoots via the apoplast. On the other hand, Cd was accumulated in the cell wall of the epidermis, cortex and vascular bundles in the stem. Furthermore, the concentration of Cd in the vascular bundles of the mature stem was higher than that of the young stem. On the other hand, Cd located in whole area in the leaf. The Cd K-edge XAFS analysis revealed that the majority of Cd in the roots of both mature and immature stages of A. yokoscense is bounded to the oxygen ligands. In contrast, it is found that Cd was bound to sulfur ligands as well as to oxygen ligands in the shoots. (author)

  16. Characterization of lead resistant endophytic Bacillus sp. MN3-4 and its potential for promoting lead accumulation in metal hyperaccumulator Alnus firma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Mi-Na; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Endophytic Bacillus spp. have reduced the lead toxicity in Alnus firma plants. ► The bacteria have sequestered the Pb molecules extracellularly. ► The bacteria have increased the growth rate of plants in the presence of Pb. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from the roots of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Alnus firma. A total of 14 bacterial endophytes were isolated from root samples and assayed for tolerance to heavy metals. Isolate MN3-4 exhibited maximum bioremoval of Pb and was subsequently identified as Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The pH and initial metal concentration highly influenced the Pb bioremoval rate. The growth of isolate MN3-4 was moderately altered in the presence of metals. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, biological-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that isolate MN3-4 had extracellularly sequestered the Pb molecules with little intracellular accumulation. Isolate MN3-4 did not harbor pbrA and pbrT genes. Moreover, isolate MN3-4 had the capacity to produce siderophores and indoleacetic acid. A root elongation assay demonstrated an increase (46.25%) in the root elongation of inoculated Brassica napus seedlings compared to that of the control plants. Obtained results pointed out that isolate MN3-4 could potentially reduce heavy metal phytotoxicity and increase Pb accumulation in A. firma plants.

  17. Enhanced Cd extraction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) by plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fengshan; Meng, Qian; Luo, Sha; Shen, Jing; Chen, Bao; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Japenga, Jan; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2017-03-04

    Four plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) were used as study materials, among them two heavy metal-tolerant rhizosphere strains SrN1 (Arthrobacter sp.) and SrN9 (Bacillus altitudinis) were isolated from rhizosphere soil, while two endophytic strains SaN1 (Bacillus megaterium) and SaMR12 (Sphingomonas) were identified from roots of the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of these PGPB on plant growth and Cd accumulation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants grown on aged Cd-spiked soil. The results showed that the four PGPB significantly boosted oilseed rape shoot biomass production, improved soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value, enhanced Cd uptake of plant and Cd translocation to the leaves. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and green fluorescent protein (GFP), we demonstrated the studied S. alfredii endophytic bacterium SaMR12 were able to colonize successfully in the B. napus roots. However, all four PGPB could increase seed Cd accumulation. Due to its potential to enhance Cd uptake by the plant and to restrict Cd accumulation in the seeds, SaMR12 was selected as the most promising microbial partner of B. napus when setting up a plant-microbe fortified remediation system.

  18. Micropropagation of Myriophyllum alterniflorum (Haloragaceae) for stream rehabilitation: first in vitro culture and reintroduction assays of a heavy-metal hyperaccumulator immersed macrophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmail, David; Labrousse, Pascal; Hourdin, Philippe; Larcher, Laure; Moesch, Christian; Botineau, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, submersed aquatic macrophytes play a key role in stream ecology and they are often used as biomonitors of freshwater quality. So, these plants appear as natural candidates to stream rehabilitation experiments. Among them, the stream macrophyte Myriophyllum alterniflorum is used recently as biomonitor and is potentially useful for the restoration of heavy-metal contaminated localities. The best way to obtain a mass production of watermilfoil plants is micropropagation. We developed in vitro culture of M. alterniflorum and the effects of five media on the plant development were assessed. Five morphological and four physiological endpoints were examined leading to the recommendation of the Murashige and Skoog medium for ecotoxicological studies on chlorophyllous parts, and of the Gaudet medium for root cytotoxicity and phytoremediation studies. Micropropagated clones were acclimatized in a synthetic medium and in situ reintroduction was performed efficiently. This is the first report of micropropagated plants transplantation in streams. The successful establishment of watermilfoil beds even in polluted areas strongly suggested that ecological restoration using micropropagated watermilfoil is a promising biotechnology for phytoremediation and rehabilitation of degraded areas. Moreover, high bioconcentration factors evidenced that watermilfoil hyperaccumulates Cd and Cu, and could be potentially used in phytoremediation studies.

  19. Cadmium Sorption Characteristics of Soil Amendments and its Relationship with the Cadmium Uptake by Hyperaccumulator and Normal Plants in Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Qi-Tang; Lee, Charles C.C.; Li, Baoqin; Long, Xinxian

    2013-01-01

    In order to select appropriate amendments for cropping hyperaccumulator or normal plants on contaminated soils and establish the relationship between Cd sorption characteristics of soil amendments and their capacity to reduce Cd uptake by plants, batch sorption experiments with 11 different clay minerals and organic materials and a pot experiment with the same amendments were carried out. The pot experiment was conducted with Sedum alfredii and maize (Zea mays) in a co-cropping system. The results showed that the highest sorption amount was by montmorillonite at 40.82 mg/g, while mica was the lowest at only 1.83 mg/g. There was a significant negative correlation between the n value of Freundlich equation and Cd uptake by plants, and between the logarithm of the stability constant K of the Langmuir equation and plant uptake. Humic acids (HAs) and mushroom manure increased Cd uptake by S. alfredii, but not maize, thus they are suitable as soil amendments for the co-cropping S. alfredii and maize. The stability constant K in these cases was 0.14–0.16 L/mg and n values were 1.51–2.19. The alkaline zeolite and mica had the best fixation abilities and significantly decreased Cd uptake by the both plants, with K ≥ 1.49 L/mg and n ≥ 3.59. PMID:24912231

  20. Effects of different irrigation methods and plant densities on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn cultivar (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Karasahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The yield and quality of corn silage is related to genotype as well as factors such as climate, soil conditions, altitude, planting time, plant density, irrigation, and harvesting time. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation methods (drip, subsoil drip, and subsoil capillary and different plant densities (102 040, 119 040, and 142 850 plant ha-1 on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey in 2011 and 2012 under ecological conditions in Eskipazar-Karabuk, Turkey. Plant densities were significantly different on fresh ear ratio and plant crude protein (CP yield in both years under study. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained with 102 040 and 119 040 plant ha-1 densities and the highest plant CP yield with 142 850 plant ha-1. While the irrigation method x plant density interactions were significant for silage CP ratio in the first year, they were significant on fresh ear ratio in the second year. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 119 040 plant ha-1 and drip x 119 040 plant ha-1 interactions; the highest plant and silage CP ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 142 850 plant ha-1 and subsoil drip x 102 040 plant ha-1 interactions. As a result of the research, high Flieg scores were obtained from each irrigation method and plant density. When plant CP yield is taken into consideration, the 142 850 plant ha-1 density is more important.

  1. A GLABRA1 ortholog on LG A9 controls trichome number in the Japanese leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey): evidence from QTL analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Yaichi; Nakayama, Hokuto; Kaminoyama, Kaori; Igarashi, Kaori; Yasugi, Masaki; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Nagano, Atsushi J; Yano, Kentaro; Kubo, Nakao; Kimura, Seisuke

    2017-05-01

    Brassica rapa show a wide range of morphological variations. In particular, the leaf morphologies of the Japanese traditional leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey) are distinctly different, even though they are closely related cultivars that are easy to cross. In addition to the differences in the gross morphology of leaves, some cultivars of Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki) have many trichomes on its leaves, whereas Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) does not. To identify the genes responsible for the different number of trichomes, we performed a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of Mizuna and Mibuna. To construct linkage maps for these cultivars, we used RNA-seq data to develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. We also performed a restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) analysis to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two QTL analyses were performed in different years, and both analyses indicated that the largest effect was found on LG A9. Expression analyses showed that a gene homologous to GLABRA1 (GL1), a transcription factor implicated in trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the sequences 3'-flanking (downstream) of BrGL1, differed considerably between Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) and Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki). These results indicate that BrGL1 on LG A9 is one of the candidate genes responsible for the difference in trichome number between Mizuna and Mibuna. Detecting genes that are responsible for morphological variations allows us to better understand the breeding history of Mizuna and Mibuna.

  2. Aluminium uptake and translocation in Al hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius is affected by low-molecular-weight organic acids content and soil pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Vondráčková

    Full Text Available High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8 and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism.We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs.Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of "oxalate plants." The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions.In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids.

  3. Characterization of Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria from Mn-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana and their impact on Mn accumulation of hybrid penisetum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Wei; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Three hundred Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Mn-hyperaccumulator, Phytolacca americana, grown at different levels of Mn (0, 1, and 10mM) stress. Under no Mn stress, 90%, 92%, and 11% of the bacteria produced indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, respectively. Under Mn stress, 68-94%, 91-92%, and 21-81% of the bacteria produced IAA, siderophore, and ACC deaminase, respectively. Greater percentages of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria were found in the Mn-treated P. americana. Furthermore, the ratios of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria were significantly higher in the Mn treated plant leaves, while the ratio of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria was significantly higher in the Mn treated-roots. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, Mn-resistant bacteria were affiliated with 10 genera. In experiments involving hybrid penisetum grown in soils treated with 0 and 1000mgkg(-1) of Mn, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the root (ranging from 6.4% to 18.3%) and above-ground tissue (ranging from 19.3% to 70.2%) mass and total Mn uptake of above-ground tissues (64%) compared to the control. Furthermore, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the ratio of IAA-producing bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of hybrid penisetum grown in Mn-added soils. The results showed the effect of Mn stress on the ratio of the plant growth-promoting factor-producing endophytic bacteria of P. americana and highlighted the potential of endophytic bacterium as an inoculum for enhanced phytoremediation of Mn-polluted soils by hybrid penisetum plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cross-species microarray transcript profiling reveals high constitutive expression of metal homeostasis genes in shoots of the zinc hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Martina; Talke, Ina N; Krall, Leonard; Krämer, Ute

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis halleri ssp. halleri (accession Langelsheim) is a naturally selected zinc (Zn)- and cadmium-tolerant Zn hyperaccumulator. This plant differs strikingly from its close relative A. thaliana by accumulating Zn specifically in above-ground tissues. A. thaliana GeneChips were used in order to identify, on a transcriptome-wide scale, genes with a potential involvement in cellular metal uptake or detoxification in the shoots of A. halleri. Compared to A. thaliana, transcript abundance of several genes was found and confirmed to be substantially higher in A. halleri after 4 days of exposure to low as well as high Zn concentrations in the hydroponic culture medium. The identified candidate genes encode proteins closely related to the following A. thaliana proteins: AtZIP6, a putative cellular Zn uptake system and member of the zinc-regulated transporter (ZRT)-iron regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein (ZIP)-family of metal transporters, the putative P-type metal ATPase AtHMA3, the cation diffusion facilitator ZAT/AtCDF1, and the nicotianamine synthase AtNAS3. Heterologous expression in mutant strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggested that AhHMA3, AhCDF1-3, and AhNAS3 can function in cellular Zn detoxification. Our data indicate that, at the transcript level, the Zn tolerance strategy of A. halleri involves high constitutive expression of metal homeostasis genes in the shoots to accommodate higher basal levels of Zn accumulation, and possibly to prepare for sudden increases in Zn influx into shoot cells. Furthermore, profiling of metal homeostasis gene transcripts in shoot and root tissues by real-time RT-PCR indicated that A. halleri and A. thaliana respond differently to changes in plant Zn status.

  5. Pseudomonas moraviensis subsp. stanleyae, a bacterial endophyte of hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata, is capable of efficient selenite reduction to elemental selenium under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, L C; Ackerson, C J; Cornelis, P; Ye, L; Berendsen, R L; Hunter, W J; Noblitt, S D; Henry, C S; Cappa, J J; Montenieri, R L; Wong, A O; Musilova, L; Sura-de Jong, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Lens, P N L; Reynolds, R J B; Pilon-Smits, E A H

    2015-08-01

    To identify bacteria with high selenium tolerance and reduction capacity for bioremediation of wastewater and nanoselenium particle production. A bacterial endophyte was isolated from the selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) growing on seleniferous soils in Colorado, USA. Based on fatty acid methyl ester analysis and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) using 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes, the isolate was identified as a subspecies of Pseudomonas moraviensis (97.3% nucleotide identity) and named P. moraviensis stanleyae. The isolate exhibited extreme tolerance to SeO3(2-) (up to 120 mmol l(-1)) and SeO4(2-) (>150 mmol l(-1)). Selenium oxyanion removal from growth medium was measured by microchip capillary electrophoresis (detection limit 95 nmol l(-1) for SeO3(2-) and 13 nmol l(-1) for SeO4(2-)). Within 48 h, P. moraviensis stanleyae aerobically reduced SeO3(2-) to red Se(0) from 10 mmol l(-1) to below the detection limit (removal rate 0.27 mmol h(-1) at 30 °C); anaerobic SeO3(2-) removal was slower. No SeO4(2-) removal was observed. Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae stimulated the growth of crop species Brassica juncea by 70% with no significant effect on Se accumulation. Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae can tolerate extreme levels of selenate and selenite and can deplete high levels of selenite under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pseudomonas moraviensis subsp. stanleyae may be useful for stimulating plant growth and for the treatment of Se-laden wastewater. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Bailey's Nursing Home, Mountain Road, Tubbercurry, Sligo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Villegas, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurs in the presence of traditional risk factors, including hypertension and dyslipidemia, and these in turn are influenced by behavioural factors such as diet and lifestyle. Previous research has identified a group at low risk of CVD based on a cluster of inter-related factors: body mass index (BMI) < 25 Kg\\/m2, moderate exercise, alcohol intake, non-smoking and a favourable dietary pattern. The objective of this study was to determine whether these factors are associated with a reduced prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia in an Irish adult population. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey of 1018 men and women sampled from 17 general practices. Participants completed health, lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires and provided fasting blood samples for analysis of glucose and insulin. We defined a low risk group based on the following protective factors: BMI <25 kg\\/m2; waist-hip ratio (WHR) <0.85 for women and <0.90 for men; never smoking status; participants with medium to high levels of physical activity; light alcohol consumption (3.5-7 units of alcohol\\/week) and a "prudent" diet. Dietary patterns were assessed by cluster analysis. RESULTS: We found strong significant inverse associations between the number of protective factors and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The prevalence odds ratio of hypertension in persons with 1, 2, 3, > or = 4 protective factors relative to those with none, were 1.0, 0.76, 0.68 and 0.34 (trend p < 0.01). The prevalence odds ratio of dyslipidemia in persons with 1, 2, 3, > or = 4 protective factors relative to those with none were 0.83, 0.98, 0.49 and 0.24 (trend p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings of a strong inverse association between low risk behaviours and two of the traditional risk factors for CVD highlight the importance of \\'the causes of the causes\\' and the potential for behaviour modification in CVD prevention at a population level.

  7. Bailey House Nursing Home, Killenaule, Thurles, Tipperary.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzmaurice, Gerard J

    2014-04-01

    In keeping with international trends, lung cancer incidence and mortality are increasing among the Irish population with many patients presenting with advanced disease that excludes the potential for curative management. Consequently palliative treatment options for this patient group are being increasingly explored with various degrees of success. Endobronchial stenosis represents a particularly challenging area of management among these patients and a number of techniques have been described without the identification of a single gold standard. We report our experience of the first time use of endobronchial cryotherapy in Ireland with reference to a case series, including an example of its use in the management of benign disease, in order to support patients with borderline lung function and enable definitive palliative treatment.

  8. Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: A potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuebing; Zhou Qixing; Liu Weitao; An Jing; Xu Zhiqiang; Wang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd (≤25 mg kg -1 ) and As (≤50 mg kg -1 ) treatments could promote the growth of B. pilosa, resulting in 34.5-104.4% and 21.0-43.0%, respectively, increase in the dry biomass of shoots while compared with that under the control conditions. However, under the co-contamination of As and Cd, there was an antagonistic effect on the growth of the plant. The concentrations of As and Cd accumulated in tissues of the plant increased with an increase of As and Cd in soils. In particular, the levels of Cd in stems and leaves reached 103.0 and 110.0 mg kg -1 , respectively, when soil Cd was 10 mg kg -1 . Furthermore, the BF and TF values of Cd were greater than 1.0. However, the highest content of As in roots of the plant was only 13.5 mg kg -1 when soil As was at a high level, i.e. 125 mg kg -1 , and the TF values of As were less than 0.1, indicating that B. pilosa can be considered as a potential Cd hyperaccumulator and As excluder. The presence of As had inhibitory effects on Cd absorption by the plant, in particular, the accumulation of Cd in stems, leaves and shoots decreased significantly, with 42.8-53.1, 49.3-66.4 and 37.6-59.5%, respectively, reduction when the level of soil As was up to 125 mg kg -1 compared with that under no addition of As. Whereas, when Cd was added to soils, it could facilitate As accumulation in tissues of the plants and the As concentrations in shoots increased with increasing Cd spiked in soils. The interactive effects of Cd and As may be potential for phytoremediation of Cd and/or As contamination soils.

  9. 19 January 2011 - British University of Manchester, Vice-President and Dean for the Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences Professor of Structural Engineering School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering C. Bailey in CERN Control Centre with Department Head P. Collier; at LHCb with R. Lindner and ATLAS underground experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton, througout accompanied by . Collier with R. Appleby and F. Loebinger

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    19 January 2011 - British University of Manchester, Vice-President and Dean for the Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences Professor of Structural Engineering School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering C. Bailey in CERN Control Centre with Department Head P. Collier; at LHCb with R. Lindner and ATLAS underground experimental area with Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton, througout accompanied by . Collier with R. Appleby and F. Loebinger

  10. Arsenic phytoextraction and hyperaccumulation by fern species Fitoextração e hiperacumulação de arsênio por espécies de samambaias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isidoria Silva Gonzaga

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is an ubiquitous trace metalloid found in all environmental media. Its presence at elevated concentrations in soils derives from both anthropogenic and natural inputs. Arsenic is a toxic and carcinogenic element, which has caused severe environmental and health problem worldwide. Technologies currently available for the remediation of arsenic-contaminated sites are expensive, environmentally disruptive, and potentially hazardous to workers. Phytoextraction, a strategy of phytoremediation, uses plants to clean up contaminated soils and has been successfully applied to arsenic contaminated soils. It has the advantage of being cost-effective and environmentally friendly. A major step towards the development of phytoextraction of arsenic-impacted soils is the discovery of the arsenic hyper accumulation in ferns, first in Pteris vittata, which presented an extraordinary capacity to accumulate 2.3% arsenic in its biomass. Another fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos was found to exhibit the same hyperaccumulating characteristics. After that, screening experiments have revealed that the Pteris genus is really unique in that many species have the potential to be used in phytoextraction of arsenic. In general, these plants seem to have both constitutive and adaptive mechanisms for accumulating or tolerating high arsenic concentration. In the past few years, much work has been done to understand and improve the hyperaccumulating capability of these amazing plants. In particular, the field of molecular biology seems to hold the key for the future of the phytoremediation.O arsênio e um metalóide traço encontrado basicamente em todos os ambientes. Elevadas concentrações de arsênio no solo podem acontecer naturalmente devido ao intemperismo de rochas ricas em arsênio, como também de atividades antropogênicas. O arsênio é um elemento tóxico e cancerígeno. Em muitas partes do mundo, a contaminação pelo arsênio tem causado problemas

  11. On White Shame and Vulnerability | Bailey | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I address a tension in Vice's claim that humility and silence offer effective moral responses to white shame. Vice describes these twin virtues using inward-turning language of moral self-repair, but she also acknowledges that this 'personal, inward directed project' has relational dimensions. Her failure to explore ...

  12. Organic Chemistry. A Brief Survey of Concepts and Applications, 6th Edition (by Philip S. Bailey Jr. and Christina A. Bailey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosan, Alan M.

    2001-07-01

    The book is substantially free of errors and I found only a handful of grammatical oversights (pages 152, 165, 479). Most problematic are a confusion between a and [a] (page 198), a definition of mass spectrometry involving fragmentation by radiation (glossary G4), a typo in a model-building exercise on the construction of 2,3-dibromobutane (page 218), and the implication that multiphoton processes do not occur (page 516). A carbon NMR spectrum (page 534) is drawn so as to suggest that J is not constant and, while described in words, the phrase "n+1" is surprisingly absent. Lastly, I do not agree that the sawhorse diagram (page 54) is entirely self-evident to students. But, in proper perspective, these are all minor points. This latest edition, as those before it, ably and enthusiastically illustrates the wide range, deep uniformity, and undeniable centrality of organic chemistry in a molecular understanding of the architecture and applicability of topics ranging from buckyballs to biochemistry. Considerable thought has gone into illuminating the essentials of organic structural change and in presenting these concepts and connections clearly and simply. This text has much to recommend it as an excellent choice for the short or even the not-so-short course.

  13. IN VIVO SYNCHROTRON INVESTIGATION OF THALLIUM HYPERACCUMULATION - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium (TI) is a metal of great toxicological concern and its prevalence in the natural environment has steadily increased as a result of manufacturing and combustion practices. Due to its low natural abundance and the increasing demand, TI recovery and reuse could be a profita...

  14. Soil, climate and the environment - an indissociable threesome. Soil carbon and global changes: reciprocal impacts; Carbon in all its forms; Echomicadas, a new tool to analyse carbon 14; Biotransformation of metallic trace elements by soil micro-organisms; Absorption and distribution of metallic elements in plants; Dynamics of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems; Is photo-remediation for tomorrow? Hyper-accumulator plants; Sediments, tell me the Seine history... The complex history of plant feeding by the soil; The environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatte, Christine; Tisnerat-Laborde, Nadine; Ayrault, Sophie; Balesdent, Jerome; Chapon, Virginie; Bourguignon, Jacques; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stephane; Denaix, Laurence; Nguyen, Christophe; Vavasseur, Alain; Sarrobert, Catherine; Gasperi, Johnny; Latrille, Christelle; Savoye, Sebastien; Augusto, Laurent; Conan Labbe, Annie; Bernard Michel, Bruno; Douysset, Guilhem; Toqnelli, Antoine; Vailhen, Dominique; Moulin, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The articles of this file on the relationships between soils, climate and the environment discuss the reciprocal impacts of soil carbon and global changes with the objective of reduction of greenhouse effect and of increase of carbon sequestration; the various forms of carbon are presented and their properties commented ; a compact radiocarbon system (ECHoMiCADAS) is presented, developed by the Laboratory of sciences of climate and environment (LSCE) and designed for the analysis of carbon 14; an article describes how micro-organisms can play a crucial role in the transformation of soil pollutants by modifying their chemical speciation and thus their toxicity; strategies based on the absorption of metallic trace elements present in the soil to control physiological processes in plants are discussed, with applications to agriculture, food supply and to the environment; researches related to the study of effects of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems are evoked, and the reasons for a slow development of phyto-technologies, notably phyto-remediation, for pollution control and decontamination of soils and liquid media, are explained. Other themes are presented : hyper-accumulator plants which present very high contents of non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se) or essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni) elements, are slowly growing, and display a limited biomass, but could be used for a phyto-extraction of metals from contaminated soils; how analysis and dating of sediments can reveal the presence of contaminants, and therefore give an insight into human activities and regulations, and into their impact on the river; how plants are able to develop strategies in their search for nutrients in different types of soils, even poor ones, and presentation of the various disciplines, methods and techniques used for environmental analysis with their applications to installation and site control, or to the study of pollutant migration

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RV variability in NGC 2516 and NGC 2422 (Bailey+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. I., III; Mateo, M.; White, R. J.; Shectman, S. A.; Crane, J. D.

    2017-11-01

    2729 R~50,000 ~130Å spectra centered at 7230Å and obtained with the Michigan Magellan Fiber System between Nov 2013 and Dec 2014 were modeled with PHOENIX synthetic spectra. Table 2 in the associated publication describes the contents and links to relevant sections of the text describing the determination of the various parameters. (2 data files).

  16. Statement by Dr. Kathleen C. Bailey before the Senate Armed Services Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.

    1994-08-16

    This paper presents the personal views of the author on the subject of the proposed Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). She addresses here concerns about the national security issues which could result from ratification of this convention. She argues the convention alone is not likely to curtail production or availability of such items on the world market because of the relatively low cost. The treaty could thus put the country in a position less likely to protect itself, or adequately deal with such a threat.

  17. Abstract: Passiflora mollissima (H.B.K) Bailey is a climber noted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and protein profiles. Electrophoretic studies confirmed the genetic similarity between the mother plant and the plant derived from nodal segments; the. genetic variation was noticed in ... fluorescent light (2000 lux, 16 h photoperiod) .... biochemicai marker for the mother plant and in v.tro raised pla,nts. which \\Vil! neip tr.2.

  18. NARINGENIN ENHANCED EFFICIENCY OF GUS ACTIVITY IN Passiflora mollissima (H.B.K. Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Cancino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid naringenin has been investigated as a possible vir gene inducer in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Passiflora mollissima, P. giberti and Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi. The transformation efficiency percentage of explants showing blue GUS expression and the extent of staining following inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains EHA 105 and 1065, carrying gus and nptII genes was enhanced with the supplementation of the co-cultivation medium with naringenin. Supplementation of medium with 100µM (strain EHA 105 and 300 µM (strain 1065 naringenin was most effective at enhancing mean (±s.e.m., n=3 GUS activity in leaf explants (20.3 ± 2.4%, strain EHA; 105; 6.0 ± 0.57%, strain 1065 and nodal segments (16.7 ± 2.4% strain EHA 105; 8.3 ± 0.57% strain 1065 of P. mollissima. In P. giberti and N. tabacum maximum GUS activity was obtained in leaf and root explants with 100µM naringenin for both strains analysed. Additionally, when naringenin was added to Luria Bertani (LB medium, both bacterial growth via optical density and colony forming units were higher when compared to control. This is the first report of the use of naringenin to enhance gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants. These findings suggest that naringenin can be used as an alternative to acetosyringone for vir gene induction in Agrobacterium. This approach may be especially useful in plants that are generally recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediatedtransformation.

  19. A Bookstore for Bailey: A Novel Approach to Teaching a Small-Business Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Timothy M.; Maggs, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the development of an online, student-centered, introductory small-business management course that uses an educational business novel, hypertext graphic-design features, an interactive workbook, and a student-authored final chapter. Student learning was assessed through the use of a pre- and posttest survey. Student…

  20. Efficient implementation of Bailey and Borwein pseudo-random number generator based on normal numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliakov, G.; Creighton, D.; Johnstone, M.; Wilkin, T.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes an implementation of a Linear Congruential Generator (LCG) based on the binary representation of the normal number α, and of a combined generator based on that LCG. The base LCG with the modulus 333 provides a quality sequence with the period ≈3.7ṡ1015, which passes all but two statistical tests from BigCrush test suite. We improved on the original implementation by adapting Barrett's modular reduction method, which resulted in four-fold increase in efficiency. The combined generator has the period of ≈1023 and passes all tests from BigCrush suite.

  1. Exploring ADHD: An ethnography of disorder in early childhood, de Simon Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Hernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, son múltiples los trabajos de investigación desde disciplinas como la Psicología, la Pedagogía y la Medicina sobre el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad, abreviado en las siglas TDAH. Más recientemente, en 2012, fuera de las publicaciones científicas, desde Der Spiegel, la mayor revista semanal de Europa, se publicó un reportaje sobre el aumento de diagnósticos de enfermedad mental (Mascolo, Müller, Brinkbäumer y Doerry, 2012. En este reportaje se recoge la última entrevista, antes de morir, a Leon Eisenberg, considerado uno de los padres del TDAH. Esta entrevista al psiquiatra estadounidense causó un gran revuelo por sus declaraciones cuestionando el gran número de diagnósticos de este supuesto síndrome conductual.

  2. Resposta da couve-da-Malásia (Brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (Bailey Sinskaja à deficiência nutricional = Response of Malaysian cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (Bailey Sinskaja to nutritional deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Magella Flôres da Mota

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis é uma hortaliça folhosa, de ciclo curto, introduzida no Brasil em 1992, em função de sua excelente qualidade nutricional. Apresenta elevado teor de b-caroteno, vitamina C, Ca e Fe, o que a torna importante alimento,especialmente no combate à anemia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade biológica e agronômica da couve-da-Malásia, cultivada sob deficiência de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo e Zn e comparada com o tratamento-testemunha que incluiu todos os macro e micronutrientes. As plantas cultivadas na ausência de N e Pconseguiram completar o ciclo, mas foram significativamente menos produtivas e pouco desenvolvidas em relação às que receberam nutrição completa. Além disso, apresentaram coloração das folhas verde-acinzentada e arroxeamento do pecíolo e nervuras. Na ausênciade B, todas as plantas morreram entre 30 e 37 dias após a semeadura e, na ausência de S, elas não produziram frutos, o que mostra a importância destes dois nutrientes para essa Brassicaceae.Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis is a vegetable with short cycle, which was introduced in Brazil in 1992 due to its highnutritional qualities. It presents high concentration of b-carotene, vitamin C, Ca, and Fe, becoming an important food for the prevention of anemia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the biological and agronomic productivity of plants grown under N, P, K, Ca, Mg,S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn deficiency. The results were compared with plants grown with all macro and micronutrients. Plants cultured without N and P completed their cycle, but had lower yield than those cultured with complete nutrition. Additionally, they had green-grayish leaves, and purple petiole and veins. Plants cultured without B died between 30 and 37 days after sowing, and without S they did not produce fruits. These results show the importance of S and B to this Brassicaceae.

  3. Observaciones en el crecimiento de Passiflora Mollissima (H.B.K. Bailey (Curuba como base para un sistema de poda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schöniger Gudrun

    1971-09-01

    Full Text Available 1. El crecimiento libre de P. mollissima da a la planta un hábito de poco valor para el cultivo: la mayor parte de las ramas es improductiva, y la distribución del follaje además favorece la infección por hongos.2. En P. mollissima cultivada en espaldera se observa que el crecimiento es acrótono. Las podas hacen más notable la acrotonía.3. EI transcurso de la cosecha depende del transcurso de la floración y de condiciones climáticas; por eso las cosechas de las ramas laterales de primer y de segundo orden pueden ser separadas o no.4. En descendencias de P. mollissima autopolinizada se presentan segregaciones en cuanto a distintas características, entre ellas también con respecto al habito de crecimiento.5. Con base en las observaciones se desarrolla un sistema de poda de renovación. Esta poda no influye sobre el transcurso de la cosecha, pero rebaja algo el vigor de la planta. Resultados definitivos sobre el valor de la poda sólo se pueden obtener mediante observaciones de varios años.

  4. DESARROLLO DE UNA BEBIDA LÁCTEA CON EXTRACTOS DE CURUBA (Passiflora mollissima Bailey COMO ANTIOXIDANTE NATURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELLY YOLIMA SÁNCHEZ

    Full Text Available La curuba es una fruta tropical, nutritiva y con un alto potencial antioxidante pero poco reconocida. El presente estudio investigó el efecto de la adición de extractos de curuba en concentraciones de 0,4%, 0,6% y 0,8% p/p con relación a un blanco (0%, sobre la capacidad antioxidante y la estabilidad oxidativa de una bebida fermentada con lactosuero, durante el almacenamiento. Se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas de las bebidas, el contenido de fenoles totales, la capacidad antioxidante por los métodos DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracilo y ORAC (Capacidad de Absorción de Radicales de Oxígeno; se evaluó la oxidación lipídica por el método de TBARS (Sustancias Reactivas al Ácido Tiobarbitúrico y se determinaron los cambios organolépticos mediante una prueba sensorial triangular. Los resultados obtenidos en el tiempo, variaron en los rangos: 15,46 - 302,96 mg ác. gálico/L para fenoles totales; 183,23 - 1.376,46 µM Tx en DPPH; 704,88 - 4.910,32 µM Tx en ORAC-H; 258,50 - 1.730,80 µmol Tx/100g en ORAC-L; 2,39 - 31,08 nmol MDA/g en TBARS; en la prueba triangular 0,4% y 0,6% no presentaron diferencias significativas (p>0,05, a diferencia de 0,8% (p<0,05, mostrando que los extractos de curuba incrementaron la capacidad antioxidante e inhibieron el proceso oxidativo de la bebida láctea con relación al blanco.

  5. Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Essential Oil of Liriope muscari (DECN. Bailey against Three Insect Tobacco Storage Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find and develop new botanical pesticides against tobacco storage pests, bioactivity screening was performed. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Liriope muscari was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. A total of 14 components representing 96.12% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be methyl eugenol (42.15% and safrole (17.15%, followed by myristicin (14.18% and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.60%. After screening, the essential oil exhibit potential insecticidal activity. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil exhibited potent contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults, with LD50 values of 13.36, 11.28 µg/adult and 21.37 µg/cm2, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited strong repellency against the three stored product insects. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil of Liriope muscari has potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling insects in stored tobacco and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  6. The contents of free amino acids and elements in As-hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica and non-hyperaccumulator Pteris straminea during reversible senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, D.; Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlík, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 10 (2017), s. 455-460 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-10591S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arsenic accumulation * vittata l. * stress * metabolism * responses * contamination * plants * ferns * metallophytes * anabolic and catabolic processes * stress metabolism plants * nitrogen assimilation Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De- contamination incl. Pesticides OBOR OECD: Bioremediation, diagnostic biotechnologies (DNA chips and biosensing devices) in environmental management Impact factor: 1.225, year: 2016

  7. Functional analysis of zinc hyperaccumulation related genes of Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens for phytoremediation purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals that can cause serious soil contamination when present in excess. Especially Cd exposure is a threat to human health. Plants can potentially be used to clean-up the Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated soils in a technology called “Phytoremediation”. Two

  8. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  9. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  10. Screening for the next generation heavy metal hyperaccumulators for dryland decontamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravanbakhsh, Mohammadhossein; Ronaghi, Abdol Majid; Taghavi, Seyed Mohsen; Jousset, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal removal by plants bears a great potential to decontaminate soils. A major challenge remains to find plant species that accumulate heavy metal, harbor a sufficient biomass and grow in the desired environmental conditions. Here we present candidate plants for phytoremediation in arid

  11. Silver release from decomposed hyperaccumulating Amanita solitaria fruit-body biomass strongly affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Soukupová, Lucie; Borovička, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2012), s. 987-993 ISSN 0966-0844 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0484 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : soil fungi * bacteria * microbiota * heavy metals * toxicity * T-RFLP Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M); DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S) Impact factor: 3.284, year: 2012

  12. Silver relase from decomposed hyperaccumulating Amanita solitaria fruit-body biomass strongly affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, M.; Hršelová, H.; Soukupová, L.; Borovička, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2012), s. 987-993 ISSN 0966-0844 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : soil fungi * bacteria * microbiota * heavy metals * toxicity * T-RFLP Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.284, year: 2012

  13. Fatty acid profiles of ecotypes of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens growing under cadmium stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Pavlíková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 180, MAY 15 (2015), s. 27-34 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Heavy metals stress * Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl) * 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.971, year: 2015

  14. A comprehensive set of transcript sequences of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.F.; Severing, E.I.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Noccaea caerulescens is an extremophile plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It has adapted to grow on soils containing high, normally toxic, concentrations of metals such as nickel, zinc, and cadmium. Next to being extremely tolerant to these metals, it is one of the few species

  15. Insights into the mechanisms of Cd hyperaccumulation in S. kali, a desert plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de la Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Salsola kali, una planta desértica, ha sido propuesta como un potencial hiperacumulador de Cd. Estudios de espectroscopía de Rayos-X han mostrado que compuestos conteniendo oxígeno y grupos tiol están involucrados en la absorción de Cd en esta planta. Por ello se ha planteado que algunos ácidos orgánicos, pared celular, fitoquelatinas y otros compuestos conteniendo glutatión, pueden estar relacionados con los mecanismos de hiperacumulación de Cd en S. kali. En esta investigación se expusieron plantas silvestres a diferentes concentraciones de Cd para determinar el contenido de este metal en el xilema y floema, así como en fracciones proteínicas. Adicionalmente, extractos de las plantas se analizaron mediante cromatografía líquida a alta presión para identificar y cuantificar ácidos orgánicos. Las plantas se trataron con 0, 20, 200 y 400 mg Cd L-1 por 48 h en hidroponia. La incorporación de Cd se midió por separado en raíces, floema y xilema. Se encontró que en plantas tratadas con concentraciones de Cd por encima de los 200 mg Cd L-1, el contenido de Cd fue mayor en el floema que en el xilema. El perfil proteínico (SDS-PAGE mostró que en plantas tratadas con Cd se incrementa la presencia de dos péptidos y se expresa uno nuevo. Después de una filtración en gel G25 y codeterminación de Cd, se encontró que es muy probable que dos proteínas (de 29 kDa y 14 kDa estén asociadas al Cd. El uso de primers degenerados de la familia Brassica permitió la identificación de un posible gen de la fitoquelatin sintasa. Los ácidos cítrico y oxálico fueron identificados en los extractos de las plantas. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las concentraciones de ácido cítrico en plantas control y en aquellas tratadas con Cd. Por otro lado, la cantidad de ácido oxálico en plantas expuestas a Cd fue significativamente menor que en las plantas control. Estos datos pueden indicar que el Cd pudo haber precipitado como cristales de oxalato. Los resultados reportados aquí serán útiles para entender a mayor profundidad los mecanismos de hiperacumulación de Cd en S. kali.

  16. Three metallothionein isoforms and sequestration of intracellular silver in the hyperaccumulator Amanita strobiliformis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osobova, M.; Urban, V.; Jedelský, P.L.; Borovička, Jan; Gryndler, Milan; Ruml, T.; Kotrba, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 4 (2011), s. 916-926 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600480801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ectomycorrhizal fungi * fungal metal lothionein * heavy metal Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 6.645, year: 2011

  17. The major parameters on biomass pyrolysis for hyperaccumulative plants--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilks, R T; Monette, F; Glaus, M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoextraction is one of the main phytoremediation techniques and it has often been described as a potentially feasible in situ soil decontamination method of large amounts of heavy metals, organic pollutants and explosive compounds. As this remediation technique is approaching extensive on-field experimentation and commercialization, research focus is on investigating new ways to achieve the valorisation of its by-products. Biomass pyrolysis represents a key step to numerous valorisation options and it is characterized by differential output products that are determined by the operating conditions of the process and the characteristics of the input. However, when used to valorise plants that have undergone significant metal uptake, this strategy involves some new aspects related to harvest, procedure and final product reutilization. This paper reviews the studies made on biomass pyrolysis of plants with emphasis on the differential quality and distribution of pyrolysis products in relation with the variables of the process and the metal-rich phytoextraction feedstock properties. By investigating these parameters, this survey provides indications on ways to optimize the valorisation of phytoremediation by-products through biomass pyrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial community dynamics in the rhizosphere of a cadmium hyper-accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. L.; Zhang, C.; Mathews, E. R.; Tang, C.; Franks, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Phytoextraction is influenced by the indigenous soil microbial communities during the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Soil microbial communities can affect plant growth, metal availability and the performance of phytoextraction-assisting inocula. Understanding the basic ecology of indigenous soil communities associated with the phytoextraction process, including the interplay between selective pressures upon the communities, is an important step towards phytoextraction optimization. This study investigated the impact of cadmium (Cd), and the presence of a Cd-accumulating plant, Carpobrotus rossii (Haw.) Schwantes, on the structure of soil-bacterial and fungal communities using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Whilst Cd had no detectable influence upon fungal communities, bacterial communities underwent significant structural changes with no reduction in 16S rRNA copy number. The presence of C. rossii influenced the structure of all communities and increased ITS copy number. Suites of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed in abundance in response to either Cd or C. rossii, however we found little evidence to suggest that the two selective pressures were acting synergistically. The Cd-induced turnover in bacterial OTUs suggests that Cd alters competition dynamics within the community. Further work to understand how competition is altered could provide a deeper understanding of the microbiome-plant-environment and aid phytoextraction optimization.

  19. Characterization of three distinct metallothionein genes of the Ag-hyperaccumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita strobiliformis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hložková, K.; Matěnová, M.; Žáčková, P.; Strnad, Hynek; Hršelová, Hana; Hroudová, Miluše; Kotrba, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2016), s. 358-369 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0484 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Ectomycorrhizal fungi * Gene expression * Metal binding * Metallothionein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology ; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2016

  20. Arsenic hyperaccumulation and speciation in the edible ink stain bolete (Cyanoboletus pulverulentus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braeuer, S.; Gössler, W.; Kameník, Jan; Konvalinková, Tereza; Žigová, A.; Borovička, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 242, č. 3 (2018), s. 225-231 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34839L; GA MŠk LM2015056; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015074 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Edible mushrooms * Dimethylarsinic acid * Soil * Health risk * HPLC-ICPMS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry ; Microbiology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 4.529, year: 2016

  1. Arsenic hyperaccumulation and speciation in the edible ink stain bolete (.i.Cyanoboletus pulverulentus./i.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braeuer, S.; Goessler, W.; Kameník, J.; Konvalinková, T.; Žigová, Anna; Borovička, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 242, 1 March (2018), s. 225-231 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : edible mushrooms * dimethylarsinic acid * soil * health risk * HPLC-ICPMS Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 4.529, year: 2016

  2. Mutagenesis of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum X hortorum Bailey) cv. Bravo breeding by leaf seedings X-ray irradiated. Part 2. MV2 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepczynska, K.; Jerzy, M.

    1981-01-01

    The base of the study was MV 1 generation plants with changed flowers. The beneficial selection was done among tubular flowers as well as among violet flowers. In MV 2 generation only some plants had tubular flowers. Besides this flower shape the plants were similar to the control ones. Other flower shape changes as well as flower colour changes which appeared in MV 1 generation repeated in all plants of MV 2 generation. (A.S.)

  3. Efecto de las deficiencias nutricionales en la distribución de la materia seca en plantas de vivero de curuba (Passiflora mollissima Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas Marco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Para confirmar el efecto que tienen las deficiencias de nutrientes minerales mayores en la asignación de la materia seca en órganos vegetativos de Passiflora mollissima, se realizó un experimento en condiciones de vivero, mediante la técnica de deficiencia inducida por elemento faltante. Se pudo establecer que las deficiencias de N y K reducen en alta proporción el área foliar y la masa de la planta, mientras que las deficiencias de P afectan el patrón de distribución de la biomasa, al favorecer la mayor acumulación en la raíz. En general, las deficiencias de macronutrientes afectan de forma drástica la distribución de la materia seca en los órganos vegetativos de la planta y producen síntomas específicos que pueden servir como indicadores del estado nutricional en condiciones de campo.

  4. Refeeding-Induced Brown Adipose Tissue Glycogen Hyper-Accumulation in Mice Is Mediated by Insulin and Catecholamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmean, Christopher M.; Bobe, Alexandria M.; Yu, Justin C.; Volden, Paul A.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT) glycogen levels within 4–12 hours (hr) of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT). Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology. PMID:23861810

  5. Refeeding-induced brown adipose tissue glycogen hyper-accumulation in mice is mediated by insulin and catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmean, Christopher M; Bobe, Alexandria M; Yu, Justin C; Volden, Paul A; Brady, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT) glycogen levels within 4-12 hours (hr) of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT). Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology.

  6. Refeeding-induced brown adipose tissue glycogen hyper-accumulation in mice is mediated by insulin and catecholamines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Carmean

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT generates heat during adaptive thermogenesis through a combination of oxidative metabolism and uncoupling protein 1-mediated electron transport chain uncoupling, using both free-fatty acids and glucose as substrate. Previous rat-based work in 1942 showed that prolonged partial fasting followed by refeeding led to a dramatic, transient increase in glycogen stores in multiple fat depots. In the present study, the protocol was replicated in male CD1 mice, resulting in a 2000-fold increase in interscapular BAT (IBAT glycogen levels within 4-12 hours (hr of refeeding, with IBAT glycogen stores reaching levels comparable to fed liver glycogen. Lesser effects occurred in white adipose tissues (WAT. Over the next 36 hr, glycogen levels dissipated and histological analysis revealed an over-accumulation of lipid droplets, suggesting a potential metabolic connection between glycogenolysis and lipid synthesis. 24 hr of total starvation followed by refeeding induced a robust and consistent glycogen over-accumulation similar in magnitude and time course to the prolonged partial fast. Experimentation demonstrated that hyperglycemia was not sufficient to drive glycogen accumulation in IBAT, but that elevated circulating insulin was sufficient. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine production reduced refeeding-induced IBAT glycogen storage, providing evidence of a contribution from the central nervous system. These findings highlight IBAT as a tissue that integrates both canonically-anabolic and catabolic stimulation for the promotion of glycogen storage during recovery from caloric deficit. The preservation of this robust response through many generations of animals not subjected to food deprivation suggests that the over-accumulation phenomenon plays a critical role in IBAT physiology.

  7. The selection of hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils and their uranium-accumulating characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Li; Ren Yamin; Xu Jun; Yao Zhongwei; Xia Chuanqin; Bo Yun; Deng Dachao

    2009-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the possibility for phytoremediation of U-contaminated soils. The plants of cruciferae (8 species), malvaceae or compositae were planted for 55 days in the U-contaminated soils (100 mg·kg -1 ). The samples were analyzed using an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The results showed that U concentration was the highest in shoots of Chinese mustard (var.Texuanzhacai, 1115 mg·kg -1 ), the highest U removal from U-contaminated soils to plants occurred in the shoots of Artemisia argyi(1113 μg per pot). For the Chinese mustard (var.Paoqingcai, var. Texuanzhacai), uranium concentration in shoots was higher than in roots, and bioaccumulation factors (BFs) and transfer factors (TFs) were more than one. They showed better suitability for phytoremediation of U than other plants due to their high U accumulation in the aboveground tissues. (authors)

  8. Impact Assessment of Mercury Accumulation and Biochemical and Molecular Response of Mentha arvensis: A Potential Hyperaccumulator Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manikandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on examining the effect of Hg oxidative stress induced physiochemical and genetic changes in M. arvensis seedlings. The growth rate of Hg treated seedlings was decreased to 56.1% and 41.5% in roots and shoots, respectively, compared to the control. Accumulation of Hg level in both roots and shoots was increased with increasing the concentration of Hg. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities were found to be increased with increasing the Hg concentration up to 20 mg/L; however, it was decreased at 25 mg/L Hg concentration. The POX enzyme activity was positively correlated with Hg dose. The changes occurring in the random amplification of ploymorphic DNA (RAPD profiles generated from Hg treated seedlings included variations in band intensity, disappearance of bands, and appearance of new bands compared with the control seedlings. It was concluded that DNA polymorphisms observed with RAPD profile could be used as molecular marker for the evaluation of heavy metal induced genotoxic effects in plant species. The present results strongly suggested that Mentha arvensis could be used as a potential phytoremediator plant in mercury polluted environment.

  9. Rhizosphere Microbial Community Composition Affects Cadmium and Zinc Uptake by the Metal-Hyperaccumulating Plant Arabidopsis halleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehe, E. Marie; Weigold, Pascal; Adaktylou, Irini J.; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction depends on plant growth and plant metal accessibility. Soil microorganisms can affect the accumulation of metals by plants either by directly or indirectly stimulating plant growth and activity or by (im)mobilizing and/or complexing metals. Understanding the intricate interplay of metal-accumulating plants with their rhizosphere microbiome is an important step toward the application and optimization of phytoremediation. We compared the effects of a “native” and a strongly disturbed (gamma-irradiated) soil microbial communities on cadmium and zinc accumulation by the plant Arabidopsis halleri in soil microcosm experiments. A. halleri accumulated 100% more cadmium and 15% more zinc when grown on the untreated than on the gamma-irradiated soil. Gamma irradiation affected neither plant growth nor the 1 M HCl-extractable metal content of the soil. However, it strongly altered the soil microbial community composition and overall cell numbers. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples of A. halleri identified microbial taxa (Lysobacter, Streptomyces, Agromyces, Nitrospira, “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium”) of higher relative sequence abundance in the rhizospheres of A. halleri plants grown on untreated than on gamma-irradiated soil, leading to hypotheses on their potential effect on plant metal uptake. However, further experimental evidence is required, and wherefore we discuss different mechanisms of interaction of A. halleri with its rhizosphere microbiome that might have directly or indirectly affected plant metal accumulation. Deciphering the complex interactions between A. halleri and individual microbial taxa will help to further develop soil metal phytoextraction as an efficient and sustainable remediation strategy. PMID:25595759

  10. Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sura-de Jong, M.; Reynolds, R.B.J.; Richterová, K.; Musilová, L.; Staicu, L. C.; Chocholatá, I.; Cappa, J. J.; Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Frantík, Tomáš; Dolinová, I.; Strejček, M.; Cochran, A. T.; Lovecká, P.; Pilon-Smits, E. A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 113 (2015), s. 1-17 ISSN 1664-462X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : endophyte * bacteria * phytoremediation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.495, year: 2015

  11. Erato polymnioides - A novel Hg hyperaccumulator plant in ecuadorian rainforest acid soils with potential of microbe-associated phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamba, Irene; Rosado, Daniel; Kalinhoff, Carolina; Thangaswamy, Selvaraj; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Gazquez, Manuel Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) accumulation capacity was assessed in three plant species (Axonopus compressus, Erato polymnioides, and Miconia zamorensis) that grow on soils polluted by artisanal small-scale gold mines in the Ecuadorian rainforest. Individuals of three species were collected at two sampling zones: i) an intensive zone (IZ, 4.8 mg Hg kg -1 of soil) where gold extraction continues to occur, and ii) a natural zone (NZ, 0.19 mg Hg kg -1 of soil). In addition, the percentage of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization was determined in plant roots and seven fungal morphotypes isolated from rhizospheric soil. Results suggest a facilitation role of native and pollution adapted AMF on Hg phytoaccumulation. E.g., E. polymnioides increased Hg accumulation when growing with greater AMF colonization. We concluded that E. polymnioides is a good candidate for the design of microbe-assisted strategies for Hg remediation at gold mining areas. The consortia between E. polymnioides and the AMF isolated in this study could be instrumental to get a deeper understanding of the AMF role in Hg phytoaccumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (bailey sinskaja (couve-da-malásia Seed germination and seedling growth of brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (bailey sinskaja (flowering white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Resende Ferreira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis, introduzida no Brasil em 1992, apresenta alto teor de vitamina A e ciclo curto. As sementes foram submetidas a 24 tratamentos em laboratório e 12 em campo, com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de germinação e o crescimento das plântulas. Em laboratório, as sementes foram indiferentes à luz e mostraram baixa sensibilidade à ação escarificante do hipoclorito de sódio. Ácido giberélico, KNO3, escarificação e estratificação não modificaram sua germinabilidade (96-100% nem o tempo médio de germinação (1-1,28 dias em relação ao controle. Em condições de campo os maiores valores de emergência (89,2-96,4% e os maiores índices de velocidade de emergência (14,2-17,4 ocorreram em solo com adubação mineral, entre 0,5 e 1,5 cm de profundidade. Os menores tempos médios de emergência foram registrados entre 0,5 e 1,5 cm de profundidade (2,90-3,97 dias, com os três adubos testados (mineral, esterco de gado e de galinha. As plântulas se mostraram sensíveis ao hipoclorito de sódio, com redução significativa do hipocótilo e da raiz primária. A estratificação das sementes por 24 horas estimulou o crescimento da raiz primária, o que beneficia o estabelecimento da plântula no solo.Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis was introduced in Brazil in 1992. This variety presents a high content of vitamin A and a short life cycle. Seeds were submitted to 24 treatments in laboratory conditions and 12 treatments in field conditions with the objective of evaluating the germination pattern and seedling growth. In laboratory conditions, seed germination was light independent and the germinability was reduced in 12% by the action of sodium hypochlorite scarification. Gibberellic acid, KNO3, mechanical scarification and stratification did not modify the germinability of the seeds (96-100% neither the average time of germination (1-1.28 days in relation to the control treatment. In field conditions the highest values of emergence (89.2-96.4% and the highest rates of emergence velocity (14.2-17.4 occurred in soil with mineral fertilization, between 0.5 and 1.5 cm depth. Shorter average times of emergence were registered from 0.5 to 1.5 cm depth (2.90-3.97 days, for the three fertilizers tested (mineral fertilization, cattle manure, and chicken manure. Seedlings were sensitive to sodium hypochlorite with significant reduction of hypocotyl and primary root. Stratification of seeds by 24 hours stimulated growth of primary roots improving the establishment of seedling in the soil.

  13. Variabilidad en frutos y semillas de Cucurbita moschata Duch. y Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia L.H. Bailey Merrick & D.M. Bates: Fruit and seeds variability in butternut squash Cucurbita moschata Duch. and Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia L. H.Bailey Merrick & D.M. Bates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En las cucurbitáceas (zapallo se presenta una gama amplia de variantes para el color de la semilla, desde blanco a café, que pueden tener significado evolutivo y de distribución geográfica. Se evaluó la variabilidad en semillas de 295 introducciones de Cucurbita moschata Duch. y 99 de Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia, todas procedentes de libre polinización. El análisis de conglomerados evidenció 11 grupos para cada una de las especies, las cuales expresaron alta variabilidad entre y dentro de las introducciones para los caracteres porcentaje de extracto etéreo en semilla (EE, peso de semilla por fruto (PSPF y número de frutos por planta (NFP. En C. moschata se destacaron dos grupos (5 y 9 por presentar altos promedios para producción por planta (PPL, peso de semilla por fruto (PSPF y extracto etéreo por planta (EEPP, con coeficientes de variación (CV entre 52% y 93%. En C. argyrosperma subsp. sororia se destacaron para los mismos caracteres los grupos 5 y 11, con un CV entre 53% y 79%. Los elevados coeficientes de variación evidenciaron amplia variabilidad entre y dentro de introducciones para los caracteres de importancia agronómica y agroindustrial. Teniendo en cuenta el análisis de agrupamiento y el índice de selección ponderado (ISP se seleccionaron las seis mejores introducciones en cada especie.

  14. Comportamiento fisiológico y fisico-químico en la poscosecha de curuba de castilla (Passiflora mollissima Bailey conservada en refrigeración y temperatura ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellez Claudia Patricia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el objetivo de evaluar las características fisico-quimicas y fisiológicas en postcosecha de dos cultivares nuevas de Curuba de Castilla, 'Ruizquin l' Y 'Ruizquin 2', promisorios para la exportación, los frutos fueron mantenidos unos a 8°C (cuarto frio y otros a 20°C (temperatura ambiente. En general, durante los días de almacenamiento, se pudo determinar que el valor del pH aumenta ligeramente, mientras la acidez total titulable disminuye gradualmente; el peso del fruto y la consistencia de la pulpa se pierden rápidamente; el contenido de los solidos solubles totales se disminuye, especialmente a partir de 19-22 días de la conservación y la relación solidos solubles totales/acidez total titulable (SST/ATT aumenta lentamente. La curva de la respiración, en todos los tratamientos estudiados, presenta un comportamiento climatérico. En el tratamiento con 8°C, se observo una perdida mas lenta de peso y consistencia, una intensidad respiratoria mas baja y un retardo del climaterio hasta el día 12 a 14 del almacenamiento, una mayor cantidad de so1idos solubles totales, un menor valor de pH en el jugo, un mayor porcentaje de acidez y una menor relación de SST/ATI, comparado con la conservación del fruto a temperatura ambiente.

     

    Palabras claves: Frutos, respiración, consistencia, pH, solidos solubles, acidez, color.

     

  15. Off-line separation and determination of rare earth elements associated with chloroplast pigments of hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotomaby normal-phase liquid chromatography and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Z.G.; Li, H.X.; Hu, F. [Nanjing Agricultural University, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hong, F.S. [Suzhou University, Department of Biology, College of Life Sciences, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yin, M. [Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing 100037 (China); Zhao, G.W. [University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Chemistry, Hefei 230026 (China); Wong, J.W.C. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Department of Biology, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2004-10-01

    An off-line normal-phase liquid chromatography-ICP-MS method has been used for separation and determination of the rare earth elements (REE) associated with chloroplast pigments of Dicranopteris dichotoma. The stability of REE-bound pigments was tested, and almost no destruction of REE-bound pigments occurred during the so-called normal-phase liquid chromatography. The accumulated free REE ions on the microcrystalline cellulose column were cleaned by elution with 5 mmol L{sup -1} 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexylphosphonate (P507), to avoid exchange of these free ions with metals from the pigments. When these precautions were taken, the method was applied to the study of REE-bound pigments in D. dichotoma. ICP-MS results showed REE were present in chlorophylls and lutein, although REE concentrations in carotene and pheophytin were both below procedural blank levels. By careful analysis of the eluate fractions containing chlorophyll a it was found that REE-bound chlorophyll a in D. dichotoma was slightly enriched in the fractions with relatively short retention time. Results indicated that the retention time of REE-bound chlorophyll a might be slightly less than that of magnesium chlorophyll a, and REE-bound chlorophylls might be of relatively low polarity in comparison with magnesium bound chlorophylls. This phenomenon could be explained by the special double-decker sandwich-structure of REE-bound chlorophylls, as was reported by us and other authors. On the basis of these results we preferred to consider that REE can replace magnesium in chlorophyll a of D. dichotoma, and that the role of REE-bound chlorophylls in photosynthesis cannot be neglected. These data might be useful for understanding of both the properties of REE-bound pigments and the effect of REE on plant photosynthesis. (orig.)

  16. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1995--June 20, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochian, L.

    1995-12-01

    The biological accumulation of heavy metals and cesium, strontium, and uranium in plants is discussed. The role of nutrient deficiencies and foliar treatments of manganese and iron compounds is described.

  17. The effects of pH and concentration on heavy metal speciation and mobility, and its relation to heavy metal hyperaccumulation and distribution in selected native Australian flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, D.D.; McPhail, D.C.; Hallam, N.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this research is to establish a clearer understanding of the relations that exist between heavy metal activity, speciation, bioavailability and their uptake and spatial distribution into plants. A combination of experimental modeling and pot trials using toxic heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, chromium and zinc) will be carried out. In the experiments, selected native Australian flora (Eucalyptus, Acacia, Atriplex) adapted to adverse environmental conditions will be used. Varying external factors such as pH, and metal concentration altered the composition of heavy metal speciation in the soil solution. Mathematical and geochemical (PHREEQC) models were used to vary these factors and emulate the conditions under which experimentation will be taking place. These variations help determine the possible heavy metal speciation that would occur in both soil and hydroponic based experiments under given conditions. The rhizosphere, soil solution and the plant material will be analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS). Proton Ion X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Secondary Ion Mass spectrometry will help ascertain the distribution, concentration of heavy metal taken up into plant tissues. Information derived from these data will be used to determine and understand how varying such environmental conditions and hence heavy metal speciation affect their bioavailability in the medium, and how their acceptance, accumulation and storage within the selected flora. Preliminary experimentation showed that, for lead and cadmium, the variation in soil solution pH affected the quantity of heavy metal accumulated into selected native Australian flora. ICP-MS analysis of plants subjected to a known soil solution spiked with 200 μmol of lead and cadmium showed that the quantities of lead and cadmium accumulated into plant sections (roots, stems and leaves) varied in the selected woody species. A. heteroclita, A. saligna, and A. burbanyana also showed no or little signs of phytotoxicity upon accumulating the toxic heavy metals into their tissues under both acidic and alkaline pH conditions. It is possible that these species have the potential to phytoextract toxic heavy metals in high quantities. Preliminary analysis using PIXE indicated that leaf samples of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus and E. Iesouefii showed a different distribution pattern for lead accumulated in its tissues compared to other essential elements taken up by the plant along the length of the main and secondary veins

  18. Expression differences for genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism in response to cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mortel, Judith E.; Schat, Henk; Moerland, Perry D.; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; van der Ent, Sjoerd; Blankestijn, Hetty; Ghandilyan, Artak; Tsiatsiani, Styliani; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, naturally occurring element present in soil, rock, water, plants and animals. Cd is a non-essential element for plants and is toxic at higher concentrations. Transcript profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Thlaspi caerulescens plants exposed to Cd

  19. Large expression differences in genes for iron and zinc homeostasis, stress response, and lignin biosynthesis distinguish roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the related metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mortel, Judith E.; Almar Villanueva, Laia; Schat, Henk; Kwekkeboom, Jeroen; Coughlan, Sean; Moerland, Perry D.; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a

  20. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation ...

  1. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochian, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Potential for phytoremediation of an aged radiocesium-contaminated soil from Brookhaven National Laboratory was investigated in three phases: (1) hydroponic screening for plant species capable of accumulating elevated levels of cesium in shoots, (2) amending contaminated soil to enhance {sup 137}Cs bioavailability, and (3) phytoextracting radiocesium with plant roots and its removal in harvested shoots. The bioaccumulation ratio of Cs in shoots of hydroponically grown plants ranged between 38 and 165. From solution, dicot species accumulated 2- to 4-fold more cesium in shoots than grasses. The effect of several chemical compounds on {sup 137}Cs desorption from the contaminated soil was investigated. Ammonium salts were the most effective at desorbing Cs from contaminated soil, but only 25% of radiocesium could be desorbed. Although release of radiocesium from the soil was concentration-dependent, this effect appeared to level off above 0.2 M ammonium in solution. In a pot study, from the soil contaminated with 400 pCi g{sup -1} soil, the greatest amount of {sup 137}Cs, 140 pCi, was removed in shoots of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). {sup 137}Cs accumulation in shoots was significantly increased by the addition of 40 NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} kg{sup -1} soil. Increasing NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} application from 40 to 80 mmoles kg{sup -1} soil did not further increase radiocesium phytoextraction. The ability to accumulate radiocesium from soil in shoots was significantly different among species tested. This ability increased in order: reed Canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) < Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) < tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) < cabbage.

  2. Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant species = Zware metalen tolerantie en accumulatie in Thlaspi caerulescens, een zware metalen hyperaccumulerende plantensoort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Minerals are essential for humans, plants and animals and have an important micronutrient role in physiological and metabolic processes of plants. Next to this essential role of minerals, they can also be very toxic when available to the plant in elevated amounts. Plants therefore need to keep very

  3. Large Expression Differences in Genes for Iron and Zinc Homeostasis, Stress Response, and Lignin Biosynthesis Distinguish Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the Related Metal Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Almar Villanueva, L.; Schat, H.; Kwekkeboom, J.; Coughlan, S.; Moerland, P.D.; Verloren van Themaat, E.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a

  4. Regulation of odd-numbered fatty acid content plays an important part in the metabolism of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea spp. adapted to oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlíková, D.; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Hlavsa, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 208, JAN (2017), s. 94-101 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : membrane lipid-composition * amino-acids * gene-expression * salinity stress * leaf senescence * spartina-patens * low-temperature * cadmium stress * plants * tolerance * Environmental stress * Heavy metals * Phylogenetic profiling of fatty acids * Phytoremediation * Senescence * Thlaspi species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  5. Zn-bis-glutathionate is the best co-substrate of the monomeric phytochelatin synthase from the photosynthetic heavy metal-hyperaccumulator Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Jorge D; Girard, Lourdes; Hernández, Georgina; Saavedra, Emma; Pardo, Juan P; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Encalada, Rusely; Reyes-Prieto, Adrián; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    The phytochelatin synthase from photosynthetic Euglena gracilis (EgPCS) was analyzed at the transcriptional, kinetic, functional, and phylogenetic levels. Recombinant EgPCS was a monomeric enzyme able to synthesize, in the presence of Zn(2+) or Cd(2+), phytochelatin2-phytochelatin4 (PC2-PC4) using GSH or S-methyl-GS (S-methyl-glutathione), but not γ-glutamylcysteine or PC2 as a substrate. Kinetic analysis of EgPCS firmly established a two-substrate reaction mechanism for PC2 synthesis with Km values of 14-22 mM for GSH and 1.6-2.5 μM for metal-bis-glutathionate (Me-GS2). EgPCS showed the highest Vmax and catalytic efficiency with Zn-(GS)2, and was inactivated by peroxides. The EgPCS N-terminal domain showed high similarity to that of other PCSases, in which the typical catalytic core (Cys-70, His-179 and Asp-197) was identified. In contrast, the C-terminal domain showed no similarity to other PCSases. An EgPCS mutant comprising only the N-terminal 235 amino acid residues was inactive, suggesting that the C-terminal domain is essential for activity/stability. EgPCS transcription in Euglena cells was not modified by Cd(2+), whereas its heterologous expression in ycf-1 yeast cells provided resistance to Cd(2+) stress. Phylogenetic analysis of the N-terminal domain showed that EgPCS is distant from plants and other photosynthetic organisms, suggesting that it evolved independently. Although EgPCS showed typical features of PCSases (constitutive expression; conserved N-terminal domain; kinetic mechanism), it also exhibited distinct characteristics such as preference for Zn-(GS)2 over Cd-(GS)2 as a co-substrate, a monomeric structure, and ability to solely synthesize short-chain PCs, which may be involved in conferring enhanced heavy-metal resistance.

  6. Pop / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Röyksopp "Röyksopp's Night Out: Live EP", Stephin Merritt "Showtunes", Cesaria Evora "Rogamar", Corinne Bailey Rae "Corinne Bailey Rae", Ugly Duckling "Bang For he Buck", Yeah Yeah Yeahs "Show Your Bones", Queensryhe "Operation: Mindcrime II"

  7. Discussion: "Comparison of Statistical Methods for Assessing Spatial Correlations Between Maps of Different Arterial Properties" (Rowland, E. M., Mohamied, Y., Chooi, K. Y., Bailey, E. L., and Weinberg, P. D., 2015, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 137(10), p. 101003): An Alternative Approach Using Segmentation Based on Local Hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himburg, Heather A; Grzybowski, Deborah M; Hazel, Andrew L; LaMack, Jeffrey A; Friedman, Morton H

    2016-09-01

    The biological response of living arteries to mechanical forces is an important component of the atherosclerotic process and is responsible, at least in part, for the well-recognized spatial variation in atherosusceptibility in man. Experiments to elucidate this response often generate maps of force and response variables over the arterial surface, from which the force-response relationship is sought. Rowland et al. discussed several statistical approaches to the spatial autocorrelation that confounds the analysis of such maps and applied them to maps of hemodynamic stress and vascular response obtained by averaging these variables in multiple animals. Here, we point out an alternative approach, in which discrete surface regions are defined by the hemodynamic stress levels they experience, and the stress and response in each animal are treated separately. This approach, applied properly, is insensitive to autocorrelation and less sensitive to the effect of confounding hemodynamic variables. The analysis suggests an inverse relation between permeability and shear that differs from that in Rowland et al. Possible sources of this difference are suggested.

  8. Valoración del rendimiento en función de la relación planta-suelo de la palma Astrocaryum standleyanum L. H. Bailey en el resguardo indígena Wounaan de Togoromá (Chocó, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Aliette Hernández Prieto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace 30 años las poblaciones de Astrocaryum standleyanumhan venido disminuyendo enla zona del delta del río San Juan, como respuesta al aprovechamiento destructivo que han em-pleado los Wounnan, para obtener la fibra con la que tejen los canastos de güerregue; de cuyacomercialización devengan su principal fuente de ingresos. Con la comunidad Wounnan deTogoromá se trabajó en la identificación de estrategias de manejo de A. standleyanumparaun mejor aprovechamiento. Este trabajo partió de la elaboración del diagnóstico del estadode las poblaciones en el resguardo. El cual incluyó la zonificación ecológica del territorio, laidentificación de los diferentes grados de intervención del bosque, la recopilación de la historiade uso de la palma, la caracterización del sistema de aprovechamiento para la elaboración dela artesanía; y el análisis de la forma como estos parámetros inciden en la distribución y abun-dancia de la especie. Teniendo en cuenta esta información se seleccionaron dos sitios demuestreo, en cada uno de los cuales se identificaron las condiciones ambientales que favorecenel crecimiento de la palma y su producción de fibra. Para esto se demarcaron las parcelasen las que se llevó a cabo el conteo de los individuos, la evaluación de su rendimiento pormedio del análisis de biomasa y del índice AFE; y la evaluación de las condiciones físicas,químicas y biológicas del suelo que lo afectan. Como resultado del análisis se propone la im-plantación de un programa de propagación y aprovechamiento, que tenga en cuenta la distri-bución de los ecosistemas y los grados de intervención del bosque que favorecen el crecimientode la palma. Y se proponen técnicas de manejo de las condiciones ambientales y de los aspectosde la relación planta - suelo que favorecen el mayor rendimiento en la producción de fibra;haciendo énfasis en el manejo de la asociación micorrícica observada.

  9. 76 FR 44028 - Texas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ..., Armstrong, Bailey, Baylor, Brewster, Callahan, Carson, Castro, Clay, Coleman, Concho, Cottle, Crockett..., Mason, Mitchell, Moore, Motley, Pecos, Presidio, Scurry, Stephens, Sterling, Sutton, Terrell, Terry...

  10. Variation in Heavy Metal Accumulation and Genetic Diversity at a Regional Scale Among Metallicolous and Non-Metallicolous Populations of the Facultative Metallophyte Biscutella laevigata subsp. laevigata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pošćić, F.; Fellet, G.; Vischi, M.; Casolo, V.; Schat, H.; Marchiol, L.

    2015-01-01

    Biscutella laevigata is a facultative metallophyte, with populations on non-metalliferous and metalliferous soils. Some of its metallicolous populations have been shown to hyperaccumulate thallium or lead in nature. Only Tl hyperaccumulation has been experimentally confirmed. We aimed to compare the

  11. 'Ja-nee. No, I'm fine': A note on YES and NO in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    4 Thanks to the following for their judgements on these and other no-containing structures: Chloe Allenby, Jamie. Bailey, Laura Bailey, Tim Bazalgette, Alison Biggs, Jamie Douglas, Rosemary Little, Iain Mobbs, Ian Roberts,. Sneha Sen, Michelle Sheehan, Onkar Singh, and Carolyn Twigg. 5 This insight is originally due to ...

  12. Clinical and Laboratory Features of Metformin Intoxication in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... Bailey CJ, Turner RC. Metformin. N Engl J Med 1996;334:574-9. 4. Stang M, Wysowski DK, Butler-Jones D. Incidence of lactic acidosis in metformin users. Diabetes Care 1999;22:925-7. 5. Howlett HC, Bailey CJ. A risk-benefit assessment of metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drug Saf 1999;20:489-503.

  13. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspicaerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant,are studied and compared to their orthologues in Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-hyperaccumulator plant.The TcZNT1 and TcZNT2 genes of T. caerulescens are members of the Zrt, Irt ( ZIP) -like gene family and sho...

  14. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspi

  15. Mechanisms of metal toxicity in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Küpper, Hendrik; Andresen, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), s. 269-285 ISSN 1756-5901 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hyperaccumulator thlaspi-caerulescens * Induced oxidative stress * Iron toxicity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.975, year: 2016

  16. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Daft Punk "Musique vol 1", Dudley Perkins "Expressions", Big Shug "Who's Hard?", Geminice "Progress", "Corinne Bailey Rae", Duptribe "The 3rd Creation", Jhelisa "A Primitive Guide To Being There"

  17. 77 FR 77035 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... to Dawn Bailey, Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 1020, National... Commerce is responsible for the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program (BPEP) and the Malcolm Baldrige... Collection; Comment Request; Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and Examiner Applications AGENCY...

  18. Plaadid / Mart Normet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normet, Mart, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Rules of the Deep "Next Evolution", "Monsieur Gainsbourg Revisited", Gotan Priject "Lunatico", "Corinne bailey Rae", Bruce Springsteen & The E Street Band "Hammersmith Odeon London'75", Yeah Yeah yeahs "Show Your Bones", Dave Lindholm "Dave & Dobro"

  19. Rhinosinusitis; A Potential hazard of Nasogastric tube insertion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    582. 3. Bailey BJ, Pillsbury III HC, Johnson JT, Kohut RI,. Tardy, Jr.ME: Head & Neck Surgery-Otolaryngology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven 1996. 4. Metheny NA, Meert KL, Clouse RE, Complications related to feeding tube placement. Curr Opin.

  20. Plaadid / Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kressa, Kaarel, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Kasabian "Empire", Katrin Mandel ja Lauri Saatpalu "Ei kunagi", The Hold Steady "Boys & Girls in America", "Corinne Bailey Rae", FAll Out Boy "Infinity On High", Laleh "Prinsessor", Melody Club "Scream"

  1. Effects of ovariectomy and anabolic steroid implantation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ovariectomy and anabolic steroid implantation on the somatotrophic axis in feedlot heifers. CR Bailey, GC Duff, SR Sanders, SP Cuneo, CP McMurphy, SW Limesand, JA Marchello, DW Schafer, ML Rhoads, DM Hallford ...

  2. 75 FR 22175 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    .... Glaser, George Klopf, Luke R. Lafley, Brian K. La Joie, John L. Langill, Gregg A. Lindberg, John R... conditions: James H. Bailey, Johnny J. Campbell, Malcolm J. Celestine, Dale G. Darling, Keith E. Fimon...

  3. Prediction, Assessment of the Rift Valley Fever Activity in East and Southern Africa 2006-2008 and Possible Vector Control Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    adult mosquito control. 7. Use most efficient state-of-the-art adult mosquito traps and mosquito attractants for mosquito surveillance...Davies FG , Kairo A , Bailey CL , 1985 . Rift Valley fever virus (family Bunyaviridae , genus Phlebovirus ) isolations from Diptera

  4. 2017-11-06T21:40:18Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... IL Muga, R; Ministry of Health, Kenya Poulussen, R; Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance, Brussels, Belgium Onyango, T; Ministry of Health, Kenya Bailey, ... We demonstrated that a didactic educational workshop significantly improved providers' knowledge of male circumcision.

  5. 76 FR 72002 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... guarantee that we will be able to do so. J. Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places... bounded by Bailey Dr., Boaz Rd., Calloway Dr. & Garner Rd., Raleigh, 11000893 OKLAHOMA Craig County...

  6. Sügavas kurgus / Jott Laulik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laulik, Jott, pseud., 1959-

    2006-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Sügavas kurgus" ("Inside Deep Throat") : režissöörid Fenton Bailey, Randy Barbato : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Film käsitleb 1972.a. kurikuulsa pornofilmi "Sügav kurk" ("Deep Throat") fenomeni

  7. Sügavast kurgust peegeldub terve ajastu / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2006-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Sügavas kurgus" ("Inside Deep Throat") : režissöörid Fenton Bailey, Randy Barbato : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Film käsitleb 1972.a. kurikuulsa pornofilmi "Sügav kurk" ("Deep Throat") fenomeni

  8. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Eminem "Curtain Call", "Serena Maneesh", Ozzy Osbourne "Under Cover", Stevie Wonder "A Time To Love", Coryell-Bailey-White "Electric", Simple Minds "Black & White", Steve Reich "You Are"

  9. Doppler ultrasonography of the pectinis oculi artery in harpy eagles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2017-03-21

    Mar 21, 2017 ... *Corresponding Author: Prof Simon Bailey. Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Corner of Park Drive and Flemington Road, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia. Email: bais@unimelb.edu.au. 70 ...

  10. Fitoremediasi dan Potensi Tumbuhan Hiperakumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is defined as cleaning up of pollutants mediated primarily by plants. It is an emerging technology for environmental remediation that offers a low-cost technique suitable for use against different types of contaminants in a variety of media. Phytoremediation is potentially applicable to a diversity of substances, involving hyperaccumulators heavy metals and radionuclides. It is also applicable to other inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, various salts and nutrients, and a variety of organic contaminants, including explosives, petroleum hydrocarbons and pesticides. At least there are one taxon of plant as hyperaccumulator for Cd, 28 taxa for Co, 37 taxa for Cu, 9 taxa for Mg, 317 taxa for Ni, and 11 taxa for Zn. Extensive progress were done in characterizing physiology of plants which hyperaccumulate or hypertolerate metals. Hypertolerance is fundamental to hyperaccumulator, and high rates of uptake and translocation are observed in hyperaccumulator plants. Hyperaccumulator plants and agronomic technology were undertaken to improve the annual rate of phytoextraction and to allow recycling of soil toxic metals accumulated in plant biomass. These techniques are very likely to support commercial environmental remediation. Most phytoremediation systems are still in development, or in the stage of plant breeding to improve the cultivars for field use. However, application for commercial purposes has already been initiated. Many opportunities have also been identified for research and development to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation.

  11. Laboratory and field measurements of upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of suspended James River sediments near Hopewell, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whilock, C. H.; Witte, W. G.; Gurganus, E. A.; Usry, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral reflectance characteristics of suspended Bermuda Hundred and Bailey Bay bottom sediments taken from the Hopewell, Va., area were measured in the laboratory for water mixture total suspended solids concentrations between 4 and 173 parts per million. Field spectral reflectance measurements were made of the James River waters near Bermuda Hundred on two occasions. The results of these tests indicate that both Bermuda Hundred and Bailey Bay suspended sediments produce their strongest reflectance in the green and red regions of the spectrum.

  12. The dynamic behaviour of the floor of a surrogate vehicle under explosive blast loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Newell, N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available for their invaluable support and Mr. Frans Beetge (Armscor) for his technical support during testing. References Bailey, A., Christopher, J., Henderson, K., Brozoski, F., & Salzar, R. S. (2013). Comparison of Hybrid-III and PMHS Response to Simulated Underbody... Blast Loading Conditions. In: Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference 2013 (pp. 158–171). Gothenburg, Sweden. Bailey, A. M., Christopher, J. J., Brozoski, F., & Salzar, R. S. (2014). Post Mortem Human Surrogate Injury Response of the Pelvis and Lower...

  13. A Multidisciplinary Study of Ciguatoxin and Related Low Molecular Weight Toxins from Marine Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    Prorocentrum lima . Bull. Jpns. Soc. Sci. Fish. 4a:69-72, 1982. 11. Banner, A.H., S. Sasaki, P. Helfrich, C.B. Nender and P.J. Scheuer. Bioassay of...Ln ADa I iic Ek A MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF CIGUATOXIN AND SRELATED LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT TOXINS FROM MARINE SOURCES ANNUAL REPORT LESLIE E. BAILEY...MOLECULAR WEIGHT TOXINS FROM MARINE SOURCES ANNUAL REPORT LESLIE E. BAILEY YOSHITSUGI HOKAMA JAMES T. MIYAHARA PAUL J. SCHEUER AUGUST 1986 Supported by

  14. Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (AG3) en la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima) Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (AG3) en la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima)

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Gutiérrez Rito Hernán

    1988-01-01

    The trials made on banana passion fruit seeds germination (Passiflora mollisima(HBK) Bailey, under laboratory specifications show that the testa delays the water absortion and it is the critic factor on the germination. AG3 increases the germination remarkably and strengthens the effects of the scarification considerably.

    Los ensayos de la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima (HBK) Bailey en condiciones de ...

  15. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Regvar, Marjana

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg -1 Zn, 5960 mg kg -1 Cd and 3500 mg kg -1 Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

  16. Lead uptake, tolerance, and accumulation exhibited by the plants Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile in contaminated soil without additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Milena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Urtica dioica and Sedum spectabile collected from plants growing at uncontaminated sites were transplanted in Pb-contaminated soil without additives (EDTA, HEDTA to identify their natural potential for hyper-tolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead. The total content of Pb in the plants was determined by atomic spectroscopy. Our research showed that the concentrated toxic levels of lead (Pb in Sedum spectabile and Urtica dioica were about 100 or more times higher than those of non-accumulator plants. It can be concluded that these plants have a high natural potential for hypertolerance and hyperaccumulation of lead, since they can hyperaccumulate it without addition of any chelating compounds (EDTA, HEDTA to enhance lead uptake. This makes them very promising plants for use in phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated sites.

  17. Overexpression of Selenocysteine Methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian Mustard Increases Selenium Tolerance and Accumulation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDuc, Danika L.; Tarun, Alice S.; Montes-Bayon, Maria; Meija, Juris; Malit, Michele F.; Wu, Carol P.; AbdelSamie, Manal; Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Tagmount, Abderrhamane; deSouza, Mark; Neuhierl, Bernhard; Böck, August; Caruso, Joseph; Terry, Norman

    2004-01-01

    A major goal of phytoremediation is to transform fast-growing plants with genes from plant species that hyperaccumulate toxic trace elements. We overexpressed the gene encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) from the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). SMT detoxifies selenocysteine by methylating it to methylselenocysteine, a nonprotein amino acid, thereby diminishing the toxic misincorporation of Se into protein. Our Indian mustard transgenic plants accumulated more Se in the form of methylselenocysteine than the wild type. SMT transgenic seedlings tolerated Se, particularly selenite, significantly better than the wild type, producing 3- to 7-fold greater biomass and 3-fold longer root lengths. Moreover, SMT plants had significantly increased Se accumulation and volatilization. This is the first study, to our knowledge, in which a fast-growing plant was genetically engineered to overexpress a gene from a hyperaccumulator in order to increase phytoremediation potential. PMID:14671009

  18. Overexpression of selenocysteine methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard increases selenium tolerance and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDuc, Danika L; Tarun, Alice S; Montes-Bayon, Maria; Meija, Juris; Malit, Michele F; Wu, Carol P; AbdelSamie, Manal; Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Tagmount, Abderrhamane; deSouza, Mark; Neuhierl, Bernhard; Böck, August; Caruso, Joseph; Terry, Norman

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of phytoremediation is to transform fast-growing plants with genes from plant species that hyperaccumulate toxic trace elements. We overexpressed the gene encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) from the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). SMT detoxifies selenocysteine by methylating it to methylselenocysteine, a nonprotein amino acid, thereby diminishing the toxic misincorporation of Se into protein. Our Indian mustard transgenic plants accumulated more Se in the form of methylselenocysteine than the wild type. SMT transgenic seedlings tolerated Se, particularly selenite, significantly better than the wild type, producing 3- to 7-fold greater biomass and 3-fold longer root lengths. Moreover, SMT plants had significantly increased Se accumulation and volatilization. This is the first study, to our knowledge, in which a fast-growing plant was genetically engineered to overexpress a gene from a hyperaccumulator in order to increase phytoremediation potential.

  19. An Investigation of the Levels and Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediments and Plant Species within the Vicinity of Ex-Iron Mine in Bukit Besi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Kutty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the abandoned mine impacts on the concentrations and distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments and plant species within the vicinity of an ex-iron mine in Malaysia was conducted. The sequential extraction method was used to extract anthropogenic metals in sediments. The results showed that metals in EFLE, AR, and OO fractions were higher than ambient concentrations which indicate that heavy metals have been loaded from ex-iron mining area into the surrounding aquatic environments. The metal accumulation in the four dominant plant species grown naturally within the vicinity of Bukit Besi ex-iron mining was investigated. Exceptional elevated concentrations of metal were found in plants and surface sediments. Several established criteria were applied to determine the hyperaccumulator plants. The results revealed that Melastoma malabathricum and Pityrogramma calomelanos are classified as Fe and Al hyperaccumulators, while Scirpus triqueter, Melastoma malabathricum, and Pityrogramma calomelanos were undoubtedly hyperaccumulator for Cd.

  20. Aerial photographic water color variations from pollution in the James River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A photographic flight was made over the James River on May 17, 1977. The data show that, in general, James River water has very high sunlight reflectance. In the Bailey Bay area this reflectance is drastically reduced. Also shown is a technique for normalizing off-axis variations in radiance film exposure from camera falloff and uneven sunlight conditions to the nadir value. After data normalization, a spectral analysis is performed that identifies Bailey Creek water in James River water. The spectral results when compared with laboratory spectrometer data indicate that reflectance from James River water is dominated by suspended matter, while the substance most likely responsible for reduced reflectance in Bailey Creek water is dissolved organic carbon.

  1. Spatial characteristics of sediment trace metals in an eastern boundary upwelling retention area (St. Helena Bay, South Africa): A hydrodynamic-biological pump hypothesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monteiro, PMS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available (O15 mg Chl mC2553) and peaks at 68e139 mg Chl mC2553 (Bailey, 1987; Pitcher et al., 1989, 1992). This contributes to the high sediment flux (31.5 g mC2552 dC2551) observed in the bay area (Bailey, 1987). Sediment sulfide fluxes are coupled... / Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 65 (2005) 123e134 modeled using the DELFT3D-FLOW model designed to simulate tide and wind-driven flows in shallow seas and coastal areas. A 10-layer sigma coordinate grid was used and layers were concentrated around...

  2. Piezoelectric Response of Ferroelectric Ceramics Under Mechanical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    Chair William F. Bailey, Ph.D. Member Maj Darrell S. Crowe , Ph.D. Member Lt Col Richard E. Huffman Jr., Ph.D. Member Jason R. Foley, Ph.D. Member ADEDEJI...Robert B. Greendyke, for his whole-hearted dedication and guidance as my advisor, teacher and mentor, Dr William F. Bailey, Dr Darrell S. Crowe and Dr...assembled with Pb-free and Tin–Lead solders. Device and Materials Reliability, IEEE Transactions on, 8(1):182–192, 2008. [47] John D. Prymak and Jim

  3. Molecular Genetic Studies of Bone Mechanical Strain and of Pedigrees with Very High Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Bailey, D.A. and R.G. McCulloch , Bone tissue and physical activity. Can J Sport Sci, 1990. 15(4): p. 229-39. 3. Bikle, D.D., T. Sakata, and B.P...2629-2641. 2. Bailey DA, McCulloch RG: Bone tissue and physical activity. Can J Sport Sci 1990;15:229-239. 3. Warden SJ, Fuchs RK, Turner CH: Steps...Sokol, S. (2002) J. Cell Biol. 158, 529–539 24. Warren , S. M., Brunet, L. J., Harland, R. M., Economides, A. N., and Longaker, M. T. (2003) Nature 422

  4. Downloading Multiple Records Using Query Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Crymble

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Downloading a single record from a website is easy, but downloading many records at a time – an increasingly frequent need for a historian – is much more efficient using a programming language such as Python. In this lesson, we will write a program that will download a series of records from the Old Bailey Online using custom search criteria, and save them to a directory on our computer. This process involves interpreting and manipulating URL Query Strings. In this case, the tutorial will seek to download sources that contain references to people of African descent that were published in the Old Bailey Proceedings between 1700 and 1750.

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. PRIYANKA BEDI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 105-115 Article. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata · RASIKA M POTDUKHE PRIYANKA BEDI BIJAYA K SARANGI RAM A PANDEY ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. RASIKA M POTDUKHE. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 105-115 Article. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata · RASIKA M POTDUKHE PRIYANKA BEDI BIJAYA K SARANGI RAM A ...

  7. Analysis of arsenic in soil and vegetation of a contaminated area in Zarshuran, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, N.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Maroofi, H.; Schat, H.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the potential for arsenic (As) hyperaccumulation of native plant species, plant and soil samples were collected from the Zarshuran area (north-western Iran), which has a history of As pollution from mining. Total and water-soluble As in the soil ranged from 11.2 to 6525 and from 0.004 to

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. RAM A PANDEY. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 105-115 Article. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata · RASIKA M POTDUKHE PRIYANKA BEDI BIJAYA K SARANGI RAM A PANDEY ...

  9. Subcellular localization of Cd in the root cells of Allium sativum by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    elements in the hyperaccumulator; Planta 212 75–84. Lindsey P A and Lineberger R D 1981 Toxicity, cadmium accumulation and ultrastructural alterations induced by expo- sure of Phaseolus seedlings to cadmium; Hortscience 16. 434. Lockwood M P 1976 Effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. (New York: Cambridge ...

  10. The fascinating facets of plant selenium accumulation - biochemistry, physiology, evolution and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2017-03-01

    Contents 1582 I. 1582 II. 1583 III. 1588 IV. 1590 V. 1592 1592 References 1592 SUMMARY: The importance of selenium (Se) for medicine, industry and the environment is increasingly apparent. Se is essential for many species, including humans, but toxic at elevated concentrations. Plant Se accumulation and volatilization may be applied in crop biofortification and phytoremediation. Topics covered here include beneficial and toxic effects of Se on plants, mechanisms of Se accumulation and tolerance in plants and algae, Se hyperaccumulation, and ecological and evolutionary aspects of these processes. Plant species differ in the concentration and forms of Se accumulated, Se partitioning at the whole-plant and tissue levels, and the capacity to distinguish Se from sulfur. Mechanisms of Se hyperaccumulation and its adaptive significance appear to involve constitutive up-regulation of sulfate/selenate uptake and assimilation, associated with elevated concentrations of defense-related hormones. Hyperaccumulation has evolved independently in at least three plant families, probably as an elemental defense mechanism and perhaps mediating elemental allelopathy. Elevated plant Se protects plants from generalist herbivores and pathogens, but also gives rise to the evolution of Se-resistant specialists. Plant Se accumulation affects ecological interactions with herbivores, pollinators, neighboring plants, and microbes. Hyperaccumulation tends to negatively affect Se-sensitive ecological partners while facilitating Se-resistant partners, potentially affecting species composition and Se cycling in seleniferous ecosystems. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY ABSORPTION-EDGE COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF THALLIUM COMPARTMENTALIZATION IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium (TI) is an extremely toxic metal which, due to its similarities to K, is readily taken up by plants. Thallium is efficiently hyperaccumulated in Iberis intermedia as TI(I). Distribution and compartmentalization of TI in I. intermedia is highes...

  12. The molecular mechanism of zinc and cadmium stress response in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.F.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    When plants are subjected to high metal exposure, different plant species take different strategies in response to metal-induced stress. Largely, plants can be distinguished in four groups: metal-sensitive species, metal-resistant excluder species, metal-tolerant non-hyperaccumulator species, and

  13. Bioaccumulation of silver in ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi from pristine and polluted areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jan; Kotrba, P.; Gryndler, Milan; Mihaljevič, M.; Řanda, Zdeněk; Rohovec, Jan; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Stijve, T.; Dunn, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 408, č. 13 (2010), s. 2733-2744 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600480801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Fungi * Amanita * Hyperaccumulation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.190, year: 2010

  14. classification of plants according to their heavy metal content around

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    growth rates and the incidence of pests and diseases are required on the identified heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants ..... Classification of plants according to their heavy metal content … 114 articulatus, Crinum papilosum and Pluchea dioscoridis the levels of copper were below detection limits. The highest level of lead ...

  15. Responses to Cd Stress in Two Noccaea Species (Noccaea praecox and Noccaea caerulescens) Originating from Two Contaminated Sites in Mezica, Slovenia and Redlschlag, Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Hnilička, F.; Vondráčková, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2016), s. 464-474 ISSN 0090-4341 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : HYPERACCUMULATOR THLASPI-CAERULESCENS * CADMIUM STRESS * AMINO-ACIDS Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 2.467, year: 2016

  16. Vps1 in the late endosome-to-vacuole traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consistently, our subcellular localization analysis showed that Vps1 is present at the late endosome. The hyperaccumulation of endosomal intermediates in the vps1 mutant cells appears to be caused by the disruption of integrity of HOPS tethering complexes, manifested by mislocalization of Vps39 to the cytoplasm. Finally ...

  17. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 16 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcellular localization of cadmium in hyperaccumulator Populus × canescens · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HP Dai, C Shan, Y Wei, JG Liang, TX Yang, WQ Sa, AZ Wei, 3779-3787 ...

  18. Low molecular weight organic acids in root exudates and cadmium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The S. nigrum with higher concentrations of LMWOA in roots exudation accumulated more Cd in the plants. The results indicated tha LMWOA secretion by S. nigrum root, especially in Cd-contaminated soils, was likely to be an important role in Cd hyperaccumulation. Key words: Cadmium, Solanum nigrum L., low molecular ...

  19. An evolutionary perspective on differential regulation of zinc and cadmium homeostatis genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.F.

    2014-01-01

    Some plants can tolerate and accumulate unusually high levels of toxic metals, and the analysis of such plants can provide insights into the ecology of environments that are polluted with heavy metals due to human industrial activities. The study of heavy metal hyperaccumulators such as

  20. Expression of an "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter CAX1 variant in petunia enhances cadmium tolerance and accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective and minimally invasive technology to cleanse soils contaminated with heavy metals. However, few plant species are suitable for phytoremediation of metals such as cadmium (Cd). Genetic engineering offers a powerful tool to generate plants that can hyperaccumulate ...

  1. Accumulation of zinc and cadmium and localization of zinc in Picris divaricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picris divaricata Vant., native to subtropical China, was recently identified as the first Cd/Zn hyper-accumulator from Asteraceae. Wild collected seed of P. divaricata was grown in a series of pH buffered test soils with Zn levels 00-7000 gkg-1 and Cd levels 00-150 gkg-1 for four months. Plants d...

  2. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hyperaccumulation of arsenic (As) by brake fern Pteris vittata has been described as an important genetic trait that providesan option for development of a sustainable phytoremediation process for As mitigation. Accumulation of very highconcentration of arsenic in above-ground tissues may be the result of arsenic vacuole ...

  3. Cadmium accumulation characteristics of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijin; Shi, Jun; Liu, Qihua; Liao, Ming'an; Mei, Luoyin

    2014-07-01

    In a preliminary study, we found that the cadmium (Cd) concentrations in shoots of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)), indicating that these two farmland weeds might be Cd-hyperaccumulators. In this study, we grew these species in soil containing various concentrations of Cd to further evaluate their Cd accumulation characteristics. The biomasses of C. hirsuta and G. affine decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in the soil, while the root/shoot ratio and the Cd concentrations in shoot tissues increased. The Cd concentrations in shoots of C. hirsuta and G. affine reached 121.96 and 143.91 mg kg(-1), respectively, at the soil Cd concentration of 50 mg kg(-1). Both of these concentrations exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)). The shoot bioconcentration factors of C. hirsuta and G. affine were greater than 1. The translocation factor of C. hirsuta was less than 1 and that of G. affine was greater than 1. These findings indicated that C. hirsuta is a Cd-accumulator and G. affine is Cd-hyperaccumulator. Both plants are distributed widely in the field, and they could be used to remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil in winter.

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    species belong to the Brassicaceae (Baker and Brooks,. 1989), in the tropics the Euphorbiaceae is the best repre- sented group (Ensley et al., 1997). Along with Brassi- caceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae, Duchenkov. (2003), added the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and. Scrophulariaceae. A hyperaccumulator plant ...

  5. Collaboration between Special and Physical Education: The Benefits of a Healthy Lifestyle for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Emily; Hollingshead, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Physical education (PE) has holistic benefits for all students, including those with disabilities, as it supports the development of three critical learning areas: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective ("Adapted Physical Education," 2012; Bailey, 2006; Burgeson, 2004). PE is potentially the main source of physical activity and the…

  6. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #713

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2010

    2010-01-01

    A recent report on the impact of dual enrollment programs noted that "despite the popularity and growth of dual enrollment programs, little is known about their efficacy" (Karp, Calcagno, Hughes, Jeong, & Bailey, 2007). Furthermore, much of what is known tends to focus on "postsecondary"--full-time as opposed to part-time…

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gabriela Paz-Bailey, MD, MSc, PhD, is a medical epidemiologist working at Del Valle University and Tephinet Inc. on HIV-related research and programmes in Central. America. ... urinary medicine (GUM) clinic at St Thomas Hospital, Central London, UK. ..... that he wanted someone to talk about him – personalised health.

  8. Dual Enrollment in Spanish: One Working Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Melanie; Chambers, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Dual enrollment is now a nation-wide phenomenon as all 50 states currently offer some form of dual-enrollment program to secondary-school students (Karp, Bailey, Hughes, and Fermin 2005). However, dual enrollment itself is often difficult to define as programs vary from school to school (Jordan, Cavalluzzo, and Corallo 2006). Therefore, language…

  9. South African Medical Journal - Vol 107, No 6 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audits of oncology units – an effective and pragmatic approach · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. R P Abratt, D Eedes, B Bailey, C Salmon, Y Govender, I Oelofse, H Burger, 493-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2017.v107i6.12356 ...

  10. Evaluation of the VIIRS Ocean Color Monitoring Performance in Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    Simulations. Applied Optics, 46,1535- 1547 . Wang, M., 8J Bailey. S. W. (2001). Correction of sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and...for the validation of ocean color radiance data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 42,401-415.

  11. 77 FR 4058 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in Mesa County, CO Under the Federal Lands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ....gov/co/st/en/nca/mcnca/what_s_news_.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Bailey, Assistant.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The North Fruita Desert SRMA offers outstanding opportunities for world class mountain biking. The BLM's overall goal is to maintain the area's recreation experiences, quality social...

  12. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  13. Effect of Physical and Flexibility Exercise on Plasma Levels of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ozer J, Ratner M, Shaw M, Bailey W, Schomaker S. The current state of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Toxicol 2008; 245: 194–205. 25. Dufour DR, Lott JA, Nolte FS, Gretch DR, Koff RS, Seeff. LB. Diagnosis and monitoring of hepatic injury. II. Recommendations for use of laboratory tests in screening, diagnosis, and ...

  14. Allanach Benjamin, LAPTH, France Altarelli Guido, CERN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Allanach Benjamin, LAPTH, France. Altarelli Guido, CERN, Switzerland. Ananthanarayan Balasubramanian,. IISc, Bangalore, India. Antoniadis Ignatios, CERN, Switzer- land. Aziz T, TIFR, Mumbai, India. Babu K S, Oklahoma State Univ., USA. Bailey Stephen, Harvard/BaBar, USA. Bailin David, University of Sussex, UK.

  15. Buy Our Spares Smart Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-19

    Wolfe Daniel R. Taylor William R. Wolfe effery E. Taylor Romona A. Williams Robert M. Tenta R.V. Yates Mary M. Thomas Richard V. Yates Jr. Pandora L...Cynthia Johnson Candice Bailey Christine McLaurin JoAnne Banks Charles McPherson Donna Barrineau Susan Medina Mildred Bates Jean Merritt * Willie Brame

  16. A Purposeful Understanding of Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phares, Tim

    2017-01-01

    There has been a long standing debate over the purpose of homework; it has been a topic for educational reform, discussed in educational debates, and looked at as a means to improve student achievement (Foyle & Bailey, 1986; Gill & Schlossman, 2003; Xu, 2005; Fisher & Frey, 2008). Homework can cause frustration for students and…

  17. The genus Typhonium (Araceae-Areae) in Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.

    1993-01-01

    The genus Typhonium (Araceae-Areae) is revised for Australasia. Fourteen species are recognised. Two are introduced. Of the twelve indigenous, eleven are endemic to the region. Six aré new to science. Typhonium millarii F.M. Bailey is reduced to synonymy with T. angustilobum F. Muell. Illustrations

  18. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bailey Stephen, Harvard/BaBar, USA. Bailin David, University of Sussex, UK. Bambah Bindu, University of Hyder- abad, Hyderabad, India. Banerjee Sudeshna ... India. Chitre S M, University of Mumbai,. Mumbai, India. Choudhury Debajyoti, HRI, Allaha- bad, India. Cline James, CERN, Switzerland/. McGill Univ., Canada.

  19. Fixed point theorems for densifying mappings and compact mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqing Liu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this note is to establish fixed point theorems for densifying mappings and compact mappings which are contractive in metric spaces and to investigate the existence of fixed points for a family of mappings in bounded metric spaces. The results of this note generalize the results of Bailey (1966 and Liu (1994.

  20. "The New Economic Reality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Pearl

    2012-01-01

    Many historically Black business schools have taken a proactive stance during this period of economic uncertainty. Dr. Jessica Bailey, president of the HBCU Business Deans' Roundtable, which includes 52 of the 104 historically Black business schools, thinks the institutions are "expanding their missions" to place more emphasis on globalization,…

  1. Effect of different levels and particle sizes of perlite on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... Bailey RH, Phillips TD (1997). Effect of inorganic adsorbents and cyclopiazonic acid in broiler chicken. J. Poult. Sci. 76: 1141-1149. Frost TJ, Roland DA, Barnes DG, Laurent SM (1992). The effect of sodium zeolite A and cholecalciferol on plasma levels of 1, 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol, Ca, and P in ...

  2. Boys with a simple delayed puberty reach their target height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, B L M; Rooman, R; Op De Beeck, L; Du Caju, M V L

    2008-01-01

    Final height in boys with delayed puberty is thought to be below target height. This conclusion, however, is based on studies that included patients with genetic short stature. We therefore studied final height in a group of 33 untreated boys with delayed puberty with a target height >-1.5 SDS. Standing height, sitting height, weight and arm span width were measured in each patient. Final height was predicted by the method of Greulich and Pyle using the tables of Bailey and Pinneau for retarded boys at their bone age (PAH1) and the tables of Bailey and Pinneau for average boys plus six months (PAH2). Mean final height (175.8 +/- 6.5 cm) was appropriate for the mean target height (174.7 +/- 4.5 cm). The prediction method of Bailey and Pinneau overestimated the final height by 1.4 cm and the modified prediction method slightly underestimated the final height (-0.15 cm). Boys with untreated delayed puberty reach a final height appropriate for their target height. Final height was best predicted by the method of Bailey and Pinneau using the tables for average boys at their bone age plus six months. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Induction of resveratrol biosynthesis in skins of three grape cultivars by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Tsutomu; Okuda, Tohru; Mine, Yohei; Yokotsuka, Koki

    2004-01-01

    Resveratrol production and expression of the genes related to resveratrol biosynthesis were investigated in the skins of three Vitis vinifera cultivars Chardonnay, Koshu and an American hybrid grape, Muscat Bailey A (Bailey x Muscat Hamburg). Resveratrol concentration in the skins of all the grapes increased significantly when exposed to ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) irradiation. The UV-induced resveratrol concentration in the grape skins was lower after veraison (onset of ripening) than before it. The maximum concentration of the UV-induced resveratrol in 'Muscat Bailey A' was higher than those in the other two cultivars. The relative mRNA expression levels of stilebene synthase (STS), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes in grape skins 8 hr after UV irradiation were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed that STS- and PAL-mRNA expressions were significantly increased by UV irradiation. STS-mRNA expressions in 'Muscat Bailey A' were higher than those in 'Chardonnay' throughout berry development. The UV-induced CHS-mRNA expression in the grape skins decreased before veraison and subsequently increased. (author)

  4. Ginkgo biloba L.: ginkgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    Ginkgo is a monotypic genus native to China, the sole survivor of the ancient family of Ginkgoaceae (Bailey 1923; Dallimore and Jackson 1948; Seward and Gowan 1900). Geologic records indicate that ginkgos have grown on Earth for 150 million years (AGINFO 1994). This tall (

  5. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-06-06

    Jun 6, 2009 ... Bailey CJ and Bignell AHC. Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia (Karela). Brit. Med J 1981, 282: 1823-1824. 2. Akhtar MS, Athar MN and Yaqub M. Effect of. Momordica charantia on the blood glucose level of normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Planta Medica. 1981, 42: 205-212.

  6. zooplankton of the Sundays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euryhaline zooplankton of the Sundays estuary and notes on trophic relationships. T. Wooldridge and C. Bailey. Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth. ~lJNIViIi8tT~. ~BRARy'/. The euryhaline component of the zooplankton in the Sundays River estuary was sampled monthly at 10 stations from ...

  7. Majanduse spetsialiseerujad ja kõigesööjad / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Kas riigid peaksid majandusedu saavutamiseks spetsialiseeruma või hoidma võimalikult laia profiili. Majandusteadlaste Ricardo Hausmanni ja Bailey Klingeri ning füüsikute Albert-Laszlo Barabasi ja Cesar Hidalgo vaatenurgast küsimusele, mida toota ja kuidas ühelt tootelt teisele üle minna

  8. The antimicrobial properties of Ocimum gratissimum extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-11-16

    Nov 16, 2006 ... The plant is extensively cultivated in and around town and villages in Nigeria, tropical regions of Asia, Africa, central and South America (Bailey, 1924). ..... ritual aspects of traditional therapy using drugs dried from human body. Chinese Science. Exploration of an Ancient Tradition, Shigeru. Makayoma and ...

  9. exergetic analysis of breakfast cereal production in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    was estimated that an average energy intensity of 11.27 MJ/kg was required for the production of breakfast cereals. The most energy intensive operation was ... the causes of energy loss in different industrial production processes. A robust way of ..... Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat. Products, Sixth Edition, Six Volume Set.

  10. R-ES-ONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Delbruck and Bailey set the seal on the recognition of bacte- riophages, and by extension all viruses, as a form of life: they were shown to be capable of genetic ..... evolution of life, on the structure and evolution of our cognitive capabilities", we should not try to "take a new look at this question and perhaps formulate it in ...

  11. 50 CFR Table 14a to Part 679 - Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska 14a Table 14a to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Port Bailey 159 PTB Port Graham 160 GRM Port Lions 316 LIO Port Moller 317 MOL Port Protection 161 PRO...

  12. Comparison of Alternative Hydrogen Donors for Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination of Tetrachloroethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    banter. I would also like to thank Monroe Weber-Shirk, Neil Rotach, Sissy Fenner, Barb Bailey, Maureen v Letteer, Patty Apgar, Shirley Pless, Mark...PCE, neat electron donor (if any), FYE, and vitamin solution. During long-term operation, bottles were incubated in a 350C walk -in chamber, in a slanted

  13. Mass, Energy, Entropy and Exergy Rate Balance in a Ranque-Hilsh Vortex Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascal Lecumberri, Edorta; Sala Lizarraga, José María

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a laboratory program designed for the Thermodynamics course offered in the Department of Thermal Engineering at the University of the Basque Country. With reference to one of the examples given in the textbook by Moran, Shapiro, Boettner and Bailey (2012), the balances of mass, energy, entropy and exergy…

  14. Effective Motion Tracking Using Known and Learned Actuation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    2004. [10] G. Dissanayake, H. Durant -Whyte, and T. Bailey. A computationally efficient solution to the simultaneous localisation and map building (slam...29] Kevin Murphy. Dynamic Bayesian Networks: Representation, Inference and Learning. PhD thesis, 2002. [30] William Ng, Jack Li, Simon Godsill, and

  15. "Words of Wisdom": An Expectancy-Value Examination of Relationships among Hip-Hop Racial Socialization and Racial Identity of African-American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff-Bailey, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    The influence of hip hop culture and music on African-American youth is profound and can be used as a tool to shape positive outcomes in education. Hip hop has been used effectively in the classroom to engage students and enhance their critical thinking (Gangloff-Bailey & Freeman, 2014). In addition, hip hop has been described as a socializer…

  16. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5 85. Fisher A A 1967 Contact dermatitis (Philadelphia: Wea and Febiger). * Guess W L, Jacob J and Autian J 1967 Drug Intelligence 1 120. Hirose T, Goldstein R and Bailey C 1963.J. Thorac. Cardiovsc, Surg. 45 245. Jaeger R J and Rubin R J 1970 Science 170 460. O' Leary R K and Guess W L 1968 J. Pharm. Sci. 57 12.

  17. In-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy, Professional Development, and Web 2.0 Tools for Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu Chien; Franklin, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Background: The implementation and integration of computer technologies in K-12 education has seen nearly constant growth since the early 1980s (Culp, Honey, Mandinach & Bailey, 2003), in part because this trend has become synonymous with skills that students will need as participants in a competitive global economy (Culp et al., 2003). It has…

  18. Online Portfolios: Marketing Apparel Merchandising Millennials into Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keist, Carmen N.; Bruer, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    In a sea of applicant uniformity, how can an undergraduate student develop a means of personal differentiation while attempting to land an internship or job? That is the dilemma of the roughly 1.9 million Millennials graduating with bachelor's degrees within the United States in 2015 (Hussar & Bailey, 2015). Although the national unemployment…

  19. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 38, No 3 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ovariectomy and anabolic steroid implantation on the somatotrophic axis in feedlot heifers · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CR Bailey, GC Duff, SR Sanders, SP Cuneo, CP McMurphy, SW Limesand, JA Marchello, DW Schafer, ML Rhoads, ...

  20. Recruitment patterns and growth of high-elevation pines in response to climatic variability (1883–2013), in the western Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint

    2015-01-01

    Over the period 1883–2013, recruitment of subalpine limber pine (Pinus flexilis E. James) and Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey) above the upper tree line, below the lower tree line, and across middle-elevation forest borders occurred at localized sites across four mountain ranges in the western Great...

  1. Synthesis of CaTiO3 from calcium titanyl oxalate hexahydrate (CTO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    prolonged heating of the reaction components to get the product (Kay and Bailey 1957; Redfern 1996). In other methods, the reaction components are generated in situ and are more reactive. Moreover, the particle–to–particle contact in these cases is also more intimate, facilitating the reaction at much lower temperatures.

  2. Kuus kirja / John Keats ; tlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Keats, John

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Benjamin Bailey'le, 22. novembril 1817 ; George ja Tom Keatsile, 21., 27. (?) detsembril 1817 ; John Taylorile, 27. veebruaril 1818 ; John Hamilton Reynoldsile, 3. mail 1818 ; Richard Woodhouse'ile, 27. oktoobril 1818 ; George ja Georgiana Keatsile, 14. veebruar-3. mai 1819. Saatesõna lk. 84

  3. Protocols for care and handling of deer and elk at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; John G. Cook; Mary M. Rowland; James H. Noyes

    1993-01-01

    Several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) inhabit a fenced, 25,000-acre enclosure at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Research there requires handling...

  4. Techniques to construct New Zealand elk-proof fence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry D. Bryant; Jack W. Thomas; Mary M. Rowland

    1993-01-01

    An elk-proof fence was built in 1987 at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeast Oregon. The 25,000-acre research enclosure holds several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) year round. The fence, constructed with high...

  5. The Starkey project: history, facilities, and data collection methods for ungulate research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Larry D. Bryant; Bruce K. Johnson; James H. Noyes; Michael J. Wisdom; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980s resource managers were increasingly concerned about effects of timber harvest on ungulates in National Forests. Land and resource management plans incorporated restrictions on timber harvest to maintain cover for Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus...

  6. 'Clinics aren't meant for men': Sexual health care access and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Clinics aren't meant for men': Sexual health care access and seeking behaviours among men in Gauteng province, South Africa. JS Leichliter, G Paz-Bailey, AL Friedman, MA Habel, A Vezi, M Sello, T Farirai, DA Lewis ...

  7. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS - Vol 8, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Clinics aren't meant for men': Sexual health care access and seeking behaviours among men in Gauteng province, South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JS Leichliter, G Paz-Bailey, AL Friedman, MA Habel, A Vezi, M Sello, T Farirai, DA Lewis.

  8. Geoelectric structure estimated from magnetotelluric data from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geoelectric strike and resistivity structure of the crust have been estimated from 37 magnetotelluric (MT) data sites along a profile from Roorkee to Gangotri in Uttarakhand Himalaya. Impedance decomposition schemes based on Bahr's, Groom Bailey and Phase tensor were implemented in a MATLAB code for the average ...

  9. Effects of Climate Change and Urban Development on Army Training Capabilities: Firing Ranges and Maneuver Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of...regions represent ecological provinces as defined by Bailey (1980) .................................................. 41 10 Predicted mean January...Harrop, Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA). The work was performed by the Ecological Processes Branch (CNN) of the Installations Division (CN

  10. Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (AG3 en la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rito Hernán Cardozo Gutiérrez

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The trials made on banana passion fruit seeds germination (Passiflora mollisima(HBK Bailey, under laboratory specifications show that the testa delays the water absortion and it is the critic factor on the germination. AG3 increases the germination remarkably and strengthens the effects of the scarification considerably.

  11. The Use of Extended Wear Contact Lenses in the Aviation Environment: An Army-wide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    intervention techniques. Acanthamoeba infection Corneal infection associated with contact lens wear also has been linked to organisms of the amoebae...genus Acanthamoeba . While 83 percent of the Acanthamoeba -infected individuals in a recent retrospective clinical study were contact lens wearers, there... Acanthamoeba keratitis are: history of corneal trauma, exposure to contaminated water, and contact lens wear (Stehr-Green, Bailey, and Visvesvara, 1989

  12. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : V. On a new species of Leptotyphlops from Surinam, with notes on the other Surinam species of the genus (Leptotyphlopidae, Serpentes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    In the present paper Leptotyphlops collaris nov. spec. from Surinam and French Guiana is described, whereas L. cupinensis Bailey & Carvalho, L. dimidiatus (Jan) and L septemstriatus (Schneider) are reported from Surinam for the first time. A total of six species (the four mentioned above plus L.

  13. Life history and population dynamics of an estuarine amphipod, Eriopisa chilkensis Chilton (Gammaridae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aravind, N.P.; Sheeba, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 248, 207-223. Dick, J.T.A., Bailey, R.J.E., Elwood, R.W., 2002. Maternal care in the rockpool amphipod Apherusa jurinei, developmental and environmental cues. Animal Behaviour 63, 707- 713. El. Wakeel, S.K., Riley, J...

  14. Analysis of a malaria model with mosquito-dependent transmission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, it is observed that as the immigration constant increases, it leads to a rise in infected humans, giving an endemic shape to the disease. Keywords. Transmission coefficient for humans; immigration; reservoir class of humans. 1. ...... [2] Bailey N T J, The biomathematics of malaria (1982) (London: Griffin) pp. 58–93.

  15. South African Journal of Bioethics and Law - Vol 9, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to physical integrity and informed refusal: Just how far does a patient's right to refuse medical treatment go? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Nienaber, K.N. Bailey, 73-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJBL.2016.v9i2.472 ...

  16. African Journal of Marine Science - Vol 34, No 4 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upwelling and ocean structures off Algoa Bay and the south-east coast of South Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. WS Goschen, EH Schumann, KS Bernard, SE Bailey, SHP Deyzel. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/1814232X.2012.749810 ...

  17. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    sexual and aggressive behaviors to learning and memory. Recently, attention has ... responses to conspecific compared to heterospecific songs and other auditory stimuli (Bailey et al. 2002;. Mello et al. ... (2009) document that locally synthesized estradiol can rapidly modulate responses to auditory stimuli by suppressing ...

  18. The effects of sugars on maturation and conversion of geranium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various concentrations of sucrose and glucose on maturation and conversion of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) somatic embryos was investigated at Guelph, Ontario, Canada in 1994 and 1995. Somatic embryos were induced on medium with 20 M thidiazuron for 3 days then matured on media with ...

  19. Childhood Gender Noncomformity Remains a Robust and Neutral Correlate of Sexual Orientation: Reply to Hegarty (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Linsenmeier, Joan A. W.; Bailey, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this issue, P. Hegarty comments on an article by G. Rieger, J. A. W. Linsenmeier, L. Gygax, and J. M. Bailey (2008) that compared videos of homosexual and heterosexual people from childhood and adulthood. The current authors claim it is reasonable to treat masculinity-femininity as a bipolar scale and present justification for the approach used…

  20. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getachew

    request made by a customer for a reservation of a certain class at time T. Although dynamic .... to both customer reaction upon denied boarding and profit loss. .... Sabanci University. http://www.optimization- online.org. Bailey, J. 2007. Bumped fliers and no plan B. The New York Times. Beckman, M.J & Bobkoski, F. 1985.

  1. Useful life consumption analysis of the blades of a gas turbine by thermofluency during constant load operation; Analisis de consumo de vida util por termofluencia en alabes de turbinas de gas durante operacion con carga constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Quiroz, Gerardo Daniel

    2005-08-15

    A new analytical model for creep life prediction of gas turbine blades is proposed. The ultimate tensile strength is included to reflect heat-to-heat variations in strength. A thermo mechanical analysis is made using the finite element method. With the stress distribution obtained, some creep life prediction models as the Norton-Bailey and Dorn-Bailey models were reviewed as well as the Larson-Miller parameter. The time to failure data obtained with the previous analysis, was used to determine the new creep life prediction model coefficients. The results obtained are in good concordance with experimental data for IN-738-LN gas turbine blades. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se propone un nuevo modelo analitico para predecir la vida util por termofluencia en alabes de turbinas de gas, donde se incluye el esfuerzo ultimo de tension para reflejar el efecto que tiene la variacion de la temperatura en la rigidez del material. Para lograr esto, primero se hizo un analisis termomecanico del alabe, utilizando el metodo de elementos finitos. Con los esfuerzos obtenidos, se hizo una revision de los modelos de consumo de vida de Norton-Bailey y de Dorn-Bailey. Tambien se utilizo el parametro Larson-Miller para obtener datos de consumo de vida. Con los resultados de los analisis anteriores, fue posible determinar los coeficientes del modelo propuesto. Los resultados obtenidos estan en buena concordancia con los datos experimentales del alabe, y muestran un error menor que el de los modelos revisados.

  2. Metabolic rate and body temperature of an African sun bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-19

    Feb 19, 1997 ... Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve during December. They were housed individually in cages ... FE02 are incurrent and excurrent fractional concentrations of oxygen and V is the flow rate of dry air in ... Bailey Bat thermocouple thermometer, and the system was calibrated against an accurate mercury ...

  3. Swazi men's perception of the protective effect of male circumcision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sexually. Transmitted Infections 82,101–110. Westercamp, N. & Bailey, R.C. (2007) Acceptability of male circumcision for prevention of. HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. AIDS Behaviour 11, 341–355. WHO (2006) Demand for circumcision rises ...

  4. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the two basal lobes of the primitive angiospermous leaves (Sinnott and. Bailey) with three main bundles became modified into the pair of stipules at the base of the petiole (cf. Parkin). 15. Sheathing leaf-base (leaf-sheath) is the result of multilacunar condi- tion of the node plus the behaviour of the laterals in the axial ...

  5. Dokumentalnõi film "V glubokoi glotke" - istorija pornodivõ

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    IX Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filme Narvas - dokumentaalfilm "Sügavas kurgus" ("Inside Deep Throat") : režissöörid Fenton Bailey, Randy Barbato : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Film käsitleb 1972.a. kurikuulsa pornofilmi "Sügav kurk" ("Deep Throat") fenomeni

  6. Sügavas kurgus / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2005-01-01

    IX Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filme - dokumentaalfilm "Sügavas kurgus" ("Inside Deep Throat") : režissöörid Fenton Bailey, Randy Barbato : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Film käsitleb 1972.a. kurikuulsa pornofilmi "Sügav kurk" ("Deep Throat") fenomeni

  7. Sügavas kurgus peitub ajastu tõde / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    IX Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filme - dokumentaalfilm "Sügavas kurgus" ("Inside Deep Throat") : režissöörid Fenton Bailey, Randy Barbato : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Film käsitleb 1972.a. kurikuulsa pornofilmi "Sügav kurk" ("Deep Throat") fenomeni

  8. "V glubokoi glotke" - istorija pornodivõ

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    IX Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filme Narvas - dokumentaalfilm "Sügavas kurgus" ("Inside Deep Throat") : režissöörid Fenton Bailey, Randy Barbato : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Film käsitleb 1972.a. kurikuulsa pornofilmi "Sügav kurk" ("Deep Throat") fenomeni

  9. Kinetics of fatty acid binding ability of glycated human serum albumin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (Shapiro et al 1980), membrane collagen (Bailey et al. 1976), human serum albumin (HAS) (Iberg and Flückiger. 1986), and lens crystallin (Lyons et al 1991) ..... were reduced by NaBH4 and hydrolyzed by 6 N HCl containing. 1% wt/v phenol. Relative amount of residual lysine residues. (%) in glycated HSA were expressed ...

  10. "Is Social Inclusion through PE, Sport and PA Still a Rhetoric?" Evaluating the Relationship between Physical Education, Sport and Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagkas, Symeon

    2018-01-01

    This Special Issue is part of "Educational Review's" Hall of Fame, comprising the journal's most read and highly cited papers. As part of this I will be critiquing a milestone paper within the field(s) of Sport, PE and (I will extend to) PA by Professor Richard Bailey. The paper (see EJ691124) has been amongst the most-cited in the…

  11. Obituaries and biographical notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1969-01-01

    Bailey, Irving Widmer (1884-1967) R.H. Wetmore, Phytomorphology 18 (1968) 294-298, phot. Dennstedt, A.W. H. Manitz, August Wilhelm Dennstedt’s Schlüssel zum Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. Taxon 17 (1968) 496-501, 2 tab.). — Rather extensive survey; validly published names are listed, as well as the

  12. Morphometric studies on Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are difficult to identify based solely on examination of adult females using the available morphological keys. In this study, adult mosquitoes were collected ... ures) it is necessary to identify the species of adult females which are found near ... M. africana is known to transmit Rift Valley fever. (Meegan & Bailey, 1988; Fontenille ...

  13. Albany Museum, Grahamstown

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species of the cyprinid genus Barbus form the major element of the indigenous fish fauna of the southern Cape coastal .... counts. Studies on vertebral counts in fishes (e.g. Bailey & Gosline 1955; Garside 1966) have shown that ..... Catalogue of the freshwater fishes of Mrica in the British Museum. (natural history), 2.

  14. JUST Vol. 29 No. 1 April 2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince

    2009-04-01

    Apr 1, 2009 ... For the traditionally known and widely used timbers (termed primary species) employed in the present investigation (i.e. N. diderrichii and N. papaverifera), only their mean densities of 750kg/m3 have been reported from unspecified portions of their stems (Bailey, 1933;. Cauday and Maun, 1997). However ...

  15. Combining mapped and statistical data in forest ecological inventory and monitoring - supplementing an existing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Schreuder; R. Czaplewski; R. G. Bailey

    1999-01-01

     forest ecological inventory and monitoring system combining information derived from maps and samples is proposed based on ecosystem regions (Bailey, 1994). The system extends the design of the USDA Forest Service Region 6 Inventory and Monitoring System (R6IMS) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The key uses of the information are briefly discussed and...

  16. Histoacryl injection in the management of fourth branchial fistula

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 26 October 2011 accepted 27 April 2012. Introduction. Fourth branchial fistula is one of the congenital anomalies of the neck encountered in pediatric .... 9 Ford GR, Balakrishnan A, Evans JN, Bailey CM. Branchial cleft and pouch anomalies. J Laryngol Otol 1992; 106:137–143. 10 Nicoucar K, Giger R, Jaecklin T, ...

  17. Typhoid Ileal Perforation: A Review of a Rural District Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    District Hospital in Kenya between April 2007 and October 2009. Data abstracted from patient files included .... Bailey and. Love's Short Practice of Surgery, 23rd ED. Arnold H London. 2004, pp: 1173. 6. Cuschieri A, Steele RJC, Moosa AR editors. Essential Surgical. Practice, 4th ed. Arnold London. 2002. 7. Khan S, Khan ...

  18. Mitu tuhat valitsuses pettunud lätlast takistas seimi saadikute teed tööle / Vahur Koorits, Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koorits, Vahur, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Umbes 5000 meeleavaldajat Riias nõudsid peaminister Aigars Kalvitise valitsuse tagasiastumist ja seimi laialisaatmist ning avaldasid meelt valitsuse otsuse vastu vallandada korruptsioonitõrje büroo juht Aleksejs Loskutovs. Läti politoloogi Veiko Spolitise ja USA suursaadiku Lätis Catherine Todd Bailey hinnanguid poliitilisele olukorrale. Lisa: Läti parlament ja valitsus

  19. Täna kell 18 kõnelevad kunstikeskuses Kaleri (Tartu mnt. 43/Kreutzwaldi 24)...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Stuart Bailey ja Peter Bilak räägivad disainiajakirjast "DotDotDot". Samas avatakse 1. IV näitus "DDDA. Edasi olevikku" (vt. ka lk. 20), esimene ajakirjaga "DotDotDot" seotud näituste seeriast, mis koosneb ajakirjas leiduvatest esemetest

  20. The risk of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwean triathletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    April) the 1,5 km swim legs of some of the major triathlon events in Zimbabwe were moved away from chlorinated. MRC/UCT ... dams (December 1989 and January, March and April 1990), and in the 1990/1991 season in the same mine quarry, ..... Appleton CC, Bailey IW. Canoeists and waterborne diseases in South Africa.

  1. Can Cooperative Learning Achieve the Four Learning Outcomes of Physical Education? A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley; Goodyear, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Physical learning, cognitive learning, social learning, and affective learning are positioned as the legitimate learning outcomes of physical education. It has been argued that these four learning outcomes go toward facilitating students' engagement with the physically active life (Bailey et al., 2009; Kirk, 2013). With Cooperative Learning…

  2. Early Student Support to Investigate the Role of Sea Ice Albedo Feedback in Sea Ice Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    supports Brandon Ray, who just completed his second year of graduate studies. Cecilia Bitz, the PI, manages the project and supervises the graduate...www.arcus.org/sipn REFERENCES Bitz, C.M., K.M. Shell, P.R. Gent, D. Bailey, G. Danabasoglu, K.C. Armour , M. M. Holland, and J.T. Kiehl, 2012

  3. The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.; Wise, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    The genus Alocasia (Araceae) is revised for Australasia. Thirteen species are recognised and keyed; eleven are endemic to and one is thought to be introduced to and escaped in Papuasia; A. brisbanensis (F.M. Bailey) Domin is endemic to Australia, and is redescribed; five are new to science. The

  4. Aggregate packing characteristics of good and poor performing asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aggregate structure of the compacted mix is a determining factor for the performance of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA). In this paper, the grading characteristics of good and poor performing HMA mixes are explored using the concepts of the Bailey method...

  5. Western flower thrips, a serious pest of floricultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Robb; Michael P. Perella

    1991-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), has recently become one of the most serious pest problems facing the ornamental industry (Robb & Parrella 1988). It is polyphagous and has been collected from plants of almost every order of the Spermatophyta in California (Watson 1923, Bailey 1933, Bryan & Smith 1956). However...

  6. The Relationship Between Genotypes at the Red Flower Colour Loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and four basic flower colour forms (red, salmon, rose-pink and soft-pink) in zonal pelargoniums (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey L.H.) was studied using complementation tests. The results confirmed that red flower colour is due to ...

  7. Phytoremediation of iron from red soil of tropical region by using Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Irshad Ul Haq; Mauris, Eddma Nathan; Khanam, Zakia

    2016-09-01

    The accumulation and removal efficiency of Fe by Centella asiatica was carried out at various Fe concentrations in soil treatments (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg Fe/kg soil). Iron accumulation in different parts of C. asiatica (leaf, stem and root) was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Factorial experiment with a completely randomized design and Duncan's test were used for data analyses. The results revealed that C. asiatica have the ability to uptake and accumulate Fe significantly (p asiatica (p asiatica as a metal hyperaccumulator plant, harvested for analysis, shows efficient accumulation of Fe at high concentration (p asiatica from the contaminated soil has been evaluated by bioconcentration factor and translocation factor, found to be >1 and <1, respectively, further supporting its metal hyperaccumulator properties.

  8. Phytoremediation of ionic and methylmercury pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Genetics

    2010-04-28

    Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and sequester the toxic elemental pollutants, like the heavy metal mercury. Our current working hypothesis is that transgenic plants controlling the transport, chemical speciation, electrochemical state. volatilization, and aboveground binding of mercury will: a) tolerate mercury and grow rapidly in mercury contaminated environments; b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain; c) remove mercury from polluted soil and water; and d) hyperaccumulate mercury in aboveground tissues for later harvest. Progress toward these specific aims is reported: to increase the transport of mercury into roots and to aboveground vegetative organs; to increase biochemical sinks and storage for mercury in leaves; to increase leaf cell vacuolar storage of mercury; and to demonstrate that several stacked transgenes, when functioning in concert, enhance mercury resistance and hyperaccumulation to high levels.

  9. Impact of heavy metal toxicity and constructed wetland system as a tool in remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, B; Vasudevan, N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to throw light upon the global concern of heavy metal-contaminated sites and their remediation through an ecofriendly approach. Accumulated heavy metals in soil and water bodies gain entry through the food chain and pose serious threat to all forms of life. This has engendered interest in phytoremediation techniques where hyperaccumulators are used. Constructed wetland has a pivotal role and is a cost-effective technique in the remediation of heavy metals. Metal availability and mobility are influenced by the addition of chelating agents, which enhance the availability of metal uptake. This review helps in identifying the critical knowledge gaps and areas to enhance research in the future to develop strategies such as genetically engineered hyperaccumulators to attain an environment devoid of heavy metal contamination.

  10. Bidens tripartite L.: A Cd-accumulator confirmed by pot culture and site sampling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Niu Rongcheng; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Zhou Qixing; Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng; Hu Yahu; Li Yunmeng

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of cadmium (Cd) in Bidens tripartite L. were investigated to identify Cd-accumulating properties. In this study, pot culture experiment and site sampling experiments were conducted to assess whether this plant is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator or accumulator. The results indicated that the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of B. tripartite was principally >1 in pot culture and concentration gradient experiments. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the site sampling experiment, B. tripartite also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, B. tripartite could be identified as a Cd-accumulator. Thus, B. tripartite should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator.

  11. Subcellular localization of cadmium in the root cells of Allium cepa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    fruits; Planta 208 438–443. Jiang W S, Liu D H and Hou W Q 2001 Hyperaccumulation of cadmium by roots, bulbs and shoots of Allium sativum L;. Bioresource Tech. 76 9–13. Jones K C, Jackson A and Johnston A E 1992 Evidence for an increase in the Cd content of herbage since 1860's; Eviron. Sci. Technol. 26 834–836.

  12. Use of synchrotron radiation to characterize metals in plants: the case of Cd in the hyperacumulator Arabidopsis halleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaure, M.; Sarret, G.; Verbruggen, N.

    2010-12-01

    Phytoremediation uses plants to extract (phytoextraction) or stabilize (phytostabilization) metals accumulated in soils, and can be an alternative to invasive physico-chemical remediation techniques. Its development requires the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in metal tolerance and accumulation in plants, and particularly the way that plants transfer and store metals. In that context, synchrotron radiation based techniques such as micro-focused X-Ray Fluorescence (µXRF), and micro-focused X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, including Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure, are particularly suited to determine the localization and the chemical forms of metals in the different tissues, cells and sub-cellular compartments. Arabidopsis halleri is a Zn, Cd hyperaccumulating plant, naturally growing on contaminated sites, and is a model plant to investigate metal hyperaccumulation. This work presents the application of µXRF and Cd µXANES to determine the distribution and speciation of Cd in this species. Results showed that Cd was mainly located in the mesophyll and veins of leaves. It is bound to S ligands in some leaves and to O/N ligands in other ones, and the observed variations may be related to the age of the leaves. Cd speciation seems to differ from other metals, and particularly Zn, generally encountered in hyperaccumulators. High local Cd concentrations were also detected at the base of trichomes, epidermal hairs of leaves, associated to O/N ligands, probably to the cell wall. This phenomenon was also observed on non-hyperaccumulators and is clearly not the major sink for Cd, but trichomes might play a role in the detoxification process. This study illustrates the suitability of synchrotron radiation based techniques to investigate metal distribution and speciation in plants.

  13. Cadmium Accumulation Characteristics in Turnip Landraces from China and Assessment of their Phytoremediation Potential for Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (HM pollution is a global environmental problem that threatens ecosystem and human health. Cadmium (Cd pollution is the most prominent HM pollution type because of its high toxicity, strong migration, and the large polluted area globally. Phytoremediation of contaminated soil is frequently practiced because of its cost-effectiveness and operability and because it has no associated secondary pollution. High-accumulation plants, including those identified as hyperaccumulators, play an important role in phytoremediation. Therefore, screening of plants to identify hyperaccumulators is important for continued phytoremediation. In the present study, we investigated the Cd tolerance and accumulation capabilities of 18 turnip landraces from China under a soil experiment with known Cd level. The results indicated that turnip has a high capacity for Cd accumulation. Furthermore, significant differences in Cd tolerance and accumulation characteristics were found among different landraces when they grew at 50 mg kg−1 (dry weight Cd concentration. Among the studied landraces, five turnip landraces met the requirements of Cd hyperaccumulators and three landraces were identified as potential candidates. However, the total Cd content accumulated by individual plant of different turnip landraces was dependent on both the Cd accumulation capacity and plant biomass. Compared with some reported Cd hyperaccumulators, turnip not only shows a high Cd-accumulation capacity but also has rapid growth and a wide distribution area. These advantages indicate that turnip may have considerable potential for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. Furthermore, the study also indicates that it is not advisable to consume turnip cultivated in an environment that exceeds safe Cd levels.

  14. The potential of Thelypteris palustris and Asparagus sprengeri in phytoremediation of arsenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, LaShunda L; Walsh, Maud; Roy, Amitava; Bianchetti, Christopher M; Merchan, Gregory

    2011-02-01

    The potential of two plants, Thelypteris palustris (marsh fern) and Asparagus sprengeri (asparagus fern), for phytoremediation of arsenic contamination was evaluated. The plants were chosen for this study because of the discovery of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata (Ma et al., 2001) and previous research indicating asparagus fern's ability to tolerate > 1200 ppm soil arsenic. Objectives were (1) to assess if selected plants are arsenic hyperaccumulators; and (2) to assess changes in the species of arsenic upon accumulation in selected plants. Greenhouse hydroponic experiments arsenic treatment levels were established by adding potassium arsenate to solution. All plants were placed into the hydroponic experiments while still potted in their growth media. Marsh fern and Asparagus fern can both accumulate arsenic. Marsh fern bioaccumulation factors (> 10) are in the range of known hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata Therefore, Thelypteris palustris is may be a good candidate for remediation of arsenic soil contamination levels of asparagus fern. The asparagus fern is arsenic tolerant (bioaccumulation factors < 10), but is not considered a good potential phytoremediation candidate.

  15. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P.; Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Vega, Andrea; Handford, Michael; Bonilla, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  16. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Malva sinensis Cavan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shirong; Chen Mingying; Li Ting; Xu Xiaoxun; Deng Liangji

    2010-01-01

    Screening hyperaccumulators and accumulators is a key step in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A pot experiment was conducted involving a soil Cd concentration gradient (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mg kg -1 ) to determine if Malva sinensis Cavan. from two lead-zinc mines in Kangding and Yajiang in western Sichuan, China, is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The highest Cd concentrations in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 154.30 and 122.77 mg kg -1 , respectively, at a soil Cd concentration of 200 mg kg -1 . The largest amounts of accumulation in plant shoots from Kangding and Yajiang were 700.5 and 1403.2 μg pot -1 , respectively. The bioconcentration factors in shoots were 0.53-1.03 for Kangding and 0.69-1.25 for Yajiang. Moreover, all translocation factors of plants from the two sites were over 1.0. Therefore, M. sinensis can be classified as a Cd-accumulator or non-standard Cd-hyperaccumulator.

  17. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rámila, Consuelo d.P. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Contreras, Samuel A.; Di Domenico, Camila [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. [Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Talca, Avda. Lircay s/n, Talca (Chile); Vega, Andrea [Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Handford, Michael [Departmento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Las Palmeras 3425, 7800024 Santiago (Chile); Bonilla, Carlos A. [Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable (CEDEUS), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); and others

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • P. frigida presents an extremely high boron toxicity threshold. • Restricting uptake and internal tolerance mechanisms could confer boron tolerance. • P. frigida is a boron hyperaccumulator over a wide range of concentrations. • The species has potential for phytoremediation purposes. - Abstract: Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500 mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000 mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems.

  18. Variation in arsenic, lead and zinc tolerance and accumulation in six populations of Pteris vittata L. from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, F.Y.; Leung, H.M.; Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H., E-mail: lssyzhh@mail.sysu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2009-08-15

    Arsenic, Pb and Zn tolerance and accumulation were investigated in six populations of Pteris vittata collected from As-contaminated and uncontaminated sites in southeast China compared with Pteris semipinnata (a non-As hyperaccumulator) in hydroponics and on As-contaminated soils. The results showed that both metallicolous and nonmetallicolous population of P. vittata possessed high-level As tolerance, and that the former exhibited higher As tolerance (but not Pb and Zn tolerance) than the latter. In hydroponic culture, nonmetallicolous population clearly showed significantly higher As concentrations in fronds than those in metallicolous populations. In pot trials, As concentrations in fronds of nonmetallicolous population ranged from 1060 to 1639 mg kg{sup -1}, about 2.6- to 5.4-folds as those in metallicolous populations. It was concluded that As tolerance in P. vittata resulted from both constitutive and adaptive traits, Pb and Zn tolerances were constitutive properties, and that nonmetallicolous population possesses more effective As hyperaccumulation than metallicolous populations. - Nonmetallicolous population of Pteris vittata L. possesses more effective arsenic hyperaccumulation than the metallicolous populations.

  19. Variation in arsenic, lead and zinc tolerance and accumulation in six populations of Pteris vittata L. from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, F.Y.; Leung, H.M.; Wu, S.C.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic, Pb and Zn tolerance and accumulation were investigated in six populations of Pteris vittata collected from As-contaminated and uncontaminated sites in southeast China compared with Pteris semipinnata (a non-As hyperaccumulator) in hydroponics and on As-contaminated soils. The results showed that both metallicolous and nonmetallicolous population of P. vittata possessed high-level As tolerance, and that the former exhibited higher As tolerance (but not Pb and Zn tolerance) than the latter. In hydroponic culture, nonmetallicolous population clearly showed significantly higher As concentrations in fronds than those in metallicolous populations. In pot trials, As concentrations in fronds of nonmetallicolous population ranged from 1060 to 1639 mg kg -1 , about 2.6- to 5.4-folds as those in metallicolous populations. It was concluded that As tolerance in P. vittata resulted from both constitutive and adaptive traits, Pb and Zn tolerances were constitutive properties, and that nonmetallicolous population possesses more effective As hyperaccumulation than metallicolous populations. - Nonmetallicolous population of Pteris vittata L. possesses more effective arsenic hyperaccumulation than the metallicolous populations.

  20. Influence of arsenic stress on synthesis and localization of low-molecular-weight thiols in Pteris vittata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yuki [Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9, Nishi 9, Kitaku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Watanabe, Toshihiro, E-mail: nabe@chem.agr.hokudai.ac.j [Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9, Nishi 9, Kitaku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Wasaki, Jun [Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-7-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Senoura, Takeshi [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Shinano, Takuro [National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, Sapporo 062-8555 (Japan); Osaki, Mitsuru [Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9, Nishi 9, Kitaku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    The roles of low-molecular-weight thiols (LMWTs), such as glutathione and phytochelatins, in arsenic (As) tolerance and hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata an As-hyperaccumulator fern remain to be better understood. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize LMWT synthesis in P. vittata to understand the roles played by LMWTs in As tolerance and hyperaccumulation. LMWT synthesis in P. vittata was induced directly by As, and not by As-mediated oxidative stress. Expression of PvECS2, one of the putative genes of {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}ECS), increases in P. vittata shoots at 48 h after the onset of As exposure, almost corresponding to the increase in the concentrations of {gamma}-glutamylcysteine and glutathione. Furthermore, localization of As showed similar trends to those of LMWTs in fronds at both whole-frond and cellular levels. This study thus indicates the specific contribution of LMWTs to As tolerance in P. vittata. {gamma}ECS may be responsible for the As-induced enhancement of LMWT synthesis. - Pteris vittata specifically enhances low-molecular-weight thiol synthesis against arsenic toxicities

  1. Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC.: An accumulator of Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Zhou Qixing; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Xiao Hong; Yang Chuanjie; Zhang Qianru

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a traditional technique that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil and sediments. This is a solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective technology. In a former published article, Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC. indicated some basic properties of hyperaccumulators for cadmium (Cd). In this study, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were used to assess whether this plant is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The results showed the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of K. integrifolia was basically >1 in concentration gradient experiment. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. Thus, K. integrifolia should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments conducted in a Pb-Zn mine area and a wastewater irrigation region, K. integrifolia also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, K. integrifolia could be identified as a Cd-accumulator

  2. Low-cost bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiyamoorthy, P.; Golan-Goldhrish, A.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental pollution by toxic metals, especially lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr) and radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 226 Ra) is a potential hazard to health and welfare of mankind. Rapid industrial revolution has left an international legacy of soil and water contaminated with a combination of toxic and potentially carcinogenic compounds and heavy metals. Many of the contaminated sites were abandoned due to high cost of traditional clean-up approaches. Various approaches are being practiced to decontaminate heavy metals and radionuclides from polluted-soil. Remediation of heavy metal and radionuclides contaminated soils poses a significant expense to many industries and government organizations. Remediation cost in the United States and European Union alone is expected to exceed US$20 billion annually. Bioremediation strategy depends on the limitations of technology, cost and nature of the contaminant in the soil. Certain higher plants are capable of accumulation of heavy metals (2-5 %) in roots and shoots to the level far exceeding those present in the soils, these are called hyper-accumulators. Using heavy metal hyper-accumulating higher plants for environmental clean-up of contaminated soil is a recently emerged technology known as 'phytoremediation'. Genetically engineered (Transgenic) plants have a remarkable potential to absorb heavy metals and show a new avenue for biotechnology technique in Phytoremediation. The cost-effective approach of using heavy metal and radionuclide hyper-accumulators in phytoremediation is discussed. (author)

  3. Preliminary Feasibility Report Stage II, Lorain Small-Boat Harbor, Lorain, Ohio. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    of tides, stream flow or any other mechanism which would initiate volume exchange. Without exchange the water quality of the basin could degenerate...treatment process, the control of odors is handled by a product called "Odor Control" which is actually a deodorizer . Odor Control is dripped into the...Lake Joe Karnes, Mechanical Reef Control Systems, Inc. Ralph Bernhagen, Ohio DNR-CZM Ri’chard Greszler, Lorain Port Authority Steve Bailey, Lorain Parks

  4. Characterization and remediation of Soil Contaminated with Explosives: Development of Practical Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-06

    Sainte-Fey, QC . Bunn KE, Thompson HM and Tarrant KA (1996). Effects of agrochemicals on the immune systems of earthworms. Bulletin of...and genotoxic effects of energetic compounds on bacterial and mammlian cells in vitro. Mutation Research 444: 25-39 . Liu D, Spanggord R, Bailey HC...genotoxic effects of energetic compounds on bacterial and mammalian cells in vitro. Mutat Res 444: 25-39 . Phillips CT, Checkai RT, Wentsel RS (1993

  5. Harnessing the Transformative Tsunami: Fleet-wide 360-degree Feedback Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    serve to model the development of associates” (Gardner, Cogliser, Davis and Dickens 2011, 1122). Clearly, OSA evades a segment of the current Navy...studies advocating multi-rater feedback as a means of improving self-awareness (Bailey and Fletcher 2002; Atwater, Brett, and Charles 2007) 1. How a...E., Joan F. Brett, and Cherise Charles . “Multisource Feedback: Lessons Learned and Implications for Practice.” Human Resource Management 46, No. 2

  6. Performance de deux techniques d'extraction des phénols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence in vitro des composes phénoliques des jeunes feuilles du pécher. Prunus persica (1) Batsch, sur le puceron vert du pecher, Myzus persicae sulzer. Agronomie 8 (9) : 787-792. Bell J.N., Dixon R.A., Bailey J.A., Rowell P.M. &. Lamb C.J., 1984. Differential induction of chalcone synthase mRNA activity at the onset.

  7. F-35A Training Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Erodium spp.), and buckwheats (Eriogonum spp.) are common forbs. Cacti and succulent plants, such as agaves ( Agave spp.), sotol (Dasylirion spp...that are common to abundant in the province include yuccas, lechuguilla ( Agave lechuguilla), and ocotillo (Bailey 1995). Cottonwoods (Populus spp...Mexico in the winter months. This bat feeds on nectar and pollen at night, primarily that of columnar cactic (such as saguaro) and agave species

  8. Draft Supplement to Final Environmental Statement on Continental United States (CONUS) Over-the-Horizon Backscatter (OTH-B) Radar System, Penobscot, Washington, Somerset Counties, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    activities . 4-11 REFERENCES Bahr, Major, Commander, Bucks Harbor AFS, personal communication (May 5 , 1981). Bailey, R. D., Ecoregions of the United...level of certain neurotransmitters in mouse brain. The neurochemicals they studied were serotonin and its metabolite, 5 - hydroxyindole acetic acid...serotonin, 5 - hydroxyindole acetic acid, dopamine, homovanillic acid, or norepinephrine in the brain. C-71 in stummary, RFR can ause observable

  9. Freeing France: The Allies, the Resistance, and the JEDBURGHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    in the end with that. Thank you to Professor Victor Bailey for my appreciation of Mary Wollstonecraft and her work. Professor Norman Saul agreed...whose valuable time I’ve taken up swapping stories about various Maquisards and to Mary Byrd Kelly who refreshed my French while pretending it was not...New York on the Queen Mary and arrived in Glasgow, Scotland on 23 December 1943, after zigzagging across the North Atlantic evading U-Boot patrols

  10. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobette E Jones

    Full Text Available The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010 involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management

  11. Kolmevõistlus sisemaneežis / Ago Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Ago, 1949-

    2010-01-01

    Sisemaneežis toimuvatest kolmevõistlustest, kus sõidetakse krossitakistusi sisemaneežis - Inglismaal toimunud 10. Bailey's Jump and Style Eventing; Kurtna sisekolmevõistlus, mis toimus 10.-11. aprillil 2010; Talvine kahevõistluse karikasari, mille 3 etappi ning finaal toimus ajavahemikul 28. veebruarist kuni 3. aprillini 2010 Harjumaal Jüris, Tartumaal Saksa talus ja Järvamaal Koordi tallides ning finaal taas Saksa talus

  12. Vocabulary learning in a Yorkshire terrier: slow mapping of spoken words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Griebel

    Full Text Available Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to "fast mapping", with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion.

  13. Vocabulary Learning in a Yorkshire Terrier: Slow Mapping of Spoken Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2012-01-01

    Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to “fast mapping”, with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before) embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion. PMID:22363421

  14. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Chapter II. Comparative Analysis of Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    retained their natural area designation. o Zeolite Deposits. Zeolites are minerals formed by alteration of pyro- clastic volcanic rocks. Certain types of... Guadalupe - 6 6 Harding - 215 202 Lea - 16 17 Quay - 342 312 Roosevelt - 542 164 Union - 225 155 Subtotal - 2,160 1,488 Region Total - 4,600 2,300 TOTAL...Swisher, Bailey, Lamb, Cochran, and Hockley. New Mexico counties include Union, Harding, Quay, De Baca, Roosevelt, Curry, Chaves, Guadalupe , and Lea

  15. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume II. Comparative Analysis of Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    alteration of pyro- clastic volcanic rocks. Certain types of zeolites, those with fibrous crystalline habit similar to asbestos, are suspected of being...43 De Baca - 137 115 Guadalupe - 6 6 Harding - 215 202 Lea - 16 17 Quay - 342 312 Roosevelt - 542 164 Union - 225 155 Subtotal | - 2,160 1,488 Region...Castro, Swisher, Bailey, Lamb, Cochran, and Hockley. New Mexico counties include Union, Harding, Quay, De Baca, Roosevelt, Curry, Chaves, Guadalupe

  16. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    253. Coscinodiscus borealis Bailey, Notice Miar. Forms, 1856, p. 3; De Toni,. Syll. Alg., Vol. II, 1891-94, p. 1274. Differs from the type in having robust valves, larger areolae, 3 in. 10p around the rosette and 2 to 2 in 10 u, near the margin. Diameter of valve 851. Distribution.--Type in the marine plankton of all the seas; also re-.

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference on Stiff Computation, April 12-14, 1982, Park City, Utah. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    approach here. Diqital nuclear process simulation has been advanced by the Electric Power Research Institute (Bailey, 1982). Patterson and Rozsa (1980...package, developed at Lawrence Livermore, DYNSYL is described in *Patterson and Rozsa (1978). Nilsen and Karplus(1974) give a review of continuous...Hindmarsh(1980) Process Simulation CSMP Hylton(1982) CSMP III Watson and Gourlay(1976) DPS Sebastian et al.(1981) OYNSYL Patterson and Rozsa (1978) a *I

  18. Strategies for reducing medication errors in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Weant KA; Bailey AM; Baker SN

    2014-01-01

    Kyle A Weant,1 Abby M Bailey,2 Stephanie N Baker2 1North Carolina Public Health Preparedness and Response, North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Raleigh, NC, 2University of Kentucky HealthCare, Department of Pharmacy Services, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: Medication errors are an all-too-common occurrence in emergency departments across the nation. This is largely secondary to a multitu...

  19. The controversy surrounding "The man who would be queen": a case history of the politics of science, identity, and sex in the Internet age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Alice D

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, psychology professor and sex researcher J. Michael Bailey published a book entitled The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism. The book's portrayal of male-to-female (MTF) transsexualism, based on a theory developed by sexologist Ray Blanchard, outraged some transgender activists. They believed the book to be typical of much of the biomedical literature on transsexuality-oppressive in both tone and claims, insulting to their senses of self, and damaging to their public identities. Some saw the book as especially dangerous because it claimed to be based on rigorous science, was published by an imprint of the National Academy of Sciences, and argued that MTF sex changes are motivated primarily by erotic interests and not by the problem of having the gender identity common to one sex in the body of the other. Dissatisfied with the option of merely criticizing the book, a small number of transwomen (particularly Lynn Conway, Andrea James, and Deirdre McCloskey) worked to try to ruin Bailey. Using published and unpublished sources as well as original interviews, this essay traces the history of the backlash against Bailey and his book. It also provides a thorough exegesis of the book's treatment of transsexuality and includes a comprehensive investigation of the merit of the charges made against Bailey that he had behaved unethically, immorally, and illegally in the production of his book. The essay closes with an epilogue that explores what has happened since 2003 to the central ideas and major players in the controversy.

  20. Potential use of maize waste for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Okonkwo, J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available , smelting, metal electroplating, fertilizer, mining, pigments, stabilizers, alloy industries, electrical wiring, plumbing, heating, roofing and building construction, piping, water purification, gasoline additive, cable covering and battery industries...) and green algae (Roy et al, 1993). Various agricultural products and by- products, such as peat moss (Ho and McKay, 1999) straw (Bailey, 1999) and rice husk (Wong et al, 2003) have also been used for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution...

  1. Synergist: Collaborative Analyst Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    encountered the following issues: • Morphology – Korean is an agglutinative language. As a consequence, a word in English maps on many words in Korean...suffixes unmarked, drop suffixes. • Syntax – Korean is a SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) language, in contrast with English , which is SVO. This creates...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Munirathnam Srikanth, Marta Tatu, Adriana Badulescu, Guillaume Bailey, Marian Olteanu, and Christine

  2. Fuel Price Effects on Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Wide Fuel Management 1. DLA’s Role DLA-E has the mission of acquiring, storing, selling, and distributing energy including petroleum, natural gas ...have also excluded liquefied propane gas ( LPG ), from this study. 10 through four IDIQ...IDA Paper P-5087 May 2014 Log: H 13-001537 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Thomas P. Frazier, Project Leader John W. Bailey

  3. Computer Based Behavioral Biometric Authentication via Multi-Modal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Bhattacharyya, et al. [25], found that the iris scanner, with an Equal Error Rate (EER) of 0.01% performed the best. 1.2 Behavioral Biometrics Behavioral...include voice and facial recognition; fingerprint, voice, and iris ; and iris and retinal features [33]. 2.7.1 Fusion Methods. Fusion of biometric ...COMPUTER BASED BEHAVIORAL BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION VIA MULTI-MODAL FUSION THESIS Kyle O. Bailey, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENG-13-M-04 DEPARTMENT

  4. Pöffi filme näeb ka Ida-Virumaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Avatakse IX Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali põhiprogramm, millest osa linastub ka Jõhvis ja Narvas. Lisatud PÖFFi programm Narva kultuurikeskuses Rugodiv ja dokumentaalfilmi "Sügavas kurgus" tutvustus : režissöörid Fenton Bailey, Randy Barbato : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Film käsitleb 1972.a. kurikuulsa pornofilmi "Sügav kurk" ("Deep Throat") fenomeni

  5. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All. B. Bailey, Catherine · Bwalya, Kelvin Joseph · Bwalya, Tuesday 1 - 3 of 3 Items. ISSN: 0376-4753. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  6. Comparison, existence, uniqueness and successive approximations for two-point boundary value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidossich, G.

    1979-01-01

    Bailey, Shampine and Waltman developed an existence theory for two-point boundary value problems of second order differential equations whose second members satisfy one-sided Lipschitz conditions. It is suggested that solutions should exist in a much more general situation. A comparison result is given and applied to uniqueness and existence of the Picard problem as well as to the convergence of successive approximation for this. (author)

  7. SOLAR OBLIQUITY INDUCED BY PLANET NINE: SIMPLE CALCULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Dong [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Bailey et al. and Gomes et al. recently suggested that the 6° misalignment between the Sun’s rotational equator and the orbital plane of the major planets may be produced by forcing from the hypothetical Planet Nine on an inclined orbit. Here, we present a simple yet accurate calculation of the effect, which provides a clear description of how the Sun’s spin orientation depends on the property of Planet Nine in this scenario.

  8. A Multidisciplinary Study of Ciguatoxin and Related Low Molecular Weight Toxins from Marine Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    1982) examined the constituents of the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima , he made the surprising discovery that on TLC analysis one of the...dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima . Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 48:69-72. NuKINA, M., L. M. KOYANArI, AND P. J. SCHEUER. 1984. Two interchangeable forms of...Weight Toxins frou, Marine Sources 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Bailey, Leslie E., Hokama, Yoshitsugi, Miyahara, James T., and Scheuer, Paul J. 13, TYPE OF

  9. Relationships Between Leadership Roles and Project Team Effectiveness as Perceived by Project Managers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Han-Ping Fung

    2014-01-01

    Today, more and more project teams are formed to achieve organizational objectives as organizations generally recognized the importance and benefits of project teams. However, in order to ensure project teams perform effectively, project managers need to learn and exhibit some of the leadership roles proposed by Quinn (1988) as these roles can impact the project team effectiveness. The current study developed a research model underpinned on Cohen and Bailey (1997) team effectiveness framework...

  10. A Review of Land and Stream Classifications in Support of Developing a National Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    that of Margaret Gaffney-Smith, Karen Mulligan , and Stacey Jensen of the Headquarters Regulatory Program and Sally Yost of the U.S. Army Engineer...the bank, shelving, changes in the character of soil, destruction of terrestrial vegeta- tion, the presence of litter and debris, or other...which in turn are driv- en largely by climate and geology (Lotspeich and Platts 1982; Bailey 1983; Brussock et al. 1985; Omernik 1987; Snelder and

  11. Efecto de la escarificación y la dosis del ácido giberélico (ag3) en la germinación de semilla de curuba (passiflora mollisima)

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Gutiérrez, Rito Hernán

    2011-01-01

    Los ensayos de la germinación de semilla de curuba (Passiflora mollisima (HBK) Bailey en condiciones de laboratorio, muestran que la testa retarda la absorción del agua y es el principal factor de control de la germinación. El ácido giberélico aplicado incrementa la germinación y refuerza considerablemente los efectos de la escarificación.

  12. Ricardo’s Work as Viewed by Later Economists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    realism of his theories, par- ticularly with regard to population pressure.i Samuel Bailey did not think much of his logical powers. John Stuart Mill... neoclassical theory. Karl Marx, like Mill, put Ricardo in the highest rank, yet used his theories for directions copy NiSPECTO totally antithetical to...any view Ricardo might have held. The neoclassical 6 *This work was supported by Office of Naval Research Grant N00014-86-K- 0216 at the Institute

  13. The Effect of Metformin and Standard Therapy Versus Standard Therapy Alone in Nondiabetic Patients with Insulin Resistance and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): A Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Bailey and Turner, 1996]. Previous studies of metformin have shown bio - chemical improvement in NAFLD patients and suggest histologic improvement [Loomba...liver patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 23: 1643–1647. Hamaguchi, M., Kojima, T., Takeda, N., Nakagawa, T., Taniguchi, H., Fujii, K. et al. (2005) The...J.J. et al. (2009) Clinical trial: pilot study of metformin for the treatment of non-alcoholic steato- hepatitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 29: 172–182

  14. Geographical information system analysis for oceanographic parameters in the coastal waters of Goa, India - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Joglekar, V.V.

    and techniques for geographic analysis and computerized cartography (Bartlett, 1993). The GIS was used as a conservation tool for rivers (Angermeier and Bailey, 1991). The extensive analysis is performed using Bio_CAP software customized in GIS environment... or they are affected mainly in their distributions by the discharge from land (S. Nasr, M. mRaey, H. Ezzat, and A. Ibrahim, 1997). The Comprehensive Environmental Assessment System (CEAS) is the ArcInfo-based GIS application developed by NAVOCEANO. Its goal...

  15. Rapid Identification of Micro-Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-26

    conventional procedures for bacterial identification rely on organisms’ capacity or inability to ferment particular substrates. Detection of intracellular enzyme...USA 74:3850, 1977 15. Butter K-J, Eipel HE: Flow cytometric determinations of cellular substances in algae, bacteria, moulds and yeasts. Antonie van...flow microfluorcmetry. J Am Inst Chem Eng 24:570, 1978 17. Fazel-tdjIlessi J, Bailey JE: Analysis of fermentation processes using flow

  16. Helmet Integrated Nanosensors, Signal Processing and Wireless Real Time Data Communication for Monitoring Blast Exposure to Battlefield Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    people develop an illness such as Alzheimer ‟ s disease , mental deterioration usually happens quickly. In contrast, cognitive performance in elderly... s disease and other forms of dementia, subtler changes in cognitive functions such as memory, attention, perceptual and motor skills, language and...2007. [7] S . Bailey, E. Hall, S . Folger, and P. Miller, “Changes in EEG during graded exercise on a recumbent cycle ergometer,” Journal of Sports

  17. On Machin’s Formula with Powers of the Golden Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    Fibonacci , Lucas numbers. Motivated by Machin’s formula (see [Borwein and Bailey 03, p. 105]) π 4 = 4 arctan(5−1)− arctan(239−1), several researchers (see...for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite ...prime factors of Fibonacci and Lucas sequences, to show nonexistence of solutions of (1) besides the mentioned ones. If κ = `, we show that the

  18. The Abel Lemma and the q-Gosper Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Vincent Y. B.; Chen, William Y. C.; Gu, Nancy S. S.

    2006-01-01

    Chu has recently shown that the Abel lemma on summations by parts can serve as the underlying relation for Bailey's ${}_6\\psi_6$ bilateral summation formula. In other words, the Abel lemma spells out the telescoping nature of the ${}_6\\psi_6$ sum. We present a systematic approach to compute Abel pairs for bilateral and unilateral basic hypergeometric summation formulas by using the $q$-Gosper algorithm. It is demonstrated that Abel pairs can be derived from Gosper pairs. This approach applies...

  19. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1850 ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All. A. Awotidebe, Wasiu A. Ayan, Vedat · Aziato, L. B. Babalola, JF · Badenhorst, L. Bagwath Persad, L · Bahdur, K · Bailasha, NK · Bailey, Richard · Bakkum, A · Bama, HKN · Banda, M · Banerjee, AK · Banerjee, AK · Banjo, A · Banyangiriki, J

  20. Use of the TI 59 with Applications to Probability and Statistical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    subjects to determine the extent to which their training routines influenced their strength , endurance, and cardiovascular fitness. The third example...subjects to determine the extent to which their training routines influenced their strength , endurance, and cardio- vascular fitness. The third example...other six subjects were weightlifters who trained at Bailey’s Gym in Seaside, California. The subjects varied in age from nineteen to thirty-seven

  1. NFAT Signaling and the Tumorigenic Microenvironment of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Chen RECIPIENT: Washington University Saint Louis, MO 63130 REPORT DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual Report PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army...Hsi, Jie Ning, Marianna B. Ruzinova, Helen Liapis, Matthew Bailey, Hong Zhang, Christopher A. Maher, Peter A. Humphrey, Gerald L. Andriole, Li Ding... mounted with Fluoromount G for imaging (Southern Biotech, Birmingham, AL, USA). Primary antibodies used were: from Abcam, Cambridge, UK: rabbit polyclonal

  2. The birth of intracardiac surgery: a semicentennial tribute (June 10, 1948-1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, J C

    1998-06-01

    On June 10, 1948, Charles Philamore Bailey, of Philadelphia, auspiciously performed the first anatomically conceived and digitally guided operation inside the heart: the first successful intracardiac operation. The patient, Claire Ward, was a 24-year-old woman afflicted with severe mitral stenosis. Dwight E. Harken and Russell C. Brock performed their own mitral operations very soon after Bailey, using new variations of methods that had been discarded about two decades earlier; they soon adopted the logical anatomic approach. This threesome, with the added contributions of Robert P. Glover--Bailey's partner at the time, in the role of respected and convincing teacher--opened the floodgates upon a decade of so-called closed heart surgery. These accomplishments, added to the earlier successes with the patent ductus, aortic coarctation, and "blue babies," justified and strengthened the demand for precise diagnosis in cardiology--at that time a languishing specialty--and brought to the fore the indisputable requirement to operate inside the heart with maximal control. This essay calls attention to the semicentennial of that seminal event and reviews the origins of surgery for mitral stenosis.

  3. Advancing our understanding of plant adaptation to metal polluted environments - new insights from Biscutella laevigata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst-Kostecka, Alicja; Waldmann, Patrik; Frérot, Hélène; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The legacy of industrial pollution alters ecosystems, particularly at post-mining sites where metal trace elements have created toxic conditions that trigger rapid plant adaptation. Apart from the purely scientific merits, in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms underlying plant adaptation to metal contamination is beneficial for the economic and societal sectors because of its application in bioengineering (e.g. phytoremediation or biofortification). An important process is the evolution and/or enhancement of metal tolerance, a trait that has predominantly been studied by applying acute metal stress on species that allocate large quantities of certain metals to their foliage (so-called hyperaccumulators). As the vast majority of vascular plants does not hyperaccumulate metals, more efforts are needed to investigate non-hyperaccumulating species and thereby broaden understanding of biological mechanisms underlying metal tolerance. The pseudometallophyte Biscutella laevigata has shown potential in this respect, but its characteristics are insufficiently understood. We determined the zinc tolerance level and various plant responses to environmentally relevant zinc concentrations in ten metallicolous and non-metallicolous B. laevigata populations. In a two-phase hydroponic experiment, we scored multiple morphological and physiological traits (e.g. biomass, visible stress symptoms, element content in foliage) and assessed phenotypic variability within plant families. The structure of these quantitative traits was compared to that of neutral molecular markers to test, whether natural selection caused population differentiation in zinc tolerance. While all genotypes were tolerant compared to a zinc sensitive reference species, we found congruent trends toward higher tolerance in metallicolous compared to non-metallicolous plants. We identified the most indicative parameters for these differences and find that enhanced zinc tolerance in metallicolous populations is driven by

  4. Utilization of a Model for Uptake of Cadmium by Plants as a Phytoremediation Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M.; Furbish, D. J.; Clarke, J.

    2008-12-01

    Some traditional methods of environmental remediation, such as removal and disposal of contaminated soil, are loosing economic favor and public acceptance, while others, such as in situ phytoremediation, are being carefully examined because of their attractiveness as environmentally friendly, low-cost solutions to site clean-up. The success of phytoremediation strategies, however, hinges on the ability of selected plants, or plant communities, to effectively uptake, accumulate and tolerate targeted contaminants. Heavy metals, specifically cadmium (Cd), are not essential nutrients to plants. However, chemically similar zinc (Zn) is a micronutrient and is actively taken up by hyperaccumulators. For this reason, the mechanisms involved in uptake of Cd parallel those of Zn. Ideally, Cd would be allocated to the stem, leaf, and/or flower, where it becomes harvestable. Our modeling work simulates the uptake and the storage of Cd in a growing hyperaccumulator. After uptake, Cd is partitioned between adsorption to plant tissue and upward movement to leaves driven by transpiration. Uptake, adsorption and transport are also regulated by phytotoxicity. Simulations suggest that a young plant with small biomass can quickly reach phytotoxicity, which shuts down the normal operation of the plant. Conversely, mature plants on a mildly contaminated site, if harvested before the plants die due to phytotoxicity or natural cause, not only survive but may occasionally thrive. The immediate aim is to estimate the effectiveness and limitations of Cd uptake by hyperaccumulators. The eventual goal of this study is to expand the model in spatial and temporal scales, from individual plants to the community scale, and from one harvest interval to several generations. Understanding the interface between physical and biological processes, specifically the uptake and release of contaminants, provides scientists and engineers tools to assess whether phytoremediation is a reasonable strategy for a

  5. Metal accumulation by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and the efficacy of its biomass in enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jinglin; Kim, Dongwook; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10-2,000 mg/kg dry soil). The degree of metal uptake by different parts of the biomass and the residual concentration in the soil were estimated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An almost 2.5-fold hyperaccumulation of Zn2+ was observed in the leaf and flower biomass compared with the concentration in the soil. For the subsequent saccharification of biomass with hyperaccumulated contaminants, a fungal lignocellulosic consortium was used. The fungal consortium cocktail retained more than 95% filter paper activity with 100 mM Ni2+ ions even after 36 h. The highest saccharification yield (SY, 87.4%) was observed with Ni2+ as the contaminant (10 mg/kg dry wt), whereas Pb2+ (251.9 mg/kg dry wt) was the strongest inhibitor of biomass hydrolysis, resulting in only a 30% SY. Importantly, the enzyme cocktail produced by the fungal consortium resulted in almost the same SY (%) as that obtained from a combination of commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase. Significant sugar conversion (61.7%) from H. annuus biomass hydrolysate occurred, resulting in the production of 11.4 g/L of bioethanol. This is the first study to assess the suitability of phytoremediated sunflower biomass for bioethanol production.

  6. Screening of plant species for phytoremediation of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead contaminated soils from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-yue; Hu, Nan; Ding, De-xin; Zheng, Ji-fang; Liu, Yu-long; Wang, Yong-dong; Nie, Xiao-qin

    2011-06-01

    The concentrations of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead in the samples of the tailings and plant species collected from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. Then, the removal capability of a plant for a target element was assessed. It was found that Phragmites australis had the greatest removal capabilities for uranium (820 μg), thorium (103 μg) and lead (1,870 μg). Miscanthus floridulus had the greatest removal capabilities for barium (3,730 μg) and nickel (667 μg), and Parthenocissus quinquefolia had the greatest removal capability for strontium (3,920 μg). In this study, a novel coefficient, termed as phytoremediation factor (PF), was proposed, for the first time, to assess the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation of a target element contaminated soil. Phragmites australis has the highest PFs for uranium (16.6), thorium (8.68), barium (10.0) and lead (10.5). Miscanthus floridulus has the highest PF for Ni (25.0). Broussonetia papyrifera and Parthenocissus quinquefolia have the relatively high PFs for strontium (28.1 and 25.4, respectively). On the basis of the definition for a hyperaccumulator, only Cyperus iria and Parthenocissus quinquefolia satisfied the criteria for hyperaccumulator of uranium (36.4 μg/g) and strontium (190 μg/g), and could be the candidates for phytoremediation of uranium and strontium contaminated soils. The results show that the PF has advantage over the hyperaccumulator in reflecting the removal capabilities of a plant for a target element, and is more adequate for assessing the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation than conventional method.

  7. Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide accumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, June 21, 1995--September 20, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochian, L.

    1995-12-31

    This quarterly report describes experiments on uptake of a variety of heavy metals by plants. Titles of report sections are (1) Alleviation of heavy-metal induced micronutrient deficiency through foliar fertilization, (2) Second screen for Zn, Cu, and Cd accumulation, (3) Characterization of the root Zn hyperaccumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens, (4) Comparison of commercial Brassica accessions obtained from the Iowa seed bank, (5) Second screening experiment for the accumulation of Cs and Sr by plants, (6) Effect of Ca on Cs and Sr accumulation by selected dicot species, and (7) Preliminary investigations into the forms of uranium taken up by plants.

  8. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  9. Function and regulation of plant major intrinsic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Milan

    detoxification. Plant Noduline 26-like Intrinsic Proteins (NIPs) can channel As(III) and consequently influence the detoxification process. The role of the Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) in As(III) detoxification remains to be clarified, yet TIPs could have an impact on As(III) accumulation in plant cell...... to development of plants with levated arsenic tolerance. Plants with the ability to hyperaccumulate arsenic could find its use in soil remediation while crop plants with efficient arsenic detoxification mechanisms could be used for food production in areas polluted with arsenic....

  10. Sap flow in Searsia pendulina and Searsia lancea trees established on gold mining sites in central South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, P

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available . As an example 111 of the potential of trees to take up contaminants, research has shown that the hyper-accumulator 112 species Tamarix usneoides can take up large quantities of salt which is exuded through salt 113 glands and deposited on the leaf surface... of Tamarix usneoides 597 E. Mey ex Bunge and its implications for phyto-extraction. IGCP/SIDA Projects 594 and 598 606, Closing workshop, Prague, Czech Republic, 195-199. 599 Winde, F., Wade, P., Van der Walt, I.J., 2004. Gold tailings as a source...

  11. Review in Strengthening Technology for Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated by Heavy Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chishan; Zhang, Xingfeng; Deng, Yang

    2017-07-01

    In view of current problems of phytoremediation technology, this paper summarizes research progress for phytoremediation technology of heavy metal contaminated soil. When the efficiency of phytoremediation may not meet the demand in practice of contaminated soil or water. Effective measures should be taken to improve the plant uptake and translocation. This paper focuses on strengthening technology mechanism, which can not only increase the biomass of plant and hyperaccumulators, but also enhance the tolerance and resistance to heavy metals, and application effect of phytoremediation, including agronomic methods, earthworm bioremediation and chemical induction technology. In the end of paper, deficiencies of each methods also be discussed, methods of strengthening technology for phytoremediation need further research.

  12. Influence of Sulfur on the Arsenic Phytoremediation Using Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Feng, Tao; Li, Zhixian; Chen, Zhang; Chen, Yuanqi; Wang, Haihua; Xiang, Yanci

    2017-09-01

    Influences of sulfur (S) on the accumulation and detoxification of arsenic (As) in Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, an arsenic hyperaccumulating submerged aquatic plant, were investigated. At low sulfur levels (75%) present in the plant after exposure to As(V). Sulfur plays an important role in the arsenic translocation and detoxification, possibly through stimulating the synthesis of thiols and complexation of arsenite-phytochelatins. This suggests that addition of sulfur to the arsenic-contaminated water may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plants for phytoremediation of arsenic pollution.

  13. A method for cryosectioning of plant roots for proton microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Thorsten; Scheloske, Stefan; Povh, Bogdan; Traxel, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    By building up a cryo-preparation laboratory a method was developed which allows us to prepare cryo sections of fully differentiated plant-root material, according to the requirements of the proton microprobe. Since cryo-preparation is the only possible method delivering reliable elemental distributions, this step was a fundamental for all our further investigations in plant root physiology. As an example, PIXE-investigations of a root section of a heavy metal hyper-accumulating plant Brassica juncea L. will be presented. (author)

  14. Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Słomka, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred. Due to the fact that heavy metal soils are dry, nutrient limited and are not uniform but have a patchy distribution in many instances, drought-tolerant or low nutrient demanding species are often regarded as metallophytes in the literature. In only a few cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in soils are so toxic that only a few specifically adapted plants, the genuine metallophytes, can cope with these adverse soil conditions. Current molecular biological studies focus on the genetically amenable and hyperaccumulating Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens of the Brassicaceae. Armeria maritima ssp. halleri utilizes glands for the excretion of heavy metals and is, therefore, a heavy metal excluder. The two endemic zinc violets of Western Europe, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria of the Aachen-Liège area and Viola lutea ssp. westfalica of the Pb-Cu-ditch of Blankenrode, Eastern Westphalia, as well as Viola tricolor ecotypes of Eastern Europe, keep their cells free of excess heavy metals by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which bind heavy metals. The Caryophyllaceae, Silene vulgaris f. humilis and Minuartia verna, apparently discard leaves when overloaded with heavy metals. All Central European metallophytes have close relatives that grow in areas outside of heavy metal soils, mainly in the Alps, and have, therefore, been considered as relicts of the glacial epoch in the past. However, the current

  15. The relationship between the age of onset of musical training and rhythm synchronization performance: Validation of sensitive period effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Anne Bailey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive period associated with musical training has been proposed, suggesting the influence of musical training on the brain and behaviour is strongest during the early childhood years. Experiments from our laboratory have directly tested the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by comparing musicians who began their training before age seven with those who began their training after age seven, while matching the two groups in terms of musical experience (Bailey & Penhune, 2010; 2012; Watanabe, Savion-Lemieux, & Penhune, 2007. Using this matching paradigm, the early-trained groups have demonstrated enhanced sensorimotor synchronization skills and associated differences in brain structure (Bailey, Zatorre, & Penhune, under review; Steele, Bailey, Zatorre, & Penhune, 2013. The current study takes a different approach to investigating the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by examining a single large group of unmatched musicians (N=77 and exploring the relationship between age of onset of musical training as a continuous variable and performance on the Rhythm Synchronization Task (RST, a previously used auditory-motor rhythm synchronization task. Interestingly, age of onset was correlated with task performance for those who began training earlier; however, no such relationship was observed among those who began training in their later childhood years. In addition, years of formal training showed a similar pattern. However, individual working memory scores were predictive of task performance, regardless of age of onset of musical training. Overall, these results support the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training and suggest a non-linear relationship between age of onset of musical training and auditory-motor rhythm synchronization abilities, such that a relationship exists early in childhood but then plateaus later on in development, similar to maturational growth trajectories of brain regions implicated in

  16. A goodness-of-fit test for occupancy models with correlated within-season revisits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wilson; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy modeling is important for exploring species distribution patterns and for conservation monitoring. Within this framework, explicit attention is given to species detection probabilities estimated from replicate surveys to sample units. A central assumption is that replicate surveys are independent Bernoulli trials, but this assumption becomes untenable when ecologists serially deploy remote cameras and acoustic recording devices over days and weeks to survey rare and elusive animals. Proposed solutions involve modifying the detection-level component of the model (e.g., first-order Markov covariate). Evaluating whether a model sufficiently accounts for correlation is imperative, but clear guidance for practitioners is lacking. Currently, an omnibus goodnessof- fit test using a chi-square discrepancy measure on unique detection histories is available for occupancy models (MacKenzie and Bailey, Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 9, 2004, 300; hereafter, MacKenzie– Bailey test). We propose a join count summary measure adapted from spatial statistics to directly assess correlation after fitting a model. We motivate our work with a dataset of multinight bat call recordings from a pilot study for the North American Bat Monitoring Program. We found in simulations that our join count test was more reliable than the MacKenzie–Bailey test for detecting inadequacy of a model that assumed independence, particularly when serial correlation was low to moderate. A model that included a Markov-structured detection-level covariate produced unbiased occupancy estimates except in the presence of strong serial correlation and a revisit design consisting only of temporal replicates. When applied to two common bat species, our approach illustrates that sophisticated models do not guarantee adequate fit to real data, underscoring the importance of model assessment. Our join count test provides a widely applicable goodness-of-fit test and

  17. Simulations of Fe at 156 eV with configuration interaction and mixed UTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, M.; Busquet, M.

    2009-06-01

    Simulations of the transmission spectra measured by Bailey et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 (2007) 265002-265004), obtained with the newest version of the HULLAC, are presented. With this new version one can easily define which group of configurations will be computed to synthesize the spectrum. Moreover, one can now compute mixed UTA (MUTA). These modifications provide an extension of the older HULLAC codes. The aim of this work is to compare spectra with different ranges of configuration interactions and with different thresholds for treating separated lines in the MUTA model.

  18. Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Box, George E P

    2011-01-01

    The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Rob

  19. Suviseid muusikauudiseid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Emma "Free Me", Beastie Boys "To The Bordughs", J.J. Cale "To Tulsa And Back", Gilberto "Bebel", Totally Wired Series 2, "Music For Coctails. Part 2", bossacucanova "Uma batida Differente", Blaze "Found Love", Angels "Chill Trance Essentials", S/ Superclub "Superclub Cruise", Headman "Dance Modern", Earth, brigade Nouveau "The Many Moods Of Brigade", Marco Bailey "Rudeboy", "Spider-Man 2", "ZZ Top", The Hives "Tyrannosaurus Hives", Europe "Rock The Night", Van Halen "The Best Of Both Words", Robert Rodriguez "Mexico and Mariachis", "The Football Factory", 2pac "Live"

  20. Las políticas de seguridad pública en América Latina: policía, violencia y narcotráfico en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos G. Aguiar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available – En busca de la legitimidad: violencia y populismo punitivo en México 1990-2000, por Nelson Arteaga Botello. UACM, México, 2004. – Seguridad y reforma policial en las Américas, coordinado por Lucía Dammert y John Bailey. ILANUD/FLACSO/Siglo XXI, México,2005. – Con la muerte en el bolsillo. Seis desaforadas historias del narcotráfico en México, por Ma. Idalia Gómez y Darío Fritz. Planeta, México, 2005.

  1. Dechlorination of Aromatic Xenobiotic Compounds by Anaerobic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    maltose lactose sucrose oxalate D-glucose i-inositol b D + galactose inulin b -D(-) fructose soluble starch D-Manitol b valeric acid c DL-arabitol...Sludge." APo. Eyji . Microbiol. 41:272-277. 22. Bailey, R.E. 1983. Comment on "Chlorobenzenes in Sediment, Water, and Selected Fish from Lakes Superior...Huron, Erie, Ontario." Enviro. ci. Technol. JZ:504. 23. Oliver, B.G. and K.D. Nicol. 1982. "Chlorobenzenes in Sediments, Water, and Selected Fish from

  2. Simulations of micro-bending of thin foils using a scale dependent crystal plasticity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuroda, Mitsutoshi; Tvergaard, Viggo; Ohashi, T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we perform crystal plasticity analyses of micro-bending of thin f.c.c. metal foils having thicknesses ranging from 10 to 50 mu m. The scale dependent crystal plasticity model used here is a viscoplastic finite strain version of the model proposed by Ohashi (2005 Int. J. Plast. 21...... a Bailey-Hirsch type relation. The computational results are compared with the experimental results for Ni foils, reported in Stolken and Evans (1998 Acta Mater. 46 5109-15). The validity of the current model and the direction of future development of the 'physically-based' scale dependent crystal...

  3. Some families of generating functions and associated hypergeometric transformation and reduction formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Summation, transformation and reduction formulas for various families of hypergeometric functions in one, two and more variables are potentially useful in many diverse areas of applications. The main object of this paper is to derive several substantially more general results on this subject than those considered recently by Neethu et al. [7] in connection with Bailey's transformation involving the Gauss hypergeometrc function 2 F 1 (see [1]). The methodology used here is based essentially on some families of hypergeometric generating functions. Relevant connections of the results presented in this paper with those in the earlier works are also pointed out.

  4. Burn Enhances Toll-Like Receptor Induced Responses by Circulating Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    induced alterations in toll-like receptor- mediated responses by bronchoalveolar lavage cells. Cytokine 2011; 55: 396-401. [14] Huber NL, Bailey SR...Materials and methods Animals C57BL/6 male mice (18 to 22 gm; 8 to 10 wk, Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, MA) Int J Clin Exp Med...responses by circulating leukocytes is unknown. To study this, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to burn (3rd degree, 25% TBSA) or sham procedure and 1-7 days

  5. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 64 ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All. A. Abuodha, S O · Aniekwu, N. Asano, E. B. Bailey, Tiffani · Bisanda, E.T.N. · Burdekin, F M · Bwisa, H M. C. Chang, Kuo-Chun · Chemelil, M C · Chemelil, M. C.. D. Dahunsi, Bamidele I. O · Dulo, S. O. E. Elkanzi, Mustafa A. G. Gachanja, A. Gichaga ...

  6. A note on the contribution of multi-photon processes to radiative opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Jean-Christophe

    2018-03-01

    Recently, Bailey et al. performed iron opacity measurements on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratory in conditions close to the ones of the base of the convective zone of the Sun. Such experiments have raised questions about the physical models commonly used in opacity codes. To understand the discrepancy between experiment and theory, More et al. investigated the role of two-photon processes. In the present work we show, by simple estimate and using hydrogenic formulas, that due to the intensity of the backlight radiation seen by the sample, such processes are likely to play an important role only for highly excited states.

  7. Implementation of a digital feedwater control system at Dresden Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapotocky, A.; Popovic, J.R.; Fournier, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the Digital Feedwater Control System Implementation at the Dresden 2 or 3 Units of the BWR Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Commonwealth Edison Company. The digital system has been operational in Unit 3 since August 1986, and in Unit 2 since April 1987. The Bailey Control's Network 90 based digital control system replaced the obsolete GE/MAC 5000 analog control system in the reactor feedwater control loop as a ''like-for-like'' replacement. Operational experience from the Digital Feedwater Control installations has been good and the system demonstrated better performance than the old analog systems. 14 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Proceedings of the third spent fuel workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, L.

    1984-03-01

    The third workshop, held in Boston, Mass. November 10-11, 1983 was organized by Battelle PNL. Questions concerning spent fuel behaviour in nuclear waste repositories were discussed. The following three lectures were presented. The corrosion of Spent UO 2 -Fuel in Synthetic Groundwater, R.S. Forsyth, K. Svanberg and L.O. Werme. Leaching and Radiolysis Studies on UO 2 Fuel, L.H. Johnson, S. Stroes-Gascoyne, D.W. Shoesmith, M.G. Bailey and D.M. Sellinger. Comparison of Spent Fuel and UO 2 Release in Salt Brines, W.J. Gray and G.L. McVay. (G.B.)

  9. Disainides meeltesegadust = All designed to blow your mind / Stacey Koosel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koosel, Stacey, 1982-

    2015-01-01

    Taani kuraatori Lars Bang Larseni post-psühhedeelse kunsti rahvusvahelisest rühmanäitusest "r:e:a:a:l:n:e: psühhedeelia järel" Eesti Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseumis. Moskva kunstnikegrupi Инспекция «Медицинская герменевтика» installatsioonist "Merevaigupalat", Vilius Orvidase skulptuuride aed Leedus (Vytautas Landsbergise dokumentaalfilm) ja ameeriklase Dave Hullfish Bailey installatsioonist "Töömudel"

  10. Field measurements and interpretation of TMI-2 instrumentation: IC-10-dPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.; Smith, J.T.; Mathis, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the measurements and results of the Control Rod Drive Bypass Flow IC-10-dPT. This instrument consists of a Bailey Type BY Process Computer Transmitter connected to a readout module by approximately 500 feet of cable through a penetration junction and an instrument mounting junction. The status of this instrument is uncertain, but it was producing a reasonable output reading of zero flow which could indicate it had not failed. As a result, measurements on this instrument were designed to determine if it were properly functioning

  11. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 46 of 46 ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All. P. Panagiotou, I · Parpa, E · Parry, C · Parry, C · Parry, C.D.H. · Parry, CDH · Paruk, Zubeda · Patel, GR · Paz-Bailey, G · Pazos, V · Pelser, André · Peltzer, K F · Peltzer, K · Peltzer, K · Peltzer, K · Peltzer, K · Peltzer, Karl · Pengpid, S · Pengpid, Supa

  12. DNA Lesions in Medaka (o. latipes): Development of a Micro-Method for Tissue Analysis Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-29

    Enomoto, M. Usefulness and rapidity of screening for the toxicity and carconogenicity of chemicals in medaka, Oryzias latipes . 1982. J Exp Med 52 (5...medaka ( Oryzias latipes ). 1986a. JNCI 76 (3): 453-456. 14. Hendricks, J.D., Meyers, T.R., Casteel, J.L., Nixon, J.E., Loveland, P.M., and Bailey, G.S...AD-A275 291 Q GRANT NO: DAMD17-92-J-2006 TITLE: DNA LESIONS IN MEDAKA (0. LATIPES ): DEVELOPMENT OF A MICRO-METHOD FOR TISSUE ANALYSIS USING GAS

  13. Sustainable Confined Disposal Facilities for Long-term Management of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    580, 106 Stat. 4797, 33 U.S.C. 2201 et seq. 4. Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture , and Aquaculture: Using dredged material to replace eroded...uses. ERDC/EL TR-07-27. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/elpubs/ pdf /trel07-27. pdf ...http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/elpubs/ pdf /trel02- 38. pdf . Olin-Estes, T. J., S. E. Bailey, S. A. Heisey, and K. D Hofseth. 2002b. Planning level cost

  14. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND INHERITANCE OF «A» TYPE SEED COAT IN BRASSICA RAPA L. POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ignatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and inheritance of «A» and «B» types of seed coat in populations of B. rapa originated from Europe, Central Asia, China and Japan was studied. «A» type seeds were found in Central Asian and Japanese populations represented by toria, Asian turnip and plants of «B». rapa ssp. nipposinica (L.H.Bailey Hanelt. In intraspecific crosses, «A» type of seed coat was controlled by two complementary dominant genes. 

  15. Analytical Bibliography for Water Supply and Conservation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    applicability and effectiveness of metering. ~13 Bailey, J. R., R. J. Benoit, J. L . Dodson, J. M. Robb, and H. Wallman . 1969. A Study of Flow Reduction...713.123 Evaluation procedure: Compute M& l water supply annual benefits. [a) Annualized benefits of the Federal water supply plan are equal to the cost of...as the basis for evaluating the benefits of the Federal water supply plan. In this case, the benefit shall be equal to the cost of the separable M& l

  16. Actitudes hacia la comunicación, inteligencia emocional y empatía en enfermería

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Espert, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    La comunicación con el paciente es uno de los elementos que más importancia reviste en el proceso de salud-enfermedad (Luker, Austin, Caress, & Hallett, 2000), dada su repercusión sobre la adherencia al tratamiento (van Os et al., 2005), la autonomía (Davies, Kinman, Thomas, & Bailey, 2008) e incluso sobre la disminución de la estancia hospitalaria del paciente (Dailey, Loeb, & Peterman, 2007). En definitiva, mejora los resultados de salud (Ghiyasvandian, Zakerimoghadam, & Peyravi, 2014), la...

  17. USA hoiatas Lätit ohu eest demokraatiale ja vabadusele / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    USA Läti-suursaadiku Catherine Todd Bailey kõnest Läti ülikoolis, kus ta hoiatas Lätit ohu eest demokraatiale ja ühistele väärtustele. Autor analüüsib, mida suursaadik silmas pidas. Läti peaminister Aigars Kalvitis teatas, et pole suursaadiku seisukohtadega nõus. Vt. samas: Suursaadik: kõik ühiste väärtustega kokku ei sobi; Kriitikale kurt Kalvitis vallandas korruptsioonivastase büroo juhi. Lisa: Spekulatsioonid: mis mäng käib?

  18. Benthic Bacillariophyta of the Paripe River estuary in Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN. Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the benthic diatom composition from the estuary sediment in the Pernambuco State, based on 32 samples. Samples were collected monthly from September through December 1999 (dry period and from April through July 2000 (rainy period during four pre established sampling stations. Results indicated 19 families and 31 specific and infraspecific taxa. Eight new records were founded for Pernambuco State: Auliscus coelatus, Fallacia nummularia, Navicula algida, Plagiograma pulchellum, Terpsinoe americana, Triceratium antideluvianna and Tryblionella coarctata and one, Auliscus punctatus Bailey, in northeastern Brazil.

  19. The Narcotics Counterinsurgency Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    government. Following a ten year civil war in the 1950’s, referred to as La Violencia , the central government never re-established authority and control...www.monitor.upeace.org/Colombia.pdf 21 Norman Bailey, “La Violencia in Colombia,” Journal of Inter-American Studies 9, no. 4 (1967): 561. 22 Peter Chalk and Angel...reach required across all regions of the country along with the traditional familiarity . The use of mic grants and micro-loans to jump start small

  20. Physical Literacy in Danish Primary School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2016-01-01

    : Physical and health education. Pp. 26-30. Whitehead, M. (2001). The Concept of Physical Literacy. In: European Journal of Physical Education, 6:2, Pp. 127-138.Whitehead, M. (2007). Physical Literacy: Philosophical Considerations in Relation to Developing a Sense of Self, Universality and Propositional...... in their lives. Intent of publication: Not decided yetReferences (max 400 words)Argyle, M. (1988). Bodily Communication. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.Bailey, R.; Hillman, C.; Arent, S. & Petitpas, A. (2013). Physical Activity: An underestimated Investment in Human Capital? In Journal of Physical Activity and Health...... Knowledge. In Sport, Ethics and Philosophy. 1:3, Pp. 281-298....

  1. Tempus Pro Patient Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-03

    attendees were present at the Kick-off Meeting Mr. Charlie Dean, 711th HPW/FHS Mr. Calvin Griner, AFMSA/SG51 Ms. Pam Logan, AFMSA/SG51 Maj Charles...AFMSA SG5T, (AFMESA) Mr. John Ingram, AFMSA SG5T, AFMESA Mr. John Plaga, 711 HPW/HP Human Factors Engineering Mr. Paul Bailey, AMC SG/SGR Ms. Lynn...were present at the Final Design Review Meeting Mr. Charlie Dean, 711th HPW/FHS Mr. Calvin Griner, AFMSA/SG51 8 Distribution A: Approved for

  2. A simulation study of how simple mark-recapture methods can be combined with destructive sub-sampling to facilitate surveys of flying insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Henrik Skovgård

    2012-01-01

    Mark-recapture techniques are used for studies of animal populations. With only three sampling occasions, both Bailey's triple-catch (BTC) and Jolly-Seber's (J-S) stochastic method can be applied. As marking and handling of fragile organisms may harm them, and thereby affect their chances of bein...... to be conservative. We therefore conclude that ordinary mark-recapture methods can be supplemented with subsampling without sacrificing accuracy. Subsampling is especially advantageous in cases where marks are difficult to observe under field conditions...

  3. Army 2020: Generating Health & Discipline in the Force Ahead of the Strategic Reset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    www.warerelatedilness.va.gov. (accessed October 22, 2011).  42 Dohrenwend, Bruce P., J.  Blake  Turner, Nicholas A. Turse, Ben G. Adams, Karestan C. Koenen and Randall  Marshall...714.   57 Ibid.     58 Teten, Andra L., Julie A. Schumacher, Casey T. Taft, Melinda A. Stanley, Thomas A. Kent,  Sara  D. Bailey,  Nancy Jo Dunn, and

  4. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  5. The Statistical Analysis of Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, T W

    2011-01-01

    The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences George

  6. The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Bartle, Robert G

    2011-01-01

    The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Rob

  7. Between-species differences in gene copy number are enriched among functions critical for adaptive evolution in Arabidopsis halleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vasantika; Talke, Ina N; Weber, Michael; Eils, Roland; Brors, Benedikt; Clemens, Stephan; Krämer, Ute

    2016-12-22

    Gene copy number divergence between species is a form of genetic polymorphism that contributes significantly to both genome size and phenotypic variation. In plants, copy number expansions of single genes were implicated in cultivar- or species-specific tolerance of high levels of soil boron, aluminium or calamine-type heavy metals, respectively. Arabidopsis halleri is a zinc- and cadmium-hyperaccumulating extremophile species capable of growing on heavy-metal contaminated, toxic soils. In contrast, its non-accumulating sister species A. lyrata and the closely related reference model species A. thaliana exhibit merely basal metal tolerance. For a genome-wide assessment of the role of copy number divergence (CND) in lineage-specific environmental adaptation, we conducted cross-species array comparative genome hybridizations of three plant species and developed a global signal scaling procedure to adjust for sequence divergence. In A. halleri, transition metal homeostasis functions are enriched twofold among the genes detected as copy number expanded. Moreover, biotic stress functions including mostly disease Resistance (R) gene-related genes are enriched twofold among genes detected as copy number reduced, when compared to the abundance of these functions among all genes. Our results provide genome-wide support for a link between evolutionary adaptation and CND in A. halleri as shown previously for Heavy metal ATPase4. Moreover our results support the hypothesis that elemental defences, which result from the hyperaccumulation of toxic metals, allow the reduction of classical defences against biotic stress as a trade-off.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance both absorption and stabilization of Cd by Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in a Cd-contaminated acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Shengchun; Wu, Fuyong; Leung, Ho Man; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the phytoextraction efficiencies of Cd by hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and fast-growing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) from a Cd-contaminated (1.6 mg kg(-1)) acidic soil, and their responses to the inoculations of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal strains, Glomus caledonium 90036 (Gc) and Glomus mosseae M47V (Gm). Ryegrass and stonecrop were harvested after growing for 9 and 27 wk, respectively. Without AM fungal inoculation, the weekly Cd extraction by stonecrop (8.0 μg pot(-1)) was 4.3 times higher than that by ryegrass (1.5 μg pot(-1)). Both Gc and Gm significantly increased (P soil acid phosphatase activities, and available P concentrations, and thereby plant P absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated ryegrass), shoot biomasses, and Cd absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated stonecrop), while only Gc-inoculated stonecrop significantly accelerated (P soil pH. The results suggested the potential application of hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop associated with AM fungi (notably Gc) for both extraction and stabilization of Cd in the in situ treatment of Cd-contaminated acidic soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanisms of lichen resistance to metallic pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarret, C.; Manceau, A.; Eybert-Berard, L. [Univ. of Grenoble and CNRS (France). Environmental Geochemistry Group; Cuny, D.; Haluwyn, C. van [Lab. de Botanique et de Cryptogamie, Lille (France); Deruelle, S. [Institut d`Ecologie, Paris (France); Hazemann, J.L.; Menthonnex, J.J. [Univ. of Grenoble and CNRS (France). Environmental Geochemistry Group]|[CNRS, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Cristallographie; Soldo, Y. [CNRS, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Cristallographie

    1998-11-01

    Some lichens have a unique ability to grow in heavily contaminated areas due to the development of adaptative mechanisms allowing a high tolerance to metals. Here the authors report on the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in the metal hyperaccumulator Diploschistes muscorum and of Pb in the metal tolerant lichen Xanthoria parietina. The speciation of Zn and Pb has been investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy using the advanced third-generation synchrotron radiation source of the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF in Grenoble). This study reveals that in both lichens cells are protected from toxicity by complexation of heavy metals, but the strategies differ: in D. muscorum, Pb and Zn are accumulated through an enhanced synthesis of oxalate, which precipitates toxic elements as insoluble salts, whereas in X. parietina, Pb is complexed to carboxylic groups of the fungal cell walls. The authors conclude that hyperaccumulation of metals results from a reactive mechanism of organic acid production, whereas metallo-tolerance is achieved by a passive complexation to existing functional groups.

  10. Photosynthetic Efficiency as Bioindicator of Environmental Pressure in A. halleri[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Krzysztof; Rusinowski, Szymon

    2017-01-01

    In earlier ecophysiological studies that were conducted on Arabidopsis halleri plants, scientists focused on the mechanisms of Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation but did not take into consideration the environmental factors that can significantly affect the physiological responses of plants in situ. In this study, we investigated A. halleri that was growing on two nonmetalliferous and three metalliferous sites, which were characterized by different environmental conditions. We compared these populations in order to find differences within the metallicolous and nonmetallicolous groups that have not yet been investigated. The concentrations of several elements in the plant and soil samples also were investigated. To our knowledge, the concentration and fluorescence of chlorophyll were measured for A. halleri in situ for the first time. Our study confirmed the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn for each metallicolous population. For the metallicolous populations, the inhibition of parameters that describe the efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus with increasing accumulations of heavy metals in the shoots also was observed. It was found that the nonmetallicolous plant populations from the summit of Ciemniak Mountain had larger antenna dimensions and chlorophyll content but a lower percentage of active reaction centers. To our knowledge, in this study, the internal high physiological diversity within the populations that inhabit metalliferous and nonmetalliferous sites is presented for the first time. PMID:28455400

  11. Photosynthetic Efficiency as Bioindicator of Environmental Pressure inA. halleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Krzysztof; Rusinowski, Szymon; Kalaji, Hazem M; Szopiński, Michał; Małkowski, Eugeniusz

    2017-09-01

    In earlier ecophysiological studies that were conducted on Arabidopsis halleri plants, scientists focused on the mechanisms of Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation but did not take into consideration the environmental factors that can significantly affect the physiological responses of plants in situ. In this study, we investigated A. halleri that was growing on two nonmetalliferous and three metalliferous sites, which were characterized by different environmental conditions. We compared these populations in order to find differences within the metallicolous and nonmetallicolous groups that have not yet been investigated. The concentrations of several elements in the plant and soil samples also were investigated. To our knowledge, the concentration and fluorescence of chlorophyll were measured for A. halleri in situ for the first time. Our study confirmed the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn for each metallicolous population. For the metallicolous populations, the inhibition of parameters that describe the efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus with increasing accumulations of heavy metals in the shoots also was observed. It was found that the nonmetallicolous plant populations from the summit of Ciemniak Mountain had larger antenna dimensions and chlorophyll content but a lower percentage of active reaction centers. To our knowledge, in this study, the internal high physiological diversity within the populations that inhabit metalliferous and nonmetalliferous sites is presented for the first time. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Molecular Genetics of Metal Detoxification: Prospects for Phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow, David W. ow@pgec.ams.usda.gov

    2000-09-01

    Unlike compounds that can be broken down, the remediation of most heavy metals and radionuclides requires physical extraction from contaminated sources. Plants can extract inorganics, but effective phytoextraction requires plants that produce high biomass, grow rapidly and possess high capacity-uptake for the inorganic substance. Either hyperaccumulator plants must be bred for increased growth and biomass or hyperaccumulation traits must be engineered into fast growing, high biomass plants. This latter approach requires fundamental knowledge of the molecular mechanisms in the uptake and storage of inorganics. Much has been learned in recent years on how plants and certain fungi chelate and transport selected heavy metals. This progress has been facilitated by the use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model system. The use of a model organism for study permits rapid characterization of the molecular process. As target genes are identified in a model organism, their sequences can be modified for expression in a heterologous host or aid in the search of homologous genes in more complex organisms. Moreover, as plant nutrient uptake is intrinsically linked to the association with rhizospheric fungi, elucidating metal sequestration in this fungus permits additional opportunities for engineering rhizospheric microbes to assist in phytoextraction.

  13. Zinc and cadmium accumulation and tolerance in populations of Sedum alfredii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, D.M.; Shu, W.S.; Zhang, J.; Zou, H.L.; Lin, Z.; Ye, Z.H.; Wong, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the variation of Zn and Cd accumulation and tolerance of Sedum alfredii (a newly reported Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator), field surveys and hydroponic experiments were conducted among three populations of this species: two originating from old Pb/Zn mines in Zhejiang (ZJ) and Hunan (HN) Provinces and one from a 'clean' site in Guangdong (GD) Province, China. Under field conditions, up to 12,524 and 12,253 mg kg -1 Zn, and 1400 and 97 mg kg -1 Cd in shoots of ZJ and HN plants were recorded respectively. Under hydroponic conditions, ZJ and HN plants accumulated significantly higher Zn and Cd in their leaves and stems, and possessed significantly higher Zn and Cd tolerance than GD plants. Among the two contaminated populations, ZJ plants showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation (in leaves) than HN plants. The present results indicate that significant differences in Zn and Cd accumulation and tolerance exist in populations of S. alfredii. - Marked variation of Zn and Cd tolerance and accumulation exist in populations of Sedum alfredii, a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator

  14. Constitutive camalexin production and environmental stress response variation in Arabidopsis populations from the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Lariviere, Andy; Tonsor, Stephen J; Traw, M Brian

    2014-08-01

    Optimal defense theory predicts that induction of defensive secondary metabolites in plants will be inversely correlated with constitutive expression of those compounds. Here, we asked whether camalexin, an important defense against fungal and bacterial pathogens, support this prediction in structured natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from the Iberian Peninsula. In common garden experiments, we found that genotypes from the VIE population constitutively hyper-accumulated camalexin. Camalexin concentrations were not induced significantly when plants were exposed to a temperature of 10°C for 48h. However, they were induced when plants were exposed to 48h of infection by the virulent bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Genotypes from the VIE population with the hyper-accumulation of camalexin were significantly more resistant to bacterial growth. Induction of camalexin was negatively correlated with constitutive camalexin concentrations following log transformation and two different corrections for autocorrelation, thus supporting the tradeoff predicted by optimal defense theory. Constitutive overexpression of camalexin was not explained by the only known natural genetic polymorphism at the Accelerated Cell Death 6, ACD6, locus. Collectively, the results support an important role of camalexin in defense against P. syringae as well as significant structured variation in defense levels within wild populations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and histochemical tests for aluminium detection in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAIARA V. CAMPOS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The soils developed under High Altitude Rocky Complexes in Brazil are generally of very low chemical fertility, with low base saturation and high exchangeable aluminium concentration. This stressful condition imposes evolutionary pressures that lead to ecological success of plant species that are able to tolerate or accumulate high amounts of aluminium. Several analytical methods are currently available for elemental mapping of biological structures, such as micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDX and histochemical tests. The aim of this study was to combine μ-EDX analysis and histochemical tests to quantify aluminium in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, identifying the main sites for Al-accumulation. Among the studied species, five showed total Al concentration higher than 1000 mg kg−1. The main Al-hyperaccumulator plants, Lavoisiera pectinata, Lycopodium clavatum and Trembleya parviflora presented positive reactions in the histochemical tests using Chrome Azurol and Aluminon. Strong positive correlations were observed between the total Al concentrations and data obtained by μ-EDX analysis. The μ-EDX analysis is a potential tool to map and quantify Al in hyperaccumulator species, and a valuable technique due to its non-destructive capacity. Histochemical tests can be helpful to indicate the accumulation pattern of samples before they are submitted for further μ-EDX scrutiny.

  16. A metaproteomic approach dissecting major bacterial functions in the rhizosphere of plants living in serpentine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarozzi, Monica; Manfredi, Marcello; Montanini, Barbara; Gosetti, Fabio; Sanangelantoni, Anna Maria; Marengo, Emilio; Careri, Maria; Visioli, Giovanna

    2017-03-01

    A metaproteomic approach, based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis, was followed to map the major bacterial metabolic functions associated with the rhizosphere of metal-tolerant and metal hyperaccumulator plants, growing in a serpentine soil naturally contaminated by heavy metals such as Ni, Co and Cr. In particular, an "in-house" bacterial protein database was built based on the genera recognised by 16S rDNA profiling, then it was used for protein identification from LC-MS data. The combination of the information arising from three different extraction protocols, applied to each soil sample, permitted the identification of almost 800 proteins, corresponding to functions assigned to proper Gene Ontology categories. Mainly proteins involved in response to stimulus or in transport of metals and nutrients revealed variability of bacteria responses to microenvironment conditions. As for taxonomy, Phyllobacterium, Microbacterium oxidans, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila and Bacillus methylotrophicus bacterial species were more represented in the rhizosphere samples of the metal-tolerant Biscutella laevigata and of the Ni hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens with respect to bulk soil. Combining 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing and metaproteomic analysis, we get insights into microbial community functions and their interaction with plants colonising the stressful environment of serpentine soils.

  17. On the formation and extent of uptake of silver nanoparticles by live plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Andrew T.; Bali, Roza

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate the limits of uptake of metallic silver by two common metallophytes, Brassica juncea (BJ) and Medicago sativa (MS) and assess the form and distribution of the metal once sequestered by the plants. BJ accumulated up to 12.4 wt.% silver when exposed to an aqueous substrate containing 1,000 ppm AgNO 3 for 72 h, however silver uptake was largely independent of exposure time and substrate silver concentration. MS accumulated up to 13.6 wt.% silver when exposed to an aqueous substrate containing 10,000 ppm AgNO 3 for 24 h. In contrast to BJ there was a general trend for MS showing an increase in metal uptake with a corresponding increase in the substrate metal concentration and exposure time. In both cases the silver was stored as discrete nanoparticles, with a mean size of ∼50 nm. According to the hyperaccumulation definition of Brooks et al. (Brooks RR, Chambers MF, Nicks LJ, Robinson BH (1998) Phytomining. Trends Plant Sci 3:359-362), this is the first report of the hyperaccumulation of silver in any plant species

  18. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rámila, Consuelo D P; Contreras, Samuel A; Di Domenico, Camila; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Vega, Andrea; Handford, Michael; Bonilla, Carlos A; Pizarro, Gonzalo E

    2016-11-05

    Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Screening the phytoremediation potential of desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) growing on mine tailings in Arizona, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Nazmul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Jones, Gary L.; Gill, Thomas E.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    The metal concentrations in a copper mine tailings and desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) plants were investigated. The metal concentrations in plants, soil cover, and tailings were determined using ICP-OES. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in tailings was 526.4, 207.4, 89.1, 84.5, 51.7, 49.6, 39.7, and 35.6 mg kg -1 , respectively. The concentration of all elements in soil cover was 10-15% higher than that of the tailings, except for molybdenum. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in roots was 818.3, 151.9, 73.9, 57.1, 40.1, 44.6, 96.8, and 26.7 mg kg -1 and 1214.1, 107.3, 105.8, 105.5, 55.2, 36.9, 30.9, and 10.9 mg kg -1 for shoots, respectively. Considering the translocation factor, enrichment coefficient, and the accumulation factor, desert broom could be a potential hyperaccumulator of Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Ni. - Desert broom, a potential hyperaccumulating plant to clean up Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, Ni and Co from the mine tailings in AZ, USA

  20. Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on arsenic uptake and antioxidative enzymes in Pteris cretica var. nervosa and Pteris ensiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shujuan; Hu, Yongjun; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Qinchun

    2017-03-04

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on arsenic (As) uptake and antioxidative enzymes in fronds of Pteris cretica var. nervosa (As hyperaccumulator) and Pteris ensiformis (non-hyperaccumulator). Plants were exposed to 2 mg L -1 As(III), As(V) or dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and IAA concentrations for 14 d. The biomass and total As in the plants significantly increased at 30 mg L -1 IAA. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities significantly increased with IAA addition. Catalase (CAT) activities showed a significant increase in P. ensiformis exposed to three As species at 30 or 50 mg L -1 IAA but varied in P. cretica var. nervosa. Peroxidase (POD) activities were unchanged in P. ensiformis except for a significant decrease at 50 mg L -1 IAA under As(III) treatment. However, a significant increase was observed in P. cretica var. nervosa at 10 mg L -1 IAA under As(III) or DMA treatment and at 50 mg L -1 IAA under As(V) treatment. Under DMA stress, malondialdehyde contents in fronds of P. cretica var. nervosa showed a significant decrease at 10 mg L -1 IAA but remained unchanged in P. ensiformis. Therefore, IAA enhanced As uptake and frond POD activity in P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress.

  1. Interaction between selected bacterial strains and Arabidopsis halleri modulates shoot proteome and cadmium and zinc accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigati, Monica; Furini, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    The effects of plant–microbe interactions between the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri and eight bacterial strains, isolated from the rhizosphere of A. halleri plants grown in a cadmium- and zinc-contaminated site, were analysed for shoot metal accumulation, shoot proteome, and the transcription of genes involved in plant metal homeostasis and hyperaccumulation. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were lower in the shoots of plants cultivated in the presence of these metals plus the selected bacterial strains compared with plants grown solely with these metals or, as previously reported, with plants grown with these metals plus the autochthonous rhizosphere-derived microorganisms. The shoot proteome of plants cultivated in the presence of these selected bacterial strains plus metals, showed an increased abundance of photosynthesis- and abiotic stress-related proteins (e.g. subunits of the photosynthetic complexes, Rubisco, superoxide dismutase, and malate dehydrogenase) counteracted by a decreased amount of plant defence-related proteins (e.g. endochitinases, vegetative storage proteins, and β-glucosidase). The transcription of several homeostasis genes was modulated by the microbial communities and by Cd and Zn content in the shoot. Altogether these results highlight the importance of plant-microbe interactions in plant protein expression and metal accumulation and emphasize the possibility of exploiting microbial consortia for increasing or decreasing shoot metal content. PMID:21357773

  2. A comparison of phytoremediation capability of selected plant species for given trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischerova, Zuzana; Tlustos, Pavel; Jirina Szakova; Kornelie Sichorova

    2006-01-01

    In our experiment, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn remediation possibilities on medium contaminated soil were investigated. Seven plant species with a different trace element accumulation capacity and remediation potential were compared. We found good accumulation capabilities and remediation effectiveness of Salix dasyclados similar to studied hyperaccumulators (Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens). We have noticed better remediation capability in willow compared to poplar for most of the elements considered in this experiment. On the contrary, poplar species were able to remove a larger portion of Pb as opposed to other species. Nevertheless, the removed volume was very small. The elements found in plant biomass depend substantially on the availability of these elements in the soil. Different element concentrations were determined in natural soil solution and by inorganic salt solution extraction (0.01 mol L -1 CaCl 2 ). Extracted content almost exceeded the element concentration in the soil solution. Element concentrations in soil solution were not significantly affected by sampling time. - Selected accumulator trees grown on medium contaminated soil may have remediation capacity similar to hyperaccumulator species

  3. Evaluation of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and histochemical tests for aluminium detection in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Naiara V; Pereira, Tiago A R; Machado, Mariana F; Guerra, Marcelo B B; Tolentino, Gláucia S; Araújo, Josiane S; Rezende, Maíra Q; Silva, Maria Carolina N A da; Schaefer, Carlos E G R

    2014-03-01

    The soils developed under High Altitude Rocky Complexes in Brazil are generally of very low chemical fertility, with low base saturation and high exchangeable aluminium concentration. This stressful condition imposes evolutionary pressures that lead to ecological success of plant species that are able to tolerate or accumulate high amounts of aluminium. Several analytical methods are currently available for elemental mapping of biological structures, such as micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDX) and histochemical tests. The aim of this study was to combine μ-EDX analysis and histochemical tests to quantify aluminium in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, identifying the main sites for Al-accumulation. Among the studied species, five showed total Al concentration higher than 1000 mg kg-1. The main Al-hyperaccumulator plants, Lavoisiera pectinata, Lycopodium clavatum and Trembleya parviflora presented positive reactions in the histochemical tests using Chrome Azurol and Aluminon. Strong positive correlations were observed between the total Al concentrations and data obtained by μ-EDX analysis. The μ-EDX analysis is a potential tool to map and quantify Al in hyperaccumulator species, and a valuable technique due to its non-destructive capacity. Histochemical tests can be helpful to indicate the accumulation pattern of samples before they are submitted for further μ-EDX scrutiny.

  4. Metal accumulation in wild plants surrounding mining wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R. Carrillo [Soil Chemistry, IRENAT, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carr, Mexico-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Mexico 56230 (Mexico)]. E-mail: crogelio@colpos.mx; Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C.A. [Soil Microbiology, IRENAT, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carr, Mexico-Texcoco km 36.5, Montecillo, Mexico 56230 (Mexico)]. E-mail: carmeng@colpos.mx

    2006-11-15

    Four sites were selected for collection of plants growing on polluted soil developed on tailings from Ag, Au, and Zn mines at the Zacatecas state in Mexico. Trace element concentrations varied between sites, the most polluted area was at El Bote mine near to Zacatecas city. The ranges of total concentration in soil were as follows: Cd 11-47, Ni 19-26, Pb 232-695, Mn 1132-2400, Cu 134-186 and Zn 116-827 mg kg{sup -1} air-dried soil weight. All soil samples had concentrations above typical values for non-polluted soils from the same soil types (Cd 0.6 {+-} 0.3, Ni 52 {+-} 4, Pb 41 {+-} 3 mg kg{sup -1}). However, for the majority of samples the DTPA-extractable element concentrations were less than 10% of the total. Some of the wild plants are potentially metal tolerant, because they were able to grow in highly polluted substrates. Plant metal analysis revealed that most species did not translocate metals to their aerial parts, therefore they behave as excluder plants. Polygonum aviculare accumulated Zn (9236 mg kg{sup -1}) at concentrations near to the criteria for hyperaccumulator plants. Jatropha dioica also accumulated high Zn (6249 mg kg{sup -1}) concentrations. - Polygonum aviculare and Jatropha dioica accumulated Zn at concentrations near to the criteria for hyperaccumulator plants.

  5. Potential for phytoextraction of copper, lead, and zinc by rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), and maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masaharu; Ae, Noriharu

    2009-03-15

    Phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators has been proposed for decreasing toxic-metal concentrations of contaminated soils. However, hyperaccumulators have several shortcomings to introduce these species into Asian Monsoon's agricultural fields contaminated with low to moderate toxic-metals. To evaluate the phytoextraction potential, maize (Gold Dent), soybean (Enrei and Suzuyutaka), and rice (Nipponbare and Milyang 23) were pot-grown under aerobic soil conditions for 60d on the Andosol or Fluvisol with low to moderate copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contamination. After 2 months cultivation, the Gold Dent maize and Milyang 23 rice shoots took up 20.2-29.5% and 18.5-20.2% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Cu, 10.0-37.3% and 8.5-34.3% of the DTPA-extractable Cu, and 2.4-6.5% and 2.1-5.9% of the total Cu, respectively, in the two soils. Suzuyutaka soybean shoot took up 23.0-29.4% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Zn, 35.1-52.6% of the DTPA-extractable Zn, and 3.8-5.3% of the total Zn in the two soils. Therefore, there is a great potential for Cu phytoextraction by the Gold Dent maize and the Milyang 23 rice and for Zn phytoextraction by the Suzuyutaka soybean from paddy soils with low to moderate contamination under aerobic soil conditions.

  6. Foliar manganese accumulation by Maytenus founieri (Celastraceae) in its native New Caledonian habitats: populational variation and localization by X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, D R; Woodrow, I E; Jaffré, T; Dumontet, V; Marshall, A T; Baker, A J M

    2008-01-01

    Hyperaccumulation by plants is a rare phenomenon that has potential practical benefits. The majority of manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulators discovered to date occur in New Caledonia, and little is known about their ecophysiology. This study reports on natural populations of one such species, the endemic shrub Maytenus founieri. Mean foliar Mn concentrations of two populations growing on ultramafic substrates with varying soil pHs were obtained. Leaf anatomies were examined by light microscopy, while the spatial distributions of foliar Mn in both populations were examined by qualitative scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Plants growing on two different substrates were found to have very different mean dry weight (DW) foliar Mn concentrations. Light microscopy showed that the leaves had very distinct thick dermal structures, consisting of multiple layers of large cells in the hypodermis. In vivo X-ray microprobe analyses revealed that, in both populations, Mn sequestration occurred primarily in these dermal tissues. The finding here that foliar Mn is most highly localized in the nonphotosynthetic tissues of M. founieri contrasts with results from similar studies on other woody species that accumulate high Mn concentrations in their shoots.

  7. The Enrichment and Transfer of Heavy Metals for Two Ferns in Pb-Zn Tailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Jiajie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The enrichment and transfer of 8 heavy metals of Equisetum ramosissimum and Pteris vittata growing naturally close to edge of the sewage pool in Bencun Pb-Zn Tailing, Eastern Guangdong were investigated. The results indicated that the pollution of Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn was very severe in this tailing, followed by Cu and Mn. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed to be very strong based on soil background values of Guangdong Province and at high risk according to criteria of the second grade State Soil Environmental Quality Standard, and Cd, Hg, Pb were the main factors leading to potential ecological risk. The content of 8 heavy metals in the two ferns did not reach critical content of hyperaccumulator, so neither of them was typical hyperaccumulator, but both had a certain tolerance to these heavy metal pollution. Underground parts of Pteris vittata had an enrichment coefficient above 1 and that of Equisetum ramosissimum had a value near 1, therefore the two ferns could be utilized as potential enrichment plants. The two ferns have strong adaptability to the tailing habitat and can be used as pioneers in ecological restoration of Pb-Zn tailings.

  8. Differential neuroprotective activity of two different grape seed extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi Narita

    Full Text Available Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major events that takes place during various neurotoxic injuries such as brain ischemia. We prepared grape seed extracts, from two different varieties, containing high amounts of polyphenols but little resveratrol. Their neuroprotective effects were investigated using primary culture of neonatal mouse hippocampal neurons treated with an excitotoxic concentration of glutamate. Koshu, a white, local variety of V. vinifera, alleviated the acute inactivation of Erk1/2 and dendrite retraction in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to a toxic concentration of glutamate (1.0 ng/ml. By contrast, Muscat Bailey A, a red, hybrid variety (Muscat Humburg × Bailey, failed to show any neuroprotective effect. Unlike brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other neuroprotective cytokines, Koshu extract did not induce Akt phosphorylation. Koshu extract also augmented neuron survival rate 24 hours after glutamate toxicity. The comparison of polyphenols between the two samples by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that Koshu had higher amounts of low molecular weight polyphenols along with several Koshu-specific procyanidin oligomers. These data suggest the presence of high affinity molecular targets for polyphenols in hippocampal neurons, which induce neuroprotective effects in a manner different from BDNF, and the importance of low molecular weight polyphenols and/or procyanidin oligomers for neuroprotection.

  9. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  10. On optimal (non-Trojan) semi-Latin squares with side n and block size n: Construction procedure and admissible permutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigbu, P.E.; Ukekwe, E.C.; Ikekeonwu, G.A.M.

    2006-12-01

    There is a special family of the (n x n)/k semi-Latin squares called the Trojan squares which are optimal among semi-Latin squares of equivalent sizes. Unfortunately, Trojan squares do not exist for all k; for instance, there is no Trojan square for k ≥ n. However, the need usually arises for constructing optimal semi-Latin squares where no Trojan squares exist. Bailey made a conjecture on optimal semi-Latin squares for k ≥ n and based on this conjecture, optimal non-Trojan semi-Latin squares are here constructed for k = n, considering the inherent Trojan squares for k < n. A lemma substantiating this conjecture for k = n is given and proved. In addition, the properties for the admissible permutation sets used in constructing these optimal squares are made evident based on the systematic-group-theoretic algorithm of Bailey and Chigbu. Algorithms for identifying the admissible permutations as well as constructing the optimal non-Trojan (n x n)/k = n semi-Latin squares for odd n and n = 4 are given. (author)

  11. The effect of initial density and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate on classical biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yanni; Tang Sanyi

    2008-01-01

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interaction of a parasitoid and its host. The host-parasitoid systems have identified several important and general factors affecting the long-term dynamics of interacting populations. However, much less is known about how the initial densities of host-parasitoid populations affect the biological control as well as the stability of host-parasitoid systems. To do this, the classical Nicholson-Bailey model with host self-regulation and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate is used to uncover the effect of initial densities on the successful biological control. The results indicate that the simplest Nicholson-Bailey model has various coexistence with a wide range of parameters, including boundary attractors where the parasitoid population is absent and interior attractors where host-parasitoid coexists. The final stable states of host-parasitoid populations depend on their initial densities as well as their ratios, and those results are confirmed by basins of attraction of initial densities. The results also indicate that the parasitoid intergenerational survival rate increases the stability of the host-parasitoid systems. Therefore, the present research can help us to further understand the dynamical behavior of host-parasitoid interactions, to improve the classical biological control and to make management decisions

  12. The effect of initial density and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate on classical biological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Yanni [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Tang Sanyi [College of Mathematics and Information Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Warwick Systems Biology Centre, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sanyitang219@hotmail.com

    2008-08-15

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interaction of a parasitoid and its host. The host-parasitoid systems have identified several important and general factors affecting the long-term dynamics of interacting populations. However, much less is known about how the initial densities of host-parasitoid populations affect the biological control as well as the stability of host-parasitoid systems. To do this, the classical Nicholson-Bailey model with host self-regulation and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate is used to uncover the effect of initial densities on the successful biological control. The results indicate that the simplest Nicholson-Bailey model has various coexistence with a wide range of parameters, including boundary attractors where the parasitoid population is absent and interior attractors where host-parasitoid coexists. The final stable states of host-parasitoid populations depend on their initial densities as well as their ratios, and those results are confirmed by basins of attraction of initial densities. The results also indicate that the parasitoid intergenerational survival rate increases the stability of the host-parasitoid systems. Therefore, the present research can help us to further understand the dynamical behavior of host-parasitoid interactions, to improve the classical biological control and to make management decisions.

  13. Dynamic landscapes in human evolution and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devès, Maud; King, Geoffrey; Bailey, Geoffrey; Inglis, Robyn; Williams, Matthew; Winder, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Archaeological studies of human settlement in its wider landscape setting usually focus on climate change as the principal environmental driver of change in the physical features of the landscape, even on the long time scales of early human evolution. We emphasize that landscapes evolve dynamically due to an interplay of processes occurring over different timescales. Tectonic deformation, volcanism, sea level changes, by acting on the topography, the lithology and on the patterns of erosion-deposition in a given area, can moderate or amplify the influence of climate at the regional and local scale. These processes impose or alleviate physical barriers to movement, and modify the distribution and accessibility of plant and animal resources in ways critical to human ecological and evolutionary success (King and Bailey, JHE 2006; Bailey and King, Antiquity 2011, Winder et al. Antiquity in press). The DISPERSE project, an ERC-funded collaboration between the University of York and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, aims to develop systematic methods for reconstructing landscapes associated with active tectonics, volcanism and sea level change at a variety of scales in order to study their potential impact on patterns of human evolution and dispersal. Examples are shown to illustrate the ways in which changes of significance to human settlement can occur at a range of geographical scales and on time scales that range from lifetimes to tens of millennia, creating and sustaining attractive conditions for human settlement and exercising powerful selective pressures on human development.

  14. Investigation of local-dimensional galvanic distortion on MT data in the central part of Northeastern Japan; Tohoku chiho no MT data ni mirareru kyokushoteki sanjigensei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, N.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujinawa, Y. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Groom-Bailey decomposition analysis was carried out to investigate regional 3-D galvanic distortion on MT data in the central part of Northeastern Japan. Measuring sites were located nearly along the east-west line crossing Northeastern Japan. Three measuring lines (A, B, C) from the north to the south were prepared, and only data on the C line were analyzed in this paper. As a result, twist and shear were estimated to be not zero depending on local distortion in most of the sites. It was thus clarified that this method is not always perfect. This method was effective for regional 2-D structures, however, its application was doubtful to complicated 3-D underground structures in Japan. In order to obtain more accurate results, 2-D analysis using the impedance including no local distortion effect was necessary after the preliminary Groom-Bailey decomposition analysis. The direction of the wide area geological structure of Northeastern Japan was estimated to be N-S direction near NNW-SSE one. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  16. Desnutrición infantil, coeficiente de desarrollo y su relación con el medio ambiente: un estudio piloto Desnutrição infantil, coeficiente do desenvolvimento e sua relação com o meio ambiente: um estudo piloto Infant undernourishment, the development coefficient and its relation to the environment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de la Luz Alvarez

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Fueron estudiados los factores socioculturales que podrían estar influyendo en el desarrollo psicomotor normal del lactante desnutrido. La muestra consistió en 32 díadas madrelactante: 16 tenían CD normal (Grupo A y 16 CD bajo lo normal (Grupo B según el Test de Bailey aplicado a los lactantes recién ingresados a un Centro de Recuperación Nutricional. Los resultados muestran que había algunas diferencias en los antecedentes de los lactantes: Los lactantes del Grupo A eran producto de un embarazo deseado (pEstudam-se os fatores sócio-culturais que poderiam estar influenciando no desenvolvimento psicomotor normal do lactente desnutrido. A amostra consistiu de 32 pares mãe-criança: 16 com coeficiente de desenvolvimento (CD normal (grupo A e 16 com CD abaixo do normal (grupo B de acordo com o teste de Bailey aplicado a lactentes que ingressavam a um centro de recuperação nutricional. Havia diferenças nos antecedentes das crianças: os lactentes do grupo A eram fruto de gravidez desejada (p The socio-cultural factors that might be influencing the normal psychomotor development of the undernourished infant are studied. The sample consisted of 32 mother-infant dyads: 16 having normal DQ (Group A and 16 having a below normal DQ (Group B according to Bailey's Test applied to infants who entered a Nutritional Recuperation Center. Results showed that there were some differences in the infants' backgrounds: infants of Group A were the product of a wished-for pregnancy (p < .05, and were separated less from their mother's side (p < .007 than was the case in Group B. No differences were found in the socio-cultural and demographic background of the mothers. The infants' external environment was different in aspects observed within the neighborhood: there were fewer negative aspects in Group A than in Group B (p < .003 and more positive in Group A than in B (p < .001. The infant's internal environment as related to the mother was also different

  17. Pengujian Kompos dan Inokulan Mikroba terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman Sengon Buto (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Willd Pada Lahan Bekas Tailing Pond di Cikotok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Imamuddin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution has been so attracting considerable public attentions over the last decades. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to clean up pollutant soils. The study was carried out in gold mining Cikotok, Banten. Sengon buto (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, (Willd which is used as cyanogenic plant, compost and microbes inoculant is as stimulator to growththis plant. The experiment consist of K0 as control (plant without compost, K1 as plant + compost and K2 as plant+compost + microbe inoculant, with 3 replicated. The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the potential for phytoremediation of cyanide contaminated soils using hyperaccumulator/cyanogenic plants and to assess the fate and transport of cyanide compounds in soils.The results showed that compost and microbe were able to stimulate growth of Sengon Buto after 7 months planting and to reduce cyanide until 66% Total bacteria in the study was relatively stable but NFB bacteria was decline.

  18. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  19. Cotton cytochrome P450 CYP82D regulates systemic cell death by modulating the octadecanoid pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Longqing; Zhu, Longfu; Xu, Li; Yuan, Daojun; Min, Ling; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-01-01

    Plant oxylipins are derived from unsaturated fatty acids and play roles in plant growth and development as well as defence. Although recent studies have revealed that fatty acid metabolism is involved in systemic acquired resistance, the precise function of oxylipins in plant defence remains unknown. Here we report a cotton P450 gene SILENCE-INDUCED STEM NECROSIS (SSN), RNAi suppression of which causes a lesion mimic phenotype. SSN is also involved in jasmonate metabolism and the response to wounding. Fatty acid and oxylipin metabolite analysis showed that SSN overexpression causes hyperaccumulation of hydroxide and ketodiene fatty acids and reduced levels of 18:2 fatty acids, whereas silencing causes an imbalance in LOX (lipoxygenase) expression and excessive hydroperoxide fatty acid accumulation. We also show that an unknown oxylipin-derived factor is a putative mobile signal required for systemic cell death and hypothesize that SSN acts as a valve to regulate HR on pathogen infection. PMID:25371113

  20. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B [Athens, GA; Balish, Rebecca S [Oxford, OH; Tehryung, Kim [Athens, GA; McKinney, Elizabeth C [Athens, GA

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  1. Adsorption, Bioaccumulation and Kinetics Parameters of the Phytoremediation of Cobalt from Wastewater Using Elodea canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoarca, Giannin; Vancea, Cosmin; Popa, Simona; Boran, Sorina

    2018-05-01

    Present paper investigates the phytoremediation of cobalt from wastewaters using Elodea canadensis. Bioaccumulation tests were conducted at various concentrations of cobalt ranging from 1 to 15 mg/L. Final concentrations of cobalt in wastewaters, after phytoremediation, were less than 1 mg/L. E. canadensis' hyperaccumulator character with regard to cobalt is emphasised by the amount of cobalt retained: 0.39% ± 0.02% of dry mass at an initial concentration in wastewater of 15 mg/L. After 14 days of exposure to contaminant, the biomass as well as the relative growth rate has increased with the amount of cobalt in wastewaters, the plant manifesting an excellent tolerance to cobalt exposure. Adsorption of cobalt ions by E. canadensis can be well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the pseudo-second-order model equation.

  2. [Pathways of arsenic uptake in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Paweł; Litwin, Ireneusz; Maciaszczyk-Dziubińska, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms of arsenic uptake and detoxification are present in all studied organisms. These mechanisms are considerably well described in unicellular organisms such as bacterium Escherichia coli and baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, still leaving much to be revealed in multicellular organisms. Full identification of arsenic uptake and detoxification is of great importance. This knowledge can be very helpful in improving effectiveness of arsenic-containing drugs used in chemotherapy of parasitoses as well as in treatment of acute promielyocytic leukemia. Increased proficiency of bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils can be obtained by using plants hyperaccumulating arsenic. This kind of plants can be engineered by modulating expression levels of genes encoding arsenic transporters. The same technique may be used to decrease levels of accumulated arsenic in crops. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge about systems of arsenic uptake in every studied organism--from bacteria to human.

  3. Effect of lead on root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Mouna; Laplaze, Laurent; Bendaou, Najib; Hocher, Valerie; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Bogusz, Didier; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most widespread heavy metal contaminant in soils. It is highly toxic to living organisms. Pb has no biological function but can cause morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants. Plants have developed a wide range of tolerance mechanisms that are activated in response to Pb exposure. Pb affects plants primarily through their root systems. Plant roots rapidly respond either (i) by the synthesis and deposition of callose, creating a barrier that stops Pb entering (ii) through the uptake of large amounts of Pb and its sequestration in the vacuole accompanied by changes in root growth and branching pattern or (iii) by its translocation to the aboveground parts of plant in the case of hyperaccumulators plants. Here we review the interactions of roots with the presence of Pb in the rhizosphere and the effect of Pb on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of root development. PMID:23750165

  4. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  5. Identifying root exudates in field contaminated soil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon (C) compounds exuded from plant roots comprise a significant and reactive fraction of belowground C pools. These exudates substantially alter the soil directly surrounding plant roots and play a vital role in the global C cycle, soil ecology, and ecosystem mobility of both nutrients and contaminants. In soils, the solubility and bioavailability of metals such as iron, zinc, and cadmium are intricately linked to the quantity and chemical characteristics of the C compounds allocated to the soil by plants. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, forms stronger bonds with reduced S- and N-containing compounds than with carboxylic acids, which may influence exudate composition in hyperaccumulator and tolerant plants grown in Cd contaminated soils. We hypothesize that hyperaccumulator plants will exude a larger quantity of aromatic N and chelating di- and tri-carboxylic acid molecules, while plants that exclude heavy metals from uptake will exude a larger proportion of reduced S containing molecules. This study examines how a variety of techniques can measure the low concentrations of complex organic mixtures exuded by hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils. Two congeneric plants, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype), and T. caerulescens (Prayon ecotype) were grown in 0.5 kg pots filled with Cd-contaminated field soils from Chicago, IL. Field soils were contaminated as a result of the application of contaminated biosolids in the 1960's and 1970's. Pots were fitted for rhizon soil moisture samplers, micro-lysimeters developed for in situ collection of small volumes in unsaturated soils, prior to planting. Plants were grown for 8 weeks before exudate collection. After the 8 weeks of growth, a pulse-chase isotope tracer method using the C stable isotope, 13C, was employed to differentiate plant-derived compounds from background soil and microbial-derived compounds. Plants were placed in a CO2 impermeable chamber, and the soil

  6. Distribution of lead in lead-accumulating pteridophyte Blechnum niponicum, measured by synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodera, Hirofumi; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasuji; Terada, Yasuko

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of lead (Pb) accumulated in the pteridophyte Blechnum niponicum, a Pb-hyperaccumulator, was measured using synchrotron-radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF) at BL37XU of SPring-8. From two dimensional (2D) imagings of Pb at the root, petiole, leaf vein, pinna epidermis and sorus in the Blechnum niponicum, the mechanism for the transportation and accumulation of Pb can be suggested to be as follows: Lead is accumulated in conductive tissues. Most of the Pb solubilized in the rhizosphere is fixed in the conductive tissue, with the remainder being transported with the transpiration stream to the above-ground parts of the plant. Lead transported to the upper parts of the plant ultimately remains at the terminal points of the transpiration stream, including the stomatal apparatus and water pores; it was shown that these sections contain high concentrations of Pb. (author)

  7. Efficiency of repeated phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from an agricultural soil contaminated with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Ma, Tingting; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Longhua; Ren, Jing; Nai, Fengjiao; Li, Rui; Chen, Like; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of sewage sludge resulted in soil cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) contamination in a pot experiment conducted to phytoextract Cd/Zn repeatedly using Sedum plumbizincicola and Apium graceolens in monoculture or intercropping mode eight times. Shoot yields and soil physicochemical properties changed markedly with increasing number of remediation crops when the two plant species were intercropped compared with the unplanted control soil and the two monoculture treatments. Changes in soil microbial indices such as average well colour development, soil enzyme activity and soil microbial counts were also significantly affected by the growth of the remediation plants, especially intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and A. graveolens. The higher yields and amounts of Cd taken up indicated that intercropping of the hyperaccumulator and the vegetable species may be suitable for simultaneous agricultural production and soil remediation, with larger crop yields and higher phytoremediation efficiencies than under monoculture conditions.

  8. Nitrates and Glucosinolates as Strong Determinants of the Nutritional Quality in Rocket Leafy Salads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavaiuolo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human diseases is also highlighted. This review provides an update to all the most recent studies carried out on rocket encouraging the consumption of this leafy vegetable to reduce the risk of contracting cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.

  9. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  10. Reduction of Health Risks Due to Chromium(VI)Using Mesquite: A Potential Cr Phytoremediator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Aldrich, Mary V.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Parsons, Jason G.

    2004-03-29

    Chromium is a transition metal extensively used in industry. Cr mining and industrial operations account for chromium wastes at Superfund sites in the United States. A study was performed to investigate the possibility of using mesquite (Prosopis spp.), which is an indigenous desert plant species, to remove Cr from contaminated sites. In this study, mesquite plants were grown in an agar-based medium containing 75 mg L-1 and 125 mg L-1 of Cr(VI). The Cr content of leaf tissue (992 mg kg-1 of dry weight, from 125 mg L-1 of Cr(VI)) indicated that mesquite could be classified as a chromium hyperaccumulator. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies performed to experimental samples showed that mesquite roots absorbed some of the supplied Cr(VI). However, the data analyses of plant tissues demonstrated that the absorbed Cr(VI) was fully reduced to Cr(III) in the leaf tissue.

  11. Nitrates and glucosinolates as strong determinants of the nutritional quality in rocket leafy salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio

    2014-04-14

    Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human diseases is also highlighted. This review provides an update to all the most recent studies carried out on rocket encouraging the consumption of this leafy vegetable to reduce the risk of contracting cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.

  12. TRIP12 and UBR5 Suppress Spreading of Chromatin Ubiquitylation at Damaged Chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudjónsson, Thorkell; Altmeyer, Matthias Florian; Savic, Velibor

    2012-01-01

    Histone ubiquitylation is a prominent response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but how these modifications are confined to DNA lesions is not understood. Here, we show that TRIP12 and UBR5, two HECT domain ubiquitin E3 ligases, control accumulation of RNF168, a rate-limiting component of...... a pathway that ubiquitylates histones after DNA breakage. We find that RNF168 can be saturated by increasing amounts of DSBs. Depletion of TRIP12 and UBR5 allows accumulation of RNF168 to supraphysiological levels, followed by massive spreading of ubiquitin conjugates and hyperaccumulation of ubiquitin......-regulated genome caretakers such as 53BP1 and BRCA1. Thus, regulatory and proteolytic ubiquitylations are wired in a self-limiting circuit that promotes histone ubiquitylation near the DNA lesions but at the same time counteracts its excessive spreading to undamaged chromosomes. We provide evidence...

  13. Tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora to individual and combined application of Ni, Pb and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, N; Andrejić, G; Dželetović, Ž

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, metal accumulation capacity and tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora were investigated. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots on soil amended with Ni, Pb and Zn to the final concentration of 2 mmol kg(-1) for each metal. Results show considerable accumulating capacity and translocation of Ni and Zn, as well as significant accumulation of Pb in roots. A slight decrease of biomass with Zn and of chlorophyll content with Zn and Ni were observed, as well as an increase of proline content with each of the metals. Combinations of metals revealed mutual interference affecting both the uptake and translocation of the metals and their impact on physiological parameters. Results suggest that Portulaca grandiflora, although not a hyperaccumulator, shows a good tolerance and accumulation capacity for Ni, Pb and Zn, but, for the purposes of remediation, interference of the metals must be taken into account.

  14. Remediation of Cu in the Contaminated Soil by Using Equisetum debile (Horsetail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irna Rahmaniar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paddy fields in the Rancaekek area, Bandung Regency-Indonesia, has been contaminated by textile wastewater. The area needs to recover back to its normal condition and function. Several compounds were found in the soil, such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, and Cr. Phytoremediation was selected as a site remediation strategy, which employs plants to remove non-volatile and immiscible soil contents. The objective of the study was to determine the ability of Equisetum debile to absorb Cu from the contaminated soil. Cu measurement was conducted by using the AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method. The study has shown that Equisetum debile can absorb Cu concentrations of up to 25.3 ppm in 60 days after initial planting. However, the Enrichment Coefficient value (0.392 indicated that Equisetum debile was not efficient as a hyperaccumulator plant.

  15. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of mature flax, cv. Hermes: Contribution of the basal stem compared to the root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douchiche, Olfa, E-mail: olfa.douchiche@hotmail.fr [Laboratory Glyco-MEV EA 4358, IFRMP 23, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France); Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaiebi, Wided [Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Morvan, Claudine, E-mail: claudine.morvan@univ-rouen.fr [Laboratory PBS-UMR 6270 CNRS, FR 3038, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd accumulated in stem bottom part exceeded the defined hyperaccumulator threshold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No toxic symptoms occurred and TI of all growth parameters ranged between 0.7 and 1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high level of Zn, Mn and Cu may contribute to the absence of chlorosis in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd/Ca synergistic effect observed in the stem may alleviate Cd toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hermes variety accumulated more Cd than the other flax varieties ever described. - Abstract: The potential of mature flax plants (cv. Hermes) to tolerate and accumulate cadmium (Cd) was studied to determine which part of the plant would be the key organ for phytoremediation purposes. After 4 month-growth on sand substrate containing 0.1 mM Cd in a greenhouse, the roots and stems were separated and the stems were divided into three parts. The effects of Cd were studied on growth parameters, histology and mineral nutrition. No visible toxic symptoms were observed. Tolerance-index values calculated from growth parameters and nutrients remained relatively high, allowing the development of the plant until maturity and formation of seeds. The roots and bottom stem accumulated the highest quantity of Cd (750 and 360 mg/kg dry matter), values which largely exceeded the threshold defined for hyperaccumulators. On the other hand, basal stem had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = 32) and translocation factor TF Prime (2.5) but a low TF (0.5), indicating that this basal part would play a major role in phytoremediation (phytostabilization rather than phytorextraction). Therefore, the high tolerance to Cd and accumulation capacity make possible to grow Hermes flax on Cd-polluted soils.

  16. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  17. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  18. Phytoremediation potential of some halophytic species for soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, S; Nandwal, A S; Angrish, R; Arya, S S; Kumar, N; Sharma, S K

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of six halophytic species i.e. Suaeda nudiflora, Suaeda fruticosa, Portulaca oleracea, Atriplex lentiformis, Parkinsonia aculeata and Xanthium strumarium was assessed under screen house conditions. Plants were raised at 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, and 20.0 dSm(-1) of chloride-dominated salinity. The control plants were irrigated with canal water. Sampling was done at vegetative stage (60-75 DAS). About 95 percent seed germination occurred up to 12 dSm(-1) and thereafter declined slightly. Mean plant height and dry weight plant(-1) were significantly decreased from 48.71 to 32.44 cm and from 1.73 to 0.61g plant(-1) respectively upon salinization. Na(+)/K(+) ratio (0.87 to 2.72), Na(+)/ Ca(2+) + Mg(2+) (0.48 to 1.54) and Cl(-)/SO4(2-) (0.94 to 5.04) ratio showed increasing trend. Salinity susceptibility index was found minimum in Suaeda fruticosa (0.72) and maximum in Parkinsonia aculeata (1.17). Total ionic content also declined and magnitude of decline varied from 8.51 to 18.91% at 8 dSm(-1) and 1.85 to 7.12% at 20 dSm(-1) of salinity. On the basis of phytoremediation potential Suaeda fruticosa (1170.02 mg plant(-1)), Atriplex lentiformis (777.87 mg plant(-1)) were the best salt hyperaccumulator plants whereas Xanthium strumarium (349.61 mg plant(-1)) and Parkinsonia aculeata (310.59 mg plant(-1)) were the least hyperaccumulator plants.

  19. Translocation of heavy metals from soils into floral organs and rewards of Cucurbita pepo: Implications for plant reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Erna; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhao, Jimin; Guo, Jixun

    2017-11-01

    Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction. The results showed that metals taken up by squash did translocate into its floral organs and rewards, although metal accumulation varied depending on different metal types and concentrations as well as floral organ/reward types. Mean foraging time of honey bees to each male and female flower of squash grown in metal-supplemented soils was shorter relative to that of plants grown in control soils, although the visitation rate of honeybees to both male and female flowers was not affected by metal treatments. Pollen viability, pollen removal and deposition as well as mean mass per seed produced by metal-treated squash that received pollen from plants grown in control soils decreased with elevated soil-supplemented metal concentrations. The fact that squash could translocate soil-supplemented heavy metals into floral organs and rewards indicated possible reproductive consequences caused either directly (i.e., decreasing pollen viability or seed mass) or indirectly (i.e., affecting pollinators' visitation behavior to flowers) to plant fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzanti, R.; Colzi, I.; Arnetoli, M.; Gallo, A.; Pignattelli, S.; Gabbrielli, R.; Gonnelli, C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possibility of using serpentine plants for phytoextraction of Cd was investigated. ► Variation in Cd tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes were found. ► Alyssum montanum showed higher Cd tolerance and accumulation than the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. ► As for the kinetic parameters of the Cd uptake system, A. montanum presented a low apparent K m value. ► The V max values were not significantly different among the plants. - Abstract: This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum montanum, one adapted and one not adapted to serpentine soils. Plants were hydroponically cultivated in presence of increasing concentrations of CdSO 4 for two weeks. For the metal concentration used in the experiments, the three different Alyssum populations showed variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and content. The serpentine adapted population of A. montanum showed statistically higher cadmium tolerance and accumulation than A. bertolonii and the population of A. montanum not adapted to serpentine soil thus deserving to be investigated for phytoextraction purposes. Furthermore, as for the kinetic parameters of the cadmium uptake system, A. montanum serpentine population presented a low apparent K m value, suggesting a high affinity for this metal of its uptake system, whereas the V max values were not significantly different among the plants. Present data revealed metallicolous plants are also suitable for the phytoremediation of metals underrepresented in the environment of their