WorldWideScience

Sample records for tropical forest restoration

  1. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Sansevero, Jerônimo B. B.; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E.; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.

    2017-01-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biom...

  2. Restoring degraded tropical forests for carbon and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiharta, Sugeng; Meijaard, Erik; Wilson, Kerrie A; Erskine, Peter D; Rondinini, Carlo; Pacifici, Michela

    2014-01-01

    The extensive deforestation and degradation of tropical forests is a significant contributor to the loss of biodiversity and to global warming. Restoration could potentially mitigate the impacts of deforestation, yet knowledge on how to efficiently allocate funding for restoration is still in its infancy. We systematically prioritize investments in restoration in the tropical landscape of East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and through this application demonstrate the capacity to account for a diverse suite of restoration techniques and forests of varying condition. To achieve this we develop a map of forest degradation for the region, characterized on the basis of aboveground biomass and differentiated by broad forest types. We estimate the costs of restoration as well as the benefits in terms of carbon sequestration and improving the suitability of habitat for threatened mammals through time. When the objective is solely to enhance carbon stocks, then restoration of highly degraded lowland forest is the most cost-effective activity. However, if the objective is to improve the habitat of threatened species, multiple forest types should be restored and this reduces the accumulated carbon by up to 24%. Our analysis framework provides a transparent method for prioritizing where and how restoration should occur in heterogeneous landscapes in order to maximize the benefits for carbon and biodiversity. (letter)

  3. Restoring degraded tropical forests for carbon and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharta, Sugeng; Meijaard, Erik; Erskine, Peter D.; Rondinini, Carlo; Pacifici, Michela; Wilson, Kerrie A.

    2014-11-01

    The extensive deforestation and degradation of tropical forests is a significant contributor to the loss of biodiversity and to global warming. Restoration could potentially mitigate the impacts of deforestation, yet knowledge on how to efficiently allocate funding for restoration is still in its infancy. We systematically prioritize investments in restoration in the tropical landscape of East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and through this application demonstrate the capacity to account for a diverse suite of restoration techniques and forests of varying condition. To achieve this we develop a map of forest degradation for the region, characterized on the basis of aboveground biomass and differentiated by broad forest types. We estimate the costs of restoration as well as the benefits in terms of carbon sequestration and improving the suitability of habitat for threatened mammals through time. When the objective is solely to enhance carbon stocks, then restoration of highly degraded lowland forest is the most cost-effective activity. However, if the objective is to improve the habitat of threatened species, multiple forest types should be restored and this reduces the accumulated carbon by up to 24%. Our analysis framework provides a transparent method for prioritizing where and how restoration should occur in heterogeneous landscapes in order to maximize the benefits for carbon and biodiversity.

  4. Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Chazdon, Robin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Sansevero, Jerônimo B B; Monteiro, Lara; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Latawiec, Agnieszka E; Strassburg, Bernardo B N

    2017-11-01

    Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested. Restoration success for biodiversity and vegetation structure was 34 to 56% and 19 to 56% higher in natural regeneration than in active restoration systems, respectively, after controlling for key biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover, precipitation, time elapsed since restoration started, and past disturbance). Biodiversity responses were based primarily on ecological metrics of abundance and species richness (74%), both of which take far less time to achieve restoration success than similarity and composition. This finding challenges the widely held notion that natural forest regeneration has limited conservation value and that active restoration should be the default ecological restoration strategy. The proposition that active restoration achieves greater restoration success than natural regeneration may have arisen because previous comparisons lacked controls for biotic and abiotic factors; we also did not find any difference between active restoration and natural regeneration outcomes for vegetation structure when we did not control for these factors. Future policy priorities should align the identified patterns of biophysical and ecological conditions where each or both restoration approaches are more successful, cost-effective, and compatible with socioeconomic incentives for tropical forest restoration.

  5. Landscape context mediates avian habitat choice in tropical forest restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Leighton Reid

    Full Text Available Birds both promote and prosper from forest restoration. The ecosystem functions birds perform can increase the pace of forest regeneration and, correspondingly, increase the available habitat for birds and other forest-dependent species. The aim of this study was to learn how tropical forest restoration treatments interact with landscape tree cover to affect the structure and composition of a diverse bird assemblage. We sampled bird communities over two years in 13 restoration sites and two old-growth forests in southern Costa Rica. Restoration sites were established on degraded farmlands in a variety of landscape contexts, and each included a 0.25-ha plantation, island treatment (trees planted in patches, and unplanted control. We analyzed four attributes of bird communities including frugivore abundance, nectarivore abundance, migrant insectivore richness, and compositional similarity of bird communities in restoration plots to bird communities in old-growth forests. All four bird community variables were greater in plantations and/or islands than in control treatments. Frugivore and nectarivore abundance decreased with increasing tree cover in the landscape surrounding restoration plots, whereas compositional similarity to old-growth forests was greatest in plantations embedded in landscapes with high tree cover. Migrant insectivore richness was unaffected by landscape tree cover. Our results agree with previous studies showing that increasing levels of investment in active restoration are positively related to bird richness and abundance, but differences in the effects of landscape tree cover on foraging guilds and community composition suggest that trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and bird-mediated ecosystem functioning may be important for prioritizing restoration sites.

  6. Leaf litter arthropod responses to tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca J; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A; Wickey, Philipp; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Soil and litter arthropods represent a large proportion of tropical biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, but little is known about the efficacy of different tropical forest restoration strategies in facilitating their recovery in degraded habitats. We sampled arthropods in four 7- to 8-year-old restoration treatments and in nearby reference forests. Sampling was conducted during the wet and dry seasons using extractions from litter and pitfall samples. Restoration treatments were replicated in 50 × 50-m plots in four former pasture sites in southern Costa Rica: plantation - trees planted throughout the plot; applied nucleation/islands - trees planted in patches of different sizes; and natural regeneration - no tree planting. Arthropod abundance, measures of richness and diversity, and a number of functional groups were greater in the island treatment than in natural regeneration or plantation treatments and, in many cases, were similar to reference forest. Litter and pitfall morphospecies and functional group composition in all three restoration treatments were significantly different than reference sites, but island and plantation treatments showed more recovery than natural regeneration. Abundance and functional group diversity showed a much greater degree of recovery than community composition. Synthesis and applications: The less resource-intensive restoration strategy of planting tree islands was more effective than tree plantations in restoring arthropod abundance, richness, and functional diversity. None of the restoration strategies, however, resulted in similar community composition as reference forest after 8 years of recovery, highlighting the slow rate of recovery of arthropod communities after disturbance, and underscoring the importance of conservation of remnant forests in fragmented landscapes.

  7. Forests to fields. Restoring tropical lands to agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D

    1993-04-01

    In discussing land use in tropical forest regions, there is an emphasis on the following topics: the need for the expansion of cropping areas, the precedent for use of the tropical forest for cropping based on past use patterns, the pressure from conservationists against cropping, debunking the mythology that forests are "natural" and refuting the claims that forest clearance is not reversible, the archeological evidence of past forest use for agricultural purposes, abandonment of tropical land to forest, and rotation of forest and field. The assumption is that the way to stop food importation is to increase crop production in the tropics. Crop production can be increased through 1) land intensification or clearing new land, 2) output per unit of land increases, or 3) reallocation to agriculture land previously cleared and overgrown with tropical forest. "Temporary" reuse of land, which reverted back to tropical forest, is recommended. This reuse would ease population pressure, and benefit bioconservation, while populations stabilize and further progress is made in international plant breeding. The land would eventually be returned to a forest state. Conservation of tropical forest areas should be accomplished, after an assessment has been made of its former uses. Primary forests need to identified and conversion to farming ceased. Research needs to be directed to understanding the process of past forest regeneration, and to devising cropping systems with longterm viability. The green revolution is unsuitable for traditional cropping systems, is contrary to demands of international funding agencies for sustainability, and is not affordable by most poor farmers. Only .48 million sq. km of closed forest loss was in tropical rainforests; 6.53 million sq. km was lost from temperate forests cleared for intensive small-scale peasant farming. The use of tropical forest land for farming has some benefits; crops in the wetter tropics are perennial, which would "reduce

  8. The importance of Ficus (Moraceae) trees for tropical forest restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Bajpai, Omesh; Chaudhary, Lal B.

    2016-01-01

    Forest restoration is an increasingly important tool to offset and indeed reverse global deforestation rates. One low cost strategy to accelerate forest recovery is conserving scattered native trees that persist across disturbed landscapes and which may act as seedling recruitment foci. Ficus trees...... restoration agents than other remnant trees in disturbed landscapes, and therefore the conservation of these trees should be prioritized....

  9. Restoring biodiversity and forest ecosystem services in degraded tropical landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Parrotta

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, an estimated 850 million ha of the world’s tropical forests have been lost or severely degraded, with serious impacts on local and regional biodiversity. A significant proportion of these lands were originally cleared of their forest cover for agricultural development or other economic uses. Today, however, they provide few if any environmental...

  10. Natural forest regeneration and ecological restoration in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Pingarroni, Aline; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Toledo-Chelala, Lilibeth; Zermeño-Hernández, Isela; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    In human-modified tropical landscapes (HMLs) the conservation of biodiversity, functions and services of forest ecosystems depends on persistence of old growth forest remnants, forest regeneration in abandoned agricultural fields, and restoration of degraded lands. Understanding the impacts of

  11. Restoring tropical forests on bauxite mined lands: lessons from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Parrotta; Oliver H. Knowles

    2001-01-01

    Restoring self-sustaining tropical forest ecosystems on surface mined sites is a formidable challenge that requires the integration of proven reclamation techniques and reforestation strategies appropriate to specific site conditions, including landscape biodiversity patterns. Restorationists working in most tropical settings are usually hampered by lack of basic...

  12. Changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function during the restoration of a tropical forest in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hai; LI ZhiAn; SHEN WeiJun; YU ZuoYue; PENG ShaoLin; LIAO ChongHui; DING MingMao; WU JianGuo

    2007-01-01

    Tropical forests continue to vanish rapidly, but few long-term studies have ever examined if and how the lost forests can be restored. Based on a 45-year restoration study in south China, we found that a tropical rain forest, once completely destroyed, could not recover naturally without deliberate restoration efforts. We identified two kinds of thresholds that must be overcome with human ameliorative measures before the ecosystem was able to recover. The first threshold was imposed primarily by extreme physical conditions such as exceedingly high surface temperature and impoverished soil, while the second was characterized by a critical level of biodiversity and a landscape context that accommodates dispersal and colonization processes. Our three treatment catchments (un-restored barren land, single-species plantation, and mixed-forest stand) exhibited dramatically different changes in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over 4 decades. The mixed forest, having the highest level of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, possesses several major properties of tropical rain forest.These findings may have important implications for the restoration of many severely degraded or lost tropical forest ecosystems.

  13. Bird Pollinator Visitation is Equivalent in Island and Plantation Planting Designs in Tropical Forest Restoration Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginger M. Thurston

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Active restoration is one strategy to reverse tropical forest loss. Given the dynamic nature of climates, human populations, and other ecosystem components, the past practice of using historical reference sites as restoration targets is unlikely to result in self-sustaining ecosystems. Restoring sustainable ecological processes like pollination is a more feasible goal. We investigated how flower cover, planting design, and landscape forest cover influenced bird pollinator visits to Inga edulis trees in young restoration sites in Costa Rica. I. edulis trees were located in island plantings, where seedlings had been planted in patches, or in plantation plantings, where seedlings were planted to cover the restoration area. Sites were located in landscapes with scant (10–21% or moderate (35–76% forest cover. Trees with greater flower cover received more visits from pollinating birds; neither planting design nor landscape forest cover influenced the number of pollinator visits. Resident hummingbirds and a migratory bird species were the most frequent bird pollinators. Pollination in the early years following planting may not be as affected by details of restoration design as other ecological processes like seed dispersal. Future work to assess the quality of various pollinator species will be important in assessing this idea.

  14. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizet Solis-Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests (TDFs have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  15. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Gabriel, Lizet; Mendoza-Arroyo, Wendy; Boege, Karina; Del-Val, Ek

    2017-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control) in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  16. Roles of birds and bats in early tropical-forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; Martínez-Garza, Cristina; Palmas-Pérez, Sebastián; Rivas-Alonso, Edith; Howe, Henry F

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of tropical forest depended in large part on seed dispersal by fruit-eating animals that transported seeds into planted forest patches. We tested effectiveness of dispersal agents as revealed by established recruits of tree and shrub species that bore seeds dispersed by birds, bats, or both. We documented restoration of dispersal processes over the first 76 months of experimental restoration in southern Mexico. Mixed-model repeated-measures randomized-block ANOVAs of seedlings recruited into experimental controls and mixed-species plantings from late-secondary and mature forest indicated that bats and birds played different roles in the first years of a restoration process. Bats dispersed pioneer tree and shrub species to slowly regenerating grassy areas, while birds mediated recruitment of later-successional species into planted stands of trees and to a lesser extent into controls. Of species of pioneer trees and shrubs established in plots, seven were primarily dispersed by birds, three by bats and four by both birds and bats. Of later-successional species recruited past the seedling stage, 13 were of species primarily dispersed by birds, and six were of species dispersed by both birds and bats. No later-successional species primarily dispersed by bats established in control or planted plots. Establishment of recruited seedlings was ten-fold higher under cover of planted trees than in grassy controls. Even pre-reproductive trees drew fruit-eating birds and the seeds that they carried from nearby forest, and provided conditions for establishment of shade-tolerant tree species. Overall, after 76 months of cattle exclusion, 94% of the recruited shrubs and trees in experimental plots were of species that we did not plant.

  17. Roles of birds and bats in early tropical-forest restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinés de la Peña-Domene

    Full Text Available Restoration of tropical forest depended in large part on seed dispersal by fruit-eating animals that transported seeds into planted forest patches. We tested effectiveness of dispersal agents as revealed by established recruits of tree and shrub species that bore seeds dispersed by birds, bats, or both. We documented restoration of dispersal processes over the first 76 months of experimental restoration in southern Mexico. Mixed-model repeated-measures randomized-block ANOVAs of seedlings recruited into experimental controls and mixed-species plantings from late-secondary and mature forest indicated that bats and birds played different roles in the first years of a restoration process. Bats dispersed pioneer tree and shrub species to slowly regenerating grassy areas, while birds mediated recruitment of later-successional species into planted stands of trees and to a lesser extent into controls. Of species of pioneer trees and shrubs established in plots, seven were primarily dispersed by birds, three by bats and four by both birds and bats. Of later-successional species recruited past the seedling stage, 13 were of species primarily dispersed by birds, and six were of species dispersed by both birds and bats. No later-successional species primarily dispersed by bats established in control or planted plots. Establishment of recruited seedlings was ten-fold higher under cover of planted trees than in grassy controls. Even pre-reproductive trees drew fruit-eating birds and the seeds that they carried from nearby forest, and provided conditions for establishment of shade-tolerant tree species. Overall, after 76 months of cattle exclusion, 94% of the recruited shrubs and trees in experimental plots were of species that we did not plant.

  18. Recovering more than tree cover: herbivores and herbivory in a restored tropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Juan-Baeza

    Full Text Available Intense and chronic disturbance may arrest natural succession, reduce environmental quality and lead to ecological interaction losses. Where natural succession does not occur, ecological restoration aims to accelerate this process. While plant establishment and diversity is promoted by restoration, few studies have evaluated the effect of restoration activities on ecological processes and animal diversity. This study assessed herbivory and lepidopteran diversity associated with two pioneer tree species growing in 4-year-old experimental restoration plots in a tropical dry forest at Sierra de Huautla, in Morelos, Mexico. The study was carried out during the rainy season of 2010 (July-October in eleven 50 x 50 m plots in three different habitats: cattle-excluded, cattle-excluded with restoration plantings, and cattle grazing plots. At the beginning of the rainy season, 10 juveniles of Heliocarpus pallidus (Malvaceae and Ipomoea pauciflora (Convolvulaceae were selected in each plot (N = 110 trees. Herbivory was measured in 10 leaves per plant at the end of the rainy season. To evaluate richness and abundance of lepidopteran larvae, all plants were surveyed monthly. Herbivory was similar among habitats and I. pauciflora showed a higher percentage of herbivory. A total of 868 lepidopteran larvae from 65 morphospecies were recorded. The family with the highest number of morphospecies (9 sp. was Geometridae, while the most abundant family was Saturnidae, with 427 individuals. Lepidopteran richness and abundance were significantly higher in H. pallidus than in I. pauciflora. Lepidopteran richness was significantly higher in the cattle-excluded plots, while abundance was significantly higher in the non-excluded plots. After four years of cattle exclusion and the establishment of plantings, lepidopteran richness increased 20 -fold in the excluded plots compared to the disturbed areas, whereas herbivory levels were equally high in both restored and

  19. Towards restoration of Hawaiian tropical dry forests: the Kaupulehu outplanting programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Cordell; Moana McClellan; Yvonne Yarber Carter; Lisa J. Hadway

    2008-01-01

    Hawaiian tropical dry forests contain diverse assemblages of woody canopy species, including many endemic and endangered species that warrant conservation attention before completely disappearing. Today, tropical dry forests in Hawaii are not viable ecosystems. Poor land use practices, fragmentation, non-native plant invasions, and inadequate native vegetation...

  20. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  1. Reduced aboveground tree growth associated with higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Ellen K; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-10-01

    Establishing diverse mycorrhizal fungal communities is considered important for forest recovery, yet mycorrhizae may have complex effects on tree growth depending on the composition of fungal species present. In an effort to understand the role of mycorrhizal fungi community in forest restoration in southern Costa Rica, we sampled the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community across eight sites that were planted with the same species ( Inga edulis, Erythrina poeppigiana, Terminalia amazonia, and Vochysia guatemalensis ) but varied twofold to fourfold in overall tree growth rates. The AMF community was measured in multiple ways: as percent colonization of host tree roots, by DNA isolation of the fungal species associated with the roots, and through spore density, volume, and identity in both the wet and dry seasons. Consistent with prior tropical restoration research, the majority of fungal species belonged to the genus Glomus and genus Acaulospora , accounting for more than half of the species and relative abundance found on trees roots and over 95% of spore density across all sites. Greater AMF diversity correlated with lower soil organic matter, carbon, and nitrogen concentrations and longer durations of prior pasture use across sites. Contrary to previous literature findings, AMF species diversity and spore densities were inversely related to tree growth, which may have arisen from trees facultatively increasing their associations with AMF in lower soil fertility sites. Changes to AMF community composition also may have led to variation in disturbance susceptibility, host tree nutrient acquisition, and tree growth. These results highlight the potential importance of fungal-tree-soil interactions in forest recovery and suggest that fungal community dynamics could have important implications for tree growth in disturbed soils.

  2. Spatial patterns of degraded tropical forest and biodiversity restoration over 70-years of succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Nichol

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Landscape metrics have often been used to analyse the spatial dynamics of habitat fragmentation accompanying forest loss. However, there are few studies of the spatial dynamics of natural forest succession, especially over periods longer than the operational period of imaging satellites. This study applies spatial metrics to understand the spatial processes of a 70-year tropical secondary forest succession in Hong Kong, since World War 2. The highest rate of forest regeneration at 11% a year from 1989 to 2001 occurred when the landscape achieved greatest habitat diversity and juxtapositioning of habitat patches. This rapid regeneration occurred by infilling from remnant forest in adjacent valleys rather than by an advance along a broad forest front, and led to simplification of the landscape and declining habitat diversity. It was also accompanied by declines in species richness and abundance in regenerated forest patches. Thus both habitat and woody plant species diversity show a humped trend over the successional period as disconnected forest patches amalgamate, and shade-intolerant pioneers are shaded out by taller pioneers. From this point onwards, the birds of mixed habitats including bulbuls and hwamei known to disperse seed in the study area, may become less effective as forest patches consolidate, and only a few forest mammals remain. The observed improved connectivity within forest patches and reduced edge disturbances accompanying landscape simplification provide better conditions for dispersion within forest of light-intolerant climax species from the oldest, species-rich valley sites to the newly regenerated areas. However, in addition to the loss of forest dispersal agents, other natural dispersal agents such as gravity, flash floods and slope wash involving downward processes may be ineffective, as forest has regenerated upwards to higher elevations. Progression to a mature, biodiverse and stable forest ecosystem may depend on

  3. Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

    2006-01-10

    Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the

  4. Overcoming barriers to seedling regeneration during forest restoration on tropical pasture land and the potential value of woody weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia eElgar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Combating the legacy of deforestation on tropical biodiversity requires the conversion to forest of large areas of established pasture, where barriers to native plant regeneration include competition with pasture grasses and poor propagule supply (seed availability. In addition, initial woody plants that colonise pasture are often invasive non-native species whose ecological roles and management in the context of forest regeneration are contested. In a restoration experiment at two 0.64 ha sites we quantified the response of native woody vegetation recruitment to (1 release from competition with introduced pasture grasses, and (2 local facilitation of frugivore-assisted seed dispersal provided by scattered woody plants and artificial bird perches. Herbicide pasture grass suppression during 20 months caused a significant but modest increase in density of native woody seedlings, together with abundant co-recruitment of the prominent non-native pioneer wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum. Recruitment of native species was further enhanced by local structure in herbicide-treated areas, being consistently greater under live trees and dead non-native shrubs (herbicide-treated than in open areas, and intermediate under bird perches. Native seedling recruitment comprised 28 species across 0.25 ha sampled but was dominated by two rainforest pioneers (Homalanthus novoguineensis, Polyscias murrayi. These early results are consistent with the expected increase in woody vegetation recruitment in response to release from competitive and dispersive barriers to rainforest regeneration. The findings highlight the need for a pragmatic consideration of the ecological roles of woody weeds and the potential roles of ‘new forests’ more broadly in accelerating succession of humid tropical forest across large areas of retired agricultural land.

  5. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the early-stage restoration of seasonally dry tropical forest in Chamela, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Huante

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effect of two different sources of local inocula from two contrasting sites (mature forest, pasture of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF and a non-mycorrhizal control on the plant growth of six woody species differing in functional characteristics (slow-, intermediate- and fast-growth, when introduced in a seasonally tropical dry forest (STDF converted into abandoned pasture. Six plots (12 X 12m were set as AMF inoculum source. Six replicates of six different species arranged in a Latin Square design were set in each plot. Plant height, cover area and the number of leaves produced by individual plant was measured monthly during the first growing season in each treatment. Species differed in their ability to benefit from AMF and the largest responsiveness in plant height and leaf production was exhibited by the slow-growing species Swietenia humilis, Hintonia latiflora and Cordia alliodora. At the end of the growing season (November, the plant height of the fast growing species Tabebuia donnel-smithii, Ceiba pentandra and Guazuma ulmifolia were not influenced by AMF. However, inocula of AMF increased leaf production of all plant species regardless the functional characteristics of the species, suggesting a better exploitation of above-ground space and generating a light limited environment under the canopy, which contributed to pasture suppression. Inoculation of seedlings planted in abandoned pasture areas is recommended for ecological restoration due to the high responsiveness of seedling growth in most of species. Use of forest inoculum with its higher diversity of AMF could accelerate the ecological restoration of the above and below-ground comunities.

  6. Restoration of tropical moist forest on bauxite mined lands in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A Parrotta; Oliver H. Knowles

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated forest structure and composition in 9- to 13-year-old stands established on a bauxite-mined site at Trombetas (Pará), Brazil, using four different reforestation techniques following initial site preparation and topsoil replacement. These techniques included reliance on natural forest regeneration, mixed commercial species plantings of mostly exotic timber...

  7. Morphotype-based characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a restored tropical dry forest, Margarita island-Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Fajardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal component of revegetated areas after ecological restoration or rehabilitation in arid and semiarid tropical areas has been scarcely assessed, particularly those made after mining disturbance. We evaluated and compared the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of a small area of restored tropical dry for est destroyed by sand extraction, with a non-restored area of similar age, at the peninsula of Macanao, Margarita Island (Venezuela. Our study was undertaken in 2009, four years after planting, and the mycorrhizal status was evaluated in four restored plots (8 x 12.5 m (two were previously treated with hydrogel (R2 and R2', and two were left untreated (R1 and R1', and four non-restored plots of similar size (NR1 and NR1' with graminoid physiognomy with some scattered shrubs; and NR2 and NR2', with a more species rich plant community. Apparently the restoration management promoted higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species richness and diversity, particularly in restored soils where the hydrogel was added (R2 treatment. Soil of the NR1 treat ment (with a higher herbaceous component showed the highest spore density, compared to samples of soils under the other treatments. Considering species composition, Claroideoglomus etunicatumand Rhizophagus intraradiceswere found in all treatments; besides, Diversispora spurcaand Funneliformis geosporumwere only found in non-restored plots, while members of the Gigasporaceae (a family associated with little disturbed sites were commonly observed in the plots with restored soils. Mycorrhizal colonization was similar in the restored and non-restored areas, being a less sensitive indicator of the ecosystem recovery. The trend of higher richness and diversity of AMF in the restored plot with hydrogel suggests that this management strategy contributes to accelerate the natural regeneration in those ecosystems where water plays an essential role.

  8. Passive restoration following ungulate removal in a highly disturbed tropical wet forest devoid of native seed dispersers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafus, Melia; Savidge, Julie A.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Christy, Michelle T.; Reed, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Overabundant ungulate populations can alter forests. Concurrently, global declines of seed dispersers may threaten native forest structure and function. On an island largely devoid of native vertebrate seed dispersers, we monitored forest succession for 7 years following ungulate exclusion from a 5-ha area and adjacent plots with ungulates still present. We observed succession from open scrub to forest and understory cover by non-native plants declined. Two trees, native Hibiscus tiliaceus and non-native Leucaena leucocephala, accounted for most forest regeneration, with the latter dominant. Neither species is dependent on animal dispersers nor was there strong evidence that plants dependent on dispersers migrated into the 5-ha study area. Passive restoration following ungulate removal may facilitate restoration, but did not show promise for fully restoring native forest on Guam. Restoration of native forest plants in bird depopulated areas will likely require active outplanting of native seedlings, control of factors resulting in bird loss, and reintroduction of seed dispersers.

  9. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  10. The Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a long-term test of the role of tree diversity in restoring tropical forest structure and functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Andy; Philipson, Christopher; Saner, Philippe; Chamagne, Juliette; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; O'Brien, Michael; Snaddon, Jake L.; Ulok, Philip; Weilenmann, Maja; Reynolds, Glen; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Relatively, little is known about the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in forests, especially in the tropics. We describe the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment: a large-scale, long-term field study on the island of Borneo. The project aims at understanding the relationship between tree species diversity and the functioning of lowland dipterocarp rainforest during restoration following selective logging. The experiment is planned to run for several decades (from seed to adult tree), so here we focus on introducing the project and its experimental design and on assessing initial conditions and the potential for restoration of the structure and functioning of the study system, the Malua Forest Reserve. We estimate residual impacts 22 years after selective logging by comparison with an appropriate neighbouring area of primary forest in Danum Valley of similar conditions. There was no difference in the alpha or beta species diversity of transect plots in the two forest types, probably owing to the selective nature of the logging and potential effects of competitive release. However, despite equal total stem density, forest structure differed as expected with a deficit of large trees and a surfeit of saplings in selectively logged areas. These impacts on structure have the potential to influence ecosystem functioning. In particular, above-ground biomass and carbon pools in selectively logged areas were only 60 per cent of those in the primary forest even after 22 years of recovery. Our results establish the initial conditions for the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment and confirm the potential to accelerate restoration by using enrichment planting of dipterocarps to overcome recruitment limitation. What role dipterocarp diversity plays in restoration only will become clear with long-term results. PMID:22006970

  11. Diversified Native Species Restoration for Recovery of Multiple Ecosystem Services in a Highly Disturbed Tropical Dry Forest Landscape of Southwestern Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Guillen, K.; Otterstrom, S.; Perla, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests have been reduced to a fraction of their original extent in the Neotropics due to conversion to agriculture and cattle pasture. While TDF can recover via natural regeneration, resulting forests are dominated by wind-dispersed pioneer species of limited value for frugivorous wildlife. Additionally, passive restoration can be perceived as "abandonment" resulting in neighbors casually invading property to rear livestock and extract timber. In 2007, the NGO Paso Pacífico initiated restoration in a highly degraded tropical dry forest landscape of southwestern Nicaragua; funded by an ex-ante carbon purchase, the project was designed to integrate multiple native tree species known to provide resources used by local wildlife. We restored roughly 400 hectares spanning a rainfall gradient from dry to transitional moist forest, using reforestation (planting 70 species of tree seedlings in degraded pastures on a 4x4 m grid, leaving occurring saplings) and assisted regeneration (clearing vines and competing vegetation from saplings in natural regeneration and strategically managing canopy cover). In just over seven years, mean carbon increased nearly threefold, from to 21.5±5.0 to 57.9±9.6 SE tonnes/ha. Current carbon stocks match those of 20-year-old forests in the area, accumulated in less than a decade. Stem density per 15-m radius plot decreased from 16.3±2.3 to 12.5±0.9 SE, while species richness increased from 3.9±0.4 to 18.4±1.4 SE. Alpha richness of woody stems across plots increased from 36 to 94 species, and over 20 tree species established as a result of natural dispersal and recruitment. We have observed sensitive species such as spider monkeys and parrots foraging in restoration areas. Managed reforestation is a highly effective method for rapidly restoring the functionality of multiple ecosystem services in degraded TDF, particularly when social and political realities force restoration to coexist with human productive activities

  12. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sloan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis of plantation reforestation interests, satellite image analysis of forest-cover change, and the consideration of State reforestation policies. Forest-cover gain reflected a convergence of interests and land-use trends amongst agents. Low social and economic costs of sustained interaction and organisation enabled extensive forest-cover gain, but low transaction costs did not. Corporate plantation reforestation rose to the fore of regional forest-cover gain via opportunistic land sales by ranchers and economic subsidies indicative of a State preference for autonomous, self-organising forest-cover gain. This reforestation follows a recent history of neoliberal frontier development in which State-backed loggers and ranchers similarly displaced agriculturalists. Community institutions, long neglected by the State, struggled to coordinate landholders and so effected far less forest-cover gain. National and international commitments to tropical forest restoration risk being similarly characterised as ineffective by a predominance of industrial plantation reforestation without greater State support for community forest management.

  13. Tolerance of frugivorous birds to habitat disturbance in a tropical cloud forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, L.G.L.; Oostra, V.; Nijman, V.; Cleef, A.M.; Kappelle, M.

    2008-01-01

    In view of the continued decline in tropical forest cover around the globe, forest restoration has become a key tool in tropical rainforest conservation. One of the main - and least expensive - restoration strategies is natural forest regeneration. By aiding forest seed influx both into disturbed

  14. Forest restoration is forward thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Brian J. Palik; John A. Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    It is not surprising to us that the topic of forest restoration is being discussed in the Journal of Forestry. It is a topic frequently bantered about in the literature; a quick search in Google Scholar for "forest restoration" generates more than 1 million hits. A significant portion of the debate centers on the search for succinct, holistic, universally...

  15. Tropical forests. Nettai no shinrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, I [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    1991-11-05

    It was in 1950s when felling of tropical forests started in earnest, in 1970s felling of forest trees in Southeast Asia reached its peak and the destnation of exportation of most of them was Japan. Besides, among the present overseas development assistance projects (ODA) of Japan, her role to be played in connection with tropical forests is not small and its funds, which surpass by far the budget for forestry of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), are aiding cooperation projects on forestry in many places in the world. Nevertheless, in Japan, the understanding of tropical forests is insufficient and its realities have not been known. In this article, based on the experience and knowledge of the author who stayed in Kalimantan, various kinds of problems concerning tropical forests are explained, the realities are introduced on information, well trained people, funds and philosophy which are far short in pursuance of the problems of tropical forests. Furthermore, as the issues hereafter, such proposals on tropical forests are made as protection of natural forests, planned operation in respecting self renewal ability of the secondary forests and afforestation of alang-alang grassy plains resulted from the failure of burning felled trees and grasses for making the land arable. 1 ref..

  16. Mechanisms of carbon, nitrogen and water changes during restoration and succession in tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the objective of finding answers to some fundamental problems in ecology and forestry,Prof.ZHOU Guoyi and his colleagues from the CAS South China Botanical Garden set out to clarify whether the oldgrowth forests are actually carbon sinks;how the forest ecosystems,either successional or rehabilitative,react to the nitrogen deposition scenarios and whether there are different reactions working as mechanisms between the mature and immature forest ecosystems.

  17. Natural and near natural tropical forest values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel H. Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...

  18. The future of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.

  19. Tropical savannas and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Rowland, Lucy M

    2018-05-07

    In the tropics, research, conservation and public attention focus on rain forests, but this neglects that half of the global tropics have a seasonally dry climate. These regions are home to dry forests and savannas (Figures 1 and 2), and are the focus of this Primer. The attention given to rain forests is understandable. Their high species diversity, sheer stature and luxuriance thrill biologists today as much as they did the first explorers in the Age of Discovery. Although dry forest and savanna may make less of a first impression, they support a fascinating diversity of plant strategies to cope with stress and disturbance including fire, drought and herbivory. Savannas played a fundamental role in human evolution, and across Africa and India they support iconic megafauna. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....

  1. How to restore dry forest ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nalvarte, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    AIDER is a Peruvian non-governmental organization working since 1992 on forest management activities, watershed management and urban forest management on tropical humid and dry forest at a national level. AIDER and the José Ignacio Távara Pasapera rural community have been working on dry forest management and recovery since 1992. This paper summarizes the activity of AIDER in the dry forests for the purpose of recovering degraded forest areas and conserve existing forests by developing sustai...

  2. Strategies for global monitoring of tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1994-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is conducting a global assessment of tropical forest resources, which will be accomplished by mid-1992. This assessment requires, in part, estimates of the total area of tropical forest cover in 1990 and the rate of change in forest cover between 1980 and 1990. The following are described here: (1) the...

  3. Tropical rain forest: a wider perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldsmith, F. B

    1998-01-01

    .... Barbier -- Can non-market values save the tropical forests? / D. Pearce -- The role of policy and institutions / James Mayers and Stephen Bass -- Modelling tropical land use change and deforestation...

  4. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccon Eliane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

  5. Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slik, J.W.F.; Franklin, Janet; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Field, Richard; Aguilar, Salomon; Aguirre, Nikolay; Ahumada, Jorge; Aiba, Shin Ichiro; Alves, Luciana F.; Anitha, K.; Avella, Andres; Mora, Francisco; Aymard, Gerardo A.C.; Báez, Selene; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L.; Bastin, Jean François; Bellingham, Peter J.; Berg, Van Den Eduardo; Conceição Bispo, Da Polyanna; Boeckx, Pascal; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Brambach, Fabian; Brearley, Francis Q.; Brown, Sandra; Chai, Shauna Lee; Chazdon, Robin L.; Chen, Shengbin; Chhang, Phourin; Chuyong, George; Ewango, Corneille; Coronado, Indiana M.; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, H.S.; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J.; Din, Hazimah; Drake, Donald R.; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; Enoki, Tsutomu; Ensslin, Andreas; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Fischer, Markus; Forshed, Olle; Garcia, Queila Souza; Garkoti, Satish Chandra; Gillespie, Thomas W.; Gillet, Jean Francois; Gonmadje, Christelle; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo; Griffith, Daniel M.; Grogan, James; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Harris, David J.; Harrison, Rhett D.; Hector, Andy; Hemp, Andreas; Homeier, Jürgen; Hussain, M.S.; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Hanum, I.F.; Imai, Nobuo; Jansen, Patrick A.; Joly, Carlos Alfredo; Joseph, Shijo; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kessler, Michael; Killeen, Timothy J.; Kooyman, Robert M.; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan G.; Laurance, William F.; Lawes, Michael J.; Letcher, Susan G.; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lovett, Jon; Lozada, Jose; Lu, Xinghui; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mahmud, Bin Khairil; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana; Mansor, Asyraf; Marshall, Andrew R.; Martin, Emanuel H.; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal; Meave, Jorge A.; Melo, Felipe P.L.; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre; Metali, Faizah; Medjibe, Vincent P.; Metzger, Jean Paul; Metzker, Thiago; Mohandass, D.; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Nurtjahy, Eddy; Oliveira, De Eddie Lenza; Onrizal,; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, N.; Paudel, Ekananda; Perez, Rolando; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Pommer, Ulf; Poorter, Lourens; Qi, Lan; Piedade, Maria Teresa F.; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Powers, Jennifer S.; Prasad, Rama Chandra; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe; Rangel, Orlando; Reitsma, Jan; Rocha, Diogo S.B.; Rolim, Samir; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Rutten, Gemma; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam; Saiter, Felipe Z.; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio; Santos, Dos João Roberto; Sarker, Swapan Kumar; Schmitt, Christine B.; Schoengart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Sheil, Douglas; Sist, Plinio; Souza, Alexandre F.; Spironello, Wilson Roberto; Sposito, Tereza; Steinmetz, Robert; Stevart, Tariq; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji; Sukri, Rahayu; Sultana, Aisha; Sukumar, Raman; Sunderland, Terry; Supriyadi, S.; Suresh, H.S.; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jianwei; Tanner, Ed V.J.; Targhetta, Natalia; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan; Timberlake, Jonathan; Morisson Valeriano, De Márcio; Valkenburg, Van Johan; Do, Van Tran; Sam, Van Hoang; Vandermeer, John H.; Verbeeck, Hans; Vetaas, Ole Reidar; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A.; Webb, Campbell O.; Webb, Edward L.; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge; Williams, John; Wiser, Susan; Wittmann, Florian; Yang, Xiaobo; Yao, C.Y.A.; Yap, Sandra L.; Zahawi, Rakan A.; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern

  6. TREE SPECIES DIRECT SOWING FOR FOREST RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Anastácio Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct sowing to tropical forest restoration can be viable when the ecological and silvicultural aspects of species areknown. This work evaluated the effect of breaking seed dormancy and a physical protector on the initial growth of riparian treespecies. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design, in a factorial (2x2, with four blocks and four plots for eachtreatment. The treatment to break seed dormancy used were: immersion in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes and washing in water for 1hour plus soaking for 24 hours for Trema micrantha; immersion in boiling water (100oC with following soaking until refreshing for24 hours to Senna multijuga and Senna macranthera and pre-soaking in water for 2 hours for Solanum granuloso-leprosum. Thephysical protector used was a transparent plastic cup (500mL. The breaking seed dormancy used was efficient in laboratory, exceptfor S. macranthera. In field conditions, it was efficient only for S. multijuga and S. macranthera. The physical protector did notpresented any benefit for the studied tree species regarding seedlings emergence and survival, but it provided significant differencesin height and base diameter for S. multijuga and in height for S. macranthera after three months. After 24 months, T. micranthapresented the highest values for height and basal diameter. S. macranthera presented the height relative growth and T. micrantha thehighest basal diameter. The studied species can be recommended for ecological forest restoration, using direct sowing.

  7. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora van Oosten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.

  8. Restoring forest ecosystems: the human dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hull; Paul H. Gobster

    2000-01-01

    In the past two decades, ecological restoration has moved from an obscure and scientifically suspect craft to a widely practiced and respected profession with considerable scientific knowledge and refined on-the-ground practices. Concurrently, forest restoration has become a valued skill of forestry professionals and a popular goal for forest management. Politics and...

  9. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podadera, Diego S.; Engel, Vera L.; Parrotta, John A.; Machado, Deivid L.; Sato, Luciane M.; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species ( Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  10. Forests planted for ecosystem restoration or conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington

    1999-01-01

    Although the phrase, "planting for ecosystem restoration," is of recent origin, many of the earliest large-scale tree plantings were made for what we now refer to as "'restoration" or "conservation" goals. Forest restoration activities may be needed when ecosystems are disturbed by either natural or anthropogenic forces. Disturbances...

  11. Guandu bean (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. on tropical forest restoration/ Feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. na restauração de florestas tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Rodrigues

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate alternative models in forest restorations by means of agroforestry systems, where a leguminous species is incorporated to the system. The hypothesis is that guandu bean Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., in combination and intercropped with native species, can promote restoration by decreasing mortality and increasing tree basal area and height. Cajanus cajan was planted in line with the forest seedlings in 2 x 4 m spacing. Four different treatments were analyzed; 1 control, with no Cajanus cajan ; 2 one seedling of Cajanus cajan between the forest seedlings in the plantation line; 3 two seedlings of Cajanus cajan between the forest seedlings in the plantation line; and 4 full harvest Cajanus cajan six months after plot implementation. In each treatment, 100 native trees (Fifty pioneer, and fifty non pioneer trees were measured and evaluated in mortality rates, height, and basal diameter. Guandu planting reduced pioneer mortality, increased basal area, and tree height of all species. In spite of the mortality was not affected by guandu density, the density of one plant of guandu was associated with larger basal area and tree average height. The mortality reduction of non pioneers on the absence of guandu trees was interpreted as a response of antropic pioneers to the increased solar radiation. This result points to the differences in tree behavior between fertile gaps (on which the classification on sucessional stages was based and degraded areas. The positive effects of guandu planting recommend its use for the ecological restoration cost reduction.O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar formas alternativas de restauração de áreas degradadas, utilizando sistemas agroflorestais com uma espécie leguminosa incorporada ao sistema. A hipótese é que o feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. possa auxiliar o processo de restauração, diminuindo a mortalidade e aumentando a altura e área basal das árvores. O feijão guandu

  12. Forest structure in low diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ostertag; F. Inman-Narahari; S. Cordell; C.P. Giardina; L. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species...

  13. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but

  14. The Microclimate of a Tropical Evergreen Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    of Human Bioclimate - A Review. World Meteorological Organization Bulletin, Geneva, 56 pp. REFERENCES (con’t) Lee, R., 1978. Forest Micrometeorology...Geophysics, and Bioclimatology , Ser. B 24, 243-251. Pinker, R. (1980): The Microclimate of a dry tropical forest. (Accepted for publication in

  15. Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Lof; Daniel C. Dey; Rafael M. Navarro; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Forest restoration projects have become increasingly common around the world and planting trees is almost always a key component. Low seedling survival and growth may result in restoration failures and various mechanical site preparation techniques for treatment of soils and vegetation are important tools used to help counteract this. In this article, we synthesize the...

  16. The role of animal seed dispersal in accelerating native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Wunderle Jr.

    1997-01-01

    this paper reviews the characteristicas of animal seed dispersal. relevant to tropical forest restoration efforts and discusses their managment implication. In many tropical regions seed dispersal by animals is the predominant form of dissemination of propagules and has a potential to facilitate recolonization of native vegetation on degraded sites.

  17. Restoration of biogeochemical function in mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Faulkner, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Forest structure of mangrove restoration sites (6 and 14 years old) at two locations (Henderson Creek [HC] and Windstar [WS]) in southwest Florida differed from that of mixed-basin forests (>50 years old) with which they were once contiguous. However, the younger site (HC) was typical of natural, developing forests, whereas the older site (WS) was less well developed with low structural complexity. More stressful physicochemical conditions resulting from incomplete tidal flushing (elevated salinity) and variable topography (waterlogging) apparently affected plant survival and growth at the WS restoration site. Lower leaf fall and root production rates at the WS restoration site, compared with that at HC were partly attributable to differences in hydroedaphic conditions and structural development. However, leaf and root inputs at each restoration site were not significantly different from that in reference forests within the same physiographic setting. Macrofaunal consumption of tethered leaves also did not differ with site history, but was dramatically higher at HC compared with WS, reflecting local variation in leaf litter processing rates, primarily by snails (Melampus coffeus). Degradation of leaves and roots in mesh bags was slow overall at restoration sites, however, particularly at WS where aerobic decomposition may have been more limited. These findings indicate that local or regional factors such as salinity regime act together with site history to control primary production and turnover rates of organic matter in restoration sites. Species differences in senescent leaf nitrogen content and degradation rates further suggest that restoration sites dominated by Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle should exhibit slower recycling of nutrients compared with natural basin forests where Avicennia germinans is more abundant. Structural development and biogeochemical functioning of restored mangrove forests thus depend on a number of factors, but site

  18. Dominance of legume trees alters nutrient relations in mixed species forest restoration plantings within seven years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas Siddique; Vera Lex Engel; David Lamb; Gabriela B. Nardoto; Jean P.H.B. Ometto; Luiz A. Martinelli; Susanne. Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    Failures in reforestation are often attributed to nutrient limitation for tree growth. We compared tree performance and nitrogen and phosphorus relations in adjacent mixed-species plantings of contrasting composition, established for forest restoration on Ultisol soil, originally covered by tropical semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest in Southeast Brazil. Nutrient relations...

  19. Techniques of forest restoration in restingas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Garcia da Silva Morais Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga is an ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest Biome vegetation which has ecological functions and is undergoing anthropogenic occupations that result in the disturbance and its suppression of these environments. But to be the restoration of degraded restinga is necessary to know the different formations of the ecosystem and their respective characteristics. From this diagnosis, one can choose the most appropriate techniques to apply for its restoration. Thus, this study aims to conduct a literature on restoration techniques in restinga environments. It was found that forest restoration on restinga, in most cases there is use of natural regeneration techniques nucleation, and these studies highlight the successional advances and establishments of life forms preserved features of the area, thus making the restoration in these environments.

  20. Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slik, J. W. Ferry; Franklin, Janet; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor

    2018-01-01

    -Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between......Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern...... phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal...

  1. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  2. Successional dynamics drive tropical forest nutrient limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Hedin, L. O. O.

    2017-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that nutrients such as N and P may significantly constrain the land carbon sink. However, we currently lack a complete understanding of these nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems and how to incorporate them into Earth System Models. We have developed a framework of dynamic forest nutrient limitation, focusing on the role of secondary forest succession and canopy gap disturbances as bottlenecks of high plant nutrient demand and limitation. We used succession biomass data to parameterize a simple ecosystem model and examined the dynamics of nutrient limitation throughout tropical secondary forest succession. Due to the patterns of biomass recovery in secondary tropical forests, we found high nutrient demand from rapid biomass accumulation in the earliest years of succession. Depending on previous land use scenarios, soil nutrient availability may also be low in this time period. Coupled together, this is evidence that there may be high biomass nutrient limitation early in succession, which is partially met by abundant symbiotic nitrogen fixation from certain tree species. We predict a switch from nitrogen limitation in early succession to one of three conditions: (i) phosphorus only, (ii) phosphorus plus nitrogen, or (iii) phosphorus, nitrogen, plus light co-limitation. We will discuss the mechanisms that govern the exact trajectory of limitation as forests build biomass. In addition, we used our model to explore scenarios of tropical secondary forest impermanence and the impacts of these dynamics on ecosystem nutrient limitation. We found that secondary forest impermanence exacerbates nutrient limitation and the need for nitrogen fixation early in succession. Together, these results indicate that biomass recovery dynamics early in succession as well as their connection to nutrient demand and limitation are fundamental for understanding and modeling nutrient limitation of the tropical forest carbon sink.

  3. Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slik, J W Ferry; Franklin, Janet; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Field, Richard; Aguilar, Salomon; Aguirre, Nikolay; Ahumada, Jorge; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alves, Luciana F; K, Anitha; Avella, Andres; Mora, Francisco; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Báez, Selene; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L; Bastin, Jean-François; Bellingham, Peter J; van den Berg, Eduardo; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Boeckx, Pascal; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Brambach, Fabian; Brearley, Francis Q; Brown, Sandra; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chazdon, Robin L; Chen, Shengbin; Chhang, Phourin; Chuyong, George; Ewango, Corneille; Coronado, Indiana M; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, H S; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J; Din, Hazimah; Drake, Donald R; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; Enoki, Tsutomu; Ensslin, Andreas; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J; Fischer, Markus; Forshed, Olle; Garcia, Queila Souza; Garkoti, Satish Chandra; Gillespie, Thomas W; Gillet, Jean-Francois; Gonmadje, Christelle; Granzow-de la Cerda, Iñigo; Griffith, Daniel M; Grogan, James; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Harris, David J; Harrison, Rhett D; Hector, Andy; Hemp, Andreas; Homeier, Jürgen; Hussain, M Shah; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Hanum, I Faridah; Imai, Nobuo; Jansen, Patrick A; Joly, Carlos Alfredo; Joseph, Shijo; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L; Kessler, Michael; Killeen, Timothy J; Kooyman, Robert M; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan G; Laurance, William F; Lawes, Michael J; Letcher, Susan G; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lovett, Jon; Lozada, Jose; Lu, Xinghui; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana; Mansor, Asyraf; Marshall, Andrew R; Martin, Emanuel H; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Meave, Jorge A; Melo, Felipe P L; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre; Metali, Faizah; Medjibe, Vincent P; Metzger, Jean Paul; Metzker, Thiago; Mohandass, D; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Nurtjahy, Eddy; de Oliveira, Eddie Lenza; Onrizal; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, N; Paudel, Ekananda; Perez, Rolando; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Pommer, Ulf; Poorter, Lourens; Qie, Lan; Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R; Powers, Jennifer S; Prasad, Rama Chandra; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Rangel, Orlando; Reitsma, Jan; Rocha, Diogo S B; Rolim, Samir; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Rutten, Gemma; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam; Saiter, Felipe Z; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio; Dos Santos, João Roberto; Sarker, Swapan Kumar; Schmitt, Christine B; Schoengart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Sheil, Douglas; Sist, Plinio; Souza, Alexandre F; Spironello, Wilson Roberto; Sposito, Tereza; Steinmetz, Robert; Stevart, Tariq; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji; Sukri, Rahayu; Sultana, Aisha; Sukumar, Raman; Sunderland, Terry; Supriyadi; Suresh, H S; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jianwei; Tanner, Ed V J; Targhetta, Natalia; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan; Timberlake, Jonathan; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; van Valkenburg, Johan; Van Do, Tran; Van Sam, Hoang; Vandermeer, John H; Verbeeck, Hans; Vetaas, Ole Reidar; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A; Webb, Campbell O; Webb, Edward L; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge; Williams, John; Wiser, Susan; Wittmann, Florian; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C Yves; Yap, Sandra L; Zahawi, Rakan A; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo

    2018-02-20

    Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: ( i ) Indo-Pacific, ( ii ) Subtropical, ( iii ) African, ( iv ) American, and ( v ) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northern-hemisphere forests. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. Tropical forests and the changing earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon L

    2006-01-29

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed, and the implications for biodiversity (species loss) and climate change (via the global carbon cycle) addressed. Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a large source of carbon to the atmosphere, and major loss of species, from deforestation and (ii) a large carbon sink within remaining intact forest, accompanied by accelerating forest dynamism and widespread biodiversity changes. Finally, I look to the future, suggesting that the current carbon sink in intact forests is unlikely to continue, and that the tropical forest biome may even become a large net source of carbon, via one or more of four plausible routes: changing photosynthesis and respiration rates, biodiversity changes in intact forest, widespread forest collapse via drought, and widespread forest collapse via fire. Each of these scenarios risks potentially dangerous positive feedbacks with the climate system that could dramatically accelerate and intensify climate change. Given that continued land-use change alone is already thought to be causing the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history, should such feedbacks occur, the resulting biodiversity and societal consequences would be even more severe.

  5. Phylogenetic classification of the world’s tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Slik, J. W. Ferry; Franklin, Janet; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Field, Richard; Aguilar, Salomon; Aguirre, Nikolay; Ahumada, Jorge; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alves, Luciana F.; K, Anitha; Avella, Andres; Mora, Francisco; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Báez, Selene; Balvanera, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Identifying and explaining regional differences in tropical forest dynamics, structure, diversity, and composition are critical for anticipating region-specific responses to global environmental change. Floristic classifications are of fundamental importance for these efforts. Here we provide a global tropical forest classification that is explicitly based on community evolutionary similarity, resulting in identification of five major tropical forest regions and their relationships: (i) Indo-...

  6. Targeted habitat restoration can reduce extinction rates in fragmented forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, William D; Jenkins, Clinton N; Pimm, Stuart L; McNeally, Phoebe B; Halley, John M

    2017-09-05

    The Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and the Atlantic Forest of Brazil are two of the most fragmented biodiversity hotspots. Species-area relationships predict that their habitat fragments will experience a substantial loss of species. Most of these extinctions will occur over an extended time, and therefore, reconnecting fragments could prevent species losses and allow locally extinct species to recolonize former habitats. An empirical relaxation half-life vs. area relationship for tropical bird communities estimates the time that it takes to lose one-half of all species that will be eventually lost. We use it to estimate the increase in species persistence by regenerating a forest connection 1 km in width among the largest and closest fragments at 11 locations. In the Eastern Arc Mountains, regenerating 8,134 ha of forest would create >316,000 ha in total of restored contiguous forest. More importantly, it would increase the persistence time for species by a factor of 6.8 per location or ∼2,272 years, on average, relative to individual fragments. In the Atlantic Forest, regenerating 6,452 ha of forest would create >251,000 ha in total of restored contiguous forest and enhance species persistence by a factor of 13.0 per location or ∼5,102 years, on average, relative to individual fragments. Rapidly regenerating forest among fragments is important, because mean time to the first determined extinction across all fragments is 7 years. We estimate the cost of forest regeneration at $21-$49 million dollars. It could provide one of the highest returns on investment for biodiversity conservation worldwide.

  7. Design considerations for tropical forest inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Edward McRoberts

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests contribute substantially to maintaining the global greenhouse gas balance, primarily because among the five economic sectors identified by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, only the forestry sector has the potential to remove greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere. In this context, development of national forest carbon accounting systems, particularly in countries with tropical forests, has emerged as an international priority. Because these systems are often developed as components of or in parallel with national forest inventories, a brief review of statistical issues related to the development of forest ground sampling designs is provided. This overview addresses not only the primary issues of plot configurations and sampling designs, but also to a lesser extent the emerging roles of remote sensing and uncertainty assessment. Basic inventory principles are illustrated for two case studies, the national forest inventory of Brazil with special emphasis on the state of Santa Catarina, and an inventory for Tanzania.

  8. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego S. Podadera; Vera L. Engel; John A. Parrotta; Deivid L. Machado; Luciane M. Sato; Giselda Durigan

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at...

  9. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  10. Acceleration and novelty: community restoration speeds recovery and transforms species composition in Andean cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah Jane; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2016-01-01

    Community-based tropical forest restoration projects, often promoted as a win-win solution for local communities and the environment, have increased dramatically in number in the past decade. Many such projects are underway in Andean cloud forests, which, given their extremely high biodiversity and history of extensive clearing, are understudied. This study investigates the efficacy of community-based tree-planting projects to accelerate cloud forest recovery, as compared to unassisted natural regeneration. This study takes place in northwest Andean Ecuador, where the majority of the original, highly diverse cloud forests have been cleared, in five communities that initiated tree-planting projects to restore forests in 2003. In 2011, we identified tree species along transects in planted forests (n = 5), naturally regenerating forests (n = 5), and primary forests (n = 5). We also surveyed 120 households about their restoration methods, tree preferences, and forest uses. We found that tree diversity was higher in planted than in unplanted secondary forest, but both were less diverse than primary forests. Ordination analysis showed that all three forests had distinct species compositions, although planted forests shared more species with primary forests than did unplanted forests. Planted forests also contained more animal-dispersed species in both the planted canopy and in the unplanted, regenerating understory than unplanted forests, and contained the highest proportion of species with use value for local people. While restoring forest increased biodiversity and accelerated forest recovery, restored forests may also represent novel ecosystems that are distinct from the region's previous ecosystems and, given their usefulness to people, are likely to be more common in the future.

  11. Forest landscape restoration : reconciling biodiversity conservation with local livelihoods in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Middendorp, Romaike Sanne

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion and agricultural intensification are important drivers of loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services on which local communities depend. Resilient agricultural landscapes are crucial to safeguard food security and adapt to environmental and climate changes. An increasing number of policies and programs target forest landscape restoration but lack the scientific basis to ensure sustainable outcomes. This dissertation explores the potential of forest landscape restora...

  12. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  13. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic abstract of the thesis for the library for the acquisitions department of Wageningen UR library (published as a html file so hyperlinks may be included)

    In English, one or 2 pages.

    Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    Currently in the

  14. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino R. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP is a coalition of 260+ stakeholders, including governmental agencies, private sector, NGOs and research institutions, aimed at restoring 15 million ha of degraded and deforested lands by 2050. By articulating, and then integrating common interests, this initiative has allowed different sectors of society to implement an ambitious vision and create a forum for public and private concerns regarding forest restoration. The AFRP adopts a set of governance tools so multiple actors can implement key processes to achieve long-term and visionary restoration goals. Having overcome some initial challenges, AFRP now has to incorporate underrepresented stakeholders and enhance its efforts to make forest restoration more economically viable, including cases where restoration could be less expensive and profitable. The AFRP experience has resulted in many lessons learned, which can be shared to foster similar initiatives across tropical regions.

  15. Non-native grass removal and shade increase soil moisture and seedling performance during Hawaiian dry forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared M. Thaxton; Susan Cordell; Robert J. Cabin; Darren R. Sandquist

    2012-01-01

    Invasive non-native species can create especially problematic restoration barriers in subtropical and tropical dry forests. Native dry forests in Hawaii presently cover less than 10% of their original area. Many sites that historically supported dry forest are now completely dominated by non-native species, particularly grasses. Within a grass-dominated site in leeward...

  16. Policies for encouraging forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, many countries created national parks, forests, nature reserves, and sanctuaries to provide benefits that are underproduced on private lands. Private lands are now especially valuable for providing ecological services that public lands cannot provide, due to the increasing demands for all uses and the political and economic conflicts...

  17. Cutover tropical forest productivity potential merits assessment, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Wadsworth; Brynne Bryan; Julio Figueroa-Colón

    2010-01-01

    Timber extraction continues to add to vast cutover tropical forests. They are unattractive economically because of the loss of merchantable timber and the long delay foreseen for recovery. Despite this, wood in cutover tropical forests is in line to become more marketable as demand continues and old-growth forests become less accessible. In a cutover forest in Puerto...

  18. Response of tropical peat swamp forest tree species seedlings to macro nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wira Yuwati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Efforts of restoration of degraded tropical peat swamp forest were facing constraints due to the low available nutrient level of peat. The transplanted peat swamp forest species seedlings experienced low survival rate and poor growth performance. This study aimed to demonstrate the response of ten tropical peat swamp forest species seedlings whether climax and pioneer species to macro-nutrients addition in the nursery. The growth performance of climax and pioneer tropical peat swamp species seedlings was recorded following addition of macro nutrients of Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus(P, Potassium(K and Dolomitic limestone (CaMg. The result showed that Alstonia spatulata and Parartocarpus venenosus showed positive growth response following macro nutrients addition. This study concluded that tropical peat swamp pioneer species has lower necessity for macro-nutrients addition than tropical peat swamp climax species.

  19. Tropical forest policies for the global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Groot, W.T.; Kamminga, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is given of the approach and findings of the NRP project 'Local Actors and Global Tree Cover Policies'. The aim of this project was to identify the most effective and efficient options for global climate policies focusing on the tropical forest. Tropical deforestation is a process with very complex and variable causes. In the project's conclusions, therefore, much care has been given to arrive at a coherent image of what really counts most in the myriad of factors, actors, policy levels and policy options. 5 refs

  20. Considerations for restoring temperate forests of tomorrow: Forest restoration, assisted migration, and bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Mary I. Williams; John A. Stanturf; Brad St. Clair

    2015-01-01

    Tomorrow’s forests face extreme pressures from contemporary climate change, invasive pests, and anthropogenic demands for other land uses. These pressures, collectively, demand land managers to reassess current and potential forest management practices. We discuss three considerations, functional restoration, assisted migration, and bioengineering, which are currently...

  1. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8 %) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0 %). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10 % of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6 % at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13 % and 10 %, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23 % versus 6 %) within gaps. Both sites demonstrate limited gap contagiousness defined by an

  2. Desirable forest structures for a restored Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette L. Dickinson; Rob Addington; Greg Aplet; Mike Babler; Mike Battaglia; Peter Brown; Tony Cheng; Casey Cooley; Dick Edwards; Jonas Feinstein; Paula Fornwalt; Hal Gibbs; Megan Matonis; Kristen Pelz; Claudia Regan

    2014-01-01

    As part of the federal Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program administered by the US Forest Service, the Colorado Front Range Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Project (FR-CFLRP, a collaborative effort of the Front Range Roundtable1 and the US Forest Service) is required to define desired conditions for lower montane ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa...

  3. Palm Harvest Impact on Tropical Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forest in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different forest...... formations and determine the number of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. We determine how much...... palms are used for subsistence purposes by carrying out quantitative, ethnobotanical research in different forest types and we also study trade patterns for palm products from local markets to markets that involve export to other countries and continents. We study different ways in which palms...

  4. Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.R. Feldpausch; L. Banin; O.L. Phillips; T.R. Baker; S.L. Lewis; C.A. Quesada; K. Affum-Baffoe; E.J.M.M. Arets; N.J. Berry; M. Bird; E.S. Brondizio; P de Camargo; J. Chave; G. Djagbletey; T.F. Domingues; M. Drescher; P.M. Fearnside; M.B. Franca; N.M. Fyllas; G. Lopez-Gonzalez; A. Hladik; N. Higuchi; M.O. Hunter; Y. Iida; K.A. Salim; A.R. Kassim; M. Keller; J. Kemp; D.A. King; J.C. Lovett; B.S. Marimon; B.H. Marimon-Junior; E. Lenza; A.R. Marshall; D.J. Metcalfe; E.T.A. Mitchard; E.F. Moran; B.W. Nelson; R. Nilus; E.M. Nogueira; M. Palace; S. Patiño; K.S.-H. Peh; M.T. Raventos; J.M. Reitsma; G. Saiz; F. Schrodt; B. Sonke; H.E. Taedoumg; S. Tan; L. White; H. Woll; J. Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D) relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical...

  5. Superação de dormência de sementes como estratégia para restauração florestal de pastagem tropical Seed dormancy overcoming as a strategy for forest restoration in tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rahe Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de tratamentos de superação da dormência de sementes sobre a taxa e o tempo de emergência de espécies arbóreas de Fabaceae, e sobre seu estabelecimento, quando reintroduzidas em pastagem, no Cerrado. Foram realizados experimentos em casa de vegetação e em campo (pastagem de Urochloa brizantha, com as espécies Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii e Hymenaea stigonocarpa, submetidas ou não aos seguintes tratamentos de superação de dormência: D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, escarificação mecânica; C. langsdorffii e M. caesalpiniifolia, escarificação química com H2SO4; P. nitens, punção do tegumento; e P. dubium, imersão em água a 80ºC. O estabelecimento em campo foi monitorado por 21 meses. A superação de dormência promoveu, em casa de vegetação, maior emergência de quatro das seis espécies avaliadas, e, no campo, de cinco espécies. Além disso, reduziu o tempo de emergência das espécies e aumentou o recrutamento de M. caesalpiniifolia, P. nitens, D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, aos 127 dias, e de H. stigonocarpa aos 659 dias. Os tratamentos de superação de dormência podem aumentar a eficiência da semeadura direta, em projetos de restauração de áreas degradadas no Cerrado, ao promover maior emergência das sementes e o estabelecimento das plantas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of seed dormancy overcoming treatments on the rate and time of emergence of Fabaceae tree species, and on their recruitment when reintroduced in a tropical pasture, in the Brazilian Cerrado. Experiments were carried out in greenhouse and field (Urochloa brizantha pasture, with the species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea stigonocarpa, subjected or not to the following treatments of dormancy break: D. mollis and

  6. Secondary Forest Age and Tropical Forest Biomass Estimation Using TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. F.; Kimes, D. S.; Salas, W. A.; Routhier, M.

    1999-01-01

    The age of secondary forests in the Amazon will become more critical with respect to the estimation of biomass and carbon budgets as tropical forest conversion continues. Multitemporal Thematic Mapper data were used to develop land cover histories for a 33,000 Square kM area near Ariquemes, Rondonia over a 7 year period from 1989-1995. The age of the secondary forest, a surrogate for the amount of biomass (or carbon) stored above-ground, was found to be unimportant in terms of biomass budget error rates in a forested TM scene which had undergone a 20% conversion to nonforest/agricultural cover types. In such a situation, the 80% of the scene still covered by primary forest accounted for over 98% of the scene biomass. The difference between secondary forest biomass estimates developed with and without age information were inconsequential relative to the estimate of biomass for the entire scene. However, in futuristic scenarios where all of the primary forest has been converted to agriculture and secondary forest (55% and 42% respectively), the ability to age secondary forest becomes critical. Depending on biomass accumulation rate assumptions, scene biomass budget errors on the order of -10% to +30% are likely if the age of the secondary forests are not taken into account. Single-date TM imagery cannot be used to accurately age secondary forests into single-year classes. A neural network utilizing TM band 2 and three TM spectral-texture measures (bands 3 and 5) predicted secondary forest age over a range of 0-7 years with an RMSE of 1.59 years and an R(Squared) (sub actual vs predicted) = 0.37. A proposal is made, based on a literature review, to use satellite imagery to identify general secondary forest age groups which, within group, exhibit relatively constant biomass accumulation rates.

  7. Implementing forest landscape restoration, a practitioner's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Stanturf; Stephanie Mansourian; Michael (eds.). Kleine

    2017-01-01

    Forest landscape restoration (FLR) in a nutshell FLR was defined in 2000 by a group of 30 specialists as “a planned process that aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance human wellbeing in deforested or degraded landscapes”. It does not seek to recreate past ecosystems given the uncertainty concerning the “past”, the significantly altered conditions of the...

  8. Statistical strategies for global monitoring of tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1991-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is conducting a global assessment of tropical forest resources, which will be accomplished by mid-1992. This assessment requires, in part, estimates of the total area of tropical forest cover in 1990, and the rate of change in forest cover between 1980 and 1990. This paper describes: (1) the strategic...

  9. Management of tropical forests for products and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John I. Zerbe

    1992-01-01

    Tropical forests have always been sources for prized timbers, rubber, tannin, and other forest products for use worldwide. However, with the recent concern regarding global change, the importance of effective forest products management and utilization has increased significantly. The USDA Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, has...

  10. Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Yves; Cizek, Lukas; Cuénoud, Philippe; Didham, Raphael K; Guilhaumon, François; Missa, Olivier; Novotny, Vojtech; Ødegaard, Frode; Roslin, Tomas; Schmidl, Jürgen; Tishechkin, Alexey K; Winchester, Neville N; Roubik, David W; Aberlenc, Henri-Pierre; Bail, Johannes; Barrios, Héctor; Bridle, Jon R; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela; Corbara, Bruno; Curletti, Gianfranco; Duarte da Rocha, Wesley; De Bakker, Domir; Delabie, Jacques H C; Dejean, Alain; Fagan, Laura L; Floren, Andreas; Kitching, Roger L; Medianero, Enrique; Miller, Scott E; Gama de Oliveira, Evandro; Orivel, Jérôme; Pollet, Marc; Rapp, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Sérvio P; Roisin, Yves; Schmidt, Jesper B; Sørensen, Line; Leponce, Maurice

    2012-12-14

    Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6144 arthropod species from 0.48 hectare and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas on the basis of competing models. The whole 6000-hectare forest reserve most likely sustains 25,000 arthropod species. Notably, just 1 hectare of rainforest yields >60% of the arthropod biodiversity held in the wider landscape. Models based on plant diversity fitted the accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well. This lends credence to global estimates of arthropod biodiversity developed from plant models.

  11. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ostertag

    Full Text Available The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha. While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species, six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1 and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C. Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological

  12. Tropical forest transitions: structural changes in forest area, composition and landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on tropical forest dynamics focus on the processes of deforestation and forest degradation and its associated ecological impacts; comparatively little attention is given to the emergence of forest transitions. This review gives an overview of forest transitions in the tropics as

  13. Dynamics of leaf litter humidity, depth and quantity: two restoration strategies failed to mimic ground microhabitat conditions of a low montane and premontane forest in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidett Barrientos

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how restoration strategies affect aspects like leaf litter’s quantity, depth and humidity. I analyzed leaf litter’s quantity, depth and humidity yearly patterns in a primary tropical lower montane wet forest and two restored areas: a 15 year old secondary forest (unassisted restoration) and a 40 year old Cupressus lusitanica plantation (natural understory). The three habitats are located in the Río Macho Forest Reserve, Costa Rica. Twenty litter samples were ...

  14. FLORULA URBAN FRAGMENT OF TROPICAL DRY FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willington Barranco-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to record the composition of plant species in an urban fragment of tropical dry forest of secondary regeneration (bs-T to generate information that can be used in the planning and management of green spaces in the city of Santa Marta. Transects of 2 x 50 m were established equivalent to 0.1 ha and all species were counted >1.0 cm DBH (Diameter at Breast Height: 1.3m. 100 species of angiosperms were recorded of which 47% have herbaceous habit. The number of species recorded in this study represents 39.6% of the species reported for the hills of Santa Marta and 3.8% for the dry forests of Colombia. It is suggested to isolate this type of secondary formations of any intervention and contemplate the reintroduction of individuals and conservation strategies.

  15. Rapid colonization of a Hawaiian restoration forest by a diverse avian community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Yelenik, Stephanie G.; Borneman, Tracy E.; Rose, Eli; Camp, Richard J.; Kendall, Steve J.

    2018-01-01

    Deforestation of tropical forests has led to widespread loss and extirpation of forest bird species around the world, including the Hawaiian Islands which have experienced a dramatic loss of forests over the last 200–800 years. Given the important role birds play in forest ecosystem functions via seed dispersal and pollination, a bird community's response to forest restoration is an important measure of the success of such conservation actions. We evaluated the bird response to reforestation at an important bird sanctuary, Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai′i Island, using 26 years of bird count data. We show that most species from within the diverse avian community increased significantly, but species colonized the restoration forest at different rates. Distance from intact forest and time since restoration were both important predictors of colonization rate, interacting such that for most species it took more time to colonize areas farther from the intact forest. In addition, both forest cover and understory diversity helped to explain bird densities, but the effect varied among species, suggesting that different habitat requirements may help drive variation in colonization rates. This article provides the first detailed evaluation of how a diverse community of birds has responded to one of the largest, ongoing reforestation projects in Hawai′i.

  16. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Martin J P; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L; Phillips, Oliver L; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J T; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Baker, Timothy R; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J; De Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K, Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E N; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S; Harris, David J; Hart, Terese B; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G W; Laurance, William F; Leal, Miguel E; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R; Morandi, Paulo S; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R; Primack, Richard B; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J W Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W; Thomas, Sean C; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-17

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity.

  17. Diversity and carbon storage across the tropical forest biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Martin J. P.; Talbot, Joey; Lewis, Simon L.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Qie, Lan; Begne, Serge K.; Chave, Jerôme; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; Hubau, Wannes; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Miles, Lera; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sunderland, Terry; Ter Steege, Hans; White, Lee J. T.; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; de Almeida, Everton Cristo; de Oliveira, Edmar Almeida; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Ashton, Peter; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Baker, Timothy R.; Balinga, Michael; Banin, Lindsay F.; Baraloto, Christopher; Bastin, Jean-Francois; Berry, Nicholas; Bogaert, Jan; Bonal, Damien; Bongers, Frans; Brienen, Roel; Camargo, José Luís C.; Cerón, Carlos; Moscoso, Victor Chama; Chezeaux, Eric; Clark, Connie J.; Pacheco, Álvaro Cogollo; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Coronado, Eurídice N. Honorio; Dargie, Greta; Davies, Stuart J.; de Canniere, Charles; Djuikouo K., Marie Noel; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Erwin, Terry L.; Espejo, Javier Silva; Ewango, Corneille E. N.; Fauset, Sophie; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Herrera, Rafael; Gilpin, Martin; Gloor, Emanuel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Harris, David J.; Hart, Terese B.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Laurance, William F.; Leal, Miguel E.; Lovejoy, Thomas; Lovett, Jon C.; Lukasu, Faustin Mpanya; Makana, Jean-Remy; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon; Marshall, Andrew R.; Morandi, Paulo S.; Mukendi, John Tshibamba; Mukinzi, Jaques; Nilus, Reuben; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui; Pardo, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pétronelli, Pascal; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Primack, Richard B.; Priyadi, Hari; Quesada, Carlos A.; Reitsma, Jan; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Restrepo, Zorayda; Rutishauser, Ervan; Salim, Kamariah Abu; Salomão, Rafael P.; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Sheil, Douglas; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Steel, Lisa; Taedoumg, Hermann; Tan, Sylvester; Terborgh, John W.; Thomas, Sean C.; Toledo, Marisol; Umunay, Peter M.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Willcock, Simon; Zemagho, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests. Diversity-carbon relationships among all plots at 1 ha scale across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak (Asia) or absent (Amazonia, Africa). A weak positive relationship is detectable within 1 ha plots, indicating that diversity effects in tropical forests may be scale dependent. The absence of clear diversity-carbon relationships at scales relevant to conservation planning means that carbon-centred conservation strategies will inevitably miss many high diversity ecosystems. As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity.

  18. Degraded tropical rain forests possess valuable carbon storage opportunities in a complex, forested landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Turton, Stephen M; Pert, Petina L; Edwards, Will; Laurance, William F

    2016-07-20

    Tropical forests are major contributors to the terrestrial global carbon pool, but this pool is being reduced via deforestation and forest degradation. Relatively few studies have assessed carbon storage in degraded tropical forests. We sampled 37,000 m(2) of intact rainforest, degraded rainforest and sclerophyll forest across the greater Wet Tropics bioregion of northeast Australia. We compared aboveground biomass and carbon storage of the three forest types, and the effects of forest structural attributes and environmental factors that influence carbon storage. Some degraded forests were found to store much less aboveground carbon than intact rainforests, whereas others sites had similar carbon storage to primary forest. Sclerophyll forests had lower carbon storage, comparable to the most heavily degraded rainforests. Our findings indicate that under certain situations, degraded forest may store as much carbon as intact rainforests. Strategic rehabilitation of degraded forests could enhance regional carbon storage and have positive benefits for tropical biodiversity.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Tropical Forest Stands: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of data analysis in quantitative assessment of natural resources remains significant in the sustainable management of complex tropical forest resources. Analyses of data from complex tropical forest stands have not been easy or clear due to improper data management. It is pivotal to practical researches ...

  20. Radar remote sensing to support tropical forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This text describes an investigation into the potential of radar remote sensing for application to tropical forest management. The information content of various radar images is compared and assessed with regard to the information requirements of parties involved in tropical forest

  1. Community ecology of tropical forest snails: 30 years after Solem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since Solem’s provocative claim in the early 1980s that land snails in tropical forests are neither abundant nor diverse, at least 30 quantitative-ecological papers on tropical land snail communities have appeared. Jointly, these papers have shown that site diversity is, in fact, high in tropical

  2. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  3. SPATIAL ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK FOR MANGROVE FORESTS RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arimatéa de Carvalho Ximenes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are coastal ecosystems in transition between sea and land, localized worldwide on the tropical and subtropical regions. However, anthropogenic pressure in coastal areas has led to the conversion of many mangrove areas to other uses. Due to the increased awareness of the importance of mangroves worldwide, restoration methods are being studied. Our aim is to develop a framework for selecting suitable sites for red mangrove planting using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. For this reason, the methodology is based on abiotic factors that have an influence on the zonation (distribution and growing of the Rhizophora mangle. A total suitable area of 6,12 hectares was found, where 15.300 propagules could be planted.

  4. Co-benefits of biodiversity and carbon from regenerating secondary forests after shifting cultivation in the upland Philippines: implications for forest landscape restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukul, S. A.; Herbohn, J.; Firn, J.; Gregorio, N.

    2017-12-01

    Shifting cultivation is a widespread practice in tropical forest agriculture frontiers that policy makers often regard as the major driver of forest loss and degradation. Secondary forests regrowing after shifting cultivation are generally not viewed as suitable option for biodiversity conservation and carbon retention. Drawing upon our research in the Philippines and other relevant case studies, we compared the biodiversity and carbon sequestration benefits in recovering secondary forests after shifting cultivation to other land uses that commonly follow shifting cultivation. Regenerating secondary forests had higher biodiversity than fast growing timber plantations and other restoration options available in the area. Some old plantations, however, provided carbon benefits comparable the old growth forest, although their biodiversity was less than that of the regenerating forests. Our study demonstrates that secondary forests regrowing after shifting cultivation have a high potential for biodiversity and carbon sequestration co-benefits, representing an effective strategy for forest management and restoration in countries where they are common and where the forest is an integral part of rural people's livelihoods. We discuss the issues and potential mechanisms through which such dynamic land use can be incorporated into development projects that are currently financing the sustainable management, conservation, and restoration of tropical forests.

  5. Forest extent and deforestation in tropical Africa since 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Julie C; Jarzyna, Marta A; Staver, A Carla

    2018-01-01

    Accurate estimates of historical forest extent and associated deforestation rates are crucial for quantifying tropical carbon cycles and formulating conservation policy. In Africa, data-driven estimates of historical closed-canopy forest extent and deforestation at the continental scale are lacking, and existing modelled estimates diverge substantially. Here, we synthesize available palaeo-proxies and historical maps to reconstruct forest extent in tropical Africa around 1900, when European colonization accelerated markedly, and compare these historical estimates with modern forest extent to estimate deforestation. We find that forests were less extensive in 1900 than bioclimatic models predict. Resultantly, across tropical Africa, ~ 21.7% of forests have been deforested, yielding substantially slower deforestation than previous estimates (35-55%). However, deforestation was heterogeneous: West and East African forests have undergone almost complete decline (~ 83.3 and 93.0%, respectively), while Central African forests have expanded at the expense of savannahs (~ 1.4% net forest expansion, with ~ 135,270 km 2 of savannahs encroached). These results suggest that climate alone does not determine savannah and forest distributions and that many savannahs hitherto considered to be degraded forests are instead relatively old. These data-driven reconstructions of historical biome distributions will inform tropical carbon cycle estimates, carbon mitigation initiatives and conservation planning in both forest and savannah systems.

  6. Forest structure and carbon dynamics in Amazonian tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simone; de Camargo, Plinio Barbosa; Selhorst, Diogo; da Silva, Roseana; Hutyra, Lucy; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Brown, I Foster; Higuchi, Niro; dos Santos, Joaquim; Wofsy, Steven C; Trumbore, Susan E; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2004-08-01

    Living trees constitute one of the major stocks of carbon in tropical forests. A better understanding of variations in the dynamics and structure of tropical forests is necessary for predicting the potential for these ecosystems to lose or store carbon, and for understanding how they recover from disturbance. Amazonian tropical forests occur over a vast area that encompasses differences in topography, climate, and geologic substrate. We observed large differences in forest structure, biomass, and tree growth rates in permanent plots situated in the eastern (near Santarém, Pará), central (near Manaus, Amazonas) and southwestern (near Rio Branco, Acre) Amazon, which differed in dry season length, as well as other factors. Forests at the two sites experiencing longer dry seasons, near Rio Branco and Santarém, had lower stem frequencies (460 and 466 ha(-1) respectively), less biodiversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), and smaller aboveground C stocks (140.6 and 122.1 Mg C ha(-1)) than the Manaus site (626 trees ha(-1), 180.1 Mg C ha(-1)), which had less seasonal variation in rainfall. The forests experiencing longer dry seasons also stored a greater proportion of the total biomass in trees with >50 cm diameter (41-45 vs 30% in Manaus). Rates of annual addition of C to living trees calculated from monthly dendrometer band measurements were 1.9 (Manaus), 2.8 (Santarém), and 2.6 (Rio Branco) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). At all sites, trees in the 10-30 cm diameter class accounted for the highest proportion of annual growth (38, 55 and 56% in Manaus, Rio Branco and Santarém, respectively). Growth showed marked seasonality, with largest stem diameter increment in the wet season and smallest in the dry season, though this may be confounded by seasonal variation in wood water content. Year-to-year variations in C allocated to stem growth ranged from nearly zero in Rio Branco, to 0.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) in Manaus (40% of annual mean) and 0.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) (33% of

  7. Prioritization of forest restoration projects: Tradeoffs between wildfire protection, ecological restoration and economic objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Vogler; Alan A. Ager; Michelle A. Day; Michael Jennings; John D. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine...

  8. Forest landscape restoration in the drylands of Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Adrian C.; Del Castillo, Rafael F.; Echeverría, Cristian; Geneletti, Davide; González Espinosa, Mario; Malizia, Lucio R.; Premoli, Andrea C.; Rey Benayas, José María; Smith Ramírez, Cecilia; Williams Linera, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) involves the ecological restoration of degraded forest landscapes, with the aim of benefiting both biodiversity and human well-being. We first identify four fundamental principles of FLR, based on previous definitions. We then critically evaluate the application of these principles in practice, based on the experience gained during an international, collaborative research project conducted in six dry forest landscapes of Latin America. Research highlighted t...

  9. 76 FR 70955 - Helena Nation Forest: Dalton Mountain Forest Restoration & Fuels Reduction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Helena Nation Forest: Dalton Mountain Forest Restoration & Fuels Reduction Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Helena National Forest (HNF) is proposing on the Lincoln Ranger...

  10. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger District, Coconino County, AZ AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Forest Service (FS) will...

  11. Deadwood biomass: an underestimated carbon stock in degraded tropical forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Marion; Lefebvre, Veronique; Turner, Edgar; Cusack, Jeremy; Khoo, MinSheng; Chey, Vun K.; Peni, Maria; Ewers, Robert M.

    2015-04-01

    Despite a large increase in the area of selectively logged tropical forest worldwide, the carbon stored in deadwood across a tropical forest degradation gradient at the landscape scale remains poorly documented. Many carbon stock studies have either focused exclusively on live standing biomass or have been carried out in primary forests that are unaffected by logging, despite the fact that coarse woody debris (deadwood with ≥10 cm diameter) can contain significant portions of a forest’s carbon stock. We used a field-based assessment to quantify how the relative contribution of deadwood to total above-ground carbon stock changes across a disturbance gradient, from unlogged old-growth forest to severely degraded twice-logged forest, to oil palm plantation. We measured in 193 vegetation plots (25 × 25 m), equating to a survey area of >12 ha of tropical humid forest located within the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems Project area, in Sabah, Malaysia. Our results indicate that significant amounts of carbon are stored in deadwood across forest stands. Live tree carbon storage decreased exponentially with increasing forest degradation 7-10 years after logging while deadwood accounted for >50% of above-ground carbon stocks in salvage-logged forest stands, more than twice the proportion commonly assumed in the literature. This carbon will be released as decomposition proceeds. Given the high rates of deforestation and degradation presently occurring in Southeast Asia, our findings have important implications for the calculation of current carbon stocks and sources as a result of human-modification of tropical forests. Assuming similar patterns are prevalent throughout the tropics, our data may indicate a significant global challenge to calculating global carbon fluxes, as selectively-logged forests now represent more than one third of all standing tropical humid forests worldwide.

  12. Collaborative restoration effects on forest structure in ponderosa pine-dominated forests of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery B. Cannon; Kevin J. Barrett; Benjamin M. Gannon; Robert N. Addington; Mike A. Battaglia; Paula J. Fornwalt; Gregory H. Aplet; Antony S. Cheng; Jeffrey L. Underhill; Jennifer S. Briggs; Peter M. Brown

    2018-01-01

    In response to large, severe wildfires in historically fire-adapted forests in the western US, policy initiatives, such as the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP), seek to increase the pace and scale of ecological restoration. One required component of this program is collaborative adaptive management, in which monitoring...

  13. Trailblazing the Carbon Cycle of Tropical Forests from Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Brown

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature that led to clarifying the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle from a time when they were considered sources of atmospheric carbon to the time when they were found to be atmospheric carbon sinks. This literature originates from work conducted by US Forest Service scientists in Puerto Rico and their collaborators. It involves the classification of forests by life zones, estimation of carbon density by forest type, assessing carbon storage changes with ecological succession and land use/land cover type, describing the details of the carbon cycle of forests at stand and landscape levels, assessing global land cover by forest type and the complexity of land use change in tropical regions, and assessing the ecological fluxes and storages that contribute to net carbon accumulation in tropical forests. We also review recent work that couples field inventory data, remote sensing technology such as LIDAR, and GIS analysis in order to more accurately determine the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle and point out new avenues of carbon research that address the responses of tropical forests to environmental change.

  14. Tropical forest biomass estimation from truncated stand tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. J. R. Gillespie; S. Brown; A. E. Lugo

    1992-01-01

    Total aboveground forest biomass may be estimated through a variety of techniques based on commercial inventory stand and stock tables. Stand and stock tables from tropical countries commonly omit trees bellow a certain commercial limit.

  15. Rapid forest recovery of carbon and water fluxes after a tropical firestorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, P. M.; Silverio, D. V.; Migliavacca, M.; Santos, C.; Kolle, O.; Balch, J.; Maracahipes, L.; Bustamante, M.; Coe, M. T.; Trumbore, S.

    2017-12-01

    Forest disturbances interact synergistically and drive potentially large and persistent degradation of ecosystem services in the tropics. Here we analyze multi-year measurements of carbon (C) and water (evapotranspiration; ET) fluxes in forests recovering from 7 years of prescribed fires. Located in southeast Amazonia, the experimental forest consisted of three 50-ha plots burned annually, triennially, or not at all between 2004-2010. During the subsequent seven-year recovery period from 2011 to present, tree survivorship and biomass sharply declined, with aboveground C stocks decreasing by 70-94% along forest edges. While vegetation regrowth in the forest understory triggered partial canopy closure, light-demanding grasses covered roughly the same area in 2015 that they did in 2012. However, the spatial distribution of grasses drastically changed, while C4 grass species replaced C3 ones. Surprisingly, the observed alterations in forest structure and dynamics rendered minor or no changes in total C fluxes and ET, probably because plants in the burned forest increased light- and reduced ecosystem water-use efficiency. Hence, delayed post-fire mortality of large trees can reduce forest C stocks and create opportunities for the establishment of invasive grasses, Yet, post-fire vegetation growth can rapidly restore C uptake and ET by optimizing resources use. These results show that tropical forests can rapidly recover the capacity to cycle water and carbon following disturbances, but also that a full recovery of biomass and vegetation dominance may take many years or decades.

  16. Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Vogler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine tradeoffs among alternative restoration strategies is lacking. We developed and demonstrated a new prioritization approach for restoration projects using optimization and the framework of production possibility frontiers. The study area was a 914,657 ha national forest in eastern Oregon, US that was identified as a national priority for restoration with the goal of increasing fire resiliency and sustaining ecosystem services. The results illustrated sharp tradeoffs among the various restoration goals due to weak spatial correlation of forest stressors and provisional ecosystem services. The sharpest tradeoffs were found in simulated projects that addressed either wildfire risk to the urban interface or wildfire hazard, highlighting the challenges associated with meeting both economic and fire protection goals. Understanding the nature of tradeoffs between restoration objectives and communicating them to forest stakeholders will allow forest managers to more effectively design and implement economically feasible restoration projects.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal fungi in Amazonian tropical forests in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasco Palacios, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (EcM) symbiosis was assumed to be restricted to the temperate regions where forests are dominated by EcM host plants, and the tropics were supposed to be dominated by endomycorrhizal fungi. However, evidence of the presence of EcM symbiosis in tropical lowland ecosystems has been

  18. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Laurance; D.C. Useche; J. Rendeiro; and others NO-VALUE; Ariel Lugo

    2012-01-01

    The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon1–3. With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment...

  19. Discourses across Scales on Forest Landscape Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Reinecke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR has recently received broad political support, e.g., under the Bonn Challenge. However, although the concept promises quadruple wins for humans, biodiversity as well as climate change mitigation and adaptation, it remains heavily underutilized in practice. Drawing on a social constructivist reading and a survey in different developing and developed countries, we elaborate on varying existing narratives about FLR at global and country level. Overall, we find that FLR understandings in different countries strongly resonate with the globally pursued idea of enhancing ecological and human well-being. In more detail, however, rural development and climate mitigation oriented motives are prioritized over aspects of species conservation or adaptation. Globally, strong emphasis is placed on collaborative processes empowering local actors. At country level, by contrast, these ideas regarding greater local authority are complemented with a techno-managerial notion of government control. Considering the potential power struggles that could be evoked from such dialectic expectations, we see it as a primary responsibility for global FLR processes to fully embrace the political dimension of FLR and to support conflict resolution and adaptive learning processes.

  20. Urgent need for warming experiments in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaveri, Molly A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Smith, W. Kolby; Wood, Tana E.

    2015-01-01

    Although tropical forests account for only a fraction of the planet's terrestrial surface, they exchange more carbon dioxide with the atmosphere than any other biome on Earth, and thus play a disproportionate role in the global climate. In the next 20 years, the tropics will experience unprecedented warming, yet there is exceedingly high uncertainty about their potential responses to this imminent climatic change. Here, we prioritize research approaches given both funding and logistical constraints in order to resolve major uncertainties about how tropical forests function and also to improve predictive capacity of earth system models. We investigate overall model uncertainty of tropical latitudes and explore the scientific benefits and inevitable trade-offs inherent in large-scale manipulative field experiments. With a Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 analysis, we found that model variability in projected net ecosystem production was nearly 3 times greater in the tropics than for any other latitude. Through a review of the most current literature, we concluded that manipulative warming experiments are vital to accurately predict future tropical forest carbon balance, and we further recommend the establishment of a network of comparable studies spanning gradients of precipitation, edaphic qualities, plant types, and/or land use change. We provide arguments for long-term, single-factor warming experiments that incorporate warming of the most biogeochemically active ecosystem components (i.e. leaves, roots, soil microbes). Hypothesis testing of underlying mechanisms should be a priority, along with improving model parameterization and constraints. No single tropical forest is representative of all tropical forests; therefore logistical feasibility should be the most important consideration for locating large-scale manipulative experiments. Above all, we advocate for multi-faceted research programs, and we offer arguments for what we consider the most

  1. Landsat Pathfinder tropical forest information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, W.; Chomentowski, W.; Harville, J.; Skole, D.; Vellekamp, K.

    1994-01-01

    A Tropical Forest Information Management System_(TFIMS) has been designed to fulfill the needs of HTFIP in such a way that it tracks all aspects of the generation and analysis of the raw satellite data and the derived deforestation dataset. The system is broken down into four components: satellite image selection, processing, data management and archive management. However, as we began to think of how the TFIMS could also be used to make the data readily accessible to all user communities we realized that the initial system was too project oriented and could only be accessed locally. The new system needed development in the areas of data ingest and storage, while at the same time being implemented on a server environment with a network interface accessible via Internet. This paper summarizes the overall design of the existing prototype (version 0) information management system and then presents the design of the new system (version 1). The development of version 1 of the TFIMS is ongoing. There are no current plans for a gradual transition from version 0 to version 1 because the significant changes are in how the data within the HTFIP will be made accessible to the extended community of scientists, policy makers, educators, and students and not in the functionality of the basic system.

  2. Forest restoration: a global dataset for biodiversity and vegetation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Curran, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Restoration initiatives are becoming increasingly applied around the world. Billions of dollars have been spent on ecological restoration research and initiatives, but restoration outcomes differ widely among these initiatives in part due to variable socioeconomic and ecological contexts. Here, we present the most comprehensive dataset gathered to date on forest restoration. It encompasses 269 primary studies across 221 study landscapes in 53 countries and contains 4,645 quantitative comparisons between reference ecosystems (e.g., old-growth forest) and degraded or restored ecosystems for five taxonomic groups (mammals, birds, invertebrates, herpetofauna, and plants) and five measures of vegetation structure reflecting different ecological processes (cover, density, height, biomass, and litter). We selected studies that (1) were conducted in forest ecosystems; (2) had multiple replicate sampling sites to measure indicators of biodiversity and/or vegetation structure in reference and restored and/or degraded ecosystems; and (3) used less-disturbed forests as a reference to the ecosystem under study. We recorded (1) latitude and longitude; (2) study year; (3) country; (4) biogeographic realm; (5) past disturbance type; (6) current disturbance type; (7) forest conversion class; (8) restoration activity; (9) time that a system has been disturbed; (10) time elapsed since restoration started; (11) ecological metric used to assess biodiversity; and (12) quantitative value of the ecological metric of biodiversity and/or vegetation structure for reference and restored and/or degraded ecosystems. These were the most common data available in the selected studies. We also estimated forest cover and configuration in each study landscape using a recently developed 1 km consensus land cover dataset. We measured forest configuration as the (1) mean size of all forest patches; (2) size of the largest forest patch; and (3) edge:area ratio of forest patches. Global analyses of the

  3. Global demand for gold is another threat for tropical forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L; Mitchell Aide, T

    2015-01-01

    The current global gold rush, driven by increasing consumption in developing countries and uncertainty in financial markets, is an increasing threat for tropical ecosystems. Gold mining causes significant alteration to the environment, yet mining is often overlooked in deforestation analyses because it occupies relatively small areas. As a result, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the spatial extent of gold mining impacts on tropical forests. In this study, we provide a regional assessment of gold mining deforestation in the tropical moist forest biome of South America. Specifically, we analyzed the patterns of forest change in gold mining sites between 2001 and 2013, and evaluated the proximity of gold mining deforestation to protected areas (PAs). The forest cover maps were produced using the Land Mapper web application and images from the MODIS satellite MOD13Q1 vegetation indices 250 m product. Annual maps of forest cover were used to model the incremental change in forest in ∼1600 potential gold mining sites between 2001–2006 and 2007–2013. Approximately 1680 km 2 of tropical moist forest was lost in these mining sites between 2001 and 2013. Deforestation was significantly higher during the 2007–2013 period, and this was associated with the increase in global demand for gold after the international financial crisis. More than 90% of the deforestation occurred in four major hotspots: Guianan moist forest ecoregion (41%), Southwest Amazon moist forest ecoregion (28%), Tapajós–Xingú moist forest ecoregion (11%), and Magdalena Valley montane forest and Magdalena–Urabá moist forest ecoregions (9%). In addition, some of the more active zones of gold mining deforestation occurred inside or within 10 km of ∼32 PAs. There is an urgent need to understand the ecological and social impacts of gold mining because it is an important cause of deforestation in the most remote forests in South America, and the impacts, particularly in aquatic systems

  4. Tropical dry forest recovery : processes and causes of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebrija Trejos, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    Seasonally dry areas are one of the preferred zones for human inhabitance in the tropics. Large forest areas are converted to other land uses and many are covered by secondary forests that grow naturally after cessation of disturbance. Surprisingly, secondary succession in these strongly seasonal

  5. Lianas and trees in tropical forests in south China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Lianas (woody climbers) and trees are the most important life-forms in most tropical forests. In many of these forests lianas are abundant and diverse and their presence is often a key physiognomic feature. Lianas contribute substantially to the floristic, structural and functional diversity of

  6. Trailblazing the Carbon Cycle of Tropical Forests from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Brown; Ariel Lugo

    2017-01-01

    We review the literature that led to clarifying the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle from a time when they were considered sources of atmospheric carbon to the time when they were found to be atmospheric carbon sinks. This literature originates from work conducted by US Forest Service scientists in Puerto Rico and their collaborators. It involves the...

  7. Whole-island carbon stocks in the tropical Pacific: implications for mangrove conservation and upland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D C; Kauffman, J B; Mackenzie, R A; Ainsworth, A; Pfleeger, A Z

    2012-04-30

    Management of forest carbon (C) stocks is an increasingly prominent land-use issue. Knowledge of carbon storage in tropical forests is improving, but regional variations are still poorly understood, and this constrains forest management and conservation efforts associated with carbon valuation mechanisms (e.g., carbon markets). This deficiency is especially pronounced in tropical islands and low-lying coastal areas where climate change impacts are expected to be among the most severe. This study presents the first field estimate of island-wide carbon storage in ecosystems of Oceania, with special attention to the regional role of coastal mangroves, which occur on islands and coastal zones throughout the tropics. On two island groups of Micronesia (Yap and Palau), we sampled all above- and belowground C pools, including soil and vegetation, in 24 sites distributed evenly among the three major vegetation structural types: mangroves, upland forests, and open savannas (generally on degraded lands formerly forested). Total C stocks were estimated to be 3.9 and 15.2 Tg C on Yap and Palau, respectively. Mangroves contained by far the largest per-hectare C pools (830-1218 Mg C ha(-1)), with deep organic-rich soils alone storing more C (631-754 Mg C ha(-1)) than all pools combined in upland systems. Despite covering just 12-13% of land area, mangroves accounted for 24-34% of total island C stocks. Savannas (156-203 Mg C ha(-1)) contained significantly lower C stocks than upland forests (375-437 Mg C ha(-1)), suggesting that reforesting savannas where appropriate has high potential for carbon-based funding to aid restoration objectives. For mangroves, these results demonstrate the key role of these systems within the broader context of C storage in island and coastal landscapes. Sustainable management of mangrove forests and their large C stocks is of high importance at the regional scale, and climate change mitigation programs such as REDD+ could play a large role in

  8. Impacts of cattle on ecological restoration of coastal forests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock from communities bordered by dune mining, urban areas and commercial forestry in northern KwaZulu-Natal spend substantial time foraging in the coastal forest that the mining company is obliged to restore. A survey of livestock owners and an experimental study of impacts of cattle on restoration processes were ...

  9. Markedly Divergent Tree Assemblage Responses to Tropical Forest Loss and Fragmentation across a Strong Seasonality Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, Rodrigo L L; Peres, Carlos A; Mendes, Gabriel; Jarenkow, João A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the structure and composition of tree assemblages within three seasonal and aseasonal forest types of southern Brazil, including evergreen, Araucaria, and deciduous forests. We sampled three southernmost Atlantic Forest landscapes, including the largest continuous forest protected areas within each forest type. Tree assemblages in each forest type were sampled within 10 plots of 0.1 ha in both continuous forests and 10 adjacent forest fragments. All trees within each plot were assigned to trait categories describing their regeneration strategy, vertical stratification, seed-dispersal mode, seed size, and wood density. We detected differences among both forest types and landscape contexts in terms of overall tree species richness, and the density and species richness of different functional groups in terms of regeneration strategy, seed dispersal mode and woody density. Overall, evergreen forest fragments exhibited the largest deviations from continuous forest plots in assemblage structure. Evergreen, Araucaria and deciduous forests diverge in the functional composition of tree floras, particularly in relation to regeneration strategy and stress tolerance. By supporting a more diversified light-demanding and stress-tolerant flora with reduced richness and abundance of shade-tolerant, old-growth species, both deciduous and Araucaria forest tree assemblages are more intrinsically resilient to contemporary human-disturbances, including fragmentation-induced edge effects, in terms of species erosion and functional shifts. We suggest that these intrinsic differences in the direction and magnitude of responses to changes in landscape structure between forest types should guide a wide range of conservation strategies in restoring fragmented tropical forest landscapes worldwide.

  10. Markedly Divergent Tree Assemblage Responses to Tropical Forest Loss and Fragmentation across a Strong Seasonality Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L L Orihuela

    Full Text Available We examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the structure and composition of tree assemblages within three seasonal and aseasonal forest types of southern Brazil, including evergreen, Araucaria, and deciduous forests. We sampled three southernmost Atlantic Forest landscapes, including the largest continuous forest protected areas within each forest type. Tree assemblages in each forest type were sampled within 10 plots of 0.1 ha in both continuous forests and 10 adjacent forest fragments. All trees within each plot were assigned to trait categories describing their regeneration strategy, vertical stratification, seed-dispersal mode, seed size, and wood density. We detected differences among both forest types and landscape contexts in terms of overall tree species richness, and the density and species richness of different functional groups in terms of regeneration strategy, seed dispersal mode and woody density. Overall, evergreen forest fragments exhibited the largest deviations from continuous forest plots in assemblage structure. Evergreen, Araucaria and deciduous forests diverge in the functional composition of tree floras, particularly in relation to regeneration strategy and stress tolerance. By supporting a more diversified light-demanding and stress-tolerant flora with reduced richness and abundance of shade-tolerant, old-growth species, both deciduous and Araucaria forest tree assemblages are more intrinsically resilient to contemporary human-disturbances, including fragmentation-induced edge effects, in terms of species erosion and functional shifts. We suggest that these intrinsic differences in the direction and magnitude of responses to changes in landscape structure between forest types should guide a wide range of conservation strategies in restoring fragmented tropical forest landscapes worldwide.

  11. Degradation in carbon stocks near tropical forest edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Ramler, Ivan; Sharp, Richard; Haddad, Nick M; Gerber, James S; West, Paul C; Mandle, Lisa; Engstrom, Peder; Baccini, Alessandro; Sim, Sarah; Mueller, Carina; King, Henry

    2015-12-18

    Carbon stock estimates based on land cover type are critical for informing climate change assessment and landscape management, but field and theoretical evidence indicates that forest fragmentation reduces the amount of carbon stored at forest edges. Here, using remotely sensed pantropical biomass and land cover data sets, we estimate that biomass within the first 500 m of the forest edge is on average 25% lower than in forest interiors and that reductions of 10% extend to 1.5 km from the forest edge. These findings suggest that IPCC Tier 1 methods overestimate carbon stocks in tropical forests by nearly 10%. Proper accounting for degradation at forest edges will inform better landscape and forest management and policies, as well as the assessment of carbon stocks at landscape and national levels.

  12. Functional nonredundancy of elephants in a disturbed tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Lee, Chia-Lo; Sukumar, Raman

    2017-10-01

    Conservation efforts are often motivated by the threat of global extinction. Yet if conservationists had more information suggesting that extirpation of individual species could lead to undesirable ecological effects, they might more frequently attempt to protect or restore such species across their ranges even if they were not globally endangered. Scientists have seldom measured or quantitatively predicted the functional consequences of species loss, even for large, extinction-prone species that theory suggests should be functionally unique. We measured the contribution of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to the dispersal of 3 large-fruited species in a disturbed tropical moist forest and predicted the extent to which alternative dispersers could compensate for elephants in their absence. We created an empirical probability model with data on frugivory and seed dispersal from Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. These data were used to estimate the proportion of seeds consumed by elephants and other frugivores that survive handling and density-dependent processes (Janzen-Connell effects and conspecific intradung competition) and germinate. Without compensation, the number of seeds dispersed and surviving density-dependent effects decreased 26% (Artocarpus chaplasha), 42% (Careya arborea), and 72% (Dillenia indica) when elephants were absent from the ecosystem. Compensatory fruit removal by other animals substantially ameliorated these losses. For instance, reductions in successful dispersal of D. indica were as low as 23% when gaur (Bos gaurus) persisted, but median dispersal distance still declined from 30% (C. arborea) to 90% (A. chaplasha) without elephants. Our results support the theory that the largest animal species in an ecosystem have nonredundant ecological functionality and that their extirpation is likely to lead to the deterioration of ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal. This effect is likely accentuated by the overall defaunation of many tropical

  13. Soil Effects on Forest Structure and Diversity in a Moist and a Dry Tropical Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Poorter, L.; Alarcon, A.; Blate, G.; Choque, U.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Justiniano, J.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Pariona, W.; Putz, F.E.; Quevedo, L.; Toledo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil characteristics are important drivers of variation in wet tropical forest structure and diversity, but few studies have evaluated these relationships in drier forest types. Using tree and soil data from 48 and 32 1 ha plots, respectively, in a Bolivian moist and dry forest, we asked how soil

  14. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Angel [Instituto de Ecologia, Herbario HUTPL, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja (Ecuador); Prieto, Maria, E-mail: maria.prieto@urjc.es [Area de Biodiversidad y Conservacion, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, E-28933, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Yadira [Instituto de Ecologia, Herbario HUTPL, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja (Ecuador); Aragon, Gregorio [Area de Biodiversidad y Conservacion, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, E-28933, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for 'shade-adapted lichens', while the richness of 'heliophytic lichens' increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tropical montane forest disturbance drastically reduced macrolichen diversity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species loss was most severe for the 'shade-adapted lichens' because high radiation is harmful to them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In secondary forests lichen diversity of native forests was not regenerated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protection of remnants of primary tropical forest might help to preserve a diverse community of epiphytic macrolichens.

  15. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benítez, Ángel; Prieto, María; González, Yadira; Aragón, Gregorio

    2012-01-01

    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for “shade-adapted lichens”, while the richness of “heliophytic lichens” increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. -- Highlights: ► Tropical montane forest disturbance drastically reduced macrolichen diversity. ► Species loss was most severe for the “shade-adapted lichens” because high radiation is harmful to them. ► In secondary forests lichen diversity of native forests was not regenerated. ► The protection of remnants of primary tropical forest might help to preserve a diverse community of epiphytic macrolichens.

  16. A global review of past land use, climate, and active vs. passive restoration effects on forest recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Meli

    Full Text Available Global forest restoration targets have been set, yet policy makers and land managers lack guiding principles on how to invest limited resources to achieve them. We conducted a meta-analysis of 166 studies in naturally regenerating and actively restored forests worldwide to answer: (1 To what extent do floral and faunal abundance and diversity and biogeochemical functions recover? (2 Does recovery vary as a function of past land use, time since restoration, forest region, or precipitation? (3 Does active restoration result in more complete or faster recovery than passive restoration? Overall, forests showed a high level of recovery, but the time to recovery depended on the metric type measured, past land use, and region. Abundance recovered quickly and completely, whereas diversity recovered slower in tropical than in temperate forests. Biogeochemical functions recovered more slowly after agriculture than after logging or mining. Formerly logged sites were mostly passively restored and generally recovered quickly. Mined sites were nearly always actively restored using a combination of planting and either soil amendments or recontouring topography, which resulted in rapid recovery of the metrics evaluated. Actively restoring former agricultural land, primarily by planting trees, did not result in consistently faster or more complete recovery than passively restored sites. Our results suggest that simply ending the land use is sufficient for forests to recover in many cases, but more studies are needed that directly compare the value added of active versus passive restoration strategies in the same system. Investments in active restoration should be evaluated relative to the past land use, the natural resilience of the system, and the specific objectives of each project.

  17. A global review of past land use, climate, and active vs. passive restoration effects on forest recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Paula; Holl, Karen D; Rey Benayas, José María; Jones, Holly P; Jones, Peter C; Montoya, Daniel; Moreno Mateos, David

    2017-01-01

    Global forest restoration targets have been set, yet policy makers and land managers lack guiding principles on how to invest limited resources to achieve them. We conducted a meta-analysis of 166 studies in naturally regenerating and actively restored forests worldwide to answer: (1) To what extent do floral and faunal abundance and diversity and biogeochemical functions recover? (2) Does recovery vary as a function of past land use, time since restoration, forest region, or precipitation? (3) Does active restoration result in more complete or faster recovery than passive restoration? Overall, forests showed a high level of recovery, but the time to recovery depended on the metric type measured, past land use, and region. Abundance recovered quickly and completely, whereas diversity recovered slower in tropical than in temperate forests. Biogeochemical functions recovered more slowly after agriculture than after logging or mining. Formerly logged sites were mostly passively restored and generally recovered quickly. Mined sites were nearly always actively restored using a combination of planting and either soil amendments or recontouring topography, which resulted in rapid recovery of the metrics evaluated. Actively restoring former agricultural land, primarily by planting trees, did not result in consistently faster or more complete recovery than passively restored sites. Our results suggest that simply ending the land use is sufficient for forests to recover in many cases, but more studies are needed that directly compare the value added of active versus passive restoration strategies in the same system. Investments in active restoration should be evaluated relative to the past land use, the natural resilience of the system, and the specific objectives of each project.

  18. A global review of past land use, climate, and active vs. passive restoration effects on forest recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Paula; Holl, Karen D.; Rey Benayas, José María; Jones, Holly P.; Jones, Peter C.; Montoya, Daniel; Moreno Mateos, David

    2017-01-01

    Global forest restoration targets have been set, yet policy makers and land managers lack guiding principles on how to invest limited resources to achieve them. We conducted a meta-analysis of 166 studies in naturally regenerating and actively restored forests worldwide to answer: (1) To what extent do floral and faunal abundance and diversity and biogeochemical functions recover? (2) Does recovery vary as a function of past land use, time since restoration, forest region, or precipitation? (3) Does active restoration result in more complete or faster recovery than passive restoration? Overall, forests showed a high level of recovery, but the time to recovery depended on the metric type measured, past land use, and region. Abundance recovered quickly and completely, whereas diversity recovered slower in tropical than in temperate forests. Biogeochemical functions recovered more slowly after agriculture than after logging or mining. Formerly logged sites were mostly passively restored and generally recovered quickly. Mined sites were nearly always actively restored using a combination of planting and either soil amendments or recontouring topography, which resulted in rapid recovery of the metrics evaluated. Actively restoring former agricultural land, primarily by planting trees, did not result in consistently faster or more complete recovery than passively restored sites. Our results suggest that simply ending the land use is sufficient for forests to recover in many cases, but more studies are needed that directly compare the value added of active versus passive restoration strategies in the same system. Investments in active restoration should be evaluated relative to the past land use, the natural resilience of the system, and the specific objectives of each project. PMID:28158256

  19. Lianas reduce carbon accumulation and storage in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Powers, Jennifer S; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2015-10-27

    Tropical forests store vast quantities of carbon, account for one-third of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis, and are a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that competition between lianas (woody vines) and trees may reduce forest-wide carbon uptake; however, estimates of the impact of lianas on carbon dynamics of tropical forests are crucially lacking. Here we used a large-scale liana removal experiment and found that, at 3 y after liana removal, lianas reduced net above-ground carbon uptake (growth and recruitment minus mortality) by ∼76% per year, mostly by reducing tree growth. The loss of carbon uptake due to liana-induced mortality was four times greater in the control plots in which lianas were present, but high variation among plots prevented a significant difference among the treatments. Lianas altered how aboveground carbon was stored. In forests where lianas were present, the partitioning of forest aboveground net primary production was dominated by leaves (53.2%, compared with 39.2% in liana-free forests) at the expense of woody stems (from 28.9%, compared with 43.9%), resulting in a more rapid return of fixed carbon to the atmosphere. After 3 y of experimental liana removal, our results clearly demonstrate large differences in carbon cycling between forests with and without lianas. Combined with the recently reported increases in liana abundance, these results indicate that lianas are an important and increasing agent of change in the carbon dynamics of tropical forests.

  20. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Laurance, William F; Useche, D. Carolina; Rendeiro, Julio; Kalka, Margareta; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sloan, Sean P; Laurance, Susan G; Campbell, Mason; Abernethy, Kate; Alvarez, Patricia; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Ashton, Peter; Benitez-Malvido, Julieta; Blom, Allard; Bobo, Kadiri S

    2012-01-01

    The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon(1-3). With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment and other environmental stresses(4-9). As pressures mount, it is vital to know whether existing reserves can sustain their bi...

  1. Tropical secondary forests regenerating after shifting cultivation in the Philippines uplands are important carbon sinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukul, Sharif A; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2016-03-08

    In the tropics, shifting cultivation has long been attributed to large scale forest degradation, and remains a major source of uncertainty in forest carbon accounting. In the Philippines, shifting cultivation, locally known as kaingin, is a major land-use in upland areas. We measured the distribution and recovery of aboveground biomass carbon along a fallow gradient in post-kaingin secondary forests in an upland area in the Philippines. We found significantly higher carbon in the aboveground total biomass and living woody biomass in old-growth forest, while coarse dead wood biomass carbon was higher in the new fallow sites. For young through to the oldest fallow secondary forests, there was a progressive recovery of biomass carbon evident. Multivariate analysis indicates patch size as an influential factor in explaining the variation in biomass carbon recovery in secondary forests after shifting cultivation. Our study indicates secondary forests after shifting cultivation are substantial carbon sinks and that this capacity to store carbon increases with abandonment age. Large trees contribute most to aboveground biomass. A better understanding of the relative contribution of different biomass sources in aboveground total forest biomass, however, is necessary to fully capture the value of such landscapes from forest management, restoration and conservation perspectives.

  2. Landscape-scale changes in forest canopy structure across a partially logged tropical peat swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedeux, B. M. M.; Coomes, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    understanding of tropical peat swamp ecology and provide important insights for managers aiming to restore degraded forests.

  3. Slow recovery of tropical old-field rainforest regrowth and the value and limitations of active restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoo, Luke P; Freebody, Kylie; Kanowski, John; Catterall, Carla P

    2016-02-01

    There is current debate about the potential for secondary regrowth to rescue tropical forests from an otherwise inevitable cascade of biodiversity loss due to land clearing and scant evidence to test how well active restoration may accelerate recovery. We used site chronosequences to compare developmental trajectories of vegetation between self-organized (i.e., spontaneous) forest regrowth and biodiversity plantings (established for ecological restoration, with many locally native tree species at high density) in the Australian wet tropics uplands. Across 28 regrowth sites aged 1-59 years, some structural attributes reached reference rainforest levels within 40 years, whereas wood volume and most tested components of native plant species richness (classified by species' origins, family, and ecological functions) reached less than 50% of reference rainforest values. Development of native tree and shrub richness was particularly slow among species that were wind dispersed or animal dispersed with large (>10 mm) seeds. Many species with animal-dispersed seeds were from near-basal evolutionary lineages that contribute to recognized World Heritage values of the study region. Faster recovery was recorded in 25 biodiversity plantings of 1-25 years in which wood volume developed more rapidly; native woody plant species richness reached values similar to reference rainforest and was better represented across all dispersal modes; and species from near-basal plant families were better (although incompletely) represented. Plantings and regrowth showed slow recovery in species richness of vines and epiphytes and in overall resemblance to forest in species composition. Our results can inform decision making about when and where to invest in active restoration and provide strong evidence that protecting old-growth forest is crucially important for sustaining tropical biodiversity. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Land crabs as key drivers in tropical coastal forest recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, E.S.; Krauss, K.W.; Green, P.T.; O'Dowd, D. J.; Sherman, P.M.; Smith, T. J.

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations are regulated by a diverse assortment of abiotic and biotic factors that influence seed dispersal and viability, and seedling establishment and growth at the microsite. Rarely does one animal guild exert as significant an influence on different plant assemblages as land crabs. We review three tropical coastal ecosystems-mangroves, island maritime forests, and mainland coastal terrestrial forests-where land crabs directly influence forest composition by limiting tree establishment and recruitment. Land crabs differentially prey on seeds, propagules and seedlings along nutrient, chemical and physical environmental gradients. In all of these ecosystems, but especially mangroves, abiotic gradients are well studied, strong and influence plant species distributions. However, we suggest that crab predation has primacy over many of these environmental factors by acting as the first limiting factor of tropical tree recruitment to drive the potential structural and compositional organisation of coastal forests. We show that the influence of crabs varies relative to tidal gradient, shoreline distance, canopy position, time, season, tree species and fruiting periodicity. Crabs also facilitate forest growth and development through such activities as excavation of burrows, creation of soil mounds, aeration of soils, removal of leaf litter into burrows and creation of carbon-rich soil microhabitats. For all three systems, land crabs influence the distribution, density and size-class structure of tree populations. Indeed, crabs are among the major drivers of tree recruitment in tropical coastal forest ecosystems, and their conservation should be included in management plans of these forests. ?? 2009 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  5. Why tropical forest lizards are vulnerable to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Raymond B.; Deutsch, Curtis A.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Vitt, Laurie J.; Hertz, Paul E.; Álvarez Pérez, Héctor J.; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Biological impacts of climate warming are predicted to increase with latitude, paralleling increases in warming. However, the magnitude of impacts depends not only on the degree of warming but also on the number of species at risk, their physiological sensitivity to warming and their options for behavioural and physiological compensation. Lizards are useful for evaluating risks of warming because their thermal biology is well studied. We conducted macrophysiological analyses of diurnal lizards from diverse latitudes plus focal species analyses of Puerto Rican Anolis and Sphaerodactyus. Although tropical lowland lizards live in environments that are warm all year, macrophysiological analyses indicate that some tropical lineages (thermoconformers that live in forests) are active at low body temperature and are intolerant of warm temperatures. Focal species analyses show that some tropical forest lizards were already experiencing stressful body temperatures in summer when studied several decades ago. Simulations suggest that warming will not only further depress their physiological performance in summer, but will also enable warm-adapted, open-habitat competitors and predators to invade forests. Forest lizards are key components of tropical ecosystems, but appear vulnerable to the cascading physiological and ecological effects of climate warming, even though rates of tropical warming may be relatively low. PMID:19324762

  6. [Contribution of tropical upland forests to carbon storage in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Adriana; Herrera, Johana; Phillips, Juan; Galindo, Gustavo; Granados, Edwin; Duque, Alvaro; Barbosa, Adriana; Olarte, Claudia; Cardona, María

    2015-03-01

    The tropical montane forests in the Colombian Andean region are located above 1500 m, and have been heavily deforested. Despite the general presumption that productivity and hence carbon stocks in these ecosystems are low, studies in this regard are scarce. This study aimed to (i) to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in forests located in the South of the Colombian Andean region, (ii) to identify the carbon storage potential of tropical montane forests dominated by the black oak Colombobalanus excelsa and to identify the relationship between AGB and altitude, and (iii) to analyze the role of tropical mountain forests in conservation mechanisms such as Payment for Environmental Services (PES) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+). Twenty six 0.25 ha plots were randomly distributed in the forests and all trees with D > or =10 cm were measured. The results provided important elements for understanding the role of tropical montane forests as carbon sinks. The information produced can be used in subnational initiatives, which seek to mitigate or reduce the effects of deforestation through management or conservation of these ecosystems, like REDD+ or PES. The AGB and carbon stocks results obtained were similar to those reported for lowland tropical forests. These could be explained by the dominance and abundance of C. excelsa, which accounted for over 81% of AGB/carbon. The error associated with the estimates of AGB/carbon was 10.58%. We found a negative and significant relationship between AGB and altitude, but the higher AGB values were in middle altitudes (approximatly = 700-1800 m), where the environmental conditions could be favorable to their growth. The carbon storage potential of these forests was higher. However, if the historical rate of the deforestation in the study area continues, the gross emissions of CO2e to the atmosphere could turn these forests in to an important emissions source. Nowadays, it is clear that tropical

  7. Intact tropical forests, new evidence they uptake carbon actively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available According to a paper recently published on Nature, tropical forests play as active carbon sink, absorbing 1.3·109 tons of carbon per year on a global scale. Functional interpretation is not clear yet, but a point is quite easy to realize: tropical forests accumulate and contain more carbon than any other vegetation cover and, if their disruption goes on at current rates, these ecosystems could revert to be a “carbon bomb”, releasing huge amount of CO2 to the atmosphere.

  8. Phylogenetic classification of the world’s tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Janet; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Field, Richard; Aguilar, Salomon; Aguirre, Nikolay; Ahumada, Jorge; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; K, Anitha; Avella, Andres; Mora, Francisco; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Báez, Selene; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L.; Bastin, Jean-François; Bellingham, Peter J.; van den Berg, Eduardo; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Boeckx, Pascal; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Brearley, Francis Q.; Brown, Sandra; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chazdon, Robin L.; Chen, Shengbin; Chhang, Phourin; Chuyong, George; Ewango, Corneille; Coronado, Indiana M.; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, H. S.; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J.; Din, Hazimah; Drake, Donald R.; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; Enoki, Tsutomu; Ensslin, Andreas; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Fischer, Markus; Forshed, Olle; Garcia, Queila Souza; Garkoti, Satish Chandra; Gillespie, Thomas W.; Gillet, Jean-Francois; Gonmadje, Christelle; Granzow-de la Cerda, Iñigo; Griffith, Daniel M.; Grogan, James; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Harris, David J.; Harrison, Rhett D.; Hector, Andy; Hemp, Andreas; Hussain, M. Shah; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Hanum, I. Faridah; Imai, Nobuo; Jansen, Patrick A.; Joly, Carlos Alfredo; Joseph, Shijo; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kessler, Michael; Killeen, Timothy J.; Kooyman, Robert M.; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, William F.; Lawes, Michael J.; Letcher, Susan G.; Lovett, Jon; Lozada, Jose; Lu, Xinghui; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana; Mansor, Asyraf; Marshall, Andrew R.; Martin, Emanuel H.; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Meave, Jorge A.; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre; Metali, Faizah; Medjibe, Vincent P.; Metzger, Jean Paul; Metzker, Thiago; Mohandass, D.; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Nurtjahy, Eddy; de Oliveira, Eddie Lenza; Onrizal; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, N.; Paudel, Ekananda; Perez, Rolando; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Pommer, Ulf; Poorter, Lourens; Qie, Lan; Piedade, Maria Teresa F.; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Powers, Jennifer S.; Prasad, Rama Chandra; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Rangel, Orlando; Reitsma, Jan; Rocha, Diogo S. B.; Rolim, Samir; Rovero, Francesco; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Rutten, Gemma; Mohd. Said, Mohd. Nizam; Saiter, Felipe Z.; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio; dos Santos, João Roberto; Sarker, Swapan Kumar; Schoengart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Sheil, Douglas; Sist, Plinio; Souza, Alexandre F.; Spironello, Wilson Roberto; Sposito, Tereza; Steinmetz, Robert; Stevart, Tariq; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji; Sukri, Rahayu; Sukumar, Raman; Sunderland, Terry; Supriyadi; Suresh, H. S.; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jianwei; Tanner, Ed V. J.; Targhetta, Natalia; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan; Timberlake, Jonathan; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; van Valkenburg, Johan; Van Do, Tran; Van Sam, Hoang; Vandermeer, John H.; Verbeeck, Hans; Vetaas, Ole Reidar; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A.; Webb, Campbell O.; Webb, Edward L.; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge; Williams, John; Wiser, Susan; Wittmann, Florian; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C. Yves; Yap, Sandra L.; Zahawi, Rakan A.; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world’s tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world’s tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northern-hemisphere forests. PMID:29432167

  9. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mascaro

    Full Text Available Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag", which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1 when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  10. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Martin, Roberta E; Anderson, Christopher; Higgins, Mark; Chadwick, K Dana

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus). The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area) for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag"), which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1) when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  11. Degraded Forests in Eastern Africa: management and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.; Tennigkeit, T.

    2010-01-01

    Forest degradation as a result of logging, shifting cultivation, agriculture and urban development is a major issue throughout the tropics. It leads to loss in soil fertility, water resources and biodiversity, as well as contributing to climate change. Efforts are therefore required to try to

  12. From Target to Implementation: Perspectives for the International Governance of Forest Landscape Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Pistorius

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuing depletion of forest resources, particularly in tropical developing countries, has turned vast areas of intact ecosystems into urbanized and agricultural lands. The degree of degradation varies, but in most cases, the ecosystem functions and the ability to provide a variety of ecosystem services are severely impaired. In addition to many other challenges, successful forest restoration of these lands requires considerable resources and funding, but the ecological, economic and social benefits have the potential to outweigh the investment. As a consequence, at the international policy level, restoration is seen as a field of land use activities that provides significant contributions to simultaneously achieving different environmental and social policy objectives. Accordingly, different policy processes at the international policy level have made ecological landscape restoration a global priority, in particular the Convention on Biological Diversity with the Aichi Target 15 agreed upon in 2010, which aims at restoring 15% of all degraded land areas by 2020. While such ambitious policy targets are important for recognizing and agreeing upon solutions for environmental problems, they are unlikely to be further substantiated or governed. The objective of this paper is thus to develop a complementary governance approach to the top-down implementation of the Aichi target. Drawing on collaborative and network governance theories, we discuss the potential of a collaborative networked governance approach and perspectives for overcoming the inherent challenges facing a rapid large-scale restoration of degraded lands.

  13. Hurricane Impacts to Tropical and Temperate Forest Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Boose, Emery Robert; Foster, David Russell; Fluet, Marcheterre

    1994-01-01

    Hurricanes represent an important natural disturbance process to tropical and temperate forests in many coastal areas of the world. The complex patterns of damage created in forests by hurricane winds result from the interaction of meteorological, physiographic, and biotic factors on a range of spatial scales. To improve our understanding of these factors and of the role of catastrophic hurricane wind as a disturbance process, we take an integrative approach. A simple meteorological model (HU...

  14. Whole-island carbon stocks in the tropical Pacific: Implications for mangrove conservation and upland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.C. Donato; J.B. Kauffman; R.A. Mackenzie; A. Ainsworth; A.Z. Pfleeger

    2012-01-01

    Management of forest carbon (C) stocks is an increasingly prominent land-use issue. Knowledge of carbon storage in tropical forests is improving, but regional variations are still poorly understood, and this constrains forest management and conservation efforts associated with carbon valuation mechanisms (e.g., carbon markets). This deficiency is especially pronounced...

  15. Forest Landscape Restoration in the Drylands of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Newton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR involves the ecological restoration of degraded forest landscapes, with the aim of benefiting both biodiversity and human well-being. We first identify four fundamental principles of FLR, based on previous definitions. We then critically evaluate the application of these principles in practice, based on the experience gained during an international, collaborative research project conducted in six dry forest landscapes of Latin America. Research highlighted the potential for FLR; tree species of high socioeconomic value were identified in all study areas, and strong dependence of local communities on forest resources was widely encountered, particularly for fuelwood. We demonstrated that FLR can be achieved through both passive and active restoration approaches, and can be cost-effective if the increased provision of ecosystem services is taken into account. These results therefore highlight the potential for FLR, and the positive contribution that it could make to sustainable development. However, we also encountered a number of challenges to FLR implementation, including the difficulty of achieving strong engagement in FLR activities among local stakeholders, lack of capacity for community-led initiatives, and the lack of an appropriate institutional and regulatory environment to support restoration activities. Successful implementation of FLR will require new collaborative alliances among stakeholders, empowerment and capacity building of local communities to enable them to fully engage with restoration activities, and an enabling public policy context to enable local people to be active participants in the decision making process.

  16. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D; Liang, Shuang; Martin, Katherine L; North, Malcolm P; Koch, George W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2016-03-01

    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and any potential carbon benefits from treatment may depend on the occurrence of wildfire. We sought to determine how forest treatments alter the effects of stochastic wildfire events on the forest carbon balance. We modeled three treatments (control, thin-only, and thin and burn) with and without the occurrence of wildfire. We evaluated how two different probabilities of wildfire occurrence, 1% and 2% per year, might alter the carbon balance of treatments. In the absence of wildfire, we found that thinning and burning treatments initially reduced total ecosystem carbon (TEC) and increased net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB). In the presence of wildfire, the thin and burn treatment TEC surpassed that of the control in year 40 at 2%/yr wildfire probability, and in year 51 at 1%/yr wildfire probability. NECB in the presence of wildfire showed a similar response to the no-wildfire scenarios: both thin-only and thin and burn treatments increased the C sink. Treatments increased TEC by reducing both mean wildfire severity and its variability. While the carbon balance of treatments may differ in more productive forest types, the carbon balance benefits from restoring forest structure and fire in southwestern ponderosa pine forests are clear.

  17. Recovery of Biomass Following Shifting Cultivation in Dry Tropical Forests of the Yucatan

    OpenAIRE

    Read, L; Lawrence, Deborah; Foster, David Russell

    2003-01-01

    Land-use change in the tropics is creating secondary forest at an unprecedented rate. In the tropical Americas, mature dry tropical forest is rapidly being converted to secondary forest during the fallow period of shifting cultivation. This study addresses changes in forest biomass during forest recovery following shifting cultivation of maize (corn) in the Southern Yucatan Peninsular Region (SYPR), Mexico. We sampled stems .1 cm diameter at breast height at 36 study sites in t...

  18. High resolution analysis of tropical forest fragmentation and its impact on the global carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinck, Katharina; Fischer, Rico; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Lehmann, Sebastian; Dantas de Paula, Mateus; Pütz, Sandro; Sexton, Joseph O.; Song, Danxia; Huth, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Deforestation in the tropics is not only responsible for direct carbon emissions but also extends the forest edge wherein trees suffer increased mortality. Here we combine high-resolution (30 m) satellite maps of forest cover with estimates of the edge effect and show that 19% of the remaining area of tropical forests lies within 100 m of a forest edge. The tropics house around 50 million forest fragments and the length of the world's tropical forest edges sums to nearly 50 million km. Edge effects in tropical forests have caused an additional 10.3 Gt (2.1-14.4 Gt) of carbon emissions, which translates into 0.34 Gt per year and represents 31% of the currently estimated annual carbon releases due to tropical deforestation. Fragmentation substantially augments carbon emissions from tropical forests and must be taken into account when analysing the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle.

  19. Scenarios in tropical forest degradation: carbon stock trajectories for REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. de Andrade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human-caused disturbance to tropical rainforests—such as logging and fire—causes substantial losses of carbon stocks. This is a critical issue to be addressed in the context of policy discussions to implement REDD+. This work reviews current scientific knowledge about the temporal dynamics of degradation-induced carbon emissions to describe common patterns of emissions from logging and fire across tropical forest regions. Using best available information, we: (i develop short-term emissions factors (per area for logging and fire degradation scenarios in tropical forests; and (ii describe the temporal pattern of degradation emissions and recovery trajectory post logging and fire disturbance. Results Average emissions from aboveground biomass were 19.9 MgC/ha for logging and 46.0 MgC/ha for fire disturbance, with an average period of study of 3.22 and 2.15 years post-disturbance, respectively. Longer-term studies of post-logging forest recovery suggest that biomass accumulates to pre-disturbance levels within a few decades. Very few studies exist on longer-term (>10 years effects of fire disturbance in tropical rainforests, and recovery patterns over time are unknown. Conclusions This review will aid in understanding whether degradation emissions are a substantial component of country-level emissions portfolios, or whether these emissions would be offset by forest recovery and regeneration.

  20. An ecosystem model for tropical forest disturbance and selective logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoyi Huang; Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Joseph A. Berry

    2008-01-01

    [1] A new three-dimensional version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) ecosystem model (CASA-3D) was developed to simulate regional carbon cycling in tropical forest ecosystems after disturbances such as logging. CASA-3D has the following new features: (1) an alternative approach for calculating absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) using new...

  1. Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, S.L.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Sonké, B.; Affum-Baffoe, K.; Ewango, C.E.N.

    2009-01-01

    The response of terrestrial vegetation to a globally changing environment is central to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide1, 2. The role of tropical forests is critical because they are carbon-dense and highly productive3, 4. Inventory plots across Amazonia show that

  2. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laurence, W. F.; Novotný, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 489, č. 7415 (2012), s. 290-294 ISSN 0028-0836 Grant - others:NSF grant(AU) RCN-0741956 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * tropical forest * collapse Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 38.597, year: 2012 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pdf/nature11318.pdf

  3. Propagation of dry tropical forest trees in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha A. Cervantes Sanchez

    2002-01-01

    There is a distinct lack of technical information on the propagation of native tree species from the dry tropical forest ecosystem in Mexico. This ecosystem has come under heavy human pressures to obtain several products such as specialty woods for fuel, posts for fences and construction, forage, edible fruits, stakes for horticulture crops, and medicinal products. The...

  4. Uncertainty in the spatial distribution of tropical forest biomass: a comparison of pan-tropical maps

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchard, Edward TA; Saatchi, Sassan S; Baccini, Alessandro; Asner, Gregory P; Goetz, Scott J; Harris, Nancy L; Brown, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundMapping the aboveground biomass of tropical forests is essential both for implementing conservation policy and reducing uncertainties in the global carbon cycle. Two medium resolution (500 m – 1000 m) pantropical maps of vegetation biomass have been recently published, and have been widely used by sub-national and national-level activities in relation to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Both maps use similar input data layers, and are driven by t...

  5. Succession of Ephemeral Secondary Forests and Their Limited Role for the Conservation of Floristic Diversity in a Human-Modified Tropical Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Michiel; Hall, Jefferson S.; Craven, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    of these secondary forests to conserve tree species diversity, we also evaluated the diversity of species that can persist as viable metapopulations in a dynamic patchwork of short-lived successional forests, using different assumptions about the average relative size at reproductive maturity. We found...... niche operate simultaneously and shape successional dynamics of the metacommunity of these early secondary forests. A high diversity of plant species across the metacommunity of early secondary forests shows a potential for restoration of diverse forests through natural succession, when trees....... This implies that ephemeral secondary forests have a limited role in the long-term conservation of tree species diversity in human-modified tropical landscapes....

  6. Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basset, Yves; Cizek, Lukas; Cuénoud, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6144 arthropod species from 0.48 hectare and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas on the basis of competing models. The whole 6000-hectare forest reserve most likely sustains 25......,000 arthropod species. Notably, just 1 hectare of rainforest yields >60% of the arthropod biodiversity held in the wider landscape. Models based on plant diversity fitted the accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well. This lends credence to global estimates...

  7. Large trees drive forest aboveground biomass variation in moist lowland forests across the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slik, J.W.F.; Paoli, G.; McGuire, K.; Amaral, I.; Barroso, J.; Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim - Large trees (d.b.h.¿=¿70¿cm) store large amounts of biomass. Several studies suggest that large trees may be vulnerable to changing climate, potentially leading to declining forest biomass storage. Here we determine the importance of large trees for tropical forest biomass storage and explore

  8. Tropical rain-forest matrix quality affects bat assemblage structure in secondary forest patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleut, I.; Levy-Tacher, I.; Galindo-Gonzalez, J.; Boer, de W.F.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.

    2012-01-01

    We studied Phyllostomidae bat assemblage structure in patches of secondary forest dominated by the pioneer tree Ochroma pyramidale, largely (.85%) or partially (,35%) surrounded by a matrix of tropical rain forest, to test 3 hypotheses: the highest bat diversity and richness is observed in the

  9. Pervasive Defaunation of Forest Remnants in a Tropical Biodiversity Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Gustavo R.; Peres, Carlos A.; Guidorizzi, Carlos E.; Gatto, Cassiano A. Ferreira; Kierulff, Maria Cecília M.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical deforestation and forest fragmentation are among the most important biodiversity conservation issues worldwide, yet local extinctions of millions of animal and plant populations stranded in unprotected forest remnants remain poorly explained. Here, we report unprecedented rates of local extinctions of medium to large-bodied mammals in one of the world's most important tropical biodiversity hotspots. We scrutinized 8,846 person-years of local knowledge to derive patch occupancy data for 18 mammal species within 196 forest patches across a 252,669-km2 study region of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We uncovered a staggering rate of local extinctions in the mammal fauna, with only 767 from a possible 3,528 populations still persisting. On average, forest patches retained 3.9 out of 18 potential species occupancies, and geographic ranges had contracted to 0–14.4% of their former distributions, including five large-bodied species that had been extirpated at a regional scale. Forest fragments were highly accessible to hunters and exposed to edge effects and fires, thereby severely diminishing the predictive power of species-area relationships, with the power model explaining only ∼9% of the variation in species richness per patch. Hence, conventional species-area curves provided over-optimistic estimates of species persistence in that most forest fragments had lost species at a much faster rate than predicted by habitat loss alone. PMID:22905103

  10. Pervasive defaunation of forest remnants in a tropical biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R Canale

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation and forest fragmentation are among the most important biodiversity conservation issues worldwide, yet local extinctions of millions of animal and plant populations stranded in unprotected forest remnants remain poorly explained. Here, we report unprecedented rates of local extinctions of medium to large-bodied mammals in one of the world's most important tropical biodiversity hotspots. We scrutinized 8,846 person-years of local knowledge to derive patch occupancy data for 18 mammal species within 196 forest patches across a 252,669-km(2 study region of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We uncovered a staggering rate of local extinctions in the mammal fauna, with only 767 from a possible 3,528 populations still persisting. On average, forest patches retained 3.9 out of 18 potential species occupancies, and geographic ranges had contracted to 0-14.4% of their former distributions, including five large-bodied species that had been extirpated at a regional scale. Forest fragments were highly accessible to hunters and exposed to edge effects and fires, thereby severely diminishing the predictive power of species-area relationships, with the power model explaining only ~9% of the variation in species richness per patch. Hence, conventional species-area curves provided over-optimistic estimates of species persistence in that most forest fragments had lost species at a much faster rate than predicted by habitat loss alone.

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the tropical rain forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chave, J. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique de l' Etat Condense

    2000-07-01

    Mechanisms which drive the dynamics of forest ecosystems are complex, from seedling establishment to pollination, and seed dispersal by animals, running water or wind. These processes are more complex when the ecosystem shelters a large number of species and of vegetative forms, as it is the case in the tropical rainforest. To take them into account, we must develop and use models. I present a review of the fundamental mechanisms for the of a natural forest dynamics - photosynthesis, tree growth, recruitment and mortality - as well as a description of the past and of the present of tropical rainforests. This information is used to develop a spatially-explicit and individual-based forest model. Simplified models are deduced from it, and they serve to address more specific issues, such as the resilience of the forest to climate disturbances, or savanna-forest dynamics. The last topic is related to the spatio-temporal description of tropical plant biodiversity. A detailed introduction to the problem is provided, and models accounting for the maintenance of diversity are compared. These models include non spatial as well a spatial approaches (branching anihilating random walks and voter model with mutation). (orig.)

  12. Mirror image hydrocarbons from Tropical and Boreal forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, emitted in large quantities by trees to attract pollinators and repel herbivores, can exist in mirror image forms called enantiomers. In this study such enantiomeric pairs have been measured in ambient air over extensive forest ecosystems in South America and northern Europe. For the dominant monoterpene, α-pinene, the (−-form was measured in large excess over the (+-form over the Tropical rainforest, whereas the reverse was observed over the Boreal forest. Interestingly, over the Tropical forest (−-α-pinene did not correlate with its own enantiomer, but correlated well with isoprene. The results indicate a remarkable ecosystem scale enantiomeric fingerprint and a nexus between the biosphere and atmosphere.

  13. Fate of Deposited Nitrogen in Tropical Forests in Southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurmesa, Geshere Abdisa

    and denitrification from the ecosystem. Loss of N, in turn, has many negative consequences, including soil and surface water acidification, plant nutrient imbalances and related adverse effects on biological diversities. Increased atmospheric N deposition that is anticipated for tropical regions may further aggravate...... as N export in soil water in tropical forests. Total annual atmospheric deposition of N to the forest in the study period was 51 kg N ha-1yr-1. Nitrogen deposition was dominated by NH4-N due to intensive agricultural NH3 emissions in nearby areas. Nitrate dominated leaching loss from the soil...... after the last addition and by monitoring leaching of 15N in soil water on a monthly basis. The result showed that deposited N is effectively retained in plant and soil pools resembling and exceeding that observed for temperate forests. Furthermore, increased N input decreased the N retention efficiency...

  14. Indigenous land tenure and tropical forest management in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.H. (The World Bank, Environment Department, Washington DC (United States)); Wali, A. (University of Maryland, College of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Department of Anthropology, College Park, MD (United States))

    1994-12-01

    Indigenous peoples have received much attention as potential resource managers of threatened tropical forest ecosystems. Using data from Latin America, this article argues that fundamental changes need to take place in the legal recognition and demarcation of indigenous territories in order for this potential to be fulfilled. A comparison is made between different national land-tenure models for forest-dwelling indigenous peoples and a new model proposed by Latin American indigenous organizations. This comparison suggests that not only do indigenous peoples need to be provided with some degree of control over their territories and resources, but there needs to be a new type of partnership among indigenous peoples, the scientific community, national governments and international development agencies for the management of tropical forests. 37 refs, 3 tabs

  15. Meeting forest restoration challenges: Using the Target Plant Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis; Jeremy Pinto; Diane L. Haase; Kim W. Wilkinson; Anthony S. Davis

    2016-01-01

    Meeting forest restoration challenges relies on successful establishment of plant materials (e.g., seeds, cuttings, rooted cuttings, or seedlings, etc.; hereafter simply "seedlings"). The Target Plant Concept (TPC) provides a flexible framework that nursery managers and their clients can use to improve the survival and growth of these seedlings. The...

  16. Restoring bottomland hardwood forests: A comparison of four techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Cardiner; James P. Shepard; Callie J. Schweitzer; C. Jeffrey Portwood; Lamar Dorris

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale afforestation of former agricultural lands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) is one of the largest forest restoration efforts in the world and continues to attract interest from landowners, policy makers, scientists, and managers. The decision by many landowners to afforest these lands has been aided in part by the increased availability of...

  17. Dynamics of buckbrush populations under simulated forest restoration alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Huffman; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Plant population models are valuable tools for assessing ecological tradeoffs between forest management approaches. In addition, these models can provide insight on plant life history patterns and processes important for persistence and recovery of populations in changing environments. In this study, we evaluated a set of ecological restoration alternatives for their...

  18. Conservation and restoration of forested wetlands: new techniques and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Johnston; Steve Hartley; Antonio Martucci

    2000-01-01

    A partnership of state and federal agencies and private organizations is developing advanced spatial analysis techniques applied for conservation and restoration of forested wetlands. The project goal is to develop an application to assist decisionmakers in defining the eligibility of land sites for entry in the Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) of the U.S. Department of...

  19. Restoring southern Ontario forests by managing succession in conifer plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Ken A. Elliott; Daniel C. Dey; Eric Boysen

    2008-01-01

    Thinning and underplanting of conifer plantations to promote natural succession in southern Ontario's forests for restoration purposes was examined in a young red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation. Eleven years after application of five thinning treatments, seedling diameter, height, and stem volume of planted white ash (Fraxinus...

  20. On the Use of Shortwave Infrared for Tree Species Discrimination in Tropical Semideciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M. P.; Zortea, M.; Zanotta, D. C.; Féret, J. B.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Souza Filho, C. R.

    2015-08-01

    Tree species mapping in tropical forests provides valuable insights for forest managers. Keystone species can be located for collection of seeds for forest restoration, reducing fieldwork costs. However, mapping of tree species in tropical forests using remote sensing data is a challenge due to high floristic and spectral diversity. Little is known about the use of different spectral regions as most of studies performed so far used visible/near-infrared (390-1000 nm) features. In this paper we show the contribution of shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1045-2395 nm) for tree species discrimination in a tropical semideciduous forest. Using high-resolution hyperspectral data we also simulated WorldView-3 (WV-3) multispectral bands for classification purposes. Three machine learning methods were tested to discriminate species at the pixel-level: Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machines with Linear (L-SVM) and Radial Basis Function (RBF-SVM) kernels, and Random Forest (RF). Experiments were performed using all and selected features from the VNIR individually and combined with SWIR. Feature selection was applied to evaluate the effects of dimensionality reduction and identify potential wavelengths that may optimize species discrimination. Using VNIR hyperspectral bands, RBF-SVM achieved the highest average accuracy (77.4%). Inclusion of the SWIR increased accuracy to 85% with LDA. The same pattern was also observed when WV-3 simulated channels were used to classify the species. The VNIR bands provided and accuracy of 64.2% for LDA, which was increased to 79.8 % using the new SWIR bands that are operationally available in this platform. Results show that incorporating SWIR bands increased significantly average accuracy for both the hyperspectral data and WorldView-3 simulated bands.

  1. Tree diversity in the tropical dry forest of Bannerghatta National Park in Eastern Ghats, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishna S. Puttakame

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree species inventories, particularly of poorly known dry deciduous forests, are needed to protect and restore forests in degraded landscapes. A study of forest stand structure, and species diversity and density of trees with girth at breast height (GBH ≥10 cm was conducted in four management zones of Bannerghatta National Park (BNP in the Eastern Ghats of Southern India. We identified 128 tree species belonging to 45 families in 7.9 hectares. However, 44 species were represented by ≤ 2 individuals. Mean diversity values per site for the dry forest of BNP were: tree composition (23.8 ±7.6, plant density (100.69 ± 40.02, species diversity (2.56 ± 0.44 and species richness (10.48 ± 4.05. Tree diversity was not significantly different (P>0.05 across the four management zones in the park. However, the number of tree species identified significantly (P<0.05 increased with increasing number of sampling sites, but majority of the species were captured. Similarly, there were significant variations (p<0.05 between tree diameter class distributions. Juveniles accounted for 87% of the tree population. The structure of the forest was not homogeneous, with sections ranging from poorly structured to highly stratified configurations. The study suggests that there was moderate tree diversity in the tropical dry thorn forest of Bannerghatta National Park, but the forest was relatively young.

  2. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chazdon, R.L.; Broadbent, E.N.; Rozendaal, Danae; Bongers, F.; Jakovac, A.C.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Pena Claros, M.; Poorter, L.

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We

  3. Forest products cluster development in central Arizona—implications for landscape-scale forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Nicholls

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, close to 50,000 ac of hazardous fuels have been mechanically treated in east-central Arizona as part of the USDA Forest Service's first 10-year stewardship project on national forest lands. The need for coordinated wood products and biomass utilization in Arizona is likely to increase as broad-scale restoration treatments across Arizona's national...

  4. Tropical forest carbon assessment: integrating satellite and airborne mapping approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale carbon mapping is needed to support the UNFCCC program to reduce deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). Managers of forested land can potentially increase their carbon credits via detailed monitoring of forest cover, loss and gain (hectares), and periodic estimates of changes in forest carbon density (tons ha -1 ). Satellites provide an opportunity to monitor changes in forest carbon caused by deforestation and degradation, but only after initial carbon densities have been assessed. New airborne approaches, especially light detection and ranging (LiDAR), provide a means to estimate forest carbon density over large areas, which greatly assists in the development of practical baselines. Here I present an integrated satellite-airborne mapping approach that supports high-resolution carbon stock assessment and monitoring in tropical forest regions. The approach yields a spatially resolved, regional state-of-the-forest carbon baseline, followed by high-resolution monitoring of forest cover and disturbance to estimate carbon emissions. Rapid advances and decreasing costs in the satellite and airborne mapping sectors are already making high-resolution carbon stock and emissions assessments viable anywhere in the world.

  5. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  6. Estimating forest carbon stocks in tropical dry forests of Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation and mapping of forest dendrometric characteristics such as carbon stocks using remote sensing techniques is fundamental for improved understanding of the role of forests in the carbon cycle and climate change. In this study, we tested whether and to what extent spectral transforms, i.e. vegetation indices ...

  7. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W. L.; Veblen, T. T.; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  8. Upscaling species richness and abundances in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo, Anna; Suweis, Samir; Formentin, Marco; Favretti, Marco; Volkov, Igor; Banavar, Jayanth R; Azaele, Sandro; Maritan, Amos

    2017-10-01

    The quantification of tropical tree biodiversity worldwide remains an open and challenging problem. More than two-fifths of the number of worldwide trees can be found either in tropical or in subtropical forests, but only ≈0.000067% of species identities are known. We introduce an analytical framework that provides robust and accurate estimates of species richness and abundances in biodiversity-rich ecosystems, as confirmed by tests performed on both in silico-generated and real forests. Our analysis shows that the approach outperforms other methods. In particular, we find that upscaling methods based on the log-series species distribution systematically overestimate the number of species and abundances of the rare species. We finally apply our new framework on 15 empirical tropical forest plots and quantify the minimum percentage cover that should be sampled to achieve a given average confidence interval in the upscaled estimate of biodiversity. Our theoretical framework confirms that the forests studied are comprised of a large number of rare or hyper-rare species. This is a signature of critical-like behavior of species-rich ecosystems and can provide a buffer against extinction.

  9. Damage-controlled logging in managed tropical rain forest in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrison, J.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about worldwide deforestation and exploitation of the tropical rain forests has led to friction between national governments, wood industries and timber trade on the one hand, and scientists and environmental organizations on the other. One way to safeguard the tropical rain forests is to avoid human interference and to use forests only as nature reserves and as buffer zones of environmental protection. Some vulnerable tropical rain forests and those with unique flora and fau...

  10. Soil mineralogy and microbes determine forest life history strategy and carbon cycling in humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, J.; Verbruggen, E.; Peñuelas, J.; Janssens, I. A.; Grau, O.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests account for over one third of global terrestrial gross primary productivity and cycle more C than any other ecosystem on Earth. However, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of how such high productivity is maintained on the old, highly weathered and phosphorus depleted soils in the tropics. We hypothesized that heterogeneity in soil texture, mineralogy and microbial community composition may be the major drivers of differences in soil C storage and P limitation across tropical forests. We sampled 12 forest sites across a 200 km transect in the humid neo-tropics of French Guiana that varied in soil texture, precipitation and mineralogy. We found that soil texture was a major driver of soil carbon stocks and forest life history strategy, where sandy forests have lower soil C stocks, slower turnover and decomposition and a more closed nutrient cycle while clayey forests have higher soil C stocks, faster turnover and a more leaky nutrient cycle (using natural abundance stable isotope evidence). We found that although the presence of Al and Fe oxides in the clayey soils occludes soil organic matter and P, a greater abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi help forests to access occluded P in clayey soils fueling higher turnover and faster decomposition rates. Evidence from a laboratory incubation of tropical soils with nutrient additions further demonstrates the de-coupling of microbial P demands from C:N limitations providing further evidence for the need to examine microbial stoichiometry to explain C cycling in the P-limited tropics. We argue that microbial community composition and physiological demands, constrained within the limitations of soil mineralogical reactivity, largely controls nutrient and C cycling in tropical forest soils. Together our observational field study and laboratory incubation provide a unique dataset to shed light on the mineralogical and microbial controls on C and nutrient cycling in tropical soils. By integrating

  11. Effectiveness of Africa's tropical protected areas for maintaining forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, J N; De Vos, A; Ament, J M; Cumming, G S

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forests. Tropical forests house a substantial portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are heavily affected by anthropogenic activity. We analyzed park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control sites. Although significant geographical variation existed among parks, the majority of African parks had significantly less forest loss within their boundaries (e.g., Mahale Park had 34 times less forest loss within its boundary) than control sites. Accessibility was a significant driver of forest loss. Relatively inaccessible areas had a higher probability (odds ratio >1, p < 0.001) of forest loss but only in ineffective parks, and relatively accessible areas had a higher probability of forest loss but only in effective parks. Smaller parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks (T = -2.32, p < 0.05), and older parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than younger parks (F 2,154 = -4.11, p < 0.001). Our analyses, the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrated the complexity of factors (such as geographical variation, accessibility, and park size and age) influencing the ability of a park to curb forest loss within its boundaries. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Redefining Secondary Forests in the Mexican Forest Code: Implications for Management, Restoration, and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Román-Dañobeytia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Forest Code establishes structural reference values to differentiate between secondary and old-growth forests and requires a management plan when secondary forests become old-growth and potentially harvestable forests. The implications of this regulation for forest management, restoration, and conservation were assessed in the context of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, which is located in the Yucatan Peninsula. The basal area and stem density thresholds currently used by the legislation to differentiate old-growth from secondary forests are 4 m2/ha and 15 trees/ha (trees with a diameter at breast height of >25 cm; however, our research indicates that these values should be increased to 20 m2/ha and 100 trees/ha, respectively. Given that a management plan is required when secondary forests become old-growth forests, many landowners avoid forest-stand development by engaging slash-and-burn agriculture or cattle grazing. We present evidence that deforestation and land degradation may prevent the natural regeneration of late-successional tree species of high ecological and economic importance. Moreover, we discuss the results of this study in the light of an ongoing debate in the Yucatan Peninsula between policy makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, landowners and researchers, regarding the modification of this regulation to redefine the concept of acahual (secondary forest and to facilitate forest management and restoration with valuable timber tree species.

  13. Why do forest products become less available? A pan-tropical comparison of drivers of forest-resource degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Kathleen; Gerstner, Katharina; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R.; Herold, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf; Wunder, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Forest products provide an important source of income and wellbeing for rural smallholder communities across the tropics. Although tropical forest products frequently become over-exploited, only few studies explicitly address the dynamics of degradation in response to socio-economic drivers. Our study addresses this gap by analyzing the factors driving changes in tropical forest products in the perception of rural smallholder communities. Using the poverty and environment network global datas...

  14. Short-term ecological consequences of collaborative restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer S. Briggs; Paula J. Fornwalt; Jonas A. Feinstein

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration treatments are being implemented at an increasing rate in ponderosa pine and other dry conifer forests across the western United States, via the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) program. In this program, collaborative stakeholder groups work with National Forests (NFs) to adaptively implement and monitor...

  15. Infrared heater system for warming tropical forest understory plants and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Kimball; Aura M. Alonso-Rodríguez; Molly A. Cavaleri; Sasha C. Reed; Grizelle González; Tana E. Wood

    2018-01-01

    The response of tropical forests to global warming is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting the future carbon balance of Earth. To determine the likely effects of elevated temperatures on tropical forest understory plants and soils, as well as other ecosystems, an infrared (IR) heater system was developed to provide in situ warming for the Tropical Responses...

  16. Large lianas as hyperdynamic elements of the tropical forest canopy

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, O.L.; Vásquez Martínez, R.; Monteagudo Mendoza, A.; Baker, T.R.; Núñez Vargas, P.

    2005-01-01

    Lianas (woody vines) are an important component of lowland tropical forests.\\ud We report large liana and tree inventory and dynamics data from Amazonia over periods\\ud of up to 24 years, making this the longest geographically extensive study of liana ecology\\ud to date. We use these results to address basic questions about the ecology of large lianas\\ud in mature forests and their interactions with trees. In one intensively studied site we find\\ud that large lianas (≥10 cm diameter) represen...

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. H. Pearson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Results Here we provide a consistent estimation of forest degradation emissions between 2005 and 2010 across 74 developing countries covering 2.2 billion hectares of forests. We estimated annual emissions of 2.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide, of which 53% were derived from timber harvest, 30% from woodfuel harvest and 17% from forest fire. These percentages differed by region: timber harvest was as high as 69% in South and Central America and just 31% in Africa; woodfuel harvest was 35% in Asia, and just 10% in South and Central America; and fire ranged from 33% in Africa to only 5% in Asia. Of the total emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest degradation accounted for 25%. In 28 of the 74 countries, emissions from forest degradation exceeded those from deforestation. Conclusions The results of this study clearly demonstrate the importance of accounting greenhouse gases from forest degradation by human activities. The scale of emissions presented indicates that the exclusion of forest degradation from national and international GHG accounting is distorting. This work helps identify where emissions are likely significant, but policy developments are needed to guide when and how accounting should be undertaken. Furthermore, ongoing research is needed to create and enhance cost-effective accounting approaches.

  18. Whole-ecosystem experimental manipulations of tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Fayle, Tom M; Turner, Edgar Clive; Basset, Yves; Ewers, Robert M; Reynolds, Glen; Novotny, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are highly diverse systems involving extraordinary numbers of interactions between species, with each species responding in a different way to the abiotic environment. Understanding how these systems function and predicting how they respond to anthropogenic global change is extremely challenging. We argue for the necessity of ‘whole-ecosystem’ experimental manipulations, in which the entire ecosystem is targeted, either to reveal the functioning of the...

  19. Layout Guide for Burnt and Un-burnt Tropical Forest: The Diversity of Forest Plants and Insetcs for Sustainable Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watiniasih, N. L.; Tambunan, J.; Merdana, I. M.; Antara, I. N. G.

    2018-04-01

    Forest fire is a common phenomenon in tropical forest likes in Indonesia. Beside the effect of soaring heat and lack of rain during dry season due to the tropical climate, farming system is also reported as one reason of forest fire in Indonesia. People of surrounding areas and neighbouring countries are suffering from the effect of forest fire. Plants and animals are the most suffer from this occurrence that they cannot escape. This study aimed to investigate the effect of previously burnt and un-burnt tropical forest in Borneo Island on the plant and insect diversity of the tropical forest. The result of the study found that the plants in previously burnt forest area was dominated by one species, while higher and more stable plant diversity was found in un-burnt forest. Although the number of individual insects was higher in previously burnt tropical forest, but the insects was more diverse in un-burnt tropical forest. The alteration of environmental conditions in previously burnt and un-burnt forest indicate that the energy held in natural forest support higher number and more stable insects than previously burnt forest.

  20. Visions of Restoration in Fire-Adapted Forest Landscapes: Lessons from the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgenson, Lauren S.; Ryan, Clare M.; Halpern, Charles B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Belote, R. Travis; Franklin, Jerry F.; Haugo, Ryan D.; Nelson, Cara R.; Waltz, Amy E. M.

    2017-02-01

    Collaborative approaches to natural resource management are becoming increasingly common on public lands. Negotiating a shared vision for desired conditions is a fundamental task of collaboration and serves as a foundation for developing management objectives and monitoring strategies. We explore the complex socio-ecological processes involved in developing a shared vision for collaborative restoration of fire-adapted forest landscapes. To understand participant perspectives and experiences, we analyzed interviews with 86 respondents from six collaboratives in the western U.S., part of the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program established to encourage collaborative, science-based restoration on U.S. Forest Service lands. Although forest landscapes and group characteristics vary considerably, collaboratives faced common challenges to developing a shared vision for desired conditions. Three broad categories of challenges emerged: meeting multiple objectives, collaborative capacity and trust, and integrating ecological science and social values in decision-making. Collaborative groups also used common strategies to address these challenges, including some that addressed multiple challenges. These included use of issue-based recommendations, field visits, and landscape-level analysis; obtaining support from local agency leadership, engaging facilitators, and working in smaller groups (sub-groups); and science engagement. Increased understanding of the challenges to, and strategies for, developing a shared vision of desired conditions is critical if other collaboratives are to learn from these efforts.

  1. Visions of Restoration in Fire-Adapted Forest Landscapes: Lessons from the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgenson, Lauren S; Ryan, Clare M; Halpern, Charles B; Bakker, Jonathan D; Belote, R Travis; Franklin, Jerry F; Haugo, Ryan D; Nelson, Cara R; Waltz, Amy E M

    2017-02-01

    Collaborative approaches to natural resource management are becoming increasingly common on public lands. Negotiating a shared vision for desired conditions is a fundamental task of collaboration and serves as a foundation for developing management objectives and monitoring strategies. We explore the complex socio-ecological processes involved in developing a shared vision for collaborative restoration of fire-adapted forest landscapes. To understand participant perspectives and experiences, we analyzed interviews with 86 respondents from six collaboratives in the western U.S., part of the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program established to encourage collaborative, science-based restoration on U.S. Forest Service lands. Although forest landscapes and group characteristics vary considerably, collaboratives faced common challenges to developing a shared vision for desired conditions. Three broad categories of challenges emerged: meeting multiple objectives, collaborative capacity and trust, and integrating ecological science and social values in decision-making. Collaborative groups also used common strategies to address these challenges, including some that addressed multiple challenges. These included use of issue-based recommendations, field visits, and landscape-level analysis; obtaining support from local agency leadership, engaging facilitators, and working in smaller groups (sub-groups); and science engagement. Increased understanding of the challenges to, and strategies for, developing a shared vision of desired conditions is critical if other collaboratives are to learn from these efforts.

  2. Aboveground carbon loss in natural and managed tropical forests from 2000 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyukavina, A; Hansen, M C; Potapov, P V; Krylov, A M; Turubanova, S; Baccini, A; Houghton, R A; Goetz, S J; Stehman, S V

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests provide global climate regulation ecosystem services and their clearing is a significant source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and resultant radiative forcing of climate change. However, consensus on pan-tropical forest carbon dynamics is lacking. We present a new estimate that employs recommended good practices to quantify gross tropical forest aboveground carbon (AGC) loss from 2000 to 2012 through the integration of Landsat-derived tree canopy cover, height, intactness and forest cover loss and GLAS-lidar derived forest biomass. An unbiased estimate of forest loss area is produced using a stratified random sample with strata derived from a wall-to-wall 30 m forest cover loss map. Our sample-based results separate the gross loss of forest AGC into losses from natural forests (0.59 PgC yr −1 ) and losses from managed forests (0.43 PgC yr −1 ) including plantations, agroforestry systems and subsistence agriculture. Latin America accounts for 43% of gross AGC loss and 54% of natural forest AGC loss, with Brazil experiencing the highest AGC loss for both categories at national scales. We estimate gross tropical forest AGC loss and natural forest loss to account for 11% and 6% of global year 2012 CO 2 emissions, respectively. Given recent trends, natural forests will likely constitute an increasingly smaller proportion of tropical forest GHG emissions and of global emissions as fossil fuel consumption increases, with implications for the valuation of co-benefits in tropical forest conservation. (letter)

  3. Processes and lands for sequestering carbon in the tropical forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Brown; Ariel E. Lugo; Louis R. Iverson

    1992-01-01

    Balancing the C budget in the tropics has been hindered by the assumption that those forests not undergoing deforestation are in C steady state with respect to their C pools and thus with the atmosphere. The long history of human activity in tropical forests suggests otherwise. In this paper we discuss the forest compartments into which C can be stored, what the likely...

  4. Effects of nutrient additions on ecosystem carbon cycle in a Puerto Rican tropical wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    YIQING LI; MING XU; XIAOMING ZOU

    2006-01-01

    Wet tropical forests play a critical role in global ecosystem carbon (C) cycle, but C allocation and the response of different C pools to nutrient addition in these forests remain poorly understood. We measured soil organic carbon (SOC), litterfall, root biomass, microbial biomass and soil physical and chemical properties in a wet tropical forest from May 1996 to July...

  5. Polarimetric data for tropical forest monitoring : studies at the Colombian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Fernández, M.

    2002-01-01



    An urgent need exists for accurate data on the actual tropical forest extent, deforestation, forest structure, regeneration and diversity. The availability of accurate land cover maps and tropical forest type maps, and the possibility to update these maps frequently, is of

  6. Improving predictions of tropical forest response to climate change through integration of field studies and ecosystem modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohui Feng; María Uriarte; Grizelle González; Sasha Reed; Jill Thompson; Jess K. Zimmerman; Lora Murphy

    2018-01-01

    Tropical forests play a critical role in carbon and water cycles at a global scale. Rapid climate change is anticipated in tropical regions over the coming decades and, under a warmer and drier climate, tropical forests are likely to be net sources of carbon rather than sinks. However, our understanding of tropical forest response and feedback to climate change is very...

  7. Forest composition modifies litter dynamics and decomposition in regenerating tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Erik M; Waring, Bonnie G; Schilling, Jonathan S; Powers, Jennifer S

    2016-09-01

    We investigated how forest composition, litter quality, and rainfall interact to affect leaf litter decomposition across three successional tropical dry forests in Costa Rica. We monitored litter stocks and bulk litter turnover in 18 plots that exhibit substantial variation in soil characteristics, tree community structure, fungal communities (including forests dominated by ecto- or arbuscular mycorrhizal host trees), and forest age. Simultaneously, we decomposed three standard litter substrates over a 6-month period spanning an unusually intense drought. Decay rates of standard substrates depended on the interaction between litter identity and forest type. Decomposition rates were correlated with tree and soil fungal community composition as well as soil fertility, but these relationships differed among litter types. In low fertility soils dominated by ectomycorrhizal oak trees, bulk litter turnover rates were low, regardless of soil moisture. By contrast, in higher fertility soils that supported mostly arbuscular mycorrhizal trees, bulk litter decay rates were strongly dependent on seasonal water availability. Both measures of decomposition increased with forest age, as did the frequency of termite-mediated wood decay. Taken together, our results demonstrate that soils and forest age exert strong control over decomposition dynamics in these tropical dry forests, either directly through effects on microclimate and nutrients, or indirectly by affecting tree and microbial community composition and traits, such as litter quality.

  8. Nutrient additions to a tropical rain forest drive substantial soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Cleveland, Cory C.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial biosphere–atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange is dominated by tropical forests, where photosynthetic carbon (C) uptake is thought to be phosphorus (P)-limited. In P-poor tropical forests, P may also limit organic matter decomposition and soil C losses. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment to show that P fertilization stimulates soil respiration in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In the early wet season, when soluble organic matter inputs to soil are hig...

  9. Diameter growth performance of tree functional groups in Puerto Rican secondary tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Adame, Patricia; Brandeis, Thomas J; Uriarte, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Yet, the high species diversity of mixed tropical forests, including many uncommon sp...

  10. Pan tropical biomass equations for Mexico's dry forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Návar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a set of robust regional M-tree allometric equations for Mexico's tropical dry forests and their application to a forest inventory dataset for the States of Durango and Sinaloa, Mexico. Calculated M data from 15 reported equations were fitted, applied and validated for regional and global models. Proposed theoretical models, empirically derived equations, as well as global and local reported equations were fitted and applied to calculated M-tree data using wood specific gravity, diameter at breast height, and top height as exogenous variables. Empirically-derived, computer-based equations assessed the M-tree evaluations slightly better than the theoretical, the global and the local models. However, the theoretical models projected compatible M-tree values and deserve further attention once wood specific gravity data are collected in the field. Using the best fit equation, mean M plot density values of 30, 41 and 35 Mg ha-1 were estimated from 57 plots (1,600 m² each, 217 plots (1,000 m² each and 166 plots (1,000 m² each in the tropical dry forests of the States of Durango, Tiniaquis and Vado Hondo (Sinaloa, respectively. The large sample size, the richness of the tested allometric models, the economic and ecological importance of this data-source, and the spatial coverage of these equations made this dataset uniquely useful for biomass, charcoal, and other bio-energy estimations, as well as for understanding the inherent heterogeneity of the stand-structure in dynamic tropical forest environments.

  11. Why do forest products become less available? A pan-tropical comparison of drivers of forest-resource degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Kathleen; Gerstner, Katharina; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R.; Herold, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf; Wunder, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Forest products provide an important source of income and wellbeing for rural smallholder communities across the tropics. Although tropical forest products frequently become over-exploited, only few studies explicitly address the dynamics of degradation in response to socio-economic drivers. Our

  12. Indigenous exploitation and management of tropical forest resources: an evolutionary continuum in forest-people interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    Since the early 1980s several new approaches towards forest management, which include active participation of local communities, have been tried out in many tropical regions. As a result of these efforts recognition has increased about the various ways in which many local communities are already

  13. Sustainable forest management of tropical forests can reduce carbon emissions and stabilize timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Sasaki; G.P. Asner; Yude Pan; W. Knorr; P.B. Durst; H.O. Ma; I. Abe; A.J. Lowe; L.P. Koh

    2016-01-01

    The REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate Change has provided opportunities to manage tropical forests for timber production and carbon emission reductions. To determine the appropriate loggingtechniques, we analyzed potential timber production and carbon emission reductions under two logging techniques over a 40-year period of selective...

  14. Geospatial Assessment of Forest Fragmentation and its Implications for Ecological Processes in Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepoju Kayode Adewale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the patterns of spatio-temporal configuration imposed on a forest landscape in Southwestern Nigeria due to fragmentation for the period 1986 – 2010 in order to understand the relationship between landscape patterns and the ecological processes influencing the distribution of species in tropical forest environment. Time-series Landsat TM and ETM satellite images and forest inventory data were pre-processed and classified into four landuse/landcover categories using maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Fragstats software was used for the computation of seven landscape and six class level metrics to provide indicators of fragmentation and landscape connectivity from the classified images.

  15. Forest structure, diversity and soil properties in a dry tropical forest in Rajasthan, Western India

    OpenAIRE

    J. I. Nirmal Kumar,; Kanti Patel,; Rohit Bhoi Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Structure, species composition, and soil properties of a dry tropical forest in Rajasthan Western India, were examined by establishment of 25 plots. The forest was characterized by a relatively low canopy and a large number of small-diameter trees. Mean canopy height for this forest was 10 m and stands contained an average of 995 stems ha-1 (≥ 3.0 cm DBH); 52% of those stems were smaller than 10 cm DBH. The total basal area was 46.35 m2ha-1, of which Tectona grandis L. contributed 48%. The fo...

  16. Quantification and identification of lightning damage in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Gora, Evan M; Burchfield, Jeffrey M; Bitzer, Phillip M; Detto, Matteo

    2017-07-01

    Accurate estimates of tree mortality are essential for the development of mechanistic forest dynamics models, and for estimating carbon storage and cycling. However, identifying agents of tree mortality is difficult and imprecise. Although lightning kills thousands of trees each year and is an important agent of mortality in some forests, the frequency and distribution of lightning-caused tree death remain unknown for most forests. Moreover, because all evidence regarding the effects of lightning on trees is necessarily anecdotal and post hoc, rigorous tests of hypotheses regarding the ecological effects of lightning are impossible. We developed a combined electronic sensor/camera-based system for the location and characterization of lightning strikes to the forest canopy in near real time and tested the system in the forest of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Cameras mounted on towers provided continuous video recordings of the forest canopy that were analyzed to determine the locations of lightning strikes. We used a preliminary version of this system to record and locate 18 lightning strikes to the forest over a 3-year period. Data from field surveys of known lightning strike locations (obtained from the camera system) enabled us to develop a protocol for reliable, ground-based identification of suspected lightning damage to tropical trees. In all cases, lightning damage was relatively inconspicuous; it would have been overlooked by ground-based observers having no knowledge of the event. We identified three types of evidence that can be used to consistently identify lightning strike damage in tropical forests: (1) localized and directionally biased branch mortality associated with flashover among tree and sapling crowns, (2) mortality of lianas or saplings near lianas, and (3) scorched or wilting epiphytic and hemiepiphytic plants. The longitudinal trunk scars that are typical of lightning-damaged temperate trees were never observed in this study. Given the

  17. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  18. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Lambin, Eric F; Carlson, Kimberly M; Fagan, Matthew E; DeFries, Ruth S; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H; Macedo, Marcia N; Curran, Lisa M; Dyer, George A; Gibbs, Holly K; Morton, Douglas C; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  19. Seed rain dynamics following disturbance exclusion in a secondary tropical dry forest in Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccon, Eliane; Hernández, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    In most of the legally protected areas in Mexico local inhabitants use natural resources, such as fire wood or cattle grazing. These frequent but low-intensity disturbances have consequences at various levels of the tropical ecosystems and strongly impact forest structure and its regeneration capacity. Despite their importance, the effects of these perturbations in many aspects of tropical forest ecology and in the forest's capacity to recover after disturbance exclusion remain poorly understood. Understanding the impact of these processes on tropical forests is necessary for rehabilitating these forests and enhancing their productivity. In this study, we evaluate the impact of twelve years of exclusion (E) of cattle grazing and fire wood extraction in the composition and dynamics of seed rain, and compare this assessment to a similar analysis in an area where these perturbations continued (without exclusion, WE). We found a strong seasonality in seed rain (96% of seeds fell in the dry season) in both areas. There were no significant differences between E and WE sites in relation to overall seed density, species richness and diversity. However, the distribution along the year of seed species density was significantly different among the E and WE sites. The Jaccard's similarity index between E and WE sites was relatively low (0.57). Barochory was the most common dispersal mode observed among the 23 species in terms of seed species density (48%), followed by anemochory (39%) and zoochory (13%). In relation to seed density, anemochory was the most frequent dispersal mode (88%). Most species in the zone were categorized as small seeds (92%), and there were no significant differences in the distribution of seed size between E and WE. The spatial pattern of dispersal of the four species with the highest relative importance value index, in both areas, was aggregated. Twelve years of disturbance exclusion were not enough to fully restore the seed rain of the area; some

  20. Vulnerability of tropical forest ecosystems and forest dependent communities to droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, D J; Vogt, K A; Gmur, S J; Scullion, J J; Suntana, A S; Daryanto, S; Sigurðardóttir, R

    2016-01-01

    Energy captured by and flowing through a forest ecosystem can be indexed by its total Net Primary Productivity (NPP). This forest NPP can also be a reflection of its sensitivity to, and its ability to adapt to, any climate change while also being harvested by humans. However detecting and identifying the vulnerability of forest and human ecosystems to climate change requires information on whether these coupled social and ecological systems are able to maintain functionality while responding to environmental variability. To better understand what parameters might be representative of environmental variability, we compiled a metadata analysis of 96 tropical forest sites. We found that three soil textural classes (i.e., sand, sandy loam and clay) had significant but different relationships between NPP and precipitation levels. Therefore, assessing the vulnerability of forests and forest dependent communities to drought was carried out using data from those sites that had one of those three soil textural classes. For example, forests growing on soil textures of sand and clay had NPP levels decreasing as precipitation levels increased, in contrast to those forest sites that had sandy loam soils where NPP levels increased. Also, forests growing on sandy loam soil textures appeared better adapted to grow at lower precipitation levels compared to the sand and clay textured soils. In fact in our tropical database the lowest precipitation level found for the sandy loam soils was 821 mm yr(-1) compared to sand at 1739 mm yr(-1) and clay at 1771 mm yr(-1). Soil texture also determined the level of NPP reached by a forest, i.e., forest growing on sandy loam and clay reached low-medium NPP levels while higher NPP levels (i.e., medium, high) were found on sand-textured soils. Intermediate precipitation levels (>1800-3000 mm yr(-1)) were needed to grow forests at the medium and high NPP levels. Low thresholds of NPP were identified at both low (∼750 mm) and high precipitation

  1. Monitoring temporal Vegetation changes in Lao tropical forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phompila, Chittana; Lewis, Megan; Clarke, Kenneth; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    Studies on changes in vegetation are essential for understanding the interaction between humans and the environment. These studies provide key information for land use assessment, terrestrial ecosystem monitoring, carbon flux modelling and impacts of global climate change. The primary purpose of this study was to detect temporal vegetation changes in tropical forests in the southern part of Lao PDR from 2001-2012. The study investigated the annual vegetation phenological response of dominant land cover types across the study area and relationships to seasonal precipitation and temperature. Improved understanding of intra-annual patterns of vegetation variation was useful to detect longer term changes in vegetation. The breaks for additive season and trend (BFAST) approach was implemented to detect changes in these land cover types throughout the 2001-2012 period. We used the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (MOD13Q1 products) and monthly rainfall and temperature data obtained from the Meteorology and Hydrology Department, Ministry of Agriculture-Forestry, published by Lao National Statistical Centre in this research. EVI well documented the annual seasonal growth of vegetation and clearly distinguished the characteristic phenology of four different land use types; native forest, plantation, agriculture and mixed wooded/cleared area. Native forests maintained high EVI throughout the year, while plantations, wooded/cleared areas and agriculture showed greater inter-annual variation, with minimum EVI at the end of the dry season in April and maximum EVI in September-October, around two months after the wet season peak in rainfall. The BFAST analysis detected abrupt temporal changes in vegetation in the tropical forests, especially in a large conversion of mixed wooded/cleared area into plantation. Within the study area from 2001-2012 there has been an overall decreasing trend of vegetation cover for

  2. Light Diffusion in the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  3. Do PES Improve the Governance of Forest Restoration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Pirard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Payments for Environmental Services (PES are praised as innovative policy instruments and they influence the governance of forest restoration efforts in two major ways. The first is the establishment of multi-stakeholder agencies as intermediary bodies between funders and planters to manage the funds and to distribute incentives to planters. The second implication is that specific contracts assign objectives to land users in the form of conditions for payments that are believed to increase the chances for sustained impacts on the ground. These implications are important in the assessment of the potential of PES to operate as new and effective funding schemes for forest restoration. They are analyzed by looking at two prominent payments for watershed service programs in Indonesia—Cidanau (Banten province in Java and West Lombok (Eastern Indonesia—with combined economic and political science approaches. We derive lessons for the governance of funding efforts (e.g., multi-stakeholder agencies are not a guarantee of success; mixed results are obtained from a reliance on mandatory funding with ad hoc regulations, as opposed to voluntary contributions by the service beneficiary and for the governance of financial expenditure (e.g., absolute need for evaluation procedures for the internal governance of farmer groups. Furthermore, we observe that these governance features provide no guarantee that restoration plots with the highest relevance for ecosystem services are targeted by the PES.

  4. Preliminary assessment of soil erosion impact during forest restoration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Sheng; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan has a fragile geology and steep terrain. The 921 earthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Morakot, and the exploitation and use of the woodland by local residents have severely damaged the landscape and posed more severe challenges to the montane ecosystem. A land conservation project has been implemented by the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University which reclaimed approximately 1,500 hectares of leased woodland from 2008 to 2010, primarily used to grow bamboo, tea trees, betel nut, fruit, and vegetable and about 1,298 hectares have been reforested. The process of forest restoration involves clear cutting, soil preparation and a six-year weeding and tending period which may affect the amount of soil erosion dramatically. This study tried to assess the impact of forest restoration from the perspective of soil erosion through leased-land recovery periods and would like to benefit the practical implementation of reforestation in the future. A new plantation reforested in the early 2013 and a nearby 29-year-old mature forest were chosen as experimental and comparison sites. A self-designed weir was set up in a small watershed of each site for the runoff and sediment yield observation. According to the observed results from May to August 2013, a raining season in Taiwan, the runoff and erosion would not as high as we expected, because the in-situ soil texture of both sites is sandy loam to sandy with high percentage of coarse fragment which increased the infiltration. There were around 200 kg to 250 kg of wet sand/soil yielded in mature forest during the hit of Typhoon Soulik while the rest of the time only suspended material be yielded at both sites. To further investigate the influence of the six-year weeding and tending period, long term observations are needed for a more completed assessment of soil erosion impact.

  5. Recycling of phenolic compounds in Borneo's tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Catherine M; Lim, Yau Yan; Lim, Tse Yuen

    2018-02-07

    Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSF) are globally significant carbon stores, sequestering carbon mainly as phenolic polymers and phenolic compounds (particularly as lignin and its derivatives) in peat layers, in plants, and in the acidic blackwaters. Previous studies show that TPSF plants have particularly high levels of phenolic compounds which inhibit the decomposition of organic matter and thus promote peat accumulation. The studies of phenolic compounds are thus crucial to further understand how TPSF function with respect to carbon sequestration. Here we present a study of cycling of phenolic compounds in five forests in Borneo differing in flooding and acidity, leaching of phenolic compounds from senescent Macaranga pruinosa leaves, and absorption of phenolics by M. pruinosa seedlings. The results of the study show that total phenolic content (TPC) in soil and leaves of three species of Macaranga were highest in TPSF followed by freshwater swamp forest and flooded limestone forest, then dry land sites. Highest TPC values were associated with acidity (in TPSF) and waterlogging (in flooded forests). Moreover, phenolic compounds are rapidly leached from fallen senescent leaves, and could be reabsorbed by tree roots and converted into more complex phenolics within the leaves. Extreme conditions-waterlogging and acidity-may facilitate uptake and synthesis of protective phenolic compounds which are essential for impeded decomposition of organic matter in TPSF. Conversely, the ongoing drainage and degradation of TPSF, particularly for conversion to oil palm plantations, reverses the conditions necessary for peat accretion and carbon sequestration.

  6. Forest structure and downed woody debris in boreal, temperate, and tropical forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, William A; González, Grizelle; Hudak, Andrew T; Hollingsworth, Teresa Nettleton; Hollingsworth, Jamie

    2008-12-01

    Forest fragmentation affects the heterogeneity of accumulated fuels by increasing the diversity of forest types and by increasing forest edges. This heterogeneity has implications in how we manage fuels, fire, and forests. Understanding the relative importance of fragmentation on woody biomass within a single climatic regime, and along climatic gradients, will improve our ability to manage forest fuels and predict fire behavior. In this study we assessed forest fuel characteristics in stands of differing moisture, i.e., dry and moist forests, structure, i.e., open canopy (typically younger) vs. closed canopy (typically older) stands, and size, i.e., small (10-14 ha), medium (33 to 60 ha), and large (100-240 ha) along a climatic gradient of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests. We measured duff, litter, fine and coarse woody debris, standing dead, and live biomass in a series of plots along a transect from outside the forest edge to the fragment interior. The goal was to determine how forest structure and fuel characteristics varied along this transect and whether this variation differed with temperature, moisture, structure, and fragment size. We found nonlinear relationships of coarse woody debris, fine woody debris, standing dead and live tree biomass with mean annual median temperature. Biomass for these variables was greatest in temperate sites. Forest floor fuels (duff and litter) had a linear relationship with temperature and biomass was greatest in boreal sites. In a five-way multivariate analysis of variance we found that temperature, moisture, and age/structure had significant effects on forest floor fuels, downed woody debris, and live tree biomass. Fragment size had an effect on forest floor fuels and live tree biomass. Distance from forest edge had significant effects for only a few subgroups sampled. With some exceptions edges were not distinguishable from interiors in terms of fuels.

  7. Environmental determinants of tropical forest and savanna distribution: A quantitative model evaluation and its implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhenzhong; Chen, Anping; Piao, Shilong; Rabin, Sam; Shen, Zehao

    2014-07-01

    The distributions of tropical ecosystems are rapidly being altered by climate change and anthropogenic activities. One possible trend—the loss of tropical forests and replacement by savannas—could result in significant shifts in ecosystem services and biodiversity loss. However, the influence and the relative importance of environmental factors in regulating the distribution of tropical forest and savanna biomes are still poorly understood, which makes it difficult to predict future tropical forest and savanna distributions in the context of climate change. Here we use boosted regression trees to quantitatively evaluate the importance of environmental predictors—mainly climatic, edaphic, and fire factors—for the tropical forest-savanna distribution at a mesoscale across the tropics (between 15°N and 35°S). Our results demonstrate that climate alone can explain most of the distribution of tropical forest and savanna at the scale considered; dry season average precipitation is the single most important determinant across tropical Asia-Australia, Africa, and South America. Given the strong tendency of increased seasonality and decreased dry season precipitation predicted by global climate models, we estimate that about 28% of what is now tropical forest would likely be lost to savanna by the late 21st century under the future scenario considered. This study highlights the importance of climate seasonality and interannual variability in predicting the distribution of tropical forest and savanna, supporting the climate as the primary driver in the savanna biogeography.

  8. Floristic structure and biomass distribution of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmughavel, P.; Zheng Zheng; Sha Liqing; Cao Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study the forest community structure, tree species diversity and biomass production of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. The community structure showed a diversified species composition and supported many species of economic significance. This tropical rain forest in closely related to Malaysian forests. The biomass and its distribution were studied using standard regression analysis and the clear-cut method for shrubs and herbs. The total biomass was 360.9 t/ha and its allocation in different layers was: tree layer 352.5 t/ha, shrub layer 4.7 t/ha, liana 3.1 t/ha and herb layer 0.5 t/ha. Most of the biomass was concentrated in the trees: stem 241.2 t/ha, root 69.6 t/ha, branch 37.2 t/ha and leaves 4.3 t/ha. The DBH class allocation of the tree biomass was concentrated in the middle DBH class. The biomass of six DBH classes from 20 to 80 cm was 255.4 t/ha. There are twenty-six species with biomass over 0.5% of the total biomass of the tree layer, and three species with biomass over 5%, i.e., Pometia tomentosa, Barringtonia macrostachya (5.4%) and Terminalia myriocarpa (5.2%). Data on stem, branch, leaves and root of the individual tree species were used to develop regression models. D{sup 2}H was found to be the best estimator of the biomass in this tropical rain forest. However, higher biomass figures have been reported from tropical forests elsewhere e.g., 415-520 t/ha in the tropical forests of Cambodia, the tropical moist mixed dipterocarp forests, and the tropical moist logged moist evergreen-high, medium, and low yield forests of Sri Lanka. In some forests, lower accumulation of biomass was reported, e.g., 10-295 t/ha in the tropical moist forests of Bangladesh, the tropical moist dense forest of Cambodia, the tropical dry forests of India, the tropical moist forests of Peninsular-Malaysia, the tropical moist mixed dipterocarp forests of Sarawak-Malaysia, the tropical evergreen forests of

  9. Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batterman, Sarah A.; Hedin, Lars O.; Van Breugel, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    Forests contribute a significant portion of the land carbon sink, but their ability to sequester CO 2 may be constrained by nitrogen, a major plant-limiting nutrient. Many tropical forests possess tree species capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N 2), but it is unclear whether this function...... tree species across the entire forest age sequence. These findings show that symbiotic N 2 fixation can have a central role in nitrogen cycling during tropical forest stand development, with potentially important implications for the ability of tropical forests to sequester CO 2....

  10. Estimating Tropical Forest Structure Using a Terrestrial Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Michael; Sullivan, Franklin B; Ducey, Mark; Herrick, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in a predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using a series of multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001, RMSE = 1.04 m). Tree density was found to have the poorest significant relationship (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.01, RMSE = 153.28 n ha-1). We found a significant relationship between basal area and lidar metrics (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001, RMSE = 3.76 number ha-1). Parameters selected in our models varied, thus indicating the potential relevance of multiple features in canopy profiles and geometry that are related to field-measured structure. Models for biomass estimation included structural canopy

  11. Estimating Tropical Forest Structure Using a Terrestrial Lidar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Palace

    Full Text Available Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar. This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in a predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using a series of multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001, RMSE = 1.04 m. Tree density was found to have the poorest significant relationship (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.01, RMSE = 153.28 n ha-1. We found a significant relationship between basal area and lidar metrics (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001, RMSE = 3.76 number ha-1. Parameters selected in our models varied, thus indicating the potential relevance of multiple features in canopy profiles and geometry that are related to field-measured structure. Models for biomass estimation included

  12. Explosive Radiation of Malpighiales Supports a Mid-Cretaceous Origin of Modern Tropical Rain Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wurdack, Kenneth J.; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Davis, Charles; Webb, Campbell O.; Donoghue, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Fossil data have been interpreted as indicating that Late Cretaceous tropical forests were open and dry adapted and that modern closed-canopy rain forest did not originate until after the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. However, some mid-Cretaceous leaf floras have been interpreted as rain forest. Molecular divergence-time estimates within the clade Malpighiales, which constitute a large percentage of species in the shaded, shrub, and small tree layer in tropical rain forests worldwide, p...

  13. Fire in upper Midwestern oak forest ecosystems: an oak forest restoration and management handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich; David W. Peterson

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the literature to synthesize what is known about the use of fire to maintain and restore oak forests, woodlands, and savannas of the upper Midwestern United States, with emphasis on Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Included are (1) known physical and ecological effects of fire on oaks from acorn through seedling, established sapling, and mature stages of...

  14. Ecological implications of a flower size/number trade-off in tropical forest trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J Kettle

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, flower size commonly scales negatively with number. The ecological consequences of this trade-off for tropical trees remain poorly resolved, despite their potential importance for tropical forest conservation. We investigated the flower size number trade-off and its implications for fecundity in a sample of tree species from the Dipterocarpaceae on Borneo.We combined experimental exclusion of pollinators in 11 species, with direct and indirect estimates of contemporary pollen dispersal in two study species and published estimates of pollen dispersal in a further three species to explore the relationship between flower size, pollinator size and mean pollen dispersal distance. Maximum flower production was two orders of magnitude greater in small-flowered than large-flowered species of Dipterocarpaceae. In contrast, fruit production was unrelated to flower size and did not differ significantly among species. Small-flowered species had both smaller-sized pollinators and lower mean pollination success than large-flowered species. Average pollen dispersal distances were lower and frequency of mating between related individuals was higher in a smaller-flowered species than a larger-flowered confamilial. Our synthesis of pollen dispersal estimates across five species of dipterocarp suggests that pollen dispersal scales positively with flower size.Trade-offs embedded in the relationship between flower size and pollination success contribute to a reduction in the variance of fecundity among species. It is therefore plausible that these processes could delay competitive exclusion and contribute to maintenance of species coexistence in this ecologically and economically important family of tropical trees. These results have practical implications for tree species conservation and restoration. Seed collection from small-flowered species may be especially vulnerable to cryptic genetic erosion. Our findings also highlight the potential for

  15. Biodiversity can help prevent malaria outbreaks in tropical forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Zorello Laporta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is a widely distributed, neglected parasite that can cause malaria and death in tropical areas. It is associated with an estimated 80-300 million cases of malaria worldwide. Brazilian tropical rain forests encompass host- and vector-rich communities, in which two hypothetical mechanisms could play a role in the dynamics of malaria transmission. The first mechanism is the dilution effect caused by presence of wild warm-blooded animals, which can act as dead-end hosts to Plasmodium parasites. The second is diffuse mosquito vector competition, in which vector and non-vector mosquito species compete for blood feeding upon a defensive host. Considering that the World Health Organization Malaria Eradication Research Agenda calls for novel strategies to eliminate malaria transmission locally, we used mathematical modeling to assess those two mechanisms in a pristine tropical rain forest, where the primary vector is present but malaria is absent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Ross-Macdonald model and a biodiversity-oriented model were parameterized using newly collected data and data from the literature. The basic reproduction number ([Formula: see text] estimated employing Ross-Macdonald model indicated that malaria cases occur in the study location. However, no malaria cases have been reported since 1980. In contrast, the biodiversity-oriented model corroborated the absence of malaria transmission. In addition, the diffuse competition mechanism was negatively correlated with the risk of malaria transmission, which suggests a protective effect provided by the forest ecosystem. There is a non-linear, unimodal correlation between the mechanism of dead-end transmission of parasites and the risk of malaria transmission, suggesting a protective effect only under certain circumstances (e.g., a high abundance of wild warm-blooded animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To achieve biological conservation and to eliminate

  16. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis applies to tropical forests, but disturbance contributes little to tree diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Frans; Poorter, Lourens; Hawthorne, William D; Sheil, Douglas

    2009-08-01

    The intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) predicts local species diversity to be maximal at an intermediate level of disturbance. Developed to explain species maintenance and diversity patterns in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, tests of IDH in tropical forest remain scarce, small-scale and contentious. We use an unprecedented large-scale dataset (2504 one-hectare plots and 331,567 trees) to examine whether IDH explains tree diversity variation within wet, moist and dry tropical forests, and we analyse the underlying mechanism by determining responses within functional species groups. We find that disturbance explains more variation in diversity of dry than wet tropical forests. Pioneer species numbers increase with disturbance, shade-tolerant species decrease and intermediate species are indifferent. While diversity indeed peaks at intermediate disturbance levels little variation is explained outside dry forests, and disturbance is less important for species richness patterns in wet tropical rain forests than previously thought.

  17. Forest restoration as a strategy to mitigate climate impacts on wildfire, vegetation, and water in semiarid forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Frances C; Flatley, William T; Springer, Abraham E; Fulé, Peter Z

    2018-06-25

    Climate change and wildfire are interacting to drive vegetation change and potentially reduce water quantity and quality in the southwestern United States, Forest restoration is a management approach that could mitigate some of these negative outcomes. However, little information exists on how restoration combined with climate change might influence hydrology across large forest landscapes that incorporate multiple vegetation types and complex fire regimes. We combined spatially explicit vegetation and fire modeling with statistical water and sediment yield models for a large forested landscape (335,000 ha) on the Kaibab Plateau in northern Arizona, USA. Our objective was to assess the impacts of climate change and forest restoration on the future fire regime, forest vegetation, and watershed outputs. Our model results predict that the combination of climate change and high-severity fire will drive forest turnover, biomass declines, and compositional change in future forests. Restoration treatments may reduce the area burned in high-severity fires and reduce conversions from forested to non-forested conditions. Even though mid-elevation forests are the targets of restoration, the treatments are expected to delay the decline of high-elevation spruce-fir, aspen, and mixed conifer forests by reducing the occurrence of high-severity fires that may spread across ecoregions. We estimate that climate-induced vegetation changes will result in annual runoff declines of up to 10%, while restoration reduced or reversed this decline. The hydrologic model suggests that mid-elevation forests, which are the targets of restoration treatments, provide around 80% of runoff in this system and the conservation of mid- to high-elevation forests types provides the greatest benefit in terms of water conservation. We also predict that restoration treatments will conserve water quality by reducing patches of high-severity fire that are associated with high sediment yield. Restoration

  18. Restoration Ecology of Lowland tropical Peatlands in Southeast Asia: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Page, S.; Hoscilo, A.; Wösten, J.H.M.; Jauhiainen, J.; Silvius, M.J.; Rieley, J.; Ritzema, H.P.; Tansey, K.; Graham, L.; Vasander, H.; Limin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of restoration ecology are well established for northern peatlands, but at an early stage for tropical peatlands. Extensive peatland areas in Southeast Asia have been degraded through deforestation, drainage and fire, leading to on- and off-site environmental and socio-economic impacts of

  19. Whole-ecosystem experimental manipulations of tropical forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fayle, Tom Maurice; Turner, E. C.; Basset, Yves; Ewers, R. M.; Reynolds, G.; Novotný, Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 6 (2015), s. 334-346 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04258S; GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:Euroepan Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tropical forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 16.735, year: 2015 http://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution/pdf/S0169-5347(15)00069-5.pdf

  20. Quantifying flooding regime in floodplain forests to guide river restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian O. Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Determining the flooding regime needed to support distinctive floodplain forests is essential for effective river conservation under the ubiquitous human alteration of river flows characteristic of the Anthropocene Era. At over 100 sites throughout the Connecticut River basin, the largest river system in New England, we characterized species composition, valley and channel morphology, and hydrologic regime to define conditions promoting distinct floodplain forest assemblages. Species assemblages were dominated by floodplain-associated trees on surfaces experiencing flood durations between 4.5 and 91 days/year, which were generally well below the stage of the two-year recurrence interval flood, a widely-used benchmark for floodplain restoration. These tree species rarely occurred on surfaces that flooded less than 1 day/year. By contrast abundance of most woody invasive species decreased with flooding. Such flood-prone surfaces were jointly determined by characteristics of the hydrograph (high discharges of long duration and topography (low gradient and reduced valley constraint, resulting in increased availability of floodplain habitat with increasing watershed area and/or decreasing stream gradient. Downstream mainstem reaches provided the most floodplain habitat, largely associated with low-energy features such as back swamps and point bars, and were dominated by silver maple (Acer saccharinum. However, we were able to identify a number of suitable sites in the upper part of the basin and in large tributaries, often associated with in-channel islands and bars and frequently dominated by sycamore (Platanus occidentalis and flood disturbance-dependent species. Our results imply that restoring flows by modifying dam operations to benefit floodplain forests on existing surfaces need not conflict with flood protection in some regional settings. These results underscore the need to understand how flow, geomorphology, and species traits

  1. 77 FR 65167 - Blacksmith Ecological Restoration Project, Eldorado National Forest, Placer and El Dorado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Blacksmith Ecological Restoration Project, Eldorado... comments to 7600 Wentworth Springs Rd., Georgetown, CA 95634 Attention: Blacksmith Ecological Restoration... (PSD). In preparation for prescribed fire, perimeter line construction would be needed where roads...

  2. Geographic, environmental and biotic sources of variation in the nutrient relations of tropical montane forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Dalling; Katherine Heineman; Grizelle Gonzalez; Rebecca Ostertag

    2016-01-01

    Tropicalmontane forests (TMF) are associated with a widely observed suite of characteristics encompassing forest structure, plant traits and biogeochemistry.With respect to nutrient relations, montane forests are characterized by slow decomposition of organic matter, high investment in below-ground biomass and poor litter quality, relative to tropical lowland forests....

  3. Road Expansion and the Fate of Africa's Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Laurance

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The tropical forests of Africa are experiencing unprecedented changes as a result of a rapid proliferation of roads and other infrastructure. These projects are dramatically increasing access to relatively unexploited regions, particularly in the greater Congo Basin. We highlight some of the most important new projects and describe in detail an ongoing debate about a particular proposed development, the Cross River Superhighway in Nigeria. The scale and pace of new transportation projects, and the profound environmental changes they could bring, underscore a dire need for proactive land-use planning, capacity building, and environmental assessment in the nations of Equatorial Africa. It is no exaggeration to suggest that, unless carefully managed to ensure sustainability, the spate of planned and ongoing projects could irreparably diminish the forests and wildlife populations of Africa's most biologically diverse regions.

  4. Road-networks, a practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in Tropical forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, T; Yamada, T; Okuda, T

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests sustain the most diverse plants and animals in the world, but are also being lost most rapidly. Rapid assessment and monitoring using remote sensing on biodiversity of tropical forests is needed to predict and evaluate biodiversity loss by human activities. Identification of reliable indicators of forest biodiversity and/or its loss is an urgent issue. In the present paper, we propose the density of road networks in tropical forests can be a good and practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in tropical forests through reviewing papers and introducing our preliminary survey in peninsular Malaysia. Many previous studies suggest a strong negative impact of forest roads on biodiversity in tropical rainforests since they changes microclimate, soil properties, drainage patterns, canopy openness and forest accessibility. Moreover, our preliminary survey also showed that even a narrow logging road (6 m wide) significantly lowered abundance of dung beetles (well-known bio-indicator in biodiversity survey in tropical forests) near the road. Since these road networks are readily to be detected with remote sensing approach such as aerial photographs and Lider, regulation and monitoring of the road networks using remote sensing techniques is a key to slow down the rate of biodiversity loss due to forest degradation in tropical forests

  5. Road-networks, a practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in Tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, T.; Yamada, T.; Okuda, T.

    2014-02-01

    Tropical forests sustain the most diverse plants and animals in the world, but are also being lost most rapidly. Rapid assessment and monitoring using remote sensing on biodiversity of tropical forests is needed to predict and evaluate biodiversity loss by human activities. Identification of reliable indicators of forest biodiversity and/or its loss is an urgent issue. In the present paper, we propose the density of road networks in tropical forests can be a good and practical indicator of human impacts on biodiversity in tropical forests through reviewing papers and introducing our preliminary survey in peninsular Malaysia. Many previous studies suggest a strong negative impact of forest roads on biodiversity in tropical rainforests since they changes microclimate, soil properties, drainage patterns, canopy openness and forest accessibility. Moreover, our preliminary survey also showed that even a narrow logging road (6 m wide) significantly lowered abundance of dung beetles (well-known bio-indicator in biodiversity survey in tropical forests) near the road. Since these road networks are readily to be detected with remote sensing approach such as aerial photographs and Lider, regulation and monitoring of the road networks using remote sensing techniques is a key to slow down the rate of biodiversity loss due to forest degradation in tropical forests.

  6. Landowner and visitor response to forest landscape restoration: the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Northeast Sands Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Floress; Anna Haines; Emily Usher; Paul Gobster; Mike. Dockry

    2018-01-01

    This report is intended to support the ongoing pine barrens restoration on work in the Lakewood-Laona Ranger District on the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest (CNNF). The report provides the results from 2016 surveys and focus groups examining landowner and visitor attitudes toward forest management treatments, communication, and restoration project outcomes; their...

  7. Emergy and Eco-exergy Evaluation of Four Forest Restoration Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four different forest restoration modes (Acacia mangium plantation, mixed-native species plantation, conifer plantation and Eucalyptus plantation) were evaluated using Energy System Theory and the emergy synthesis method. In addition, the eco-exergies of the four forest restorati...

  8. The domestic benefits of tropical forests: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, K M; Kumari, K

    1998-02-01

    This review focuses on forests in the humid tropics and on two of their potentially most important benefits. These include hydrological benefits, such as erosion control and regulation of stream flows, and non-timber forest products, such as rubber, rattan, fruits, and nuts. The first benefit is motivational. Host countries capture only a small proportion of the global benefits, which stem from biodiversity conservation. Demonstration of palpable local benefits could help to build support for biodiversity-oriented projects. The second benefit is the magnitude of domestic benefits that could influence project financing. Sufficiently large net domestic benefits could justify financing of a project on narrow economic grounds, with biodiversity conservation as a by-product. Overall, it is noted that the quantifiable benefits of forest preservation in providing hydrological services and non-timber forest products are highly variable. These classes of domestic benefits may in general be smaller than popularly supposed. In view of this, the need for financing conservation from the Global Environmental Facility or other global sources is emphasized rather than placing the burden on domestic resources.

  9. Mature oil palm plantations are thirstier than tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, G.; Meijide, A.; Huth, N.; Knohl, A.; Kosugi, Y.; Burlando, P.; Ghazoul, J.; Fatichi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Oil Palm (OP) is the highest yielding cash-crop in the world but, being the driver of significant tropical forest losses, it is also considered the "world's most hated crop". Despite substantial research on the impact of OP on ecosystem degradation, biodiversity losses, and carbon emissions, little is known on the ecohydrological impacts of forest conversion to OP. Here we employ numerical simulations constrained by field observations to quantify changes in ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET), infiltration/runoff, gross primary productivity (GPP) and surface temperature (Ts) due to OP establishment. Compared to pristine forests, young OP plantations decrease ET, causing an increase in Ts, but the changes become less pronounced as plantations grow. Mature plantations have a very high GPP to sustain the oil palm yield and, given relatively similar water use efficiency, they transpire more water that the forests they have replaced. Hence, the high fruit productivity of OP comes at the expense of water consumption. Our mechanistic modeling results corroborate anecdotal evidence of water scarcity issues in OP-dominated landscapes.

  10. Monitoring tropical forest dynamics using Landsat time series and community-based data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeVries, B.R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests cover a significant portion of the earth's surface and provide a range of

    ecosystem services, but are under increasing threat due to human activities. Deforestation

    and forest degradation in the tropics are responsible for a large share of global CO2

  11. Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabien H. Wagner; Bruno Herault; Damien Bonal; Clement Stahl; Liana O. Anderson; Timothy R. Baker; Gabriel Sebastian Becker; Hans Beeckman; Danilo Boanerges Souza; Paulo Cesar Botosso; David M. J. S. Bowman; Achim Brauning; Benjamin Brede; Foster Irving Brown; Jesus Julio Camarero; Plinio Barbosa Camargo; Fernanda C. G. Cardoso; Fabricio Alvim Carvalho; Wendeson Castro; Rubens Koloski Chagas; Jerome Chave; Emmanuel N. Chidumayo; Deborah A. Clark; Flavia Regina Capellotto Costa; Camille Couralet; Paulo Henrique da Silva Mauricio; Helmut Dalitz; Vinicius Resende de Castro; Jacanan Eloisa de Freitas Milani; Edilson Consuelo de Oliveira; Luciano de Souza Arruda; Jean-Louis Devineau; David M. Drew; Oliver Dunisch; Giselda Durigan; Elisha Elifuraha; Marcio Fedele; Ligia Ferreira Fedele; Afonso Figueiredo Filho; Cesar Augusto Guimaraes Finger; Augusto Cesar Franco; Joao Lima Freitas Junior; Franklin Galvao; Aster Gebrekirstos; Robert Gliniars; Paulo Mauricio Lima de Alencastro Graca; Anthony D. Griffiths; James Grogan; Kaiyu Guan; Jurgen Homeier; Maria Raquel Kanieski; Lip Khoon Kho; Jennifer Koenig; Sintia Valerio Kohler; Julia Krepkowski; Jose Pires Lemos-Filho; Diana Lieberman; Milton Eugene Lieberman; Claudio Sergio Lisi; Tomaz Longhi Santos; Jose Luis Lopez Ayala; Eduardo Eijji Maeda; Yadvinder Malhi; Vivian R. B. Maria; Marcia C. M. Marques; Renato Marques; Hector Maza Chamba; Lawrence Mbwambo; Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaco; Hooz Angela Mendivelso; Brett P. Murphy; Joseph O' Brien; Steven F. Oberbauer; Naoki Okada; Raphael Pelissier; Lynda D. Prior; Fidel Alejandro Roig; Michael Ross; Davi Rodrigo Rossatto; Vivien Rossi; Lucy Rowland; Ervan Rutishauser; Hellen Santana; Mark Schulze; Diogo Selhorst; Williamar Rodrigues Silva; Marcos Silveira; Susanne Spannl; Michael D. Swaine; Jose Julio Toledo; Marcos Miranda Toledo; Marisol Toledo; Takeshi Toma; Mario Tomazello Filho; Juan Ignacio Valdez Hernandez; Jan Verbesselt; Simone Aparecida Vieira; Gregoire Vincent; Carolina Volkmer de Castilho; Franziska Volland; Martin Worbes; Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon; Luiz E. O. C. Aragao

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal climate drivers of the carbon cycle in tropical forests remain poorly known, although these forests account for more carbon assimilation and storage than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Based on a unique combination of seasonal pan-tropical data sets from 89 experimental sites (68 include aboveground wood productivity measurements and 35 litter...

  12. Disentangling above- and below-ground competition between lianas and trees in a tropical forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Kuzee, M.E.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    1 Light is thought to be the most limiting resource in tropical forests, and thus aboveground competition is commonly accepted as the mechanism that structures these communities. In many tropical forests, trees compete not only with other trees, but also with lianas, which compete aggressively for

  13. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis applies to tropical forests, but disturbance contributes little to tree diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.; Hawthorne, W.D.; Sheil, D.

    2009-01-01

    The intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) predicts local species diversity to be maximal at an intermediate level of disturbance. Developed to explain species maintenance and diversity patterns in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, tests of IDH in tropical forest remain scarce,

  14. Foliar and ecosystem respiration in an old-growth tropical rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly A. Cavaleri; Steven F. Oberbauer; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Foliar respiration is a major component of ecosystem respiration, yet extrapolations are often uncertain in tropical forests because of indirect estimates of leaf area index (LAI).A portable tower was used to directly measure LAI and night-time foliar respiration from 52 vertical transects throughout an old-growth tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In this study, we (...

  15. Damage-controlled logging in managed tropical rain forest in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrison, J.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about worldwide deforestation and exploitation of the tropical rain forests has led to friction between national governments, wood industries and timber trade on the one hand, and scientists and environmental organizations on the other. One way to safeguard the tropical rain forests

  16. Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Fabien H.; Hérault, Bruno; Bonal, Damien; Stahl, Clément; Anderson, Liana O.; Baker, Timothy R.; Becker, Gabriel Sebastian; Beeckman, Hans; Boanerges Souza, Danilo; Botosso, Paulo Cesar; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Bräuning, Achim; Brede, Benjamin; Brown, Foster Irving; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Cardoso, Fernanda C.G.; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim; Castro, Wendeson; Chagas, Rubens Koloski; Chave, Jérome; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N.; Clark, Deborah A.; Costa, Flavia Regina Capellotto; Couralet, Camille; Silva Mauricio, Da Paulo Henrique; Dalitz, Helmut; Castro, De Vinicius Resende; Freitas Milani, De Jaçanan Eloisa; Oliveira, De Edilson Consuelo; Souza Arruda, De Luciano; Devineau, Jean-Louis; Drew, David M.; Dünisch, Oliver; Durigan, Giselda; Elifuraha, Elisha; Fedele, Marcio; Ferreira Fedele, Ligia; Figueiredo Filho, Afonso; Finger, César Augusto Guimarães; Franco, Augusto César; Freitas Júnior, João Lima; Galvão, Franklin; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Gliniars, Robert; Lima De Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício; Griffiths, Anthony D.; Grogan, James; Guan, Kaiyu; Homeier, Jürgen; Kanieski, Maria Raquel; Kho, Lip Khoon; Koenig, Jennifer; Kohler, Sintia Valerio; Krepkowski, Julia; Lemos-filho, José Pires; Lieberman, Diana; Lieberman, Milton Eugene; Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Longhi Santos, Tomaz; López Ayala, José Luis; Maeda, Eduardo Eijji; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maria, Vivian R.B.; Marques, Marcia C.M.; Marques, Renato; Maza Chamba, Hector; Mbwambo, Lawrence; Melgaço, Karina Liana Lisboa; Mendivelso, Hooz Angela; Murphy, Brett P.; O'Brien, Joseph J.; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Okada, Naoki; Pélissier, Raphaël; Prior, Lynda D.; Roig, Fidel Alejandro; Ross, Michael; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Rossi, Vivien; Rowland, Lucy; Rutishauser, Ervan; Santana, Hellen; Schulze, Mark; Selhorst, Diogo; Silva, Williamar Rodrigues; Silveira, Marcos; Spannl, Susanne; Swaine, Michael D.; Toledo, José Julio; Toledo, Marcos Miranda; Toledo, Marisol; Toma, Takeshi; Tomazello Filho, Mario; Valdez Hernández, Juan Ignacio; Verbesselt, Jan; Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Vincent, Grégoire; Volkmer De Castilho, Carolina; Volland, Franziska; Worbes, Martin; Zanon, Magda Lea Bolzan; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C.

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal climate drivers of the carbon cycle in tropical forests remain poorly known, although these forests account for more carbon assimilation and storage than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Based on a unique combination of seasonal pan-tropical data sets from 89 experimental sites (68

  17. Leaf litter decomposition rates increase with rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori D. Bothwell; Paul C. Selmants; Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton

    2014-01-01

    Decomposing litter in forest ecosystems supplies nutrients to plants, carbon to heterotrophic soil microorganisms and is a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivityof leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical...

  18. Regeneration in natural and logged tropical rain forest : modelling seed dispersal and regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulft, Lambertus Henricus van

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration and disturbance are thought to play key roles in the maintenance of the high tree species diversity in tropical rain forests. Nevertheless, the earliest stages in the regeneration of tropical rain forest trees, from seed production to established seedlings, have received little

  19. Habitat filtering across tree life stages in tropical forest communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeck, C. A.; Harms, K. E.; Yavitt, J. B.; John, R.; Turner, B. L.; Valencia, R.; Navarrete, H.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Kiratiprayoon, S.; Yaacob, A.; Supardi, M. N. N.; Davies, S. J.; Hubbell, S. P.; Chuyong, G. B.; Kenfack, D.; Thomas, D. W.; Dalling, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical tree communities are shaped by local-scale habitat heterogeneity in the form of topographic and edaphic variation, but the life-history stage at which habitat associations develop remains poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the fact that previous studies have not accounted for the widely disparate sample sizes (number of stems) that result when trees are divided into size classes. We demonstrate that the observed habitat structuring of a community is directly related to the number of individuals in the community. We then compare the relative importance of habitat heterogeneity to tree community structure for saplings, juveniles and adult trees within seven large (24–50 ha) tropical forest dynamics plots while controlling for sample size. Changes in habitat structuring through tree life stages were small and inconsistent among life stages and study sites. Where found, these differences were an order of magnitude smaller than the findings of previous studies that did not control for sample size. Moreover, community structure and composition were very similar among tree sub-communities of different life stages. We conclude that the structure of these tropical tree communities is established by the time trees are large enough to be included in the census (1 cm diameter at breast height), which indicates that habitat filtering occurs during earlier life stages. PMID:23843384

  20. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone.

  1. Carbon emissions from tropical forest degradation caused by logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Timothy R H; Brown, Sandra; Casarim, Felipe M

    2014-01-01

    The focus of land-use related efforts in developing countries to reduce carbon emissions has been on slowing deforestation, yet international agreements are to reduce emissions from both deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The second ‘D’ is poorly understood and accounted for a number of technical and policy reasons. Here we introduce a complete accounting method for estimating emission factors from selective timber harvesting, a substantial form of forest degradation in many tropical developing countries. The method accounts separately for emissions from the extracted log, from incidental damage to the surrounding forest, and from logging infrastructure, and emissions are expressed as units of carbon per cubic meter of timber extracted to allow for simple application to timber harvesting statistics. We applied the method in six tropical countries (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Guyana, Indonesia, and Republic of Congo), resulting in total emission factors of 0.99−2.33 Mg C m −3 . In all cases, emissions were dominated by damage to surrounding vegetation and the infrastructure rather than the logs themselves, and total emissions represented about 3–15% of the biomass carbon stocks of the associated unlogged forests. We then combined the emission factors with country level logging statistics for nine key timber producing countries represented by our study areas to gain an understanding of the order of magnitude of emissions from degradation compared to those recently reported for deforestation in the same countries. For the nine countries included, emissions from logging were on average equivalent to about 12% of those from deforestation. For those nine countries with relatively low emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to half or more of those from deforestation, whereas for those countries with the highest emissions from deforestation, emissions from logging were equivalent to <10% of those from deforestation

  2. Using Florida Keys Reference Sites As a Standard for Restoration of Forest Structure in Everglades Tree Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.S.; Sah, J.P.; Ruiz, P.L.; Ross, M.S.; Ogurcak, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    In south Florida, tropical hardwood forests (hammocks) occur in Everglades tree islands and as more extensive forests in coastal settings in the nearby Florida Keys. Keys hammocks have been less disturbed by humans, and many qualify as old-growth, while Everglades hammocks have received much heavier use. With improvement of tree island condition an important element in Everglades restoration efforts, we examined stand structure in 23 Keys hammocks and 69 Everglades tree islands. Based on Stand Density Index and tree diameter distributions, many Everglades hammocks were characterized by low stocking and under-representation in the smaller size classes. In contrast, most Keys forests had the dense canopies and open under stories usually associated with old-growth hardwood hammocks. Subject to the same caveats that apply to off-site references elsewhere, structural information from mature Keys hammocks can be helpful in planning and implementing forest restoration in Everglades tree islands. In many of these islands, such restoration might involve supplementing tree stocking by planting native trees to produce more complete site utilization and a more open under story.

  3. Tropical-forest biomass estimation at X-Band from the spaceborne TanDEM-X interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Treuhaft; F. Goncalves; J.R. dos Santos; M. Keller; M. Palace; S.N. Madsen; F. Sullivan; P.M.L.A. Graca

    2014-01-01

    This letter reports the sensitivity of X-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the first dual-spacecraft radar interferometer, TanDEM-X, to variations in tropical-forest aboveground biomass (AGB). It also reports the first tropical-forest AGB estimates fromTanDEM-X data. Tropical forests account for...

  4. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  5. Forests, people, fire: Integrating the sciences to build capacity for an “All Lands” approach to forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Susan Charnley; Thomas Spies; Jeff Kline; Eric White

    2017-01-01

    Interest in landscape-scale approaches to fire management and forest restoration is growing with the realization that these approaches are critical to maintaining healthy forests and protecting nearby communities. However, coordinated planning and action across multiple ownerships have been elusive because of differing goals and forest management styles among...

  6. Soil microbial community successional patterns during forest ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Natasha C; Gleeson, Deirdre B; Grigg, Andrew H; Grant, Carl D; Andersen, Gary L; Brodie, Eoin L; Murphy, D V

    2011-09-01

    Soil microbial community characterization is increasingly being used to determine the responses of soils to stress and disturbances and to assess ecosystem sustainability. However, there is little experimental evidence to indicate that predictable patterns in microbial community structure or composition occur during secondary succession or ecosystem restoration. This study utilized a chronosequence of developing jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest ecosystems, rehabilitated after bauxite mining (up to 18 years old), to examine changes in soil bacterial and fungal community structures (by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis [ARISA]) and changes in specific soil bacterial phyla by 16S rRNA gene microarray analysis. This study demonstrated that mining in these ecosystems significantly altered soil bacterial and fungal community structures. The hypothesis that the soil microbial community structures would become more similar to those of the surrounding nonmined forest with rehabilitation age was broadly supported by shifts in the bacterial but not the fungal community. Microarray analysis enabled the identification of clear successional trends in the bacterial community at the phylum level and supported the finding of an increase in similarity to nonmined forest soil with rehabilitation age. Changes in soil microbial community structure were significantly related to the size of the microbial biomass as well as numerous edaphic variables (including pH and C, N, and P nutrient concentrations). These findings suggest that soil bacterial community dynamics follow a pattern in developing ecosystems that may be predictable and can be conceptualized as providing an integrated assessment of numerous edaphic variables.

  7. Berenty Reserve—A Gallery Forest in Decline in Dry Southern Madagascar—Towards Forest Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Winchester

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Berenty Reserve, a fully protected gallery forest beside the Mandrare River is renowned for its lemurs, but the continuous canopy of the main forest is shrinking, fragmenting and degrading. The aim of this study, before any restoration can be considered, is to investigate why canopy-cover is declining and define the forest’s vegetation status and composition. Our study includes analysis of tamarind age (the dominant species and regeneration, forest extent, climate and soil. Measurement of trunk circumference and annual rings indicated a median age of 190 years, near the accepted maximum for tamarinds. There is no regeneration of tamarind seedlings under the canopy and an invasive vine, Cissus quadrangularis suffocates any regeneration on the forest margins. A vegetation survey, based on fifteen transects, broadly characterized three forest areas: continuous canopy near the river, transitional canopy with fewer tall trees, and degraded dryland; the survey also provided a list of the 18 most common tree species. Ring counts of flood-damaged roots combined with measurement to the riverbank show that erosion rates, up to 19.5 cm/year, are not an immediate threat to forest extent. The highly variable climate shows no trend and analysis of forest soil indicates compatibility with plant growth.

  8. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species' flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge.

  9. SRTM-DEM and Landsat ETM+ data for mapping tropical dry forest cover and biodiversity assessment in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.E. Sesnie; S.E. Hagell; S.M. Otterstrom; C.L. Chambers; B.G. Dickson

    2008-01-01

    Tropical dry and deciduous forest comprises as much as 42% of the world’s tropical forests, but has received far less attention than forest in wet tropical areas. Land use change threatens to greatly reduce the extent of dry forest that is known to contain high levels of plant and animal diversity. Forest fragmentation may further endanger arboreal mammals that play...

  10. SRTM-DEM AND LANDSAT ETM+ DATA FOR MAPPING TROPICAL DRY FOREST COVER AND BIODIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN NICARAGUA

    OpenAIRE

    Brett G. Dickson; Carol L. Chambers; Sarah M. Otterstrom; Suzanne E. Hagell; Steven E. Sesnie

    2008-01-01

    Tropical dry and deciduous forest comprises as much as 42% of the world’s tropical forests, but hasreceived far less attention than forest in wet tropical areas. Land use change threatens to greatly reducethe extent of dry forest that is known to contain high levels of plant and animal diversity. Forest fragmentationmay further endanger arboreal mammals that play principal role in the dispersal of large seeded fruits, plantcommunity assembly and diversity in these systems. Data on the spatial...

  11. Detailed maps of tropical forest types are within reach: forest tree communities for Trinidad and Tobago mapped with multiseason Landsat and multiseason fine-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eileen H. Helmer; Thomas S. Ruzycki; Jay Benner; Shannon M. Voggesser; Barbara P. Scobie; Courtenay Park; David W. Fanning; Seepersad. Ramnarine

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forest managers need detailed maps of forest types for REDD+, but spectral similarity among forest types; cloud and scan-line gaps; and scarce vegetation ground plots make producing such maps with satellite imagery difficult. How can managers map tropical forest tree communities with satellite imagery given these challenges? Here we describe a case study of...

  12. Valuing fire planning alternatives in forest restoration: using derived demand to integrate economics with ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Douglas B; Ziesler, Pamela S; Kernohan, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Assessing the value of fire planning alternatives is challenging because fire affects a wide array of ecosystem, market, and social values. Wildland fire management is increasingly used to address forest restoration while pragmatic approaches to assessing the value of fire management have yet to be developed. Earlier approaches to assessing the value of forest management relied on connecting site valuation with management variables. While sound, such analysis is too narrow to account for a broad range of ecosystem services. The metric fire regime condition class (FRCC) was developed from ecosystem management philosophy, but it is entirely biophysical. Its lack of economic information cripples its utility to support decision-making. We present a means of defining and assessing the deviation of a landscape from its desired fire management condition by re-framing the fire management problem as one of derived demand. This valued deviation establishes a performance metric for wildland fire management. Using a case study, we display the deviation across a landscape and sum the deviations to produce a summary metric. This summary metric is used to assess the value of alternative fire management strategies on improving the fire management condition toward its desired state. It enables us to identify which sites are most valuable to restore, even when they are in the same fire regime condition class. The case study site exemplifies how a wide range of disparate values, such as watershed, wildlife, property and timber, can be incorporated into a single landscape assessment. The analysis presented here leverages previous research on environmental capital value and non-market valuation by integrating ecosystem management, restoration, and microeconomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Faces from the past: profiles of those who led restoration of the South’s forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    2016-01-01

    Early in the 20th century, the forests in the South were devastated by aggressive harvesting and many millions of acres of forest land needed reforestation. Foresighted individuals began a committed effort to restore this land to a productive condition. This effort required dedication, cooperation, and leadership. A small cadre of individuals led the restoration of the...

  14. Economic opportunities and trade-offs in collaborative forest landscape restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Kevin C. Vogler; Michelle A. Day; John D. Bailey

    2017-01-01

    We modeled forest restoration scenarios to examine socioeconomic and ecological trade-offs associated with alternative prioritization scenarios. The study examined four US national forests designated as priorities for investments to restore fire resiliency and generate economic opportunities to support local industry. We were particularly interested in economic trade-...

  15. Allometric equations for estimating tree biomass in restored mixed-species Atlantic Forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro Rodrigues Nogueira; Vera Lex Engel; John A. Parrotta; Antonio Carlos Galvão de Melo; Danilo Scorzoni Ré

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic Forests is receiving increasing attention because of its role in both biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration for global climate change mitigation. This study was carried out in an Atlantic Forest restoration project in the south-central region of São Paulo State – Brazil to develop allometric equations to estimate tree biomass of...

  16. COLLABORATIVE (PARTNERSHIP AS A FORM OF "RESTORATIVE JUSTICE" IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION FOREST RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Surono

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conflict management of forest resources among communities around forest areas often occur in various regions, particularly in some national parks and forest management as Perhutani in Java and Inhutani outside Java. These conflicts indicate the forest resources management has not effectively made a positive impact in improving communities welfare around forest areas. Although the provisions of Article 3 in conjunction with Article 68 of Law No. 41 of 1999 on Forestry, provide the basis for communities around the forest rights of forest areas, but in reality there are still people around forest areas that do not enjoy such rights and it is this which often leads to conflicts in the management of forest resources. In the event of conflict, the solution can be done collaboratively (partnership which is one form of restorative justice is an alternative dispute resolution (ADR. Keywords: collaborative, conflict, restorative justice, forest resources.

  17. Genetic diversity of Dyera polyphylla (Miq.) Steenis populations used in tropical peatland restoration in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tata, Hesti Lestari; Muchugi, A.; Kariba, R.; Noordwijk, van M.

    2018-01-01

    Dyera polyphylla is a native tree species of peat swamp forests in Southeast Asia. Where it has been used in peatland restoration, the trees are of uncertain genetic origin. We analysed the genetic diversity of seven populations of D. polyphylla (9–20 individual trees per population) from both

  18. Root layering in a tropical forest after logging (Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Čermák

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous stands of tropical rain forests in the region of Kon Ha Nung are one of the most preserved forests in the whole Vietnam. Despite the logging activities mainly in the 1970’s, it was possible to preserve intact forests free from any primary harvesting. In the past, other stands were influenced by the logging to various extent. Some of those stands are managed presently; others were left to natural development. This paper deals with the influence of harvesting activities on the root system in forest stands. In primary stands and in stands with known harvest intensity, samples of root systems were collected. The total weight of dry basis and mainly their layering within the soil profile were assessed. The collected roots were divided into three classes: class I – ≤ 1.0 mm, class II 1.1–5.0 mm, class III – over 5.0 mm in the diameter. In the monitored plots, the total weight of dry basis of fine roots to 1.0 mm ranged from 2.34–3.24 t∙ha−1. The weight of dry basis of roots from 1.0–5.0 mm ranged from 6.57–9.69 t∙ha−1. The majority of roots of class I is presented in the top 10.0 cm of the soil and their share drops with the increasing depth. The roots of class II are distributed more equally. It was impossible to prove the influence of the logging on the root system.

  19. Bioindicators in the tropical forest of Kaiga environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somashekarappa, H.M.; Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations on the natural and artificial fallout radionuclides 210 Po and 137 Cs and the primordial radionuclide 40 K in the prominent tree species of Western Ghat tropical forests near Kaiga have been carried out as a part of baseline background radiation studies in the environment of Kaiga where nuclear power reactors are being installed. The prominent tree species of the region Tectona grandis L.f. and Terminalia paniculata Roth., and the commonly available epiphytic plant species Pterobryopsis tumida (Hook.) Dix. and Cymbidium aliofolium (Lo) Swartz. were chosen and concentrations of 40 K, 210 Po and 137 Cs were measured employing well-established nuclear techniques. The different parts of Cumbidium aloifolium (Lo) Swartz. such as leaves, stem, etc. were analysed to understand the absorption mechanism of fallout radionuclides. From a careful analysis of the results, the epiphytic plant species are identified as bioindicators to monitor fallout radionuclides. (Author)

  20. Modeling carbon stocks in a secondary tropical dry forest in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaohua Dai; Richard A. Birdsey; Kristofer D. Johnson; Juan Manuel Dupuy; Jose Luis Hernandez-Stefanoni; Karen. Richardson

    2014-01-01

    The carbon balance of secondary dry tropical forests of Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula is sensitive to human and natural disturbances and climate change. The spatially explicit process model Forest-DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) was used to estimate forest carbon dynamics in this region, including the effects of disturbance on carbon stocks. Model evaluation using...

  1. Tree species diversity and distribution patterns in tropical forests of Garo Hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kumar; B.G. Marcot; A. Saxena

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed phytosociological characteristics and diversity patterns of tree species of tropical forests of Garo Hills, western Meghalaya, northeast India. The main vegetation of the region included primary forests, secondary forests, and sal (Shorea robusta) plantations, with 162, 132, and 87 tree species, respectively. The Shannon-Wiener...

  2. Land use history, environment, and tree composition in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Thompson; Nicholas Brokaw; Jess K. Zimmerman; Robert B. Waide; Edwin M. III Everham; D. Jean Lodge; Charlotte M. Taylor; Diana Garcia-Montiel; Marcheterre Fluet

    2002-01-01

    The effects of historical land use on tropical forest must be examined to understand present forest characteristics and to plan conservation strategies. We compared the effects of past land use, topography, soil type, and other environmental variables on tree species composition in a subtropical wet forest in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. The study involved...

  3. Characterizing Tropical Forest Cover Loss Using Dense Sentinel-1 Data and Active Fire Alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiche, Johannes; Verhoeven, Rob; Verbesselt, Jan; Hamunyela, Eliakim; Wielaard, Niels; Herold, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Fire use for land management is widespread in natural tropical and plantation forests, causing major environmental and economic damage. Recent studies combining active fire alerts with annual forest-cover loss information identified fire-related forest-cover loss areas well, but do not provide

  4. Fuelwood collection and its impacts on a protected tropical mountain forest in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, M.; Sheil, D.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Local communities who live close to protected tropical forests often depend on them for woodfuel, their main source of energy. The impacts of fuelwood extraction in humid forests are rarely studied, yet the extraction of wood for fuel can impact forest structure, function and biodiversity. We

  5. The deep human prehistory of global tropical forests and its relevance for modern conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick; Hunt, Chris; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Evans, Damian; Boivin, Nicole

    2017-08-03

    Significant human impacts on tropical forests have been considered the preserve of recent societies, linked to large-scale deforestation, extensive and intensive agriculture, resource mining, livestock grazing and urban settlement. Cumulative archaeological evidence now demonstrates, however, that Homo sapiens has actively manipulated tropical forest ecologies for at least 45,000 years. It is clear that these millennia of impacts need to be taken into account when studying and conserving tropical forest ecosystems today. Nevertheless, archaeology has so far provided only limited practical insight into contemporary human-tropical forest interactions. Here, we review significant archaeological evidence for the impacts of past hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists and urban settlements on global tropical forests. We compare the challenges faced, as well as the solutions adopted, by these groups with those confronting present-day societies, which also rely on tropical forests for a variety of ecosystem services. We emphasize archaeology's importance not only in promoting natural and cultural heritage in tropical forests, but also in taking an active role to inform modern conservation and policy-making.

  6. Forest structure, diversity and soil properties in a dry tropical forest in Rajasthan, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Nirmal Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Structure, species composition, and soil properties of a dry tropical forest in Rajasthan Western India, were examined by establishment of 25 plots. The forest was characterized by a relatively low canopy and a large number of small-diameter trees. Mean canopy height for this forest was 10 m and stands contained an average of 995 stems ha-1 (= 3.0 cm DBH; 52% of those stems were smaller than 10 cm DBH. The total basal area was 46.35 m2ha-1, of which Tectona grandis L. contributed 48%. The forest showed high species diversity of trees. 50 tree species (= 3.0 cm DBH from 29 families were identified in the 25 sampling plots. T. grandis (20.81% and Butea monosperma (9% were the dominant and subdominant species in terms of importance value. The mean tree species diversity indices for the plots were 1.08 for Shannon diversity index (H´, 0.71 for equitability index (J´ and 5.57 for species richness index (S´, all of which strongly declined with the increase of importance value of the dominant, T. grandis. Measures of soil nutrients indicated low fertility, extreme heterogeneity. Regression analysis showed that stem density and the dominant tree height were significantly correlated with soil pH. There was a significant positive relationship between species diversity index and soil available P, exchangeable K+, Ca2+ (all p values < 0.001 and a negative relationship with N, C, C:N and C:P ratio. The results suggest that soil properties are major factors influencing forest composition and structure within the dry tropical forest in Rajasthan.

  7. Phylogenetic Structure of Foliar Spectral Traits in Tropical Forest Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. McManus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spectranomics approach to tropical forest remote sensing has established a link between foliar reflectance spectra and the phylogenetic composition of tropical canopy tree communities vis-à-vis the taxonomic organization of biochemical trait variation. However, a direct relationship between phylogenetic affiliation and foliar reflectance spectra of species has not been established. We sought to develop this relationship by quantifying the extent to which underlying patterns of phylogenetic structure drive interspecific variation among foliar reflectance spectra within three Neotropical canopy tree communities with varying levels of soil fertility. We interpreted the resulting spectral patterns of phylogenetic signal in the context of foliar biochemical traits that may contribute to the spectral-phylogenetic link. We utilized a multi-model ensemble to elucidate trait-spectral relationships, and quantified phylogenetic signal for spectral wavelengths and traits using Pagel’s lambda statistic. Foliar reflectance spectra showed evidence of phylogenetic influence primarily within the visible and shortwave infrared spectral regions. These regions were also selected by the multi-model ensemble as those most important to the quantitative prediction of several foliar biochemical traits. Patterns of phylogenetic organization of spectra and traits varied across sites and with soil fertility, indicative of the complex interactions between the environmental and phylogenetic controls underlying patterns of biodiversity.

  8. Forest response to rising CO2 drives zonally asymmetric rainfall change over tropical land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Chen, Yang; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Koven, Charles D.; Lindsay, Keith; Pritchard, Michael S.; Swann, Abigail L. S.; Randerson, James T.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding how anthropogenic CO2 emissions will influence future precipitation is critical for sustainably managing ecosystems, particularly for drought-sensitive tropical forests. Although tropical precipitation change remains uncertain, nearly all models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 predict a strengthening zonal precipitation asymmetry by 2100, with relative increases over Asian and African tropical forests and decreases over South American forests. Here we show that the plant physiological response to increasing CO2 is a primary mechanism responsible for this pattern. Applying a simulation design in the Community Earth System Model in which CO2 increases are isolated over individual continents, we demonstrate that different circulation, moisture and stability changes arise over each continent due to declines in stomatal conductance and transpiration. The sum of local atmospheric responses over individual continents explains the pan-tropical precipitation asymmetry. Our analysis suggests that South American forests may be more vulnerable to rising CO2 than Asian or African forests.

  9. Mixed-forest species establishment in a monodominant forest in central Africa: implications for tropical forest invasibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin S-H Peh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traits of non-dominant mixed-forest tree species and their synergies for successful co-occurrence in monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest have not yet been investigated. Here we compared the tree species diversity of the monodominant forest with its adjacent mixed forest and then determined which fitness proxies and life history traits of the mixed-forest tree species were most associated with successful co-existence in the monodominant forest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled all trees (diameter in breast height [dbh]≥10 cm within 6×1 ha topographically homogenous areas of intact central African forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450-800 m apart. Monodominant G. dewevrei forest had lower sample-controlled species richness, species density and population density than its adjacent mixed forest in terms of stems with dbh≥10 cm. Analysis of a suite of population-level characteristics, such as relative abundance and geographical distribution, and traits such as wood density, height, diameter at breast height, fruit/seed dispersal mechanism and light requirement-revealed after controlling for phylogeny, species that co-occur with G. dewevrei tend to have higher abundance in adjacent mixed forest, higher wood density and a lower light requirement. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that certain traits (wood density and light requirement and population-level characteristics (relative abundance may increase the invasibility of a tree species into a tropical closed-canopy system. Such knowledge may assist in the pre-emptive identification of invasive tree species.

  10. Mixed-Forest Species Establishment in a Monodominant Forest in Central Africa: Implications for Tropical Forest Invasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Sonké, Bonaventure; Séné, Olivier; Djuikouo, Marie-Noël K.; Nguembou, Charlemagne K.; Taedoumg, Hermann; Begne, Serge K.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traits of non-dominant mixed-forest tree species and their synergies for successful co-occurrence in monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest have not yet been investigated. Here we compared the tree species diversity of the monodominant forest with its adjacent mixed forest and then determined which fitness proxies and life history traits of the mixed-forest tree species were most associated with successful co-existence in the monodominant forest. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled all trees (diameter in breast height [dbh]≥10 cm) within 6×1 ha topographically homogenous areas of intact central African forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450–800 m apart). Monodominant G. dewevrei forest had lower sample-controlled species richness, species density and population density than its adjacent mixed forest in terms of stems with dbh≥10 cm. Analysis of a suite of population-level characteristics, such as relative abundance and geographical distribution, and traits such as wood density, height, diameter at breast height, fruit/seed dispersal mechanism and light requirement–revealed after controlling for phylogeny, species that co-occur with G. dewevrei tend to have higher abundance in adjacent mixed forest, higher wood density and a lower light requirement. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that certain traits (wood density and light requirement) and population-level characteristics (relative abundance) may increase the invasibility of a tree species into a tropical closed-canopy system. Such knowledge may assist in the pre-emptive identification of invasive tree species. PMID:24844914

  11. Tropical Deforestation, Community Forests, and Protected Areas in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton. Bray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Community forests and protected areas have each been proposed as strategies to stop deforestation. These management strategies should be regarded as hypotheses to be evaluated for their effectiveness in particular places. We evaluated the community-forestry hypothesis and the protected-area hypothesis in community forests with commercial timber production and strict protected areas in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and Mexico. From land-use and land cover change (LUCC maps derived from satellite images, we compared deforestation in 19 community forests and 11 protected areas in both countries in varying periods from 1988 to 2005. Deforestation rates were higher in protected areas than in community forests, but the differences were not significant. An analysis of human presence showed similar deforestation rates in inhabited protected areas and recently inhabited community forests, but the differences were not significant. There was also no significant difference in deforestation between uninhabited protected areas, uninhabited community forests, and long-inhabited community forests. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the factors correlated with deforestation varied by country. Distance to human settlements, seasonal wetlands, and degree and length of human residence were significant in Guatemala, and distance to previous deforestation and tropical semideciduous forest were significant in Mexico. Varying contexts and especially colonization histories are highlighted as likely factors that influence different outcomes. Poorly governed protected areas perform no better as a conservation strategy than poorly governed community forests with recent colonists in active colonization fronts. Long-inhabited extractive communities perform as well as uninhabited strict protected areas under low colonization pressure. A review of costs and benefits suggests that community forests may generate more local income with lower costs. Small sample sizes

  12. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the southern Amazon during June-November. The relationship between North Atlantic tropical cyclones and southern Amazon fires (r = 0.61, p forests.

  13. A Critique on Long-term Impacts of Logging in a Tropical Rain Forest-a Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawaty

    2006-01-01

    06008760 Logging operations in tropical forests often have severe impacts on the forests. Though only a small portion of trees is harvested, a large portion of the forest may be impacted, oleh Rahmawaty

  14. Emergence of nutrient limitation in tropical dry forests: hypotheses from simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, D.; Waring, B. G.; Xu, X.; Trierweiler, A.; Werden, L. K.; Wang, G.; Zhu, Q.; Powers, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    It is unclear to what extent tropical dry forest productivity may be limited by nutrients. Direct assessment of nutrient limitation through fertilization experiments has been rare, and paradigms pertaining to other ecosystems may not extend to tropical dry forests. For example, because dry tropical forests have a lower water supply than moist tropical forests, dry forests can have lower decomposition rates, higher soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and a more open nitrogen cycle than moist forests. We used a mechanistic, numerical model to generate hypotheses about nutrient limitation in tropical dry forests. The model dynamically couples ED2 (vegetation dynamics), MEND (biogeochemistry), and N-COM (plant-microbe competition for nutrients). Here, the MEND-component of the model has been extended to include nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles. We focus on simulation of sixteen 25m x 25m plots in Costa Rica where a fertilization experiment has been underway since 2015. Baseline simulations are characterized by both nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of vegetation. Fertilization with N and P increased vegetation biomass, with N fertilization having a somewhat stronger effect. Nutrient limitation was also sensitive to climate and was more pronounced during drought periods. Overflow respiration was identified as a key process that mitigated nutrient limitation. These results suggest that, despite often having richer soils than tropical moist forests, tropical dry forests can also become nutrient-limited. If the climate becomes drier in the next century, as is expected for Central America, drier soils may decrease microbial activity and exacerbate nutrient limitation. The importance of overflow respiration underscores the need for appropriate treatment of microbial dynamics in ecosystem models. Ongoing and new nutrient fertilization experiments will present opportunities for testing whether, and how, nutrient limitation may indeed be emerging in tropical dry

  15. Management Effectiveness of a Secondary Coniferous Forest for Landscape Appreciation and Psychological Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Fujiwara, Akio; Saito, Haruo; Horiuchi, Masahiro

    2017-07-18

    We investigated the influence of forest management on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration in on-site settings by exposing respondents to an unmanaged, dense coniferous (crowding) forest and a managed (thinned) coniferous forest; we set the two experimental settings in the forests of the Fuji Iyashinomoroi Woodland Study Center. The respondents were individually exposed to both settings while sitting for 15 min and were required to answer three questionnaires to analyze the psychological restorative effects before and after the experiment (feeling (the Profile of Mood States), affect (the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and subjective restorativeness (the Restorative Outcome Scale). To compare landscape appreciation, they were required to answer another two questionnaires only after the experiment, for scene appreciation (the semantic differential scale) and for the restorative properties of each environment (the Perceived Restorativeness Scale). Finally, we obtained these findings: (1) the respondents evaluated each forest environment highly differently and evaluated the thinned forest setting more positively; (2) the respondents' impressions of the two physical environments did not appear to be accurately reflected in their evaluations; (3) forest environments have potential restorative effects whether or not they are managed, but these effects can be partially enhanced by managing the forests.

  16. Impacts of tropical cyclones on hydrochemistry of a subtropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclones (typhoons/hurricanes have major impacts on the biogeochemistry of forest ecosystems, but the stochastic nature and the long intervals between storms means that there are limited data on their effects. We characterised the impacts of 14 typhoons over six years on hydrochemistry of a subtropical forest plantation in Taiwan, a region experiencing frequent typhoons. Typhoons contributed 1/3 of the annual rainfall on average, but ranged from 4 to 55%. The stochastic nature of annual typhoon related precipitation poses a challenge with respect to managing the impacts of these extreme events. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that typhoon-related rainfall is not significantly correlated with wind velocity, the current focus of weather forecasts. Thus, little advance warning is provided for the hydrological impacts of these storms. The typhoons we studied contributed approximately one third of the annual input and output of most nutrients (except nitrogen during an average 9.5 day yr−1 period, resulting in nutrient input/output rates an order of magnitude greater than during non-typhoon months. Nitrate output balanced input during the non-typhoon period, but during the typhoon period an average of 10 kg ha−1 yr−1 nitrate was lost. Streamwater chemistry exhibited similarly high variability during typhoon and non-typhoon periods and returned to pre-typhoon levels one to three weeks following each typhoon. The streamwater chemistry appears to be very resilient in response to typhoons, resulting in minimal loss of nutrients.

  17. Using soundscapes to detect variable degrees of human influence on tropical forests in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Towsey, Michael; Boucher, Tim; Truskinger, Anthony; Apelis, Cosmas; Roe, Paul; Game, Edward T

    2018-02-01

    There is global concern about tropical forest degradation, in part, because of the associated loss of biodiversity. Communities and indigenous people play a fundamental role in tropical forest management and are often efficient at preventing forest degradation. However, monitoring changes in biodiversity due to degradation, especially at a scale appropriate to local tropical forest management, is plagued by difficulties, including the need for expert training, inconsistencies across observers, and lack of baseline or reference data. We used a new biodiversity remote-sensing technology, the recording of soundscapes, to test whether the acoustic saturation of a tropical forest in Papua New Guinea decreases as land-use intensity by the communities that manage the forest increases. We sampled soundscapes continuously for 24 hours at 34 sites in different land-use zones of 3 communities. Land-use zones where forest cover was fully retained had significantly higher soundscape saturation during peak acoustic activity times (i.e., dawn and dusk chorus) compared with land-use types with fragmented forest cover. We conclude that, in Papua New Guinea, the relatively simple measure of soundscape saturation may provide a cheap, objective, reproducible, and effective tool for monitoring tropical forest deviation from an intact state, particularly if it is used to detect the presence of intact dawn and dusk choruses. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Technique of uranium exploration in tropical rain forests as applied in Sumatra and other tropical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, L.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of uranium prospecting in areas covered by tropical rain forest is discussed using a uranium exploration campaign conducted from 1976 to 1978 in Western Sumatra as an example. A regional reconnaissance survey using stream sediment samples combined with radiometric field measurements proved ideal for covering very large areas. A mobile field laboratory was used for the geochemical survey. Helicopter support in diffult terrain was found to be very efficient and economical. A field procedure for detecting low uranium concentrations in stream water samples is described. This method has been successfully applied in Sarawak. To distinguish meaningful uranium anomalies in water from those with no meaning for prospecting, the correlations between U content and conductivity of the water and between U content and Ca and HCO 3 content must be considered. This method has been used successfully in a geochemical survey in Thailand. (author)

  19. Reviews and syntheses: Field data to benchmark the carbon cycle models for tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Deborah A.; Asao, Shinichi; Fisher, Rosie; Reed, Sasha; Reich, Peter B.; Ryan, Michael G.; Wood, Tana E.; Yang, Xiaojuan

    2017-10-01

    For more accurate projections of both the global carbon (C) cycle and the changing climate, a critical current need is to improve the representation of tropical forests in Earth system models. Tropical forests exchange more C, energy, and water with the atmosphere than any other class of land ecosystems. Further, tropical-forest C cycling is likely responding to the rapid global warming, intensifying water stress, and increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Projections of the future C balance of the tropics vary widely among global models. A current effort of the modeling community, the ILAMB (International Land Model Benchmarking) project, is to compile robust observations that can be used to improve the accuracy and realism of the land models for all major biomes. Our goal with this paper is to identify field observations of tropical-forest ecosystem C stocks and fluxes, and of their long-term trends and climatic and CO2 sensitivities, that can serve this effort. We propose criteria for reference-level field data from this biome and present a set of documented examples from old-growth lowland tropical forests. We offer these as a starting point towards the goal of a regularly updated consensus set of benchmark field observations of C cycling in tropical forests.

  20. No evidence that boron influences tree species distributions in lowland tropical forests of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin L; Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Condit, Richard; Winter, Klaus; Wright, S Joseph; Dalling, James W

    2017-04-01

    It was recently proposed that boron might be the most important nutrient structuring tree species distributions in tropical forests. Here we combine observational and experimental studies to test this hypothesis for lowland tropical forests of Panama. Plant-available boron is uniformly low in tropical forest soils of Panama and is not significantly associated with any of the > 500 species in a regional network of forest dynamics plots. Experimental manipulation of boron supply to seedlings of three tropical tree species revealed no evidence of boron deficiency or toxicity at concentrations likely to occur in tropical forest soils. Foliar boron did not correlate with soil boron along a local scale gradient of boron availability. Fifteen years of boron addition to a tropical forest increased plant-available boron by 70% but did not significantly change tree productivity or boron concentrations in live leaves, wood or leaf litter. The annual input of boron in rainfall accounts for a considerable proportion of the boron in annual litterfall and is similar to the pool of plant-available boron in the soil, and is therefore sufficient to preclude boron deficiency. We conclude that boron does not influence tree species distributions in Panama and presumably elsewhere in the lowland tropics. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Changes in forest structure and composition after fire in tropical montane cloud forests near the Andean treeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Malhi, Y.; Salinas, N.; Huaman, V.; Urquiaga-Flores, E.; Kala-Mamani, J.; Quintano-Loaiza, J.A.; Cuba-Torres, I.; Lizarraga-Morales, N.; Roman-Cuesta, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) fires can be a frequent source of disturbance near the treeline. Aims: To identify how forest structure and tree species composition change in response to fire and to identify fire-tolerant species, and determine which traits or characteristics

  2. Shaping forest safety nets with markets: Adaptation to climate change under changing roles of tropical forests in Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkem, J.; Kalame, F.B.; Idinoba, M.; Somorin, O.A.; Ndoye, O.; Awono, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests hold several goods and services used by forest-dependent people as safety nets to traverse difficult periods of resource supply. These same goods and services are constantly surrounded by emerging markets linking remote communities with major urban centers nationally and

  3. Uncertainty in the spatial distribution of tropical forest biomass: a comparison of pan-tropical maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchard, Edward Ta; Saatchi, Sassan S; Baccini, Alessandro; Asner, Gregory P; Goetz, Scott J; Harris, Nancy L; Brown, Sandra

    2013-10-26

    Mapping the aboveground biomass of tropical forests is essential both for implementing conservation policy and reducing uncertainties in the global carbon cycle. Two medium resolution (500 m - 1000 m) pantropical maps of vegetation biomass have been recently published, and have been widely used by sub-national and national-level activities in relation to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Both maps use similar input data layers, and are driven by the same spaceborne LiDAR dataset providing systematic forest height and canopy structure estimates, but use different ground datasets for calibration and different spatial modelling methodologies. Here, we compare these two maps to each other, to the FAO's Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) 2010 country-level data, and to a high resolution (100 m) biomass map generated for a portion of the Colombian Amazon. We find substantial differences between the two maps, in particular in central Amazonia, the Congo basin, the south of Papua New Guinea, the Miombo woodlands of Africa, and the dry forests and savannas of South America. There is little consistency in the direction of the difference. However, when the maps are aggregated to the country or biome scale there is greater agreement, with differences cancelling out to a certain extent. When comparing country level biomass stocks, the two maps agree with each other to a much greater extent than to the FRA 2010 estimates. In the Colombian Amazon, both pantropical maps estimate higher biomass than the independent high resolution map, but show a similar spatial distribution of this biomass. Biomass mapping has progressed enormously over the past decade, to the stage where we can produce globally consistent maps of aboveground biomass. We show that there are still large uncertainties in these maps, in particular in areas with little field data. However, when used at a regional scale, different maps appear to converge, suggesting we can provide

  4. Persistent Soil Seed Banks for Natural Rehabilitation of Dry Tropical Forests in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrehiwot, K.; Heyn, M.; Reubens, B.; Hermy, M.; Muys, B.

    2007-01-01

    Dry tropical forests are threatened world-wide by conversion to grazing land, secondary forest, savannah or arable land. In Ethiopia, natural dry forest cover has been decreasing at an alarming rate over the last decennia and has reached a critical level. Efforts like the rehabilitation of dry forests to curb this ecological degradation, need a stronger scientific basis than currently available. The aim of the present research was to test the hypothesis whether soil seed banks can contribute ...

  5. Riparian forest buffers mitigate the effects of deforestation on fish assemblages in tropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorion, Christopher M; Kennedy, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Riparian forest buffers may play a critical role in moderating the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream ecosystems, but very few studies have examined the ecological effects of riparian buffers in the tropics. To test the hypothesis that riparian forest buffers can reduce the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream biota, we sampled fish assemblages in lowland headwater streams in southeastern Costa Rica representing three different treatments: (1) forested reference stream reaches, (2) stream reaches adjacent to pasture with a riparian forest buffer averaging at least 15 m in width on each bank, and (3) stream reaches adjacent to pasture without a riparian forest buffer. Land cover upstream from the study reaches was dominated by forest at all of the sites, allowing us to isolate the reach-scale effects of the three study treatments. Fish density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forest and forest buffer reaches, mostly due to an increase in herbivore-detritivores, but fish biomass did not differ among reach types. Fish species richness was also higher in pasture reaches than in forested reference reaches, while forest buffer reaches were intermediate. Overall, the taxonomic and trophic structure of fish assemblages in forest and forest buffer reaches was very similar, while assemblages in pasture reaches were quite distinct. These patterns were persistent across three sampling periods during our 15-month study. Differences in stream ecosystem conditions between pasture reaches and forested sites, including higher stream temperatures, reduced fruit and seed inputs, and a trend toward increased periphyton abundance, appeared to favor fish species normally found in larger streams and facilitate a native invasion process. Forest buffer reaches, in contrast, had stream temperatures and allochthonous inputs more similar to forested streams. Our results illustrate the importance of riparian areas to stream ecosystem integrity in the tropics

  6. Fragmentation, topography, and forest age modulate impacts of drought on a tropical forested landscape in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, M.; Schwartz, N.; Budsock, A.

    2017-12-01

    Naturally regenerating second-growth forests account for ca. 50% of tropical forest cover and provide key ecosystem services. Understanding climate impacts on these ecosystems is critical for developing effective mitigation programs. Differences in environmental conditions and landscape context from old-growth forests may exacerbate climate impacts on second-growth stands. Nearly 70% of forest regeneration is occurring in hilly, upland, or mountain regions; a large proportion of second-growth forests are also fragmented. The effects of drought at the landscape scale, however, and the factors that modulate landscape heterogeneity in drought impacts remain understudied. Heterogeneity in soil moisture, light, and temperature in fragmented, topographically complex landscapes is likely to influence climate impacts on these forests. We examine impacts of a severe drought in 2015 on a forested landscape in Puerto Rico using two anomalies in vegetation indices. The study landscape is fragmented and topographically complex and includes old- and second-growth forests. We consider how topography (slope, aspect), fragmentation (distance to forest edge, patch size), and forest age (old- vs second-growth) modulate landscape heterogeneity of drought impacts and recovery from drought. Drought impacts were more severe in second-growth forests than in old-growth stands. Both topography and forest fragmentation influences the magnitude of drought impacts. Forest growing in steep areas, south facing slopes, small patches, and closer to forest edges exhibited more marked responses to drought. Forest recovery from drought was greater in second-growth forests and south facing slopes but slower in small patches and closer to forest edges. These findings are congruent with studies of drought impacts on tree growth in the study region. Together these results demonstrate the need for a multi-scalar approach to the study of drought impacts on tropical forests.

  7. NPP Tropical Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967-1999, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains documented field measurements of NPP components for 39 old-growth tropical forests distributed worldwide between latitudes 23.58 N and 23.58...

  8. Palm oil expansion in tropical forest margins or sustainability of production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van M.; Pacheco, Pablo; Slingerland, M.A.; Dewi, S.; Khasanah, N.

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil expansion captures headlines, primarily out of concern that encroachment to tropical forest causes environmental problem and ignites social issues. Cascading ecological and social issues cause loss of trust, (threats of) consumer boycotts and multiple standards and certification responses.

  9. Timber tree regeneration along abandoned logging roads in a tropical Bolivian forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Severiche, W.; Fredericksen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable management of selectively logged tropical forests requires that felled trees are replaced through increased recruitment and growth. This study compares road track and roadside regeneration with regeneration in unlogged and selectively logged humid tropical forest in north-eastern Boli......Sustainable management of selectively logged tropical forests requires that felled trees are replaced through increased recruitment and growth. This study compares road track and roadside regeneration with regeneration in unlogged and selectively logged humid tropical forest in north......-eastern Bolivia. Some species benefited from increased light intensities on abandoned logging roads. Others benefited from low densities of competing vegetation on roads with compacted soils. This was the case for the small-seeded species Ficus boliviana C.C. Berg and Terminalia oblonga (Ruiz & Pav.) Steud. Some...

  10. Retention of available P in acid soils of tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianhui; ZOU Xiaoming; YANG Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation of mineral phosphate is often recognized as a factor of limiting the availability of P in acidic soils of tropical and subtropical forests.For this paper,we studied the extractable P pools and their transformation rates in soils of a tropical evergreen forest at Xishuangbanna and a subtropical montane wet forest at the Ailao Mountains in order to understand the biogeochemical processes regulating P availability in acidic soils.The two forests differ in forest humus layer;it is deep in the Ailao forest while little is present in the Xishuangbanna forest.The extractable P pools by resin and sodium-bicarbonate decreased when soil organic carbon content was reduced.The lowest levels of extractable P pools occurred in the surface (0-10 era) mineral soils of the Xishuangbanna forest.However,microbial P in the mineral soil of the Xishuangbauna forest was twice that in the Ailao forest.Potential rates of microbial P immobilization were greater than those of organic P mineralization in mineral soils for both forests.We suggest that microbial P immobilization plays an essential role in avoiding mineral P precipitation and retaining available P of plant in tropical acidic soils,whereas both floor mass accumulation and microbial P immobilization function benefit retaining plant available P in subtropical montane wet forests.

  11. Tropical forest cover change in the 1990s and options for future monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaux, Philippe; Holmgren, Peter; Achard, Frédéric; Eva, Hugh; Stibig, Hans-Jürgen; Branthomme, Anne

    2005-02-28

    Despite the importance of the world's humid tropical forests, our knowledge concerning their rates of change remains limited. Two recent programmes (FAO 2000 Forest Resources Assessment and TREES II), exploiting the global imaging capabilities of Earth observing satellites, have recently been completed to provide information on the dynamics of tropical forest cover. The results from these independent studies show a high degree of conformity and provide a good understanding of trends at the pan-tropical level. In 1990 there were some 1150 million ha of tropical rain forest with the area of the humid tropics deforested annually estimated at 5.8 million ha (approximately twice the size of Belgium). A further 2.3 million ha of humid forest is apparently degraded annually through fragmentation, logging and/or fires. In the sub-humid and dry tropics, annual deforestation of tropical moist deciduous and tropical dry forests comes to 2.2 and 0.7 million ha, respectively. Southeast Asia is the region where forests are under the highest pressure with an annual change rate of -0.8 to -0.9%. The annual area deforested in Latin America is large, but the relative rate (-0.4 to -0.5%) is lower, owing to the vast area covered by the remaining Amazonian forests. The humid forests of Africa are being converted at a similar rate to those of Latin America (-0.4 to -0.5% per year). During this period, secondary forests have also been established, through re-growth on abandoned land and forest plantations, but with different ecological, biophysical and economic characteristics compared with primary forests. These trends are significant in all regions, but the extent of new forest cover has proven difficult to establish. These results, as well as the lack of more detailed knowledge, clearly demonstrate the need to improve sound scientific evidence to support policy. The two projects provide useful guidance for future monitoring efforts in the context of multilateral environmental

  12. Forest Fragmentation and Selective Logging Have Inconsistent Effects on Multiple Animal-Mediated Ecosystem Processes in a Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K.; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W.; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H.; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J. Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the

  13. Sampling bees in tropical forests and agroecosystems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Sara G.; Ngo, Hien T.; Florez, Jaime A.; Collazo, Jaime A.

    2017-01-01

    Bees are the predominant pollinating taxa, providing a critical ecosystem service upon which many angiosperms rely for successful reproduction. Available data suggests that bee populations worldwide are declining, but scarce data in tropical regions precludes assessing their status and distribution, impact on ecological services, and response to management actions. Herein, we reviewed >150 papers that used six common sampling methods (pan traps, baits, Malaise traps, sweep nets, timed observations and aspirators) to better understand their strengths and weaknesses, and help guide method selection to meet research objectives and development of multi-species monitoring approaches. Several studies evaluated the effectiveness of sweep nets, pan traps, and malaise traps, but only one evaluated timed observations, and none evaluated aspirators. Only five studies compared two or more of the remaining four sampling methods to each other. There was little consensus regarding which method would be most reliable for sampling multiple species. However, we recommend that if the objective of the study is to estimate abundance or species richness, malaise traps, pan traps and sweep nets are the most effective sampling protocols in open tropical systems; conversely, malaise traps, nets and baits may be the most effective in forests. Declining bee populations emphasize the critical need in method standardization and reporting precision. Moreover, we recommend reporting a catchability coefficient, a measure of the interaction between the resource (bee) abundance and catching effort. Melittologists could also consider existing methods, such as occupancy models, to quantify changes in distribution and abundance after modeling heterogeneity in trapping probability, and consider the possibility of developing monitoring frameworks that draw from multiple sources of data.

  14. CO2 efflux from subterranean nests of ant communities in a seasonal tropical forest, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Hasin, Sasitorn; Ohashi, Mizue; Yamada, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Tasen, Wattanachai; Kume, Tomonori; Yamane, Seiki

    2014-01-01

    Many ant species construct subterranean nests. The presence of their nests may explain soil respiration “hot spots”, an important factor in the high CO2 efflux from tropical forests. However, no studies have directly measured CO2 efflux from ant nests. We established 61 experimental plots containing 13 subterranean ant species to evaluate the CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests in a tropical seasonal forest, Thailand. We examined differences in nest CO2 efflux among ant species. We determi...

  15. Hydrological Networks and Associated Topographic Variation as Templates for the Spatial Organization of Tropical Forest Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Detto, Matteo; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the spatial variability in tropical forest structure and biomass, and the mechanisms that underpin this variability, is critical for designing, interpreting, and upscaling field studies for regional carbon inventories. We investigated the spatial structure of tropical forest vegetation and its relationship to the hydrological network and associated topographic structure across spatial scales of 10-1000 m using high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived mean canopy profile heigh...

  16. Emissions Of Forest Fires In The Amazon: Impact On The Tropical Mountain Forest In Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Thiemens, M. H.; Brothers, L.

    2006-12-01

    Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very large distances, even traversing oceans. Four years of regular rain and fog-water measurements in the tropical mountain forest at the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1800 m and 3185 m, have been carried out. The ion composition of rain and fog-water samples shows frequent episodes of significantly enhanced nitrogen and sulphur, resulting in annual deposition rates of about 5 kg N/ha and 10 kg S/ha into this ecosystem, which are comparable to those of polluted central Europe. By relating back trajectories calculated by means of the FLEXTRA model to the distributions of satellite derived forest fire pixels, it can be shown that most episodes of enhanced ion concentration, with pH values as low as 4.0, can be attributed to biomass burning in the Amazon. First analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O of nitrate in fogwater samples show mass independent fractionation values ranging between 15 and 20 per mille, clearly indicating that nitrate in the samples is a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors, while the isotope data of river samples taken downstream of the research area are grouped in the region of microbial nitrate. This strongly supports the aforementioned trajectory results and shows that the tropical mountain forest in Ecuador, with local pollution sources missing,is "fertilized" by long-range transport of substances originating from forest fires in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Peru, far upwind of the research site.

  17. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y; Randerson, JT; Morton, DC

    2015-01-01

    ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the south...

  18. Impact of Restoration of Soil in a Humid Tropical Region on Storage of Organic Carbon in a Recalcitrant Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti Nath, Arun; Brahma, Biplab; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) changes through restoration of degraded lands is important to assessing the changes in soil properties. However, SOC measures all C fractions and its assessment is not adequate to distinguish between the more dynamic or active C (AC) fractions and the recalcitrant or passive C (PC) form. SOC fractions comprising of the recalcitrant pools have been suggested as a driver for long term soil C sink management. Therefore, the present study was undertaken at a site within the North Eastern India (NEI) region with an objective to explore whether or not SOC fractions change with restoration of degraded lands under humid tropical climate. An age-chronosequence study was established comprising of four different aged rubber plantations (6, 15, 27 and 34 yr. old) planted on Imperata grasslands. The site was selected to study changes in the different fractions of SOC and total SOC stock, and the data were compared with that of a native forest. The data indicated that the SOC stock increased from 106 Mg ha-1 under 6 yr. to 130 Mg ha-1 under 34 yr. old plantations. The SOC stock after 34 yr. of plantation was 20% higher than that under Imperata grassland, but was 34% lower than that under the native forest soil. With respect to lability of C fractions, proportion of AC pool decreased linearly with increase in plantation age from 59 % under 6 yr to 33 % under 34 yr. old plantations. In contrast, proportion of PC pool increased from 41 % of SOC stock under 6 yr. to 67 % of SOC under 34 yr. old plantations, suggesting the significant role of old aged plantation in C sink management.

  19. Variation in photosynthetic light-use efficiency in a mountainous tropical rain forest in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Oltchev, A.; June, T.

    2008-01-01

    in remote tropical areas. We used a 16-month continuous CO2 flux and meteorological dataset from a mountainous tropical rain forest in central Sulawesi, Indonesia to derive values of epsilon(Pg). and to investigate the relationship between P-g and Q(abs). Absorption was estimated with a 1D SVAT model from...

  20. Succesional change and resilience of a very dry tropical deciduous forest following shifting agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebrija Trejos, E.E.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Pérez-García, E.; Meave, J.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed successional patterns in a very dry tropical deciduous forest by using 15 plots differing in age after abandonment and contrasted them to secondary successions elsewhere in the tropics. We used multivariate ordination and nonlinear models to examine changes in composition and structure

  1. Selective logging and fire as drivers of alien grass invasion in a Bolivian tropical dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, J.W.; Mostacedo, B.; Peña-Claros, M.; Putz, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Logging is an integral component of most conceptual models that relate human land-use and climate change to tropical deforestation via positive-feedbacks involving fire. Given that grass invasions can substantially alter fire regimes, we studied grass distributions in a tropical dry forest 1-5 yr

  2. Effects of nitrogen additions on above- and belowground carbon dynamics in two tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela F. Cusack; Whendee L. Silver; Margaret S. Torn; William H. McDowell

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is increasing rapidly in tropical regions, adding N to ecosystems that often have high background N availability. Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, yet the effects of N deposition on C cycling in these ecosystems are poorly understood. We used a field N-fertilization experiment in lower and...

  3. Ecology of soil arthropod fauna in tropical forests: A review of studies from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; María F. Barberena

    2017-01-01

    The majority of ecological studies in the tropics deal with organisms participating in grazing food webs, while few deal with the diversity of invertebrates in the soil, leaf litter or dead wood that participate in detrital food webs. For tropical forests, the status of information on soil animal diversity is limited, especially when compared to other ecosystems such...

  4. The discursive construction of conflict in participatory forest management: the case of the Agoua forest restoration in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idrissou, L.; Aarts, N.; van Paassen, A.; Leeuwis, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Agoua Forest in Benin was declared a protected area in 1953 and subsequently managed by means of a coercion system, which, however, did not prevent its deforestation. In 2002, a participatory management process was designed to restore this forest. Although the project managers and local

  5. The Discursive Construction of Confl ict in Participatory Forest Management: The Case of the Agoua Forest Restoration in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idrissou Aboubacary, L.; Aarts, N.; Paassen, van A.; Leeuwis, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Agoua Forest in Benin was declared a protected area in 1953 and subsequently managed by means of a coercion system, which, however, did not prevent its deforestation. In 2002, a participatory management process was designed to restore this forest. Although the project managers and local

  6. Radioecological studies of tritium movement in a tropical rain forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J R; Jordan, C F; Koranda, J J; Kline, J R [Bio-Medical Division, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Several experiments on the movement of tritium in a tropical ecosystem have been conducted in the montane rainforest of Eastern Puerto Rico by the Bio-Medical Division of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center. Tritiated whaler was used as a tracer for water movement in: a) mature evergreen trees of the climax rainforest; b) soil and substory vegetation and c) rapidly growling successional species. A feasibility study on the Atlantic Pacific Interoceanic Canal is currently being conducted. If thermonuclear explosives were used in constructing the canal, tritium would be deposited as tritiated water and distributed among the several biological compartments of the tropical ecosystem in that area. The main hydrogen compartments are water in the soil and in leaves, limbs and wood of forest trees. Organic tissue hydrogen comprises another compartment. In the tree experiment, tritiated water was injected directly into several species of mature, broad leaved evergreen tropical trees. Transpiration and residence time for tritium was determined from analyses of leaves sampled during a several month period. Transpiration ranged from 4 ml/day/gm dry leaf for an understory Dacryodes excelsa to 10.0 and 13.8 ml/day/gm dry leaf for a mature Sloanea berteriana and D. excelsa, respectively. Mean residence time for the S. berteriana was 3.9 {+-} 0.2 days and the understory and mature D. excelsa values were 9.5 {+-} 0.4 and 11.0 {+-} 0. 6 days, respectively. In another experiment, tritiated water was sprinkled over a 3.68 m{sup 2} plot and its movement down into the soil and up into the vegetation growing on the plot was traced. The pattern of water movement in the soil was clearly demonstrated. The mean residence time for tritium in the soil and in trees was found to be 42 {+-} 2 days and 67 {+-} 9 days, respectively. The residence time for tritium in the trees in this experiment was considerably longer than for the single

  7. Radioecological studies of tritium movement in a tropical rain forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.; Jordan, C.F.; Koranda, J.J.; Kline, J.R.

    1970-01-01

    Several experiments on the movement of tritium in a tropical ecosystem have been conducted in the montane rainforest of Eastern Puerto Rico by the Bio-Medical Division of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center. Tritiated whaler was used as a tracer for water movement in: a) mature evergreen trees of the climax rainforest; b) soil and substory vegetation and c) rapidly growling successional species. A feasibility study on the Atlantic Pacific Interoceanic Canal is currently being conducted. If thermonuclear explosives were used in constructing the canal, tritium would be deposited as tritiated water and distributed among the several biological compartments of the tropical ecosystem in that area. The main hydrogen compartments are water in the soil and in leaves, limbs and wood of forest trees. Organic tissue hydrogen comprises another compartment. In the tree experiment, tritiated water was injected directly into several species of mature, broad leaved evergreen tropical trees. Transpiration and residence time for tritium was determined from analyses of leaves sampled during a several month period. Transpiration ranged from 4 ml/day/gm dry leaf for an understory Dacryodes excelsa to 10.0 and 13.8 ml/day/gm dry leaf for a mature Sloanea berteriana and D. excelsa, respectively. Mean residence time for the S. berteriana was 3.9 ± 0.2 days and the understory and mature D. excelsa values were 9.5 ± 0.4 and 11.0 ± 0. 6 days, respectively. In another experiment, tritiated water was sprinkled over a 3.68 m 2 plot and its movement down into the soil and up into the vegetation growing on the plot was traced. The pattern of water movement in the soil was clearly demonstrated. The mean residence time for tritium in the soil and in trees was found to be 42 ± 2 days and 67 ± 9 days, respectively. The residence time for tritium in the trees in this experiment was considerably longer than for the single injected input

  8. Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Sarah A.; Hedin, Lars O.; van Breugel, Michiel; Ransijn, Johannes; Craven, Dylan J.; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2013-10-01

    Forests contribute a significant portion of the land carbon sink, but their ability to sequester CO2 may be constrained by nitrogen, a major plant-limiting nutrient. Many tropical forests possess tree species capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2), but it is unclear whether this functional group can supply the nitrogen needed as forests recover from disturbance or previous land use, or expand in response to rising CO2 (refs 6, 8). Here we identify a powerful feedback mechanism in which N2 fixation can overcome ecosystem-scale deficiencies in nitrogen that emerge during periods of rapid biomass accumulation in tropical forests. Over a 300-year chronosequence in Panama, N2-fixing tree species accumulated carbon up to nine times faster per individual than their non-fixing neighbours (greatest difference in youngest forests), and showed species-specific differences in the amount and timing of fixation. As a result of fast growth and high fixation, fixers provided a large fraction of the nitrogen needed to support net forest growth (50,000kg carbon per hectare) in the first 12years. A key element of ecosystem functional diversity was ensured by the presence of different N2-fixing tree species across the entire forest age sequence. These findings show that symbiotic N2 fixation can have a central role in nitrogen cycling during tropical forest stand development, with potentially important implications for the ability of tropical forests to sequester CO2.

  9. Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Sarah A; Hedin, Lars O; van Breugel, Michiel; Ransijn, Johannes; Craven, Dylan J; Hall, Jefferson S

    2013-10-10

    Forests contribute a significant portion of the land carbon sink, but their ability to sequester CO2 may be constrained by nitrogen, a major plant-limiting nutrient. Many tropical forests possess tree species capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2), but it is unclear whether this functional group can supply the nitrogen needed as forests recover from disturbance or previous land use, or expand in response to rising CO2 (refs 6, 8). Here we identify a powerful feedback mechanism in which N2 fixation can overcome ecosystem-scale deficiencies in nitrogen that emerge during periods of rapid biomass accumulation in tropical forests. Over a 300-year chronosequence in Panama, N2-fixing tree species accumulated carbon up to nine times faster per individual than their non-fixing neighbours (greatest difference in youngest forests), and showed species-specific differences in the amount and timing of fixation. As a result of fast growth and high fixation, fixers provided a large fraction of the nitrogen needed to support net forest growth (50,000 kg carbon per hectare) in the first 12 years. A key element of ecosystem functional diversity was ensured by the presence of different N2-fixing tree species across the entire forest age sequence. These findings show that symbiotic N2 fixation can have a central role in nitrogen cycling during tropical forest stand development, with potentially important implications for the ability of tropical forests to sequester CO2.

  10. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  11. Ecological Structure of a Tropical Urban Forest in the Bang Kachao Peninsula, Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montathip Sommeechai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has changed the structure and function of natural ecosystems, especially floodplain ecosystems in SE Asia. The ecological structure of vegetation stands and the usefulness of satellite images was investigated to characterize a disturbed tropical urban forest located in the Chao Phraya River lower floodplain, Thailand. Nine sample plots were established on the Bang Kachao Peninsula (BKP within 4 tropical forest types in an urban area: rehabilitation forest, home-garden agroforestry, mangrove and park. The tree habitats were beach forest, swamp forest, moist evergreen forest, dry evergreen forest, mangrove forest and abandoned orchard or home-garden. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values obtained from Landsat 7 satellite images were correlated with plant structure from field surveys. NDVI had the highest relationship with stand factors for number of families, number of species, Shannon-Weiner index and total basal area. Linear regression predicted well the correlation between NDVI and stand factors for families and basal area. NDVI trends reflected urban tropical forest typing and biodiversity, being high in rehabilitation and mangrove forests, moderate in home-gardens and low in parks. We suggest that the application of NDVI for assessments can be useful for future planning, monitoring and management of the BKP and hence may contribute for increasing biodiversity and complexity of these urban forests.

  12. Post-Fire Restoration Plan for Sustainable Forest Management in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review was to determine a standard post-fire restoration strategy for use in South Korea according to the magnitude of the damage and the condition of the affected site. The government has strongly enforced reforestation in deforested areas as well as fire prevention and suppression since the 1960s. These efforts have successfully recovered dense even-aged forests over the last five decades. However, high fuel loading and the homogeneous structure have made forests vulnerable to large fires. In recent years, large forest fires have occurred in the eastern coastal region of Korea. Forest fires can significantly influence the economic and social activities of the residents of such affected forest regions. Burned areas may require urgent and long-term restoration strategies, depending on the condition of the affected site. Erosion control is the most important component of an urgent restoration and should be completed before a rainy season to prevent secondary damage such as landslides and sediment runoff in burned areas. Long-term restoration is necessary to renew forest functions such as timber production, water conservation, ecosystem conservation, and recreation for residents. Sound restoration for burned areas is critical for restoring healthy ecological functions of forests and providing economic incentives to local residents.

  13. Enhancing Quality of Life: Restorative Experience in Recreational Forests in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuzailin Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two recreational forests were selected as case studies: The Ampang and Kanching Recreational Forests. The recreational forests are facing pressure by surrounding developments such as highway and housing. Urban development has implications for the benefits offered by recreational forests, endangered biodiversity, water quality and wildlife to result a place that is no longer enjoyable to visit. It is important to conserve the recreational forests that can contribute to the urbanites quality of life. Based on the results from the site observations, self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews, this paper describes recreational forest users’ experience in the recreational forests and what makes they perceived restored while being in the forest. This study helps the recreational forest management and related organizations in conserving, planning and managing recreational forests in providing a positive experience for users that can enhance Malaysian quality of life.

  14. Airborne lidar-based estimates of tropical forest structure in complex terrain: opportunities and trade-offs for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronika Leitold; Michael Keller; Douglas C Morton; Bruce D Cook; Yosio E Shimabukuro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical forests remain large sources of uncertainty in the global carbon budget. Airborne lidar remote sensing is a powerful tool for estimating aboveground biomass, provided that lidar measurements penetrate dense forest vegetation to generate accurate estimates of surface topography and canopy heights. Tropical forest areas...

  15. Soil nitrogen levels are linked to decomposition enzyme activities along an urban-remote tropical forest gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. F. Cusack

    2013-01-01

    Urban areas in tropical regions are expanding rapidly, with significant potential to affect local ecosystem dynamics. In particular, nitrogen (N) availability may increase in urban-proximate forests because of atmospheric N deposition. Unlike temperate forests, many tropical forests on highly weathered soils have high background N availability, so plant growth is...

  16. Tropical forest soil microbes and climate warming: An Andean-Amazon gradient and `SWELTR'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, A.; Turner, B. L.; Fierer, N.; Whitaker, J.; Ostle, N. J.; McNamara, N. P.; Bardgett, R.; Silman, M.; Bååth, E.; Salinas, N.; Meir, P.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming predicted for the tropics in the coming century will result in average temperatures under which no closed canopy forest exists today. There is, therefore, great uncertainty associated with the direction and magnitude of feedbacks between tropical forests and our future climate - especially relating to the response of soil microbes and the third of global soil carbon contained in tropical forests. While warming experiments are yet to be performed in tropical forests, natural temperature gradients are powerful tools to investigate temperature effects on soil microbes. Here we draw on studies from a 3.5 km elevation gradient - and 20oC mean annual temperature gradient - in Peruvian tropical forest, to investigate how temperature affects the structure of microbial communities, microbial metabolism, enzymatic activity and soil organic matter cycling. With decreased elevation, soil microbial diversity increased and community composition shifted, from taxa associated with oligotrophic towards copiotrophic traits. A key role for temperature in shaping these patterns was demonstrated by a soil translocation experiment, where temperature-manipulation altered the relative abundance of specific taxa. Functional implications of these community composition shifts were indicated by changes in enzyme activities, the temperature sensitivity of bacterial and fungal growth rates, and the presence of temperature-adapted iso-enzymes at different elevations. Studies from a Peruvian elevation transect indicated that soil microbial communities are adapted to long-term (differences with elevation) and short-term (translocation responses) temperature changes. These findings indicate the potential for adaptation of soil microbes in tropical soils to future climate warming. However, in order to evaluate the sensitivity of these processes to climate warming in lowland forests, in situ experimentation is required. Finally, we describe SWELTR (Soil Warming Experiment in Lowland

  17. Streptomyces solisilvae sp. nov., isolated from tropical forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangqing; Yang, Xiaobo; Huang, Dongyi; Huang, Xiaolong

    2017-09-01

    A novel streptomycete (strain HNM0141T) was isolated from tropical forest soil collected from Bawangling mountain of Hainan island, PR China and its taxonomic position was established in a polyphasic study. The organism had chemical and morphological properties consistent with its classification as a member of the Streptomyces violaceusnigerclade. On the basis of the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, HNM0141T showed highest similarity to Streptomyces malaysiensisCGMCC4.1900T (99.4 %), Streptomyces samsunensis DSM 42010T (98.9 %), Streptomyces yatensis NBRC 101000T (98.3 %), Streptomyces rhizosphaericus NBRC 100778T (98.0 %) and Streptomyces sporoclivatus NBRC 100767T (97.9 %). The strain formed a well-delineated subclade with S. malaysiensis CGMCC4.1900T and S. samsunensis DSM 42010T. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between HNM0141T and S. malaysiensis CGMCC4.1900T and S. samsunensis DSM 42010T were 62 and 44 %, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, HNM0141T represents a novel species in the S. violaceusnigerclade for which the name Streptomyces solisilvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HNM0141 T (=CCTCC AA 2016045T=KCTC 39905T).

  18. Linking plant hydraulics and beta diversity in tropical forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Bradley [Earth and Environmental Sciences, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Meir, Patrick [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FE UK; Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 Australia; McDowell, Nate G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA

    2017-05-31

    In tropical forests, studies of xylem traits governing water transport through plants, or ‘hydraulic architecture’ (Tyree et al., 1991), and changes in species composition across environmental gradients, or ‘beta diversity’ (Gentry, 1988; Ackerly & Cornwell, 2007), have progressedmostly in parallel until recently (Hao et al., 2008; Bartlett et al., 2016). In this issue of New Phytologist, Cosme et al. (pp. 000–5 000) present a timely contribution to the intersection of plant hydraulic architecture (HA) with trait-based community ecology. Building on previous biogeographical work that demonstrated shifts in species composition (beta diversity) across a gradient from valleys to plateaus in central Amazonia (Schietti et al., 2014), Cosme et al. explore how variation in HA might underpin this sorting, sampling pairs of congeneric species restrictedmostly to either plateau or valley habitats. Valley species had significantly lower wood density and higher hydraulically-weighted vessel diameter and vessel area. By contrast, trees with some of the largest hydraulically-weighted vessel diameters existed in tall, deciduous plateau species, while the leaf: sapwood area ratio decreased with height in valley but not plateau species. These intriguing results suggest that species differentiation in water transport traits mediate edaphic filtering along the valley-toplateau gradient, in contrast to previous work where wood mechanical support mediated valley-to-plateau environmental filtering (Fortunel et al., 2014).

  19. Forest Islands and Castaway Communities: REDD+ and Forest Restoration in Prey Lang Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Work

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate Change policies are playing an ever-increasing role in global development strategies and their implementation gives rise to often-unforeseen social conflicts and environmental degradations. A landscape approach to analyzing forest-based Climate Change Mitigation policies (CCM and land grabs in the Prey Lang Forest landscape, Cambodia revealed two Korea-Cambodia partnership projects designed to increase forest cover that are juxtaposed in this paper. Case study data revealed a REDD+ project with little negative impact or social conflict in the project area and an Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R project that created both social and ecological conflicts. The study concludes that forest-based CCM policies can reduce conflict through efforts at minimal transformation of local livelihoods, maximal attention to the tenure rights, responsibilities, and authority of citizens, and by improving, not degrading, the project landscapes. The paper presents the circumstances under which these guidelines are sidestepped by the A/R project, and importantly reveals that dramatic forest and livelihood transformation had already affected the community and environment in the REDD+ project site. There are deep contradictions at the heart of climate change policies toward which attention must be given, lest we leave our future generations with nothing but forest islands and castaway communities.

  20. Responses of soil fungi to logging and oil palm agriculture in Southeast Asian tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K L; D'Angelo, H; Brearley, F Q; Gedallovich, S M; Babar, N; Yang, N; Gillikin, C M; Gradoville, R; Bateman, C; Turner, B L; Mansor, P; Leff, J W; Fierer, N

    2015-05-01

    Human land use alters soil microbial composition and function in a variety of systems, although few comparable studies have been done in tropical forests and tropical agricultural production areas. Logging and the expansion of oil palm agriculture are two of the most significant drivers of tropical deforestation, and the latter is most prevalent in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to compare soil fungal communities from three sites in Malaysia that represent three of the most dominant land-use types in the Southeast Asia tropics: a primary forest, a regenerating forest that had been selectively logged 50 years previously, and a 25-year-old oil palm plantation. Soil cores were collected from three replicate plots at each site, and fungal communities were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Extracellular enzyme assays were assessed as a proxy for soil microbial function. We found that fungal communities were distinct across all sites, although fungal composition in the regenerating forest was more similar to the primary forest than either forest community was to the oil palm site. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are important associates of the dominant Dipterocarpaceae tree family in this region, were compositionally distinct across forests, but were nearly absent from oil palm soils. Extracellular enzyme assays indicated that the soil ecosystem in oil palm plantations experienced altered nutrient cycling dynamics, but there were few differences between regenerating and primary forest soils. Together, these results show that logging and the replacement of primary forest with oil palm plantations alter fungal community and function, although forests regenerating from logging had more similarities with primary forests in terms of fungal composition and nutrient cycling potential. Since oil palm agriculture is currently the mostly rapidly expanding equatorial crop and logging is pervasive across tropical ecosystems, these findings may have broad applicability.

  1. Ethiopian church forests : opportunities and challenges for restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Northern Ethiopia almost all dry Afromontane forests have been converted to open agricultural lands. Only small isolated fragments remain around churches ("church forests"), but these are many. This study analyses forest community structure and composition of the church forests, investigates

  2. Modelling rainfall interception by a lowland tropical rain forest in northeastern Puerto Rico.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, J.; Scatena, F.N.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Wickel, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent surveys of tropical forest water use suggest that rainfall interception by the canopy is largest in wet maritime locations. To investigate the underlying processes at one such location-the Luquillo Experimental Forest in eastern Puerto Rico-66 days of detailed throughfall and above-canopy

  3. Estimating the opportunity costs of activities that cause degradation in tropical dry forest: Implications for REDD +

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrego, Armonia; Skutsch, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The viability of national REDD + programs will depend in part on whether funds generated from sales of carbon credits are sufficient to cover the opportunity costs (OC) of forgone uses of the forest. We present the results of a study in which OC were estimated in dry tropical forest, in western

  4. Former land-use and tree species affect nitrogen oxide emissions from a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Erickson; Eric A. Davidson; Michael Keller

    2002-01-01

    Species composition in successional dry forests in the tropics varies widely, but the effect of this variation on biogeochemical processes is not well known. We examined fluxes of N oxides (nitrous and nitric oxide), soil N cycling, and litter chemistry (C/N ratio) in four successional dry forests on similar soils in western Puerto Rico with differing species...

  5. Pathways, mechanisms and predictability of vegetation change during tropical dry forest succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebrija Trejos, E.E.; Meave, J.; Poorter, L.; Pérez- García, E.A.; Bongers, F.

    2010-01-01

    The development of forest succession theory has been based on studies in temperate and tropical wet forests. As rates and pathways of succession vary with the environment, advances in successional theory and study approaches are challenged by controversies derived from such variation and by the

  6. Light-dependent leaf trait variation in 43 tropical dry forest tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markesteijn, L.; Poorter, L.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of leaf acclimation in relation to irradiance of fully grown or juvenile trees is mainly based on research involving tropical wet forest species. We studied sun¿shade plasticity of 24 leaf traits of 43 tree species in a Bolivian dry deciduous forest. Sampling was confined to small

  7. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel. C. Donato; J. Boone Kauffman; Daniel Murdiyarso; Sofyan Kurnianto; Melanie Stidham; Markku Kanninen

    2011-01-01

    Mangrove forests occur along ocean coastlines throughout the tropics, and support numerous ecosystem services, including fisheries production and nutrient cycling. However, the areal extent of mangrove forests has declined by 30–50% over the past half century as a result of coastal development, aquaculture expansion and over-harvesting. Carbon emissions resulting from...

  8. Bistability, Spatial Interaction, and the Distribution of Tropical Forests and Savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Arie; Dekker, Stefan C.; Xu, Chi; Nes, van Egbert H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has indicated that tropical forest and savanna can be alternative stable states under a range of climatic conditions. However, dynamical systems theory suggests that in case of strong spatial interactions between patches of forest and savanna, a boundary between both states is only

  9. Comparing soil organic carbon dynamics in plantation and secondary forest in wet tropics in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI YIQING; MING XU; ZOU XIAOMING; PEIJUN SHI§; YAOQI ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    We compared the soil carbon dynamics between a pine plantation and a secondary forest, both of which originated from the same farmland abandoned in 1976 with the same cropping history and soil conditions, in the wet tropics in Puerto Rico from July 1996 to June 1997. We found that the secondary forest accumulated the heavy-fraction organic carbon (HF-OC) measured by...

  10. Tropical forest harvesting and taxation: a dynamic model of harvesting behavior under selective extraction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Conrad; Malcolm Gillis; D. Evan Mercer

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic model of selective harvesting in multi-species,multi-age tropical forests is developed. Forests are predicted to exhibit different optimal harvesting profiles depending on the nature of their joint cost functions and own or cross-species stock effects. The model is applied to the controversy about incentives produced by various taxes. The impacts of specific...

  11. Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batterman, S.A.; Hedin, L.O.; Breugel, van M.; Ransijn, J.; Craven, D.J.; Hall, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Forests contribute a significant portion of the land carbon sink, but their ability to sequester CO2 may be constrained by nitrogen1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, a major plant-limiting nutrient. Many tropical forests possess tree species capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2)7, but it is unclear whether

  12. Soil-mediated filtering organizes tree assemblages in regenerating tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinho, Bruno Ximenes; Melo, de Felipe Pimentel Lopes; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Pierce, Simon; Lohbeck, Madelon; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Secondary forests are increasingly dominant in human-modified tropical landscapes, but the drivers of forest recovery remain poorly understood. Soil conditions influence plant community composition, and are expected to change over a gradient of succession. However, the role of soil conditions as

  13. Seasonal variation in soil and plant water potentials in a Bolivian tropical moist and dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markesteijn, L.; Iraipi, J.; Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.

    2010-01-01

    We determined seasonal variation in soil matric potentials (¿soil) along a topographical gradient and with soil depth in a Bolivian tropical dry (1160 mm y-1 rain) and moist forest (1580 mm y-1). In each forest we analysed the effect of drought on predawn leaf water potentials (¿pd) and drought

  14. Multidimensional remote sensing based mapping of tropical forests and their dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutrieux, L.P.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests concentrate a large part of the terrestrial biodiversity, provide important resources, and deliver many ecosystem services such as climate regulation, carbon sequestration, and hence climate change mitigation. While in the current context of anthropogenic pressure these forests

  15. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F.; Diaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil

  16. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Oliviera, de A.; Alarcón, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño-Rocabado, G.; Casanoves, F.; Díaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and

  17. A multi-criterion index for the evaluation of local tropical forest conditions in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Kampichler, C.; de Jong, B.H.J.; Hernández, S.; Geissen, V.; Huerta, E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economical importance of tropical forests they are currently affected by human activities, mainly through deforestation and selective extraction. With the aim of making an opportune diagnosis of the condition of forests, we developed an ecological index based on

  18. Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Mara P; Varanda, Elenice M

    2010-01-01

    The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored sites of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also ...

  19. Tropical countries may be willing to pay more to protect their forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jeffrey R.; Carson, Richard T.; DeShazo, J. R.; Schwabe, Kurt A.; Ahmad, Ismariah; Chong, Siew Kook; Chang, Yii Tan; Potts, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate funding from developed countries has hampered international efforts to conserve biodiversity in tropical forests. We present two complementary research approaches that reveal a significant increase in public demand for conservation within tropical developing countries as those countries reach upper-middle-income (UMI) status. We highlight UMI tropical countries because they contain nearly four-fifths of tropical primary forests, which are rich in biodiversity and stored carbon. The first approach is a set of statistical analyses of various cross-country conservation indicators, which suggests that protective government policies have lagged behind the increase in public demand in these countries. The second approach is a case study from Malaysia, which reveals in a more integrated fashion the linkages from rising household income to increased household willingness to pay for conservation, nongovernmental organization activity, and delayed government action. Our findings suggest that domestic funding in UMI tropical countries can play a larger role in (i) closing the funding gap for tropical forest conservation, and (ii) paying for supplementary conservation actions linked to international payments for reduced greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical countries. PMID:24982171

  20. Pervasive phosphorus limitation of tree species but not communities in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin L.; Brenes-Arguedas, Tania; Condit, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Phosphorus availability is widely assumed to limit primary productivity in tropical forests, but support for this paradigm is equivocal. Although biogeochemical theory predicts that phosphorus limitation should be prevalent on old, strongly weathered soils, experimental manipulations have failed to detect a consistent response to phosphorus addition in species-rich lowland tropical forests. Here we show, by quantifying the growth of 541 tropical tree species across a steep natural phosphorus gradient in Panama, that phosphorus limitation is widespread at the level of individual species and strengthens markedly below a threshold of two parts per million exchangeable soil phosphate. However, this pervasive species-specific phosphorus limitation does not translate into a community-wide response, because some species grow rapidly on infertile soils despite extremely low phosphorus availability. These results redefine our understanding of nutrient limitation in diverse plant communities and have important implications for attempts to predict the response of tropical forests to environmental change.

  1. Succession of ephemeral secondary forests and their limited role for the conservation of floristic diversity in a human-modified tropical landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Breugel

    Full Text Available Both local- and landscape-scale processes drive succession of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes. Nonetheless, until recently successional changes in composition and diversity have been predominantly studied at the patch level. Here, we used a unique dataset with 45 randomly selected sites across a mixed-use tropical landscape in central Panama to study forest succession simultaneously on local and landscape scales and across both life stages (seedling, sapling, juvenile and adult trees and life forms (shrubs, trees, lianas, and palms. To understand the potential of these secondary forests to conserve tree species diversity, we also evaluated the diversity of species that can persist as viable metapopulations in a dynamic patchwork of short-lived successional forests, using different assumptions about the average relative size at reproductive maturity. We found a deterministic shift in the diversity and composition of the local plant communities as well as the metacommunity, driven by variation in the rate at which species recruited into and disappeared from the secondary forests across the landscape. Our results indicate that dispersal limitation and the successional niche operate simultaneously and shape successional dynamics of the metacommunity of these early secondary forests. A high diversity of plant species across the metacommunity of early secondary forests shows a potential for restoration of diverse forests through natural succession, when trees and fragments of older forests are maintained in the agricultural matrix and land is abandoned or set aside for a long period of time. On the other hand, during the first 32 years the number of species with mature-sized individuals was a relatively small and strongly biased sub-sample of the total species pool. This implies that ephemeral secondary forests have a limited role in the long-term conservation of tree species diversity in human-modified tropical landscapes.

  2. Land cover change and remote sensing: Examples of quantifying spatiotemporal dynamics in tropical forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Su, Haiping [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fox, J. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yarnasan, S.; Ekasingh, M. [Chiang Mai Univ. (Thailand)

    1995-06-01

    Research on human impacts or natural processes that operate over broad geographic areas must explicitly address issues of scale and spatial heterogeneity. While the tropical forests of Southeast Asia and Mexico have been occupied and used to meet human needs for thousands of years, traditional forest management systems are currently being transformed by rapid and far-reaching demographic, political, economic, and environmental changes. The dynamics of population growth, migration into the remaining frontiers, and responses to national and international market forces result in a demand for land to produce food and fiber. These results illustrate some of the mechanisms that drive current land use changes, especially in the tropical forest frontiers. By linking the outcome of individual land use decisions and measures of landscape fragmentation and change, the aggregated results shows the hierarchy of temporal and spatial events that in summation result in global changes to the most complex and sensitive biome -- tropical forests. By quantifying the spatial and temporal patterns of tropical forest change, researchers can assist policy makers by showing how landscape systems in these tropical forests are controlled by physical, biological, social, and economic parameters.

  3. Evaporation from a tropical rain forest, Luquillo Experimental Forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, J.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Scatena, F. N.; Bink, N. J.; Holwerda, F.

    2000-08-01

    Evaporation losses from a watertight 6.34 ha rain forest catchment under wet maritime tropical conditions in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, were determined using complementary hydrological and micrometeorological techniques during 1996 and 1997. At 6.6 mm d-1 for 1996 and 6.0 mm d-1 for 1997, the average evapotranspiration (ET) of the forest is exceptionally high. Rainfall interception (Ei), as evaluated from weekly throughfall measurements and an average stemflow fraction of 2.3%, accounted for much (62-74%) of the ET at 4.9 mm d-1 in 1996 and 3.7 mm d-1 in 1997. Average transpiration rates (Et) according to a combination of the temperature fluctuation method and the Penman-Monteith equation were modest at 2.2 mm d-1 and 2.4 mm d-1 in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Both estimates compared reasonably well with the water-budget-based estimates (ET - Ei) of 1.7 mm d-1 and 2.2 mm d-1. Inferred rates of wet canopy evaporation were roughly 4 to 5 times those predicted by the Penman-Monteith equation, with nighttime rates very similar to daytime rates, suggesting radiant energy is not the dominant controlling factor. A combination of advected energy from the nearby Atlantic Ocean, low aerodynamic resistance, plus frequent low-intensity rain is thought to be the most likely explanation of the observed discrepancy between measured and estimated Ei.

  4. Development of an Assessment Framework for Restored Forested Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; E.A. Nelson

    1998-01-01

    Development of an assessment framework and associated indicators that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a wetland restoration is critical to demonstrating the sustainability of restored sites. An interdisciplinary approach was developed to assess how succession is proceeding on a restored bottomland site in South Carolina relative to an undisturbed...

  5. 75 FR 70083 - Emergency Forest Restoration Program and Emergency Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Restoration Program and Emergency Conservation Program AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: The Farm Service Agency (FSA) is amending regulations as required by the Food, Conservation, and... as follows: PART 701--EMERGENCY CONSERVATION PROGRAM, EMERGENCY FOREST RESTORATION PROGRAM, AND...

  6. Restoration of native forest flora in the degraded highlands of Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wide spread deforestation and subsequent degradation is severely threatening the natural forest resources in Ethiopia. What is imperatively and urgently needed today is ecological restoration. In order for ecological restoration to be successful and cost effective, critical analyses of possible constraints and available ...

  7. 76 FR 46721 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project Environmental Impact... improve the health of the ecosystem and reach the desired future condition. DATES: Comments concerning the... Ecosystem Restoration Project EIS, P.O. Box 180, 11 Casey Rd., North Fork, ID 83466. Comments may also be...

  8. Restoring oak ecosystems on national forest system lands in the eastern region: an adaptive management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Nowacki; Michael Ablutz; Dan Yaussy; Thomas Schuler; Dan Dey

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service has recently completed an ecosystem restoration framework and enacted accompanying policy to help guide its nationwide efforts. The Eastern Region is in the midst of translating the general guidance set forth in these documents to actual on-the-ground restoration. We envision a set of coordinated field demonstrations that will initially focus on...

  9. Secondary forest regeneration benefits old-growth specialist bats in a fragmented tropical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ricardo; Ovaskainen, Otso; López-Baucells, Adrià; Farneda, Fábio Z; Sampaio, Erica M; Bobrowiec, Paulo E D; Cabeza, Mar; Palmeirim, Jorge M; Meyer, Christoph F J

    2018-02-28

    Tropical forest loss and fragmentation are due to increase in coming decades. Understanding how matrix dynamics, especially secondary forest regrowth, can lessen fragmentation impacts is key to understanding species persistence in modified landscapes. Here, we use a whole-ecosystem fragmentation experiment to investigate how bat assemblages are influenced by the regeneration of the secondary forest matrix. We surveyed bats in continuous forest, forest fragments and secondary forest matrix habitats, ~15 and ~30 years after forest clearance, to investigate temporal changes in the occupancy and abundance of old-growth specialist and habitat generalist species. The regeneration of the second growth matrix had overall positive effects on the occupancy and abundance of specialists across all sampled habitats. Conversely, effects on generalist species were negligible for forest fragments and negative for secondary forest. Our results show that the conservation potential of secondary forests for reverting faunal declines in fragmented tropical landscapes increases with secondary forest age and that old-growth specialists, which are often of most conservation concern, are the greatest beneficiaries of secondary forest maturation. Our findings emphasize that the transposition of patterns of biodiversity persistence in island ecosystems to fragmented terrestrial settings can be hampered by the dynamic nature of human-dominated landscapes.

  10. A large-scale field assessment of carbon stocks in human-modified tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Erika; Ferreira, Joice; Gardner, Toby Alan; Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Cruz; De Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Durigan, Mariana; Cosme De Oliveira Junior, Raimundo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Barlow, Jos

    2014-12-01

    Tropical rainforests store enormous amounts of carbon, the protection of which represents a vital component of efforts to mitigate global climate change. Currently, tropical forest conservation, science, policies, and climate mitigation actions focus predominantly on reducing carbon emissions from deforestation alone. However, every year vast areas of the humid tropics are disturbed by selective logging, understory fires, and habitat fragmentation. There is an urgent need to understand the effect of such disturbances on carbon stocks, and how stocks in disturbed forests compare to those found in undisturbed primary forests as well as in regenerating secondary forests. Here, we present the results of the largest field study to date on the impacts of human disturbances on above and belowground carbon stocks in tropical forests. Live vegetation, the largest carbon pool, was extremely sensitive to disturbance: forests that experienced both selective logging and understory fires stored, on average, 40% less aboveground carbon than undisturbed forests and were structurally similar to secondary forests. Edge effects also played an important role in explaining variability in aboveground carbon stocks of disturbed forests. Results indicate a potential rapid recovery of the dead wood and litter carbon pools, while soil stocks (0-30 cm) appeared to be resistant to the effects of logging and fire. Carbon loss and subsequent emissions due to human disturbances remain largely unaccounted for in greenhouse gas inventories, but by comparing our estimates of depleted carbon stocks in disturbed forests with Brazilian government assessments of the total forest area annually disturbed in the Amazon, we show that these emissions could represent up to 40% of the carbon loss from deforestation in the region. We conclude that conservation programs aiming to ensure the long-term permanence of forest carbon stocks, such as REDD+, will remain limited in their success unless they effectively

  11. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  12. Capability of integrated MODIS imagery and ALOS for oil palm, rubber and forest areas mapping in tropical forest regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Sheriza Mohd; Marin, Arnaldo; Nuruddin, Ahmad Ainuddin; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Hamid, Hazandy Abdul

    2014-05-07

    Various classification methods have been applied for low resolution of the entire Earth's surface from recorded satellite images, but insufficient study has determined which method, for which satellite data, is economically viable for tropical forest land use mapping. This study employed Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and K-Means classification techniques to classified Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Surface Reflectance satellite image into forests, oil palm groves, rubber plantations, mixed horticulture, mixed oil palm and rubber and mixed forest and rubber. Even though frequent cloud cover has been a challenge for mapping tropical forests, our MODIS land use classification map found that 2008 ISODATA-1 performed well with overall accuracy of 94%, with the highest Producer's Accuracy of Forest with 86%, and were consistent with MODIS Land Cover 2008 (MOD12Q1), respectively. The MODIS land use classification was able to distinguish young oil palm groves from open areas, rubber and mature oil palm plantations, on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) map, whereas rubber was more easily distinguished from an open area than from mixed rubber and forest. This study provides insight on the potential for integrating regional databases and temporal MODIS data, in order to map land use in tropical forest regions.

  13. Above Canopy Emissions of Isoprene and Monoterpenes from a Southeast Asian Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.; Johnson, C.; Cai, Z.; Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Bai, J.; Li, Q.

    2003-12-01

    Fluxes of isoprene were measured using the eddy covariance technique and an ozone chemiluminescence isoprene sensor above a secondary tropical forest/rubber tree plantation located in the Xishuangbanna region of southern China during the wet and dry seasons. Fluxes of monoterpenes were inferred from ambient boundary layer concentrations (wet season) and from relaxed eddy accumulation measurements (dry season). Isoprene emissions were comparable to what has been observed from other tropical forests in Africa and South America. In this forest, monoterpene emissions were much higher during the wet season due to the senescence of the rubber trees during the dry season. These flux measurements represent the first ecosystem level flux measurements reported from Southeast Asian tropical forests.

  14. Dynamics of leaf litter humidity, depth and quantity: two restoration strategies failed to mimic ground microhabitat conditions of a low montane and premontane forest in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidett Barrientos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how restoration strategies affect aspects like leaf litter’s quantity, depth and humidity. I analyzed leaf litter’s quantity, depth and humidity yearly patterns in a primary tropical lower montane wet forest and two restored areas: a 15 year old secondary forest (unassisted restoration and a 40 year old Cupressus lusitanica plantation (natural understory. The three habitats are located in the Río Macho Forest Reserve, Costa Rica. Twenty litter samples were taken every three months (April 2009-April 2010 in each habitat; humidity was measured in 439g samples (average, depth and quantity were measured in five points inside 50x50cm plots. None of the restoration strategies reproduced the primary forest leaf litter humidity, depth and quantity yearly patterns. Primary forest leaf litter humidity was higher and more stable (x=73.2, followed by secondary forest (x=63.3 and cypress plantation (x=52.9 (Kruskall-Wallis=77.93, n=232, p=0.00. In the primary (Kruskal-Wallis=31.63, n=78, p<0.001 and secondary (Kruskal-Wallis=11.79, n=75, p=0.008 forest litter accumulation was higher during April due to strong winds. In the primary forest (Kruskal-wallis=21.83, n=78, p<0.001 and the cypress plantation (Kruskal-wallis=39.99, n=80, p<0.001 leaf litter depth was shallow in October because heavy rains compacted it. Depth patterns were different from quantity patterns and described the leaf litter’s structure in different ecosystems though the year.

  15. Characterizing Tropical Forest Structure using Field-based Measurements and a Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Ducey, M. J.; Herrick, C.

    2015-12-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable components of forest biometric characteristics, one of which is tree architecture. This structural component is important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, FFT, number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on statistically significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.87, p information on tropical forest structure.

  16. Leaf litter decomposition rates increase with rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori D. Bothwell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decomposing litter in forest ecosystems supplies nutrients to plants, carbon to heterotrophic soil microorganisms and is a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivity of leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical montane wet forests where the warming trend may be amplified compared to tropical wet forests at lower elevations. We quantified leaf litter decomposition rates along a highly constrained 5.2 °C mean annual temperature (MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. Dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil moisture, and disturbance history are all nearly constant across this gradient, allowing us to isolate the effect of rising MAT on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release. Leaf litter decomposition rates were a positive linear function of MAT, causing the residence time of leaf litter on the forest floor to decline by ∼31 days for each 1 °C increase in MAT. Our estimate of the Q10 temperature coefficient for leaf litter decomposition was 2.17, within the commonly reported range for heterotrophic organic matter decomposition (1.5–2.5 across a broad range of ecosystems. The percentage of leaf litter nitrogen (N remaining after six months declined linearly with increasing MAT from ∼88% of initial N at the coolest site to ∼74% at the warmest site. The lack of net N immobilization during all three litter collection periods at all MAT plots indicates that N was not limiting to leaf litter decomposition, regardless of temperature. These results suggest that leaf litter decay in tropical montane wet forests may be more sensitive to rising MAT than in tropical lowland wet forests, and that increased rates of N release from decomposing litter could delay or prevent progressive N limitation to net primary productivity with climate warming.

  17. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, Ross; Mitchell, Brandie; Brown, Tevin; Billiot, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Barrier Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal areas. Historically, tropical cyclonic events have had a great impact on the transgression of barrier islands, especially the Chandeleur Island chain off the eastern coast of Louisiana. These islands are of great importance, aiding in the protection of southeastern Louisiana from major storms, providing habitat for nesting and migratory bird species, and are part of the second oldest wildlife refuge in the country. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both federal and state agencies. Since then, multiple storm events have steadily diminished the integrity of the islands. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 thwarted all previous restoration efforts, with Hurricane Gustav in 2008 exacerbating island erosion and vegetation loss. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS), and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) will be utilized to detect land loss, island transgression, and vegetation change from 1979 to 2009. This study looks to create a more synoptic view of the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands and correlate weather and sea surface phenomena with erosion trends over the past 30 years, so that partnering organizations such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES) can better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

  18. ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS FOR ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS IN PAPUA TROPICAL FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhi Imam Maulana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Allometric equations can be used to estimate biomass and carbon stock of  the forest. However, so far the allometric equations for commercial species in Papua tropical forests have not been appropriately developed. In this research, allometric equations are presented based on the genera of  commercial species. Few equations have been developed for the commercial species of  Intsia, Pometia, Palaquium and Vatica genera and an equation of  a mix of  these genera. The number of  trees sampled in this research was 49, with diameters (1.30 m above-ground or above buttresses ranging from 5 to 40 cm. Destructive sampling was used to collect the samples where Diameter at Breast Height (DBH and Wood Density (WD were used as predictors for dry weight of  Total Above-Ground Biomass (TAGB. Model comparison and selection were based on the values of  F-statistics, R-sq, R-sq (adj, and average deviation. Based on these statistical indicators, the most suitable model for Intsia, Pometia, Palaquium and Vatica genera respectively are Log(TAGB = -0.76 + 2.51Log(DBH, Log(TAGB = -0.84 + 2.57Log(DBH, Log(TAGB = -1.52 + 2.96Log(DBH, and Log(TAGB = -0.09 + 2.08Log(DBH. Additional explanatory variables such as Commercial Bole Height (CBH do not really increase the indicators’ goodness of  fit for the equation. An alternative model to incorporate wood density should  be considered for estimating the above-ground biomass for mixed genera. Comparing the presented mixed-genera equation; Log(TAGB = 0.205 + 2.08Log(DBH + 1.75Log(WD, R-sq: 97.0%, R-sq (adj: 96.9%, F statistics 750.67, average deviation: 3.5%; to previously published datashows that this local species specific equation differs substantially from previously published equations and this site-specific equation is  considered to give a better estimation of  biomass.

  19. Somatic embryogenesis and cryostorage for conservation and restoration of threatened forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.A. Merkle; A.R. Tull; H.J. Gladfelter; P.M. Montello; J.E. Mitchell; C. Ahn; R.D. McNeill

    2017-01-01

    Threats to North American forest trees from exotic pests and pathogens or habitat loss, make it imperative that every available tool be employed for conservation and restoration of these at risk species. One such tool, in vitro propagation, could greatly enhance conservation of forest tree genetic material and selection and breeding of resistant or...

  20. Ecosystem and restoration consequences of invasive woody species removal in Hawaiian lowland wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ostertag; S. Cordell; J. Michaud; T.C. Cole; J.R. Schulten; K.M. Publico; J.H. Enoka

    2009-01-01

    A removal experiment was used to examine the restoration potential of a lowland wet forest in Hawaii, a remnant forest type that has been heavily invaded by non-native species and in which there is very little native species regeneration. All non-native woody and herbaceous biomass (approximately 45% of basal area) was removed in four 100-m² removal plots;...

  1. Explosive radiation of Malpighiales supports a mid-cretaceous origin of modern tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles C; Webb, Campbell O; Wurdack, Kenneth J; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Donoghue, Michael J

    2005-03-01

    Fossil data have been interpreted as indicating that Late Cretaceous tropical forests were open and dry adapted and that modern closed-canopy rain forest did not originate until after the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. However, some mid-Cretaceous leaf floras have been interpreted as rain forest. Molecular divergence-time estimates within the clade Malpighiales, which constitute a large percentage of species in the shaded, shrub, and small tree layer in tropical rain forests worldwide, provide new tests of these hypotheses. We estimate that all 28 major lineages (i.e., traditionally recognized families) within this clade originated in tropical rain forest well before the Tertiary, mostly during the Albian and Cenomanian (112-94 Ma). Their rapid rise in the mid-Cretaceous may have resulted from the origin of adaptations to survive and reproduce under a closed forest canopy. This pattern may also be paralleled by other similarly diverse lineages and supports fossil indications that closed-canopy tropical rain forests existed well before the K/T boundary. This case illustrates that dated phylogenies can provide an important new source of evidence bearing on the timing of major environmental changes, which may be especially useful when fossil evidence is limited or controversial.

  2. Diameter growth performance of tree functional groups in Puerto Rican secondary tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Adame

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Yet, the high species diversity of mixed tropical forests, including many uncommon species, hinders the development of species-specific diameter growth models.Area of study: In these analyses, we grouped 82 species from secondary forests distributed across 93 permanent plots on the island of Puerto Rico.Material and Methods: Species were classified according to regeneration strategy and adult height into six functional groups. This classification allowed us to develop a robust diameter growth model using growth data collected from 1980-1990. We used mixed linear model regression to analyze tree diameter growth as a function of individual tree characteristics, stand structure, functional group and site factors.Main results: The proportion of variance in diameter growth explained by the model was 15.1%, ranging from 7.9 to 21.7%. Diameter at breast height, stem density and functional group were the most important predictors of tree growth in Puerto Rican secondary forest. Site factors such as soil and topography failed to predict diameter growth.Keywords: Caribbean forests; growth model; tropical forest succession; Puerto Rico.

  3. National satellite-based humid tropical forest change assessment in Peru in support of REDD+ implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, P. V.; Dempewolf, J.; Talero, Y.; Hansen, M. C.; Stehman, S. V.; Vargas, C.; Rojas, E. J.; Castillo, D.; Mendoza, E.; Calderón, A.; Giudice, R.; Malaga, N.; Zutta, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent, consistent, and accurate national forest monitoring is required for successful implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) programs. Collecting baseline information on forest extent and rates of forest loss is a first step for national forest monitoring in support of REDD+. Peru, with the second largest extent of Amazon basin rainforest, has made significant progress in advancing its forest monitoring capabilities. We present a national-scale humid tropical forest cover loss map derived by the Ministry of Environment REDD+ team in Peru. The map quantifies forest loss from 2000 to 2011 within the Peruvian portion of the Amazon basin using a rapid, semi-automated approach. The available archive of Landsat imagery (11 654 scenes) was processed and employed for change detection to obtain annual gross forest cover loss maps. A stratified sampling design and a combination of Landsat (30 m) and RapidEye (5 m) imagery as reference data were used to estimate the primary forest cover area, total gross forest cover loss area, proportion of primary forest clearing, and to validate the Landsat-based map. Sample-based estimates showed that 92.63% (SE = 2.16%) of the humid tropical forest biome area within the country was covered by primary forest in the year 2000. Total gross forest cover loss from 2000 to 2011 equaled 2.44% (SE = 0.16%) of the humid tropical forest biome area. Forest loss comprised 1.32% (SE = 0.37%) of primary forest area and 9.08% (SE = 4.04%) of secondary forest area. Validation confirmed a high accuracy of the Landsat-based forest cover loss map, with a producer’s accuracy of 75.4% and user’s accuracy of 92.2%. The majority of forest loss was due to clearing (92%) with the rest attributed to natural processes (flooding, fires, and windstorms). The implemented Landsat data processing and classification system may be used for operational annual forest cover loss updates at the national level for REDD

  4. National satellite-based humid tropical forest change assessment in Peru in support of REDD+ implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapov, P V; Dempewolf, J; Talero, Y; Hansen, M C; Stehman, S V; Vargas, C; Rojas, E J; Calderón, A; Giudice, R; Malaga, N; Zutta, B R; Castillo, D; Mendoza, E

    2014-01-01

    Transparent, consistent, and accurate national forest monitoring is required for successful implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) programs. Collecting baseline information on forest extent and rates of forest loss is a first step for national forest monitoring in support of REDD+. Peru, with the second largest extent of Amazon basin rainforest, has made significant progress in advancing its forest monitoring capabilities. We present a national-scale humid tropical forest cover loss map derived by the Ministry of Environment REDD+ team in Peru. The map quantifies forest loss from 2000 to 2011 within the Peruvian portion of the Amazon basin using a rapid, semi-automated approach. The available archive of Landsat imagery (11 654 scenes) was processed and employed for change detection to obtain annual gross forest cover loss maps. A stratified sampling design and a combination of Landsat (30 m) and RapidEye (5 m) imagery as reference data were used to estimate the primary forest cover area, total gross forest cover loss area, proportion of primary forest clearing, and to validate the Landsat-based map. Sample-based estimates showed that 92.63% (SE = 2.16%) of the humid tropical forest biome area within the country was covered by primary forest in the year 2000. Total gross forest cover loss from 2000 to 2011 equaled 2.44% (SE = 0.16%) of the humid tropical forest biome area. Forest loss comprised 1.32% (SE = 0.37%) of primary forest area and 9.08% (SE = 4.04%) of secondary forest area. Validation confirmed a high accuracy of the Landsat-based forest cover loss map, with a producer’s accuracy of 75.4% and user’s accuracy of 92.2%. The majority of forest loss was due to clearing (92%) with the rest attributed to natural processes (flooding, fires, and windstorms). The implemented Landsat data processing and classification system may be used for operational annual forest cover loss updates at the national level

  5. Controls of Soil Spatial Variability in a Dry Tropical Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Pulla

    Full Text Available We examined the roles of lithology, topography, vegetation and fire in generating local-scale (<1 km2 soil spatial variability in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF in southern India. For this, we mapped soil (available nutrients, Al, total C, pH, moisture and texture in the top 10 cm, rock outcrops, topography, all native woody plants ≥1 cm diameter at breast height (DBH, and spatial variation in fire frequency (times burnt during the 17 years preceding soil sampling in a permanent 50-ha plot. Unlike classic catenas, lower elevation soils had lesser moisture, plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, B, clay and total C. The distribution of plant-available Ca, Cu, Mn and Mg appeared to largely be determined by the whole-rock chemical composition differences between amphibolites and hornblende-biotite gneisses. Amphibolites were associated with summit positions, while gneisses dominated lower elevations, an observation that concurs with other studies in the region which suggest that hillslope-scale topography has been shaped by differential weathering of lithologies. Neither NO3(--N nor NH4(+-N was explained by the basal area of trees belonging to Fabaceae, a family associated with N-fixing species, and no long-term effects of fire on soil parameters were detected. Local-scale lithological variation is an important first-order control over soil variability at the hillslope scale in this SDTF, by both direct influence on nutrient stocks and indirect influence via control of local relief.

  6. Modeling seasonal surface temperature variations in secondary tropical dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sen; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo

    2017-10-01

    Secondary tropical dry forests (TDFs) provide important ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and nutrient cycle regulation. However, their biogeophysical processes at the canopy-atmosphere interface remain unknown, limiting our understanding of how this endangered ecosystem influences, and responds to the ongoing global warming. To facilitate future development of conservation policies, this study characterized the seasonal land surface temperature (LST) behavior of three successional stages (early, intermediate, and late) of a TDF, at the Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. A total of 38 Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data and the Surface Reflectance (SR) product were utilized to model LST time series from July 2013 to July 2016 using a radiative transfer equation (RTE) algorithm. We further related the LST time series to seven vegetation indices which reflect different properties of TDFs, and soil moisture data obtained from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Results showed that the LST in the dry season was 15-20 K higher than in the wet season at SRNP. We found that the early successional stages were about 6-8 K warmer than the intermediate successional stages and were 9-10 K warmer than the late successional stages in the middle of the dry season; meanwhile, a minimum LST difference (0-1 K) was observed at the end of the wet season. Leaf phenology and canopy architecture explained most LST variations in both dry and wet seasons. However, our analysis revealed that it is precipitation that ultimately determines the LST variations through both biogeochemical (leaf phenology) and biogeophysical processes (evapotranspiration) of the plants. Results of this study could help physiological modeling studies in secondary TDFs.

  7. Eddy Covariance Measurements of Methane Flux at a Tropical Peat Forest in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Angela C. I.; Stoy, Paul C.; Hirata, Ryuichi; Musin, Kevin K.; Aeries, Edward B.; Wenceslaus, Joseph; Melling, Lulie

    2018-05-01

    Tropical biogenic sources are a likely cause of the recent increase in global atmospheric methane concentration. To improve our understanding of tropical methane sources, we used the eddy covariance technique to measure CH4 flux (FCH4) between a tropical peat forest ecosystem and the atmosphere in Malaysian Borneo over a 2-month period during the wet season. Mean daily FCH4 during the measurement period, on the order of 0.024 g C-CH4·m-2·day-1, was similar to eddy covariance FCH4 measurements from tropical rice agroecosystems and boreal fen ecosystems. A linear modeling analysis demonstrated that air temperature (Tair) was critical for modeling FCH4 before the water table breached the surface and that water table alone explained some 20% of observed FCH4 variability once standing water emerged. Future research should measure FCH4 on an annual basis from multiple tropical ecosystems to better constrain tropical biogenic methane sources.

  8. Interactions between atmospheric circulation, nutrient deposition, and tropical forest primary production (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.; van der Werf, G.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical forests influence regional and global climate by means of several pathways, including by modifying surface energy exchange and by forming clouds. High levels of precipitation, leaching, and soil weathering limit nutrient availability in these ecosystems. Phosphorus (P) is a key element limiting net primary production, and in some areas, including forests recovering from prior disturbance, nitrogen (N) also may limit some components of production. Here we quantified atmospheric P and N inputs to these forests from fires using satellite-derived estimates of emissions and atmospheric models. In Africa and South America, cross-biome transport of fire-emitted aerosols and reactive N gases from savannas and areas near the deforestation frontier increased deposition of P and N in interior forests. Equatorward atmospheric transport during the dry (fire) season in one hemisphere was linked with surface winds moving toward the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the other hemisphere. Deposition levels were higher in tropical forests in Africa than in South America because of large savanna areas with high levels of fire emissions in both southern and northern Africa. We conclude by describing a potential feedback loop by which equatorward transport of fire emissions, dust, and spores sustains the productivity of tropical forests. We specifically assessed evidence that savanna-to-forest atmospheric transport of nutrients increases forest productivity, height, and rates of evapotranspiration (ET). In parallel, we examined the degree to which increases in ET and surface roughness in tropical forests have the potential to strengthen several components of the Hadley circulation, including deep convection, equatorward return flow (near the surface), and the intensity of seasonal drought in the subtropics (thereby increasing fires). These interactions are important for understanding biogeochemical - climate interactions on millennial timescales and for quantifying how

  9. Effects of nitrogen additions on above- and belowground carbon dynamics in two tropical forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, D.; Silver, W.L.; Torn, M.S.; McDowell, W.H.

    2011-04-15

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is increasing rapidly in tropical regions, adding N to ecosystems that often have high background N availability. Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, yet the effects of N deposition on C cycling in these ecosystems are poorly understood. We used a field N-fertilization experiment in lower and upper elevation tropical rain forests in Puerto Rico to explore the responses of above- and belowground C pools to N addition. As expected, tree stem growth and litterfall productivity did not respond to N fertilization in either of these Nrich forests, indicating a lack of N limitation to net primary productivity (NPP). In contrast, soil C concentrations increased significantly with N fertilization in both forests, leading to larger C stocks in fertilized plots. However, different soil C pools responded to N fertilization differently. Labile (low density) soil C fractions and live fine roots declined with fertilization, while mineral-associated soil C increased in both forests. Decreased soil CO2 fluxes in fertilized plots were correlated with smaller labile soil C pools in the lower elevation forest (R2 = 0.65, p\\0.05), and with lower live fine root biomass in the upper elevation forest (R2 = 0.90, p\\0.05). Our results indicate that soil C storage is sensitive to N deposition in tropical forests, even where plant productivity is not N-limited. The mineral-associated soil C pool has the potential to respond relatively quickly to N additions, and can drive increases in bulk soil C stocks in tropical forests.

  10. Richness and Abundance of Ichneumonidae in a Fragmented Tropical Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Guerra, B; Hanson, P; Guevara, R; Dirzo, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of the magnitude of land use currently occurring in tropical regions, the local loss of animal species due to habitat fragmentation has been widely studied, particularly in the case of vertebrates. Many invertebrate groups and the ichneumonid wasps in particular, however, have been poorly studied in this context, despite the fact that they are one of the most species-rich groups and play an important role as regulators of other insect populations. Here, we recorded the taxonomic composition of ichneumonid parasitoids and assessed their species richness, abundance, similarity, and dominance in the Los Tuxtlas tropical rain forest, Mexico. We compared two forest types: a continuous forest (640 ha) and a forest fragment (19 ha). We sampled ichneumonids using four malaise traps in both forest types during the dry (September-October) and rainy (March-April) seasons. A total of 104 individuals of Ichneumonidae belonging to 11 subfamilies, 18 genera, and 42 species were collected in the continuous forest and 11 subfamilies, 15 genera, and 24 species were collected in the forest fragment. Species richness, abundance, and diversity of ichneumonids were greater in the continuous forest than in the forest fragment. We did not detect differences between seasons. Species rank/abundance curves showed that the ichneumonid community between the forest types was different. Species similarity between forest types was low. The most dominant species in continuous forest was Neotheronia sp., whereas in the forest fragment, it was Orthocentrus sp. Changes in the ichneumonid wasp community may compromise important tropical ecosystem processes.

  11. Nutrient additions to a tropical rain forest drive substantial soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Cory C; Townsend, Alan R

    2006-07-05

    Terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO(2)) exchange is dominated by tropical forests, where photosynthetic carbon (C) uptake is thought to be phosphorus (P)-limited. In P-poor tropical forests, P may also limit organic matter decomposition and soil C losses. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment to show that P fertilization stimulates soil respiration in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In the early wet season, when soluble organic matter inputs to soil are high, P fertilization drove large increases in soil respiration. Although the P-stimulated increase in soil respiration was largely confined to the dry-to-wet season transition, the seasonal increase was sufficient to drive an 18% annual increase in CO(2) efflux from the P-fertilized plots. Nitrogen (N) fertilization caused similar responses, and the net increases in soil respiration in response to the additions of N and P approached annual soil C fluxes in mid-latitude forests. Human activities are altering natural patterns of tropical soil N and P availability by land conversion and enhanced atmospheric deposition. Although our data suggest that the mechanisms driving the observed respiratory responses to increased N and P may be different, the large CO(2) losses stimulated by N and P fertilization suggest that knowledge of such patterns and their effects on soil CO(2) efflux is critical for understanding the role of tropical forests in a rapidly changing global C cycle.

  12. Limited carbon and biodiversity co-benefits for tropical forest mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Kroetz, Kailin; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Amaral, Eda; Breuer, Thomas; Fletcher, Christine; Jansen, Patrick A; Kenfack, David; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Marshall, Andrew R; Martin, Emanuel H; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; O'Brien, Timothy; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Roy, Cisquet Hector; Sheil, Douglas; Silva, Carlos E F; Spironello, Wilson Roberto; Valencia, Renato; Zvoleff, Alex; Ahumada, Jorge; Andelman, Sandy

    2016-06-01

    The conservation of tropical forest carbon stocks offers the opportunity to curb climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and simultaneously conserve biodiversity. However, there has been considerable debate about the extent to which carbon stock conservation will provide benefits to biodiversity in part because whether forests that contain high carbon density in their aboveground biomass also contain high animal diversity is unknown. Here, we empirically examined medium to large bodied ground-dwelling mammal and bird (hereafter "wildlife") diversity and carbon stock levels within the tropics using camera trap and vegetation data from a pantropical network of sites. Specifically, we tested whether tropical forests that stored more carbon contained higher wildlife species richness, taxonomic diversity, and trait diversity. We found that carbon stocks were not a significant predictor for any of these three measures of diversity, which suggests that benefits for wildlife diversity will not be maximized unless wildlife diversity is explicitly taken into account; prioritizing carbon stocks alone will not necessarily meet biodiversity conservation goals. We recommend conservation planning that considers both objectives because there is the potential for more wildlife diversity and carbon stock conservation to be achieved for the same total budget if both objectives are pursued in tandem rather than independently. Tropical forests with low elevation variability and low tree density supported significantly higher wildlife diversity. These tropical forest characteristics may provide more affordable proxies of wildlife diversity for future multi-objective conservation planning when fine scale data on wildlife are lacking.

  13. Predicting pan-tropical climate change induced forest stock gains and losses-implications for REDD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumpenberger, Marlies; Vohland, Katrin; Heyder, Ursula; Poulter, Benjamin; Rammig, Anja; Popp, Alexander; Cramer, Wolfgang; Macey, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Deforestation is a major threat to tropical forests worldwide, contributing up to one-fifth of global carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Despite protection efforts, deforestation of tropical forests has continued in recent years. Providing incentives to reducing deforestation has been proposed in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Bali negotiations in 2007 to decelerate emissions from deforestation (REDD-reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). A number of methodological issues such as ensuring permanence, establishing reference emissions levels that do not reward business-as-usual and having a measuring, reporting and verification system in place are essential elements in implementing successful REDD schemes. To assess the combined impacts of climate and land-use change on tropical forest carbon stocks in the 21st century, we use a dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ DGVM) driven by five different climate change projections under a given greenhouse gas emission scenario (SRES A2) and two contrasting land-use change scenarios. We find that even under a complete stop of deforestation after the period of the Kyoto Protocol (post-2012) some countries may continue to lose carbon stocks due to climate change. Especially at risk is tropical Latin America, although the presence and magnitude of the risk depends on the climate change scenario. By contrast, strong protection of forests could increase carbon uptake in many tropical countries, due to CO 2 fertilization effects, even under altered climate regimes.

  14. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation

  15. Restoration of Degraded Salt Affected Lands to Productive Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yash; Singh, Gurbachan; Singh, Bajrang; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil system determines the fluxes of energy and matter in the Earth and is the source of goods, services and resources to the humankind (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). To restore and rehabilitate the soil system is a key strategy to recover the services the soils offers (Celentano et al., 2016; Galati et al., 2016; Parras-Alcantara et al., 2016). Transformation of degraded sodic lands in biodiversity rich productive forest ecosystem is a challenging task before the researchers all over the world. The soils of the degraded sites remain almost unfavorable for the normal growth, development and multiplication of organisms; all our attempts tend to alleviate the soil constraints. Land degradation due to presence of salts in the soil is an alarming threat to agricultural productivity and sustainability, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the world (Tanji, 1990; Qadir et al., 2006). According to the FAO Land and Nutrition Management Service (2008), over 6% of the world's lands are affected by salinity, which accounts for more than 800 million ha in 100 countries. This is due to natural causes, extensive utilization of land (Egamberdieva et al., 2008), poor drainage systems and limited availability of irrigation water which causes salinization in many irrigated soils (Town et al., 2008).In India, about 6.73 million ha are salt affected which spread in 194 districts out of 584 districts in India and represents 2.1% of the geographical area of the country (Mandal et al., 2009).Out of these, 2.8 million ha are sodic in nature and primarily occurring in the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. These lands are degraded in structural, chemical, nutritional, hydrological and microbiological characteristics. The reclamation of salt affected soils with chemical amendments like gypsum and phospho-gypsum are in practice for the cultivation field crops under agricultural production. Forest development on such lands although takes considerable

  16. Drought stress and tree size determine stem CO2 efflux in a tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio C L; Oliveira, Alex A R; Oliveira, Rafael S; Bittencourt, Paulo L; Costa, Patricia B; Giles, Andre L; Sosa, Azul I; Coughlin, Ingrid; Godlee, John L; Vasconcelos, Steel S; Junior, João A S; Ferreira, Leandro V; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Meir, Patrick

    2018-06-01

    CO 2 efflux from stems (CO 2_stem ) accounts for a substantial fraction of tropical forest gross primary productivity, but the climate sensitivity of this flux remains poorly understood. We present a study of tropical forest CO 2_stem from 215 trees across wet and dry seasons, at the world's longest running tropical forest drought experiment site. We show a 27% increase in wet season CO 2_stem in the droughted forest relative to a control forest. This was driven by increasing CO 2_stem in trees 10-40 cm diameter. Furthermore, we show that drought increases the proportion of maintenance to growth respiration in trees > 20 cm diameter, including large increases in maintenance respiration in the largest droughted trees, > 40 cm diameter. However, we found no clear taxonomic influence on CO 2_stem and were unable to accurately predict how drought sensitivity altered ecosystem scale CO 2_stem , due to substantial uncertainty introduced by contrasting methods previously employed to scale CO 2_stem fluxes. Our findings indicate that under future scenarios of elevated drought, increases in CO 2_stem may augment carbon losses, weakening or potentially reversing the tropical forest carbon sink. However, due to substantial uncertainties in scaling CO 2_stem fluxes, stand-scale future estimates of changes in stem CO 2 emissions remain highly uncertain. © 2018 The Authors New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Temperature and rainfall interact to control carbon cycling in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Philip G; Cleveland, Cory C; Wieder, William R; Sullivan, Benjamin W; Doughty, Christopher E; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Townsend, Alan R

    2017-06-01

    Tropical forests dominate global terrestrial carbon (C) exchange, and recent droughts in the Amazon Basin have contributed to short-term declines in terrestrial carbon dioxide uptake and storage. However, the effects of longer-term climate variability on tropical forest carbon dynamics are still not well understood. We synthesised field data from more than 150 tropical forest sites to explore how climate regulates tropical forest aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and organic matter decomposition, and combined those data with two existing databases to explore climate - C relationships globally. While previous analyses have focused on the effects of either temperature or rainfall on ANPP, our results highlight the importance of interactions between temperature and rainfall on the C cycle. In cool forests (forests (> 20 °C) it consistently enhanced both ANPP and decomposition. At the global scale, our analysis showed an increase in ANPP with rainfall in relatively warm sites, inconsistent with declines in ANPP with rainfall reported previously. Overall, our results alter our understanding of climate - C cycle relationships, with high precipitation accelerating rates of C exchange with the atmosphere in the most productive biome on earth. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Landscape and vegetation effects on avian reproduction on bottomland forest restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Hazler, Kirsten R.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration has been undertaken on >200,000 ha of agricultural land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, during the past few decades. Decisions on where and how to restore bottomland forests are complex and dependent upon landowner objectives, but for conservation of silvicolous (forest-dwelling) birds, ecologists have espoused restoration through planting a diverse mix of densely spaced seedlings that includes fast-growing species. Application of this planting strategy on agricultural tracts that are adjacent to extant forest or within landscapes that are predominately forested has been advocated to increase forest area and enhance forested landscapes, thereby benefiting area-sensitive, silvicolous birds. We measured support for these hypothesized benefits through assessments of densities of breeding birds and reproductive success of 9 species on 36 bottomland forest restoration sites. Densities of thamnic (shrub-scrub dwelling) and silvicolous birds, such as yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), and white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) were positively associated with 1) taller trees, 2) greater stem densities, and 3) a greater proportion of forest within the landscape, whereas densities of birds associated with grasslands, such as dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), were negatively associated with these variables. Vegetation structure, habitat edge, and temporal effects had greater influence on nest success than did landscape effects. Taller trees, increased density of woody stems, greater vegetation density, and more forest within the landscape were often associated with greater nest success. Nest success of grassland birds was positively related to distance from forest edge but, for thamnic birds, success was greater near edges. Moreover, nest success and estimated fecundity of thamnic species suggested their populations are self-sustaining on forest restoration sites, whereas

  19. Coupled nutrient cycling determines tropical forest trajectory under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouskill, N.; Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests have a disproportionate capacity to affect Earth's climate relative to their areal extent. Despite covering just 12 % of land surface, tropical forests account for 35 % of global net primary productivity and are among the most significant of terrestrial carbon stores. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase over the next century, the capacity of tropical forests to assimilate and sequester anthropogenic CO2 depends on limitation by multiple factors, including the availability of soil nutrients. Phosphorus availability has been considered to be the primary factor limiting metabolic processes within tropical forests. However, recent evidence points towards strong spatial and temporal co-limitation of tropical forests by both nitrogen and phosphorus. Here, we use the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALMv1-ECA-CNP) to examine how nutrient cycles interact and affect the trajectory of the tropical forest carbon sink under, (i) external nutrient input, (ii) climate (iii) elevated CO2, and (iv) a combination of 1-3. ALMv1 includes recent theoretical advances in representing belowground competition between roots, microbes and minerals for N and P uptake, explicit interactions between the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles (e.g., phosphatase production and nitrogen fixation), the dynamic internal allocation of plant N and P resources, and the integration of global datasets of plant physiological traits. We report nutrient fertilization (N, P, N+P) predictions for four sites in the tropics (El Verde, Puerto Rico, Barro Colorado Island, Panama, Manaus, Brazil and the Osa Peninsula, Coast Rica) to short-term nutrient fertilization (N, P, N+P), and benchmarking of the model against a meta-analysis of forest fertilization experiments. Subsequent simulations focus on the interaction of the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles across the tropics with a focus on the implications of coupled nutrient cycling and the fate of the tropical

  20. Remote Sensing of Aboveground Biomass in Tropical Secondary Forests: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical landscapes are, in general, a mosaic of pasture, agriculture, and forest undergoing various stages of succession. Forest succession is comprised of continuous structural changes over time and results in increases in aboveground biomass (AGB. New remote sensing methods, including sensors, image processing, statistical methods, and uncertainty evaluations, are constantly being developed to estimate biophysical forest changes. We review 318 peer-reviewed studies related to the use of remotely sensed AGB estimations in tropical forest succession studies and summarize their geographic distribution, sensors and methods used, and their most frequent ecological inferences. Remotely sensed AGB is broadly used in forest management studies, conservation status evaluations, carbon source and sink investigations, and for studies of the relationships between environmental conditions and forest structure. Uncertainties in AGB estimations were found to be heterogeneous with biases related to sensor type, processing methodology, ground truthing availability, and forest characteristics. Remotely sensed AGB of successional forests is more reliable for the study of spatial patterns of forest succession and over large time scales than that of individual stands. Remote sensing of temporal patterns in biomass requires further study, in particular, as it is critical for understanding forest regrowth at scales useful for regional or global analyses.

  1. Patterns of loss and regeneration of tropical dry forest in Madagascar: the social institutional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmqvist, Thomas; Pyykönen, Markku; Tengö, Maria; Rakotondrasoa, Fanambinantsoa; Rabakonandrianina, Elisabeth; Radimilahy, Chantal

    2007-05-02

    Loss of tropical forests and changes in land-use/land-cover are of growing concern worldwide. Although knowledge exists about the institutional context in which tropical forest loss is embedded, little is known about the role of social institutions in influencing regeneration of tropical forests. In the present study we used Landsat images from southern Madagascar from three different years (1984, 1993 and 2000) and covering 5500 km(2), and made a time-series analysis of three distinct large-scale patterns: 1) loss of forest cover, 2) increased forest cover, and 3) stable forest cover. Institutional characteristics underlying these three patterns were analyzed, testing the hypothesis that forest cover change is a function of strength and enforcement of local social institutions. The results showed a minor decrease of 7% total forest cover in the study area during the whole period 1984-2000, but an overall net increase of 4% during the period 1993-2000. The highest loss of forest cover occurred in a low human population density area with long distances to markets, while a stable forest cover occurred in the area with highest population density and good market access. Analyses of institutions revealed that loss of forest cover occurred mainly in areas characterized by insecure property rights, while areas with well-defined property rights showed either regenerating or stable forest cover. The results thus corroborate our hypothesis. The large-scale spontaneous regeneration dominated by native endemic species appears to be a result of a combination of changes in precipitation, migration and decreased human population and livestock grazing pressure, but under conditions of maintained and well-defined property rights. Our study emphasizes the large capacity of a semi-arid system to spontaneously regenerate, triggered by decreased pressures, but where existing social institutions mitigate other drivers of deforestation and alternative land-use.

  2. Patterns of loss and regeneration of tropical dry forest in Madagascar: the social institutional context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elmqvist

    Full Text Available Loss of tropical forests and changes in land-use/land-cover are of growing concern worldwide. Although knowledge exists about the institutional context in which tropical forest loss is embedded, little is known about the role of social institutions in influencing regeneration of tropical forests. In the present study we used Landsat images from southern Madagascar from three different years (1984, 1993 and 2000 and covering 5500 km(2, and made a time-series analysis of three distinct large-scale patterns: 1 loss of forest cover, 2 increased forest cover, and 3 stable forest cover. Institutional characteristics underlying these three patterns were analyzed, testing the hypothesis that forest cover change is a function of strength and enforcement of local social institutions. The results showed a minor decrease of 7% total forest cover in the study area during the whole period 1984-2000, but an overall net increase of 4% during the period 1993-2000. The highest loss of forest cover occurred in a low human population density area with long distances to markets, while a stable forest cover occurred in the area with highest population density and good market access. Analyses of institutions revealed that loss of forest cover occurred mainly in areas characterized by insecure property rights, while areas with well-defined property rights showed either regenerating or stable forest cover. The results thus corroborate our hypothesis. The large-scale spontaneous regeneration dominated by native endemic species appears to be a result of a combination of changes in precipitation, migration and decreased human population and livestock grazing pressure, but under conditions of maintained and well-defined property rights. Our study emphasizes the large capacity of a semi-arid system to spontaneously regenerate, triggered by decreased pressures, but where existing social institutions mitigate other drivers of deforestation and alternative land-use.

  3. Mapping Clearances in Tropical Dry Forests Using Breakpoints, Trend, and Seasonal Components from MODIS Time Series: Does Forest Type Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grogan, Kenneth; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick; Verbesselt, Jan; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Tropical environments present a unique challenge for optical time series analysis, primarily owing to fragmented data availability, persistent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. Additionally, little is known of whether the performance of time series change detection is affected by diverse forest

  4. Culvert flow in small drainages in montane tropical forests: observations from the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. N. Scatena

    1990-01-01

    This paper describe the hydraulics of unsubmerged flow for 5 culverts in the Luiquillo Esperimental Forest of Puerto Rico. A General equation based on empirical data is presented to estimate culvert discharge during unsubmerged conditions. Large culverts are needed in humid tropical montane areas than in humid temperatute watersheds and are usually appropriate only...

  5. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of roads near protected forest areas alters ecosystem function by creating habitat fragmentation and through several direct and indirect negative effects such as increased pollution, animal mortality through collisions, disturbance caused by excessive noise and wind turbulence. Noise in particular may have strong negative effects on animal groups such as frogs and birds, that rely on sound for communication as it can negatively interfere with vocalizations used for territorial defense or courtship. Thus, birds are expected to be less abundant close to the road where noise levels are high. In this study, we examined the effects of road traffic noise levels on forest bird species in a protected tropical forest in Costa Rica. Data collection was conducted in a forest segment of the Carara National Park adjacent to the Coastal Highway. We carried out 120 ten minute bird surveys and measured road noise levels 192 times from the 19th to the 23rd of April and from the 21st to the 28th of November, 2008. To maximize bird detection for the species richness estimates we operated six 12m standard mist nets simultaneously with the surveys. The overall mist-netting effort was 240net/h. In addition, we estimated traffic volumes by tallying the number of vehicles passing by the edge of the park using 24 one hour counts throughout the study. We found that the relative abundance of birds and bird species richness decreased significantly with the increasing traffic noise in the dry and wet season. Noise decreased significantly and in a logarithmic way with distance from the road in both seasons. However, noise levels at any given distance were significantly higher in the dry compared to the wet season. Our results suggest that noise might be an important factor influencing road bird avoidance as measured by species richness and relative abundance. Since the protected forest in question is located in a national park subjected to tourist visitation

  6. Fine-scale movement decisions of tropical forest birds in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Cameron S; Beyer, Hawthorne L; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2011-04-01

    The persistence of forest-dependent species in fragmented landscapes is fundamentally linked to the movement of individuals among subpopulations. The paths taken by dispersing individuals can be considered a series of steps built from individual route choices. Despite the importance of these fine-scale movement decisions, it has proved difficult to collect such data that reveal how forest birds move in novel landscapes. We collected unprecedented route information about the movement of translocated forest birds from two species in the highly fragmented tropical dry forest of Costa Rica. In this pasture-dominated landscape, forest remains in patches or riparian corridors, with lesser amounts of living fencerows and individual trees or "stepping stones." We used step selection functions to quantify how route choice was influenced by these habitat elements. We found that the amount of risk these birds were willing to take by crossing open habitat was context dependent. The forest-specialist Barred Antshrike (Thamnophilus doliatus) exhibited stronger selection for forested routes when moving in novel landscapes distant from its territory relative to locations closer to its territory. It also selected forested routes when its step originated in forest habitat. It preferred steps ending in stepping stones when the available routes had little forest cover, but avoided them when routes had greater forest cover. The forest-generalist Rufous-naped Wren (Campylorhynchus rufinucha) preferred steps that contained more pasture, but only when starting from non-forest habitats. Our results showed that forested corridors (i.e., riparian corridors) best facilitated the movement of a sensitive forest specialist through this fragmented landscape. They also suggested that stepping stones can be important in highly fragmented forests with little remaining forest cover. We expect that naturally dispersing birds and species with greater forest dependence would exhibit even stronger

  7. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  8. Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground measurements of gain and loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, A.; Walker, W.; Carvalho, L.; Farina, M.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Houghton, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    The carbon balance of tropical ecosystems remains uncertain, with top-down atmospheric studies suggesting an overall sink and bottom-up ecological approaches indicating a modest net source. Here we use 12 years (2003 to 2014) of MODIS pantropical satellite data to quantify net annual changes in the aboveground carbon density of tropical woody live vegetation, providing direct, measurement-based evidence that the world’s tropical forests are a net carbon source of 425.2 ± 92.0 teragrams of carbon per year (Tg C year-1). This net release of carbon consists of losses of 861.7 ± 80.2 Tg C year-1 and gains of 436.5 ± 31.0 Tg C year-1. Gains result from forest growth; losses result from deforestation and from reductions in carbon density within standing forests (degradation or disturbance), with the latter accounting for 68.9% of overall losses.

  9. Interactive community-based tropical forest monitoring using emerging technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratihast, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Forests cover approximately 30% of the Earth’s land surface and have played an indispensable role in the human development and preserving natural resources. At the moment, more than 300 million people are directly dependent on these forests and their resources. Forests also provide habitats for a

  10. Logging disturbance shifts net primary productivity and its allocation in Bornean tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riutta, Terhi; Malhi, Yadvinder; Kho, Lip Khoon; Marthews, Toby R; Huaraca Huasco, Walter; Khoo, MinSheng; Tan, Sylvester; Turner, Edgar; Reynolds, Glen; Both, Sabine; Burslem, David F R P; Teh, Yit Arn; Vairappan, Charles S; Majalap, Noreen; Ewers, Robert M

    2018-01-24

    Tropical forests play a major role in the carbon cycle of the terrestrial biosphere. Recent field studies have provided detailed descriptions of the carbon cycle of mature tropical forests, but logged or secondary forests have received much less attention. Here, we report the first measures of total net primary productivity (NPP) and its allocation along a disturbance gradient from old-growth forests to moderately and heavily logged forests in Malaysian Borneo. We measured the main NPP components (woody, fine root and canopy NPP) in old-growth (n = 6) and logged (n = 5) 1 ha forest plots. Overall, the total NPP did not differ between old-growth and logged forest (13.5 ± 0.5 and 15.7 ± 1.5 Mg C ha -1  year -1 respectively). However, logged forests allocated significantly higher fraction into woody NPP at the expense of the canopy NPP (42% and 48% into woody and canopy NPP, respectively, in old-growth forest vs 66% and 23% in logged forest). When controlling for local stand structure, NPP in logged forest stands was 41% higher, and woody NPP was 150% higher than in old-growth stands with similar basal area, but this was offset by structure effects (higher gap frequency and absence of large trees in logged forest). This pattern was not driven by species turnover: the average woody NPP of all species groups within logged forest (pioneers, nonpioneers, species unique to logged plots and species shared with old-growth plots) was similar. Hence, below a threshold of very heavy disturbance, logged forests can exhibit higher NPP and higher allocation to wood; such shifts in carbon cycling persist for decades after the logging event. Given that the majority of tropical forest biome has experienced some degree of logging, our results demonstrate that logging can cause substantial shifts in carbon production and allocation in tropical forests. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Monoterpene ‘thermometer’ of tropical forest-atmosphere response to climate warming

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, KJ; Jardine, AB; Holm, JA; Lombardozzi, DL; Negron-Juarez, RI; Martin, ST; Beller, HR; Gimenez, BO; Higuchi, N; Chambers, JQ

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Tropical forests absorb large amounts of atmospheric CO 2 through photosynthesis but elevated temperatures suppress this absorption and promote monoterpene emissions. Using 13 CO 2 labeling, here we show that monoterpene emissions from tropical leaves derive from recent photosynthesis and demonstrate distinct temperature optima for five groups (Groups 1–5), potentially corresponding to different enzymatic temperature-dependent reaction mechanisms within β-ocimen...

  12. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Beaudrot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes

  13. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Ahumada, Jorge A; O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Willig, Michael R; Winarni, Nurul L; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  14. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A.; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H.; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R.; Willig, Michael R.; Winarni, Nurul L.; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world’s species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3–8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  15. Longleaf pine restoration in context comparisons of frequent fire forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth Bigelow; Michael C. Stambaugh; Joseph J. O' Brien; Andrew J. Larson; Michael A. Battaglia

    2018-01-01

    To see a frequent-fire forest burn for the first time is to experience a remarkable teat of nature. Most people are accustomed to the slow change of forests with the seasons, not the instantaneous conversion of green and brown plant mass to smoke and char. Yet to visit such a forest a week after it bums is to see bright green shoots emerging, highlighted against a...

  16. Environmental management of a highly impacted, urbanized tropical estuary: rehabilitation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-03-01

    The principles of the dynamics and interrelationships within the dominant subtropical and tropical Caribbean seagrass community have been studied previously before, during, and after impact. From these and scores of observations of damage and recovery patterns in Thalassia ecosystems, a sense of management recovery strategy has emerged. Artificial restoring of Thalassia testudinum seeds into areas cut off from stock (fruit, seeds) appeared feasible on a large scale after the Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida) restoration and test sampling throughout North Biscayne Bay. Two large-scale seeding attempts were made; after 11 months they compared favorably with Turkey Point specimens with regard to growth parameters, despite the turbidity and other persistent pollution. Thus, the possible areas in which Thalassia seed restoration can be used has increased to include estuaries of multiple impact still in various stages of recovery after physical and sewage pollution. This technique should be especially useful to “developing” nations where important nearshore fisheries nurseries based on Thalassia ecosystems have been heavily damaged and now lie barren. Man's impact on the estuary where seed restoration was attempted includes the following activities: 50% of the bay bottom directly dredged or filled (leaving much unconsolidated sediment); 50 million gallons of domestic waste dumped directly into a low flushing part of the bay for 20 years; seven major causeways transecting the bay, restricting circulation and flushing; two artificial inlets made into navigational channels; freshwater sheet flow drastically changed due to channelization by flood-control canals; urban runoff from a million people entering the bay. Most of the impacts have now abated; however, their long-term effects remain.

  17. Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.

    2011-06-01

    In December 2010, parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed to encourage reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from forest losses with the financial support of developed countries. This important international agreement followed about seven years of effort among governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and the scientific community, and is called REDD+, the program for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. REDD+ could achieve its potential to slow emissions from deforestation and forest degradation either as a new market option to offset emissions from developed nations, or as a mitigation option for developing countries themselves. Aside from representing an important step towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, a growing list of potential co-benefits to REDD+ include improved forestry practices, forest restoration, sustainable development, and biodiversity protection. Indeed the agreement is heralded as a win-win for climate change mitigation and tropical forest conservation, and it could end up contributing to a global economy based on carbon and ecosystem services. That's good news, and some governments are now working to become 'REDD ready' in preparation for the forthcoming international program. This is important because, according to the agreements made by governments in the UNFCCC, developing countries which voluntarily decide to take part in REDD+ must establish their own national forest monitoring system to report changes in emissions from forests (UNFCCC 2009). But as of today, no developing country has implemented a system for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) emission reductions for REDD+. Of course, it is all still very new, but many REDD-type projects have been underway for years now (Parker et al 2008), and many MRV practitioners involved in those projects are the same people being asked to help with government-led, national MRV programs. Yet going from the

  18. Plant-pollinator interactions in tropical monsoon forests in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Makoto; Kosaka, Yasuyuki; Kawakita, Atsushi; Okuyama, Yudai; Kobayashi, Chisato; Phimminith, Thavy; Thongphan, Daovorn

    2008-11-01

    Forests with different flora and vegetation types harbor different assemblages of flower visitors, and plant-pollinator interactions vary among forests. In monsoon-dominated East and Southeast Asia, there is a characteristic gradient in climate along latitude, creating a broad spectrum of forest types with potentially diverse pollinator communities. To detect a geographical pattern of plant-pollinator interactions, we investigated flowering phenology and pollinator assemblages in the least-studied forest type, i.e., tropical monsoon forest, in the Vientiane plain in Laos. Throughout the 5-year study, we observed 171 plant species blooming and detected flower visitors on 145 species. Flowering occurred throughout the year, although the number of flowering plant species peaked at the end of dry season. The dominant canopy trees, including Dipterocarpaceae, bloomed annually, in contrast to the supra-annual general flowering that occurs in Southeast Asian tropical rain forests. Among the 134 native plant species, 68 were pollinated by hymenopterans and others by lepidopterans, beetles, flies, or diverse insects. Among the observed bees, Xylocopa, megachilids, and honeybees mainly contributed to the pollination of canopy trees, whereas long-tongued Amegilla bees pollinated diverse perennials with long corolla tubes. This is the first community-level study of plant-pollinator interactions in an Asian tropical monsoon forest ecosystem.

  19. Detecting leaf phenology of seasonally moist tropical forests in South America with multi-temporal MODIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangming Xiao; Stephen Hagen; Qingyuan Zhang; Michael Keller; Berrien Moore III

    2006-01-01

    Leaf phenology of tropical evergreen forests affects carbon and water fluxes. In an earlier study of a seasonally moist evergreen tropical forest site in the Amazon basin, time series data of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the VEGETATION and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors showed an unexpected seasonal pattern, with higher EVI in the...

  20. Sustainable landscapes in a world of change: tropical forests, land use and implementation of REDD+: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Birdsey; Yude Pan; Richard Houghton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests play a critical role in the Earth system; however, tropical landscapes have changed greatly in recent decades because of increasing demand for land to support agriculture and timber production, fuel wood, and other pressures of population and human economics. The observable results are a legacy of persistent deforestation, forest degradation, increased...

  1. A simple algorithm for large-scale mapping of evergreen forests in tropical America, Africa and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangming Xiao; Chandrashekhar M. Biradar; Christina Czarnecki; Tunrayo Alabi; Michael Keller

    2009-01-01

    The areal extent and spatial distribution of evergreen forests in the tropical zones are important for the study of climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. However, frequent cloud cover in the tropical regions makes mapping evergreen forests a challenging task. In this study we developed a simple and novel mapping algorithm that is based on the temporal profile...

  2. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Jennifer C.; Newton, Adrian C.; Aquino, Claudia Alvarez; Cantarello, Elena; Echeverría, Cristian; Kitzberger, Thomas; Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Garavito, Natalia Tejedor

    2010-01-01

    Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost–benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape. PMID:21106761

  3. Direct and indirect effects of fires on the carbon balance of tropical forest ecosystems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Tosca, M. G.; Ward, D. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Hess, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    Fires influence the carbon budget of tropical forests directly because they account for a significant component of net emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. They also have indirect effects on nearby intact forests by modifying regional climate, atmospheric composition, and patterns of nutrient deposition. These latter pathways are not well understood and are often ignored in climate mitigation efforts such as the United Nations Program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Here we used the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) to quantify the impacts of fire-emitted aerosols on the productivity of tropical forests. Across the tropical forest biome, fire-emitted aerosols reduced surface temperatures and increased the diffuse solar insolation fraction. These changes in surface meteorology increased gross primary production (GPP) in the Community Land Model. However, these drivers were more than offset in many regions by reductions in soil moisture and total solar radiation. The net effect of fire aerosols caused GPP to decrease by approximately 8% in equatorial Asia and 6% in the central Africa. In the Amazon, decreases in photosynthesis in the western part of the basin were nearly balanced by increases in the south and east. Using additional CAM5 and GEOS-Chem model simulations, we estimated fire contributions to surface concentrations of ozone. Using empirical relationships between ozone exposure and GPP from field studies and models, we estimated how tropical forest GPP was further modified by fire-induced ozone. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce the fire component of tropical land use fluxes may have sustainability benefits that extend beyond the balance sheet for greenhouse gases.

  4. Restoring fire in lodgepole pine forests of the Intermountain west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Ward W. McCaughey

    1997-01-01

    We are developing new management treatments for regenerating and sustaining lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests through emulation of natural disturbance processes. Lodgepole pine is the principal forest cover on over 26 million hectares in western North America. While infrequent, stand replacing fires following mountain pine beetle outbreaks are common to the...

  5. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a primary tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang Che Ing, A.; Stoy, P. C.; Melling, L.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests are widely recognized as one of the world's most efficient ecosystems for the sequestration and storage of carbon through both their aboveground biomass and underlying thick deposits of peat. As the peat characteristics exhibit high spatial and temporal variability as well as the structural and functional complexity of forests, tropical peat ecosystems can act naturally as both carbon sinks and sources over their life cycles. Nonetheless, few reports of studies on the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange of tropical peat swamp forests are available to-date and their present roles in the global carbon cycle remain uncertain. To quantify CO2 exchange and unravel the prevailing factors and potential underlying mechanism regulating net CO2 fluxes, an eddy covariance tower was erected in a tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. We observed that the diurnal and seasonal patterns of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE)) varied between seasons and years. Rates of NEE declined in the wet season relative to the dry season. Conversely, both the gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were found to be higher during the wet season than the dry season, in which GPP was strongly negatively correlated with NEE. The average annual NEE was 385 ± 74 g C m-2 yr-1, indicating the primary peat swamp forest functioned as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere over the observation period.

  6. NPP Tropical Forest: Manaus, Brazil, 1963-1990 , R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes six ASCII files (.txt format). Five files contain productivity values for several types of tropical Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil...

  7. Autochthonous white rot fungi from the tropical forest: Potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... local biodiversity in tropical area appears as a potentially productive approach for identifying promising ... senting thirteen species and ten different genera (Table ..... which has clear connexions with white biotechnology.

  8. Restoration of three forest herbs in the Liliaceae family by manipulating deer herbivory and overstorey and understorey vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Gary W. Miller; Patrick H. Brose

    2010-01-01

    Research on herbaceous vegetation restoration in forests characterised by overstorey tree harvests, excessive deer herbivory, and a dominant fern understorey is lacking. Most of the plant diversity found in Eastern hardwood forests in the United States is found in the herbaceous understorey layer. Loss of forest herbaceous species is an indicator of declining forest...

  9. [Dynamics of Amomum villosum growth and its fruit yield cultivated under tropical forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Gan, Jianmin; Feng, Zhili; Meng, Ying

    2004-01-01

    Investigations on the dynamics of Amomum villosum growth and its fruit yield cultivated under tropical ravine rainforest and secondary forest at different elevations in Xishuangbanna showed that the yield of A. villosum was influenced by the site age, sun light level of understorey, and water stress in dry season. The fruit yield and mature plant density decreased with increasing age of the A. villosum site. The fruit yield increased with sun light level when the light level in understorey was under 35% of full sun light (P forest was not significant. Planned cultivation of A. villosum in the secondary forest of the shifting cultivation land by ravine from 800-1000 m elevation instead of customary cultivation in the ravine rainforest, could not only resolve the problem of the effect of light deficiency in understorey and water stress in the dry season on A. villosum fruit yield, but also be useful to protect the tropical ravine rain forest.

  10. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Hydrometeorological variability in three neighbouring catchments with different forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Beatriz H.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Hegger, Zita; Leemans, Rik

    2017-09-01

    Mountain areas are characterized by a large heterogeneity in hydrological and meteorological conditions. This heterogeneity is currently poorly represented by gauging networks and by the coarse scale of global and regional climate and hydrological models. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are found in a narrow elevation range and are characterized by persistent fog. Their water balance depends on local and upwind temperatures and moisture, therefore, changes in these parameters will alter TMCF hydrology. Until recently the hydrological functioning of TMCFs was mainly studied in coastal regions, while continental TMCFs were largely ignored. This study contributes to fill this gap by focusing on a TMCF which is located on the northern eastern Andes at an elevation of 1550-2300 m asl, in the Orinoco river basin highlands. In this study, we describe the spatial and seasonal meteorological variability, analyse the corresponding catchment hydrological response to different land cover, and perform a sensitivity analysis on uncertainties related to rainfall interpolation, catchment area estimation and streamflow measurements. Hydro-meteorological measurements, including hourly solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture and streamflow, were collected from June 2013 to May 2014 at three gauged neighbouring catchments with contrasting TMCF/grassland cover and less than 250 m elevation difference. We found wetter and less seasonally contrasting conditions at higher elevations, indicating a positive relation between elevation and fog or rainfall persistence. This pattern is similar to that of other eastern Andean TMCFs, however, the study site had higher wet season rainfall and lower dry season rainfall suggesting that upwind contrasts in land cover and moisture can influence the meteorological conditions at eastern Andean TMCFs. Contrasting streamflow dynamics between the studied catchments reflect the overall system response

  11. Plant litter dynamics in the forest-stream interface: precipitation is a major control across tropical biomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tonin, Alan M.; Gon?alves, Jos? F.; Bambi, Paulino; Couceiro, Sheyla R. M.; Feitoza, Lorrane A. M.; Fontana, Lucas E.; Hamada, Neusa; Hepp, Luiz U.; Lezan-Kowalczuk, V?nia G.; Leite, Gustavo F. M.; Lemes-Silva, Aurea L.; Lisboa, Leonardo K.; Loureiro, Rafael C.; Martins, Renato T.; Medeiros, Adriana O.

    2017-01-01

    Riparian plant litter is a major energy source for forested streams across the world and its decomposition has repercussions on nutrient cycling, food webs and ecosystem functioning. However, we know little about plant litter dynamics in tropical streams, even?though the tropics occupy 40% of the Earth?s land surface. Here we investigated spatial and temporal (along a year cycle) patterns of litter inputs and storage in multiple streams of three tropical biomes in Brazil (Atlantic forest, Ama...

  12. Tropical forest plantation biomass estimation using RADARSAT-SAR and TM data of south china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenli; Niu, Zheng; Gu, Xiaoping; Guo, Zhixing; Cong, Pifu

    2005-10-01

    Forest biomass is one of the most important parameters for global carbon stock model yet can only be estimated with great uncertainties. Remote sensing, especially SAR data can offers the possibility of providing relatively accurate forest biomass estimations at a lower cost than inventory in study tropical forest. The goal of this research was to compare the sensitivity of forest biomass to Landsat TM and RADARSAT-SAR data and to assess the efficiency of NDVI, EVI and other vegetation indices in study forest biomass based on the field survey date and GIS in south china. Based on vegetation indices and factor analysis, multiple regression and neural networks were developed for biomass estimation for each species of the plantation. For each species, the better relationships between the biomass predicted and that measured from field survey was obtained with a neural network developed for the species. The relationship between predicted and measured biomass derived from vegetation indices differed between species. This study concludes that single band and many vegetation indices are weakly correlated with selected forest biomass. RADARSAT-SAR Backscatter coefficient has a relatively good logarithmic correlation with forest biomass, but neither TM spectral bands nor vegetation indices alone are sufficient to establish an efficient model for biomass estimation due to the saturation of bands and vegetation indices, multiple regression models that consist of spectral and environment variables improve biomass estimation performance. Comparing with TM, a relatively well estimation result can be achieved by RADARSAT-SAR, but all had limitations in tropical forest biomass estimation. The estimation results obtained are not accurate enough for forest management purposes at the forest stand level. However, the approximate volume estimates derived by the method can be useful in areas where no other forest information is available. Therefore, this paper provides a better

  13. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  14. Carbon stocks and dynamics at different successional stages in an Afromontane tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirambangutse, Brigitte; Zibera, Etienne; Uwizeye, Félicien K.; Nsabimana, Donat; Bizuru, Elias; Pleijel, Håkan; Uddling, Johan; Wallin, Göran

    2017-03-01

    As a result of different types of disturbance, forests are a mixture of stands at different stages of ecological succession. Successional stage is likely to influence forest productivity and carbon storage, linking the degree of forest disturbance to the global carbon cycle and climate. Although tropical montane forests are an important part of tropical forest ecosystems (ca. 8 %, elevation > 1000 m a.s.l.), there are still significant knowledge gaps regarding the carbon dynamics and stocks of these forests, and how these differ between early (ES) and late successional (LS) stages. This study examines the carbon (C) stock, relative growth rate (RGR) and net primary production (NPP) of ES and LS forest stands in an Afromontane tropical rainforest using data from inventories of quantitatively important ecosystem compartments in fifteen 0.5 ha plots in Nyungwe National Park in Rwanda. The total C stock was 35 % larger in LS compared to ES plots due to significantly larger above-ground biomass (AGB; 185 and 76 Mg C ha-1 in LS and ES plots), while the soil and root C stock (down to 45 cm depth in the mineral soil) did not significantly differ between the two successional stages (178 and 204 Mg C ha-1 in LS and ES plots). The main reasons for the difference in AGB were that ES trees had significantly lower stature and wood density compared to LS trees. However, ES and LS stands had similar total NPP (canopy, wood and roots of all plots ˜ 9.4 Mg C ha-1) due to counterbalancing effects of differences in AGB (higher in LS stands) and RGR (higher in ES stands). The AGB in the LS plots was considerably higher than the average value reported for old-growth tropical montane forest of south-east Asia and Central and South America at similar elevations and temperatures, and of the same magnitude as in tropical lowland forest of these regions. The results of this study highlight the importance of accounting for disturbance regimes and differences in wood density and allometry of

  15. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F.; Diaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica. Initial above-ground biomass and biomass increments of survivors, recruits and survivors + recruits (total) were estimated for trees ≥10 cm d.b.h. in 62 and 21 1.0-ha plots, respecti...

  16. Anoxic conditions drive phosphorus limitation in humid tropical forest soil microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Weber, P. K.; Blazewicz, S.; Silver, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    The elemental stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of soil microorganisms (C:N:P ratios) regulates transfers of energy and nutrients to higher trophic levels. In humid tropical forests that grow on P-depleted soils, the ability of microbes to concentrate P from their surroundings likely plays a critical role in P-retention and ultimately in forest productivity. Models predict that climate change will cause dramatic changes in rainfall patterns in the humid tropics and field studies have shown these changes can affect the redox state of tropical forest soils, influencing soil respiration and biogeochemical cycling. However, the responses of soil microorganisms to changing environmental conditions are not well known. Here, we incubated humid tropical soils under oxic or anoxic conditions with substrates differing in both C:P stoichiometry and lability, to assess how soil microorganisms respond to different redox regimes. We found that under oxic conditions, microbial C:P ratios were similar to the global optimal ratio (55:1), indicating most microbial cells can adapt to persistent aerated conditions in these soils. However, under anoxic conditions, the ability of soil microbes to acquire soil P declined and their C:P ratios shifted away from the optimal ratio. NanoSIMS elemental imaging of single cells extracted from soil revealed that under anoxic conditions, C:P ratios were above the microbial optimal value in 83% of the cells, in comparison to 41% under oxic conditions. These data suggest microbial growth efficiency switched from being energy limited under oxic conditions to P-limited under anoxic conditions, indicating that, microbial growth in low P humid tropical forests soils may be most constrained by P-limitation when conditions are oxygen-limited. We suggest that differential microbial responses to soil redox states could have important implications for productivity of humid tropical forests under future climate scenarios.

  17. Three Decades of Remote Sensing Based Tropical Forests Phenological Patterns and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didan, K.

    2010-12-01

    The faint climatic seasonality of tropical rain forests is believed to be the reason these biomes lack strong and detectable seasonality. Forest seasonality is a critical element of ecosystem functions. It moderates the echo-hydrology, carbon, and nutrient exchange of the area. While deciduous forests exhibit distinct and strong seasonality, tropical forests do not, yet they play a large role in the cycling of energy and mass. Tropical forests represent a large percentage of vegetated land and their importance to the Earth system stems from their biological diversity, their habitat role, their role in regulating global weather, and the role they play in carbon storage. While Tropical forests are well buffered by their sheer size, their vulnerability to climate change is exacerbated by the human pressure. All of this begs the questions of what are the patterns and characteristic of tropical forests phenology and are there any detectable trends over the last three decades of synoptic remote sensing. These three decades comprise different episodes of droughts and an ever increasing level of human encroachment. In so far understanding the function and dynamic of these biomes, field studies continue to play a major role, but synoptic remote sensing is emerging as a viable tool to addressing the spatial and temporal scale associated with this problem. Recent studies of Brazilian rainforest with synoptic remote sensing point to a sizable seasonal signal coincident with the dry season. However, these studies were not extensive in time or space and did not look at other rainforests. Using data from AVHRR and MODIS, we generated a 30 year record of the 2 bands Enhance Vegetation Index (EVI2), and analyzed the patterns and trends of land surface phenology across all tropical forests using the homogeneous phenology cluster approach. We chose EVI because of its superior performance over these dense forests, and we selected the homogeneous phenology cluster approach to abate the

  18. Tropical Forest Monitoring in Southeast Asia Using Remotely Sensed Optical Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Kenneth Joseph

    of forest cover using satellite remote sensing technology. Recently, there has been a shift in data protection policy where rich archives of satellite imagery are now freely available. This has spurred a new era in satellite-based forest monitoring leading to advancements in optical time series processing...... markets. At the Landsat 30-m resolution, annual time series coupled with linear segmentation using LandTrendr was found to be an effective approach for monitoring forest disturbance, with moderate to high accuracies, depending on forest type. At the MODIS 250-m resolution, intra-annual time series...... global rubber markets can be linked to forest cover change, the effects of land policy in Cambodia, and beyond, have also had a major influence. It remains to be seen if intervention initiatives such as REDD+ can materialise over the coming years to make a meaningful contribution to tropical forest...

  19. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Padmanaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical production forests and plantation forests as sources of invasions are presented. We discuss species traits and processes affecting spread and invasion, and silvicultural practices that favor invasions. We also highlight potential impacts of invasive plant species and discuss options for managing them in production forests. We suggest that future forestry practices need to reduce the risks of plant invasions by conducting surveillance for invasive species; minimizing canopy opening during harvesting; encouraging rapid canopy closure in plantations; minimizing the width of access roads; and ensuring that vehicles and other equipment are not transporting seeds of invasive species. Potential invasive species should not be planted within dispersal range of production forests. In invasive species management, forewarned is forearmed.

  20. What makes a successful species? Traits facilitating survival in altered tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Mareike; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2017-06-28

    Ongoing conversion, disturbance and fragmentation of tropical forests stress this ecosystem and cause the decline or disappearance of many species. Particular traits have been identified which indicate an increasing extinction risk of a species, but traits facilitating survival in altered habitats have mostly been neglected. Here we search for traits that make a species tolerant to disturbances, thus independent of pristine forests. We identify the fauna that have an increasing effect on the ecosystem and its functioning in our human-dominated landscapes. We use a unique set of published data on the occurrences of 243 frog species in pristine and altered forests throughout the tropics. We established a forest dependency index with four levels, based on these occurrence data and applied Random Forest classification and binomial Generalized Linear Models to test whether species life history traits, ecological traits or range size influence the likelihood of a species to persist in disturbed habitats. Our results revealed that indirect developing species exhibiting a large range size and wide elevational distribution, being independent of streams, and inhabiting the leaf litter, cope best with modifications of their natural habitats. The traits identified in our study will likely persist in altered tropical forest systems and are comparable to those generally recognized for a low species extinction risk. Hence our findings will help to predict future frog communities in our human-dominated world.

  1. An Approach for Foliar Trait Retrieval from Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy of Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta E. Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information on forest functional composition is needed to inform management and conservation efforts, yet this information is lacking, particularly in tropical regions. Canopy foliar traits underpin the functional biodiversity of forests, and have been shown to be remotely measurable using airborne 350–2510 nm imaging spectrometers. We used newly acquired imaging spectroscopy data constrained with concurrent light detection and ranging (LiDAR measurements from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO, and field measurements, to test the performance of the Spectranomics approach for foliar trait retrieval. The method was previously developed in Neotropical forests, and was tested here in the humid tropical forests of Malaysian Borneo. Multiple foliar chemical traits, as well as leaf mass per area (LMA, were estimated with demonstrable precision and accuracy. The results were similar to those observed for Neotropical forests, suggesting a more general use of the Spectranomics approach for mapping canopy traits in tropical forests. Future mapping studies using this approach can advance scientific investigations and applications based on imaging spectroscopy.

  2. REDD and PINC: A new policy framework to fund tropical forests as global 'eco-utilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, M R; Mitchell, A W; Mardas, N; Parker, C; Watson, J E; Nobre, A D

    2009-01-01

    Tropical forests are 'eco-utilities' providing critical ecosystem services that underpin food, energy, water and climate security at local to global scales. Currently, these services are unrecognised and unrewarded in international policy and financial frameworks, causing forests to be worth more dead than alive. Much attention is currently focused on REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) and A/R (Afforestation and Reforestation) as mitigation options. In this article we propose an additional mechanism - PINC (Proactive Investment in Natural Capital) - that recognises and rewards the value of ecosystem services provided by standing tropical forests, especially from a climate change adaptation perspective. Using Amazonian forests as a case study we show that PINC could improve the wellbeing of rural and forest-dependent populations, enabling them to cope with the impacts associated with climate change and deforestation. By investing pro-actively in areas where deforestation pressures are currently low, the long-term costs of mitigation and adaptation will be reduced. We suggest a number of ways in which funds could be raised through emerging financial mechanisms to provide positive incentives to maintain standing forests. To develop PINC, a new research and capacity-building agenda is needed that explores the interdependence between communities, the forest eco-utility and the wider economy.

  3. REDD and PINC: A new policy framework to fund tropical forests as global 'eco-utilities'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, M. R.; Mitchell, A. W.; Mardas, N.; Parker, C.; Watson, J. E.; Nobre, A. D.

    2009-11-01

    Tropical forests are 'eco-utilities' providing critical ecosystem services that underpin food, energy, water and climate security at local to global scales. Currently, these services are unrecognised and unrewarded in international policy and financial frameworks, causing forests to be worth more dead than alive. Much attention is currently focused on REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) and A/R (Afforestation and Reforestation) as mitigation options. In this article we propose an additional mechanism - PINC (Proactive Investment in Natural Capital) - that recognises and rewards the value of ecosystem services provided by standing tropical forests, especially from a climate change adaptation perspective. Using Amazonian forests as a case study we show that PINC could improve the wellbeing of rural and forest-dependent populations, enabling them to cope with the impacts associated with climate change and deforestation. By investing pro-actively in areas where deforestation pressures are currently low, the long-term costs of mitigation and adaptation will be reduced. We suggest a number of ways in which funds could be raised through emerging financial mechanisms to provide positive incentives to maintain standing forests. To develop PINC, a new research and capacity-building agenda is needed that explores the interdependence between communities, the forest eco-utility and the wider economy.

  4. A Global Analysis of Deforestation in Moist Tropical Forest Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, B D; Kalamandeen, M; Galbraith, D; Gloor, E; Spracklen, D V

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) have been established to conserve tropical forests, but their effectiveness at reducing deforestation is uncertain. To explore this issue, we combined high resolution data of global forest loss over the period 2000-2012 with data on PAs. For each PA we quantified forest loss within the PA, in buffer zones 1, 5, 10 and 15 km outside the PA boundary as well as a 1 km buffer within the PA boundary. We analysed 3376 tropical and subtropical moist forest PAs in 56 countries over 4 continents. We found that 73% of PAs experienced substantial deforestation pressure, with >0.1% a(-1) forest loss in the outer 1 km buffer. Forest loss within PAs was greatest in Asia (0.25% a(-1)) compared to Africa (0.1% a(-1)), the Neotropics (0.1% a(-1)) and Australasia (Australia and Papua New Guinea; 0.03% a(-1)). We defined performance (P) of a PA as the ratio of forest loss in the inner 1 km buffer compared to the loss that would have occurred in the absence of the PA, calculated as the loss in the outer 1 km buffer corrected for any difference in deforestation pressure between the two buffers. To remove the potential bias due to terrain, we analysed a subset of PAs (n = 1804) where slope and elevation in inner and outer 1 km buffers were similar (within 1° and 100 m, respectively). We found 41% of PAs in this subset reduced forest loss in the inner buffer by at least 25% compared to the expected inner buffer forest loss (P<0.75). Median performance (P) of subset reserves was 0.87, meaning a reduction in forest loss within the PA of 13%. We found PAs were most effective in Australasia (P = 0.16), moderately successful in the Neotropics (P = 0.72) and Africa (p = 0.83), but ineffective in Asia (P = 1). We found many countries have PAs that give little or no protection to forest loss, particularly in parts of Asia, west Africa and central America. Across the tropics, the median effectiveness of PAs at the national level improved with gross domestic product per

  5. Growth and yield model application in tropical rain forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Atta-Boateng; John W., Jr. Moser

    2000-01-01

    Analytical tools are needed to evaluate the impact of management policies on the sustainable use of rain forest. Optimal decisions concerning the level of management inputs require accurate predictions of output at all relevant input levels. Using growth data from 40 l-hectare permanent plots obtained from the semi-deciduous forest of Ghana, a system of 77 differential...

  6. The effect of slight thinning of managed coniferous forest on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Saito, Haruo; Fujiwara, Akio; Horiuchi, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence of slight thinning (percentage of woods: 16.6%, basal area: 9.3%) on landscape appreciation and the psychological restorative effect of an on-site setting by exposing respondents to an ordinarily managed coniferous woodland. The experiments were conducted in an experimental plot in the same coniferous woodland in May (unthinned) and October 2013 (thinned). The respondents were the same 15 individuals for both experiments. Respondents were individually exposed to the enclosed plot and the forest-view plot within the same tent for 15 min. In both sessions, respondents were required to answer three questionnaires measuring their mood (Profile of Mood States), emotion (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and feeling of restoration (Restorative Outcome Scale) to investigate the psychological restorative effect before and after the experiment. They completed two other questionnaires measuring appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) and the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale) following the experiments. We first analyzed the difference in landscape appreciation between the unthinned and thinned conditions. We did not find any statistical difference in appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) or the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale); rather, we found that weather conditions had a primary influence on landscape appreciation. With respect to the psychological restorative effect, a two-way repeated analysis of valiance (ANOVA) revealed significant main effects for a selection of indices, depending on the presence or absence of thinning. However, multiple comparison analyses revealed that these effects seemed to be due to the difference in the experimental experience rather than the presence or absence of thinning. In conclusion, the effect of the slight thinning of the managed coniferous forest was too weak to be reflected in the

  7. Arthropod recolonization in the restoration of a semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Mara P; Varanda, Elenice M

    2010-01-01

    The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored sites of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also determined the most abundant species and looked for ecological indicator species of each site age. Arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps, and their assemblages were described and compared with multi- and univariate statistical methods. Species abundance and richness equivalent to the reference site were reached at five months after planting, however species composition was very distinctive not only in relation to the reference site, but also among restored sites. Some of the main species found in this restoration stage are common in agroecosystems or cerrado vegetation. Nevertheless, there was a clear trend of arthropod fauna in restored sites moving toward the fauna in the forest remnant over time. Our results also highlighted ants and termites because of their abundance and ants because of their high value as ecological indicators of restoration age.

  8. Characterizing forest carbon stocks at tropical biome and landscape level in Mount Apo National Park, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubas, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    Forest resources sequester and store carbon, and serve as a natural brake on climate change. In the tropics, the largest source of greenhouse emission is from deforestation and forest degradation (Gibbs et al 2007). This paper attempts to compile sixty (60) existing studies on using remote sensing to measure key environmental forest indicators at two levels of scales: biome and landscape level. At the tropical forest biome level, there is not as much remote sensing studies that have been done as compared to other forest biomes. Also, existing studies on tropical Asia is still sparse compared to other tropical regions in Latin America and Africa. Biomass map is also produced for the tropical biome using keyhole macro language (KML) which is projected on Google Earth. The compiled studies showed there are four indicators being measured using remote sensors in tropical forest. These are biomass, landcover classification, deforestation and cloud cover. The landscape level will focus on Mount Apo National Park in the Philippines which is encompassing a total area of 54,974.87 hectares. It is one of the ten priority sites targeted in the World Bank-assisted Biodiversity Conservation Program. This park serves as the major watershed for the three provinces with 19 major rivers emanating from the montane formations. Only a small fraction of the natural forest that once covered the country remains. In spite of different policies that aim to reduce logging recent commercial deforestation, illegal logging and agricultural expansion pose an important threat to the remaining forest areas. In some locations in the country, these hotspots of deforestation overlap with the protected areas (Verburg et al 2006). The study site was clipped using ArcGIS from the forest biomass carbon density map produced by Gibbs and Brown (2007). Characterization on this national park using vegetation density, elevation, slope, land cover and precipitation will be conducted to determine factors that

  9. Assessing the benefits and costs of dryland forest restoration in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Nahuelhual, Laura; Vásquez, Felipe; Echeverría, Cristian

    2012-04-30

    Investment in natural capital restoration is increasing as a response to the widespread ecological degradation of dryland forests. However, finding efficient mechanisms to promote restoration among private landowners is a significant challenge for policy makers with limited financial resources. Furthermore, few attempts have been made to evaluate the costs and benefits of restoration interventions even though this information is relevant to orient decision making. Hence, our goal was to estimate the benefits and costs of dryland forest restoration by means of reforestation with native trees in a study area in central Chile. To determine benefits we applied a Contingent Valuation questionnaire that allowed for the calculation of willingness to pay measures. Restoration costs were calculated based on market prices following existing technical recommendations developed for the study area. The results showed that the restoration project had a negative NPV irrespective of the discount rate applied in the analysis. Thus, the NPV varied between -US$71,000 and -US$258,000. The NPV attained positive results only for negative discount rates (US$15,039 for -2%) and only when the national subsidy available for forest restoration was taken into account. This shows that landowners in Colliguay do not have incentives for carrying out restoration interventions due to a classic market failure: that in which ecosystems are mismanaged because many of their benefits are externalities from the perspective of landowners. Overall, these results stress the need for developing new compensation mechanisms and enhancing those in existence, with the aim of making restoration competitive with other land uses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exotic Invasive Shrub Glossy Buckthorn Reduces Restoration Potential for Native Forest Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hamelin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive glossy buckthorn could reduce restoration potential for understory native forest herbs by compromising their growth and biodiversity. Few studies of glossy buckthorn’s effects on forest herbs exist, and none were done in early-successional, partially open hardwood forests. This study was conducted in a mature hybrid poplar plantation invaded by buckthorn, located in southeastern Québec. We tested the effect of buckthorn removal on the growth of three forest herb species, whether this effect varied among species, and if canopy type (two poplar clones influenced this effect. Forest herbs were planted in herbicide (buckthorn removed and control treatments in the plantation understory, an environment similar to that of early-successional hardwood forests. Over the first two growing seasons, species showed specific reactions to buckthorn cover. Mean relative growth rate (RGR for Asarum canadense and Polygonatum pubescens was increased in the herbicide treatment (48% and 33%, respectively and decreased in the control treatment (−35% and −33%, respectively. Sanguinaria canadensis growth was the highest among species, with no difference between treatments. No effects of canopy type were detected. Results suggest that planting forest herbs for restoration purposes may be unsuccessful if buckthorn is present. Important changes in understory flora biodiversity are likely to occur over the long term in forests invaded by buckthorn.

  11. Coarse woody debris carbon storage across a mean annual temperature gradient in tropical montane wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcey K. Iwashita; Creighton M. Litton; Christian P. Giardina

    2013-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD; defined here as fallen and standing dead trees and tree ferns) is a critical structural and functional component of forest ecosystems that typically comprises a large proportion of total aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, CWD estimates for the tropics are uncommon, and little is known about how C storage in CWD will respond to climate...

  12. Fire as a selective force in a Bornean tropical everwet forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slik, J.W.F.; Breman, F.C.; Bernard, C.; Beek, van M.; Cannon, C.H.; Eichhorn, K.A.O.; Sidiyasa, K.

    2010-01-01

    Tree species rarely exposed to burning, like in everwet tropical forests, are unlikely to be fire adapted. Therefore, one could hypothesize that these species are affected equally by burning and that tree abundance changes are linked solely to fire behavior. Alternatively, if species do react

  13. Mapping tropical forest trees using high-resolution aerial digital photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Bohlman, S.A.; Olff, H.; Jansen, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of tree species is a key aspect of community ecology. Because tree species in tropical forests occur at low densities, it is logistically challenging to measure distributions across large areas. In this study, we evaluated the potential use of canopy tree crown maps, derived

  14. Fine root dynamics and trace gas fluxes in two lowland tropical forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHENDEE L. SILVER; ANDREW W. THOMPSON; MEGAN E . MCGRODDY; RUTH K. VARNER; JADSON D. DIAS; HUDSON SILVA; CRILL PATRICK M.; MICHAEL KELLER

    2005-01-01

    Fine root dynamics have the potential to contribute significantly to ecosystem-scale biogeochemical cycling, including the production and emission of greenhouse gases. This is particularly true in tropical forests which are often characterized as having large fine root biomass and rapid rates of root production and decomposition. We examined patterns in fine root...

  15. Nocturnal accumulation of CO2 underneath a tropical forest canopy along a tropographical gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araújo, de A.C.; Kruijt, B.; Nobre, A.D.; Dolman, A.J.; Waterloo, M.J.; Moors, E.J.; Souza, de J.

    2008-01-01

    Flux measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor above tropical rain forests are often difficult to interpret because the terrain is usually complex. This complexity induces heterogeneity in the surface but also affects lateral movement of carbon dioxide (CO2) not readily detected by the eddy

  16. Functional traits, drought performance, and the distribution of tree species in tropical forests of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, L.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests occur along a rainfall gradient where annual amount, the length and intensity of dry season vary and water availability shapes therefore strongly the distribution of tree species. Annual rainfall in West Africa has declined at a rate of 4% per decade, and climate change

  17. Strong persistent growth differences govern individual performance and population dynamics in a tropical forest understorey palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.; Zuidema, P.A.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martínez-Ramos, M.

    2012-01-01

    1. Persistent variation in growth rate between individual plants can have strong effects on population dynamics as fast growers reach the reproductive size at an earlier age and thus potentially contribute more to population growth than slow growers. In tropical forests, such persistent growth

  18. Tropical forestry research at the USDA Forest Service's Institute of Pacific Island Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Eugene Conrad; Jerry A. Sesco

    1992-01-01

    Deforestation during the last decade has grown at an alarming rate, giving rise to concern for its potential adverse effects on global climate. The impetus for focusing greater emphasis on tropical forestry management and research was provided by the International Forestry Cooperation Act enacted into law in 1990. The Act enables the Forest Service to intensify its...

  19. Water-use advantage for lianas over trees in tropical seasonal forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.J.; Cao, K.F.; Schnitzer, S.A.; Fan, Z.X.; Zhang, J.L.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    •Lianas exhibit peak abundance in tropical forests with strong seasonal droughts, the eco-physiological mechanisms associated with lianas coping with water deficits are poorly understood. •We examined soil water partitioning, sap flow, and canopy eco-physiological properties for 99 individuals of 15

  20. Taxonomy and remote sensing of leaf mass per area (LMA) in humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Roberta E. Martin; Raul Tupayachi; Ruth Emerson; Paola Martinez; Felipe Sinca; George V.N. Powell; S. Joseph Wright; Ariel E. Lugo

    2011-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a trait of central importance to plant physiology and ecosystem function, but LMA patterns in the upper canopies of humid tropical forests have proved elusive due to tall species and high diversity. We collected top-of-canopy leaf samples from 2873 individuals in 57 sites spread across the Neotropics, Australasia, and Caribbean and Pacific...

  1. A multivariate decision tree analysis of biophysical factors in tropical forest fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey S. Ofren; Edward Harvey

    2000-01-01

    A multivariate decision tree model was used to quantify the relative importance of complex hierarchical relationships between biophysical variables and the occurrence of tropical forest fires. The study site is the Huai Kha Kbaeng wildlife sanctuary, a World Heritage Site in northwestern Thailand where annual fires are common and particularly destructive. Thematic...

  2. Changes in microbial community characteristics and soil organic matter with nitrogen additions in two tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela F. Cusack; Whendee L. Silver; Margaret S. Torn; Sarah D. Burton; Mary K. Firestone

    2011-01-01

    Microbial communities and their associated enzyme activities affect the amount and chemical quality of carbon (C) in soils. Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition, particularly in N-rich tropical forests, is likely to change the composition and behavior of microbial communities and feed back on ecosystem structure and function. This study presents a novel assessment of...

  3. Sampling methods for titica vine (Heteropsis spp.) inventory in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carine Klauberg; Edson Vidal; Carlos Alberto Silva; Michelliny de M. Bentes; Andrew Thomas. Hudak

    2016-01-01

    Titica vine provides useful raw fiber material. Using sampling schemes that reduce sampling error can provide direction for sustainable forest management of this vine. Sampling systematically with rectangular plots (10× 25 m) promoted lower error and greater accuracy in the inventory of titica vines in tropical rainforest.

  4. Axial and radial water transport and internal water storage in tropical forest canopy trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley A. James; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guillermo Goldstein; David Woodruff; Timothy Jones; Teresa Restom; Monica Mejia; Michael Clearwater; Paula. Campanello

    2003-01-01

    Heat and stable isotope tracers were used to study axial and radial water transport in relation to sapwood anatomical characteristics and internal water storage in four canopy tree species of a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama. Anatomical characteristics of the wood and radial profiles of sap flow were measured at the base, upper trunk, and crown of a single...

  5. Silvicultural treatments enhance growth rates of future crop trees in a tropical dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villegas, Z.; Peña-Claros, M.; Mostacedo, B.; Alarcón, A.; Licona, J.C.; Leaño, C.; Pariona, W.; Choque, U.

    2009-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments are often needed in selectively logged tropical forest to enhance the growth rates of many commercial tree species and, consequently, for recovering a larger proportion of the initial volume harvested over the next cutting cycle. The available data in the literature suggest,

  6. Natural radionuclides in soils of a forest fragment of Atlantic Forest under ecological restoration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, F.S.; Lira, M.B.; Souza, E.M.; França, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    The natural radioactive isotopes come from the radioactive series of the 238 U (Uranium Series), the 235 U (Actinium Series) and the 232 Th (Thorium Series) series, or they can occur in isolation as is the case with the 40 K. Primordial radionuclides such as 40 K, 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U exist since the formation of the earth, being found in appreciable amounts in nature and in some cases may present a mass activity above the acceptable of environmental radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the mass activity of 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the soils of a fragment of Atlantic Forest under ecological restoration process located in the Municipality of Paulista, PE, Brazil. Soil samples (0 - 15 cm) were collected under the projection of the treetops of the most abundant trees in the region. After drying and comminution, analytical portions of 40 g were transferred to polyethylene petri dishes, sealed and stored for 30 days to ensure secular equilibrium. Radioactivity was quantified by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry - EGAR. The mean physical activities of 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra were 12, 15 and 20 Bq kg -1 , respectively, for the surface soil of the Parque Natural Municipal Mata do Frio. The values found were lower than those found in mangroves in the state of Pernambuco and those considered normal for soils worldwide

  7. Improving predictions of tropical forest response to climate change through integration of field studies and ecosystem modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaohui; Uriarte, María; González, Grizelle; Reed, Sasha C.; Thompson, Jill; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Murphy, Lora

    2018-01-01

    Tropical forests play a critical role in carbon and water cycles at a global scale. Rapid climate change is anticipated in tropical regions over the coming decades and, under a warmer and drier climate, tropical forests are likely to be net sources of carbon rather than sinks. However, our understanding of tropical forest response and feedback to climate change is very limited. Efforts to model climate change impacts on carbon fluxes in tropical forests have not reached a consensus. Here we use the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2) to predict carbon fluxes of a Puerto Rican tropical forest under realistic climate change scenarios. We parameterized ED2 with species-specific tree physiological data using the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer workflow and projected the fate of this ecosystem under five future climate scenarios. The model successfully captured inter-annual variability in the dynamics of this tropical forest. Model predictions closely followed observed values across a wide range of metrics including above-ground biomass, tree diameter growth, tree size class distributions, and leaf area index. Under a future warming and drying climate scenario, the model predicted reductions in carbon storage and tree growth, together with large shifts in forest community composition and structure. Such rapid changes in climate led the forest to transition from a sink to a source of carbon. Growth respiration and root allocation parameters were responsible for the highest fraction of predictive uncertainty in modeled biomass, highlighting the need to target these processes in future data collection. Our study is the first effort to rely on Bayesian model calibration and synthesis to elucidate the key physiological parameters that drive uncertainty in tropical forests responses to climatic change. We propose a new path forward for model-data synthesis that can substantially reduce uncertainty in our ability to model tropical forest responses to future climate.

  8. Mixed Effectiveness of Africa's Tropical Protected Areas for Maintaining Forest Cover: Insights from a Global Forest Change Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, A.; Bowker, J.; Ament, J.; Cumming, G.

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forest habitats. Tropical forests house a significant portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are being heavily impacted by anthropogenic activity. We used Hansen et al.'s (2013) global forest change dataset to analyse park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control samples. We found that, although significant geographical variation exists between parks, the majority of African parks experienced significantly lower deforestation within their boundaries. Accessibility was a significant driver of deforestation, with less accessible areas having a higher probability of forest loss in ineffective parks and more accessible areas having a higher probability of forest loss in effective parks. Smaller parks were less effective at preventing forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks, and older parks were less effective than younger parks. Our analysis, which is the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrates the complexity of factors influencing the ability of a park to curb deforestation within its boundaries and highlights the potential of web-based remote sensing technology in monitoring protected area effectiveness.

  9. Climate change, allergy and asthma, and the role of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Vitale, Carolina; Rosario, Nelson; Neto, Herberto Josè Chong; Chong-Silva, Deborah Carla; Mendonça, Francisco; Perini, Josè; Landgraf, Loraine; Solé, Dirceu; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Ansotegui, Ignacio; D'Amato, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests cover less than 10 per cent of all land area (1.8 × 107 km 2 ) and over half of the tropical-forest area (1.1 × 107 Km 2 ) is represented by humid tropical forests (also called tropical rainforests). The Amazon basin contains the largest rainforest on Earth, almost 5.8 million km 2 , and occupies about 40% of South America; more than 60% of the basin is located in Brazil and the rest in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Over the past decade the positive role of tropical rainforests in capturing large amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been demonstrated. In response to the increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration, tropical forests act as a global carbon sink. Accumulation of carbon in the tropical terrestrial biosphere strongly contributes to slowing the rate of increase of CO 2 into the atmosphere, thus resulting in the reduction of greenhouse gas effect. Tropical rainforests have been estimated to account for 32-36% of terrestrial Net Primary Productivity (NPP) that is the difference between total forest photosynthesis and plant respiration. Tropical rainforests have been acting as a strong carbon sink in this way for decades. However, over the past years, increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and especially CO 2 , in the atmosphere have significantly affected the net carbon balance of tropical rainforests, and have warmed the planet substantially driving climate changes through more severe and prolonged heat waves, variability in temperature, increased air pollution, forest fires, droughts, and floods. The role of tropical forests in mitigating climate change is therefore critical. Over the past 30 years almost 600,000 km 2 have been deforested in Brazil alone due to the rapid development of Amazonia, this is the reason why currently the region is one of the 'hotspots' of global environmental change on the planet. Deforestation represents the second largest

  10. Linking Above- and Belowground Dynamics in Tropical Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, E. E.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Secondary forests that emerge after a long history of agriculture can have altered plant community composition and relative abundances of different species. These forests can look and behave differently compared to pre-agricultural forests due changes in primary productivity, resource allocation, and phenology, which can significantly affect processes such as carbon accumulation and nutrient availability. Our research explores how alternative successional trajectories following intensive agricultural use affect linkages among the establishment of novel plant communities, soil nutrient availability and turnover, and soil microbial community composition and function. We hypothesize that different plant species composition due to differing land use legacies and successional trajectories would drive changes in soil microbial community structure and function, affecting soil C and N chemistry and turnover. We conducted this research in the subtropical dry forest life zone of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands where island-wide abandonment of sugarcane resulted in a mosaic of sites in different stages of forest succession. We identified replicate sites with the following post-sugarcane trajectories: 1) natural forest regeneration, 2) low intensity pasture use, followed by reforestation with timber plantation, which are no longer being managed, 3) high intensity pasture use and recent natural forest regeneration, and 4) high intensity pasture use and current active grazing. During 2011-2013, we sampled soils seasonally (0-10 cm) and measured tree species composition. The successional trajectories showed distinct tree species composition. The first two trajectories yielded 40-year old mixed-species secondary forest, dominated by the dry forest tree species Melicoccus bijugatas, Guapira fragrans, Maniklara zapota, and Sideroxylon foetidissimum. The tree species Melicoccus bijugatas primarily drove differences between the first two trajectories (natural forest regeneration vs

  11. Economic Value of the Carbon Sink Services of Tropical Secondary Forests and Its Management Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, O.A.; Carpio, C.E.; Ortiz, R.; Finnegan, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the economic feasibility of secondary forest regeneration and conservation as an alternative in the campaign addressing the problem of global warming. Detailed measurements of tropical secondary forests over time, in different ecological zones of Costa Rica, are used to evaluate carbon storage models. The paper addresses key issues in the international discussion about cross- and within-country compensation for carbon storage services and illustrates a method to compute/predict their economic value over time under a variety of scenarios. The procedure is applicable to other developing countries where secondary forest growth is increasingly important

  12. Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jos; Lennox, Gareth D; Ferreira, Joice; Berenguer, Erika; Lees, Alexander C; Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Louzada, Julio; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Parry, Luke; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Vieira, Ima C G; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Braga, Rodrigo F; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Souza, Carlos M; Moura, Nárgila G; Nunes, Sâmia Serra; Siqueira, João Victor; Pardini, Renata; Silveira, Juliana M; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Gardner, Toby A

    2016-07-07

    for policy interventions that go beyond the maintenance of forest cover to safeguard the hyper-diversity of tropical forest ecosystems.

  13. Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kimberlie S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    Over historic time Hawai'i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai'i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

  14. Ecological restoration and church forests in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Wassie, A.; Sterck, F.J.; Bekele Ayele, T.; Teketay, D.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbance of ecosystems by humans is of all times. The extent, however, has increased drastically over the last decades, leading to many degraded areas. Restoration of these areas is highly needed and should be based on sound knowledge of successional pathways of existing ecosystems and how people

  15. 75 FR 10204 - Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Restoration, 2. Fire Ecology, 3. Fire Management, 4. Rural Economic Development, 5. Strategies for Ecological Adaptation to Climate Change, 6. Fish and Wildlife Ecology, and 7. Woody Biomass and Small-Diameter Tree... will be subject to appropriate conflict of interest statutes and standards of ethical conduct. All SGE...

  16. Shaping forest safety nets with markets: Adaptation to climate change under changing roles of tropical forests in Congo Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkem, Johnson; Kalame, Fobissie B.; Idinoba, Monica; Somorin, Olufunso A.; Ndoye, Ousseynou; Awono, Abdon

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests hold several goods and services used by forest-dependent people as safety nets to traverse difficult periods of resource supply. These same goods and services are constantly surrounded by emerging markets linking remote communities with major urban centers nationally and internationally. How these markets affect adaptation remains unclear. This paper examines the roles of markets in non-timber forest products that normally serve as safety nets for forest communities, and the implications for climate change adaptation in the Congo Basin. Following the identification and prioritization of forest-based development sectors for adaptation by stakeholders, the types of markets and trades surrounding the identified sectors were examined in two provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo as a case study in order to evaluate revenue flows and their potential contribution to adaptation by local communities. The distribution of the market revenue leaves local people with returns much lower than the worth of the commodity, while wholesalers and retailers reap most of the benefits and profit from the high variability in volume and market earnings for the same commodity across provinces. Markets may increase the value of a commodity as observed in this study, but their contributions to adaptation appear highly limited for local communities following their distribution among the stakeholders in the market chain. This is likely to be worse in free market settings, especially when it diminishes the safety net roles of forest goods and services. Markets should therefore complement rather than substitute forests roles for adaptation to climate change in tropical forest countries. Capturing the benefits of trade for adaptation is crucial but will require policy reforms and further research that addresses the complexity in benefit sharing.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. The role of tropical forests on the world carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A. E.; Liegel, B. [eds.

    1980-08-01

    Tropical forests constitute about half of the world's forest and are characterized by rapid rates of organic matter turnover and high storages of organic matter. Tropical forests are considered to be one of the most significant terrestrial elements in the equation that balances the carbon cycle of the world. As discussed in the paper by Tosi, tropical and subtropical latitudes are more complex in terms of climate and vegetation composition than temperate and boreal latitudes. The implications of the complexity of the tropics and the disregard of this complexity by many scientists is made evident in the paper by Brown and Lugo which shows that biomass estimates for tropical ecosystems have been overestimated by at least 100%. The paper by Brown shows that that rates of succession in the tropics are extremely rapid in terms of the ability of moist and wet forests to accumulate organic matter. Yet, in arid tropical Life Zones succession is slow. This leads to the idea that the question of whether tropical forests are sinks or sources of carbon must be analyzed in relation to Life Zones and to intensities of human activity in these Zones. The paper by Lugo presents conceptual models to illustrate this point and the paper by Tosi shows how land uses in the tropics also correspond to Life Zone characteristics. The ultimate significance of land use to the question of the carbon balance in a large region is addressed in the paper by Detwiler and Hall.

  18. Bioremediation of a crude oil polluted tropical rain forest soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that Biostimulation with tilling (nutrient enhanced in-situ bioremediation) and or the combination ofBiostimulation and Bioaugumentation with indigenous hydrocarbon utilizers would be effective in the remediation of crude oil polluted tropical soils. Key Words: Bioremediation, Bioaugumentation, ...

  19. Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Daniel C.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Kurnianto, Sofyan; Stidham, Melanie; Kanninen, Markku

    2011-05-01

    Mangrove forests occur along ocean coastlines throughout the tropics, and support numerous ecosystem services, including fisheries production and nutrient cycling. However, the areal extent of mangrove forests has declined by 30-50% over the past half century as a result of coastal development, aquaculture expansion and over-harvesting. Carbon emissions resulting from mangrove loss are uncertain, owing in part to a lack of broad-scale data on the amount of carbon stored in these ecosystems, particularly below ground. Here, we quantified whole-ecosystem carbon storage by measuring tree and dead wood biomass, soil carbon content, and soil depth in 25 mangrove forests across a broad area of the Indo-Pacific region--spanning 30° of latitude and 73° of longitude--where mangrove area and diversity are greatest. These data indicate that mangroves are among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics, containing on average 1,023Mg carbon per hectare. Organic-rich soils ranged from 0.5m to more than 3m in depth and accounted for 49-98% of carbon storage in these systems. Combining our data with other published information, we estimate that mangrove deforestation generates emissions of 0.02-0.12Pg carbon per year--as much as around 10% of emissions from deforestation globally, despite accounting for just 0.7% of tropical forest area.

  20. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens

    2009-03-01

    Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found in forests under different climatic control. Here, adult leaf and metamer traits were measured for 39 tree species from a tropical moist semi-evergreen forest (1580 mm rain yr(-1)) and 41 species from a dry deciduous forest (1160 mm yr(-1)) in Bolivia. Twenty-six functional traits were measured and related to species regeneration light requirements.Adult leaf traits were clearly associated with shade tolerance. Different, rather than stronger, shade adaptations were found for moist compared with dry forest species. Shade adaptations exclusively found in the evergreen moist forest were related to tough and persistent leaves, and shade adaptations in the dry deciduous forest were related to high light interception and water use.These results suggest that, for forests differing in rainfall seasonality, there is a shift in the relative importance of functional leaf traits and performance trade-offs that control light partitioning. In the moist evergreen forest leaf traits underlying the growth-survival trade-off are important, whereas in the seasonally deciduous forest leaf traits underlying the growth trade-off between low and high light might become important.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Tropical Forest Stands: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    The importance of data analysis in quantitative assessment of natural resources .... Data collection design is an important process in complex forest statistical ... Ideally, the sample size should be equal among groups and sufficiently large.

  2. issues of tropical forest transformation in ashanti region, ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The paper examines how livelihood strategies, trade, and ecology have ... provided by the international agencies are re- peatedly ..... travel in forested areas compared with the northern routes ... 1600s-1800. Source: Adapted from Diaw, 1998.

  3. Seasonal differences in leaf-level physiology give lianas a competitive advantage over trees in a tropical seasonal forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.; Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are an important component of most tropical forests, where they vary in abundance from high in seasonal forests to low in aseasonal forests. We tested the hypothesis that the physiological ability of lianas to fix carbon (and thus grow) during seasonal drought may confer a distinct advantage

  4. Toward an integrated monitoring framework to assess the effects of tropical forest degradation and recovery on carbon stocks and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercedes M. C. Bustamante; Iris Roitman; T. Mitchell Aide; Ane Alencar; Liana O. Anderson; Luiz Aragao; Gregory P. Asner; Jos Barlow; Erika Berenguer; Jeffrey Chambers; Marcos H. Costa; Thierry Fanin; Laerte G. Ferreira; Joice Ferreira; Michael Keller; William E. Magnusson; Lucia Morales-Barquero; Douglas Morton; Jean P. H. B. Ometto; Michael Palace; Carlos A. Peres; Divino Silverio; Susan Trumbore; Ima C. G. Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor a significant portion of global biodiversity and are a critical component of the climate system. Reducing deforestation and forest degradation contributes to global climate-change mitigation efforts, yet emissions and removals from forest dynamics are still poorly quantified. We reviewed the main challenges to estimate changes in carbon stocks...

  5. Cascading Effects of Canopy Opening and Debris Deposition from a Large-Scale Hurricane Experiment in a Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron B. Shiels; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge; Michael R Willig; Jess K. Zimmerman

    2015-01-01

    Intense hurricanes disturb many tropical forests, but the key mechanisms driving post-hurricane forest changes are not fully understood. In Puerto Rico, we used a replicated factorial experiment to determine the mechanisms of forest change associated with canopy openness and organic matter (debris) addition. Cascading effects from canopy openness accounted for...

  6. Spatio-temporal Change Patterns of Tropical Forests from 2000 to 2014 Using MOD09A1 Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Xiao, X.; Dong, J.

    2016-12-01

    Large-scale deforestation and forest degradation in the tropical region have resulted in extensive carbon emissions and biodiversity loss. However, restricted by the availability of good-quality observations, large uncertainty exists in mapping the spatial distribution of forests and their spatio-temporal changes. In this study, we proposed a pixel- and phenology-based algorithm to identify and map annual tropical forests from 2000 to 2014, using the 8-day, 500-m MOD09A1 (v005) product, under the support of Google cloud computing (Google Earth Engine). A temporal filter was applied to reduce the random noises and to identify the spatio-temporal changes of forests. We then built up a confusion matrix and assessed the accuracy of the annual forest maps based on the ground reference interpreted from high spatial resolution images in Google Earth. The resultant forest maps showed the consistent forest/non-forest, forest loss, and forest gain in the pan-tropical zone during 2000 - 2014. The proposed algorithm showed the potential for tropical forest mapping and the resultant forest maps are important for the estimation of carbon emission and biodiversity loss.

  7. The fate of the tropical forest. Carbon or cattle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Grimard, Franque; Potvin, Catherin; Sima, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Small-scale afforestation/reforestation projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol will sequester atmospheric carbon and facilitate carbon trading but they face significant implementation challenges among the rural poor households and communities that are meant to adopt and benefit from them. Avoiding deforestation - a controversial carbon reduction option now under climate policy discussion - shows promise though for both forest conservation and poverty alleviation among indigenous forest peoples. (author)

  8. Oligarchic forests of economic plants in amazonia: utilization and conservation of an important tropical resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C M; Balick, M J; Kahn, F; Anderson, A B

    1989-12-01

    Tropical forests dominated by only one or two tree species occupy tens of millions of hectares in Ammonia In many cases, the dominant species produce fruits, seeds, or oils of economic importance. Oligarchic (Gr. oligo = few, archic = dominated or ruled by) forests of six economic species, i. e., Euterpe oleracea, Grias peruviana, Jessenia bataua, Mauritia flexuosa, Myrciaria dubia, and Orbignya phalerata, were studied in Brazil and Peru Natural populations of these species contain from 100 to 3,000 conspecific adult trees/ha and produce up to 11.1 metric tons of fruit/hd/yr. These plant populations are utilized and occasionally managed, by rural inhabitants in the region. Periodic fruit harvests, if properly controlled have only a minimal impact on forest structure and function, yet can generate substantial economic returns Market-oriented extraction of the fruits produced by oligarchic forests appears to represent a promising alternative for reconciling the development and conservation of Amazonian forests.

  9. Conflicting perspectives on spotted owls, wildfire, and forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Ho Yi Wan; Samuel A. Cushman; Christina D. Vojta

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of increasing fire extent and severity in the western US in recent decades has raised concern over the effects of fire on threatened species such as the spotted owl (Strix occidentalis Xantus de Vesey), which nests in forests with large trees and high canopy cover that are vulnerable to high-severity wildfire. A dichotomy of views exists on the impact of high-...

  10. Quantifying flooding regime in floodplain forests to guide river restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian O. Marks; Keith H. Nislow; Francis J. Magilligan

    2014-01-01

    Determining the flooding regime needed to support distinctive floodplain forests is essential for effective river conservation under the ubiquitous human alteration of river flows characteristic of the Anthropocene Era. At over 100 sites throughout the Connecticut River basin, the largest river system in New England, we characterized species composition, valley and...

  11. Transpirational water loss in invaded and restored semiarid riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgianne W. Moore; M. Keith Owens

    2011-01-01

    The invasive tree, Tamarix sp., was introduced to the United States in the 1800s to stabilize stream banks. The riparian ecosystem adjacent to the middle Rio Grande River in central NewMexico consists of mature cottonwood (Populus fremontii ) gallery forests with a dense Tamarix understory. We hypothesized that Populus would compensate for reduced competition by...

  12. The role of gap phase processes in the biomass dynamics of tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kenneth J; Davies, Stuart J; Ashton, Peter S; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Nur Supardi, M.N; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Tan, Sylvester; Chave, Jérôme

    2007-01-01

    The responses of tropical forests to global anthropogenic disturbances remain poorly understood. Above-ground woody biomass in some tropical forest plots has increased over the past several decades, potentially reflecting a widespread response to increased resource availability, for example, due to elevated atmospheric CO2 and/or nutrient deposition. However, previous studies of biomass dynamics have not accounted for natural patterns of disturbance and gap phase regeneration, making it difficult to quantify the importance of environmental changes. Using spatially explicit census data from large (50 ha) inventory plots, we investigated the influence of gap phase processes on the biomass dynamics of four ‘old-growth’ tropical forests (Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama; Pasoh and Lambir, Malaysia; and Huai Kha Khaeng (HKK), Thailand). We show that biomass increases were gradual and concentrated in earlier-phase forest patches, while biomass losses were generally of greater magnitude but concentrated in rarer later-phase patches. We then estimate the rate of biomass change at each site independent of gap phase dynamics using reduced major axis regressions and ANCOVA tests. Above-ground woody biomass increased significantly at Pasoh (+0.72% yr−1) and decreased at HKK (−0.56% yr−1) independent of changes in gap phase but remained stable at both BCI and Lambir. We conclude that gap phase processes play an important role in the biomass dynamics of tropical forests, and that quantifying the role of gap phase processes will help improve our understanding of the factors driving changes in forest biomass as well as their place in the global carbon budget. PMID:17785266

  13. Successional position of dry Andean dwarf forest species as a basis for restoration trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, J.P.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.; Rietman, N.

    2005-01-01

    The successional affinity of nine woody species was inferred from the structure, diversity and disturbance history of the vegetation where these occurred. This was done in order to obtain a basis for a restoration experiment, currently in execution, in the dry Andean dwarf forest zone on the edge of

  14. Landscape evaluation for restoration planning on the Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Hessburg; Keith M. Reynolds; R. Brion Salter; James D. Dickinson; William L. Gaines; Richy J. Harrod

    2013-01-01

    Land managers in the western US are beginning to understand that early 20th century forests displayed complex patterns of composition and structure at several different spatial scales, that there was interplay between patterns and processes within and across scales, and that these conditions have been radically altered by management. Further, they know that restoring...

  15. Landscape modeling for forest restoration planning and assessment: lessons from the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin Xi; Robert N. Coulson; John D. Waldron; Maria D. Tchakerian; Charles W. Lafon; David M. Cairns; Andrew G. Birt; Kier D. Klepzig

    2009-01-01

    Restoration planning, evaluation, and implementation are important in areas where abiotic disturbances (e.g., wildfires, hurricanes, and ice storms), biotic disturbances (e.g., outbreaks of native and exotic invasive pests and diseases), and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., harvesting, planting, and fire exclusion) have altered forest...

  16. The Pen Branch Project: Restoration of a Forested Wetland in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Eric A. Nelson; Ronald E. Bonar; Neil C. Dulohery; David Gartner

    1998-01-01

    The Pen Branch Project is a program to restore a forested riparian wetland that has been subject to thermal disturbance caused by nuclear reactor operations at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), an 80,200-hectare nuclear facility located in South Carolina. Various levels of thermal discharges to streams located across the US. have occurred...

  17. Restoring the rare Kentucky lady's slipper orchid to the Kisatchie National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; Kevin Allen; David Moore

    2012-01-01

    The Kentucky lady’s slipper (Cypripedium kentuckiense C.F. Reed [Orchidaceae]) is a spectacular orchid native to the southeastern US. Although its range includes much of the Southeast, it is rare due to loss of appropriate edaphic and climatic habitats. Efforts to restore this species to the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana were initiated by a high school student...

  18. Dynamics of buckbrush populations under simulated forest restoration alternatives (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Huffman; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Plant population models are valuable tools for assessing ecological tradeoffs between forest management approaches. In addition, these models can provide insight on plant life history patterns and processes important for persistence and recovery of populations in changing environments. In this study, we evaluated a set of ecological restoration alternatives for their...

  19. A decision tree approach using silvics to guide planning for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon M. Hermann; John S. Kush; John C. Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    We created a decision tree based on silvics of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and historical descriptions to develop approaches for restoration management at Horseshoe Bend National Military Park located in central Alabama. A National Park Service goal is to promote structure and composition of a forest that likely surrounded the 1814 battlefield....

  20. 77 FR 21721 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Whisky Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... and vigor of conifer stands, reduce the spread and intensity of wildfires within