Full Text Available In 2006–2008, mapping the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus L. and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L. occurred in the SE part of the Chřiby Upland. At the same time, the food spectrum of these birds of prey was determined during nesting periods. The area under monitoring represented about 25–30 km2.In each of the species, food was always monitored in a period from February to July at four nesting localities. The food spectrum was analysed by the direct observation of birds of prey, according to leftovers of food in the surroundings of nests and in nests of the predators. In Accipiter nisus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (85 %, mammals (3 % and other animals (12 %. Turdus merula was the most frequent prey. In Falco tinnunculus, the food spectrum consisted of birds (18 %, mammals (76 % and other animals (6 %. Microtus arvalis was unambiguously the most frequent prey.
Schmitz, Anke; Ponitz, Benjamin; Brücker, Christoph; Schmitz, Helmut; Herweg, Jan; Bleckmann, Horst
We investigated the mechanical properties (Young's modulus, bending stiffness, barb separation forces) of the tenth primary of the wings, of the alulae and of the middle tail feathers of Falco peregrinus. For comparison, we also investigated the corresponding feathers in pigeons (Columba livia), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). In all four species, the Young's moduli of the feathers ranged from 5.9 to 8.4 GPa. The feather shafts of F. peregrinus had the largest cross-sections and the highest specific bending stiffness. When normalized with respect to body mass, the specific bending stiffness of primary number 10 was highest in F. tinnunculus, while that of the alula was highest in A. nisus. In comparison, the specific bending stiffness, measured at the base of the tail feathers and in dorso-ventral bending direction, was much higher in F. peregrinus than in the other three species. This seems to correlate with the flight styles of the birds: F. tinnunculus hovers and its primaries might therefore withstand large mechanical forces. A. nisus has often to change its flight directions during hunting and perhaps needs its alulae for this maneuvers, and in F. peregrinus, the base of the tail feathers might need a high stiffness during breaking after diving. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wienburg, Claire L.; Shore, Richard F
Large scale temporal and spatial changes in the exposure of terrestrial vertebrates to PCBs have been monitored in the UK by measuring liver residues in sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and grey herons (Ardea cinerea) from throughout the country. Residues in the three species are typically characterised by large intra- and inter-specific variation. Data for 306 sparrowhawks, 186 kestrels and 47 herons collected between 1992 and 1997 as part of a national Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme were examined to determine how much of this variation was explained by body condition, age and sex, rather than other factors. In all three species, body condition was the single most important factor and accounted for up to 49% of the variation in PCB liver residues; starved birds had the highest liver concentrations. Age and sex were also significant but of lesser importance. Adult sparrowhawks and kestrels had liver PCB residues that were 2 to 10-fold higher than in first-year birds. Sex did not affect residue magnitude in a consistent manner. PCB concentrations in the liver were higher in males than females in both first-year and adult kestrels and in first-year sparrowhawks, but adult female sparrowhawks had similar PCB residues to adult males. Liver residues also varied seasonally. PCB concentrations in first-year sparrowhawks increased during the first year following fledging and a similar pattern was detected in adult female sparrowhawks following egg laying. When these physiological factors were taken into account, it was evident that while kestrels with high fat scores had significantly lower PCB concentrations than either sparrowhawks or herons, liver residues were similar in all three species when birds were in a starved condition. Overall during 1992-1997, the combined influence of body condition, age and sex explained more of the variation in liver PCB concentrations than species differences or other factors, such as geographical variation
Full Text Available Background Gross dissection is a widespread method for studying animal anatomy, despite being highly destructive and time-consuming. X-ray computed tomography (CT has been shown to be a non-destructive alternative for studying anatomical structures. However, in the past it has been limited to only being able to visualise mineralised tissues. In recent years, morphologists have started to use traditional X-ray contrast agents to allow the visualisation of soft tissue elements in the CT context. The aim of this project is to assess the ability of contrast-enhanced micro-CT (μCT to construct a three-dimensional (3D model of the musculoskeletal system of the bird wing and to quantify muscle geometry and any systematic changes due to shrinkage. We expect that this reconstruction can be used as an anatomical guide to the sparrowhawk wing musculature and form the basis of further biomechanical analysis of flight. Methods A 3% iodine-buffered formalin solution with a 25-day staining period was used to visualise the wing myology of the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus. μCT scans of the wing were taken over the staining period until full penetration of the forelimb musculature by iodine was reached. A 3D model was reconstructed by manually segmenting out the individual elements of the avian wing using 3D visualisation software. Results Different patterns of contrast were observed over the duration of the staining treatment with the best results occurring after 25 days of staining. Staining made it possible to visualise and identify different elements of the soft tissue of the wing. Finally, a 3D reconstruction of the musculoskeletal system of the sparrowhawk wing is presented and numerical data of muscle geometry is compared to values obtained by dissection. Discussion Contrast-enhanced μCT allows the visualisation and identification of the wing myology of birds, including the smaller muscles in the hand, and provides a non-destructive way for quantifying
Chand, Manish; Evans, Jessica; Swift, Robert I; Tekkis, Paris P; West, Nicholas P; Stamp, Gordon; Heald, Richard J; Brown, Gina
This study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of extramural venous invasion (EMVI) after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) by both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (ymrEMVI) and histopathology (ypEMVI). EMVI is a prognostic factor in rectal cancer but whether this remains so after CRT preoperative is unknown. Histopathological definitions of EMVI are variable and lead to underreporting particularly after CRT. All consecutive patients staged on initial MRI as EMVI-positive undergoing preoperative CRT and curative surgery between Jan 2006 and Jan 2012 were included. Posttreatment EMVI status (yEMVI) was reevaluated for both MRI and pathology. The primary endpoint of disease-free survival (DFS) for ymrEMVI and ypEMVI was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit and compared with a Mantel-Cox log-rank test. A P histopathology tumor characteristics. A total of 188 patients who had evidence of EMVI on initial baseline MRI staging were included. MRI detected significantly more patients with persistent EMVI than histopathology (53% vs 19%) but both were prognostic for worse survival-ymrEMVI (HR 1.97) and ypEMVI (HR 2.39). Patients with persistent ymrEMVI-positivity had significantly worse DFS at 3 years (42.7%) compared with ymrEMVI-negative tumors (79.8%); DFS for was 36.9% versus 65.9% positive and negative ypEMVI, respectively. Detection of EMVI post-CRT is prognostically significant whether detected by MRI or histopathology. EMVI status after treatment may be used to counsel patients regarding ongoing risks of metastatic disease, implications for surveillance, and systemic chemotherapy.
Sohn, Beomseok; Lim, Joon-seok; Kim, Honsoul; Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Sungmin [Jungwon University, Department of Medical Information, Goesan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Junjeong [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Kyu [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) could predict synchronous distant metastases in rectal cancer. Patients who underwent rectal MRI between July 2011 and December 2012 were screened. This study included 447 patients with pathologically confirmed rectal adenocarcinoma who had undergone MRI without previous treatment. Distant metastases were recorded at the initial work-up and over a 6-month follow-up. Univariate/multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the risk of metastasis. The diagnostic performance was calculated using pathologic lymphovascular invasion (LVI) as a gold standard. Among 447 patients, 79 patients (17.7 %) were confirmed to have distant metastases. Three MRI features are significantly associated with a high risk of distant metastasis: positive EMVI (odds ratio 3.02), high T stage (odds ratio 2.10) and positive regional lymph node metastasis (odds ratio 6.01). EMVI in a large vessel (≥3 mm) had a higher risk for metastasis than EMVI in a small vessel (<3 mm). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI-detected EMVI were 28.2 %, 94.0 % and 80.3 %, respectively. MRI-detected EMVI is an independent risk factor for synchronous metastasis in rectal cancer. EMVI in large vessels is a stronger risk factor for distant metastasis than EMVI in small vessels. (orig.)
Poulsen, Laurids Østergaard; Yilmaz, Mette Karen; Oddershede, Lars
fascia (mrMRF), extramural tumour depth (mrEMD), extramural vascular invasion (mrEMVI) and nodal involvement (mrN) were correlated with the corresponding postoperative histopathological findings. RESULTS: There were 115, 186 and 188 patients with low RC, mid RC and high RC, respectively. For all patients...
Guilherme Messias da Silva
Full Text Available Meiotic and mitotic chromosomes of Dichotomius nisus, D. semisquamosus and D. sericeus were analyzed after conventional staining, C-banding and silver nitrate staining. In addition, Dichotomius nisus and D. semisquamosus chromosomes were also analyzed after fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with an rDNA probe. The species analyzed had an asymmetrical karyotype with 2n = 18 and meta-submetacentric chromosomes. The sex determination mechanism was of the Xy p type in D. nisus and D. semisquamosus and of the Xyr type in D. sericeus. C-banding revealed the presence of pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin (CH in all the chromosomes of the three species. After silver staining, the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs were located in autosomes of D. semisquamosus and D. sericeus and in the sexual bivalent of D. nisus. FISH with an rDNA probe confirmed NORs location in D. semisquamosus and in D. nisus. Our results suggest that chromosome inversions and fusions occurred during the evolution of the group.
Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Okulewicz, A.; Zoun, P.E.F.; Okulewicz, J.
Eighteen species of birds of prey in Netherlands were examined for helminth parasites: Accipitriformes - Accipiter gentilis (15 birds), A. nisus (9), Aquila pomarina (1), Buteo buteo (56), B. lagopus (4), Circaetus gallicus (2), Circus aeruginosus (2), C. cyaneus (3), Pernis apivorus (5);
efficiency in strong optical fields. Axially nonuniform magnetic fields are important for enhancing the extraction efficiency in free-electron lasers. The experimental observation of efficiency enhancement by linearly tapering the last quarter of the 10 m NISUS un- dulator at the NSLS-SDL was reported by Watanabe et al .
Colchero, Fernando; Aliaga, Alix Eva; Jones, Owen
in shaping demographic trajectories in wild populations. The link between these two processes has seldom been explored. 2. We used Bayesian survival trajectory analysis to study age-specific mortality trajectories in the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), a monogamous raptor with reversed sexual size...
Robinson, K.E.; Gottschalk, S.C.; James, F.E.; Quimby, D.C.; Slater, J.M.; Valla, A.S.
A 10-m rare earth permanent magnet hybrid undulator called a near infrared scalable undulator system (NISUS) is under construction at Spectra Technology for use in the Boeing FEL program series. The design was optimized for operation at a 1-μm wavelength with the Boeing accelerator parameters. A remotely adjustable compound taper is utilized to achieve optimum startup gain and high saturated extraction. A summary of the relevant design parameters is listed. A major goal was to build NISUS from modules which would allow easy scaling to longer lengths without redesign. Prototype tests for verification of field strength and quality are complete as well as the delivery and installation of the initial 5 m. Improvements relative to the technology used in the earlier tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) are highlighted. The wedged-pole configuration is employed for a major increase in field strength while operating the poles farther from saturation
Erdélyi, Károly; Ursu, Krisztina; Ferenczi, Emöke; Szeredi, Levente; Rátz, Ferenc; Skáre, József; Bakonyi, Tamás
In the southeast of Hungary a sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus) and several goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) fledglings succumbed to encephalitis manifesting as an acute neurological disease during the summers of 2004 and 2005. Both years the causative agent was identified as a lineage 2 West Nile virus. This is the first description of clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical findings of infection caused by a neuroinvasive, lineage 2 West Nile virus and the first evidence of its circulation in continental Europe.
A.P. Møller; J.T. Nielsen; L.Z. Garamzegi
The distance at which an individual flees from a potential predator represents a measure of risk taking. If individuals are engaged in another activity that might affect fitness, trade-offs between the fitness benefits of flight and the other activity should determine the nearest distance of approach by a predator. In a comparative analysis of birds, flight distance represented a reliable measure of risk of predation by the sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus that increased with decreasing flight dis...
Sisu: Ood loodusele ; Kesk talvist välja seisab kaev ; Anekdoodi asemel ; "Täis sügise turud on lõhnavat tilli..." ; Kuldse Sibula ballaad ; Metsasonett ; Puud mind ootavad ; Isa haua juures ; Rahvas ; Õekesed ; Ballaad lapsepõlvest ; Alguse saladus ; Prometheuse mõrsja ; Ballaad Karmaljukist ; Kuradimeister Antons Shmulńs ; Lait ja kiit ; Ballaad hulahupist ; Kahekesi nisus ; Saladus, Tsharli ja Tshaplin ; Inimlind ; Su
Smith, Neil; Brown, Gina
Detailed preoperative staging using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the selection of patients that require preoperative therapy for tumour regression. This information can be used to instigate neoadjuvant therapy in those patients with poor prognostic features prior to disturbing the tumour bed and potentially disseminating disease. The design of trials incorporating MR assessment of prognostic factors prior to therapy has been found to be of value in assessing treatment modalities and outcomes that are targeted to these preoperative prognostic subgroups and in providing a quantifiable assessment of the efficacy of particular chemoradiation treatment protocols by comparing pre-treatment MR staging with post therapy histology assessment. At present, we are focused on achieving clear surgical margins of excision (CRM) to avoid local recurrence. We recommend that all patients with rectal cancer should undergo pre-operative MRI staging. Of these, about half will have good prognosis features (T1-T3b, N0, EMVI negative, CRM clear) and may safely undergo primary total mesorectal excision. Of the remainder, those with threatened or involved margins will certainly benefit from pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with the aim of downstaging to permit safe surgical excision. In the future, our ability to recognise features predicting distant failure, such as extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) may be used to stratify patients for neo-adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in an effort to prevent distant relapse. The optimal pre-operative treatment regimes for these patients (radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy alone or combination chemo-radiotherapy) is the subject of current and future trials.
Olga S. Noskova
Full Text Available On the basis of five-year monitoring data on summer bird population in the Nature Reserve “Kerzhensky” after the catastrophic fires of 2010, a spatial distribution of raptors was analyzed (mainly birds of prey – Falconiformes. Main types of habitats were surveyed using line transect counts. In total 17 species of raptors were observed. Abundance of each species is presented here. Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo and Eurasian Hobby (Falco subbuteo were the most common species of raptors in the Nature Reserve.
Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003
Listado de las especies observadas durante numerosas salidas de campo a Alceda (Corvera de Toranzo), Obregón y Sel de la Carrera (Luena), en Cantabria, realizadas entre 1942 y 1950, entre las que se incluyen las siguientes aves: Accipiter gentilis (Azor común), Accipiter nisus (Gavilán común, también llamado Astur palumbarius por el autor), Actitis hypoleucos (Andarríos chico, llamado Actynioides hypoleucus por el autor), Aegithalos caudatus (Mito), Anthus campestris (Bisbita campestre), Alce...
Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003
Salida de campo del autor y Francisco Bernis a la casa forestal ubicada en el pico Caimodorro (Orihuela del Tremedal, Teruel), el 16 y 17 de julio de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre lagartijas, los mamíferos Martes foina (Garduña) y Microtus sp. (Topillo), y las siguientes aves: Accipiter nisus (Gavilán común, también llamado Astur palumbarius por el autor), A.citrinella, Buteo buteo (Busardo ratonero, también llamado Águila ratera), Carduelis cannabina (Pardillo común, llamad...
Yu Li Hua
We discuss several experiments that can be carried out at BNL's DUVFEL to address several issues associated with cascaded HGHG FELs. These include: Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA); HGHG with seed shorter than electron bunch length; 8th harmonic HGHG (from 800nm to 100nm); Regenerative synchronization of seed pulse and electron bunch; Tuning of HGHG without changing seed, proposed by Timur Shaftan; Cascading using NISUS and VISA: from 400nm to 100nm to 50nm. These experiments may have important impact on the development of multi-stage cascaded HGHG FELs.
Sanmartín, M L; Alvarez, F; Barreiro, G; Leiro, J
This is a survey of the helminth fauna of 285 individuals of 14 species of birds of prey (Falconiformes and Strigiformes) from Galicia (northwest Spain), namely Buteo buteo, Accipiter nisus, A. gentilis, Milvus migrans, M. milvus, Pernis apivorus, Circus pygargus, Falco tinnunculus, F. peregrinus, F. subbuteo, Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus and Athene noctua. A total of 15 helminth species were detected, namely 8 nematodes ( Eucoleus dispar, Capillaria tenuissima, Synhimantus laticeps, Microtetrameres sp., Physaloptera alata, Procyrnea leptoptera, Hovorkonema variegatum and Porrocaecum angusticolle), 4 cestodes ( Cladotaenia globifera, Paruterina candelabraria and Mesocestoides sp.), 2 trematodes ( Neodiplostomum attenuatum and Strigea falconis), and 1 acanthocephalan ( Centrorhynchus globocaudatus). The helminth communities observed were basically similar, although there were marked differences in species richness, which was higher in falconiforms (except for A. gentilis) than in strigiforms. More specifically, species richness was highest in B. buteo (13 species), followed by A. nisus (11 species). In the falconiforms, the helminth species present generally exhibited a clear relationship with host diet. In the strigiforms, by contrast, species richness was lower than expected given the host's diet, suggesting that a different explanation is needed.
Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Valerón, Pilar F; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Almeida-González, Maira; Luzardo, Octavio P
Anticoagulant rodenticides are highly toxic compounds that are widely used for pest control of rodents, but that also may threaten the wildlife's health. This work aimed to assess the exposure to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in six birds of prey species from the Canary Islands (Spain). The concentrations of seven widely used ARs were determined by LC-MS/MS in 104 liver samples of six species of birds of prey (Buteo buteo, Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides, Falco tinnunculus, Asio otus, and Tyto alba). We determined that 61% of the livers had detectable residues of at least one AR. The most frequently detected AR was bromadiolone, which was detected in 60.3% of the positive cases. The detection frequencies of these compounds varied widely, depending on the species. More than 75% of the A. nisus, T. alba, and A. otus individuals had detectable rodenticide residues in the liver. However, F. tinnunculus exhibited the highest concentrations of AR, with median values above 100 ng/g w.w. We did not detect first-generation ARs in any of the samples. When grouped, nocturnal species exhibited higher AR concentrations than diurnal species (Praptors on the Canary Islands. Our findings require authorities to ban or strictly control the use of these rodenticides in the natural environment for the conservation of raptors and other predatory species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Battersby, Nicholas J; How, Peter; Moran, Brendan; Stelzner, Sigmar; West, Nicholas P; Branagan, Graham; Strassburg, Joachim; Quirke, Philip; Tekkis, Paris; Pedersen, Bodil Ginnerup; Gudgeon, Mark; Heald, Bill; Brown, Gina
This study aimed to validate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging classification that preoperatively assessed the relationship between tumor and the low rectal cancer surgical resection plane (mrLRP). Low rectal cancer oncological outcomes remain a global challenge, evidenced by high pathological circumferential resection margin (pCRM) rates and unacceptable variations in permanent colostomies. Between 2008 and 2012, a prospective, observational, multicenter study (MERCURY II) recruited 279 patients with adenocarcinoma 6 cm or less from the anal verge. MRI assessed the following: mrLRP "safe or unsafe," venous invasion (mrEMVI), depth of spread, node status, tumor height, and tumor quadrant. MRI-based treatment recommendations were compared against final management and pCRM outcomes. Overall pCRM involvement was 9.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.9-12.3], significantly lower than previously reported rates of 30%. Patients with no adverse MRI features and a "safe" mrLRP underwent sphincter-preserving surgery without preoperative radiotherapy, resulting in a 1.6% pCRM rate. The pCRM rate increased 5-fold for an "unsafe" compared with "safe" preoperative mrLRP [odds ratio (OR) = 5.5; 95% CI, 2.3-13.3)]. Posttreatment MRI reassessment indicated a "safe" ymrLRP in 33 of 113 (29.2%), none of whom had ypCRM involvement. In contrast, persistent "unsafe" ymrLRP posttherapy resulted in 17.5% ypCRM involvement. Further independent MRI assessed risk factors were EMVI (OR = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5-9.6), tumors less than 4.0 cm from the anal verge (OR = 3.4; 95% CI, 1.3-8.8), and anterior tumors (OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-6.8). The study validated MRI low rectal plane assessment, reducing pCRM involvement and avoiding overtreatment through selective preoperative therapy and rationalized use of permanent colostomy. It also highlights the importance of posttreatment restaging.
Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.; Kellogg, L.S.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Gilliam, D.M.; Hansen, G.E.
This paper is intended to review and critically discuss microscopic integral cross section measurement and calculation data for fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields. Specifically the review covers the following fundamental benchmarks: the spontaneous californium-252 fission neutron spectrum standard field; the thermal-neutron induced uranium-235 fission neutron spectrum standard field; the (secondary) intermediate-energy standard neutron field at the center of the Mol-ΣΣ, NISUS, and ITN-ΣΣ facilities; the reference neutron field at the center of the Coupled Fast Reactor Measurement Facility; the reference neutron field at the center of the 10% enriched uranium metal, cylindrical, fast critical; the (primary) Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field
Dauwe, T; Bervoets, L; Pinxten, R; Blust, R; Eens, M
In this study we examined the effect of external contamination on the heavy metal (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentration in feathers. We compared the heavy metal content among the 10 primary wing feathers of sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), little owls (Athene nocta) and barn owls (Tyto alba) and the variation within the outermost tail feather of sparrowhawks and tawny owls (Strix aluco). The concentration of Hg was significantly higher in feathers molted first, suggesting that levels in feathers reflect levels in the blood during formation. For some other elements (Al, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn) on the other hand, there are strong indications that external contamination may have an important impact on the levels detected in the feathers. This should be taken into account in future monitoring studies.
Models of reliable signalling assume that secondary sexual characters and other displays are more costly to individuals of low than high phenotypic quality, and that low quality individuals disproportionately compromise their reproduction and survival prospects by investment in signalling. A field study of barn swallows, Hirundo rustica with sexually exaggerated tail feathers, supported this prediction. Males were captured by sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus more often than females, and captured males had shorter and more asymmetric tails than male barn swallows that were still alive at the end of the breeding season. These results suggest that there was a negative relationship between degree of sexual ornamentation and predation risk, consistent with the hypothesis that the secondary sexual character is a reliable indicator of quality.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour
Kunca, Tomas; Smejkalova, Pavla; Cepicka, Ivan
Pigeon, doves and songbirds are hosts of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878), which causes avian trichomonosis. Raptors are infected when they digest infected prey. A high percentage of the diet of Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus) is comprised of birds. During the breeding season 2012 and 2013, we clinically tested 298 nestling Eurasian sparrowhawks from urban and rural areas of the Czech Republic for the presence of trichomonads. Sparrowhawk nestlings in the urban area were more infected (32.9%) than in the rural area (12.2%) in 2012 (χ(2) = 6.184, P = 0.045). The number of infected nestlings dropped in the urban area (5.4%) and remained similar in the rural area (16.6%) in 2013. Sequences of ITS region and SSU rDNA confirmed that the isolates from infected sparrowhawk nestlings belonged to Trichomonas gallinae.
Adriana Aparecida Megumi Nishiwaki
Full Text Available Insects are widely used as biological indicators of environmental quality in environmental monitoring studies, because they have certain aspects that help in the identification of environmental stress. The genus Dichotomius, from the family Scarabaeidae, has a wide occurrence in the Brazilian territory, being found in many Brazilian biomes, including in the Caatinga. The species Dichotomius nisus and Dichotomius aff. Laevicollis were recorded in the Catimbau National Park (PE, study area of this work, in environments of different conservation states. Through secondary data, the characteristics of these two species were analyzed considering certain criteria of ideal bioindicator. Both species demonstrated potential as a tool for indicating environmental quality, despite presenting different responses to a disturbance.
Researches regarding the influence of the weather on the flight of the white storks (Ciconia ciconia in the spring migration across the Doamnei River hydrographical basin (Argeş County, Romania (II. Other considerations about the migration over the area.
Full Text Available In this last part of the series of articles concerning the migration of the white storks (Ciconia ciconia in the Doamnei River hydrographical basin, the authors make some considerations regarding the overflown areas and habitats, the aerial activity dependingon the lapse of time and the intra- and inter-specific bonds. The most individuals were observed in the hilly area, flying principally over the settlements and forests. April was the most intense month regarding the migration, the maximum of the aerial activity being between 16:00 and 17:00 for the observations per hour and between 17:00 and 18:00 for the observed individuals per hour. The birds avoided to fly on bad weather conditions and they preferred to use the soaring and gliding flights. Usually, they did not emit any sound.Rarely, the storks were temporarily accompanied in flight by other birds (Pernis apivorus, Accipiter nisus and Falco tinnunculus.
Dauwe, T.; Bervoets, L.; Pinxten, R.; Blust, R.; Eens, M.
Concentrations of many heavy metals in feathers, except Hg, did not reflect the molting sequence, suggesting external contamination. - In this study we examined the effect of external contamination on the heavy metal (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentration in feathers. We compared the heavy metal content among the 10 primary wing feathers of sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), little owls (Athene nocta) and barn owls (Tyto alba) and the variation within the outermost tail feather of sparrowhawks and tawny owls (Strix aluco). The concentration of Hg was significantly higher in feathers molted first, suggesting that levels in feathers reflect levels in the blood during formation. For some other elements (Al, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn) on the other hand, there are strong indications that external contamination may have an important impact on the levels detected in the feathers. This should be taken into account in future monitoring studies
Anna N. Barashkova
Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.
Fabry, A.; McElroy, W.N.; Kellogg, L.S.; Lippincott, E.P.; Grundl, J.A.; Gilliam, D.M.; Hansen, G.E.
The paper is intended to review and critically discuss microscopic integral cross section measurement and calculation data for fundamental reactor dosimetry benchmark neutron fields. Specifically the review covers the following fundamental benchmarks: (1) the spontaneous californium-252 fission neutron spectrum standard field; (2) the thermal-neutron induced uranium-235 fission neutron spectrum standard field; (3) the (secondary) intermediate-energy standard neutron field at the center of the Mol-ΣΣ, NISUS, and ITN--ΣΣ facilities; (4) the reference neutron field at the center of the Coupled Fast Reactor Measurement Facility (CFRMF); (5) the reference neutron field at the center of the 10 percent enriched uranium metal, cylindrical, fast critical; and (6) the (primary) Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field
In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELS. These developments facilitate the construction of practical UV and X-ray FELs and has prompted proposals to the DOE for the construction of such facilities. There are several important experiments to be performed before committing to the construction of dedicated user facilities. Two experiments are under construction in the IR, the UCLA Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission experiment and the BNL laser seeded Harmonic Generation experiment. A multi-institution collaboration is being organized about a 210 MeV electron linac available at BNL and the 10 meter tong NISUS wiggler. This experiment will be done in the UV and will test various experimental aspects of electron beam dynamics, FEL exponential regime with gain guiding, start up from noise, seeding and harmonic generation. These experiments will advance the state of FEL research and lead towards future dedicated users' facilities
Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D
The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 μm × 11.9 μm, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jalil, O; Afaq, A; Ganeshan, B; Patel, U B; Boone, D; Endozo, R; Groves, A; Sizer, B; Arulampalam, T
The study aimed to investigate whether textural features of rectal cancer on MRI can predict long-term survival in patients treated with long-course chemoradiotherapy. Textural analysis (TA) using a filtration-histogram technique of T2-weighted pre- and 6-week post-chemoradiotherapy MRI was undertaken using TexRAD, a proprietary software algorithm. Regions of interest enclosing the largest cross-sectional area of the tumour were manually delineated on the axial images and the filtration step extracted features at different anatomical scales (fine, medium and coarse) followed by quantification of statistical features [mean intensity, standard deviation, entropy, skewness, kurtosis and mean of positive pixels (MPP)] using histogram analysis. Cox multiple regression analysis determined which univariate features including textural, radiological and histological independently predicted overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). MPP [fine texture, hazard ratio (HR) 6.9, 95% CI: 2.43-19.55, P CRM) on MRI (HR 3.1, 95% CI: 1.01-9.46, P = 0.046) predicted DFS. For OS, EMVI on MRI (HR 4.23, 95% CI: 1.41-12.69, P = 0.01) and for DFS kurtosis (medium texture, HR 3.97, 95% CI: 1.44-10.94, P = 0.007) and CRM involvement on MRI (HR 3.36, 95% CI: 1.21-9.32, P = 0.02) were the independent post-treatment factors. Only TA independently predicted RFS on pre- or post-treatment analyses. MR based TA of rectal cancers can predict outcome before undergoing surgery and could potentially select patients for individualized therapy. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Patrícia Menegaz de Farias
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the biodiversity of dung beetles in agricultural and livestock environments is the basis for understanding the contribution that these organisms make in nutrient cycling and ecosystem functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of copronecrophagous dung beetle communities inhabiting the main agroecosystems in southern Brazil and correlate the presence of these organisms with soil properties. From December 2012 to April 2013, samples of dung beetles were taken in the municipality of Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil (28° 28’ S; 48° 56’ W in corn, bean, and sugarcane crops, and in cattle pastures. Beetles were captured in 16 sampling sites, four from each agroecosystem, following a standardized methodology: 10 baited pitfall traps (feces and rotting meat at a spacing of 50 m with exposure for 48 h. The beetles were identified, weighed, and measured. Soil analyses were performed in order to correlate data on organic matter, texture, macro and micronutrients, and pH with data on the abundance of beetle species using canonical correspondence analysis. A total of 110 individuals belonging to 10 species of dung beetles was found. Twenty-four individuals from seven species (with total biomass of 2.4 g were found in the corn crop; five individuals from three species (1.8 g were found in the bean crop; 81 individuals from nine species (30.3 g were found in cattle pasture areas; and lastly, there were no dung beetles recorded in the sugarcane crop. In areas of cattle grazing, the tunnelers Dichotomius nisus and Trichillum externepunctatum correlated positively with organic matter content, whereas the roller species Canthon chalybaeus correlated positively with soil texture, preferring sandier soils. In corn crop areas, D. nisus was again correlated with organic matter content. Paracoprid dung beetle species were correlated with organic matter content in the soil, and species belonging to the roller
Santoro, Mario; Kinsella, John M; Galiero, Giorgio; degli Uberti, Barbara; Aznar, Francisco Javier
We compared helminth communities in 6 species of birds of prey from the Calabria region of southern Italy. In total, 31 helminth taxa, including 17 nematodes, 9 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans, and 2 cestodes, were found. All helminth species were observed in the gastrointestinal tract, except for 3 spirurid nematodes. Most of the parasite species were detected in at least 2 hosts, but 13 helminth species were found in only 1 host. At the infracommunity level, the overall species richness and Brillouin's index of diversity varied by host, with the highest values in a generalist feeder, the Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), and the lowest in a specialist, the western honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). Species richness was gender dependent only in the sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus). The helminth communities were characterized by different dominant species, namely, Centrorhynchus spp. (Acanthocephala) in the Eurasian buzzard and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Parastrigea intermedia (Digenea) in the marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Physaloptera alata (Nematoda) in the sparrow hawk, Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda) in the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and Strigea falconis (Digenea) in the western honey buzzard. Statistical analyses confirmed a highly significant difference of helminth infracommunity structure among host species. We conclude that in the Calabria region of southern Italy, each of the raptor species studied is distinct in terms of its helminth communities, and more diverse feeding habits of the host correspond with richer helminth communities.
Reuter, Anne; Müller, Kerstin; Arndt, Gisela; Eule, Johanna Corinna
To examine the accuracy and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained by the TonoVet rebound tonometer. Animals studied Freshly enucleated healthy eyes of 44 free-ranging birds of prey out of the species Haliaeetus albicilla, Accipiter gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Buteo buteo, Falco tinnunculus, Strix aluco, Asio otus and Tyto alba euthanized because of unrelated health problems. IOP readings from the TonoVet were compared with a manometric device, with IOP being set from 5 to 100 mmHg in steps of 5 mmHg by adjusting the height of a NaCl solution reservoir connected to the eye. Reproducibility of the TonoVet readings was determined by repeated measurements. TonoVet and manometer values showed a strong linear correlation. In the Accipitridae, the TonoVet tended to increasingly overestimate IOP with increasing pressure, while in the other families, it increasingly underestimated it. In the Sparrowhawk, the values almost represent the ideal line. Reproducibility of TonoVet values decreases with increasing pressure in the clinically important range from 5 to 60 mmHg. IOP values measured with the TonoVet demonstrated species specific deviation from the manometric measurements. These differences should be considered when interpreting IOP values. Using the regression formulae presented, corrected IOP values could be calculated in a clinical setting.
Full Text Available Predation affects life history traits of nearly all organisms and the population consequences of predator avoidance are often larger than predation itself. Climate change has been shown to cause phenological changes. These changes are not necessarily similar between species and may cause mismatches between prey and predator. Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, the main predator of passerines, has advanced its autumn phenology by about ten days in 30 years due to climate change. However, we do not know if sparrowhawk migrate earlier in response to earlier migration by its prey or if earlier sparrowhawk migration results in changes to predation risk on its prey. By using the median departure date of 41 passerine species I was able to show that early migrating passerines tend to advance, and late migrating species delay their departure, but none of the species have advanced their departure times as much as the sparrowhawk. This has lead to a situation of increased predation risk on early migrating long-distance migrants (LDM and decreased the overlap of migration season with later departing short-distance migrants (SDM. Findings highlight the growing list of problems of declining LDM populations caused by climate change. On the other hand it seems that the autumn migration may become safer for SDM whose populations are growing. Results demonstrate that passerines show very conservative response in autumn phenology to climate change, and thus phenological mismatches caused by global warming are not necessarily increasing towards the higher trophic levels.
In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELs. These developments facilitate the construction of practical UV and X-ray FELs and has prompted proposals to the DOE for the construction of such facilities. There are several important experiments to be performed before committing to the construction of dedicated user facilities. Two experiments are under construction in the IR, the UCLA self-amplified spontaneous emission experiment and the BNL laser seeded harmonic generation experiment. A multi-institution collaboration is being organized about a 210 MeV electron linac available at BNL and the 10 m long NISUS wiggler. This experiment will be done in the UV and will test various experimental aspects of electron beam dynamics, FEL exponential regime with gain guiding, start-up from noise, seeding and harmonic generation. These experiments will advance the state of FEL research and lead towards future dedicated users' facilities.
Mitkus, Mindaugas; Olsson, Peter; Toomey, Matthew B; Corbo, Joseph C; Kelber, Almut
The retinae of many bird species contain a depression with high photoreceptor density known as the fovea. Many species of raptors have two foveae, a deep central fovea and a shallower temporal fovea. Birds have six types of photoreceptors: rods, active in dim light, double cones that are thought to mediate achromatic discrimination, and four types of single cones mediating color vision. To maximize visual acuity, the fovea should only contain photoreceptors contributing to high-resolution vision. Interestingly, it has been suggested that raptors might lack double cones in the fovea. We used transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to evaluate this claim in five raptor species: the common buzzard (Buteo buteo), the honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), the red kite (Milvus milvus), and the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). We found that all species, except the Eurasian sparrowhawk, lack double cones in the center of the central fovea. The size of the double cone-free zone differed between species. Only the common buzzard had a double cone-free zone in the temporal fovea. In three species, we examined opsin expression in the central fovea and found evidence that rod opsin positive cells were absent and violet-sensitive cone and green-sensitive cone opsin positive cells were present. We conclude that not only double cones, but also single cones may contribute to high-resolution vision in birds, and that raptors may in fact possess high-resolution tetrachromatic vision in the central fovea. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lind, Olle; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Olsson, Peter; Kelber, Almut
Raptors have excellent vision, yet it is unclear how they use colour information. It has been suggested that raptors use ultraviolet (UV) reflections from vole urine to find good hunting grounds. In contrast, UV plumage colours in songbirds such as blue tits are assumed to be 'hidden' communication signals, inconspicuous to raptors. This ambiguity results from a lack of knowledge about raptor ocular media transmittance, which sets the limit for UV sensitivity. We measured ocular media transmittance in common buzzards (Buteo buteo), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), red kites (Milvus milvus) and kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) so that, for the first time, raptor UV sensitivity can be fully described. With this information, and new measurements of vole urine reflectance, we show that (i) vole urine is unlikely to provide a reliable visual signal to hunting raptors and (ii) blue tit plumage colours are more contrasting to blue tits than to sparrowhawks because of UV reflectance. However, as the difference between blue tit and sparrowhawk vision is subtle, we suggest that behavioural data are needed to fully resolve this issue. UV cues are of little or no importance to raptors in both vole and songbird interactions and the role of colour vision in raptor foraging remains unclear.
Chang, H-W; Gu, D-L; Su, S-H; Chang, C-C; Cheng, C-A; Huang, H-W; Yao, C-T; Chou, T-C; Chuang, L-Y; Cheng, C-C
The objective was to develop high-throughput gender identification of eagles. Based on BLAST and alignment analyses, the CHD-Z and CHD-W sequences of nine species of eagles were highly homologous with Spilornis cheela hoya (S. c. hoya); therefore, TaqMan probes were designed to target their CHD-ZW-common and CHD-W-specific regions. In S. c. hoya, genders were identified using TaqMan-based, real-time PCR (amplified by P2/P8 primers); this method was validated with anatomically confirmed controls (one of each gender). Both genders had high intensities of the HEX-labeled (CHD-ZW-common) probe, whereas only females had high intensity of the FAM-labeled (CHD-W-specific) probe. The sequence of the CHD-W-specific probe designed for S. c. hoya was completely homologous with the CHD-W-specific region in Circaetus gallicus, Gyps indicus, and Gyps bengalensis, and was only one nucleotide different from those of Accipiter nisus, Spizaetus nipalensis, Aquila chrysaetos, Circus spilonotus, and Milvus migrans. For the CHD-ZW-common probe, all species listed were completely conserved. Using real-time PCR software, we established auto-calling of the genders of 15 individuals of S. c. hoya. In conclusion, this method provided accurate, high-throughput gender identification for S. c. hoya, and has considerable potential for identifying the gender of several related species of eagles.
Fabry, A.; Ceulemans, H.; Vandeplas, P.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.
This paper provides conclusions that may be drawn regarding the consistency and accuracy of dosimetry cross-section files on the basis of integral reaction rate data measured in U.S. and European benchmark and standard neutron fields. In a discussion of the major experimental facilities CFRMF (Idaho Falls), BIGTEN (Los Alamos), ΣΣ (Mol, Bucharest), NISUS (London), TAPIRO (Roma), FISSION SPECTRA (NBS, Mol, PTB), attention is paid to quantifying the sensitivity of computed integral data relative to the presently evaluated accuracy of the various neutron spectral distributions. The status of available integral data is reviewed and the assigned uncertainties are appraised, including experience gained by interlaboratory comparisons. For all reactions studied and for the various neutron fields, the measured integral data are compared to the ones computed from the ENDF/B-IV and the SAND-II dosimetry cross-section libraries as well as to some other differential data in relevant cases. This comparison, together with the proposed sensitivity and accuracy assessments, is used, whenever possible, to establish how well the best cross-sections evaluated on the basis of differential measurements (category I dosimetry reactions) are reliable in terms of integral reaction rates prediction and, for those reactions for which discrepancies are indicated, in which energy range it is presumed that additional differential measurements might help. For the other reactions (category II), the inconsistencies and trends are examined. The need for further integral measurements and interlaboratory comparisons is also considered
Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito
Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds.
Las negociaciones de servicios de salud y educación en Argentina: Entre la liberalización comercial y la cooperación técnica. The Negotiations of Services of Health and Education in Argentina: Between Commercial Liberalization and Technical Cooperation
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the Argentine experience on the commercial negotiations of education and health services. Firstly, we closely examine the negotiations' dynamics of these sectors in diverse forums for negotiation, such as the multilateral, the hemispheric, and the interregional and regional ones. In addition, we determine the advances on the matter, identifying the existence of commercial agendas as well as issues regarding cooperation. The authors emphasize on the existing tension between these two agendas—cooperation and liberalization—, that although antagonizing in the rhetoric, they are reciprocally connected in the facts. Finally, the debate at the national level is analyzed, differentiating the contents and the construction of the argentine negotiating position, where nongovernmental actors have played a preponderant role. The primary data sources come from semi-structured interviews to the argentine delegations that participated in the negotiations during 1992 and 2005, official and negotiating position documents, and technical and research studies of the negotiation process. Este artículo versa sobre la experiencia argentina en torno a las negociaciones del comercio de servicios de salud y de educación en los últimos diez años. Para ello se analiza la dinámica de las negociaciones en materia de servicios de salud y educación en los diversos foros de negociación—multilateral, hemisférico, interregional y regional—, y se evalúan los avances al respecto, identificando la presencia de agendas comerciales <em>vis à vis las agendas de cooperación. Las autoras enfatizan sobre la tensión existente entre estas dos agendas—la de la cooperación y la de la liberalización—que, si bien antagonizan en la retórica, se precisan mutuamente en los hechos. Asimismo, se pasa revista del debate a nivel nacional, identificando los contenidos y la construcción de la posición negociadora argentina, donde
Comunidade de escarabeíneos (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae copro-necrófagos da região de Brejo Novo, Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brasil Copro-necrophagous scarab community (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae of the Brejo Novo region, Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brazil
Fernando Augusto Barbosa Silva
Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou levantar preliminarmente os escarabeíneos copro-necrófagos da região de Brejo Novo, Caruaru, Pernambuco, e verificar aspectos da estrutura da comunidade como sazonalidade, diversidade, equitabilidade, riqueza e abundância das espécies. Foram realizadas 10 coletas, com intervalos de 30 dias e duração de 48 horas, de setembro de 2003 a julho de 2004. Utilizaramse 24 armadilhas de queda, com dois tipos de isca, fezes humanas e carne bovina em estado de putrefação. Foram coletados 1.540 indivíduos pertencentes a seis tribos, 12 gêneros e 28 espécies. As espécies Canthon af. carbonarius, Canthon chalybaeus, Dichotomius nisus, D. semisquamosus, Digitonthophagus gazella e Eurysternus hirtellus aparentemente são as mais adaptadas ao ambiente estudado. Foram coletados 826 indivíduos em armadilhas iscadas com fezes humanas e 714 em carne bovina apodrecida. Ocorreu um número maior de espécies consideradas "raras" (15, sendo três destas "singletons", duas "doubletons" e 10 com abundância entre três e 10 indivíduos, 13 espécies foram consideradas "comuns". Das espécies analisadas, sete apresentaram hábitos alimentares generalistas, quatro são estritamente coprófagas e uma estritamente necrófaga. Foram verificadas correlações positivas entre a precipitação mensal e a abundância e a riqueza de espécies. O levantamento preliminar das espécies de Scarabaeinae da região de Brejo Novo contribuiu para aumentar o número de espécies registradas para o estado de Pernambuco e região Nordeste do Brasil.This paper reports the results of the preliminary survey of copro-necrophagous dung beetles of Brejo Novo region, Caruaru, Pernambuco, as well as some aspects of the community structure such as seasonality, diversity, equitability, richness and abundance of species. Ten samplings with intervals of 30 days and duration of 48 hours, fortnightly were done between September 2003 to July 2004. Scarab beetles were
Broughton, Richard K; Osborn, Daniel; Shore, Richard F; Wienburg, Claire L; Wadsworth, Richard A
Techniques for determining whether patterns of points are random, clustered, or dispersed are well established; however, when the magnitude of the attribute at each location is also important, the situation is more problematic. The concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the livers of Eurasian sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus and common kestrels Falco tinnunculus has been determined for birds from all over Great Britain for several decades and forms a unique database. When mapped, there appears to be clusters of high values in some parts of the country. If these clusters are truly significant, then they may indicate pollution hot spots and possibly help identify undocumented sources of contamination. What constitutes a cluster is open to debate. We know something about the foraging behavior of birds of prey, but we do not know how many pollution sources (hot spots) there are, how long they persist, or over what area they may disperse PCBs. We used a Monte Carlo simulation approach to determine whether the visually prominent clusters of high PCB residues were significant features or merely illusions. The five largest nonoverlapping clusters (defined in terms of the total PCB concentration) were identified at a range of spatial scales. In addition to the total concentration and the number of observations, the weighted centroid of the clusters and which individual birds were involved were also recorded. This enabled us to determine the scale over which the candidate hot spot was stable. Comparing the magnitude of the observed clusters with those from the trial simulations determined the probability of nonrandomness in the original data set (at each spatial scale). Results showed that some clusters do exist but, in the majority of cases, apparent clusters identified by eye could not be considered an actual aggregation of high concentrations following spatial analysis.
Lierz, M; Göbel, T; Schuster, R
In the present paper a general overview on parasites in birds of prey and owls is given. This part is followed by a study investigating the prevalences and species of parasites in free-ranging birds of prey and owls in Berlin and Brandenburg State, Germany. Over a one year period, 84 birds of prey and owls of the following species were examined for the presence of endo- and ectoparasites: Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) (n = 32), Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (n = 20), Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (n = 9), Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) (n = 8), Black Kite (Milvus migrans) (n = 4), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) (n = 3), Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) (n = 1), White-tailed-Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) (n = 1), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) (n = 4), Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) (n = 1) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba) (n = 1). In 97.6% of the cases, ectoparasites (feather mites and hippoboscid flies) were found. Especially eyasses (93.3%) were positive for hippoboscid flies. Trichomonas was detected in 28.6% of all birds of prey and owls examined. A prevalence of 100% was established in the Sparrow Hawks as well as Peregrine Falcons. Leucozytozoon sp. and Hemoproteus sp. as blood parasites were found in 26.9% of the birds in total. Common Buzzards showed the highest prevalence (44.8%). 58.3% of birds examined were positive for endoparasites. Flukes were found in 16.7%, tapeworms in 14.3%, round-worms in 48.8% and acanthocephales in 2.4% of the cases. Interestingly, Tylodelphis clavata (in a Common Buzzard) and Hovorkonema variegatum (in a Goshawk) were found for the first time in raptors. The results of this study underline the importance of a parasitological examination in the process of raptor rehabilitation.
Anne E Goodenough
Full Text Available Pre-roost murmuration displays by European starlings Sturnus vulgaris are a spectacular example of collective animal behaviour. To date, empirical research has focussed largely on flock movement and biomechanics whereas research on possible causal mechanisms that affect flock size and murmuration duration has been limited and restricted to a small number of sites. Possible explanations for this behaviour include reducing predation through the dilution, detection or predator confusion effects (the "safer together" hypotheses or recruiting more birds to create larger (warmer roosts (the "warmer together" hypothesis. We collected data on size, duration, habitat, temperature and predators from >3,000 murmurations using citizen science. Sightings were submitted from 23 countries but UK records predominated. Murmurations occurred across a range of habitats but there was no association between habitat and size/duration. Size increased significantly from October to early February, followed by a decrease until the end of the season in March (overall mean 30,082 birds; maximum 750,000 birds. Mean duration was 26 minutes (± 44 seconds SEM. Displays were longest at the start/end of the season, probably due to a significant positive relationship with day length. Birds of prey were recorded at 29.6% of murmurations. The presence of predators including harrier Circus, peregrine Falco peregrinus, and sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus was positively correlated with murmuration size (R2 = 0.401 and duration (R2 = 0.258, especially when these species were flying near to, or actively engaging with, starlings. Temperature was negatively correlated with duration but the effect was much weaker than that of day length. When predators were present, murmurations were statistically more likely to end with all birds going down en masse to roost rather than dispersing from the site. Our findings suggest that starling murmurations are primarily an anti-predator adaptation rather
Naert, C; Van Peteghem, C; Kupper, J; Jenni, L; Naegeli, H
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the structurally related polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been associated with chronic neurotoxicity involving reduced motor activity and impaired attentiveness. Such neurobehavioral effects indicate that the central nervous system may represent an important target organ for the action of these persistent contaminants in wildlife. As a consequence, the brain of different terrestrial and aquatic birds collected in Switzerland was analysed for PCBs and PBDEs. In parallel, the same contaminants were examined in the accompanying adipose tissue. After clean-up by means of glass columns containing acidified silica, deactivated alumina and anhydrous sodium sulphate, the samples were analysed by high resolution gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS/MS). Median PCB concentrations in the brain (sum of PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) ranged between 13 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) in blackbirds (Turdus merula) and 428 ng g(-1) ww in sparrow hawks (Accipiter nisus). Median PBDE concentrations in the brain (sum of BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 100, BDE 153, BDE 154 and BDE 183) ranged from below the decision limit in buzzards (Buteo buteo) and blackbirds, to 14 ng g(-1) ww in sparrow hawks. After correction for the respective lipid content, higher PCB or PBDE concentrations in brain compared to adipose tissue, were found in three sparrow hawks, four buzzards and in all investigated blackbirds. These results suggest that a deficit in the neuroprotective function of the blood-brain barrier may cause unexpected levels of PCBs and PBDEs in the central nervous system.
Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D
In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distributions of 57 anthropogenic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liver samples from 102 birds of prey of six species that were found dead or that had died during their stay in the Wildlife Recovery Centers of the Canary Islands (Spain) between 2009 and 2012. The dual goal of this work was to determine the occurrence of these contaminants in these six species of birds of prey, and also whether they can be used as bioindicators for monitoring environmental pollution in the region. We found that Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides and Falco tinnunculus were the most contaminated species. The profiles of contamination among the species were extremely similar in the case of organochlorine contaminants, with DDT and its metabolites as the most abundant compounds. The contamination by DDT and its metabolites, as well as contamination by dieldrin, could be considered high in these animals, much higher than reports from other regions of the planet, which is in agreement with previous reports from our group regarding humans, food and other animals from this area. In contrast, the contamination by PCBs could be considered extremely low and was probably below the threshold of toxicity for these contaminants. The content of carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs in these animals was clearly dependent on the feeding pattern of the species; however, the levels were also well below the values that were considered toxic in predictive models. This study represents the first report of contamination by PAHs in all these species and is also the first report of PCB levels in Barbary Falcons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martínez-Herrero, M C; Sansano-Maestre, J; López Márquez, I; Obón, E; Ponce, C; González, J; Garijo-Toledo, M M; Gómez-Muñoz, M T
Oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates of wild birds from Spain were studied. A total of 1688 samples (1214 of predator birds and 474 of prey species) from wildlife recovery centres and scientific bird-ringing campaigns were analysed from 2011 to 2013. The overall infection prevalence was 20.3% (11.4% in predator birds and 43.3% in prey species). Pathognomonic lesions were present in 26% of the infected birds (57.3% in predator birds and 4.9% in prey species). The most commonly parasitized species were the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, 74.5%) and the rock pigeon (Columba livia, 79.4%). Host species in which the parasite has not been previously analysed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing in Spain are also reported: Columba palumbus, Streptopelia turtur, Pica pica, A. gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Asio otus, Bubo bubo, Buteo buteo, Circus aeruginosus, Circus cyaneus, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Neophron percnopterus, Otus scops, Pernis apivorus and Strix aluco. Sequence analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 region revealed five different genotypes and also some mixed infections. A relationship between genotype and host species was observed, but only two genotypes (ITS-OBT-Tg-1and ITS-OBT-Tg-2) were widely distributed. Genotype ITS-OBT-Tg-1 was most frequently found in predator birds and statistically associated with pathognomonic lesions. Non-strict ornithophagous species were at higher risk to develop disease than ornithophagous ones. Genotypes ITS-OBT-Tcl-1 and ITS-OBT-Tcl-2 are new reports, and ITS-OBT-Tvl-5 is reported for the first time in Spain. They showed higher genetic homology to Trichomonas canistomae and Trichomonas vaginalis than to Trichomonas gallinae, indicating the possibility of new species within this genus.
Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sargo, Roberto; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís
We report an investigation of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 52 wild birds and 20 wild mammals from northern and central areas of Portugal by using the modified agglutination test. The birds comprised 26 common buzzards (Buteo buteo), five tawny owls (Strix aluco), four white storks (Ceconia ceconia), three Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo), three northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus), two common barn owls (Tyto alba), two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), two short-toed eagles (Circaetus gallicus), one black kite (Milvus migrans), one Griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), and one peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). The mammals were eight wild boars (Sus scrofa), six red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two common genets (Genetta genetta), two European badgers (Meles meles), one European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and one Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). Fifty percent of the wild birds and 90% of the wild mammals were seropositive; the overall seroprevalence of infection was 61.1%. When comparing the prevalence of antibodies in birds and mammals from northern Portugal, a significant difference was found, but the same was not true for birds and mammals from central Portugal. Seroprevalence levels were 30.0% in juvenile and 62.5% in adult birds (p=0.046), 0.0% in juvenile and 94.7% in adult mammals (p=0.100), 80.0% in female and 66.7% in male birds (p=1.000), and 81.8% in female and 100% in male mammals (p=0.479). This is the first study performed on T. gondii in birds of prey, white storks, and wild carnivores in Portugal.
Karakavuk, Muhammet; Aykur, Mehmet; Şahar, Esra Atalay; Karakuş, Mehmet; Aldemir, Duygu; Döndüren, Ömer; Özdemir, Hüseyin Gökhan; Can, Hüseyin; Gürüz, Adnan Yüksel; Dağcı, Hande; Döşkaya, Mert
Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba which can be isolated from environment and among others well known as an opportunist protozoan parasite causing infections in humans and animals. Eyes are extremely important for the wild birds and losing sight ability due to Acanthamoeba can be dangerous. The studies on Acanthamoeba infection in wild birds is very few in world and Turkey therefore we aimed to screen deceased wild birds found in İzmir and Manisa provinces located in western Turkey using PCR and non-nutrition agar (NNA) plate method. Cornea samples were obtained from 18 deceased wild birds. During the external examination, signs of keratitis were observed in two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). All of the corneal samples were analyzed by two PCR methods and NNA plate. According to results, the Acanthamoeba positivity in corneal samples was 16.6% and 5.5% by PCR and plate method, respectively. According to sequencing data, two of isolates belonged to genotype T5 and one was genotype T4. In conclusion, Acanthamoeba infection was detected in wild bird cornea samples with/without keratitis for the first time in the world. The result of this study also show that Acanthamoeba can be a cause of keratitis in wild birds of Turkey and thus these predator birds can be a target of other wild animals due to loss of sight ability. In terms of public health, these results show the importance of wild birds as a source of Acanthamoeba infection in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trnka, Alfréd; Grim, Tomáš
Plumage polymorphism may evolve during coevolution between brood parasites and their hosts if rare morph(s), by contravening host search image, evade host recognition systems better than common variant(s). Females of the parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) are a classic example of discrete color polymorphism: gray females supposedly mimic the sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), while rufous females are believed to mimic the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Despite many studies on host responses to adult cuckoos comprehensive tests of the "hawk mimicry" and "kestrel mimicry" hypotheses are lacking so far. We tested these hypotheses by examining host responses to stuffed dummies of the sparrowhawk, kestrel, cuckoo and the innocuous turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur) as a control at the nest. Our experimental data from an aggressive cuckoo host, the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), showed low effectiveness of cuckoo-predator mimicry against more aggressive hosts regardless of the type of model and the degree of perfection of the mimic. Specifically, warblers discriminated gray cuckoos from sparrowhawks but did not discriminate rufous cuckoos from kestrels. However, both gray and rufous cuckoos were attacked vigorously and much more than control doves. The ratio of aggression to gray vs. rufous cuckoo was very similar to the ratio between frequencies of gray vs. rufous cuckoo morphs in our study population. Overall, our data combined with previous results from other localities suggest polymorphism dynamics are not strongly affected by local predator model frequencies. Instead, hosts responses and discrimination abilities are proportional, other things being equal, to the frequency with which hosts encounter various cuckoo morphs near their nests. This suggests that female cuckoo polymorphism is a counter-adaptation to thwart a specific host adaptation, namely an ability to not be fooled by predator mimicry. We hypothesize the dangerousness of a particular
Grúz, Adrienn; Déri, János; Szemerédy, Géza; Szabó, Korinna; Kormos, Éva; Bartha, András; Lehel, József; Budai, Péter
Concentrations of different heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) were examined in the contour feathers of long-eared owl (Asio otus), little owl (Athene noctua), tawny owl (Strix aluco), barn owl (Tyto alba), Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), rook (Corvus frugilegus), hooded crow (Corvus cornix), carrion crow (Corvus corone), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). The samples were collected from the Hortobágyi Madárpark (Bird Hospital Foundation) in Hungary. The bird species were classified into six groups based on their nourishment. Feathers were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The aim of our study was to determine the concentration of the above-mentioned heavy metals in the six different groups and to compare them by the groups, to find a possible connection between the concentrations and the age of birds and to get some information about the heavy metal burden of the environment. The highest As concentration was measured in little owl (0.65 ± 0.56 mg/kg). The highest Cd, Cr and Pb concentration was found in the feathers of barn swallow (0.13 ± 0.06 mg/kg; 1.69 ± 0.44 mg/kg; 5.36 ± 1.46 mg/kg), while the highest Cu and Hg concentration (65.45 ± 17.66 mg/kg; 2.72 ± 1.08 mg/kg) in sparrowhawk feathers and the highest Zn concentration in owls (157.21 ± 57.3 mg/kg). Statistically significant difference has been determined between the juvenile and adult crows in the case of Cd (p = 0.011). The higher concentration was measured in adults (0.14 ± 0.04 mg/kg) than that in juveniles (0.08 ± 0.02 mg/kg). Based on our results, the examined area is not contaminated by these heavy metals on that level, which can cause any adverse effect or poisoning in birds, so this region is safe to wildlife.
Stanislav G. Viter
(Accipiter gentilis – 214–224, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Ac. nisus – 336–365, Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo – 1000–1050, Long-Legged Buzzard (B. rufinus – 185–190, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus – no more than 6 pairs, Booted Eagle – 119–124, Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca – 56–60, Greater Spotted Eagle (A. clanga – 3–4, Lesser Spotted Eagle (A. pomarina – 10–11, Hobby (Falco subbuteo – 160–175, Common Kestrel (F. tinnunculus – 297–320 pairs.
Carlson, Nora V; Pargeter, Helen M; Templeton, Christopher N
Many animals alter their anti-predator behavior in accordance to the threat level of a predator. While much research has examined variation in mobbing responses to different predators, few studies have investigated how anti-predator behavior is affected by changes in a predator's own state or behavior. We examined the effect of sparrowhawk ( Accipiter nisus ) behavior on the mobbing response of wild blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus ) using robotic taxidermy sparrowhawks. We manipulated whether the simulated predator moved its head, produced vocalizations, or held a taxidermy blue tit in its talons. When any sparrowhawk model was present, blue tits decreased foraging and increased anti-predator behavior and vocalizations. Additionally, each manipulation of the model predator's state (moving, vocalizing, or the presence of a dead conspecific) impacted different types of blue tit anti-predator behavior and vocalizations. These results indicate that different components of mobbing vary according to the specific state of a given predator-beyond its presence or absence-and suggest that each might play a different role in the overall mobbing response. Last, our results indicate that using more life-like predator stimuli-those featuring simple head movements and audio playback of vocalizations-changes how prey respond to the predator; these 'robo-raptor' models provide a powerful tool to provide increased realism in simulated predator encounters without sacrificing experimental control. Anti-predatory behavior is often modulated by the threat level posed by a particular predator. While much research has tested how different types of predators change prey behavior, few experiments have examined how predator behavior affects anti-predatory responses of prey. By experimentally manipulating robotic predators, we show that blue tits not only respond to the presence of a sparrowhawk, by decreasing feeding and increasing anti-predator behavior and vocalizations, but that they vary
Reuter, Anne; Müller, Kerstin; Arndt, Gisela; Eule, Johanna Corinna
Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with the TonoVet rebound tonometer in 10 raptor species, and possible factors affecting IOP were investigated. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, and IOP was assessed in 2 positions, upright and dorsal recumbency, in 237 birds belonging to the families Accipitridae, Falconidae, Strigidae, and Tytonidae. Mean IOP values of healthy eyes were calculated for each species, and differences between families, species, age, sex, left and right eye, as well as the 2 body positions were evaluated. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP were assessed by measuring IOP serially for 5 days at the same time of day in 15 birds of 3 species. Results showed IOP values varied by family and species, with the following mean IOP values (mm Hg +/- SD) determined: white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), 26.9 +/- 5.8; red kite (Milvus milvus), 13.0 +/- 5.5; northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 18.3 +/- 3.8; Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), 15.5 +/- 2.5; common buzzard (Buteo buteo), 26.9 +/- 7.0; common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), 9.8 +/- 2.5; peregrine falcon, (Falco peregrinus), 12.7 +/- 5.8; tawny owl (Strix aluco), 9.4 +/- 4.1; long-eared owl (Asio otus), 7.8 +/- 3.2; and barn owl (Tyto alba), 10.8 +/- 3.8. No significant differences were found between sexes or between left and right eyes. In goshawks, common buzzards, and common kestrels, mean IOP was significantly lower in juvenile birds than it was in adult birds. Mean IOP differed significantly by body position in tawny owls (P = .01) and common buzzards (P = .04). By measuring IOP over several days, mean physiologic variations of +/- 2 mm Hg were detected. Differences in IOP between species and age groups should be considered when interpreting tonometric results. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP may occur and should not be misinterpreted. These results show that rebound tonometry is a useful diagnostic tool in measuring IOP in birds of prey because it provides rapid
Colchero, Fernando; Aliaga, Alix Eva; Jones, Owen R; Conde, Dalia A
Sex differences in mortality are pervasive in vertebrates, and usually result in shorter life spans in the larger sex, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. On the other hand, differences in frailty among individuals (i.e. individual heterogeneity), can play a major role in shaping demographic trajectories in wild populations. The link between these two processes has seldom been explored. We used Bayesian survival trajectory analysis to study age-specific mortality trajectories in the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), a monogamous raptor with reversed sexual size dimorphism. We tested the effect of individual heterogeneity on age-specific mortality, and the extent by which this heterogeneity was determined by average reproductive output and wing length as measures of an individual's frailty. We found that sex differences in age-specific mortality were primarily driven by the differences in individual heterogeneity between the two sexes. Females were more heterogeneous than males in their level of frailty. Thus, a larger number of females with low frailty are able to survive to older ages than males, with life expectancy for the least frail adult females reaching up to 4·23 years, while for the least frail adult males it was of 2·68 years. We found that 50% of this heterogeneity was determined by average reproductive output and wing length in both sexes. For both, individuals with high average reproductive output had also higher chances to survive. However, the effect of wing length was different between the two sexes. While larger females had higher survival, larger males had lower chances to survive. Our results contribute a novel perspective to the ongoing debate about the mechanisms that drive sex differences in vital rates in vertebrates. Although we found that variables that relate to the cost of reproduction and sexual dimorphism are at least partially involved in determining these sex differences, it is through their effect on the