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Sample records for triserialis lineata hirudinea

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for Canavalia cathartica and C. lineata (Fabaceae

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    Asuka Yamashiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the sea-dispersed legume Canavalia cathartica to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure. We also applied these microsatellite markers to the closely related species C. lineata. Methods and Results: Ten primer sets were developed for C. cathartica, and all of the primers were amplified in C. lineata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13 and one to 10 for C. cathartica and C. lineata, respectively. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.375 to 0.870 and from 0.071 to 0.877 for C. cathartica and C. lineata, respectively. Conclusions: The 10 microsatellite markers developed in this study can be used to analyze the population genetic structure of C. cathartica and other related taxa.

  2. Voelt de medicinale bloedzuiger Hirudo medicinalis zich wel zo lekker in Nederland (Hirudinea)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, R.P.W.H.; Velde, van der G.

    2000-01-01

    Does the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis feel well in the Netherlands (Hirudinea)? This paper provides information on the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758 particularly in The Netherlands. Although this species was common in The Netherlands in the 18th century, nowadays it is very

  3. Voelt de medicinale bloedzuiger Hirudo medicinalis zich wel zo lekker in Nederland (Hirudinea)?

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    Felix, R.P.W.H.; Velde, van der, G.

    2000-01-01

    Does the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis feel well in the Netherlands (Hirudinea)? This paper provides information on the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758 particularly in The Netherlands. Although this species was common in The Netherlands in the 18th century, nowadays it is very rare. Most animals were found in waters on sandy soil (71%): dune pools (10%) and pleistocene sandy areas (61%), where it inhabits especially soft water moor and heathland pools. About 20% of the ...

  4. Karyological observations on Turbellaria Proseriata: karyometric analysis of Monocelis fusca, M. lineata (Monocelididae) and Parotoplana macrostyla (Otoplanidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curini-Galletti, M.; Galleni, L.; Puccinelli, I.

    1984-03-01

    A karyometric analysis of the chromosome set of the marine turbellarians Monocelis fusca, M. lineata and Parotoplana macrostyla has been carried out. The karyotype of the two Monocelis species investigated (2n=6) is formed by three pairs of small and similarly sized chromosomes: In M. fusca, chromosome 1 is metacentric, chromosome 2 acrocentric and chromosome 3 is subtelocentric. M. lineata also presents one pair of metacentric chromosomes (chromosome 2), while chromosomes 1 and 3 are submetacentric. P. macrostyla (2n=12) reveals two pairs of large metacentric and four pairs of small chromosomes, three of which are metacentric, whereas the last is subtelocentric.

  5. Atrotorquata lineata as a proxy for Juncus roemerianus, Part II: Tracking changes in positions of Juncus roemerianus marshes through time by use of the fungal proxy Atrotorquata lineata

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    Marsh Pamela E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Juncus roemerianus is a species that occurs at the upper reaches of salt water influence in marshes from Delaware to Texas. As such, J. roemerianus is a good marker for sea level, defined for this study as mean highest high water; thus, being able to track its positions over time should enable one to track past changes in relative sea level. In 2006, a palynomorphic fingerprint to identify surface sediment from J. roemerianus marshes was discovered in a South Carolina study (Marsh 2006, Marsh & Cohen 2008. Further study (Marsh & Cohen 2016 showed that one component of this fingerprint, the spore of the fungus Atrotorquata lineata, was so omnipresent in surface sediment from J. roemerianus marshes that the fungus, by itself, can be considered a proxy for J. roemerianus marshes.

  6. Comparative anatomy and histology of developmental and parasitic stages in the life cycle of the lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata.

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    Reitzel, Adam M; Daly, Marymegan; Sullivan, James C; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    The evolution of parasitism is often accompanied by profound changes to the developmental program. However, relatively few studies have directly examined the developmental evolution of parasitic species from free-living ancestors. The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata is a relatively recently evolved parasite for which closely related free-living outgroups are known, including the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. The larva of E. lineata parasitizes the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and, once embedded in its host, the anemone assumes a novel vermiform body plan. That we might begin to understand how the developmental program of this species has been transformed during the evolution of parasitism, we characterized the gross anatomy, histology, and cnidom of the parasitic stage, post-parasitic larval stage, and adult stage of the E. lineata life cycle. The distinct parasitic stage of the life cycle differs from the post-parasitic larva with respect to overall shape, external ciliation, cnida frequency, and tissue architecture. The parasitic stage and planula both contain holotrichs, a type of cnida not previously reported in Edwardsiidae. The internal morphology of the post-parasitic planula is extremely similar to the adult morphology, with a complete set of mesenterial tissue and musculature despite this stage having little external differentiation. Finally, we observed 2 previously undocumented aspects of asexual reproduction in E. lineata: (1) the parasitic stage undergoes transverse fission via physal pinching, the first report of asexual reproduction in a pre-adult stage in the Edwardsiidae; and (2) the juvenile polyp undergoes transverse fission via polarity reversal, the first time this form of fission has been reported in E. lineata.

  7. Occurrence of Hirudinea species in a post urban reach of a Patagonian mountain stream

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    M. Laura Miserendino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Temporal (May 2005 to February 2006 and habitat distribution (pools and riffles of Hirudinea species was analyzed at a post urban reach from Esquel stream (Chubut province, Patagonia, Argentina. Site was located 5.7 km downstream a Waste Treatment Plant. Mean values of nutrients: ammonia, nitrates and soluble reactive phosphate, as well water conductivity, turbidity and total suspended solids indicated physical and organic pollution. Leeches assemblage was composed by the glossiphonids: Helobdella scutifera Blanchard, 1900, H. michaelseni (Blanchard, 1900, H. simplex (Moore, 1911, Helobdella sp., H. hyalina Ringuelet, 1942, H. obscura Ringuelet, 1942 and the semiscolecid Patagoniobdella variabilis (Blanchard, 1900. From these H. hyalina and H. obscura are new records for Chubut province. Helobdella hyalina (810 ind.m-2 and H. simplex (465 ind. m-2 clearly dominated the assemblage at the reach. Only H. simplex displayed a spatial preference being significantly more abundant in pools than in riffle habitats (p<0.001. Species recruitment occurred mostly at September, December and March when juveniles were very abundant. Although several species of Helobdella were able to live in the disturbed section of the stream, only H. simplex and H. hyalina sustained large populations at the site and can be considered as tolerant to organic enrichment. This information is valuable to future studies on stream condition assessment in mountainous areas in Patagonia, and in other areas in which these species are present.

  8. Observations on the morphology of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullariidae Observações sobre a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullaridae

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    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morpholgy of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 collected at its type locality. The shell is globose, moderately heavy, horn-colored with brown spiral bands; apex subelevated; 4 - 5 rounded whorls increasing in diameter rather rapidly, separated by deep suture. Aperture large and ovoid; outer lip sharp; umbilicus narrow and deep; operculum concentric, corneous. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.74 - 0.83 (mean 0.78; spire length/shell length = 0.10 - 0.18 (mean 0.13; aperture length/shell length = 0.70 - 0.77 (mean 0.73. The animal is longisiphonate. Renal organ brownish with marked invagination at its right edge. Ureter elongated with its long axis transverse to the main axis of the kidney. The radula is taenioglossate (2.1.1.1.2 and has on average 35 transverse rows of teeth. The form and arrangement of the radula teeth are nearly the same as in other Ampullariidae. The testis is cream-colored and lies in the first three whorls of the spire. Spermiduct uniformly narrow, running to the base of the spire. Seminal vesicle whitish, slightly pressed dorsoventrally. Prostate cylindric and thick, similar in color to the testis. Penis whiplike, with a closed circular spermiduct. Penis pouch ovoid completely envelping the penis. Penis sheath elongated, broad prosimally, tapering distally. Its inner surface shows a longitudinal channel along its proximal half and two glands, one on the middle and the other apical. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules situated on the surface of the digestive gland. Oviduct slender running along the columellar axis toward the base of the spire. Seminal receptalble tubiform, thick-walled and rounded proximally. Albumen gland large, pink, enclosing the receptacle and the spiral capsule gland. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Neste trabalho e estudada a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 baseada em material coletado na localidade

  9. First record of Stibarobdella moorei (Annelida, Hirudinea, Piscicolidae) a marine leech parasitizing Octopus bimaculatus (Mollusca: Octopodidae) from the Mexican Pacific coast

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    López-Peraza D. J.; Hernández-Rodríguez M.; Barón-Sevilla B.; Bückle-Ramírez L. F.; Grano-Maldonado M. I.

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of the parasitic marine leech Stibarobdella moorei (Oka, 1910) (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae) along the northwest Mexican Pacific coast is described for the first time. This ectoparasite was collected from the skin of the Octopus bimaculatus (Verril, 1983) (Mollusca: Octopodidae). Stibarobdella loricata (Hardig, 1924) is synonymized with S. moorei as this species resembles other species of the genus based on tubercle patterns and the presence of papillae and a marginal fringe on the...

  10. Atrotorquata lineata as a proxy for Juncus roemerianus, Part I: Atrotorquata lineata as a proxy for Juncus roemerianus in surface sediments from high-level salt marshes in the southeastern United States

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    Marsh Pamela E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Juncus roemerianus is a plant that occurs at the upper reaches of salt water influence in marshes from Delaware to Texas. In 2006 a palynomorphic fingerprint to identify surface sediment from J. roemerianus marshes was discovered in a South Carolina study (Marsh 2006, Marsh & Cohen 2008. This fingerprint had four components: (1 high palynomorphic abundance, (2 high palynomorphic diversity, (3 high concentration of Fungal Type A (greater than 10% of the palynomorphs in a given sample and (4 the presence of the spores of the fungus Atrotorquata lineata, which occurred in the sediments of J. roemerianus marshes but not in the sediments collected from any other marsh type, even in sediments collected less than a meter away from J. roemerianus.

  11. In Vitro Production of Echioidinin, 7-O-Methywogonin from Callus Cultures of Andrographis lineata and Their Cytotoxicity on Cancer Cells.

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    Arifullah Mohammed

    Full Text Available Andrographis lineata is an herbal medicinal plant used in traditional medicine as a substitute for Andrographis paniculata. Here, using mature leaf explants of A. lineata we demonstrate for the first time the callus induction established on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l-1 IAA. Dried callus was subjected to solvent extraction with acetone. Further the acetone residue was separated by silica gel column chromatography, crystallized and characterized on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (proton and c13 and liquid chromatographic mass spectroscopy. This analysis revealed the occurrence of two known flavones namely, 7-O-methylwogonin (MW and Echioidinin (ED. Furthermore, these compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against leukemic cell line, CEM. We identify that ED and MW induced cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further increase in the LDH release upon treatment with ED and MW further confirmed our cytotoxicity results against leukemic cell line. Strikingly, MW was more potent than ED when compared by trypan blue and MTT assays. Our results recapitulate the utility of callus cultures for the production of plant specific bioactive secondary metabolites instead of using wild plants. Together, our in vitro studies provide new insights of A. lineata callus cultures serving as a source for cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  12. In Vitro Production of Echioidinin, 7-O-Methywogonin from Callus Cultures of Andrographis lineata and Their Cytotoxicity on Cancer Cells

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    Mohammed, Arifullah; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Raghavan, Sathees C.; Ghanta, Rama Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis lineata is an herbal medicinal plant used in traditional medicine as a substitute for Andrographis paniculata. Here, using mature leaf explants of A. lineata we demonstrate for the first time the callus induction established on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l–1 IAA. Dried callus was subjected to solvent extraction with acetone. Further the acetone residue was separated by silica gel column chromatography, crystallized and characterized on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (proton and c13) and liquid chromatographic mass spectroscopy. This analysis revealed the occurrence of two known flavones namely, 7-O-methylwogonin (MW) and Echioidinin (ED). Furthermore, these compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against leukemic cell line, CEM. We identify that ED and MW induced cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Further increase in the LDH release upon treatment with ED and MW further confirmed our cytotoxicity results against leukemic cell line. Strikingly, MW was more potent than ED when compared by trypan blue and MTT assays. Our results recapitulate the utility of callus cultures for the production of plant specific bioactive secondary metabolites instead of using wild plants. Together, our in vitro studies provide new insights of A. lineata callus cultures serving as a source for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26488879

  13. First record of Stibarobdella moorei (Annelida, Hirudinea, Piscicolidae a marine leech parasitizing Octopus bimaculatus (Mollusca: Octopodidae from the Mexican Pacific coast

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    López-Peraza D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the parasitic marine leech Stibarobdella moorei (Oka, 1910 (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae along the northwest Mexican Pacific coast is described for the first time. This ectoparasite was collected from the skin of the Octopus bimaculatus (Verril, 1983 (Mollusca: Octopodidae. Stibarobdella loricata (Hardig, 1924 is synonymized with S. moorei as this species resembles other species of the genus based on tubercle patterns and the presence of papillae and a marginal fringe on the oral sucker. The present finding throws new light on the biodiversity and host preference of the ectoparasite and suggests a successful migration to unusual host. The coast of the Pacific Ocean, particularly in the Bay of Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico is a new geographical distribution area for S. moorei, and O. bimaculatus is a new host reported for this leech. The morphology of this ectoparasite is briefly described.

  14. Studies on effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) and Andrographis lineata nees (Family: Acanthaceae) extracts against two mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.).

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    Renugadevi, G; Ramanathan, T; Shanmuga, priya R; Thirunavukkarasu, P

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the studies on effects of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) (Burm.f.) and Andrographis lineata (A. lineata) nees (Family: Acanthaceae) extracts against two mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) (Say.) and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (Linn.). The aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of two plant species, A. paniculata and A. lineate were examined against the larvae of A. aegypti (L.) and Cx. quinquefasciatus with gradually increasing concentration ie. from 50 to 200 ppm of solvent extracts and to test their activity in combination with each other. In a 24 h bioassay experiment with plant extracts, highest mortalities were recorded at 200 ppm of concentrations for leaves of A. lineta and A. paniculata individually. For combination effect, only 150 ppm of the mixture of solvent extracts of petroleum ether: aqueous (1:1) extracts showed 100% mortality after 24 h of exposure. The results show that, insecticides of plant combination is ecofriend and has better larvicidal activity compared to individual extracts. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the toxic effect of endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) in the acute and chronic toxicity tests with Pomacea lineata gastropod.

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    de Andrade, André Lucas Correa; Soares, Priscila Rafaela Leão; da Silva, Stephannie Caroline Barros Lucas; da Silva, Marília Cordeiro Galvão; Santos, Thamiris Pinheiro; Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro Sales; Soares, Pierre Castro; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer and a risk when it interacts with organisms, and can cause changes in the development and reproduction of them. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BPA, by acute and chronic toxicity tests with neonates and adults of Pomacea lineata. Adults and neonates were divided into groups exposed to BPA (1-20mg/L), or 17β-estradiol (1mg/L) and control in the acute and chronic toxicity tests. Behavior, heart rate, reproduction and hemolymph biochemical analysis were measured. In the acute toxicity test, the 96-h LC 50 with adults was 11.09 and with neonates was 3.14mg/L. In this test, it was observed lethargic behavior and an increase of 77.6% of aspartate aminotransferase in the adults' hemolymph (ptest, it was observed behaviors associated with reproduction, as Copulate, in the groups exposed to BPA. The results that were found in this study proved that BPA is a potentially toxic agent to Pomacea lineata according to biological parameters evaluated. These data contribute to the understanding of BPA toxic effects' in the aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The marine leech Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, parasitic on the angel shark Squatina spp. and sandtiger shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae, Carchariidae in Southern Brazilian waters

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    Soto J. M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the marine leech, Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, is reported on the southern coast of Brazil, based on seven lots with 47 specimens, between 71 and 182 mm in total length, collected on the dorsal region of angel sharks, Squatina argentina (Marini, 1930; S. guggenheim Marini, 1936; S. punctata Marini, 1936 (Chondrichthyes, Squatinidae; and on the head of a sandtiger shark, Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes, Carchariidae. This is the first record of S. loricata in the western Atlantic and of its parasitic association with S. argentina, S. guggenheim, S. punctata, and C. taurus.

  17. Substrato e luz na germinação das sementes de rainha-do-abismo Substratum and light on the germination of Sinningia lineata

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    Cecília M Barroso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sinningia lineata é uma rupícola ameaçada de extinção e com potencial ornamental. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o comportamento germinativo das sementes de S. lineata em diferentes substratos e condições de luz. Os resultados devem contribuir para a sua propagação sexuada com a finalidade de conservação ex situ e como subsídio para a sua inclusão como planta de uso ornamental. As sementes foram coletadas in situ. Foram testados seis substratos com e sem incidência de luz: papel para germinação, areia média de rio, substrato comercial, misturas na proporção 1:1 de areia com casca de arroz carbonizada, areia com substrato comercial e casca de arroz carbonizada com substrato comercial. A temperatura utilizada foi 20ºC. Foi adotado o conceito técnico de germinação, o de desenvolvimento de plântulas normais. Os resultados indicaram que o lote tinha alto poder germinativo, o que foi demonstrado pelo alto percentual de germinação sobre o papel (92,5%. Os testes de germinação e vigor indicaram que o papel e areia foram os melhores substratos testados. A germinação na areia foi de 90% e não diferiu estatisticamente da germinação sobre papel. Os demais substratos não foram considerados adequados à germinação da espécie. A análise química do substrato comercial revelou alto nível de salinidade, o que causou a gradual perda de plântulas, indicando que a espécie é sensível a esta condição química. O teste de luz demonstrou que a espécie é fotoblástica positiva.Sinningia lineata is a rock growing plant, with ornamental potential, which is in danger of extinction. This study aimed at analyzing the germinative behavior of the S. Ilineata in different substratums and light conditions. The results should contribute to the sexual propagation aiming at the conservation ex situ, as well as to offer a subsidy for its inclusion as an ornamental plant. The seeds were collected in situ. Six substrata were

  18. Study on accumulation of Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cd in Nerita lineata and Thais bitubercularis from Tanjung Harapan and Teluk Kemang, Malaysia.

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    Tengku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Sn were attributed to metal industries. Cu contamination was associated with piggery industry. Shipping activities contribute to elevated levels of Pb, Cu and As. Elevated levels of metals in the sediments are attributed to anthropogenic activities. Samples were collected in April 2012 and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Fe is the most abundant metal in the tissue and shell compared to the rest of the metals. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soft tissues of Nerita lineata taken from Tanjung Harapan follow this order: Fe > Zn > Ni > Cu > Cd while in Thais bitubercularis, the metal concentrations were higher following the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd. The samples taken from Teluk Kemang were higher and exhibited different trend for both organisms. Results from this study are useful for further exploration of Thais bitubercularis as accumulators of Cu, Cd, and Zn. For recommendation, more studies on monitoring the concentration level of heavy metals in marine environment should be done regularly and increase numbers of samples use to biomonitor the heavy metals in marine environment as it is important to have information or data regarding the quality of marine environment in order to control pollution such as water pollution from being contaminated with heavy metals. This is essential as the pollutants emit in the marine environment may affect marine lives as well as human’s health

  19. PROCESSAMENTO E AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DA CARNE DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata

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    S. H. R. BARBOZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar sensorialmente os produtos do processamento da carne dos moluscos escargot (Achatina fulica e aruá (Pomacea lineata. Foram realizados dois processamentos em conserva (enlatado: triturada e defumada. Na avaliação sensorial da carne triturada observou-se diferença significativa entre os produtos, favorável ao escargot com valor médio de aceitação igual a 5,35 e 4,76 para o aruá. Para os produtos elaborados defumados observou-se uma aceitação igual para as duas espécies (escargot = 4,82 e aruá = 4,49. Esses resultados de aceitação nos permitem admitir que os produtos são tecnicamente e sensorialmente viáveis para consumo (aceitação acima de 60% para os dois casos, mas com tendências ligeiramente favoráveis de preferência para os produtos elaborados com carne de escargot.

  20. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  1. A new leech species of Helobdella (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae from San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina Una especie nueva de sanguijuela del género Helobdella (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae de San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina

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    Bettina S. Gullo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A new freshwater leech species Helobdella fantasmae n. sp. is described. This description is based on the examination of 12 specimens collected in Laguna Fantasma, Bariloche (41° 05'S 71° 28'W, during December 2002. Leeches were found attached to submerged plants. They were relaxed with gradual addition of 70% ethanol, fixed in 10% formalin, stored in 70% ethanol and stained with borax carmine. Examination of external morphology, dissections and microphotographs were accomplished with a Leica Wild M3Z stereo microscope aided with an Olympus C-4000 digital camera. H. fantasmae n. sp. differs from other species of the genus by the presence of 1 pair of eyes on somite III, crop without gastric chambers, digitiform caeca and postcaeca., short sperm ducts reaching the back of somite XV, atrium pyriform, short ovisacs reaching somite XIII. This is the first record of leeches from an ephemeral wetland in North Patagonia. This finding expands current knowledge of the biodiversity of Hirudinea in South America, increasing the number of known Helobdella spp. from the Río Negro province (North Patagonia to 10 species.Se describe una especie de sanguijuela dulceacuícola Helobdella fantasmae n. sp. Esta descripción se basa en el examen de 12 ejemplares recolectados en la Laguna Fantasma, Bariloche (41° 05'S 71° 28'O durante diciembre de 2002. Los individuos se hallaron asociados a la vegetación sumergida. Fueron relajados con la adición gradual de etanol 70%, fijados en formalina al 10%, preservados en etanol 70% y teñidos con carmín borácico. El examen de la morfología externa, disecciones y microfotografías fueron realizados con la ayuda de un estereomicroscopio Leica Wild M3Z con cámara digital Olympus C-4000. H. fantasmae n. sp. difiere de otras especies del género por los siguientes caracteres: un par de ojos en el somito III, estómago recto sin cámaras, ciegos laterales ni postciegos, espermiductos cortos que descienden hasta el

  2. Antiradical and antimicrobial activity of Atylosia lineata Wt. and Arn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shade dried and powdered leaves were extracted using methanol. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extract was determined by agar well diffusion and poisoned food technique respectively. Antiradical efficacy was determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. Total phenolic content of leaf extract was ...

  3. Collection of Hirudinea submitted by F.M. Chutter (national institute for water research, Pretoria) and the geographical distribution of Hirudinea in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sciacchitano, I

    1963-08-01

    Full Text Available The leeches collected from the Vaal Barrage and from the streams and rivers of the Vaal dam Catchment Barrage by F.andM. from Chutter, which I have just studied, constitute a collection of 121 specimens. I sincerely thank Mr F. M. Chutter for having...

  4. Respiratory adaptations to oxygen lack in three species of Glossiphoniidae (Hirudinea) in Lake Esrom, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohle, B. D.; Hamburger, K.

    2005-01-01

    The weight-specific respiration rate (µl O2 mg-1 AFDW h-1) of three species of leech from Lake Esrom, Denmark, Glossiphonia concolor, G. complanata and Helobdella stagnalis was measured in a closed stirred chamber with a micro electrode. At declining oxygen concentration (mg O2 l-1) all three spe...... at 10 and 20 °C, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to habitat and spatial distribution of the three species in the lake....

  5. Infection, specificity and host manipulation of Australapatemon sp (Trematoda, Strigeidae) in two sympatric species of leeches (Hirudinea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karvonen, A.; Faltýnková, Anna; Choo, J. M.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 10 (2017), s. 1346-1355 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : complex life cycle * Digenea * host manipulation * host-parasite relationship * spatiotemporal variation * specificity * Trematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2016

  6. Caracterización de la comunidad bacteriana aerobia en sanguijuelas (Hirudinea, Haementeria sp. (Glossiphoniidae y Oxytychus ornatus (Macrobdellidae de El Bagre, Antioquia = Characterization of the aerobic bacterial community in leeches Haementeria sp (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae y Oxytychus ornatus (Hirudinea: Macrobdellidae de El Bagre, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Isaza, Laura Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha incrementado el uso terapéutico de las sanguijuelas y se ha demostrado que ellas pueden inocular bacterias causantes de infecciones en el 20% de los pacientes. El hallazgo en Antioquia de dos especies de sanguijuelas promisorias para hirudoterapia motivó este estudio para identificar las bacterias en la superficie, la probóscide y el intestino de estos anélidos y evaluar su sensibilidad a antibióticos. Las sanguijuelas estudiadas se identificaron como Haementeria sp., y Oxytychus ornatus. Muestras de la superficie, boca e intestino de ambos anélidos se inocularon en agar sangre, agar sangre con ampicilina y agar eosina azul de metileno. La identificación de las bacterias y su sensibilidad a antibióticos se evaluaron por el método automatizado Vitek (Biomerieux®. Se hicieron en total 26 aislamientos pertenecientes a 12 especies de nueve géneros. Enterobacter cloacae fue la especie más frecuente en ambos anélidos. Las bacterias fueron sensibles a los antibióticos comúnmente empleados en las infecciones causadas por este tipo de microorganismos. Se sugiere hacer profilaxis con antibióticos en los pacientes que reciban terapia con los anélidos investigados e implementar los protocolos estandarizados para el lavado de los animales antes de su uso y para el aseo de los acuarios en donde se los mantenga.

  7. Pentacapsula neurophila sp.n. (Multivalvulida) from the central nervous system of striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grossel, G. W.; Dyková, Iva; Handlinger, J.; Munday, B. L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2003), s. 315-320 ISSN 0140-7775 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : meningoencephalomyelitis * Myxozoa * Pentacapsula neurophila Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2003

  8. Genetics and morphology of the genus Tritetrabdella (Hirudinea, Haemadipsidae) from the mountainous rain forests of Sabah, Borneo, reveal a new species with two new subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappes, H.

    2013-01-01

    Blood-feeding terrestrial leeches of the family Haemadipsidae are a notorious part of the invertebrate diversity in Asian and Australian rain forests. All hitherto published records of terrestrial leeches of Borneo belong to the genus Haemadipsa. Here, a second, poorly known haemadipsid genus is

  9. Estádios evolutivos de tripanossomas de Hipostomus punctatus Valenciennes (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae em infecção natural de Batracobdella gemmata Blanchard (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae Evolutive stages of tripanosomes of Hipostomus punctatus Valenciennes (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae in natural infection of Batracobdella gemmata Blanchard (Hirudinea, Glossiphoniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D'Agosto

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen leeches obtained from armoured catfish (Hypostomus punclatus Valenciennes, 1840 infected with Trypanosoma spp. were examined. It was observed the presence of tripomastigotes, epimastigotes and amastigotes forms as well as dividing forms in the proboscis and in the stomach, different from the ones found in the vertebrate host as regards the morfometric features and developing forms. The examination of the contents of rectum did not show tripanosomes. These facts seem to demonstrate that Batracobdella gemmata (Blanchard, 1900 is an invertebrate host of trypanosomes and the transmission is done by means of inoculation.

  10. RENDIMENTO DE CARCAÇA E COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL DO MÚSCULO DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. R. BARBOZA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a composição corporal (rendimento de carcaça e a composição centesimal do músculo dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As avaliações foram realizadas comparando-se 6 grupos de animais de pesos e idades diferentes (3 de escargot e 3 de aruá com um grupo controle (escargot, animais estes com 4 meses de idade e peso entre 20 e 25g (considerados pela Escargoteria animais padrão de abate. De interesse industrial, o rendimento em carne observado no lote de escargot de peso inferior (14,08 a 19,98g ao lote controle, mostra que podemos aproveitá-los para a comercialização, pois podem ser abatidos antes dos 4 meses de idade, pelo menor custo de produção. Já os lotes de aruá (espécie selvagem apresentaram discrepâncias quando comparado ao lote controle o que sugerem estudos zootécnicos para melhorar o rendimento em carne. Na composição centesimal da carne 02 lotes de escargot (1 e 2 e 02 lotes de aruá (4 e 5 são estatisticamente igual ao lote controle indicando o potencial nutricional da espécie aruá.

  11. ESTUDO DO APROVEITAMENTO DAS VÍSCERAS DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica) E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata) PARA INCORPORAÇÃO EM RAÇÃO ANIMAL

    OpenAIRE

    S. E. R. BARBOZA; P. F. ROMANELLI

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o aproveitamento das vísceras - subprodutos, dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As vísceras foram processadas na forma de farinha e suas características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, cálcio, fósforo, digestibilidade em pepsina, índice de acidez) e microbiológicas (Salmonella sp) foram comparadas aos padrões de qualidades exi...

  12. RENDIMENTO DE CARCAÇA E COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL DO MÚSCULO DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica) E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata)

    OpenAIRE

    S. H. R. BARBOZA; P. F. ROMANELLI

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a composição corporal (rendimento de carcaça) e a composição centesimal do músculo dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As avaliações foram realizadas comparando-se 6 grupos de animais de pesos e idades diferentes (3 de escargot e 3 de aruá) com um grupo controle (escargot), animais estes com 4 meses de idade e peso entre 20 e ...

  13. Nitrogen–use efficiency in different vegetation type at Cikaniki Research Station, Halimun-Salak Mountain National Park, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARNO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A research about nitrogen–use efficiency (NUE and trees identification was conducted at different vegetation type at Cikaniki, Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. Plot quadrate methods (20 x 50 m was used to analyze trees vegetation and Kjeldahl methods was used to analyze leaf nitrogen. The width and length of the leaf was also measured to obtain the leaf surface area. The result showed that there are 61 individual trees which consisted of 24 species was identified. The species which have 5 highest important value are Altingia excelsa (64,657, Castanopsis javanica (39,698, Platea latifolia (27,684, Garcinia rostrata (21,151, and Schima walichii (16,049. Futhermore Eugenia lineata (13,967, Melanochyla caesa (12,241, Quercus lineata (10,766, platea excelsa (10,766 have lower important value. Other trees have important value less than 10. Morphological and nitrogen content analyze were done on 4 species : Quercus lineata, G. rostrata, A. excelsa, and E. lineata. Among them, Quercus lineata has highest specific leaf area (SLA (0,01153, followed by G. rostrata (0,00821, A. excelsa (0,00579, and E. lineata (0,00984 g/cm2. The highest number of stomata was found on A. excelsa (85,10/mm2, followed by E. lineata (74,40/mm2, Q. lineata (53,70/mm2, and G. rostrata (18,4 /mm2. The emergent species (A. excelsa and Q. lineata have higher nitrogen content than the underlayer species (G. rostrata and E. lineata. A. excelsa have highest nitrogen use efficiency (28,19% compare to E. lineata (23,81% , Q. lineata (19,09%, and G. rostrata (14,87%. Although not significant, emergen species have higher NUE than underlayer species.

  14. ESTUDO DO APROVEITAMENTO DAS VÍSCERAS DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata PARA INCORPORAÇÃO EM RAÇÃO ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. R. BARBOZA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o aproveitamento das vísceras - subprodutos, dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As vísceras foram processadas na forma de farinha e suas características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, cálcio, fósforo, digestibilidade em pepsina, índice de acidez e microbiológicas (Salmonella sp foram comparadas aos padrões de qualidades exigidas pela Legislação (6.198, de 26/12/74, e o Decreto 76.986, de 06/01/76 do Ministério da Agricultura e Abastecimento para a comercialização de produtos destinados à alimentação animal. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que as farinhas de vísceras de ambas espécies podem ser utilizadas como matérias primas, constituindo ótimas fontes de nutrientes para a incorporação em rações animais.

  15. Ctenolepisma almeriensis n. sp. of Lepismatidae (Insecta, Zygentoma from south-eastern Spain

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    Molero-Baltanás, R.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ctenolepisma almeriensis n. sp., from the south–eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula is described. This species was determined previously as Ctenolepisma lineata (Fabricius, 1775, which is widespread over the south–western Palaeartic region. The main difference between the two species is the setation of thoracic sternites. In each bristle–comb of the mesosternum and the metasternum, macrosetae are arranged in a single row in C. lineata and in two parallel rows in C. lmeriensis n. sp. In the prosternum, the first species shows 1–2 irregular lines of macrosetae per comb, and the new species shows 2–3 lines. Based on other parameters of setation, a discriminant analysis was carried out to separate a group of Spanish specimens of C. lineata from another group of specimens of the new species. This analysis demonstrated the validity of the occurrence of double or single lines of macrosetae in thoracic sternites to distinguish between thetwo species.

  16. The association between invertebrates and macrophytes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The invertebrate fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes in the littoral of Lake Kariba was studied over a three-month period in 2002. Animals from seven classes — Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Turbellaria, Insecta, Crustacea, Bivalvia and Gastropoda — were collected. Two hirudineans, Placobdella sp. and Haemopsis sp., ...

  17. Insel Kos, mit zwölf Erstnachweisen

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    Schäfer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of jumping spiders were recorded for the first time for the Greek Dodecanese island of Kos. Five of these species (Euophrys rufibarbis, Heliophanus equester, Menemerus taeniatus, Phlegra lineata and Pseudicius badius are considered first records for the entire Dodecanese.

  18. Effect of water quality on the feeding ecology of axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum

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    Diego de Jesus Chaparro-Herrera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambystoma mexicanum, a highly endangered species, is endemic to lake Xochimilco (Mexico City, Mexico which currently is being negatively affected by the introduction of Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia and water pollution. During the first weeks of development, when mortality is the highest, Ambystoma mexicanumdepends on a diet of zooplankton. The aim of this study was to check whether contamination levels in lake Xochimilco influence zooplankton consumption by similar size classes of A. mexicanum and Oreochromis niloticus. In this study, we analysed changes in the functional responses and prey preference of A. mexicanum and larval Tilapia in two media, one with filtered lake Xochimilco water and another one with reconstituted water. As prey we used cladocerans (Moina macrocopa, Alona glabra, Macrothrix triserialis and Simocephalus vetulus and ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens. Zooplankton was offered in 5 different densities, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 ind./mL. Prey consumption by A. mexicanum varied in relation to the species offered and age of the larvae. From the first week to the eighth week prey consumption by A. mexicanum increased by 57%. Our functional response tests showed that regardless of the prey type, prey consumption by A. mexicanum was lower in the contaminated water from lake Xochimilco. Among the zooplankton offered in the contaminated environment predators preferred smaller and slower moving microcrustaceans such as Alona glabra and Heterocypris incongruens. Furthermore, O. niloticus preferred prey such as Moina macrocopa and Macrothrix triserialis in the contaminated medium and was more voracious than the axolotl. Our results indicate that both water quality of the lake and the presence of the more resistant exotic fish adversely impact the survival of this endangered amphibian.

  19. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  20. A morphological review of subspecies of the Asian box turtle, Cuora amboinensis (Testudines, Geomydidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carl H.; Laemmerzahl, Arndt F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The turtle Cuora amboinensis has an extensive distribution covering most of southern mainland Asia, Indonesia, and extending to the Philippine Islands. Unlike many species, C. amboinensis occurs on both sides of Wallace's Line separating Asian and Australian flora and fauna. Four subspecies are currently recognized; Cuora a. kamaroma (southern continental Asia, Java and the northern Philippines [introduced]), C. a. lineata (Kachin Province, Myanmar [Burma] and adjacent Yunnan Province, China), C. a. couro (Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa, and adjacent smaller Indonesian islands); and C. a. amboinensis (Moluccas, Sulawesi, Philippines). Five pattern and 33 morphological characters were examined for variation in 691 individuals from throughout the species' range. Our analyses suggest that only two presently recognized subspecies are valid: amboinensis andkamaroma. Neither couro nor lineata are supported by our analysis. We recommend that C. a. couroshould be synonymized with the species C. amboinensis and C. a. lineata with the subspecies C. a. kamaroma.

  1. Comparative studies on the histology and ultrastructure of the siphons of two species of Tellinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João E.V.V. Vitonis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of the siphons for infaunal bivalves, only a few studies have examined their tissues using histology techniques or scanning electron microscopy. In the present study, the siphons of Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005 were investigated. The siphon walls are composed by a series of muscle sheets of longitudinal ("L", circular ("C" and radial ("R" fibers, with a clear pattern common to both species: there is a main median longitudinal layer (Lm, and two peripheral circular layers, one inner (Ci and one outer (Co, near the epithelia. A median circular layer (Cm separates an internal (Lmi from an outer (Lmo median longitudinal layer. Further, the Co is split by a thin outer longitudinal layer (Lo, forming Coi and Coo layers, the former being obliquely oriented. Thin radial fibers (R delimit clear packages of Lmi and Lmo fibers. In each siphon, there are six longitudinal nerve cords, running within the Lmi layer, adjacent to the Cm. The inhalant and exhalant siphons of M. biota are very similar in structure, but the Lmo of the exhalant siphon is almost twice as thick as its Lmi, while in the inhalant siphon these layers have similar thicknesses; the Coi is very thick, especially in the exhalant siphon. The inhalant siphon of T. lineata is very similar to that of M. biota, differing only with respect to the thickness of the Coi, which in the former species is not as well developed as in the latter. The Lmo of the exhalant siphon of T. lineata is by far the most developed layer, with the Lmi represented only by uniseriate small cells; in the vicinities of the nerve cords, the Cm is split in two layers. The epithelia of both siphons of M. biota and T. lineata bear ciliated receptors, which were difficult to observe as they were frequently covered with mucus. It was possible to observe that cilia are present in both species, differing in length and in the number per receptor between the

  2. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

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    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  3. Helminth parasites of the levantine frog (Pelophylax bedriagae Camerano, 1882 from the western part of Turkey

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    Demır S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four Pelophylax bedriagae (Levantine Frog from Turkey (İzmir and Manisa Provinces were examined for helminth parasites. The frogs were collected between 2012 and 2014 years. Eight species of helminth parasites were recorded: 3 species of Nematoda (Rhabdias bufonis, Cosmocerca ornata, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, 3 species of Digenea (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Haematoloechus bre-viansa, Gorgoderina vitelliloba, 1 species of Acanthocephala (Acanthocephalus ranae and 1 species of Hirudinea (Hirudo medicinalis. Pelophylax bedriagae is a new host record for these parasite species.

  4. Exotic Eucalyptus leaves are preferred over tougher native species but affect the growth and survival of shredders in an Atlantic Forest stream (Brazil.

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    Walace P Kiffer

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of leaves of native and exotic tree species on the feeding activity and performance of the larvae of Triplectides gracilis, a typical caddisfly shredder in Atlantic Forest streams. Leaves of four native species that differ in chemistry and toughness (Hoffmannia dusenii, Miconia chartacea, Myrcia lineata and Styrax pohlii and the exotic Eucalyptus globulus were used to determine food preferences and rates of consumption, production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM, growth and survival of shredders. We hypothesized that the consumption rates of leaves of Eucalyptus and their effects on the growth and survival of shredders could be predicted by leaf chemistry and toughness. The larvae preferred to feed on soft leaves (H. dusenii and M. chartacea independently of the content of nutrients (N and P and secondary compounds (total phenolics. When such leaves were absent, they preferred E. globulus and did not consume the tough leaves (M. lineata and S. pohlii. In monodietary experiments, leaf consumption and FPOM production differed among the studied leaves, and the values observed for the E. globulus treatments were intermediate between the soft and tough leaves. The larvae that fed on H. dusenii and M. chartacea grew constantly over five weeks, while those that fed on E. globulus lost biomass. Larval survival was higher on leaves of H. dusenii, M. chartacea and S. pohlii than on E. globulus and M. lineata leaves. Although E. globulus was preferred over tougher leaves, long-term consumption of leaves of the exotic species may affect the abundance of T. gracilis in the studied stream. Additionally, our results suggest that leaf toughness can be a determining factor for the behavior of shredders where low-quality leaves are abundant, as in several tropical streams.

  5. Feeding resource partitioning between two understorey insectivorous birds in a fragment of Neotropical cloud forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Manhães

    Full Text Available Abstract The food habits and niche overlap based on diet composition and prey size of two species of understorey insectivorous birds were investigated in an area of montane rain forest in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. A total of 43 birds were captured: 33 individuals of Conopophaga lineata (Conopophagidae with 13 recaptures, and 10 individuals of Myiothlypis leucoblephara (Parulidae with 12 recaptures, from which were obtained respectively 33 and 10 fecal samples. Fragments of 16 groups of arthropods, plus insect eggs, were identified in these samples. Conopophaga lineata predominantly consumed Formicidae (32% and Isoptera (23.6%. However, the index of alimentary importance (AI of Isoptera (3.53 was lower than other groups such as Formicidae (AI = 61.88, Coleoptera (AI = 16.17, insect larvae (AI = 6.95 and Araneae (AI = 6.6. Myiothlypis leucoblephara predominantly consumed Formicidae (28.2% and Coleoptera (24.4%, although Coleoptera and Hymenoptera non-Formicidae had the highest values of AI (38.71 and 22.98 respectively. Differences in the proportions of the types of arthropods consumed by birds were not enough to reveal their separation into feeding niches (overlap = 0.618, p observed ≤ expected = 0.934, whereas differences in the use of resources was mainly due to the size of the prey (p<0.001, where C lineata, the species with the highest body mass (p<0.001 consumed larger prey. It is plausible that prey size is an axis of niche dimension that allows the coexistence of these species.

  6. Exotic Eucalyptus leaves are preferred over tougher native species but affect the growth and survival of shredders in an Atlantic Forest stream (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffer, Walace P; Mendes, Flavio; Casotti, Cinthia G; Costa, Larissa C; Moretti, Marcelo S

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of leaves of native and exotic tree species on the feeding activity and performance of the larvae of Triplectides gracilis, a typical caddisfly shredder in Atlantic Forest streams. Leaves of four native species that differ in chemistry and toughness (Hoffmannia dusenii, Miconia chartacea, Myrcia lineata and Styrax pohlii) and the exotic Eucalyptus globulus were used to determine food preferences and rates of consumption, production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM), growth and survival of shredders. We hypothesized that the consumption rates of leaves of Eucalyptus and their effects on the growth and survival of shredders could be predicted by leaf chemistry and toughness. The larvae preferred to feed on soft leaves (H. dusenii and M. chartacea) independently of the content of nutrients (N and P) and secondary compounds (total phenolics). When such leaves were absent, they preferred E. globulus and did not consume the tough leaves (M. lineata and S. pohlii). In monodietary experiments, leaf consumption and FPOM production differed among the studied leaves, and the values observed for the E. globulus treatments were intermediate between the soft and tough leaves. The larvae that fed on H. dusenii and M. chartacea grew constantly over five weeks, while those that fed on E. globulus lost biomass. Larval survival was higher on leaves of H. dusenii, M. chartacea and S. pohlii than on E. globulus and M. lineata leaves. Although E. globulus was preferred over tougher leaves, long-term consumption of leaves of the exotic species may affect the abundance of T. gracilis in the studied stream. Additionally, our results suggest that leaf toughness can be a determining factor for the behavior of shredders where low-quality leaves are abundant, as in several tropical streams.

  7. First Report of Two Species of Genus Raymunida (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura from Korea

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    Sanghui Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of squat lobsters, Raymunida formosanus Lin, Chan and Chu, 2004 and Raymunida lineata Osawa, 2005, are newly added to the Korean decapod fauna. The genus Raymunida Macpherson and Machordom, 2000 is also reported for the first time in Korea. It differs morphologically from other Korean genera, Munida and Paramunida, in having the first to third pereopods with epipods and the carpus of the third maxilliped with a distal spine on flexor margin. Illustrations and pictures of these two species are provided with descriptions, and the key to the species of Korean Munidids is also provided.

  8. First Record of Psorophora albipes in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Chable, Rahuel J; Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Martínez-Arce, Arely

    2016-09-01

    In Mexico the Psorophora genus includes 24 species divided into 3 subgenera: Grabhamia, Janthinosoma, and Psorophora. Some species occur in the Nearctic region of the country (northern Mexico), whereas other species occur in the Neotropical region (southern Mexico), and a few species occur in both regions. In Quintana Roo, Mexico, 7 species have been previously recorded: Ps. confinnis s.s., Ps. champerico, Ps. cyanescens, Ps. ferox, Ps. lutzii, Ps. ciliata, and Ps. lineata. In October 2013, 24 females of Ps. albipes were collected using CDC light traps. This is the first record of this species in Quintana Roo.

  9. A faunistic study on ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae in the Tirana district, Albania

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    Vrenozi, Blerina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiders from the Tirana district of Albania were investigated. Currently, 78 species from 24 families and a collection of 400 specimens from January to August 2010 were recorded for Tirana. A total of 32 new records for the Albanian fauna are included in the present paper. Agraecina lineata (Simon, 1878 is the first record for the Balkan Peninsula. Saitis graecus Kulczyński, 1905 was known before only from Greece and Bulgaria. Presently, 373 spider species are known for Albania.

  10. Lymnaea columella: two new Brazilian localities in the states of Amazonas and Bahia

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Lymnaea columella is recorded in Tefé, Amazonas state, where it was found together with Drepanotrema anatinum, Physa marmorata and pomacea sp. L. columella was also collected in Salvador, Bahia state, at the dique do Tororó, an urban lake formely mentioned (as "lac Baril" by Moricand (1853 as a breeding-place of Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata and Ancylus moricandi. The four first-mentioned species, as well as physa cubensis and Hemisinus brasiliensis, were also collected now. This is the first record of a lymnaeid in the Northeastern region of Brazil.É registrada a ocorrência de Lymnaea columella em Tefé, Estado do Amazonas, onde foi encontrada juntamente com Physa marmorata e Pomacea sp. L. columella foi também coletada em Salvador, Estado da Bahia, no Dique do Tororó, lago urbano antes mencionado por Moricand (1853 como criadouro de Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata e Ancylus moricandi. As quatro primeiras espécies mencionadas, assim como Physa cubensis e Hemisinus brasiliensis, também foram agora coletadas. Este é o primeiro registro de um limneídeo na região Nordeste do Brasil

  11. Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles

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    Lucia Maria Paleari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles. Stiretrus decemguttatus is an important predator of two species of cassidine beetles, Botanochara sedecimpustulata (Fabricius, 1781 and Zatrephina lineata (Fabricius, 1787 (Coleoptera, Cassidinae, on the Marajó Island, Brazil. It attacks individuals in all development stages, but preys preferentially on late-instar larvae. Its life cycle in the laboratory was 43.70 ± 1.09 days, with an egg incubation period of six days and duration from nymph and adult stages of 16.31 ± 0.11 and 22.10 ± 1.67 days, respectively. The duration of one generation (T was 12.65 days and the intrinsic population growth rate (r 0.25. These data reveal the adjustment of the life cycle of S. decemgutattus with those of the two preys, but suggest greater impact on Z. lineata. However, no preference over cassidine species was shown in the laboratory. Up to 17 different color patterns can be found in adults of S. decemguttatus, based on combinations of three basic sets of color markings. Some of them resemble the markings of chrysomelids associated with Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae and are possibly a mimetic ring. Three color patterns were identified in nymphs, none of which was associated with any specific adult color pattern.

  12. Ectoparasites as numerical dominant species in parasite community of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Guandu River, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R L B; Azevedo, R K; Abdallah, V D; Luque, J L

    2011-08-01

    Sixty specimens of singing catfish Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877) (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) collected from Guandu River (22º 48' 32" S and 43º 37' 35" W), in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from October 2006 to March 2009, were necropsied to study their parasites. From the 60 specimens of T. striatulus examined 57 were parasitised by at least one parasite species. The majority of the parasite specimens collected were monogeneans followed by Nematoda, Digenea and Hirudinea. Cosmetocleithrum sp. was the numerically predominant species with highest prevalence and abundance. The parasites of T. striatulus showed the typical pattern of aggregated distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the host and their abundance. The mean parasite species richness was not correlated with the host's total body length and sex. Values of the Brillouin index of diversity had a mean of H = 0.083 ± 0.136.

  13. MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SIRET RIVER FROM HARGHITA, MARAMUREŞ AND VRANCEA MOUNTAINS AND MOLDOVEI PLATEAU

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    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  14. Co-infestation of gills by different parasite groups in the mullet, Mugil platanus Günther, 1880 (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae): effects on relative condition factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzani-Paiva, M J T; Silva-Souza, A T

    2004-08-01

    This study involved 334 specimens of mullet, Mugil platanus, captured monthly in the estuarine region of Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil, from July 1988 to June 1989, and examined for the presence of gill parasites. Parasitological inspections revealed the occurrence of the following groups: Trichodina sp., Monogenoidea, Copepoda, and Hirudinea. Only four mullets were not parasitized. Total weight and total length of all 334 mullet specimens examined were used for adjusting the weight-length relationship curve and calculating the relative condition factor (Kn). The 118 specimens infested with monogenoideans on average had lower weights than expected (Kn 1.0. It was possible to infer that gill infestation with monogenoideans alters mullet weight, especially in the presence of co-infestation with Trichodina sp. and copepods.

  15. Co-infestation of gills by different parasite groups in the mullet, Mugil platanus Günther, 1880 (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae: effects on relative condition factor

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    M. J. T. Ranzani-Paiva

    Full Text Available This study involved 334 specimens of mullet, Mugil platanus, captured monthly in the estuarine region of Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil, from July 1988 to June 1989, and examined for the presence of gill parasites. Parasitological inspections revealed the occurrence of the following groups: Trichodina sp., Monogenoidea, Copepoda, and Hirudinea. Only four mullets were not parasitized. Total weight and total length of all 334 mullet specimens examined were used for adjusting the weight-length relationship curve and calculating the relative condition factor (Kn. The 118 specimens infested with monogenoideans on average had lower weights than expected (Kn 1.0. It was possible to infer that gill infestation with monogenoideans alters mullet weight, especially in the presence of co-infestation with Trichodina sp. and copepods.

  16. Case report of oral cavity infestation in a 3-year old jackass with Limnatis nilotica from Ilam province, west of Iran

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    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leeches (phylum: Annelida, class: hirudinea could infest wide range of livestock such as cow, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, mule, ass, dog, pig and even human. In November 2013, a 3-year old jackass from Dehloran county, Ilam province, Iran, was infected through his mouth due to drinking spring water. Symptoms including stress, anxiety and tachycardia were seen. After examining oral cavity of jackass, a leech was observed in upper gum. The leech was measured after separation which was three inches in length. The leech was adult which has dark green with orange lines, and it was identified as Limnatis nilotica species. It seems that using spring, subterranean water, pond etc. is the main causes of livestock infestation with leech. Ranchers could be recommended to decontaminate leech waters to prevent further leech infestation cases.

  17. Biodiversity of macrozoobenthos some running waters of southern Moravia

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    Ivo Sukop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work gives the results of the research of macrozoobenthos some running waters drai­na­ge areas of the Dyje River (southern Moravia – Czech Republic. Altogether, 762 taxa of macrozoobenthos were determined from the running waters of southern Moravia. Porifera (3, Hydrozoa (3, Turbellaria (8, Nematoda (14, Nematomorpha (1, Oligochaeta (60, Hirudinea (18, Bryozoa (5, Mollusca (44, Isopoda (2, Amphipoda (4, Decapoda (2, Hydracarina (17, Ephemeroptera (65, Plecoptera (55, Odonata (26, Heteroptera (3, Plannipennia (2, Trichoptera (128, Coleoptera (59, Diptera (243. Some taxa of macrozoobenthos are extinct unfortunately in running waters of Southern Moravia at present time. Another ones appear newly, for example snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum from New Zealand or Dreissena polymorpha from Pontic region. The data presented in this paper may serve as a basis for future monitoring of water quality and zoobenthos composition in connection with presumption of climate changes.

  18. Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast

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    Oliva Marcelo E

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea. Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H and evenness (J´ were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena.

  19. Fauna parasitária de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Characidae cultivado em tanque-rede no estado do Amapá, Amazônia oriental Parasitic fauna of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum(Characidae farmed in cages in the State of Amapá, eastern Amazon

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    Evandro Freitas Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi estudar a parasitofauna e a relação hospedeiro- parasito em tambaqui Colossoma macropomum cultivados em tanques-rede no Rio Matapi, município de Santana, estado do Amapá, região da Amazônia oriental, Brasil. Foram examinados 60 tambaquis, dos quais 96,7% estavam parasitados por protozoários Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora e Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideas Mymarotheciun boegeri e Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae e sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. Os maiores níveis de parasitismo foram causados por protozoários I. multifiliis e P. pillulare e os menores por sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. Porém, os índices de infestação não tiveram efeitos na saúde dos peixes hospedeiros, uma vez que o fator de condição relativo (Kn não foi estatisticamente (pThe purpose of this paper was to evaluate the parasitic fauna and the host-parasite relationship in Colossoma macropomum farmed in cages of Matapi River, municipally of Santana, State of Amapá, in eastern Amazon, Brazil. Of 60 specimens of tambaqui examined, 96.7% were parasitized by protozoans Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora and Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideans Mymarotheciun boegeri and Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae, and leeches Glossiphoniidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. The higher infestation levels were caused by protozoans I. multifiliis and P. pillulare, while the lower infestation levels were caused by leeches. No effects of parasitic infestation rates on fish health were observed. The relative condition factor (Kn was not correlated with the intensity of parasites found. This was the first record of I. multifiliis and P. pillulare in C. macropomum farmed in cages in the Brazilian Amazon.

  20. Biochemical characterization of the venom of the coral snake Micrurus tener and comparative biological activities in the mouse and a reptile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard-Valle, Melisa; Carbajal-Saucedo, Alejandro; de Roodt, Adolfo; López-Vera, Estuardo; Alagón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the venom components that could play a relevant role during envenomation caused by the coral snake Micrurus tener, through its biochemical characterization as well as the analysis of its effects on a murine model. Furthermore, it aimed to evaluate crude venom, in addition to its components, for possible specificity of action on a natural prey model (Conopsis lineata). The toxicity of the crude venom (delivered subcutaneously) showed a significant difference between the Median Lethal Dose (LD₅₀) in mice (4.4 μg/g) and in Conopsis lineata (12.1 μg/g) that was not observed when comparing the Median Paralyzing Dose (PD₅₀) values (mice = 4.7 μg/g; snakes = 4.1 μg/g). These results are evidence that the choice of study model strongly influences the apparent effects of crude venom. Moreover, based on the observed physical signs in the animal models, it was concluded that the most important physical effect caused by the venom is flaccid paralysis, which facilitates capture and subduing of prey regardless of whether it is alive; death is a logical consequence of the lack of oxygenation. Venom fractionation using a C18 reverse phase column yielded 35 fractions from which 16.6% caused paralysis and/or death to both animal models, 21.9% caused paralysis and/or death only to C. lineata and 1.6% were murine specific. Surprisingly, the diversity of snake-specific fractions did not reflect a difference between the PD₅₀s of the crude venom in mice and snakes, making it impossible to assume some type of specificity for either of the study models. Finally, the great diversity and abundance of fractions with no observable effect in snakes or mice (42.7%) suggested that the observed lethal fractions are not the only relevant toxic fractions within the venom and emphasized the possible relevance of interaction between components to generate the syndrome caused by the venom as a whole. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Revisão dos gêneros Pseudestola Breuning, Estolomimus Breuning e Euestola Breuning (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Demiphorini Revision of the genera Pseudestola Breuning, Estolomimus Breuning and Euestola Breuning (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Demiphorini

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    Ubirajara R Martins

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Pseudestola, Estolomimus and Euestola are revised and keyed. Neoestola Breuning, 1940 is considered a synonym oi Estolomimus Breuning, 1940. Estola curta Breuning, 1940 is transferred to Estolomimus and redescribed. New species described from Brazil: Estolomimus apicale sp.n. (Espírito Santo, E. distinctus sp.n. (Espírito Santo, E. pulvereus sp.n. (Santa Catarina; Euestolafasciata sp.n. (São Paulo to Santa Catariana, E. basalis sp.n. (Minas Gerais, E. lineata sp.n. (Espírito Santo. Redescriptions and additional records are provided for: Pseudestola densepunclata Breuning, 1940, Estolomimus solidus (Breuning, 1940, E. marmoralus Breuning, 1940 and Euestola basidensepunctata Breuning, 1943.

  2. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

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    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0

  3. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot

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    MA. Manhães

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.

  4. Potential pollinators of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae), in open crops and the effect of a solitary bee in fruit set and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A O R; Bartelli, B F; Nogueira-Ferreira, F H

    2014-06-01

    We identified native bees that are floral visitors and potential pollinators of tomato in Cerrado areas, described the foraging behavior of these species, and verified the influence of the visitation of a solitary bee on the quantity and quality of fruits. Three areas of tomato crops, located in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were sampled between March and November 2012. We collected 185 bees belonging to 13 species. Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) analis Spinola, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the most abundant. Ten species performed buzz pollination. Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Paratrigona lineata (Lepeletier, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) could also act as pollinators. The fruit set and number of seeds obtained from the pollination treatment by E. analis were higher than those in the control group. Our results allowed the identification of potential tomato pollinators in Cerrado areas and also contributed information regarding the impact of a single species (E. analis) on fruit set and quality. Although most of the visiting bees show the ability for tomato pollination, there is an absence of adequate management techniques, and its usage is difficult with the aim of increasing the crop production, which is the case for E. analis. Species such as Melipona quinquefasciata, P. lineata, and A. mellifera, which are easy to handle, are not used for pollination services. Finally, it is suggested that a combination of different bee species that are able to pollinate the tomato is necessary to prevent the super-exploitation of only a single species for pollination services and to guarantee the occurrence of potential pollinators in the crop area.

  5. Effects of carbofuran and metsulfuron-methyl on the benthic macroinvertebrate community in flooded ricefields Efeito do carbofurano e metsulfuron-methyl sobre a comunidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos de lavoura de arroz irrigado

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    Joele Baumart

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the effect of the insecticide carbofuran and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl on the abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in a paddy ricefield. METHODS: To achieve this goal, two pesticide treatments [the insecticide carbofuran (IC and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl (HM] and a control (Co treatment with no added pesticide were established in an experimental area of the Plant Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. Soil samples were collected in triplicate from each treatment 30 days before and 1, 10, and 51 days after the pesticide application, for macrofauna identification. RESULTS: Among the 21 taxa identified, Trichoceridae was present only in Co, Hydroptilidae was recorded only in IC, and Corixidae in HM. In Co, the most abundant group was Annelida, while in IC and HM Diptera (Chironomidae was dominant. Significant differences were observed between Co and IC, in the density of Odontoceridae (Control>IC and Hydrophilidae (ControlHM and Hirudinea (ControlOBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito do inseticida carbofurano e do herbicida metsulfuron-methyl na abundância e diversidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em campo de arroz irrigado. MÉTODOS: Para isto, dois tratamentos com agrotóxicos [o inseticida carbofurano (IC e o herbicida metsulfuron-methyl (HM] e um controle (Co, tratamento sem pesticida, foram aplicados em uma área experimental no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em triplicatas em cada tratamento 30 dias antes (DBA e 1, 10 e 51 dias após a aplicação dos pesticidas, posteriormente a macrofauna foi identificada. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um (21 taxa foram identificados, entre esses Trichoceridae esteve presente apenas em Co, enquanto que Hydroptilidae foi coletado apenas em IC, e Corixidae em HM. Em Co e IC, o grupo mais abundante foi Annelida, e em HM foi Diptera (Chironomidae que

  6. Avaliação da comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos como ferramenta para o monitoramento de um reservatório na bacia do rio Pitangui, Paraná, Brasil

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    Ivana F Barbola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os macroinvertebrados bentônicos e nectônicos representam elementos importantes na estrutura e funcionamento dos ecossistemas aquáticos e sua distribuição é influenciada pela natureza química do substrato, composição da vegetação e profundidade da lâmina d'água. O conhecimento desta fauna contribui para a avaliação da qualidade da água e a elaboração de ações visando à conservação da biodiversidade. No presente estudo foram avaliadas diferentes medidas bióticas da comunidade de invertebrados da represa de Alagados, importante manancial da cidade de Ponta Grossa, no Paraná. Em cinco diferentes pontos de amostragem, foram coletados 18.473 exemplares de macroinvertebrados aquáticos ou semi-aquáticos, pertencentes a 46 táxons dos filos Annelida (Hirudinea e Oligochaeta, Mollusca (Gastropoda, Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria, Nematoda e Arthropoda (Arachnida, Crustacea e Insecta. Esta comunidade foi constituída predominantemente por organismos predadores (45,7% dos táxons amostrados, seguidos de coletores e/ou filtradores (23,9%; raspadores (15,2%, fragmentadores (13% e detritívoros (2,2%. De modo geral, os índices de diversidade (H' e equitabilidade (J foram significativamente baixos para os cinco locais investigados, com H' variando de 0,3301 a 1,0396. Quanto à tolerância dos organismos à poluição orgânica, alguns táxons mais sensíveis foram muito raros (Plecoptera ou em baixa frequência (Trichoptera e Ephemeroptera. Entre os grupos mais resistentes a ambientes poluídos estão os Chironomidae e os Hirudinea, ambos bastante comuns nas amostras de Alagados. Este estudo reforça a importância da análise de bioindicadores na avaliação da qualidade de água para consumo humano e também para a conservação de ecossistemas, considerando que um programa de monitoramento ambiental deve integrar medidas físicas, químicas e biológicas.

  7. Hydrobiological study of the small stream on the Czech–Moravian Highlands

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    Ivo Sukop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoobenthos of the Fryšávka Rivulet was investigated in the years 2007–2008. Research included also physico-chemical factors of water (temperature, pH, conductivity, oxygen saturation. Altogether, 144 taxa of zoobenthos were determined in the Fryšávka Rivulet: Coelenterata (1 taxon, Turbellaria (1 taxon, Oligochaeta (6 taxa, Hirudinea (1 taxon, Mollusca (5 taxa, Amphipoda (1 taxon, Decapoda (1 taxon, Acari (1 taxon, Ephemeroptera (18 taxa, Plecoptera (18 taxa, Heteroptera (1 taxon, Megaloptera (1 taxon, Planipennia (1 taxon, Trichoptera (36 taxa, Coleoptera (8 taxa, Diptera (44 taxa. Altogether, 76 taxa of zoobenthos were determined in Medlovka brook: Coelenterata (1 taxon, Turbellaria (1 taxon, Oligochaeta (2 taxa, Mollusca (1 taxon, Isopoda (1 taxon, Amphipoda (1 taxon, Acari (1 taxon, Ephemeroptera (14 taxa, Plecoptera (8 taxa, Megaloptera (1 taxon, Trichoptera (17 taxa, Coleoptera (6 taxa, Diptera (22 taxa.The average abundance of zoobenthos of the Fryšávka Rivulet was 3208 ind.m−2, the average biomass was 7.5 g . m−2, respectively. The same values for the Medlovka brook were: abundance 3238 ind.m−2 and biomass 5.8 g . m−2. The average value of the saprobic index for the whole Fryšávka Rivulet was 1.25 (oligosaprobity, for the Medlovka brook 1.42 (oligosaprobity.

  8. Benthic communities on hard substrates covered by Limnoperna fortunei Dunker (Bivalvia, Mytilidae at an estuarine beach (Río de la Plata, Argentina

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    Fernando G. Spaccesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and composition of benthic communities on hard substrates covered by the nonindigenous bivalve Limnoperna fortunei Dunker, the golden mussel, were quantified in the middle zone of the Río de la Plata Estuary (Argentina from April 2001 through March 2002. A total of 26 taxa were recorded. L. fortunei and Nematoda were the central and dominant groups, with a prodigious abundance of over 80%. The prevalence of L. fortunei, rather than the environmental variables, regulated the dynamics of the associated invertebrate fauna. The golden mussel alters both the structure and function of benthic native communities on hard substrates, allows a higher surface available for colonization and refuge, and provides food source to deposit-feeding organisms in the form of organic or residual material. The mussel also increases the abundance and diversity of taxa on hard substrata - such as Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Tardigrada, Chironomidae, Copepoda, Tanaidacea, and Hydrachnidia. Similarities and nonparametric multidimensional-scaling analyses indicated that the benthic composition had a seasonal variation. L. fortunei has an environmental impact, an ability to invade new freshwater ambiences worldwide and ecological characteristic comparable to those of Dreissena polymorpha Pallas (the zebra mussel of North America and Europe.

  9. Effects of impoundment and regulation upon the stomach contents of fish at Cow Green, Upper Teesdale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisp, D.T.; Mann, R.H.K.; McCormack, J.C.

    1978-04-01

    The stomach contents of 1003 brown trout, 1551 bullheads and 800 minnows taken from the reservoir basin and below the dam, before and after impoundment of the river Tees, were examined. Their composition reflected observations by other workers on river and reservoir benthos, except for the increase in numbers of Hydra and Nais below the dam, and Mollusca, Hirudinea and oligochaetes in the reservoir. Trout below the dam ate more Ephemeroptera nymphs and Chironomidae larvae but fewer terrestrial casualties after river regulation, whereas bullheads ate more Mollusca but fewer Plecoptera nymphs. In both species Baetidae nymphs increased in numerical importance relative to Ecdyonuridae. Trout, but not bullheads, took zooplankton discharged from the reservoir. Before impoundment, trout within the reservoir basin ate chiefly benthic organisms and terrestrial casualties. Inundated terrestrial material, mainly earthworms, formed the bulk of their food for at least three years after impoundment, whilst from the second year onwards Chironomidae and, in some years, Gammarus became increasingly important. Zooplankton was taken by all sizes of reservoir trout. Bullheads within the reservoir basin ate chiefly river benthos before impoundment, with Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera nymphs predominant in older fish, and aquatic Diptera and Coleoptera also important in the fry. After impoundment, Chironomidae and Gammarus were the main items taken by older bullheads, and Chironomidae and micro-crustacea by the fry. Among all sizes of minnow, Chironomidae, micro-crustacea and detritus increased in numerical importance after impoundment.

  10. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil

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    CV. Silva

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of four pheretimoid earthworms (Clitellata: Oligochaeta) and their phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2015-12-15

    Among oligochaetes, the Pheretima complex within the Megascolecidae is a major earthworm group. Recently, however, the systematics of the Pheretima complex based on morphology are challenged by molecular studies. Since little comparative analysis of earthworm complete mitochondrial genomes has been reported yet, we sequenced mitogenomes of four pheretimoid earthworm species to explore their phylogenetic relationships. The general earthworm genomic features are also found in four earthworms: all genes transcribed from the same strand, the same initiation codon ATG for each PCGs, and conserved structures of RNA genes. Interestingly we find an extra potential tRNA-leucine (CUN) in Amynthas longisiphonus. The earthworm mitochondrial ATP8 exhibits the highest evolutionary rate, while the gene CO1 evolves slowest. Phylogenetic analysis based on protein-coding genes (PCGs) strongly supports the monophyly of the Clitellata, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae and Pheretima complex. Our analysis, however, reveals non-monophyly within the genara Amynthas and Metaphire. Thus the generic divisions based on morphology in the Pheretima complex should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecology of parasites of Metynnis lippincottianus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae from the eastern Amazon region, Macapá, State of Amapá, Brazil

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    Maria Danielle Figueiredo Guimarães Hoshino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides the first investigation on the ecological aspects of the parasites M. lippincottianusfrom the Amazonian basin, as well as the parasite-host relationship. 76 out of the examined fish (98.7% were parasitized by at least one species of parasites. A total of 8,774 parasites were collected, being Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Anacanthorus jegui, Dadayius pacupeva, Digenea gen. sp. (metacercariae, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus sp., Spinoxyuris oxydoras, Contracaecum sp. larvae, Dolops longicauda and Hirudinea gen. sp. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, followed by A. jegui. Among the endoparasites, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva were predominant. The mean diversity of parasites was HB = 0.96 ± 0.32 and there was aggregate distribution pattern. A positive correlation of body weight with the abundance of I. multifiliis and S. Oxydoras was observed, whereas a negative correlation of body weight with abundance of the Contracaecum sp. larvae was found. The relative condition factor (Kn was not negatively affected by parasites, and a positive correlation between Kn and abundance of I. multifiliis, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva was found. This study is the first one to record I. multifiliis, D. longicauda and A. jegui parasitizing M. lippincottianus, as well as the first record of D. pacupeva and S. oxydoras in the Amazonas river system.

  13. Relaciones filogenéticas de las serpientes del género Conopsis con base en la morfología Phylogenetic relationships of the snake genus Conopsis based on morphology

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    Irene Goyenechea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Conopsis es endémico de México y se distribuye desde Chihuahua hasta Oaxaca. Recientemente se estudió su taxonomía, al modificarse su nomenclatura en los últimos años. Estas serpientes colúbridas de hábitos enterradores pueden reconocerse por diversas características, entre las que destaca un surco en por lo menos 1 de los 3 últimos dientes maxilares. El género cuenta con 6 especies reconocidas: C. acuta, C. amphisticha, C. biserialis, C. lineata, C. megalodon y C. nasus. Estudios previos intentaron resolver la filogenia del género con base en caracteres morfológicos, pero debido al polimorfismo encontrado en ellos no hubo resolución. En este estudio se reevaluaron los caracteres morfológicos de Conopsis usando el método de frecuencias generalizadas para obtener una filogenia de las especies que componen el género. Los resultados obtenidos indican que se pueden recobrar las relaciones al interior del género usando el programa Fastmorphology, y que C. nasus y C. megalodon son grupos hermanos que junto con C. biserialis y C. amphisticha forman un clado. Conopsis acuta resultó el taxón más basal del género. Las relaciones de los grupos externos no se resuelven del todo pero los análisis indican que el grupo de los Sonorini no se sustenta.The snake genus Conopsis is endemic to Mexico and is found from Chihuahua to Oaxaca. It has been subject of study on its taxonomy due to recent modifications on its nomenclature. Now, this burrowing snake genus is diagnosed by several characters, standing out a groove in at least 1 of the 3-rear maxillary teeth. It comprises 6 known species: Conopsis acuta, Conopsis amphisticha, Conopsis biserialis, Conopsis lineata, Conopsis megalodon and Conopsis nasus. Previous works using morphological characters tried to solve the phylogenetic relationships between species in the genus but failed due to polymorphisms found in almost all characters studied. In this work those morphological

  14. Unraveling the origin of the Appalachian gametophyte, Vittaria appalachiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Jerald B; Schuettpelz, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Ferns and lycophytes are distinct among plants in producing two free-living life stages: a long-lived sporophyte phase and a (usually) short-lived gametophyte phase. Notably, however, some species have perennial, vegetatively reproducing gametophytes. Vittaria appalachiana is one of just three species in which mature sporophytes are unknown. It has a wide range throughout the Appalachian Mountains and Plateau, where it reproduces asexually via gemmae. The origin of V. appalachiana, however, has long been a mystery, with most previous studies suggesting it may have resulted from hybridization of two closely related Vittaria species (V. graminifolia and V. lineata). A four-gene plastid data set including 32 samples of six Vittaria species, plus samples of five outgroup species, was analyzed to uncover phylogenetic relationships. Additional analyses of nuclear DET1 gene sequences allowed for the examination of hypotheses involving a hybrid origin for V. appalachiana. In the plastid phylogeny, V. appalachiana is well supported as monophyletic, but is embedded within V. graminifolia. With the exception of a single aberrant allele, this result is mirrored in the nuclear tree. Through analyses of plastid and nuclear data sets, this study demonstrates that a hybrid origin for V. appalachiana is unlikely. Instead, it appears that this species emerged from within the V. graminifolia lineage. Further work is needed to fully elucidate the genetic structure within this group. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  15. Selection of bee species for environmental risk assessment of GM cotton in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Carmen Sílvia Soares Pires

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to list potential candidate bee species for environmental risk assessment (ERA of genetically modified (GM cotton and to identify the most suited bee species for this task, according to their abundance and geographical distribution. Field inventories of bee on cotton flowers were performed in the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso, and in Distrito Federal, Brazil. During a 344 hour sampling, 3,470 bees from 74 species were recovered, at eight sites. Apis mellifera dominated the bee assemblages at all sites. Sampling at two sites that received no insecticide application was sufficient to identify the three most common and geographically widespread wild species: Paratrigona lineata, Melissoptila cnecomola, and Trigona spinipes, which could be useful indicators of pollination services in the ERA. Indirect ordination of common wild species revealed that insecticides reduced the number of native bee species and that interannual variation in bee assemblages may be low. Accumulation curves of rare bee species did not saturate, as expected in tropical and megadiverse regions. Species-based approaches are limited to analyze negative impacts of GM cotton on pollinator biological diversity. The accumulation rate of rare bee species, however, may be useful for evaluating possible negative effects of GM cotton on bee diversity.

  16. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera do Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Novas espécies em Cerambycinae são descritas do Brasil, Piauí: Compsibidion paragraphycum sp. nov. (Neoibidionini. Em Lamiinae, - do Piauí: Trichohippopsis vestita sp. nov. (Agapanthiini; Oncioderes piauiensis sp. nov. (Onciderini; Cotycicuiara caracolensis sp. nov. (Desmiphorini; Xenofrea peculiaris sp. nov. (Xenofreini; Mariliana bellula sp. nov. (Hemilophini; - da Paraíba: Ataxia arenaria sp. nov. (Pteropliini; Dadoychus atrus sp. nov. (Hemilophini. Novos registros em Cerambycinae para o Piauí: Methia longipennis Martins, 1997 (Methiini; Tropidion sipolisi (Gounelle, 1909, Compsibidion decoratum (Gounelle, 1909, Cycnidolon obliquum Martins, 1969 (Neoibidionini; - para o Ceará: Paranyssicus conspicillatus (Erichson, 1847 (Elaphidiini; Aglaoschema collorata (Napp, 1993 (Compsocerini; - para a Bahia: Stizocera phtisica Gounelle, 1909 (Elaphidiini. Novos registros em Lamiinae para o Piauí: Dolichosybra tubericollis Breuning, 1942 (Apomecynini; Ceiupaba lineata Martins & Galileo, 1998, Cicuiara striata (Bates, 1866, Desmiphora pallida Bates, 1874 (Desmiphorini; Nesozineus apharus Galileo & Martins, 1996, Psapharochrus nigrovittatus (Zajciw, 1969 (Acanthoderini; - para o Ceará: Trichohippopsis rufula Breuning, 1958 (Agapanthiini; Ataxia parva Galileo & Martins, 2011 (Pteropliini; Desmiphora cirrosa Erichson, 1847 (Desmiphorini; - para a Paraíba: Eudesmus rubefactus Bates, 1865 (Onciderini; Laraesima ochreoapicalis Breuning, 1973 (Compsosomatini; Psapharochrus itatiayensis (Melzer, 1935 (Acanthoderini; - para a Bahia: Brasiliosoma tibialis (Breuning, 1948 (Compsosomatini; Adesmus hemispilus (Germar, 1821 (Hemilophini.

  17. Uptake and accumulation of arsenic by 11 Pteris taxa from southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.B. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Wong, M.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lan, C.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Baker, A.J.M. [School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC 3010 (Australia); Qin, Y.R. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Shu, W.S. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen, G.Z. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: lsdyzhh@zsu.edu.cn

    2007-01-15

    A field survey was conducted at a deserted arsenic (As) mine in Guangxi Province, China to explore new potential As hyperaccumulators. In addition, young plants of 11 Pteris taxa were grown in glasshouse conditions for 12 weeks on As-amended soils with 0, 50 and 200 mg As kg{sup -1}. Results of the field survey showed that the fern Pteris fauriei accumulated over 1000 mg As kg{sup -1} in its fronds. Of the 11 Pteris taxa, Pteris aspericaulis, Pteris cretica var. nervosa, P. fauriei, Pteris multifida, P. multifida f. serrulata, and Pteris oshimensis were all found to hyperaccumulate As in addition to P. cretica 'Albo-Lineata' and Pteris vittata (already reported as As hyperaccumulators). However, Pteris ensiformis, Pteris semipinnata and Pteris setuloso-costulata showed no evidence of As hyperaccumulation. Results also revealed a constitutive property of As hyperaccumulation in different populations of P. cretica var. nervosa, P. multifida, P. oshimensis and P. vittata. - Eight Pteris taxa show the ability to hyperaccumulate As under glasshouse conditions.

  18. The accumulation and subcellular distribution of arsenic and antimony in four fern plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, R; Wang, X; Wei, C; Tu, S

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, Pteris cretica 'Albo-Lineata' (PC), Pteris fauriei (PF), Humata tyermanii Moore (HT), and Pteris ensiformis Burm (PE), were selected to explore additional plant materials for the phytoremediation of As and Sb co-contamination. To some extent, the addition of As and Sb enhanced the growth of HT, PE, and PF. Conversely, the addition of As and Sb negatively affected the growth of PC and was accompanied with the accumulation of high levels of As and Sb in the roots. The highest concentration of Sb was recorded as 6405 mg kg(-1) in the roots of PC, and that for As was 337 mg kg(-1) in the rhizome of PF. To some degree, As and Sb stimulated the uptake of each other in these ferns. Arsenic was mainly stored in the cytoplasmic supernatant (CS) fraction, followed by the cell wall (CW) fraction. In contrast, Sb was mainly found in the CW fraction and, to a lesser extent, in the CS fraction, suggesting that the cell wall and cytosol play different roles in As and Sb accumulation by fern plants. This study demonstrated that these fern plants show a good application potential in the phytoremediation of As and Sb co-contaminated environments.

  19. Inhibitory Potential of Five Traditionally Used Native Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants on α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, Glucose Entrapment, and Amylolysis Kinetics In Vitro

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    Carene M. N. Picot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five traditionally used antidiabetic native medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely, Stillingia lineata (SL, Faujasiopsis flexuosa (FF, Erythroxylum laurifolium (EL, Elaeodendron orientale (EO, and Antidesma madagascariensis (AM, were studied for possible α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory property, glucose entrapment, and amylolysis kinetics in vitro. Only methanolic extracts of EL, EO, and AM (7472.92±5.99, 1745.58±31.66, and 2222.96±13.69 μg/mL, resp. were found to significantly (P<0.05 inhibit α-amylase and were comparable to acarbose. EL, EO, AM, and SL extracts (5000 μg/mL were found to significantly (P<0.05 inhibit α-glucosidase (between 87.41±3.31 and 96.87±1.37% inhibition. Enzyme kinetic studies showed an uncompetitive and mixed type of inhibition. Extracts showed significant (P<0.05 glucose entrapment capacities (8 to 29% glucose diffusion retardation index (GDRI, with SL being more active (29% GDRI and showing concentration-dependent activity (29, 26, 21, 14, and 5%, resp.. Amylolysis kinetic studies showed that methanolic extracts were more potent inhibitors of α-amylase compared to aqueous extracts and possessed glucose entrapment properties. Our findings tend to provide justification for the hypoglycaemic action of these medicinal plants which has opened novel avenues for the development of new phytopharmaceuticals geared towards diabetes management.

  20. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

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    Ping-Yueh Ho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides. Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE, which contains 78 bp 3′-UTR, a 455 bp 5′-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata, Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi, and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus. Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 106 cfu/mL, showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues.

  1. Spatiotemporal variation in the reproductive ecology of two parapatric subspecies of Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Villagra, Cristian A; Raguso, Robert A

    2010-09-01

    • Flowering plants that rely on pollinators for most of their reproduction may experience unpredictable and inconsistent availability of effective pollinators throughout their reproductive lifetime. We investigated the reproductive ecology of two subspecies of the tufted evening primrose, Oenothera cespitosa, which occupy geographically and edaphically distinct habitats in western North America: O. cespitosa subsp. navajoensis inhabits sandstone soils on open sites or rocky slopes in the Colorado Plateau and O. cespitosa subsp. cespitosa grows in clay soils on talus slopes and exposed rocky ridges in the western Great Plains and northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. • Pollen augmentation and selfing experiments, floral visitor observations, and single-visit effectiveness experiments were conducted over 4 years to examine the breeding system and spatiotemporal variation in pollinator behavior, assemblage, and abundance at different populations for each subspecies. • Both subspecies of O. cespitosa were self-incompatible and pollen-limited, suggesting that the relative abundance, effectiveness, and movement patterns of different insects as pollinators influenced the quality and quantity of seed production in these plants. Medium-sized vespertine hawkmoths (Hyles lineata, Sphinx vashti) were effective pollinators when present, as were large matinal bees (Anthophora affabilis, A. dammersi, Xylocopa tabaniformis androleuca), whereas small oligolectic Lasioglossum bees primarily functioned as pollen thieves in the evening and morning. • These findings highlight the importance of variability of pollinator composition and abundance in the evolution of plant breeding systems and reproductive success at varying spatial and temporal scales.

  2. DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE IN RIVERS AND STREAMS AND ON CULTIVATED SOILS OF THE PODKARPACIE REGION IN THE YEARS 2007–2011

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    Teresa Noga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms Bacillariophyceae are a specialized, systematic group of algae, living in different types of ecosystems, and they are very good indicators of water quality. Recently, detailed studies have been carried out in the territory of the Podkarpacie Province on the diversity of diatoms in running waters. The area of study covers mostly the catchment of the biggest rivers of the province (mainly the River Wisłok and cultivated soils. Running waters in the Podkarpacie Province are characterized by a huge species richness of diatoms, 738 different taxa have been found so far. The highest number of taxa was noted in the Wisłok River (400, while the Żołynianka and Różanka streams and the Mleczka were also characterized by huge diversity (from 200 to over 350 taxa. In the majority of studied sites diatoms of alkaline (pH>7 and nutrient rich (eutrophic waters dominated: Navicula lanceolata, N. gregaria, N. capitatoradiata, Nitzschia palea, N. dissipata ssp. dissipata, Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, A. pyrenaicum, Amphora pediculus, Diatoma vulgaris, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata, Planothidium lanceolatum, Cocconeis pediculus and C. placentula var. lineata. About 150 taxa were indentified on cultivated soils, among which the largest populations were formed by Hantzschia amphioxys, Mayamaea atomus, Nitzschia palea, N. pusilla, Pinnularia obscura and Stauroneis thermicola.

  3. APPLICATION OF DIATOMS TO ASSESS THE QUALITY OF THE WATERS OF THE BARYCZKA STREAM, LEFT-SIDE TRIBUTARY OF THE RIVER SAN

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    Teresa Noga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Baryczka stream is a small (about 20 km long, left bank tributary of the River San (Podkarpackie Voivodeship. Studies on diversity of diatom communities using OMNIDIA software were conducted in 2010 and 2011. Diatomaceous indices IPS, GDI and TDI and Van Dam et al. classification system were used for water quality assessment. Planothidium lanceolatum, Cocconeis placentula var. lineata, Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, Nitzschia linearis, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata, Navicula lanceolata and Naicula gregaria were the most numerous. Values of the IPS index indicate good water quality (II–III class. Based on the GDI index, waters of the Baryczka stream were classified to III class water quality. The TDI index indicated poor and bad ecological state on the most sampling sites. On all sampling sites alaliphilous (pH>7 diatoms taxa predominated. The most common were eutraphentic and hypereutraphentic diatoms. With respect to trophy, it was shown that α- and β-mesosaprobous diatoms were the most common (III and II class water quality.

  4. Foraging on some nonfloral resources by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini in a caatinga region

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    M. C. A. Lorenzon

    Full Text Available In a caatinga region the flowers and nonfloral resources visited by highly eusocial bees, stingless beess and Apis mellifera (Africanized honey bee were studied. During one year, monthly sampling took place in two sites at Serra da Capivara National Park (Piauí State, Brazil, one of them, including the local village, outside the park, and the other inside, using already existing park trails. With the help of entomological nets, all bees were caught while visiting floral and nonfloral resources. At the study sites we observed more stingless bees in nonfloral resources, made possible by human presence. Twelve stingless bee species used the nonfloral resources in different proportions, showing no preference for time of day, season of the year, or sites. During the rainy season, more water sources and abundant flowering plants were observed, which attract stingless bees, even though many worker bees were found foraging in the aqueous substrates while few were observed at water sources. This relationship was higher for stingless bee species than for Africanized honey bees. Paratrigona lineata was represented by few specimens in floral and nonfloral resources and is perhaps rare in this region. Frieseomelitta silvestrii could be considered rare in the floral resources, but they were abundant in nonfloral resources. The variety and intriguing abundance of bees in nonfloral resources suggests that these are an important part of the stingless bee niches, even if these resources are used for nest construction and defense.

  5. Caracterización de la comunidad de macroinvertebrados de la Quebrada Paloblanco de la Cuenca del Río Otún (Risaralda, Colombia

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    Eleonora Bernal Pinilla

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de las comunidades de macroinvertebrados presentes en la quebrada Paloblanco, ubicada en la cuenca del río Otún (Risaralda, Colombia. Los puntos de muestreo seleccionados corresponden a la cabecera y la zona cercana a la desembocadura en el río Otún, ambos con características geomorfológicas de corrientes de primer orden. En cada punto se colectaron los macroinvertebrados de las unidades funcionales hojarasca, epiliton, musgo y grava, junto con una muestra de deriva y fauna general (sin discriminar unidad funcional. Se encontraron 42 familias de Insecta, además de Acari, Annelida, Crustacea e Hirudinea. Igualmente se encontraron familias de presencia exclusiva en cada punto, mostrando diferencias en la composición de las comunidades. Los índices ecológicos empleados mostraron una mayor diversidad en punto bajo y diferencias entre algunas de las unidades funcionales, relacionados con el medio y los hábitos presentes. Para el análisis se tuvieron en cuenta los conceptos de continuo y zonación de los ríos. A pesar de tener condiciones de primer orden, existen variaciones a pequeña escala entre los puntos de muestreo, que están relacionadas con la intervención antrópica en la zona aledaña a punto bajo.

  6. MARINE LEECH ANTICOAGULANT DIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Michael; Marancik, David; Champagne, Donald; Dove, Alistair; Camus, Alvin; Siddall, Mark E; Kvist, Sebastian

    2018-03-16

    Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) possess powerful salivary anticoagulants and, accordingly, are frequently employed in modern, authoritative medicine. Members of the almost exclusively marine family Piscicolidae account for 20% of leech species diversity, and feed on host groups (e.g., sharks) not encountered by their freshwater and terrestrial counterparts. Moreover, some species of Ozobranchidae feed on endangered marine turtles and have been implicated as potential vectors for the tumor-associated turtle herpesvirus. In spite of their ecological importance and unique host associations, there is a distinct paucity of data regarding the salivary transcriptomes of either of these families. Using next generation sequencing, we profiled transcribed, putative anticoagulants and other salivary bioactive compounds that have previously been linked to bloodfeeding from 7 piscicolid species (3 elasmobranch-feeders; 4 non-cartilaginous fish-feeders) and 1 ozobranchid species (2 samples). In total, 149 putative anticoagulants and bioactive loci were discovered in varying constellations throughout the different samples. The putative anticoagulants showed a broad spectrum of described antagonistic pathways, such as inhibition of factor Xa and platelet aggregation, that likely have similar bioactive roles in marine fish and turtles. A transcript with homology to ohanin, originally isolated from king cobras, was found in Cystobranchus vividus but is otherwise unknown from leeches. Estimation of selection pressures for the putative anticoagulants recovered evidence for both positive and purifying selection along several isolated branches in the gene trees and positive selection was also estimated for a few select codons in a variety of marine species. Similarly, phylogenetic analyses of the amino acid sequences for several anticoagulants indicated divergent evolution.

  7. A phylogenomic profile of hemerythrins, the nonheme diiron binding respiratory proteins

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    Mizuguchi Kenji

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemerythrins, are the non-heme, diiron binding respiratory proteins of brachiopods, priapulids and sipunculans; they are also found in annelids and bacteria, where their functions have not been fully elucidated. Results A search for putative Hrs in the genomes of 43 archaea, 444 bacteria and 135 eukaryotes, revealed their presence in 3 archaea, 118 bacteria, several fungi, one apicomplexan, a heterolobosan, a cnidarian and several annelids. About a fourth of the Hr sequences were identified as N- or C-terminal domains of chimeric, chemotactic gene regulators. The function of the remaining single domain bacterial Hrs remains to be determined. In addition to oxygen transport, the possible functions in annelids have been proposed to include cadmium-binding, antibacterial action and immunoprotection. A Bayesian phylogenetic tree revealed a split into two clades, one encompassing archaea, bacteria and fungi, and the other comprising the remaining eukaryotes. The annelid and sipunculan Hrs share the same intron-exon structure, different from that of the cnidarian Hr. Conclusion The phylogenomic profile of Hrs demonstrated a limited occurrence in bacteria and archaea and a marked absence in the vast majority of multicellular organisms. Among the metazoa, Hrs have survived in a cnidarian and in a few protostome groups; hence, it appears that in metazoans the Hr gene was lost in deuterostome ancestor(s after the radiata/bilateria split. Signal peptide sequences in several Hirudinea Hrs suggest for the first time, the possibility of extracellular localization. Since the α-helical bundle is likely to have been among the earliest protein folds, Hrs represent an ancient family of iron-binding proteins, whose primary function in bacteria may have been that of an oxygen sensor, enabling aerophilic or aerophobic responses. Although Hrs evolved to function as O2 transporters in brachiopods, priapulids and sipunculans, their function in

  8. Fauna of four streams in the Black Mountain District of South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J R.E.

    1948-01-01

    This paper is a general study of four torrential streams in the 'Black Mountain' district of South Wales. Fauna collections were made at seven collecting stations, between altitudes of 1550 and 400 ft. Observations were made on the chemical nature of the water, current speed and temperature. The fauna taken as a whole is rich, including about 151 species. Of the four streams, the one flowing north has the richest fauna, which includes about 130 species in which all the usual aquatic animal groups except the hirudinea are represented. This may be attributed to its equable temperature, abundant and uniform flow, variable gradient, adequate macroflora, and alkaline-neutral moderately calcareous water. The streams flowing south all have very soft, acid water; their stream-beds are more uniform in gradient, they are extremely variable in flow, have a more scanty macroflora, and on sunny summer days the water temperature is high, little below the shade temperature. All have a much poorer fauna than the north-flowing stream. One has a pH of 6.0-6.8, the fauna includes about 65 species, the usual insect groups are well represented but only 9 species other than insects occur. The second has a pH of 6.0 at low level to 4.4 in full flood; here 57 species were found, again mainly insects, and the ephemorophtera are very poorly represented. The third southern stream is generally even more acid, pH 5.8-4.2. Its fauna includes 55 species of which 24 are beetles, plecoptera are very poorly represented and ephemeroptera absent.

  9. Köprüçay Irmağı (Antalya Bentik Omurgasız Faunası

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    Melek ZEYBEK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, Köprüçay Irmağı bentik omurgasız faunasını belirlemek üzere Şubat 2008- Ocak 2009 tarihleri arasında 7 istasyondan bentik omurgasız örnekleri alınarak, gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma sonunda toplam 85 takson ve bu taksonları oluşturan toplam 21318 birey tespit edilmiştir. Toplanan örneklerin incelenmesi sonucu Ephemeroptera takımına ait 26, Plecoptera takımına ait 6, Trichoptera takımına ait 23, Diptera takımına ait 11, Odonata takımına ait 8, Coleoptera takımına ait 4, Hemiptera takımına ait 1, Hirudinea sınıfına ait 1, Gastropoda sınıfına ait 2, Malacostraca sınıfına ait 3 takson teşhis edilmiştir. Bu çalışma Köprüçay Irmağı bentik faunasının belirlenmesine yönelik yapılmış ilk çalışmadır. Bu nedenle tespit edilen bütün taksonlar bölge için ilk kez bildirilmiştir.

  10. Fauna of four streams in the Black Mountain District of South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.R.E.

    1948-01-01

    This paper is a general study of four torrential streams in the 'Black Mountain' district of South Wales. Fauna collections were made at seven collecting stations, between altitudes of 1550 and 400 ft. Observations were made on the chemical nature of the water, current speed and temperature. The fauna taken as a whole is rich, including about 151 species. Of the four streams, the one flowing north has the richest fauna, which includes about 130 species in which all the usual aquatic animal groups except the hirudinea are represented. This may be attributed to its equable temperature, abundant and uniform flow, variable gradient, adequate macroflora, and alkaline-neutral moderately calcareous water. The streams flowing south all have very soft, acid water; their stream-beds are more uniform in gradient, they are extremely variable in flow, have a more scanty macroflora, and on sunny summer days the water temperature is high, little below the shade temperature. All have a much poorer fauna than the north-flowing stream. One has a pH of 6.0-6.8, the fauna includes about 65 species, the usual insect groups are well represented but only 9 species other than insects occur. The second has a pH of 6.0 at low level to 4.4 in full flood; here 57 species were found, again mainly insects, and the ephemorophtera are very poorly represented. The third southern stream is generally even more acid, pH 5.8-4.2. Its fauna includes 55 species of which 24 are beetles, plecoptera are very poorly represented and ephemeroptera absent.

  11. Marine leech Ozobranchus margoi parasitizing loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Sanguessugas Ozobranchus margoi parasitando uma tartaruga cabeçuda (Caretta caretta no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Carla Rosane Rodenbusch

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the finding of several Ozobranchus margoi (Annelida: Hirudinea parasitizing a loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta that was found in the municipality of Tavares, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Since this parasite is considered to be a vector of chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV-5, the leeches collected were tested for the presence of this virus. All the specimens were negative on PCR analysis. Although O. margoi is considered to be a common sea turtle parasite, this is the first official record describing collection of this parasite from a loggerhead turtle in southern Brazil, within the country's subtropical zone. This finding draws attention to the presence of this parasite and to the risk of leech-borne infectious diseases among turtles found along the coast of southern Brazil.Este artigo relata a descoberta de vários exemplares de Ozobranchus margoi (Annelida Hirudínea parasitando uma tartaruga cabeçuda (Caretta caretta encontrada no município de Tavares, Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Uma vez que esse parasito é considerado vetor do chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV 5, as sanguessugas foram testadas para a presença deste vírus. Todas as amostras foram negativas pela análise de PCR. Embora o O. margoi seja considerado um parasito comum de tartarugas marinhas, este é o primeiro registro oficial que descreve a coleta deste parasita em uma tartaruga cabeçuda no sul do Brasil, dentro da zona subtropical do país. Este achado chama a atenção para a presença deste parasita e para o risco de sanguessugas transmitirem doenças infecciosas em tartarugas no litoral sul do Brasil.

  12. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

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    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  13. Responses of epibenthic and nektonic macroinvertebrate communities to a gradient of fish size in ponds

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    Marek Nieoczym

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Size relationships between fish and organisms from adjacent trophic levels are crucial for predicting the structure and dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. We compared macroinvertebrate communities along a fish-size gradient created by separate stocking of three age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio in semi-natural ponds. The specific size range of fish (small, medium and large corresponding to fish age in ponds was the factor most strongly associated with macroinvertebrate composition. The other significant habitat variables were dissolved oxygen concentration in the water and submerged vegetation abundance in the open-water zone. Among the most numerous taxa in the ponds, relative abundances of Hirudinea, Gastropoda, Odonata and Coleoptera were larger in the presence of small-sized than of larger-sized carp. However, fish size effect was not linear, in that macroinvertebrate assemblages were less similar between ponds containing medium- vs large-sized fish than between ponds with small- vs large-sized fish. The dissimilarity patterns were mainly determined by disparities in abundance of Corixidae, which unlike other taxa common in the ponds occurred in the greatest numbers in the presence of large-sized carp. Macroinvertebrate diversity was greatest in ponds with small-sized fish and was positively related to emergent macrophyte cover. Enhancement of emergent vegetation is recommended as the most effective management strategy to buffer adverse impacts of fish on macroinvertebrates. If fish are present in the system, assessment of the size structure of fish populations can be advantageous in unravelling the essential processes driving the variation in pond communities.

  14. Ship hull fouling in the port of Recife, Pernambuco

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    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ports of big coastal cities are exposed to exotic species as a consequence of shipping traffic. As the Port of Recife receives an annual average of 491 ships from other regions of Brazil and from all over the world, this work was aimed at knowing which marine animals were passively transported on such vessels hulls, in order to map and monitor new bioinvasions in the area. Thus, 32 vessels of several origins were investigated between November 2005 and March 2006, samples were taken and the macrofauna identified. Sixty species of associated animals were identified, consisting of 28 sessile species, particularly the Cirripedia Balanomorpha and Lepadomorpha as dominants, 8 sedentary animals, namely Mytillidae and Dreissenidae and 23 free-living species, particularly, Caprellidae, Gammaridae, Tanaidacea, Turbellaria, Nemertea and Polychaeta. The first occurrence of Conchoderma virgatum was recorded with exact location for the Brazilian littoral, and Conchoderma auritum, Amphibalanus subalbidus and Haliplanella lineata were recorded for the first time at the littoral of Pernambuco State. The invasion pathway was confirmed for Amphibalanus reticulatus and Mytilopsis leucophaeta, invader species of the estuarine area of Recife's city. Megabalanus coccopoma was considered as a risk invader species for the region.Regiões portuárias das grandes cidades litorâneas estão sujeitas à recepção de espécies exóticas como conseqüência da movimentação dos navios. Como o Porto do Recife recebe uma média anual de 491 atracações de navios, provenientes de várias regiões do Brasil e do mundo, objetivou-se conhecer quais animais marinhos eram transportados passivamente nos cascos das embarcações para mapear e monitorar novas invasões biológicas na área. Assim, foram investigados 32 barcos de diversas origens, nos meses de novembro de 2005 a março de 2006, tendo a macrofauna sido amostrada e identificada. Foram encontradas 60 espécies de animais

  15. Land-use change has no detectable effect on reproduction of a disturbance-adapted, hawkmoth-pollinated plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogen, Krissa A; Jogesh, Tania; Hilpman, Evan T; Todd, Sadie L; Rhodes, Matthew K; Still, Shannon M; Fant, Jeremie B

    2016-11-01

    Land-use change is cited as a primary driver of global biodiversity loss, with myriad consequences for species, populations, and ecosystems. However, few studies have examined its impact on species interactions, particularly pollination. Furthermore, when the effects of land-use change on pollination have been studied, the focus has largely been on species pollinated by diurnal pollinators, namely, bees and butterflies. Here, we focus on Oenothera harringtonii, a night-flowering, disturbance-adapted species that has experienced a range-wide gradient of land-use change. We tested the hypothesis that the negative impacts of land-use change are mitigated by long-distance pollination. Our study included both temporal (4 yr) and spatial (19 populations range-wide, and 1, 2, and 5 km from the population center) data, providing a comprehensive understanding of the role of land-use change on pollination biology and reproduction. We first confirmed that O. harringtonii is self-incompatible and reliant on pollinators for reproduction. We then showed that hawkmoths (primarily Hyles lineata) are highly reliable and effective pollinators in both space and time. Unlike other studies, we did not detect an effect of population size, increased isolation, or a reduction in suitable habitat in areas with evidence of land-use change on pollination (visitation, pollen removal and deposition). Furthermore, the proportion of suitable habitat and other fragmentation metrics examined were not associated with population size or density in this plant species. We conclude that nocturnal pollination of Oenothera harringtonii via hawkmoths is robust to the negative impacts of land-use change. © 2016 Skogen et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY).

  16. Floral humidity as a reliable sensory cue for profitability assessment by nectar-foraging hawkmoths

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin; Goyret, Joaquín; Davidowitz, Goggy; Raguso, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on plant–pollinator communication has focused on sensory and behavioral responses to relatively static cues. Floral rewards such as nectar, however, are dynamic, and foraging animals will increase their energetic profit if they can make use of floral cues that more accurately indicate nectar availability. Here we document such a cue—transient humidity gradients—using the night blooming flowers of Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae). The headspace of newly opened flowers reaches levels of about 4% above ambient relative humidity due to additive evapotranspirational water loss through petals and water-saturated air from the nectar tube. Floral humidity plumes differ from ambient levels only during the first 30 min after anthesis (before nectar is depleted in wild populations), whereas other floral traits (scent, shape, and color) persist for 12–24 h. Manipulative experiments indicated that floral humidity gradients are mechanistically linked to nectar volume and therefore contain information about energy rewards to floral visitors. Behavioral assays with Hyles lineata (Sphingidae) and artificial flowers with appropriate humidity gradients suggest that these hawkmoth pollinators distinguish between subtle differences in relative humidity when other floral cues are held constant. Moths consistently approached and probed flowers with elevated humidity over those with ambient humidity levels. Because floral humidity gradients are largely produced by the evaporation of nectar itself, they represent condition-informative cues that facilitate remote sensing of floral profitability by discriminating foragers. In a xeric environment, this level of honest communication should be adaptive when plant reproductive success is pollinator limited, due to intense competition for the attention of a specialized pollinator. PMID:22645365

  17. Floral humidity as a reliable sensory cue for profitability assessment by nectar-foraging hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin; Goyret, Joaquín; Davidowitz, Goggy; Raguso, Robert A

    2012-06-12

    Most research on plant-pollinator communication has focused on sensory and behavioral responses to relatively static cues. Floral rewards such as nectar, however, are dynamic, and foraging animals will increase their energetic profit if they can make use of floral cues that more accurately indicate nectar availability. Here we document such a cue--transient humidity gradients--using the night blooming flowers of Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae). The headspace of newly opened flowers reaches levels of about 4% above ambient relative humidity due to additive evapotranspirational water loss through petals and water-saturated air from the nectar tube. Floral humidity plumes differ from ambient levels only during the first 30 min after anthesis (before nectar is depleted in wild populations), whereas other floral traits (scent, shape, and color) persist for 12-24 h. Manipulative experiments indicated that floral humidity gradients are mechanistically linked to nectar volume and therefore contain information about energy rewards to floral visitors. Behavioral assays with Hyles lineata (Sphingidae) and artificial flowers with appropriate humidity gradients suggest that these hawkmoth pollinators distinguish between subtle differences in relative humidity when other floral cues are held constant. Moths consistently approached and probed flowers with elevated humidity over those with ambient humidity levels. Because floral humidity gradients are largely produced by the evaporation of nectar itself, they represent condition-informative cues that facilitate remote sensing of floral profitability by discriminating foragers. In a xeric environment, this level of honest communication should be adaptive when plant reproductive success is pollinator limited, due to intense competition for the attention of a specialized pollinator.

  18. Ecotoxicological water assessment of an estuarine river from the Brazilian Northeast, potentially affected by industrial wastewater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Gurgel, Piatã; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Morais Ferreira, Douglisnilson; do Amaral, Viviane Souza

    2016-12-01

    Water pollution generated by industrial effluents discharge is a threat to the maintenance of aquatic ecosystems and human development. The Jundiai River estuarine, located in Northeast Brazil, receives an industrial pretreated effluent load from the city of Macaíba/RN/Brazil. The present study aimed to assess the water quality of this water reservoir through i) physicochemical characterization, ii) quantification of metal concentration and iii) by an ecotoxicological assessment carried out using Mysidopsis juniae and Pomacea lineata. The study was performed throughout the period comprising May to September 2014. Physicochemical variables such as chloride, total solids and electrical conductivity presented values in the waste discharge point, significantly different with those located out of the waste releasing point. Apart from that, metal concentration showed variable behavior throughout the monitored period. Levels of Al, Fe, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Ag were over the considered guidelines. Both natural and anthropogenic sources seem to be involved in the resulting environmental scenario. A reduction in the fecundity rate (using Mysidopsis juniae) along with an increase in mortality rate (in both species) was observed ratifying the presence of toxic substances in this water reservoir. Moreover, a correlation analysis stated an association of the aforementioned toxicological effects with the delivery of industrial waste products. The ecotoxicological assessment performed highlighted the presence of toxic substance/s in water from the Jundiai River. Especially as a consequence of industrial activity, a fact that might threaten the bioma and, therefore, the human health of the population settled in the studied region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality

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    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827, at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822, the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

  20. Estado trófico de arroyos de la cuenca de Paso Severino mediante la utilización del índice biótico TSI-BI

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    Juan Pablo Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los macroinvertebrados acuáticos responden a las características de su ambiente reflejando las alteraciones en el mismo. Por ello, son frecuentemente utilizados como indicadores biológicos en estudios de calidad de agua y monitoreo ambiental. El índice de estado trófico TSI-BI creado para la cuenca del río Santa Lucía, que incluye la cuenca de estudio, permite conocer el estado trófico de los arroyos mediante su composición de macroinvertebrados acuáticos. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar el estado trófico de los arroyos de la cuenca del embalse Paso Severino a través de la comunidad de macroinvertebrados mediante el índice TSI-BI. El embalse es utilizado como fuente de agua potable para la zona sur densamente poblada del país. La zona ha tenido un importante desarrollo de la actividad lechera en las últimas décadas. Se seleccionaron 10 subcuencas pertenecientes a arroyos de órdenes 2-4 tomándose muestras estacionales (2009-2010 de macroinvertebrados con red de mano de 500 µm. Se analizaron la abundancia relativa y composición de los macroinvertebrados, estimándose el estado trófico de los arroyos mediante el índice TSI-BI. Todos los arroyos estudiados presentaron niveles altos a muy altos de contaminación orgánica situándose en los rangos eutrófico-hipereutrófico. Los arroyos de mayor estado trófico (hipereutróficos presentaron una comunidad dominada por Hirudinea y Crustacea, mientras que en los de menor nivel trófico se observó una mayor abundancia de Ephemeroptera y presencia de Trichoptera. Los altos niveles tróficos de los arroyos indicarían la existencia de impacto por nutrientes, que llevó a cambios en la comunidad de macroinvertebrados hacia el dominio de organismos tolerantes a la contaminación. Dado los altos niveles tróficos de estos arroyos, y considerando que son afluentes del embalse de Paso Severino, el índice empleado y los resultados obtenidos constituyen una importante herramienta de

  1. Plankton and Macrobiota Composition and Diversity of Three Tropical Freshwaters Rivers in Ogun and Ondo States, Southwest Nigeria

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    Taofikat Abosede ADESALU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different rivers in Ogun and Ondo states were investigated for both micro and macro-biota of the water bodies. Several physical and chemical properties of these rivers were determined. The pH value of the studied water bodies was essentially neutral with salinity values between 0.02 - 4.0‰. Microalgae communities were represented by three divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers (Ondo state, while at Ibefun River (Ogun state, five divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Pyrrhophyta were identified. Diatoms dominated these water bodies, with Navicula radiosa Kutz. at Ifara River, Fragilaria sp. in Oluwa River, while out of 90 algal taxa identified in Ibefun river, 64 were diatoms species belonging to 26 genera, with Melosira sp. and Synedra sp. recording the highest numbers of cell count. Dinoflagellates recorded only Peridinium sp. while Phacus orbicularis Hubner and Trachelomonas sp. dominated the euglenoids. For the zooplankton composition at Ibefun, rotifers (75.95% were represented by Brachionus sp., which recorded 62.03%, and Gastropus sp. with 13.92% of the total zooplankton, thus dominated the spectrum, while the copepod recorded 22.78% of the total organisms, with Copilia sp. and Euchirella sp. having 8.86% each. The macrobenthic invertebrates were represented by 3 taxa, belonging to 3 groups, with the dominant group Insecta accounted for 57% of the total individuals (7 individuals/m2, while Oligochaeta and Hirudinea accounted for 29% and 14% respectively of the total individuals at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers. At Ibefun River, the macrobenthic invertebrates were represented by 5 taxa, belonging to 3 groups, Bivalves, Oligochaeta and Insecta, with bivalves being the dominant group (51.7% of the total individuals, as 64 individuals/m2, while Oligochaeta and Insecta accounted for 26.6% and 21.9% respectively of the total individuals. The dominant taxon, Macoma cumana

  2. Potential human health risks from toxic metals via mangrove snail consumption and their ecological risk assessments in the habitat sediment from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan Hee; Yap, Chee Kong

    2015-09-01

    Samples of mangrove snails Nerita lineata and surface sediments were collected from nine geographical sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia to determine the concentrations of eight metals. For the soft tissues, the ranges of metal concentrations (μg g(-1) dry weight (dw)) were 3.49-9.02 for As, 0.69-6.25 for Cd, 6.33-25.82 for Cu, 0.71-6.53 for Cr, 221-1285 for Fe, 1.03-50.47 for Pb, and 102.7-130.7 for Zn while Hg as 4.00-64.0 μg kg(-1) dw(-1). For sediments, the ranges were 21.81-59.49 for As, 1.11-2.00 for Cd, 5.59-28.71 for Cu, 18.93-62.91 for Cr, 12973-48916 for Fe, 25.36-172.57 for Pb, and 29.35-130.34 for Zn while for Hg as 2.66-312 μg kg(-1) dw(-1). To determine the ecological risks on the surface habitat sediments, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the geochemical indices, and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were used. Based on the SQGs, all the metals investigated were most unlikely to cause any adverse effects. Based on geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor, the sediments were also not polluted by the studied metals. The PERI values based on As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb and Zn in this study were found as 'low ecological risk'. In order to assess the potential health risks, the estimated daily intakes (EDI) of snails were found to be all lower than the RfD guidelines for all metals, except for Pb in some sites investigated. Furthermore, the calculated target hazard quotients (THQ) were found to be less than 1. However, the calculated total target hazard quotients (TTHQ) from all sites were found to be more than 1 for high level consumers except KPPuteh. Therefore, moderate amount of intake is advisable to avoid human health risks to the consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.