A triclinic polymorph of hexanedioic acid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Hexanedioic acid (or adipic acid, C6H10O4, crystallizes with two crystallographically independent half-molecules in the asymmetric unit of the triclinic unit cell, space group Poverline{1}, as each molecule lies across a crystallographic inversion centre. A monoclinic polymorph has been reported previously, most recently by Ranganathan, Kulkarni & Rao [J. Phys. Chem. A, (2003, 107, 6073–6081]. The molecules adopt the expected zigzag structure and are linked via centrosymmetric pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming infinite one-dimensional chains along [011]. These chains are stacked along the a axis. The crystal is further stabilized by weak C—H...O interactions.
Zhang, Shishu; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Wu, Juanxia; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin
2017-10-24
The Raman tensor of a crystal is the derivative of its polarizability tensor and is dependent on the symmetries of the crystal and the Raman-active vibrational mode. The intensity of a particular mode is determined by the Raman selection rule, which involves the Raman tensor and the polarization configurations. For anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) layered crystals, polarized Raman scattering has been used to reveal the crystalline orientations. However, due to its complicated Raman tensors and optical birefringence, the polarized Raman scattering of triclinic 2D crystals has not been well studied yet. Herein, we report the anomalous polarized Raman scattering of 2D layered triclinic rhenium disulfide (ReS 2 ) and show a large circular intensity differential (CID) of Raman scattering in ReS 2 of different thicknesses. The origin of CID and the anomalous behavior in polarized Raman scattering were attributed to the appearance of nonzero off-diagonal Raman tensor elements and the phase factor owing to optical birefringence. This can provide a method to identify the vertical orientation of triclinic layered materials. These findings may help to further understand the Raman scattering process in 2D materials of low symmetry and may indicate important applications in chiral recognition by using 2D materials.
Symmetry-adapted configurational modelling of fractional site occupancy in solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grau-Crespo, R [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Hamad, S [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Catlow, C R A [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Leeuw, N H de [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)
2007-06-27
A methodology is presented, which reduces the number of site-occupancy configurations to be calculated when modelling site disorder in solids, by taking advantage of the crystal symmetry of the lattice. Within this approach, two configurations are considered equivalent when they are related by an isometric operation; a trial list of possible isometric transformations is provided by the group of symmetry operators in the parent structure, which is used to generate all configurations via atomic substitutions. We have adapted the equations for configurational statistics to operate in the reduced configurational space of the independent configurations. Each configuration in this space is characterized by its reduced energy, which includes not only its energy but also a contribution from its degeneracy in the complete configurational space, via an entropic term. The new computer program SOD (site-occupancy disorder) is presented, which performs this analysis in systems with arbitrary symmetry and any size of supercell. As a case study we use the distribution of cations in iron antimony oxide FeSbO{sub 4}, where we also introduce some general considerations for the modelling of site-occupancy disorder in paramagnetic systems.
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Marija Luić
2016-06-01
Full Text Available It is generaly believed that enzymes retain most of their functionality in the crystal form due to the large solvent content of protein crystals. This is facilitated by the fact that their natural environment in solution is not too far from the one found in the crystal form. Nevertheless, if the nature of the enzyme is such to require conformational changes, overcoming of the crystal packing constraints may prove to be too difficult. Such conformational change is present in one class of enzymes (purine nucleoside phosphorylases, that is the subject of our scientific interest for many years. The influence of crystal symmetry and crystal packing on the conformation of the active sites in the case of homohexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylases is presented and analysed. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mech, Agnieszka; Gajek, Zbigniew; Karbowiak, Miroslaw; Rudowicz, Czeslaw
2008-01-01
Optical absorption measurements of Nd 3+ ions in single crystals of [Nd(hfa) 4 (H 2 O)](N(C 2 H 5 ) 4 ) (hfa = hexafluoroacetyloacetonate), denoted Nd(hfa) for short, have been carried out at 4.2 and 298 K. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P 2 1 /n). Each Nd ion is coordinated to eight oxygen atoms that originate from the hexafluoroacetylacetonate ligands and one oxygen atom from the water molecule. A total of 85 experimental crystal-field (CF) energy levels arising from the Nd 3+ (4f 3 ) electronic configuration were identified in the optical spectra and assigned. A three-step CF analysis was carried out in terms of a parametric Hamiltonian for the actual C 1 symmetry at the Nd 3+ ion sites. In the first step, a total of 27 CF parameters (CFPs) in the Wybourne notation B kq , admissible by group theory, were determined in a preliminary fitting constrained by the angular overlap model predictions. The resulting CFP set was reduced to 24 specific independent CFPs using appropriate standardization transformations. Optimizations of the second-rank CFPs and extended scanning of the parameter space were employed in the second step to improve reliability of the CFP sets, which is rather a difficult task in the case of no site symmetry. Finally, seven free-ion parameters and 24 CFPs were freely varied, yielding an rms deviation between the calculated energy levels and the 85 observed ones of 11.1 cm -1 . Our approach also allows prediction of the energy levels of Nd 3+ ions that are hidden in the spectral range overlapping with strong ligand absorption, which is essential for understanding the inter-ionic energy transfer. The orientation of the axis system associated with the fitted CF parameters w.r.t. the crystallographic axes is established. The procedure adopted in our calculations may be considered as a general framework for analysis of CF levels of lanthanide ions at low (triclinic) symmetry sites
Mech, Agnieszka; Gajek, Zbigniew; Karbowiak, Mirosław; Rudowicz, Czesław
2008-09-24
Optical absorption measurements of Nd(3+) ions in single crystals of [Nd(hfa)(4)(H(2)O)](N(C(2)H(5))(4)) (hfa = hexafluoroacetyloacetonate), denoted Nd(hfa) for short, have been carried out at 4.2 and 298 K. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P 2(1)/n). Each Nd ion is coordinated to eight oxygen atoms that originate from the hexafluoroacetylacetonate ligands and one oxygen atom from the water molecule. A total of 85 experimental crystal-field (CF) energy levels arising from the Nd(3+) (4f(3)) electronic configuration were identified in the optical spectra and assigned. A three-step CF analysis was carried out in terms of a parametric Hamiltonian for the actual C(1) symmetry at the Nd(3+) ion sites. In the first step, a total of 27 CF parameters (CFPs) in the Wybourne notation B(kq), admissible by group theory, were determined in a preliminary fitting constrained by the angular overlap model predictions. The resulting CFP set was reduced to 24 specific independent CFPs using appropriate standardization transformations. Optimizations of the second-rank CFPs and extended scanning of the parameter space were employed in the second step to improve reliability of the CFP sets, which is rather a difficult task in the case of no site symmetry. Finally, seven free-ion parameters and 24 CFPs were freely varied, yielding an rms deviation between the calculated energy levels and the 85 observed ones of 11.1 cm(-1). Our approach also allows prediction of the energy levels of Nd(3+) ions that are hidden in the spectral range overlapping with strong ligand absorption, which is essential for understanding the inter-ionic energy transfer. The orientation of the axis system associated with the fitted CF parameters w.r.t. the crystallographic axes is established. The procedure adopted in our calculations may be considered as a general framework for analysis of CF levels of lanthanide ions at low (triclinic) symmetry sites.
Mech, Agnieszka; Gajek, Zbigniew; Karbowiak, Mirosław; Rudowicz, Czesław
2008-09-01
Optical absorption measurements of Nd3+ ions in single crystals of [Nd(hfa)4(H2O)](N(C2H5)4) (hfa = hexafluoroacetyloacetonate), denoted Nd(hfa) for short, have been carried out at 4.2 and 298 K. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P 21/n). Each Nd ion is coordinated to eight oxygen atoms that originate from the hexafluoroacetylacetonate ligands and one oxygen atom from the water molecule. A total of 85 experimental crystal-field (CF) energy levels arising from the Nd3+ (4f3) electronic configuration were identified in the optical spectra and assigned. A three-step CF analysis was carried out in terms of a parametric Hamiltonian for the actual C1 symmetry at the Nd3+ ion sites. In the first step, a total of 27 CF parameters (CFPs) in the Wybourne notation Bkq, admissible by group theory, were determined in a preliminary fitting constrained by the angular overlap model predictions. The resulting CFP set was reduced to 24 specific independent CFPs using appropriate standardization transformations. Optimizations of the second-rank CFPs and extended scanning of the parameter space were employed in the second step to improve reliability of the CFP sets, which is rather a difficult task in the case of no site symmetry. Finally, seven free-ion parameters and 24 CFPs were freely varied, yielding an rms deviation between the calculated energy levels and the 85 observed ones of 11.1 cm-1. Our approach also allows prediction of the energy levels of Nd3+ ions that are hidden in the spectral range overlapping with strong ligand absorption, which is essential for understanding the inter-ionic energy transfer. The orientation of the axis system associated with the fitted CF parameters w.r.t. the crystallographic axes is established. The procedure adopted in our calculations may be considered as a general framework for analysis of CF levels of lanthanide ions at low (triclinic) symmetry sites.
A systematic analysis of the spectra of trivalent actinide chlorides in D3h site symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carnall, W.T.
1989-11-01
The optical spectra of actinide ions in the compound AnCl 3 and doped into single crystal LaCl 3 were interpreted in terms of transitions within 5f N configurations. Energy-level calculations were carried out using an effective operator Hamiltonian, the parameters of which were determined by fitting experimental data. Atomic and crystal-field matrices were diagonalized simultaneously assuming an approximate D 3h site symmetry. The spectroscopic data were taken from the literature but in most cases supplemented by unpublished measurements in absorption and in fluorescence. Spectroscopic data for each ion were analyzed independently, then the model parameters were intercompared and in many cases adjusted such that in the final fitting process the principal interactions showed uniform trends in parameter values with increasing atomic number. Consistent with analyses of the spectra of lanthanide ions in both LaCl 3 and LaF 3 , abrupt changes in magnitude of certain crystal-field parameters were found near the center of the 5f N -series. This resulted in two groups of parameter values, but with consistent trends for both halves of the series, and generally very good agreement between observed and computed energies. A new energy level chart based on computed crystal-field level energies for each trivalent actinide ion has been prepared. in addition, the parameters of the atomic part of each 5f N Hamiltonian were used to calculate the matrix elements of U (λ) for selected transitions. The values were tabulated to facilitate calculation of intensity-related parameters for 5f N -transitions using the Judd-Ofelt theory. 44 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs
Jaag, Hannah Miriam; Kawchuk, Lawrence; Rohde, Wolfgang; Fischer, Rainer; Emans, Neil; Prüfer, Dirk
2003-01-01
Potato leafroll polerovirus (PLRV) genomic RNA acts as a polycistronic mRNA for the production of proteins P0, P1, and P2 translated from the 5′-proximal half of the genome. Within the P1 coding region we identified a 5-kDa replication-associated protein 1 (Rap1) essential for viral multiplication. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) with unusual structure and location was identified that regulates Rap1 translation. Core structural elements for internal ribosome entry include a conserved AUG codon and a downstream GGAGAGAGAGG motif with inverted symmetry. Reporter gene expression in potato protoplasts confirmed the internal ribosome entry function. Unlike known IRES motifs, the PLRV IRES is located completely within the coding region of Rap1 at the center of the PLRV genome. PMID:12835413
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mech, Agnieszka; Gajek, Zbigniew [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy Of Sciences, ulica Okolna 2, 54-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Karbowiak, Miroslaw [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, ulica F Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Rudowicz, Czeslaw [Institute of Physics, Szczecin University of Technology, Aleja Piastow 17, 70-310 Szczecin (Poland)], E-mail: karb@wchuwr.pl
2008-09-24
(triclinic) symmetry sites.
13C NMR Chemical Shifts of the Triclinic and Monoclinic Crystal forms of Valinomycin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kameda, Tsunenori; McGeorge, Gary; Orendt, Anita M.; Grant, David M.
2004-01-01
Two different crystalline polymorphs of valinomycin, the triclinic and monoclinic forms, have been studied by high resolution, solid state 13 C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy. Although the two polymorphs of the crystal are remarkably similar, there are distinct differences in the isotropic chemical shifts between the two spectra. For the triclinic form, the carbon chemical shift tensor components for the alpha carbons adjacent to oxygen in the lactic acid and hydroxyisovaleric acid residues and the ester carbonyls of the valine residue were obtained using the FIREMAT experiment. From the measured components, it was found that the behavior of the isotropic chemical shift, δ iso , for valine residue ester carbonyl carbons is predominately influenced by the intermediate component, δ 22 . Additionally it was found that the smallest shift component, δ 33 , for the L-lactic acid (L-Lac) and D-α-hydroxyisovaleric acid (D-Hyi) C α -O carbon was significantly displaced depending upon the nature of individual amino acid residues, and it is the δ 33 component that governs the behavior of δ iso in these alpha carbons
Symmetry and symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balian, R.; Lambert, D.; Brack, A.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Emery, E.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y.
1999-01-01
The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.)
On standardization of low symmetry crystal fields
Gajek, Zbigniew
2015-07-01
Standardization methods of low symmetry - orthorhombic, monoclinic and triclinic - crystal fields are formulated and discussed. Two alternative approaches are presented, the conventional one, based on the second-rank parameters and the standardization based on the fourth-rank parameters. Mainly f-electron systems are considered but some guidelines for d-electron systems and the spin Hamiltonian describing the zero-field splitting are given. The discussion focuses on premises for choosing the most suitable method, in particular on inadequacy of the conventional one. Few examples from the literature illustrate this situation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marx Kenneth A
2006-03-01
created using the wild type sequence and the 3 associated alternate base mutants at each binding site position. These position specific slope magnitudes, or sensitivities, correlated with and reflected the underlying position symmetry of the DNA binding sequences. Conclusion These results suggest the utility of correlating quantitative aspects of sequence specific protein-DNA complex single base mutants with changes in the easily calculated PD-deformability scale of the individual DNA sequence mutants. Using this PD approach, it may be possible in the future to understand the magnitude of biological or energetic functional effects of specific DNA sequence mutants within DNA-protein complexes in terms of their effect on DNA deformability.
Crystal structure of a second triclinic polymorph of 2-methylpyridinium picrate
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Jeganathan Gomathi
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The title molecular salt, C6H8N+·C6H2N3O7− (systematic name: 2-methylpyridinium 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate, crystallizes with two cations and two anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, the cations are linked to the anions via bifurcated N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, generating R12(6 graph-set motifs. Numerous C—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed between these cation–anion pairs, which result in a three-dimensional network. In addition, weak aromatic π–π stacking between the 2-methylpyridinium rings [inter-centroid distance = 3.8334 (19 Å] and very weak stacking [inter-centroid distance = 4.0281 (16 Å] between inversion-related pairs of picrate anions is observed. The title salt is a second triclinic polymorph of the structure (also with Z′ = 2 reported earlier [Anita et al. (2006. Acta Cryst. C62, o567–o570; Chan et al. (2014. CrystEngComm, 16, 4508–4538]. In the title compound, the cations and anions display a chequerboard arrangement when viewed down [100], whereas in the first polymorph, (010 layers of alternating cations and anions are apparent in a [100] view. It is interesting that the unit-cell lengths are almost identical for the two polymorphs, although the inter-axial angles are quite different.
Sheela, K. Juliet; Subbulakshmi, N.; Subramanian, P.
2018-04-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been investigated on Cu2+ ion incorporated into the single crystals of potassium succinate-succinic acid (KSSA) at room temperature. Two magnetically in-equivalent Cu2+ sites in the lattice are identified, among them site I has been reported. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are determined with the fitting of spectra to rhombic symmetry crystalline field. The co-ordination of the Cu2+ ion in this molecule is a distorted dodecahedron. From the calculated gxx, gyy, gzz and Axx, Ayy, Azz and their directional cosines values, location of site I impurity ion Cu2+ could be identified as a substituitional one. Also the ground state wave function of the impurity ion was found to be d2z.
Pathinettam-Padiyan, D; Murugesan, R
2000-01-01
The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of Cu(II) doped sarcosine cadmium chloride single crystals have been investigated at room temperature. Experimental results reveal that the Cu(II) ion enters the lattice interstitially. The observed superhyperfine lines indicate the superposition of two sets of quintet structure with interaction of nitrogen atoms and the two isotopes of copper. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are evaluated by Schonland method and the electric field symmetry around the copper ion is rhombic. An admixture of d sub z sup 2 orbital with the d sub x sub sup 2 sub - sub y sub sup 2 ground state is observed. Evaluation of MO coefficients reveals that the in-plane interaction between copper and nitrogen is strong in this lattice.
Aniello, Paolo; Chruściński, Dariusz
2017-07-01
A symmetry witness is a suitable subset of the space of selfadjoint trace class operators that allows one to determine whether a linear map is a symmetry transformation, in the sense of Wigner. More precisely, such a set is invariant with respect to an injective densely defined linear operator in the Banach space of selfadjoint trace class operators (if and) only if this operator is a symmetry transformation. According to a linear version of Wigner’s theorem, the set of pure states—the rank-one projections—is a symmetry witness. We show that an analogous result holds for the set of projections with a fixed rank (with some mild constraint on this rank, in the finite-dimensional case). It turns out that this result provides a complete classification of the sets of projections with a fixed rank that are symmetry witnesses. These particular symmetry witnesses are projectable; i.e. reasoning in terms of quantum states, the sets of ‘uniform’ density operators of corresponding fixed rank are symmetry witnesses too.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallez, Gilles; Bregiroux, Damien; Raison, Philippe E.; Bykov, Denis; Konings, Rudy J.M.; Dacheux, Nicolas; Clavier, Nicolas; Delevoye, Laurent; Popa, Karin; Fitch, Andrew N.
2012-01-01
The AnP 2 O 7 diphosphates (An = Th, U, Np, Pu) have been synthesized by various routes depending on the stability of the An(IV) cation and its suitability for the unusual octahedral environment. Synchrotron and X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance reveal them as a new family of diphosphates which probably includes the recently studied CeP 2 O 7 . Although they adopt at high temperature the same cubic archetypal cell as the other known MP 2 O 7 diphosphates, they differ by a very faint triclinic distortion at room temperature that results from an ordering of the P 2 O 7 units, as shown using high-resolution synchrotron diffraction for UP 2 O 7 . The uncommon triclinic-cubic phase transition is first order, and its temperature is very sensitive to the ionic radius of An(IV). The conflicting effects which control the thermal variations of the P-O-P angle are responsible for a strong expansion of the cell followed by a contraction at higher temperature. This inversion of expansion occurs at a temperature significantly higher than the phase transition, at variance with the parent compounds with smaller Mn(IV) cations in which the two phenomena coincide. As shown by various approaches, the P-O-b-P linkage remains bent in the cubic form. (authors)
Voisin, Claire
1999-01-01
This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...
Symmetry, Symmetry Breaking and Topology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siddhartha Sen
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The ground state of a system with symmetry can be described by a group G. This symmetry group G can be discrete or continuous. Thus for a crystal G is a finite group while for the vacuum state of a grand unified theory G is a continuous Lie group. The ground state symmetry described by G can change spontaneously from G to one of its subgroups H as the external parameters of the system are modified. Such a macroscopic change of the ground state symmetry of a system from G to H correspond to a “phase transition”. Such phase transitions have been extensively studied within a framework due to Landau. A vast range of systems can be described using Landau’s approach, however there are also systems where the framework does not work. Recently there has been growing interest in looking at such non-Landau type of phase transitions. For instance there are several “quantum phase transitions” that are not of the Landau type. In this short review we first describe a refined version of Landau’s approach in which topological ideas are used together with group theory. The combined use of group theory and topological arguments allows us to determine selection rule which forbid transitions from G to certain of its subgroups. We end by making a few brief remarks about non-Landau type of phase transition.
Site symmetry and crystal field of Ce{sup 3+} luminescent centres in KMgF{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamaga, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Gifu (Japan); Honda, M.; Kawamata, N. [Faculty of Science, Naruto University of Education, Naruto (Japan); Fujita, T.; Shimamura, K.; Fukuda, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)
2001-04-09
The electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectra of Ce{sup 3+} in KMgF{sub 3} observed at low temperatures (<20 K) show that two tetragonal and two orthorhombic Ce{sup 3+} centres exist in the absence of a cubic centre. These Ce{sup 3+} centres are strongly associated with substitution of Ce{sup 3+} ions for K{sup +} ions with K{sup +}-ion vacancies at three different sites and for a Mg{sup 2+} ion with a vacancy of the nearest neighbour Mg{sup 2+} ion along the [101] direction as charge compensators. The optical absorption spectrum of Ce{sup 3+} in KMgF{sub 3} measured at room temperature consists of two intense broadbands with peaks at 229 and 237 nm, and two weak bands with peaks at 203 and 211 nm corresponding to the transition from the ground state {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} to the 5d{sup 1} excited states of Ce{sup 3+}. The Ce{sup 3+} luminescence spectrum excited at 229 or 237 nm at room temperature is composed of broadbands with double peaks at 265 and 282 nm, which are due to the ground-state splitting between {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} and {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}. The peak of the weak luminescence band excited at a tail (250-280 nm) of the intense absorption bands is shifted to lower energy. The intense and weak Ce{sup 3+} luminescence bands are assigned to Ce{sup 3+} ions substituting for K{sup +} ions away from and near to K{sup +}-ion vacancies, respectively. The luminescence from Ce{sup 3+} ions substituting for Mg{sup 2+} ions could not be observed at room temperature. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souriau, J.M.
1984-01-01
The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng Cheng
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem and its higher-dimensional generalizations by Oshikawa and Hastings require that translationally invariant 2D spin systems with a half-integer spin per unit cell must either have a continuum of low energy excitations, spontaneously break some symmetries, or exhibit topological order with anyonic excitations. We establish a connection between these constraints and a remarkably similar set of constraints at the surface of a 3D interacting topological insulator. This, combined with recent work on symmetry-enriched topological phases with on-site unitary symmetries, enables us to develop a framework for understanding the structure of symmetry-enriched topological phases with both translational and on-site unitary symmetries, including the effective theory of symmetry defects. This framework places stringent constraints on the possible types of symmetry fractionalization that can occur in 2D systems whose unit cell contains fractional spin, fractional charge, or a projective representation of the symmetry group. As a concrete application, we determine when a topological phase must possess a “spinon” excitation, even in cases when spin rotational invariance is broken down to a discrete subgroup by the crystal structure. We also describe the phenomena of “anyonic spin-orbit coupling,” which may arise from the interplay of translational and on-site symmetries. These include the possibility of on-site symmetry defect branch lines carrying topological charge per unit length and lattice dislocations inducing degeneracies protected by on-site symmetry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henley, E.M.
1981-09-01
Internal and space-time symmetries are discussed in this group of lectures. The first of the lectures deals with an internal symmetry, or rather two related symmetries called charge independence and charge symmetry. The next two discuss space-time symmetries which also hold approximately, but are broken only by the weak forces; that is, these symmetries hold for both the hadronic and electromagnetic forces
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henley, E.M.
1987-01-01
Nuclei are very useful for testing symmetries, and for studies of symmetry breaking. This thesis is illustrated for two improper space-time transformations, parity and time-reversal and for one internal symmetry: charge symmetry and independence. Recent progress and present interest is reviewed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
Ermolenko, Alexander E; Perepada, Elena A
2007-01-01
The paper contains a description of basic regularities in the manifestation of symmetry of human structural organization and its ontogenetic and phylogenetic development. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrio at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described. An hypothesis is postulated that the two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms: a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and, b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lampel, Ayala; Yaniv, Oren; Berger, Or; Bacharach, Eran; Gazit, Ehud; Frolow, Felix
2013-01-01
The triclinic structure of the HIV-1 capsid protein contains four molecules in the asymmetric unit that form a novel packing interface that could conceivably resemble an intermediate structure that is involved in the early steps of HIV-1 assembly. The Gag precursor is the major structural protein of the virion of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Capsid protein (CA), a cleavage product of Gag, plays an essential role in virus assembly both in Gag-precursor multimerization and in capsid core formation. The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of CA contains 20 residues that are highly conserved across retroviruses and constitute the major homology region (MHR). Genetic evidence implies a role for the MHR in interactions between Gag precursors during the assembly of the virus, but the structural basis for this role remains elusive. This paper describes a novel triclinic structure of the HIV-1 CA CTD at 1.6 Å resolution with two canonical dimers of CA CTD in the asymmetric unit. The canonical dimers form a newly identified packing interface where interactions of four conserved MHR residues take place. This is the first structural indication that these MHR residues participate in the putative CTD–CTD interactions. These findings suggest that the molecules forming this novel interface resemble an intermediate structure that participates in the early steps of HIV-1 assembly. This interface may therefore provide a novel target for antiviral drugs
On the symmetry of phosphorous doped ZnSe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The site symmetry of P doped ZnSe is analysed in detail here, as the recent experiments suggest two possible symmetries T d and C 3 V . The reduction to C 3 V is attributed to the presence of natural impurity, Ga. Our calculations based on molecular model and Green's functions suggest that the symmetry C 3 V is possible ...
On the symmetry of phosphorous doped ZnSe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
Abstract. The site symmetry of P doped ZnSe is analysed in detail here, as the recent experiments suggest two possible symmetries Td and C3V. The reduction to C3V is attributed to the presence of natural impurity,. Ga. Our calculations based on molecular model and Green's functions suggest that the symmetry C3V is.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nilles, Hans Peter
2012-04-01
Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-04-15
Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.
Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wackenheim, A.; Zollner, G.
1987-01-01
The authors discuss the concept of symmetry and defect of symmetry in radiological imaging and recall the definition of asymmetry (congenital or constitutional) and dissymmetry (acquired). They then describe a rule designed for the cognitive method of automatic evaluation of shape recognition data and propose the use of reversal symmetry [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuentes Cobas, L.E.; Font Hernandez, R.
1993-01-01
An analytical treatment of electrostatic and magnetostatic field symmetry, as a function of charge and current distribution symmetry, is proposed. The Newmann Principle, related to the cause-effect symmetry relation, is presented and applied to the characterization of simple configurations. (Author) 5 refs
Rehren, K. -H.
1996-01-01
Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, S.
1976-01-01
The problem of how gauge symmetries of the weak interactions get broken is discussed. Some reasons why such a heirarchy of gauge symmetry breaking is needed, the reason gauge heirarchies do not seem to arise in theories of a given and related type, and the implications of theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, which can exhibit a gauge hierarchy
Raibert, M H
1986-03-14
Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.
Kemeth, Felix P.; Haugland, Sindre W.; Krischer, Katharina
2018-05-01
Symmetry broken states arise naturally in oscillatory networks. In this Letter, we investigate chaotic attractors in an ensemble of four mean-coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with two oscillators being synchronized. We report that these states with partially broken symmetry, so-called chimera states, have different setwise symmetries in the incoherent oscillators, and in particular, some are and some are not invariant under a permutation symmetry on average. This allows for a classification of different chimera states in small networks. We conclude our report with a discussion of related states in spatially extended systems, which seem to inherit the symmetry properties of their counterparts in small networks.
Parastatistics and gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govorkov, A.B.
1982-01-01
A possible formulation of gauge symmetries in the Green parafield theory is analysed and the SO(3) gauge symmetry is shown to be on a distinct status. The Greenberg paraquark hypothesis turns out to be not equivalent to the hypothesis of quark colour SU(3)sub(c) symmetry. Specific features of the gauge SO(3) symmetry are discussed, and a possible scheme where it is an exact subgroup of the broken SU(3)sub(c) symmetry is proposed. The direct formulation of the gauge principle for the parafield represented by quaternions is also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian
2015-01-01
A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.
Gupta, Shishir; Pramanik, Abhijit; Smita; Pramanik, Snehamoy
2018-06-01
The phenomenon of plane waves at the intersecting plane of a triclinic half-space and a self-reinforced half-space is discussed with possible applications during wave propagation. Analytical expressions of the phase velocities of reflection and refraction for quasi-compressional and quasi-shear waves under initial stress are discussed carefully. The closest form of amplitude proportions on reflection and refraction factors of three quasi-plane waves are developed mathematically by applying appropriate boundary conditions. Graphics are sketched to exhibit the consequences of initial stress in the three-dimensional plane wave on reflection and refraction coefficients. Some special cases that coincide with the fundamental properties of several layers are designed to express the reflection and refraction coefficients.
Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Philippe
1998-01-01
In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mainzer, K.
1988-01-01
Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mainzer, K
1988-05-01
Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arima, A.
2003-01-01
(1) There are symmetries in nature, and the concept of symmetry has been used in art and architecture. The symmetry is evaluated high in the European culture. In China, the symmetry is broken in the paintings but it is valued in the architecture. In Japan, however, the symmetry has been broken everywhere. The serious and interesting question is why these differences happens? (2) In this lecture, I reviewed from the very beginning the importance of the rotational symmetry in quantum mechanics. I am sorry to be too fundamental for specialists of nuclear physics. But for people who do not use these theories, I think that you could understand the mathematical aspects of quantum mechanics and the relation between the angular momentum and the rotational symmetry. (3) To the specialists of nuclear physics, I talked about my idea as follows: dynamical treatment of collective motions in nuclei by IBM, especially the meaning of the degeneracy observed in the rotation bands top of γ vibration and β vibration, and the origin of pseudo-spin symmetry. Namely, if there is a symmetry, a degeneracy occurs. Conversely, if there is a degeneracy, there must be a symmetry. I discussed some details of the observed evidence and this correspondence is my strong belief in physics. (author)
From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Di Filippo, Francesco; Garay, Luis J.
2016-01-01
Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.
Harris, A. Brooks
2006-01-01
This paper represents a detailed instruction manual for constructing the Landau expansion for magnetoelectric coupling in incommensurate ferroelectric magnets. The first step is to describe the magnetic ordering in terms of symmetry adapted coordinates which serve as complex valued magnetic order parameters whose transformation properties are displayed. In so doing we use the previously proposed technique to exploit inversion symmetry, since this symmetry had been universally overlooked. Havi...
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling
2009-07-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibragimov, Nail H.; Kovalev, Vladimir F.
2009-01-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
Anomalous Symmetry Fractionalization and Surface Topological Order
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xie Chen
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In addition to possessing fractional statistics, anyon excitations of a 2D topologically ordered state can realize symmetry in distinct ways, leading to a variety of symmetry-enriched topological (SET phases. While the symmetry fractionalization must be consistent with the fusion and braiding rules of the anyons, not all ostensibly consistent symmetry fractionalizations can be realized in 2D systems. Instead, certain “anomalous” SETs can only occur on the surface of a 3D symmetry-protected topological (SPT phase. In this paper, we describe a procedure for determining whether a SET of a discrete, on-site, unitary symmetry group G is anomalous or not. The basic idea is to gauge the symmetry and expose the anomaly as an obstruction to a consistent topological theory combining both the original anyons and the gauge fluxes. Utilizing a result of Etingof, Nikshych, and Ostrik, we point out that a class of obstructions is captured by the fourth cohomology group H^{4}(G,U(1, which also precisely labels the set of 3D SPT phases, with symmetry group G. An explicit procedure for calculating the cohomology data from a SET is given, with the corresponding physical intuition explained. We thus establish a general bulk-boundary correspondence between the anomalous SET and the 3D bulk SPT whose surface termination realizes it. We illustrate this idea using the chiral spin liquid [U(1_{2}] topological order with a reduced symmetry Z_{2}×Z_{2}⊂SO(3, which can act on the semion quasiparticle in an anomalous way. We construct exactly solved 3D SPT models realizing the anomalous surface terminations and demonstrate that they are nontrivial by computing three-loop braiding statistics. Possible extensions to antiunitary symmetries are also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haxton, W.C.
1988-01-01
I discuss a number of the themes of the Symmetries and Spin session of the 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics: parity nonconservation, CP/T nonconservation, and tests of charge symmetry and charge independence. 28 refs., 1 fig
2016-01-01
The Symmetry Festival is a science and art program series, the most important periodic event (see its history) to bring together scientists, artists, educators and practitioners interested in symmetry (its roots, what is behind, applications, etc.), or in the consequences of its absence.
Quantum symmetry for pedestrians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.
1992-03-01
Symmetries more general than groups are possible in quantum therory. Quantum symmetries in the narrow sense are compatible with braid statistics. They are theoretically consistent much as supersymmetry is, and they could lead to degenerate multiplets of excitations with fractional spin in thin films. (orig.)
Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr. ... principle of symmetry was not held as something very fundamental ... principle of local symmetry: the laws of physics are invariant un- .... Next, we would show that different coefficients of a state ...
Charged fluids with symmetries
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
It is possible to introduce many types of symmetries on the manifold which restrict the ... metric tensor field and generate constants of the motion along null geodesics .... In this analysis we have studied the role of symmetries for charged perfect ...
Marchis, Iuliana
2009-01-01
Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.
Symmetry and symmetry breaking in modern physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barone, M; Theophilou, A K
2008-01-01
In modern physics, the theory of symmetry, i.e. group theory, is a basic tool for understanding and formulating the fundamental principles of Physics, like Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Particle Physics. In this work we focus on the relation between Mathematics, Physics and objective reality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Raifeartaigh, L.
1979-01-01
This review describes the principles of hidden gauge symmetry and of its application to the fundamental interactions. The emphasis is on the structure of the theory rather than on the technical details and, in order to emphasise the structure, gauge symmetry and hidden symmetry are first treated as independent phenomena before being combined into a single (hidden gauge symmetric) theory. The main application of the theory is to the weak and electromagnetic interactions of the elementary particles, and although models are used for comparison with experiment and for illustration, emphasis is placed on those features of the application which are model-independent. (author)
Sequential flavor symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas
2009-01-01
The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.
Sequential flavor symmetry breaking
Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas
2009-08-01
The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.
Schwichtenberg, Jakob
2015-01-01
This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dragon, N.
1979-01-01
The possible use of trilinear algebras as symmetry algebras for para-Fermi fields is investigated. The shortcomings of the examples are argued to be a general feature of such generalized algebras. (author)
Gauge symmetry from decoupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Wetterich
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.
Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.
2011-01-01
of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated....... The standard deviation of the anatomical symmetry, seen in figure for one patient along CT and PET, was extracted for normal patients and compared with the deviation from cancer patients giving a new way of determining cancer pathology location. Using the novel method an overlap concordance index...
Statistical symmetries in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA
1994-01-01
Every law of physics is invariant under some group of transformations and is therefore the expression of some type of symmetry. Symmetries are classified as geometrical, dynamical or statistical. At the most fundamental level, statistical symmetries are expressed in the field theories of the elementary particles. This paper traces some of the developments from the discovery of Bose statistics, one of the two fundamental symmetries of physics. A series of generalizations of Bose statistics is described. A supersymmetric generalization accommodates fermions as well as bosons, and further generalizations, including parastatistics, modular statistics and graded statistics, accommodate particles with properties such as 'colour'. A factorization of elements of ggl(n b ,n f ) can be used to define truncated boson operators. A general construction is given for q-deformed boson operators, and explicit constructions of the same type are given for various 'deformed' algebras. A summary is given of some of the applications and potential applications. 39 refs., 2 figs
Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...
Dynamical symmetries for fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M.
1989-01-01
An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E 2 ) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and ''exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs
Flavour from accidental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferretti, Luca; King, Stephen F.; Romanino, Andrea
2006-01-01
We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blum, Alexander Simon
2009-06-10
This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, Alexander Simon
2009-01-01
This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D 4 , the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D 14 . In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V ud - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)
Piro, Oscar E.; Echeverría, Gustavo A.; González-Baró, Ana C.; Baran, Enrique J.
2018-02-01
Synthetic novgorodovaite analog Ca2(C2O4)Cl2·2H2O is identical to its natural counterpart. It crystallizes in the monoclinic I2/ m space group with a = 6.9352(3), b = 7.3800(4), c = 7.4426(3) Å, β = 94.303(4)°, V = 379.85(3) Å3 and Z = 2. The heptahydrate analog, Ca2(C2O4)Cl2·7H2O, crystallizes as triclinic twins in the P \\overline{1} space group with a = 7.3928(8), b = 8.9925(4), c = 10.484(2) Å, α = 84.070(7), β = 70.95(1), γ = 88.545(7)°, V = 655.3(1) Å3 and Z = 2. The crystal packing of both calcium oxalate-chloride double salts favors the directional bonding of oxalate, C2O4 2-, ligands to calcium ions as do other related calcium oxalate minerals. The π-bonding between C and O atoms of the C2O4 2- oxalate group leaves sp 2-hydridised orbitals of the oxygen atoms available for bonding to Ca. Thus, the Ca-O bonds in both calcium oxalate-chloride double salts are directed so as to lie in the plane of the oxalate group. This behavior is reinforced by the short O···O distances between the oxygens attached to a given carbon atom, which favors them bonding to a shared Ca atom in bidentate fashion. Strong bonding in the plane of the oxalate anion and wide spacing perpendicular to that plane due to repulsion between oxalate π-electron clouds gives rise to a polymerized structural units which are common to both hydrates, explaining the nearly equal cell constants 7.4 Å which are defined by the periodicity of Ca-oxalate chains in the framework (monoclinic b ≈ triclinic a). When compared with novgorodovaite, the higher water content of Ca2(C2O4)Cl2·7H2O leads to some major differences in their structures and ensuing physical properties. While novgorodovaite has a three-dimensional framework structure, in the higher hydrate, the highly polar water molecules displace chloride ions from the calcium coordination sphere and surround them through OwH···Cl hydrogen bonds. As a result, polymerization in Ca2(C2O4)Cl2·7H2O solid is limited to the formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Ching-Feng [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Hsien-Chie, E-mail: hccheng@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Hwa, E-mail: whchen@pme.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)
2016-05-01
First principles density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation are performed to comprehensively study the structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of triclinic single and polycrystalline Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3}. The polycrystalline elastic properties are predicted using the Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximation and the thermodynamic properties are evaluated based on the quasi-harmonic Debye model. Their temperature, hydrostatic pressure or crystal orientation dependences are also addressed, and the predicted physical properties are compared with the literature experimental and theoretical data and also with those of three other Cu–In compounds, i.e., CuIn, Cu{sub 2}In and Cu{sub 11}In{sub 9}. The present calculations show that in addition to being a much better conductor compared to Cu{sub 2}In and Cu{sub 11}In{sub 9}, Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} crystal reveals weak elastic anisotropy, high ductility and low stiffness, and tends to become more elastically isotropic at very high hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, the Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} holds the largest high-temperature heat capacity among the four Cu–In compounds. - Highlights: • The physical property of Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} is reported by first-principles calculations. • Pressure effect on the physical property of Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} is presented. • The calculated lattice constants of Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} agree well with the experimental data. • Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} tends to become more elastically isotropic at very high pressure. • The heat capacity of Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} is much larger than that of CuIn, Cu{sub 2}In and Cu{sub 11}In{sub 9}.
Quantum Space-Time Deformed Symmetries Versus Broken Symmetries
Amelino-Camelia, G
2002-01-01
Several recent studies have concerned the faith of classical symmetries in quantum space-time. In particular, it appears likely that quantum (discretized, noncommutative,...) versions of Minkowski space-time would not enjoy the classical Lorentz symmetries. I compare two interesting cases: the case in which the classical symmetries are "broken", i.e. at the quantum level some classical symmetries are lost, and the case in which the classical symmetries are "deformed", i.e. the quantum space-time has as many symmetries as its classical counterpart but the nature of these symmetries is affected by the space-time quantization procedure. While some general features, such as the emergence of deformed dispersion relations, characterize both the symmetry-breaking case and the symmetry-deformation case, the two scenarios are also characterized by sharp differences, even concerning the nature of the new effects predicted. I illustrate this point within an illustrative calculation concerning the role of space-time symm...
Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 2. Symmetry of larvae.
Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V
2001-02-01
Larvae of priapulids are characterized by radial symmetry evident from both external and internal characters of the introvert and lorica. The bilaterality appears as a result of a combination of several radial symmetries: pentaradial symmetry of the teeth, octaradial symmetry of the primary scalids, 25-radial symmetry of scalids, biradial symmetry of the neck, and biradial and decaradial symmetry of the trunk. Internal radiality is exhibited by musculature and the circumpharyngeal nerve ring. Internal bilaterality is evident from the position of the ventral nerve cord and excretory elements. Externally, the bilaterality is determined by the position of the anal tubulus and two shortened midventral rows of scalids bordering the ventral nerve cord. The lorical elements define the biradial symmetry that is missing in adult priapulids. The radial symmetry of larvae is a secondary appearance considered an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of the benthic sediment. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter
2014-01-01
This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme. Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology. The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...
Schwichtenberg, Jakob
2018-01-01
This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations. Thanks to the input of readers from around the world, this second edition has been purged of typographical errors and also contains several revised sections with improved explanations. .
BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking
Ryder, L. H.
2005-11-01
One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would
Symmetry, structure, and spacetime
Rickles, Dean
2007-01-01
In this book Rickles considers several interpretative difficulties raised by gauge-type symmetries (those that correspond to no change in physical state). The ubiquity of such symmetries in modern physics renders them an urgent topic in philosophy of physics. Rickles focuses on spacetime physics, and in particular classical and quantum general relativity. Here the problems posed are at their most pathological, involving the apparent disappearance of spacetime! Rickles argues that both traditional ontological positions should be replaced by a structuralist account according to which relational
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chimento, Luis P.
2002-01-01
We find the group of symmetry transformations under which the Einstein equations for the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe are form invariant. They relate the energy density and the pressure of the fluid to the expansion rate. We show that inflation can be obtained from nonaccelerated scenarios by a symmetry transformation. We derive the transformation rule for the spectrum and spectral index of the curvature perturbations. Finally, the group is extended to investigate inflation in the anisotropic Bianchi type-I spacetime and the brane-world cosmology
Introduction to Chiral Symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2017-05-09
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.
Jinzenji, Masao
2018-01-01
This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...
Approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians
Chubb, Christopher T.; Flammia, Steven T.
2017-08-01
We explore the relationship between approximate symmetries of a gapped Hamiltonian and the structure of its ground space. We start by considering approximate symmetry operators, defined as unitary operators whose commutators with the Hamiltonian have norms that are sufficiently small. We show that when approximate symmetry operators can be restricted to the ground space while approximately preserving certain mutual commutation relations. We generalize the Stone-von Neumann theorem to matrices that approximately satisfy the canonical (Heisenberg-Weyl-type) commutation relations and use this to show that approximate symmetry operators can certify the degeneracy of the ground space even though they only approximately form a group. Importantly, the notions of "approximate" and "small" are all independent of the dimension of the ambient Hilbert space and depend only on the degeneracy in the ground space. Our analysis additionally holds for any gapped band of sufficiently small width in the excited spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and we discuss applications of these ideas to topological quantum phases of matter and topological quantum error correcting codes. Finally, in our analysis, we also provide an exponential improvement upon bounds concerning the existence of shared approximate eigenvectors of approximately commuting operators under an added normality constraint, which may be of independent interest.
Molecular symmetry and spectroscopy
Bunker, Philip; Jensen, Per
2006-01-01
The first edition, by P.R. Bunker, published in 1979, remains the sole textbook that explains the use of the molecular symmetry group in understanding high resolution molecular spectra. Since 1979 there has been considerable progress in the field and a second edition is required; the original author has been joined in its writing by Per Jensen. The Material of the first edition has been reorganized and much has been added. The molecular symmetry group is now introduced early on, and the explanation of how to determine nuclear spin statistical weights has been consolidated in one chapter, after groups, symmetry groups, character tables and the Hamiltonian have been introduced. A description of the symmetry in the three-dimensional rotation group K(spatial), irreducible spherical tensor operators, and vector coupling coefficients is now included. The chapters on energy levels and selection rules contain a great deal of material that was not in the first edition (much of it was undiscovered in 1979), concerning ...
Introduction to chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, V.
1996-01-01
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented
Pels, D.L.
While symmetry and impartiality have become ruling principles in S&TS, defining its core ideal of a 'value-free relativism', their philosophical anchorage has attracted much less discussion than the issue or:how far their jurisdiction can be extended or generalized. This paper seeks to argue that
Symmetries in fundamental physics
Sundermeyer, Kurt
2014-01-01
Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...
Symmetries in fundamental physics
Sundermeyer, Kurt
2014-01-01
Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Groups and Symmetry: A Guide to Discovering Mathematics. Geetha Venkataraman. Book Review Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 91-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sezgin, E.
1991-08-01
We review the structure of W ∞ algebras, their super and topological extensions, and their contractions down to (super) w ∞ . Emphasis is put on the field theoretic realizations of these algebras. We also review the structure of w ∞ and W ∞ gravities and comment on various applications of W ∞ symmetry. (author). 42 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojman, Sergio A.
1996-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to present some of the ways in which non-Noetherian symmetries are used in contemporary mathematical physics. These include, among others, obtaining conservation laws for dynamical systems, solving non-linear problems, getting alternative Lagrangians for systems of differential equations and constructing symplectic structures and Hamiltonians for dynamical systems starting from scratch
Detection symmetry and asymmetry
du Buf, J.M.H.
1991-01-01
Experiments were performed on the detection symmetry and asymmetry of incremental and decremental disks, as a function of both disk diameter and duration. It was found that, for a background luminance of 300cd.m-2, thresholds of dynamic (briefly presented) foveal disks are symmetrical for all
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stern, J.
2000-01-01
The problem of a uniform description of symmetries, their dynamic disturbing and the structure of the vacuum is discussed. The role which problems of this kind played in searching for and understanding the Standard Model of elementary particles from the 1960s till now is also highlighted. (Z.J.)
Fields, symmetries, and quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosel, U.
1989-01-01
'Fields, symmetries, and quarks' covers elements of quantum field theory, symmetries, gauge field theories and phenomenological descriptions of hadrons, with special emphasis on topics relevant to nuclear physics. It is aimed at nuclear physicists in general and at scientists who need a working knowledge of field theory, symmetry principles of elementary particles and their interactions and the quark structure of hadrons. The book starts out with an elementary introduction into classical field theory and its quantization. As gauge field theories require a working knowledge of global symmetries in field theories this topic is then discussed in detail. The following part is concerned with the general structure of gauge field theories and contains a thorough discussion of the still less widely known features of Non-Abelian gauge field theories. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is important for the understanding of hadronic matter, is discussed in the next section together with the quark compositions of hadrons. The last two chapters give a detailed discussion of phenomenological bag-models. The MIT bag is discussed, so that all theoretical calculations can be followed step by step. Since in all other bag-models the calculational methods and steps are essentially identical, this chapter should enable the reader to actually perform such calculations unaided. A last chapter finally discusses the topological bag-models which have become quite popular over the last few years. (orig.)
Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 1. Symmetry of adults.
Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V
2001-02-01
Priapulids possess a radial symmetry that is remarkably reflected in both external morphology and internal anatomy. It results in the appearance of 25-radial (a number divisible by five) symmetry summarized as a combination of nonaradial, octaradial, and octaradial (9+8+8) symmetries of scalids. The radial symmetry is a secondary appearance considered as an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of bottom sediment. The eight anteriormost, or primary, scalids retain their particular position because of their innervation directly from the circumpharyngeal brain. As a result of a combination of the octaradial symmetry of primary scalids, pentaradial symmetry of teeth, and the 25-radial symmetry of scalids, the initial bilateral symmetry remains characterized by the single sagittal plane. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Bilateral symmetry analysis of breast MRI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alterson, Robert; Plewes, Donald B
2003-01-01
Mammographic interpretation often uses symmetry between left and right breasts to indicate the site of potential tumour masses. This approach has not been applied to breast images obtained from MRI. We present an automatic technique for breast symmetry detection based on feature extraction techniques which does not require any efforts to co-register breast MRI data. The approach applies computer-vision techniques to detect natural biological symmetries in breast MR scans based on three objective measures of similarity: multiresolution non-orthogonal wavelet representation, three-dimensional intensity distributions and co-occurrence matrices. Statistical distributions that are invariant to feature localization are computed for each of the extracted image features. These distributions are later compared against each other to account for perceptual similarity. Studies based on 51 normal MRI scans of randomly selected patients showed that the sensitivity of symmetry detection rate approached 94%. The symmetry analysis procedure presented in this paper can be applied as an aid in detecting breast tissue changes arising from disease
Global Anomaly Detection in Two-Dimensional Symmetry-Protected Topological Phases
Bultinck, Nick; Vanhove, Robijn; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank
2018-04-01
Edge theories of symmetry-protected topological phases are well known to possess global symmetry anomalies. In this Letter we focus on two-dimensional bosonic phases protected by an on-site symmetry and analyze the corresponding edge anomalies in more detail. Physical interpretations of the anomaly in terms of an obstruction to orbifolding and constructing symmetry-preserving boundaries are connected to the cohomology classification of symmetry-protected phases in two dimensions. Using the tensor network and matrix product state formalism we numerically illustrate our arguments and discuss computational detection schemes to identify symmetry-protected order in a ground state wave function.
Symmetries in physics and harmonics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolk, D.
2006-01-01
In this book the symmetries of elementary particles are described in relation to the rules of harmonics in music. The selection rules are described in connections with harmonic intervals. Also symmetry breaking is considered in this framework. (HSI)
Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Xuejun; Qin Maochang; Mei Fengxiang
2005-01-01
The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results.
Quantum symmetries in particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirkov, D.V.
1983-01-01
The concept of a quantum symmetry is introduced as a symmetry in the formulation of which quantum representations and specific quantum notions are used essentially. Three quantum symmetry principles are discussed: the principle of renormalizability (possibly super-renormalizability), the principle of local gauge symmetry, and the principle of supersymmetry. It is shown that these principles play a deterministic role in the development of quantum field theory. Historically their use has led to ever stronger restrictions on the interaction mechanism of quantum fields
Symmetry and topology in evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Berczi, S.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.
1991-10-01
This volume contains papers of an interdisciplinary symposium on evolution. The aim of this symposium, held in Budapest, Hungary, 28-29 May 1991, was to clear the role of symmetry and topology at different levels of the evolutionary processes. 21 papers were presented, their topics included evolution of the Universe, symmetry of elementary particles, asymmetry of the Earth, symmetry and asymmetry of biomolecules, symmetry and topology of lining objects, human asymmetry etc. (R.P.)
Charge independence and charge symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
1994-09-01
Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.
Charge independence and charge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, G.A.
1994-09-01
Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs
Symmetry energy in nuclear surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danielewicz, P.; Lee, Jenny
2009-01-01
Interplay between the dependence of symmetry energy on density and the variation of nucleonic densities across nuclear surface is discussed. That interplay gives rise to the mass dependence of the symmetry coefficient in an energy formula. Charge symmetry of the nuclear interactions allows to introduce isoscalar and isovector densities that are approximately independent of the magnitude of neutron-proton asymmetry. (author)
Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.
Group analysis and renormgroup symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.; Shirkov, D.V.
1996-01-01
An original regular approach to constructing special type symmetries for boundary-value problems, namely renormgroup symmetries, is presented. Different methods of calculating these symmetries based on modern group analysis are described. An application of the approach to boundary value problems is demonstrated with the help of a simple mathematical model. 35 refs
Dark discrete gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batell, Brian
2011-01-01
We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.
Symmetries and microscopic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, J.P.
1997-01-01
This book is based on a course of lectures devoted to the applications of group theory to quantum physics. The purpose is to give students a precise idea of general principles involving the concept of symmetry and to present practical methods used to calculate physical properties derived from symmetries. The first chapter is an introduction to the main results of group theory, 2 chapters highlight principles and methods concerning geometrical transformations in the space of states, state degeneracy and perturbation theory. The last 4 chapters investigate the applications of these methods to atom physics, nuclear structure and elementary particles. A chapter is devoted to the atom of hydrogen and another to the isospin. Numerous exercises and problems, some with their corrections, are proposed. (A.C.)
Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abbe R. Kopra
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes. The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.
Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Grinstein, Benjamin
2011-01-01
Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...
Symmetry rules. How science and nature are founded on symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosen, J.
2008-07-01
When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. In fact, modern theoretical physics suggests that symmetry is a, if not the, foundational principle of nature. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. It is shown that the Universe cannot possess exact symmetry, which is a principle of fundamental significance. Curie's principle - which states that the symmetry of the effect is at least that of the cause - features prominently. An introduction to group theory, the mathematical language of symmetry, is included. This book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science. Furthermore, it will serve as valuable background reading for all students in the physical sciences. (orig.)
Symmetry rules How science and nature are founded on symmetry
Rosen, Joe
2008-01-01
When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. In fact, modern theoretical physics suggests that symmetry is a, if not the, foundational principle of nature. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. It is shown that the Universe cannot possess exact symmetry, which is a principle of fundamental significance. Curie's principle - which states that the symmetry of the effect is at least that of the cause - features prominently. An introduction to group theory, the mathematical language of symmetry, is included. This book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science. Furthermore, it will serve as valuable background reading for all students in the physical sciences.
A broken symmetry ontology: Quantum mechanics as a broken symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buschmann, J.E.
1988-01-01
The author proposes a new broken symmetry ontology to be used to analyze the quantum domain. This ontology is motivated and grounded in a critical epistemological analysis, and an analysis of the basic role of symmetry in physics. Concurrently, he is led to consider nonheterogeneous systems, whose logical state space contains equivalence relations not associated with the causal relation. This allows him to find a generalized principle of symmetry and a generalized symmetry-conservation formalisms. In particular, he clarifies the role of Noether's theorem in field theory. He shows how a broken symmetry ontology already operates in a description of the weak interactions. Finally, by showing how a broken symmetry ontology operates in the quantum domain, he accounts for the interpretational problem and the essential incompleteness of quantum mechanics. He proposes that the broken symmetry underlying this ontological domain is broken dilation invariance
Symmetry and quantum mechanics
Corry, Scott
2016-01-01
This book offers an introduction to quantum mechanics for professionals, students, and others in the field of mathematics who have a minimal background in physics with an understanding of linear algebra and group theory. It covers such topics as Lie groups, algebras and their representations, and analysis (Hilbert space, distributions, the spectral Theorem, and the Stone-Von Neumann Theorem). The book emphasizes the role of symmetry and is useful to physicists as it provides a mathematical introduction to the topic.
Gravitation, Symmetry and Undergraduates
Jorgensen, Jamie
2001-04-01
This talk will discuss "Project Petrov" Which is designed to investigate gravitational fields with symmetry. Project Petrov represents a collaboration involving physicists, mathematicians as well as graduate and undergraduate math and physics students. An overview of Project Petrov will be given, with an emphasis on students' contributions, including software to classify and generate Lie algebras, to classify isometry groups, and to compute the isometry group of a given metric.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunakov, V.E.; Ivanov, I.B.
1999-01-01
Connections between the symmetries of Hamiltonian systems in classical and quantum mechanics, on one hand, and their regularity or chaoticity, on the other hand, are considered. The quantum-chaoticity criterion that was proposed previously and which was borrowed from the theory of compound-nucleus resonances is used to analyze the quantum diamagnetic Kepler problem - that is, the motion of a spinless charged particle in a Coulomb and a uniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
French, J.B.
1974-01-01
The concepts of statistical behavior and symmetry are presented from the point of view of many body spectroscopy. Remarks are made on methods for the evaluation of moments, particularly widths, for the purpose of giving a feeling for the types of mathematical structures encountered. Applications involving ground state energies, spectra, and level densities are discussed. The extent to which Hamiltonian eigenstates belong to irreducible representations is mentioned. (4 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)
2010-06-01
Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.
Lie symmetries and superintegrability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nucci, M C; Post, S
2012-01-01
We show that a known superintegrable system in two-dimensional real Euclidean space (Post and Winternitz 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 162001) can be transformed into a linear third-order equation: consequently we construct many autonomous integrals—polynomials up to order 18—for the same system. The reduction method and the connection between Lie symmetries and Jacobi last multiplier are used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrero, O F
2010-01-01
Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.
Symmetry methods for option pricing
Davison, A. H.; Mamba, S.
2017-06-01
We obtain a solution of the Black-Scholes equation with a non-smooth boundary condition using symmetry methods. The Black-Scholes equation along with its boundary condition are first transformed into the one dimensional heat equation and an initial condition respectively. We then find an appropriate general symmetry generator of the heat equation using symmetries and the fundamental solution of the heat equation. The symmetry generator is chosen such that the boundary condition is left invariant; the symmetry can be used to solve the heat equation and hence the Black-Scholes equation.
Greene, Brian R
1997-01-01
Mirror symmetry has undergone dramatic progress during the last five years. Tremendous insight has been gained on a number of key issues. This volume surveys these results. Some of the contributions in this work have appeared elsewhere, while others were written specifically for this collection. The areas covered are organized into 4 sections, and each presents papers by both physicists and mathematicians. This volume collects the most important developments that have taken place in mathematical physics since 1991. It is an essential reference tool for both mathematics and physics libraries and for students of physics and mathematics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Christopher T.
2018-03-19
We review and expand upon recent work demonstrating that Weyl invariant theories can be broken "inertially," which does not depend upon a potential. This can be understood in a general way by the "current algebra" of these theories, independently of specific Lagrangians. Maintaining the exact Weyl invariance in a renormalized quantum theory can be accomplished by renormalization conditions that refer back to the VEV's of fields in the action. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential that breaks a U(1) symmetry together,with scale invariance.
Leadership, power and symmetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spaten, Ole Michael
2016-01-01
Research publications concerning managers who coach their own employees are barely visible despite its wide- spread use in enterprises (McCarthy & Milner, 2013; Gregory & Levy, 2011; Crabb, 2011). This article focuses on leadership, power and moments of symmetry in the coaching relationship...... regarding managers coaching their employees and it is asked; what contributes to coaching of high quality when one reflects on the power aspect as being immanent? Fourteen middle managers coached five of their employees, and all members of each party wrote down cues and experiences immediately after each...
Farmer, David W
1995-01-01
In most mathematics textbooks, the most exciting part of mathematics-the process of invention and discovery-is completely hidden from the reader. The aim of Groups and Symmetry is to change all that. By means of a series of carefully selected tasks, this book leads readers to discover some real mathematics. There are no formulas to memorize; no procedures to follow. The book is a guide: Its job is to start you in the right direction and to bring you back if you stray too far. Discovery is left to you. Suitable for a one-semester course at the beginning undergraduate level, there are no prerequ
Yale, Paul B
2012-01-01
This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi
Applications of chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisarski, R.D.
1995-03-01
The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T χ implies that the ρ and a 1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, m ρ (T χ ) > m ρ (0). The author conjectures that at T χ the thermal ρ - a 1 , peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by T χ . The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates
Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Shu Hou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700 GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.
Wilczek, Frank
2004-01-01
Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world (8 pages) Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world. The discrepancy is ascribed to a pervasive symmetry-breaking field, which fills all space uniformly, rendering the Universe a sort of exotic superconductor. So far, the evidence for these bold ideas is indirect. But soon the theory will undergo a critical test depending on whether the quanta of this symmetry-breaking field, the so-called Higgs particles, are produced at the Large Hadron Collider (due to begin operation in 2007).
Symmetry of crystals and molecules
Ladd, Mark
2014-01-01
This book successfully combines a thorough treatment of molecular and crystalline symmetry with a simple and informal writing style. By means of familiar examples the author helps to provide the reader with those conceptual tools necessary for the development of a clear understanding of what are often regarded as 'difficult' topics. Christopher Hammond, University of Leeds This book should tell you everything you need to know about crystal and molecular symmetry. Ladd adopts an integrated approach so that the relationships between crystal symmetry, molecular symmetry and features of chemical interest are maintained and reinforced. The theoretical aspects of bonding and symmetry are also well represented, as are symmetry-dependent physical properties and the applications of group theory. The comprehensive coverage will make this book a valuable resource for a broad range of readers.
Probing symmetry and symmetry breaking in resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K.; Guo, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others
1997-04-01
Conventional non-resonant soft X-ray emission brings about information about electronic structure through its symmetry and polarization selectivity, the character of which is governed by simple dipole rules. For centro-symmetric molecules with the emitting atom at the inversion center these rules lead to selective emission through the required parity change. For the more common classes of molecules which have lower symmetry or for systems with degenerate core orbitals (delocalized over identical sites), it is merely the local symmetry selectivity that provides a probe of the local atomic orbital contribution to the molecular orbital. For instance, in X-ray spectra of first row species the intensities essentially map the p-density at each particular atomic site, and, in a molecular orbital picture, the contribution of the local p-type atomic orbitals in the LCAO description of the molecular orbitals. The situation is different for resonant X-ray fluorescence spectra. Here strict parity and symmetry selectivity gives rise to a strong frequency dependence for all molecules with an element of symmetry. In addition to symmetry selectivity the strong frequency dependence of resonant X-ray emission is caused by the interplay between the shape of a narrow X-ray excitation energy function and the lifetime and vibrational broadenings of the resonantly excited core states. This interplay leads to various observable effects, such as linear dispersion, resonance narrowing and emission line (Stokes) doubling. Also from the point of view of polarization selectivity, the resonantly excited X-ray spectra are much more informative than the corresponding non-resonant spectra. Examples are presented for nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide molecules.
Trieste lectures on mirror symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hori, K [Department of Physics and Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
2003-08-15
These are pedagogical lectures on mirror symmetry given at the Spring School in ICTP, Trieste, March 2002. The focus is placed on worldsheet descriptions of the physics related to mirror symmetry. We start with the introduction to general aspects of (2,2) supersymmetric field theories in 1 + 1 dimensions. We next move on to the study and applications of linear sigma model. Finally, we provide a proof of mirror symmetry in a class of models. (author)
Quantum symmetry in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomerus, V.
1993-02-01
Symmetry concepts have always been of great importance for physical problems like explicit calculations, classification or model building. More recently, new 'quantum symmetries' ((quasi) quantum groups) attracted much interest in quantum theory. It is shown that all these quantum symmetries permit a conventional formulation as symmetry in quantum mechanics. Symmetry transformations can act on the Hilbert space H of physical states such that the ground state is invariant and field operators transform covariantly. Models show that one must allow for 'truncation' in the tensor product of representations of a quantum symmetry. This means that the dimension of the tensor product of two representations of dimension σ 1 and σ 2 may be strictly smaller than σ 1 σ 2 . Consistency of the transformation law of field operators local braid relations leads us to expect, that (weak) quasi quantum groups are the most general symmetries in local quantum theory. The elements of the R-matrix which appears in these local braid relations turn out to be operators on H in general. It will be explained in detail how examples of field algebras with weak quasi quantum group symmetry can be obtained. Given a set of observable field with a finite number of superselection sectors, a quantum symmetry together with a complete set of covariant field operators which obey local braid relations are constructed. A covariant transformation law for adjoint fields is not automatic but will follow when the existence of an appropriate antipode is assumed. At the example of the chiral critical Ising model, non-uniqueness of the quantum symmetry will be demonstrated. Generalized quantum symmetries yield examples of gauge symmetries in non-commutative geometry. Quasi-quantum planes are introduced as the simplest examples of quasi-associative differential geometry. (Weak) quasi quantum groups can act on them by generalized derivations much as quantum groups do in non-commutative (differential-) geometry
Neutrino masses and family symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grinstein, B.; Preskill, J.; Wise, M.B.
1985-01-01
Neutrino masses in the 100 eV-1 MeV range are permitted if there is a spontaneously broken global family symmetry that allows the heavy neutrinos to decay by Goldstone boson emission with a cosmologically acceptable lifetime. The family symmetry may be either abelian or nonabelian; we present models illustrating both possibilities. If the family symmetry is nonabelian, then the decay tau -> μ + Goldstone boson or tau -> e + Goldstone may have an observable rate. (orig.)
An introduction to Yangian symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, D.
1992-01-01
Some aspects of the quantum Yangians as symmetry algebras of two-dimensional quantum field theories are reviewed. They include two main issues: the first is the classical Heisenberg model, covering non-Abelian symmetries, generators of the symmetries and the semi-classical Yangians, an alternative presentation of the semi-classical Yangians, digression on Poisson-Lie groups. The second is the quantum Heisenberg chain, covering non-Abelian symmetries and the quantum Yangians, the transfer matrix and an alternative presentation of the Yangians, digression on the double Yangians. (K.A.) 15 refs
Killing symmetries in neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Racz, A.
1992-10-01
Although inside the reactor zone there is no exact continuous spatial symmetry, in certain configurations neutron flux distribution is close to a symmetrical one. In such cases the symmetrical solution could provide a good starting point to determine the non-symmetrical power distribution. All possible symmetries are determined in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space, and the form of the transport equation is discussed in such a coordinate system which is adapted to the particular symmetry. Possible spontaneous symmetry breakings are pointed out. (author) 6 refs
The conservation of orbital symmetry
Woodward, R B
2013-01-01
The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope
Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.
2016-01-01
We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.
Greiner, Walter
1989-01-01
"Quantum Dynamics" is a major survey of quantum theory based on Walter Greiner's long-running and highly successful courses at the University of Frankfurt. The key to understanding in quantum theory is to reinforce lecture attendance and textual study by working through plenty of representative and detailed examples. Firm belief in this principle led Greiner to develop his unique course and to transform it into a remarkable and comprehensive text. The text features a large number of examples and exercises involving many of the most advanced topics in quantum theory. These examples give practical and precise demonstrations of how to use the often subtle mathematics behind quantum theory. The text is divided into five volumes: Quantum Mechanics I - An Introduction, Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. These five volumes take the reader from the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics up to the latest research in partic...
Symmetries of cluster configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kramer, P.
1975-01-01
A deeper understanding of clustering phenomena in nuclei must encompass at least two interrelated aspects of the subject: (A) Given a system of A nucleons with two-body interactions, what are the relevant and persistent modes of clustering involved. What is the nature of the correlated nucleon groups which form the clusters, and what is their mutual interaction. (B) Given the cluster modes and their interaction, what systematic patterns of nuclear structure and reactions emerge from it. Are there, for example, families of states which share the same ''cluster parents''. Which cluster modes are compatible or exclude each other. What quantum numbers could characterize cluster configurations. There is no doubt that we can learn a good deal from the experimentalists who have discovered many of the features relevant to aspect (B). Symmetries specific to cluster configurations which can throw some light on both aspects of clustering are discussed
Holography without translational symmetry
Vegh, David
2013-01-01
We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.
Symmetry and asymmetry in mandelate racemase catalysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitman, C.P.; Hegeman, G.D.; Cleland, W.W.; Kenyon, G.L.
1985-01-01
Kinetic properties of mandelate racemase catalysis (Vmax, Km, deuterium isotope effects, and pH profiles) were all measured in both directions by the circular dichroic assay of Sharp. These results, along with those of studying interactions of mandelate racemase with resolved, enantiomeric competitive inhibitors [(R)- and (S)-alpha-phenylglycerates], indicate a high degree of symmetry in both binding and catalysis. Racemization of either enantiomer of mandelate in D 2 O did not show an overshoot region of molecular ellipticity in circular dichroic measurements upon approach to equilibrium. Both the absence of such an overshoot region and the high degree of kinetic symmetry are consistent with a one-base acceptor mechanism for mandelate racemase. On the other hand, results of irreversible inhibition with partially resolved, enantiomeric affinity labels [(R)- and (S)-alpha-phenylglycidates] reveal a ''functional asymmetry'' at the active site. Mechanistic proposals, consistent with these results, are presented
Britto, Sylvia; Kamath, P Vishnu
2009-12-21
The double hydroxides of Li with Al, obtained by the imbibition of Li salts into bayerite and gibbsite-Al(OH)(3), are not different polytypes of the same symmetry but actually crystallize in two different symmetries. The bayerite-derived double hydroxides crystallize with monoclinic symmetry, while the gibbsite-derived hydroxides crystallize with hexagonal symmetry. Successive metal hydroxide layers in the bayerite-derived LDHs are translated by the vector ( approximately -1/3, 0, 1) with respect to each other. The exigency of hydrogen bonding drives the intercalated Cl(-) ion to a site with 2-fold coordination, whereas the intercalated water occupies a site with 6-fold coordination having a pseudotrigonal prismatic symmetry. The nonideal nature of the interlayer sites has implications for the observed selectivity of Li-Al LDHs toward anions of different symmetries.
Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.
1985-01-01
Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains
Collective states and crossing symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heiss, W.D.
1977-01-01
Collective states are usually described in simple terms but with the use of effective interactions which are supposed to contain more or less complicated contributions. The significance of crossing symmetry is discussed in this connection. Formal problems encountered in the attempts to implement crossing symmetry are pointed out
Singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries
Bergshoeff, E.A.; Kallosh, R.E.; Rahmanov, M.A.
1989-01-01
We investigate under which conditions singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries which are "square roots of gravity" can exist. Their existence is non-trivial because there are no fields neutral in gravity. We tabulate several examples of singlets of global and local supersymmetry and Îº-symmetry and
''Natural'' left-right symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.
1975-01-01
It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed
Symmetry guide to ferroaxial transitions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hlinka, Jiří; Přívratská, J.; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Janovec, Václav
2016-01-01
Roč. 116, č. 17 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 177602. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : symmetry * symmetry breaking * ferroaxial Transitions * property tensors * Aizu species Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016
Fifty years of symmetry operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wigner, E.P.
1978-01-01
The author begins by discussing the application of symmetry principles in classical physics, which began 150 years ago. He then offers a few remarks on the essence of these principles and their role in the structure of physics; events, laws of nature, and invariance principles - kinematic and then dynamic - are treated. After this general discussion of the various types of symmetries, he considers the fundamental differences in their application in classical and quantum physics; the symmetry principles have greater effectiveness in quantum theory. After a few critical remarks of a general nature on the invariance principles, the author reviews the application of symmetry principles in various areas of quantum mechanics: atomic spectra, molecular physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics. He notes that the role of the different symmetries recognized to be approximate provide the most interesting conclusions
Symmetry inheritance of scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivica Smolić
2015-01-01
Matter fields do not necessarily have to share the symmetries with the spacetime they live in. When this happens, we speak of the symmetry inheritance of fields. In this paper we classify the obstructions of symmetry inheritance by the scalar fields, both real and complex, and look more closely at the special cases of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes. Since the symmetry noninheritance is present in the scalar fields of boson stars and may enable the existence of the black hole scalar hair, our results narrow the possible classes of such solutions. Finally, we define and analyse the symmetry noninheritance contributions to the Komar mass and angular momentum of the black hole scalar hair. (paper)
Shape analysis with subspace symmetries
Berner, Alexander
2011-04-01
We address the problem of partial symmetry detection, i.e., the identification of building blocks a complex shape is composed of. Previous techniques identify parts that relate to each other by simple rigid mappings, similarity transforms, or, more recently, intrinsic isometries. Our approach generalizes the notion of partial symmetries to more general deformations. We introduce subspace symmetries whereby we characterize similarity by requiring the set of symmetric parts to form a low dimensional shape space. We present an algorithm to discover subspace symmetries based on detecting linearly correlated correspondences among graphs of invariant features. We evaluate our technique on various data sets. We show that for models with pronounced surface features, subspace symmetries can be found fully automatically. For complicated cases, a small amount of user input is used to resolve ambiguities. Our technique computes dense correspondences that can subsequently be used in various applications, such as model repair and denoising. © 2010 The Author(s).
Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.
Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian
2015-12-14
We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures.
Discrete symmetries in the MSSM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schieren, Roland
2010-12-02
The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)
Spontaneous emergence of gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.
1987-05-01
Within the framework of the random dynamics project we have demonstrated several mechanisms for breakdown of a preexisting exact gauge symmetry. This note concerns and reviews a mechanism which works essentially in the opposite direction, leading from am accidental approximate symmetry to an exact formal gauge symmetry. It was shown that although this symmetry is a priori only strictly formal, it can under certain circumstances lead to a physical consequence: the corresponding gauge boson becomes massless. In the chaotic models typical for our random dynamics project there is, of course, a strong competition between this mechanism and mechanisms which temd to destroy the symmetry and give mass(es) to the gauge boson(s). (orig.)
Discrete symmetries in the MSSM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schieren, Roland
2010-01-01
The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z R 4 symmetry is discovered which solves the μ-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z R 4 is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z R 4 symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)
Axions from chiral family symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, D.; Pal, P.B.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Senjanovic, G.
1985-01-01
We investigate the possibility that family symmetry, Gsub(F), is spontaneously broken chiral global symmetry. We classify the interesting cases when family symmetry can result in an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry U(1)sub(PQ) and thus provide a solution to the strong CP problem. The result disfavors having two or four families. For more than four families, U(1)sub(PQ) is in general automatic. In the case of three families, a unique Higgs sector allows U(1)sub(PQ) in the simplest case of Gsub(F)=[SU(3)] 3 . Cosmological consideration also puts strong constraint on the number of families. For Gsub(F)=[SU(N)] 3 cosmology singles out the three-family (N=3) case as a unique solution if there are three light neutrinos. Possible implication of decoupling theorem as applied to family symmetry breaking is also discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1994-01-01
When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics
Symmetry breaking by bifundamentals
Schellekens, A. N.
2018-03-01
We derive all possible symmetry breaking patterns for all possible Higgs fields that can occur in intersecting brane models: bifundamentals and rank-2 tensors. This is a field-theoretic problem that was already partially solved in 1973 by Ling-Fong Li [1]. In that paper the solution was given for rank-2 tensors of orthogonal and unitary group, and U (N )×U (M ) and O (N )×O (M ) bifundamentals. We extend this first of all to symplectic groups. When formulated correctly, this turns out to be straightforward generalization of the previous results from real and complex numbers to quaternions. The extension to mixed bifundamentals is more challenging and interesting. The scalar potential has up to six real parameters. Its minima or saddle points are described by block-diagonal matrices built out of K blocks of size p ×q . Here p =q =1 for the solutions of Ling-Fong Li, and the number of possibilities for p ×q is equal to the number of real parameters in the potential, minus 1. The maximum block size is p ×q =2 ×4 . Different blocks cannot be combined, and the true minimum occurs for one choice of basic block, and for either K =1 or K maximal, depending on the parameter values.
Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries
Stewart, J
2002-01-01
The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, M.E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1994-12-01
When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics.
Symmetries in nuclear structure
Allaart, K; Dieperink, A
1983-01-01
The 1982 summer school on nuclear physics, organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Netherlands' Physical Society, was the fifth in a series that started in 1963. The number of students attending has always been about one hundred, coming from about thirty countries. The theme of this year's school was symmetry in nuclear physics. This book covers the material presented by the enthusi astic speakers, who were invited to lecture on this subject. We think they have succeeded in presenting us with clear and thorough introductory talks at graduate or higher level. The time schedule of the school and the location allowed the participants to make many informal contacts during many social activities, ranging from billiards to surf board sailing. We hope and expect that the combination of a relaxed atmosphere during part of the time and hard work during most of the time, has furthered the interest in, and understanding of, nuclear physics. The organization of the summer school was made possible by substantia...
Quark diquark symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, M.M. de
1980-01-01
Assuming the baryons are made of quark-diquark pairs, the wave functions for the 126 allowed ground states are written. The quark creation and annihilations operators are generalized to describe the quark-diquark structure in terms of a parameter σ. Assuming that all quark-quark interactions are mediated by gluons transforming like an octet of vector mesons, the effective Hamiltonian and the baryon masses as constraint equations for the elements of the mass matrix is written. The symmetry is the SU(6) sub(quark)x SU(21) sub(diquark) broken by quark-quark interactions respectively invariant under U(6), U(2) sub(spin), U(3) and also interactions transforming like the eighth and the third components of SU(3). In the limit of no quark-diquark structure (σ = 0), the ground state masses is titted to within 1% of the experimental data, except for the Δ(1232), where the error is almost 2%. Expanding the decuplet mass equations in terms of σ and keeping terms only up to the second order, this error is reduced to 67%. (Author) [pt
Symmetries of dynamically equivalent theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-03-15
A natural and very important development of constrained system theory is a detail study of the relation between the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation with specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially the relation between the constraint structure with the symmetries of the Lagrangian action. An important preliminary step in this direction is a strict demonstration, and this is the aim of the present article, that the symmetry structures of the Hamiltonian action and of the Lagrangian action are the same. This proved, it is sufficient to consider the symmetry structure of the Hamiltonian action. The latter problem is, in some sense, simpler because the Hamiltonian action is a first-order action. At the same time, the study of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian action naturally involves Hamiltonian constraints as basic objects. One can see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian actions are dynamically equivalent. This is why, in the present article, we consider from the very beginning a more general problem: how the symmetry structures of dynamically equivalent actions are related. First, we present some necessary notions and relations concerning infinitesimal symmetries in general, as well as a strict definition of dynamically equivalent actions. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an isomorphism between classes of equivalent symmetries of dynamically equivalent actions. (author)
Astroparticle tests of Lorentz symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, Jorge [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-07-01
Lorentz symmetry is a cornerstone of modern physics. As the spacetime symmetry of special relativity, Lorentz invariance is a basic component of the standard model of particle physics and general relativity, which to date constitute our most successful descriptions of nature. Deviations from exact symmetry would radically change our view of the universe and current experiments allow us to test the validity of this assumption. In this talk, I describe effects of Lorentz violation in cosmic rays and gamma rays that can be studied in current observatories.
Symmetry of quantum molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burenin, A.V.
2002-01-01
The paper reviews the current state-of-art in describing quantum molecular dynamics based on symmetry principles alone. This qualitative approach is of particular interest as the only method currently available for a broad and topical class of problems in the internal dynamics of molecules. Besides, a molecule is a physical system whose collective internal motions are geometrically structured, and its perturbation theory description requires a symmetry analysis of this structure. The nature of the geometrical symmetry groups crucial for the closed formulation of the qualitative approach is discussed [ru
Symmetry of quantum intramolecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burenin, Alexander V
2002-01-01
The paper reviews the current progress in describing quantum intramolecular dynamics using merely symmetry principles as a basis. This closed qualitative approach is of particular interest because it is the only method currently available for a broad class of topical problems in the internal dynamics of molecules. Moreover, a molecule makes a physical system whose collective internal motions are geometrically structured, so that its description by perturbation methods requires a symmetry analysis of this structure. The nature of the geometrical symmetry groups crucial for the closed formulation of the qualitative approach is discussed. In particular, the point group of a molecule is of this type. (methodological notes)
Geometrical spin symmetry and spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pestov, I. B.
2011-01-01
Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics leads to General Quantum Mechanics which includes into itself spindynamics as a theory of spin phenomena. The key concepts of spindynamics are geometrical spin symmetry and the spin field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). The essence of spin is the bipolar structure of geometrical spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potential. The bipolar structure provides a natural derivation of the equations of spindynamics. Spindynamics involves all phenomena connected with spin and provides new understanding of the strong interaction.
Scale symmetry and virial theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westenholz, C. von
1978-01-01
Scale symmetry (or dilatation invariance) is discussed in terms of Noether's Theorem expressed in terms of a symmetry group action on phase space endowed with a symplectic structure. The conventional conceptual approach expressing invariance of some Hamiltonian under scale transformations is re-expressed in alternate form by infinitesimal automorphisms of the given symplectic structure. That is, the vector field representing scale transformations leaves the symplectic structure invariant. In this model, the conserved quantity or constant of motion related to scale symmetry is the virial. It is shown that the conventional virial theorem can be derived within this framework
Strings, Branes and Symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westerberg, A.
1997-01-01
Recent dramatic progress in the understanding of the non-perturbative structure of superstring theory shows that extended objects of various kinds, collectively referred to as p-branes, are an integral part of the theory. In this thesis, comprising an introductory text and seven appended research papers, we study various aspects of p-branes with relevance for superstring theory. The first part of the introductory text is a brief review of string theory focussing on the role of p-branes. In particular, we consider the so-called D-branes which currently are attracting a considerable amount of attention. The purpose of this part is mainly to put into context the results of paper 4, 5 and 6 concerning action functionals describing the low-energy dynamics of D-branes. The discussion of perturbative string theory given in this part of the introduction is also intended to provide some background to paper 2 which contains an application of the Reggeon-sewing approach to the construction of string vertices. The second part covers a rather different subject, namely higher-dimensional loop algebras and their cohomology, with the aim of facilitating the reading of papers 1, 3 and 7. The relation to p-branes is to be found in paper 1 where we introduce a certain higher-dimensional generalization of the loop algebra and discuss its potential applicability as a symmetry algebra for p-branes. Papers 3 and 7 are mathematically oriented out-growths of this paper addressing the issue of realizing algebras of this kind, known in physics as current algebras, in terms of pseudo differential operators (PSDOs). The main result of paper 3 is a proof of the equivalence between certain Lie-algebra cocycles on the space of second-quantizable PSDOs
Stochastic mechanism of symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baseyan, H.Z.
1983-01-01
A new symmetry breaking mechanism conditioned by presence of random fields in vacuum is proposed. Massive Yang-Mills fields finally arise, that may be interpreted as ''macroscopic'' manifestation of the ''microscopic'' Yang-Mills massless theory
Shape analysis with subspace symmetries
Berner, Alexander; Wand, Michael D.; Mitra, Niloy J.; Mewes, Daniel; Seidel, Hans Peter
2011-01-01
We address the problem of partial symmetry detection, i.e., the identification of building blocks a complex shape is composed of. Previous techniques identify parts that relate to each other by simple rigid mappings, similarity transforms, or, more
Symmetries in the Lagrangean formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigore, D.R.
1987-09-01
We generalize the analysis of Levy-Leblond for lagrangean systems with symmetry. We prove that this analysis goes through practically unchanged and after that we analyse in detail some examples.(author)
Renormgroup symmetry for solution functionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirkov, D.V.; Kovalev, V.F.
2004-01-01
The paper contains generalization of the renormgroup algorithm for boundary value problems of mathematical physics and related concept of the renormgroup symmetry, formulated earlier by the authors with reference to models based on differential equations. These algorithm and symmetry are formulated now for models with nonlocal (integral) equations. We discuss in detail and illustrate by examples the applications of the generalized algorithm to models with nonlocal terms which appear as linear functionals of the solution. (author)
Conformal symmetry in quantum finance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, Juan M; Lavana, Ulises; Miranda, Elio Martínez
2014-01-01
The quantum finance symmetries are studied. In order to do this, the one dimensional free non-relativistic particle and its symmetries are revisited and the particle mass is identified as the inverse of square of the volatility. Furthermore, using financial variables, a Schrödinger algebra representation is constructed. In addition, it is shown that the operators of this last representation are not hermitian and not conserved.
How does symmetry impact the flexibility of proteins?
Schulze, Bernd; Sljoka, Adnan; Whiteley, Walter
2014-02-13
It is well known that (i) the flexibility and rigidity of proteins are central to their function, (ii) a number of oligomers with several copies of individual protein chains assemble with symmetry in the native state and (iii) added symmetry sometimes leads to added flexibility in structures. We observe that the most common symmetry classes of protein oligomers are also the symmetry classes that lead to increased flexibility in certain three-dimensional structures-and investigate the possible significance of this coincidence. This builds on the well-developed theory of generic rigidity of body-bar frameworks, which permits an analysis of the rigidity and flexibility of molecular structures such as proteins via fast combinatorial algorithms. In particular, we outline some very simple counting rules and possible algorithmic extensions that allow us to predict continuous symmetry-preserving motions in body-bar frameworks that possess non-trivial point-group symmetry. For simplicity, we focus on dimers, which typically assemble with twofold rotational axes, and often have allosteric function that requires motions to link distant sites on the two protein chains.
Symmetry and group theory in chemistry
Ladd, M
1998-01-01
A comprehensive discussion of group theory in the context of molecular and crystal symmetry, this book covers both point-group and space-group symmetries.Provides a comprehensive discussion of group theory in the context of molecular and crystal symmetryCovers both point-group and space-group symmetriesIncludes tutorial solutions
Structural symmetry and protein function.
Goodsell, D S; Olson, A J
2000-01-01
The majority of soluble and membrane-bound proteins in modern cells are symmetrical oligomeric complexes with two or more subunits. The evolutionary selection of symmetrical oligomeric complexes is driven by functional, genetic, and physicochemical needs. Large proteins are selected for specific morphological functions, such as formation of rings, containers, and filaments, and for cooperative functions, such as allosteric regulation and multivalent binding. Large proteins are also more stable against denaturation and have a reduced surface area exposed to solvent when compared with many individual, smaller proteins. Large proteins are constructed as oligomers for reasons of error control in synthesis, coding efficiency, and regulation of assembly. Symmetrical oligomers are favored because of stability and finite control of assembly. Several functions limit symmetry, such as interaction with DNA or membranes, and directional motion. Symmetry is broken or modified in many forms: quasisymmetry, in which identical subunits adopt similar but different conformations; pleomorphism, in which identical subunits form different complexes; pseudosymmetry, in which different molecules form approximately symmetrical complexes; and symmetry mismatch, in which oligomers of different symmetries interact along their respective symmetry axes. Asymmetry is also observed at several levels. Nearly all complexes show local asymmetry at the level of side chain conformation. Several complexes have reciprocating mechanisms in which the complex is asymmetric, but, over time, all subunits cycle through the same set of conformations. Global asymmetry is only rarely observed. Evolution of oligomeric complexes may favor the formation of dimers over complexes with higher cyclic symmetry, through a mechanism of prepositioned pairs of interacting residues. However, examples have been found for all of the crystallographic point groups, demonstrating that functional need can drive the evolution of
Prediction of Human Eye Fixations using Symmetry
Kootstra, Gert; Schomaker, Lambert R. B.
2009-01-01
Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Reaction time experiments show that symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of saliency. In this paper, we discuss local symmetry as a measure of saliency. We propose a number of symmetry models and perform an eye-tracking study with human participants viewing photographic i...
Miller, G A
2003-01-01
Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...
Symmetry rules for the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling tensor revisited
Buckingham, A. D.; Pyykkö, P.; Robert, J. B.; Wiesenfeld, L.
The symmetry rules of Buckingham and Love (1970), relating the number of independent components of the indirect spin-spin coupling tensor J to the symmetry of the nuclear sites, are shown to require modification if the two nuclei are exchanged by a symmetry operation. In that case, the anti-symmetric part of J does not transform as a second-rank polar tensor under symmetry operations that interchange the coupled nuclei and may be called an anti-tensor. New rules are derived and illustrated by simple molecular models.
Symmetry and Asymmetry Level Measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Usually, Symmetry and Asymmetry are considered as two opposite sides of a coin: an object is either totally symmetric, or totally asymmetric, relative to pattern objects. Intermediate situations of partial symmetry or partial asymmetry are not considered. But this dichotomy on the classification lacks of a necessary and realistic gradation. For this reason, it is convenient to introduce "shade regions", modulating the degree of Symmetry (a fuzzy concept. Here, we will analyze the Asymmetry problem by successive attempts of description and by the introduction of the Asymmetry Level Function, as a new Normal Fuzzy Measure. Our results (both Theorems and Corollaries suppose to be some new and original contributions to such very active and interesting field of research. Previously, we proceed to the analysis of the state of art.
Symmetry breaking patterns for inflation
Klein, Remko; Roest, Diederik; Stefanyszyn, David
2018-06-01
We study inflationary models where the kinetic sector of the theory has a non-linearly realised symmetry which is broken by the inflationary potential. We distinguish between kinetic symmetries which non-linearly realise an internal or space-time group, and which yield a flat or curved scalar manifold. This classification leads to well-known inflationary models such as monomial inflation and α-attractors, as well as a new model based on fixed couplings between a dilaton and many axions which non-linearly realises higher-dimensional conformal symmetries. In this model, inflation can be realised along the dilatonic direction, leading to a tensor-to-scalar ratio r ˜ 0 .01 and a spectral index n s ˜ 0 .975. We refer to the new model as ambient inflation since inflation proceeds along an isometry of an anti-de Sitter ambient space-time, which fully determines the kinetic sector.
Hidden Symmetries of Stochastic Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boyka Aneva
2007-05-01
Full Text Available In the matrix product states approach to $n$ species diffusion processes the stationary probability distribution is expressed as a matrix product state with respect to a quadratic algebra determined by the dynamics of the process. The quadratic algebra defines a noncommutative space with a $SU_q(n$ quantum group action as its symmetry. Boundary processes amount to the appearance of parameter dependent linear terms in the algebraic relations and lead to a reduction of the $SU_q(n$ symmetry. We argue that the boundary operators of the asymmetric simple exclusion process generate a tridiagonal algebra whose irriducible representations are expressed in terms of the Askey-Wilson polynomials. The Askey-Wilson algebra arises as a symmetry of the boundary problem and allows to solve the model exactly.
Flavor physics without flavor symmetries
Buchmuller, Wilfried; Patel, Ketan M.
2018-04-01
We quantitatively analyze a quark-lepton flavor model derived from a six-dimensional supersymmetric theory with S O (10 )×U (1 ) gauge symmetry, compactified on an orbifold with magnetic flux. Two bulk 16 -plets charged under the U (1 ) provide the three quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. At the orbifold fixed points mass matrices are generated with rank one or two. Moreover, the zero modes mix with heavy vectorlike split multiplets. The model possesses no flavor symmetries. Nevertheless, there exist a number of relations between Yukawa couplings, remnants of the underlying grand unified theory symmetry and the wave function profiles of the zero modes, which lead to a prediction of the light neutrino mass scale, mν 1˜10-3 eV and heavy Majorana neutrino masses in the range from 1 012 to 1 014 GeV . The model successfully includes thermal leptogenesis.
Symmetry gauge theory for paraparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kursawe, U.
1986-01-01
In the present thesis it was shown that for identical particles the wave function of which has a more complicated symmetry than it is the case at the known kinds of particles, the bosons and fermions, a gauge theory can be formulated, the so-called 'symmetry gauge theory'. This theory has its origin alone in the symmetry of the particle wave functions and becomes first relevant when more than two particles are considered. It was shown that for particles with mixed-symmetrical wave functions, so-called 'paraparticles', the quantum mechanical state is no more described by one Hilbert-space element but by a many-dimensional subspace of this Hilbert space. The gauge freedom consists then just in the freedom of the choice of the basis in this subspace, the corresponding gauge group is the group of the unitary basis transformation in this subspace. (orig./HSI) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kastner, Ruth E.
2011-01-01
This paper seeks to clarify features of time asymmetry in terms of symmetry breaking. It is observed that, in general, a contingent situation or event requires the breaking of an underlying symmetry. The distinction between the universal anisotropy of temporal processes and the irreversibility of certain physical processes is clarified. It is also proposed that the Transactional Interpretation of quantum mechanics offers an effective way to explain general thermodynamic asymmetry in terms of the time asymmetry of radiation, where prior such efforts have fallen short.
Kastner, Ruth E.
2011-11-01
This paper seeks to clarify features of time asymmetry in terms of symmetry breaking. It is observed that, in general, a contingent situation or event requires the breaking of an underlying symmetry. The distinction between the universal anisotropy of temporal processes and the irreversibility of certain physical processes is clarified. It is also proposed that the Transactional Interpretation of quantum mechanics offers an effective way to explain general thermodynamic asymmetry in terms of the time asymmetry of radiation, where prior such efforts have fallen short.
Renormalizable models with broken symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becchi, C.; Rouet, A.; Stora, R.
1975-10-01
The results of the renormalized perturbation theory, in the absence of massless quanta, are summarized. The global symmetry breaking is studied and the associated currents are discussed in terms of the coupling with a classical Yang Mills field. Gauge theories are discussed; it is most likely that the natural set up should be the theory of fiber bundles and that making a choice of field coordinates makes the situation obscure. An attempt is made in view of clarifying the meaning of the Slavnov symmetry which characterizes gauge field theories [fr
Symmetry analysis of cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García-Morales, V.
2013-01-01
By means of B-calculus [V. García-Morales, Phys. Lett. A 376 (2012) 2645] a universal map for deterministic cellular automata (CAs) has been derived. The latter is shown here to be invariant upon certain transformations (global complementation, reflection and shift). When constructing CA rules in terms of rules of lower range a new symmetry, “invariance under construction” is uncovered. Modular arithmetic is also reformulated within B-calculus and a new symmetry of certain totalistic CA rules, which calculate the Pascal simplices modulo an integer number p, is then also uncovered.
Symmetry of intramolecular quantum dynamics
Burenin, Alexander V
2012-01-01
The main goal of this book is to give a systematic description of intramolecular quantum dynamics on the basis of only the symmetry principles. In this respect, the book has no analogs in the world literature. The obtained models lead to a simple, purely algebraic, scheme of calculation and are rigorous in the sense that their correctness is limited only to the correct choice of symmetry of the internal dynamics. The book is basically intended for scientists working in the field of molecular spectroscopy, quantum and structural chemistry.
Symposium Symmetries in Science XIII
Gruber, Bruno J; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Symmetries in Science XI
2005-01-01
This book is a collection of reviews and essays about the recent developments in the area of Symmetries and applications of Group Theory. Contributions have been written mostly at the graduate level but some are accessible to advanced undergraduates. The book is of interest to a wide audience and covers a broad range of topics with a strong degree of thematical unity. The book is part of a Series of books on Symmetries in Science and may be compared to the published Proceedings of the Colloquia on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics. Here, however, prevails a distinguished character for presenting extended reviews on present applications to Science, not restricted to Theoretical Physics.
Chiral symmetry on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1994-11-01
The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model
Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maxim Khlopov
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.
Optical metamaterials with quasicrystalline symmetry: symmetry-induced optical isotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruk, S.S.; Decker, M.; Helgert, Ch.; Neshev, D.N.; Kivshar, Y.S.; Staude, I.; Powell, D.A.; Pertsch, Th.; Menzel, Ch.; Helgert, Ch.; Etrich, Ch.; Rockstuhl, C.; Menzel, Ch.
2013-01-01
Taking advantage of symmetry considerations, we have analyzed the potential of various metamaterials to affect the polarization state of light upon oblique illumination. We have shown that depending on the angle of illumination, metamaterials are able to support specific polarization states. The presented methodology that using ellipticity and circular dichroism, provides an unambiguous language for discussing the impact of the inherent symmetry of the metamaterial lattices on their far-field response. Our findings allow the quantification analysis of the impact of inter-element coupling and lattice symmetry on the optical properties of metamaterials, and to separate this contribution from the response associated with a single meta-atom. In addition, we have studied the concept of optical quasicrystalline metamaterials, revealing that the absence of translational symmetry (periodicity) of quasicrystalline metamaterials causes an isotropic optical response, while the long-range positional order preserves the resonance properties. Our findings constitute an important step towards the design of optically isotropic metamaterials and metasurfaces. (authors)
The master symmetry and time dependent symmetries of the differential–difference KP equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khanizadeh, Farbod
2014-01-01
We first obtain the master symmetry of the differential–difference KP equation. Then we show how this master symmetry, through sl(2,C)-representation of the equation, can construct generators of time dependent symmetries. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotel'nikov, G.A.
1994-01-01
An algorithm id proposed for research the symmetries of mathematical physics equation. The application of this algorithm to the Schroedinger equation permitted to establish, that in addition to the known symmetry the Schroedinger equation possesses also the relativistic symmetry
Song, Hee Jo; Kim, Jae-Chan; Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad; Kim, Dong-Wan
2018-02-01
With the increasing demand for high energy density in energy-storage systems, a high-voltage cathode is essential in rechargeable Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The operating voltage of a triclinic-polymorph Na2CoP2O7, also known as the rose form, is above 4.0 V (vs. Na/Na+), which is relatively high compared to that of other cathode materials. Thus, it can be employed as a potential high-voltage cathode material in Na-ion batteries. However, it is difficult to synthesize a pure rose phase because of its low phase stability, thus limiting its use in high-voltage applications. Herein, compositional-engineered, rose-phase Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7/C (x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2) nanopowder are prepared using a wet-chemical method. The Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7/C cathode shows high electrochemical reactivity with Na ions at 4.0 V, delivering high capacity and high energy density.
Symmetry-enhanced supertransfer of delocalized quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lloyd, Seth; Mohseni, Masoud
2010-01-01
Coherent hopping of excitation relies on quantum coherence over physically extended states. In this work, we consider simple models to examine the effect of symmetries of delocalized multi-excitation states on the dynamical timescales, including hopping rates, radiative decay and environmental interactions. While the decoherence (pure dephasing) rate of an extended state over N sites is comparable to that of a non-extended state, superradiance leads to a factor of N enhancement in decay and absorption rates. In addition to superradiance, we illustrate how the multi-excitonic states exhibit 'supertransfer' in the far-field regime-hopping from a symmetrized state over N sites to a symmetrized state over M sites at a rate proportional to MN. We argue that such symmetries could play an operational role in physical systems based on the competition between symmetry-enhanced interactions and localized inhomogeneities and environmental interactions that destroy symmetry. As an example, we propose that supertransfer and coherent hopping play a role in recent observations of anomalously long diffusion lengths in nano-engineered assembly of light-harvesting complexes.
Radial symmetry in a chimeric glutamate receptor pore
Wilding, Timothy J.; Lopez, Melany N.; Huettner, James E.
2014-02-01
Ionotropic glutamate receptors comprise two conformationally different A/C and B/D subunit pairs. Closed channels exhibit fourfold radial symmetry in the transmembrane domain (TMD) but transition to twofold dimer-of-dimers symmetry for extracellular ligand binding and N-terminal domains. Here, to evaluate symmetry in open pores we analysed interaction between the Q/R editing site near the pore loop apex and the transmembrane M3 helix of kainate receptor subunit GluK2. Chimeric subunits that combined the GluK2 TMD with extracellular segments from NMDA receptors, which are obligate heteromers, yielded channels made up of A/C and B/D subunit pairs with distinct substitutions along M3 and/or Q/R site editing status, in an otherwise identical homotetrameric TMD. Our results indicate that Q/R site interaction with M3 occurs within individual subunits and is essentially the same for both A/C and B/D subunit conformations, suggesting that fourfold pore symmetry persists in the open state.
Charge symmetry at the partonic level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.
2010-07-01
This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.
A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge, Li; Li, Sheng; George, Thomas F.; Sun, Xin
2013-01-01
Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry
From symmetries to number theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tempesta, P.
2009-01-01
It is shown that the finite-operator calculus provides a simple formalism useful for constructing symmetry-preserving discretizations of quantum-mechanical integrable models. A related algebraic approach can also be used to define a class of Appell polynomials and of L series.
Superdeformations and fermion dynamical symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Cheng-Li
1990-01-01
In this talk, I will present a link between nuclear collective motions and their underlying fermion dynamical symmetries. In particular, I will focus on the microscopic understanding of deformations. It is shown that the SU 3 of the one major shell fermion dynamical symmetry model (FDSM) is responsible for the physics of low and high spins in normal deformation. For the recently observed phenomena of superdeformation, the physics of the problem dictates a generalization to a supershell structure (SFDSM), which also has an SU 3 fermion dynamical symmetry. Many recently discovered feature of superdeformation are found to be inherent in such an SU 3 symmetry. In both cases the dynamical Pauli effect plays a vital role. A particularly noteworthy discovery from this model is that the superdeformed ground band is not the usual unaligned band but the D-pair aligned (DPA) band, which sharply crosses the excited bands. The existence of such DPA band is a key point to understand many properties of superdeformation. Our studies also poses new experimental challenge. This is particularly interesting since there are now plans to build new and exciting γ-ray detecting systems, like the GAMMASPHERE, which could provide answers to some of these challenges. 34 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs
Negative energy solutions and symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidharth, B.G.
2011-01-01
We revisit the negative energy solutions of the Dirac (and Klein–Gordon) equation, which become relevant at very high energies in the context of the Feshbach–Villars formulation, and study several symmetries which follow therefrom. Significant consequences are briefly examined. (author)
On four dimensional mirror symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Losev, A.; Nekrasov, N.; Shatashvili, S.
2000-01-01
A conjecture relating instanton calculus in four dimensional supersymmetric theories and the deformation theory of Lagrangian submanifolds in C 2r invariant under a (subgroup of) Sp(2r,Z) is formulated. This is a four dimensional counterpart of the mirror symmetry of topological strings (relating Gromov-Witten invariants and generalized variations of Hodge structure). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, K.; Kaplan, D.B.; Nelson, A.E.
1993-01-01
Conventional solutions to the strong CP problem all require the existence of global symmetries. However, quantum gravity may destroy global symmetries, making it hard to understand why the electric dipole moment of the neutron (EDMN) is so small. We suggest here that CP is actually a discrete gauge symmetry, and is therefore not violated by quantum gravity. We show that four-dimensional CP can arise as a discrete gauge symmetry in theories with dimensional compactification, if the original number of Minkowski dimensions equals 8k+1, 8k+2 or 8k+3, and if there are certain restrictions on the gauge group; these conditions are met by superstrings. CP may then be broken spontaneously below 10 9 GeV, explaining the observed CP violation in the kaon system without inducing a large EDMN. We discuss the phenomenology of such models, as well as the peculiar properties of cosmic 'SP strings' which could be produced at the compactification scale. Such strings have the curious property that a particle carried around the string is turned into its CP conjugate. A single CP string renders four-dimensional space-time nonorientable. (orig.)
Exploiting Symmetry on Parallel Architectures.
Stiller, Lewis Benjamin
1995-01-01
This thesis describes techniques for the design of parallel programs that solve well-structured problems with inherent symmetry. Part I demonstrates the reduction of such problems to generalized matrix multiplication by a group-equivariant matrix. Fast techniques for this multiplication are described, including factorization, orbit decomposition, and Fourier transforms over finite groups. Our algorithms entail interaction between two symmetry groups: one arising at the software level from the problem's symmetry and the other arising at the hardware level from the processors' communication network. Part II illustrates the applicability of our symmetry -exploitation techniques by presenting a series of case studies of the design and implementation of parallel programs. First, a parallel program that solves chess endgames by factorization of an associated dihedral group-equivariant matrix is described. This code runs faster than previous serial programs, and discovered it a number of results. Second, parallel algorithms for Fourier transforms for finite groups are developed, and preliminary parallel implementations for group transforms of dihedral and of symmetric groups are described. Applications in learning, vision, pattern recognition, and statistics are proposed. Third, parallel implementations solving several computational science problems are described, including the direct n-body problem, convolutions arising from molecular biology, and some communication primitives such as broadcast and reduce. Some of our implementations ran orders of magnitude faster than previous techniques, and were used in the investigation of various physical phenomena.
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.
Symmetry breaking in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potting, R.
1998-01-01
A mechanism for a spontaneous breakdown of CPT symmetry appears in string theory, with possible implications for particle models. A realistic string theory might exhibit CPT violation at levels detectable in current or future experiments. A possible new mechanism for baryogenesis in the early Universe is also discussed
Dark Energy and Spacetime Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina Dymnikova
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The Petrov classification of stress-energy tensors provides a model-independent definition of a vacuum by the algebraic structure of its stress-energy tensor and implies the existence of vacua whose symmetry is reduced as compared with the maximally symmetric de Sitter vacuum associated with the Einstein cosmological term. This allows to describe a vacuum in general setting by dynamical vacuum dark fluid, presented by a variable cosmological term with the reduced symmetry which makes vacuum fluid essentially anisotropic and allows it to be evolving and clustering. The relevant solutions to the Einstein equations describe regular cosmological models with time-evolving and spatially inhomogeneous vacuum dark energy, and compact vacuum objects generically related to a dark energy: regular black holes, their remnants and self-gravitating vacuum solitons with de Sitter vacuum interiors—which can be responsible for observational effects typically related to a dark matter. The mass of objects with de Sitter interior is generically related to vacuum dark energy and to breaking of space-time symmetry. In the cosmological context spacetime symmetry provides a mechanism for relaxing cosmological constant to a needed non-zero value.
Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A.
1984-01-01
A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation. (orig.)
Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)
1984-10-22
A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation.
Lie symmetries in differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pleitez, V.
1979-01-01
A study of ordinary and Partial Differential equations using the symmetries of Lie groups is made. Following such a study, an application to the Helmholtz, Line-Gordon, Korleweg-de Vries, Burguer, Benjamin-Bona-Mahony and wave equations is carried out [pt
Chiral symmetry in perturbative QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trueman, T.L.
1979-04-01
The chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics with massless quarks is unbroken in perturbation theory. Dimensional regularization is used. The ratio of the vector and axial vector renormalization constante is shown to be independent of the renormalization mass. The general results are explicitly verified to fourth order in g, the QCD coupling constant
'Oblique corrections' and symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramirez, C.A.
1991-11-01
Low Energy Parameters (Peskin-Takeuchi) are computed for two Symmetry Braking Schemes (heavy Higgs and techni-ρ). The differences between them are found comparable to the experimental uncertainties (in agreement with previous calculations for the Technicolor Models). Some constraints are obtained for the techni-ρ case. (author). 22 refs, 11 figs
Experimental tests of fundamental symmetries
Jungmann, K. P.
2014-01-01
Ongoing experiments and projects to test our understanding of fundamental inter- actions and symmetries in nature have progressed significantly in the past few years. At high energies the long searched for Higgs boson has been found; tests of gravity for antimatter have come closer to reality;
Quantum group and quantum symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Zhe.
1994-05-01
This is a self-contained review on the theory of quantum group and its applications to modern physics. A brief introduction is given to the Yang-Baxter equation in integrable quantum field theory and lattice statistical physics. The quantum group is primarily introduced as a systematic method for solving the Yang-Baxter equation. Quantum group theory is presented within the framework of quantum double through quantizing Lie bi-algebra. Both the highest weight and the cyclic representations are investigated for the quantum group and emphasis is laid on the new features of representations for q being a root of unity. Quantum symmetries are explored in selected topics of modern physics. For a Hamiltonian system the quantum symmetry is an enlarged symmetry that maintains invariance of equations of motion and allows a deformation of the Hamiltonian and symplectic form. The configuration space of the integrable lattice model is analyzed in terms of the representation theory of quantum group. By means of constructing the Young operators of quantum group, the Schroedinger equation of the model is transformed to be a set of coupled linear equations that can be solved by the standard method. Quantum symmetry of the minimal model and the WZNW model in conformal field theory is a hidden symmetry expressed in terms of screened vertex operators, and has a deep interplay with the Virasoro algebra. In quantum group approach a complete description for vibrating and rotating diatomic molecules is given. The exact selection rules and wave functions are obtained. The Taylor expansion of the analytic formulas of the approach reproduces the famous Dunham expansion. (author). 133 refs, 20 figs
Magnetic Quantum Tunneling and Symmetry in Single Molecule Magnets
Kent, Andrew D.
2003-03-01
We have studied the symmetry of magnetic quantum tunneling (MQT) in single molecule magnets (SMMs) using a micro-Hall effect magnetometer and high field vector superconducting magnet system. In the most widely studied SMM, Mn12-acetate, an average crystal 4-fold symmetry in the magnetic response is shown to be due to local molecular environments of 2-fold symmetry that are rotated by 90 degrees with respect to one another. We attribute this to ligand disorder that leads to local rhombic distortions, a model first proposed by Cornia et al. based on x-ray diffraction data [1]. We have magnetically distilled a Mn12-acetate crystal to study a subset of these lower (2-fold) site symmetry molecules and present evidence for a spin-parity effect consistent with a local 2-fold symmetry [2]. These results highlight the importance of subtle changes in molecule environment in modulating magnetic anisotropy and MQT. [1] Cornia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257201 (2002) [2] E. del Barco, A. D. Kent, E. Rumberger, D. H. Hendrickson, G. Christou, submitted for publication (2002) and Europhys. Lett. 60, 768 (2002)
Symmetry and electromagnetism. Simetria y electromagnetismo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuentes Cobas, L.E.; Font Hernandez, R.
1993-01-01
An analytical treatment of electrostatic and magnetostatic field symmetry, as a function of charge and current distribution symmetry, is proposed. The Newmann Principle, related to the cause-effect symmetry relation, is presented and applied to the characterization of simple configurations. (Author) 5 refs.
Symmetries, Integrals and Solutions of Ordinary Differential ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Second-and third-order scalar ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in the traditional sense of point, respectively contact, symmetry are examined for the mappings they produce in solutions and fundamental first integrals. The properties of the `exceptional symmetries', i.e. those not considered to be generic to ...
The symmetry of the Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.
1988-01-01
The spectrum of the Hubbard model shows permanent degeneracy of levels with different symmetry, if one considers only symmetry operators independent of the coupling constant. This suggests the existence of symmetry operators which depend on the coupling constant. We find these highly nontrivial operators and show that they explain the degeneracies in the energy spectrum. 5 refs. (Author)
Prediction of human eye fixations using symmetry
Kootstra, Gert; Schomaker, Lambert
2009-01-01
Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Reaction time experiments show that symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of
Dynamical symmetry breaking in barium isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rawat, Bir Singh; Chattopadhyay, P.K.
1997-01-01
The isotopes of Xe with mass numbers 124, 126, 128, 130 and the isotopes of barium with mass numbers 128, 130, 132, 134 were shown to correspond to the O(6) dynamical symmetry of IBM. In the investigation of the dynamical symmetry breaking in this region, the barium isotopes for departures from O(6) symmetry have been studied
Soft Terms from Broken Symmetries
Buican, Matthew
2010-01-01
In theories of phyiscs beyond the Standard Model (SM), visible sector fields often carry quantum numbers under additional gauge symmetries. One could then imagine a scenario in which these extra gauge symmetries play a role in transmitting supersymmetry breaking from a hidden sector to the Supersymmetric Standard Model (SSM). In this paper we present a general formalism for studying the resulting hidden sectors and calculating the corresponding gauge mediated soft parameters. We find that a large class of generic models features a leading universal contribution to the soft scalar masses that only depends on the scale of Higgsing, even if the model is strongly coupled. As a by-product of our analysis, we elucidate some IR aspects of the correlation functions in General Gauge Mediation. We also discuss possible phenomenological applications.
Physics of chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuryak, E.V.
1991-01-01
This subsection of the 'Modeling QCD' Workshop has included five talks. E. Shuryak spoke on 'Recent Progress in Understanding Chiral Symmetry Breaking'; below it is split into two parts: (i) a mini-review of the field and (ii) a brief presentation of the status of the theory of interacting instantons. The next sections correspond to the following talks: (iii) K. Goeke et al., 'Chiral Restoration and Medium Corrections to Nucleon in the NJL Model'; (iv) M. Takizawa and K. Kubodera, 'Study of Meson Properties and Quark Condensates in the NJL Model with Instanton Effects'; (v) G. Klein and A. G. Williams, 'Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Dual QCD'; and (vi) R. D. Ball, 'Skyrmions and Baryons.' (orig.)
Mirror symmetry and loop operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assel, Benjamin [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2015-11-09
Wilson loops in gauge theories pose a fundamental challenge for dualities. Wilson loops are labeled by a representation of the gauge group and should map under duality to loop operators labeled by the same data, yet generically, dual theories have completely different gauge groups. In this paper we resolve this conundrum for three dimensional mirror symmetry. We show that Wilson loops are exchanged under mirror symmetry with Vortex loop operators, whose microscopic definition in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics coupled to the theory encode in a non-trivial way a representation of the original gauge group, despite that the gauge groups of mirror theories can be radically different. Our predictions for the mirror map, which we derive guided by branes in string theory, are confirmed by the computation of the exact expectation value of Wilson and Vortex loop operators on the three-sphere.
Symmetry realization of texture zeros
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimus, W.; Joshipura, A.S.; Lavoura, L.; Tanimoto, M.
2004-01-01
We show that it is possible to enforce texture zeros in arbitrary entries of the fermion mass matrices by means of Abelian symmetries; in this way, many popular mass-matrix textures find a symmetry justification. We propose two alternative methods which allow one to place zeros in any number of elements of the mass matrices that one wants. They are applicable simultaneously in the quark and lepton sectors. They are also applicable in grand unified theories. The number of scalar fields required by our methods may be large; still, in many interesting cases this number can be reduced considerably. The larger the desired number of texture zeros is, the simpler are the models which reproduce the texture. (orig.)
Steering particles by breaking symmetries
Bet, Bram; Samin, Sela; Georgiev, Rumen; Burak Eral, Huseyin; van Roij, René
2018-06-01
We derive general equations of motions for highly-confined particles that perform quasi-two-dimensional motion in Hele-Shaw channels, which we solve analytically, aiming to derive design principles for self-steering particles. Based on symmetry properties of a particle, its equations of motion can be simplified, where we retrieve an earlier-known equation of motion for the orientation of dimer particles consisting of disks (Uspal et al 2013 Nat. Commun. 4), but now in full generality. Subsequently, these solutions are compared with particle trajectories that are obtained numerically. For mirror-symmetric particles, excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions is found. For particles lacking mirror symmetry, the analytic solutions provide means to classify the motion based on particle geometry, while we find that taking the side-wall interactions into account is important to accurately describe the trajectories.
Noncompact symmetries in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maharana, J.; Schwarz, J.H.
1993-01-01
Noncompact groups, similar to those that appeared in various supergravity theories in the 1970's have been turning up in recent studies of string theory. First it was discovered that moduli spaces of toroidal compactification are given by noncompact groups modded out by their maximal compact subgroups and discrete duality groups. Then it was found that many other moduli spaces have analogous descriptions. More recently, noncompact group symmetries have turned up in effective actions used to study string cosmology and other classical configurations. This paper explores these noncompact groups in the case of toroidal compactification both from the viewpoint of low-energy effective field theory, using the method of dimensional reduction, and from the viewpoint of the string theory world-sheet. The conclusion is that all these symmetries are intimately related. In particular, we find that Chern-Simons terms in the three-form field strength H μνρ play a crucial role. (orig.)
Models of electroweak symmetry breaking
Pomarol, Alex
2015-01-01
This chapter present models of electroweak symmetry breaking arising from strongly interacting sectors, including both Higgsless models and mechanisms involving a composite Higgs. These scenarios have also been investigated in the framework of five-dimensional warped models that, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, have a four-dimensional holographic interpretation in terms of strongly coupled field theories. We explore the implications of these models at the LHC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schrader, D.M.
2004-01-01
We work out the complete symmetry and spin problem for diatomic positronium Ps 2 for the ground and singly excited states of zero orbital angular momentum. The general form of the wave function for each state is given, with due regard to charge conjugation parity. Annihilation rates are discussed, and correlations to dissociation products are deduced. We indicate how the approach is extensible to larger aggregates: i.e., PsPs n , n>2
Symmetries of the dual metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baleanu, D.
1998-01-01
The geometric duality between the metric g μν and a Killing tensor K μν is studied. The conditions were found when the symmetries of the metric g μν and the dual metric K μν are the same. Dual spinning space was constructed without introduction of torsion. The general results are applied to the case of Kerr-Newmann metric
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Surmach, M.A.; Brueckner, F.; Kamusella, S.; Sarkar, R.; Portnichenko, P.Y.; Klauss, H.H.; Inosov, D.S. [TU Dresden (Germany); Park, J.T. [MLZ, Garching (Germany); Ghambashidze, G. [MPI, Stuttgart (Germany); Luetkens, H.; Biswas, P. [PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Choi, W.J.; Seo, Y.I.; Kwon, Y.S. [DGIST, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
2015-07-01
Using μSR, INS and NMR, we investigated the novel Fe-based superconductor with a triclinic crystal structure (CaFe{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}As){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8} (T{sub c}=13 K). The T-dependence of the superfluid density from the μSR measurements indicates the presence of two superconducting gaps. Our INS data revealed commensurate spin fluctuations at the (π, 0) wave vector. Their intensity remains unchanged across T{sub c}, indicating the absence of a spin resonance typical for many Fe-pnictides. Instead, we observed a peak around ℎω{sub 0} = 7 meV at the same wave vector, which persists above T{sub c} and is characterized by the ratio ℎω{sub 0}/k{sub B}T{sub c}∼6.2, i.e. significantly higher than typical values for the magnetic resonant modes in iron pnictides (∝ 4.3). The T-dependence of magnetic intensity at 7 meV revealed an anomaly around T*=45 K related to the disappearance of this new mode. A suppression of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1=/T{sub 1}T, observed by NMR immediately below T* without any notable subsequent anomaly at T{sub c}, indicates that T{sup *} could mark the onset of a pseudogap in (CaFe{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}As){sub 10}Pt{sub 3}As{sub 8}, likely associated with the emergence of preformed Cooper pairs.
Acoustic axes in weak triclinic anisotropy
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vavryčuk, Václav
2005-01-01
Roč. 163, č. 2 (2005), s. 629-638 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : elastic-wave theory * perturbation methods * seismic anisotropy Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2005
Symmetries of cosmological Cauchy horizons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moncrief, V.; Isenberg, J.
1983-01-01
We consider analytic vacuum and electrovacuum spacetimes which contain a compact null hypersurface ruled by closed null generators. We prove that each such spacetime has a non-trivial Killing symmetry. We distinguish two classes of null surfaces, degenerate and non-degenerate ones, characterized by the zero or non-zero value of a constant analogous to the ''surface gravity'' of stationary black holes. We show that the non-degenerate null surfaces are always Cauchy heizons across which the Killing fields change from spacelike (in the globally hyperbolic regions) to timelike (in the acausal, analytic extensions). For the special case of a null surface diffeomorphic to T 3 we characterize the degenerate vacuum solutions completely. These consists of an infinite dimensional family of ''plane wave'' spacetimes which are entirely foliated by compact null surfaces. Previous work by one of us has shown that, when one dimensional Killing symmetries are allowed, then infinite dimensional families of non-degenerate, vacuum solutions exist. We recall these results for the case of Cauchy horizons diffeomorphic to T 3 and prove the generality of the previously constructed non-degenerate solutions. We briefly discuss the possibility of removing the assumptions of closed generators and analyticity and proving an appropriate generalization of our main results. Such a generalization would provide strong support for the cosmic censorship conjecture by showing that causality violating, cosmological solutions of Einstein's equations are essentially an artefact of symmetry. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Kolck, U. van [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States)
2003-06-01
Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of {sup i}sospin{sup ,} and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while the down quark has a negative charge of -1/3. If charge symmetry was exact, the proton and the neutron would have the same mass and they would both be electrically neutral. This is because the proton is made of two up quarks and a down quark, while the neutron comprises two downs and an up. Replacing up quarks with down quarks, and vice versa, therefore transforms a proton into a neutron. Charge-symmetry breaking causes the neutron to be about 0.1% heavier than the proton because the down quark is slightly heavier than the up quark. Physicists had already elucidated certain aspects of charge-symmetry breaking, but our spirits were raised greatly when we heard of the recent work of Allena Opper of Ohio University in the US and co-workers at the TRIUMF laboratory in British Columbia, Canada. Her team has been trying to observe a small charge-symmetry-breaking effect for several years, using neutron beams at the TRIUMF accelerator. The researchers studied the
Dark matter and global symmetries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yann Mambrini
2016-09-01
Full Text Available General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left–Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee–Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O(1 couplings, that (iii the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV–TeV, including the WIMP regime.
Infinitesimal symmetries: a computational approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kersten, P.H.M.
1985-01-01
This thesis is concerned with computational aspects in the determination of infinitesimal symmetries and Lie-Baecklund transformations of differential equations. Moreover some problems are calculated explicitly. A brief introduction to some concepts in the theory of symmetries and Lie-Baecklund transformations, relevant for this thesis, are given. The mathematical formalism is shortly reviewed. The jet bundle formulation is chosen, in which, by its algebraic nature, objects can be described very precisely. Consequently it is appropriate for implementation. A number of procedures are discussed, which enable to carry through computations with the help of a computer. These computations are very extensive in practice. The Lie algebras of infinitesimal symmetries of a number of differential equations in Mathematical Physics are established and some of their applications are discussed, i.e., Maxwell equations, nonlinear diffusion equation, nonlinear Schroedinger equation, nonlinear Dirac equations and self dual SU(2) Yang-Mills equations. Lie-Baecklund transformations of Burgers' equation, Classical Boussinesq equation and the Massive Thirring Model are determined. Furthermore, nonlocal Lie-Baecklund transformations of the last equation are derived. (orig.)
Neutrino masses and spontaneously broken flavor symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staudt, Christian
2014-01-01
We study the phenomenology of supersymmetric flavor models. We show how the predictions of models based on spontaneously broken non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries are altered when we include so-called Kaehler corrections. Furthermore, we discuss anomaly-free discrete R symmetries which are compatible with SU(5) unification. We find a set of symmetries compatible with suppressed Dirac neutrino masses and a unique symmetry consistent with the Weinberg operator. We also study a pseudo-anomalous U(1) R symmetry which explains the fermion mass hierarchies and, when amended with additional singlet fields, ameliorates the fine-tuning problem.
Symmetry, from Euclid to Pierre Curie
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivardiere, J.
1997-01-01
A historical review of the principles of symmetry is presented, starting with Egyptian pavements and Euclid regular polyhedrons, 2 and 3 dimensional paving studies with Kepler in the 17. century, modern crystallography with the constant angle law and the rational truncations law in the 18. century, the identification of the various crystal symmetries (19. century), the discovery of liquid crystals, the relations between the symmetry and the physical and optical properties of systems, molecules, etc.. Finally, P. Curie has determined the general principle of symmetry, linking symmetry and its effects
Dynamical study of symmetries: breaking and restauration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuck, P.
1986-09-01
First symmetry breaking (spontaneous) is explained and the physical implication discussed for infinite systems. The relation with phase transitions is indicated. Then the specific aspects of symmetry breaking in finite systems is treated and illustrated in detail for the case of translational invariance with the help of an oversimplified but exactly solvable model. The method of projection (restauration of symmetry) is explained for the static case and also applied to the model. Symmetry breaking in the dynamical case and for instance the notion of a soft mode responsible for the symmetry breaking is discussed in the case of superfluidity and another exactly solvable model is introduced. The Goldstone mode is treated in detail. Some remarks on analogies with the breaking of chiral symmetry are made. Some recent developments in the theory of symmetry restauration are briefly outlined [fr
An experimental study of symmetry lowering of analcime
Sugano, Neo; Kyono, Atsushi
2018-04-01
Single crystals of analcime were hydrothermally synthesized from a gel of analcime composition at 200 °C for 24 h. They were grown up to 100 μm in size with typical deltoidal icositetrahedron habit. The chemical composition determined by EPMA and TG analyses was Na0.84(Al0.89Si2.12)O6·1.04H2O. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction method was used to determine the symmetry and crystal structure of analcime. The analcime grown from a gel crystallized in cubic space group Ia3 d with lattice parameter a = 13.713(3) Å. In the cubic analcime, Si and Al cations were totally disordered over the framework T sites with site occupancy of Si:Al = 0.6871:0.3129(14). The single crystals of analcime with cubic symmetry were hydrothermally reheated at 200 °C in ultrapure water. After the hydrothermal treatment for 24 h, forbidden reflections for the cubic Ia3 d symmetry were observed. The reflection conditions led to an orthorhombic space group Ibca with lattice parameters a = 13.727(2) Å, b = 13.707(2) Å, and c = 13.707(2) Å. The unit-cell showed a slight distortion with ( a + b)/2 > c, yielding a flattened cell along c. In the orthorhombic analcime, Al exhibited a site preference for T11 site, which indicates that the Si/Al ordering over the framework T sites lowers the symmetry from cubic Ia3 d to orthorhombic Ibca. After the hydrothermal treatment for 48 h, reflections corresponding to orthorhombic space group Ibca were observed as well. The lattice parameters were a = 13.705(2) Å, b = 13.717(2) Å, and c = 13.706(2) Å, retaining the flattened cell shape with ( a + b)/2 > c. The Si and Al cations were further ordered among the framework T sites than the case of the hydrothermal treatment for 24 h. As a consequence, the Si/Al ordering was slightly but significantly accelerated with increasing the hydrothermal treatment time. During the hydrothermal reaction, however, chemical compositions were almost unchanged. The site occupancies of Na over the extra-framework sites
Symmetries and symmetry breaking beyond the electroweak theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grojean, Ch.
1999-01-01
The Glashow-Salam-Weinberg theory describing electroweak interactions is one of the best successes of quantum field theory; it has passed all the experimental tests of particles physics with a high accuracy. However, this theory suffers from some deficiencies in the sense that some parameters, especially those involved in the generation of the mass of the elementary particles, are fixed to unnatural values. Moreover gravitation whose quantization cannot be achieved in ordinary quantum filed theory is hot taken into account. The aim of this PhD dissertation is to study some theories beyond the Standard Model and inspired by superstring theories. My endeavour has been to develop theoretical aspects of an effective dynamical description of one of the soltonic states of the strongly coupled strings. An important part of my results is also devoted to a more phenomenological analysis of the low energy effects of the symmetries that assure the coherence of the theories at high energy: these symmetries could explain the fermion mass hierarchy and could be directly observable in collider experiments. It is also shown how the geometrical properties of compactified spaces characterize the vacuum of string theory in a non-perturbative regime; such a vacuum can be used to construct a unified theory of gauge and gravitational interactions with a supersymmetry softy broken at a TcV scale. (author)
Reflection symmetry-integrated image segmentation.
Sun, Yu; Bhanu, Bir
2012-09-01
This paper presents a new symmetry-integrated region-based image segmentation method. The method is developed to obtain improved image segmentation by exploiting image symmetry. It is realized by constructing a symmetry token that can be flexibly embedded into segmentation cues. Interesting points are initially extracted from an image by the SIFT operator and they are further refined for detecting the global bilateral symmetry. A symmetry affinity matrix is then computed using the symmetry axis and it is used explicitly as a constraint in a region growing algorithm in order to refine the symmetry of the segmented regions. A multi-objective genetic search finds the segmentation result with the highest performance for both segmentation and symmetry, which is close to the global optimum. The method has been investigated experimentally in challenging natural images and images containing man-made objects. It is shown that the proposed method outperforms current segmentation methods both with and without exploiting symmetry. A thorough experimental analysis indicates that symmetry plays an important role as a segmentation cue, in conjunction with other attributes like color and texture.
Crossing symmetry in Alpha space
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
The conformal bootstrap program aims to catalog all conformal field theories (second-order phase transitions) in D dimensions. Despite its ambitious scope much progress has been made over the past decade, e.g. in computing critical exponents for the 3D O(N) models to high precision. At this stage, analytic methods to explore the CFT landscape are not as well developed. In this talk I will describe a new mathematical framework for the bootstrap known as "alpha space", which reduces crossing symmetry to a set of integral equations. Based on arXiv:1702.08471 (with Balt van Rees) and arXiv:1703.08159.
Torus knots and mirror symmetry
Brini, Andrea; Marino, Marcos
2012-01-01
We propose a spectral curve describing torus knots and links in the B-model. In particular, the application of the topological recursion to this curve generates all their colored HOMFLY invariants. The curve is obtained by exploiting the full Sl(2, Z) symmetry of the spectral curve of the resolved conifold, and should be regarded as the mirror of the topological D-brane associated to torus knots in the large N Gopakumar-Vafa duality. Moreover, we derive the curve as the large N limit of the matrix model computing torus knot invariants.
Symmetries applied to reactor calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makai, M.
1982-03-01
Three problems of a reactor-calculational model are discussed with the help of symmetry considerations. 1/ A coarse mesh method applicable to any geometry is derived. It is shown that the coarse mesh solution can be constructed from a few standard boundary value problems. 2/ A second stage homogenization method is given based on the Bloch theorem. This ensures the continuity of the current and the flux at the boundary. 3/ The validity of the micro-macro separation is shown for heterogeneous lattices. A formula for the neutron density is derived for cell homogenization. (author)
Hexagonal response matrix using symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gotoh, Y.
1991-01-01
A response matrix for use in core calculations for nuclear reactors with hexagonal fuel assemblies is presented. It is based on the incoming currents averaged over the half-surface of a hexagonal node by applying symmetry theory. The boundary conditions of the incoming currents on the half-surface of the node are expressed by a complete set of orthogonal vectors which are constructed from symmetrized functions. The expansion coefficients of the functions are determined by the boundary conditions of incoming currents. (author)
Symmetries and Dirac equation solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, Marcio Lima de.
1991-06-01
The purpose of this thesis is the extension to be relativistic case of a method that has proved useful for the solution of various potential problems in non relativistic situation. This method, the method of dynamical symmetries, is based on the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorf formulae and developed first for the particular example of the relativistic Coulomb problem. Here we generalize the method for a Hamiltonian that can be written as a linear combination of generators of the SO(2,1) group. As illustrative examples, we solve the problem of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field and the exponential magnetic field. (author). 21 refs
Symmetry generators in singular theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavrov, P.M.; Tyutin, I.V.
1989-01-01
It is proved that in the singular nondegenerate theories any symmetry of the lagrangian under non-point transformations of lagrangian variables with the open (in the general case) algebra in the hamiltonian approach generates corresponding transformations of canonical variables the generator of which is the Noether charge with respect to the Dirac brackets. On the surface of all constraints these transformations leave the hamiltonian invariant and the algebra of the Noether charges is closed. As a consequence it is shown that the nilpotent BRST charge operator always exists in gauge theories of the general form (if possible anomalies are not taken into account)
History of electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kibble, T W B
2015-01-01
In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012. (paper)
Entanglement entropy in quantum spin chains with broken reflection symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadar, Zoltan; Zimboras, Zoltan
2010-01-01
We investigate the entanglement entropy of a block of L sites in quasifree translation-invariant spin chains concentrating on the effect of reflection-symmetry breaking. The Majorana two-point functions corresponding to the Jordan-Wigner transformed fermionic modes are determined in the most general case; from these, it follows that reflection symmetry in the ground state can only be broken if the model is quantum critical. The large L asymptotics of the entropy are calculated analytically for general gauge-invariant models, which have, until now, been done only for the reflection-symmetric sector. Analytical results are also derived for certain nongauge-invariant models (e.g., for the Ising model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction). We also study numerically finite chains of length N with a nonreflection-symmetric Hamiltonian and report that the reflection symmetry of the entropy of the first L spins is violated but the reflection-symmetric Calabrese-Cardy formula is recovered asymptotically. Furthermore, for noncritical reflection-symmetry-breaking Hamiltonians, we find an anomaly in the behavior of the saturation entropy as we approach the critical line. The paper also provides a concise but extensive review of the block-entropy asymptotics in translation-invariant quasifree spin chains with an analysis of the nearest-neighbor case and the enumeration of the yet unsolved parts of the quasifree landscape.
Flavor symmetries and fermion masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasin, A.
1994-04-01
We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V ub /V cb = √m u /m c and V td /V ts = √m d /m s , are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanΒ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model
Spinor Structure and Internal Symmetries
Varlamov, V. V.
2015-10-01
Spinor structure and internal symmetries are considered within one theoretical framework based on the generalized spin and abstract Hilbert space. Complex momentum is understood as a generating kernel of the underlying spinor structure. It is shown that tensor products of biquaternion algebras are associated with the each irreducible representation of the Lorentz group. Space-time discrete symmetries P, T and their combination PT are generated by the fundamental automorphisms of this algebraic background (Clifford algebras). Charge conjugation C is presented by a pseudoautomorphism of the complex Clifford algebra. This description of the operation C allows one to distinguish charged and neutral particles including particle-antiparticle interchange and truly neutral particles. Spin and charge multiplets, based on the interlocking representations of the Lorentz group, are introduced. A central point of the work is a correspondence between Wigner definition of elementary particle as an irreducible representation of the Poincaré group and SU(3)-description (quark scheme) of the particle as a vector of the supermultiplet (irreducible representation of SU(3)). This correspondence is realized on the ground of a spin-charge Hilbert space. Basic hadron supermultiplets of SU(3)-theory (baryon octet and two meson octets) are studied in this framework. It is shown that quark phenomenologies are naturally incorporated into presented scheme. The relationship between mass and spin is established. The introduced spin-mass formula and its combination with Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula allows one to take a new look at the problem of mass spectrum of elementary particles.
Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bravetti, A.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S.; Nettel, F.
2015-01-01
It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production
Dual symmetry in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshkarov, A.L.
1997-01-01
Continuous dual symmetry in electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory and gravitation is investigated. Dual invariant which leads to badly nonlinear motion equations is chosen as a Lagrangian of the pure classical dual nonlinear electrodynamics. In a natural manner some dual angle which is determined by the electromagnetic strengths at the point of the time-space appears in the model. Motion equations may well be interpreted as the equations of the standard Maxwell theory with source. Alternative interpretation is the quasi-Maxwell linear theory with magnetic charge. Analogous approach is possible in the Yang-Mills theory. In this case the dual-invariant non-Abelian theory motion equations possess the same instanton solutions as the conventional Yang-Mills equations have. An Abelian two-parameter dual group is found to exist in gravitation. Irreducible representations have been obtained: the curvature tensor was expanded into the sum of twice anti-self-dual and self-dual parts. Gravitational instantons are defined as (real )solutions to the usual duality equations. Central symmetry solutions to these equations are obtained. The twice anti-self-dual part of the curvature tensor may be used for introduction of new gravitational equations generalizing Einstein''s equations. However, the theory obtained reduces to the conformal-flat Nordstroem theory
Symmetry breaking and scalar bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gildener, E.; Weinberg, S.
1976-01-01
There are reasons to suspect that the spontaneous breakdown of the gauge symmetries of the observed weak and electromagnetic interactions may be produced by the vacuum expectation values of massless weakly coupled elementary scalar fields. A method is described for finding the broken-symmetry solutions of such theories even when they contain arbitrary numbers of scalar fields with unconstrained couplings. In any such theory, there should exist a number of heavy Higgs bosons, with masses comparable to the intermediate vector bosons, plus one light Higgs boson, or ''scalon'' with mass of order αG/sub F/sub 1/2/. The mass and couplings of the scalon are calculable in terms of other masses, even without knowing all the details of the theory. For an SU(2) direct-product U(1) model with arbitrary numbers of scalar isodoublets, the scalon mass is greater than 5.26 GeV; a likely value is 7--10 GeV. The production and decay of the scalon are briefly considered. Some comments are offered on the relation between the mass scales associated with the weak and strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, J.P.
1976-01-01
A new picture of nature is proposed in which there are only two fundamental universal constants anti e (identical with e/c) and dirac constant (identical with dirac constant/c). The theory is developed within the framework of a new four-dimensional symmetry which is constructed on the basis of the Poincare--Einstein principle of relativity for the laws of physics and the Newtonian concept of time. One obtains a new space--light transformation law, a velocity-addition law, and so on. In this symmetry scheme, the speed of light is constant and is completely relative. The new theory is logically self-consistent, and it moreover is in agreement with all previously established experimental facts, such as the ''lifetime dilatation'' of unstable particles, the Michelson--Morley experiment, etc. There is a difference relative to the usual theory, though, in that our theory predicts a new law for the Doppler frequency shift, which can be tested experimentally by measuring the second-order frequency shift
Discrete symmetries with neutral mesons
Bernabéu, José
2018-01-01
Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K physics at KLOE-2, including the difference between the semileptonic asymmetries from KL and KS, the ratios of double decay rate Intensities to Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products and the ω-effect. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV.
Symmetry between bosons and fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuki, Y.; Kamefuchi, S.
1986-01-01
By definition Bosons and Fermions behave quite differently as regards statistics. It is equally true, however, that in some other respects they do behave similarly or even symmetrically. In the present paper they would like to show that such similarity or symmetry can be exhibited most fully when the theory is formulated in a specific manner, i.e. in terms of annihilation and creation operators a/sub j/ and a/sub j//sup dagger/ or what they term g-numbers. The difference between Bosons and Fermions can, of course, be traced back to the difference in the signatures (jj) = +,- attached to the brackets in the basic commutation relations: [a/sub j/,a/sub j//sup dagger/]-(jj) = 1, [a/sub j/,a/sub j/]-(jj) = 0. However, the substantial part of the theory can in fact be formulated without specifying the individual signatures (jj). This is why it is possible to treat Bosons and Fermions in a unified manner, and to thereby consider, among the two, super- or more general, g-symmetry transformations. 6 references, 1 table
Vertex algebras and mirror symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisov, L.A.
2001-01-01
Mirror Symmetry for Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in toric varieties is by now well established. However, previous approaches to it did not uncover the underlying reason for mirror varieties to be mirror. We are able to calculate explicitly vertex algebras that correspond to holomorphic parts of A and B models of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces and complete intersections in toric varieties. We establish the relation between these vertex algebras for mirror Calabi-Yau manifolds. This should eventually allow us to rewrite the whole story of toric mirror symmetry in the language of sheaves of vertex algebras. Our approach is purely algebraic and involves simple techniques from toric geometry and homological algebra, as well as some basic results of the theory of vertex algebras. Ideas of this paper may also be useful in other problems related to maps from curves to algebraic varieties.This paper could also be of interest to physicists, because it contains explicit description of holomorphic parts of A and B models of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces and complete intersections in terms of free bosons and fermions. (orig.)
Gauge symmetries, topology, and quantisation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balachandran, A.P.
1994-01-01
The following two loosely connected sets of topics are reviewed in these lecture notes: (1) Gauge invariance, its treatment in field theories and its implications for internal symmetries and edge states such as those in the quantum Hall effect. (2) Quantisation on multiply connected spaces and a topological proof the spin-statistics theorem which avoids quantum field theory and relativity. Under (1), after explaining the meaning of gauge invariance and the theory of constraints, we discuss boundary conditions on gauge transformations and the definition of internal symmetries in gauge field theories. We then show how the edge states in the quantum Hall effect can be derived from the Chern-Simons action using the preceding ideas. Under (2), after explaining the significance of fibre bundles for quantum physics, we review quantisation on multiply connected spaces in detail, explaining also mathematical ideas such as those of the universal covering space and the fundamental group. These ideas are then used to prove the aforementioned topological spin-statistics theorem
Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraggi, A.E.
1996-10-01
Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model the author illustrates how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations
On the origin of neutrino flavour symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph
2009-01-01
We study classes of models which are based on some discrete family symmetry which is completely broken such that the observed neutrino flavour symmetry emerges indirectly as an accidental symmetry. For such 'indirect' models we discuss the D-term flavon vacuum alignments which are required for such an accidental flavour symmetry consistent with tri-bimaximal lepton mixing to emerge. We identify large classes of suitable discrete family symmetries, namely the Δ(3n 2 ) and Δ(6n 2 ) groups, together with other examples such as Z 7 x Z 3 . In such indirect models the implementation of the type I see-saw mechanism is straightforward using constrained sequential dominance. However the accidental neutrino flavour symmetry may be easily violated, for example leading to a large reactor angle, while maintaining accurately the tri-bimaximal solar and atmospheric predictions.
Symmetry analysis in parametrisation of complex systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sikora, W; Malinowski, J
2010-01-01
The symmetry analysis method based on the theory of group representations is used for description of complex systems and their behavior in this work. The first trial of using the symmetry analysis in modeling of behavior of complex social system is presented. The evacuation of large building scenarios are discussed as transition from chaotic to ordered states, described as movements of individuals according to fields of displacements, calculated correspondingly to given scenario. The symmetry of the evacuation space is taken into account in calculation of displacements field - the displacements related to every point of this space are presented in the coordinate frame in the best way adapted to given symmetry space group, which is the set of basic vectors of irreducible representation of given symmetry group. The results got with using the symmetry consideration are compared with corresponding results calculated under assumption of shortest way to exits (Voronoi assumption).
Symmetry analysis in parametrisation of complex systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sikora, W; Malinowski, J, E-mail: sikora@novell.ftj.agh.edu.p [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH - University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)
2010-03-01
The symmetry analysis method based on the theory of group representations is used for description of complex systems and their behavior in this work. The first trial of using the symmetry analysis in modeling of behavior of complex social system is presented. The evacuation of large building scenarios are discussed as transition from chaotic to ordered states, described as movements of individuals according to fields of displacements, calculated correspondingly to given scenario. The symmetry of the evacuation space is taken into account in calculation of displacements field - the displacements related to every point of this space are presented in the coordinate frame in the best way adapted to given symmetry space group, which is the set of basic vectors of irreducible representation of given symmetry group. The results got with using the symmetry consideration are compared with corresponding results calculated under assumption of shortest way to exits (Voronoi assumption).
Discrete symmetries in periodic-orbit theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robbins, J.M.
1989-01-01
The application of periodic-orbit theory to systems which possess a discrete symmetry is considered. A semiclassical expression for the symmetry-projected Green's function is obtained; it involves a sum over classical periodic orbits on a symmetry-reduced phase space, weighted by characters of the symmetry group. These periodic orbits correspond to trajectories on the full phase space which are not necessarily periodic, but whose end points are related by symmetry. If the symmetry-projected Green's functions are summed, the contributions of the unperiodic orbits cancel, and one recovers the usual periodic-orbit sum for the full Green's function. Several examples are considered, including the stadium billiard, a particle in a periodic potential, the Sinai billiard, the quartic oscillator, and the rotational spectrum of SF 6
Symmetry adaptation in two-photon spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kibler, M.
1991-11-01
Symmetry adaptation techniques are applied to the determination of the intensity of two-photon transitions for transition ions in finite symmetry environments. The case of intra-configurational transitions are discussed with some details and some results on inter-configurational transitions are briefly reported. In particular, for intra-configurational transitions, a model is described which takes into account the following ingredients: (symmetry, second- plus third-order mechanisms, S-, L- and J-mixings). (author) 20 refs
Galileo symmetries in polymer particle representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiou, D-W
2007-01-01
To illustrate the conceptual problems for the low-energy symmetries in the continuum of spacetime emerging from the discrete quantum geometry, Galileo symmetries are investigated in the polymer particle representation of a non-relativistic particle as a simple toy model. The complete Galileo transformations (translation, rotation and Galileo boost) are naturally defined in the polymer particle Hilbert space and Galileo symmetries are recovered with highly suppressed deviations in the low-energy regime from the underlying polymer particle description
Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanciu, S.
1994-01-01
We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: the SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. In all three cases we find that the algebra of symmetries is isomorphic to the algebra of superdifferential operators, or equivalently SW 1+∞ . These results seem to suggest that despite their realization depending on the dynamics, the additional symmetries are kinematical in nature. (orig.)
Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models
Karliner, Marek; Hen, Itay
We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions - breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.
Spontaneously broken global symmetries and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shafi, Q.; Vilenkin, A.
1984-01-01
Phase transitions associated with spontaneously broken global symmetries, in case these occur in nature, can have important cosmological implications. This is illustrated through two examples. The first one shows how the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry, present, for instance, in the minimal SU(5) model, can lead to an inflationary phase. The second example illustrates how topologically stable strings associated with the breaking of U(1) symmetry make an appearance at (or near) the end of the inflationary era
Symmetries in discrete-time mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khorrami, M.
1996-01-01
Based on a general formulation for discrete-time quantum mechanics, introduced by M. Khorrami (Annals Phys. 224 (1995), 101), symmetries in discrete-time quantum mechanics are investigated. It is shown that any classical continuous symmetry leads to a conserved quantity in classical mechanics, as well as quantum mechanics. The transformed wave function, however, has the correct evolution if and only if the symmetry is nonanomalous. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc
Fermion dynamical symmetry and identical bands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M.
1994-01-01
Recent general attention has been directed to the phenomenon of identical bands in both normally deformed and superdeformed nuclei. This paper discusses the possibility that such behavior results from a dynamical symmetry of the nuclear many-body system. Phenomenology and the basic principles of Lie algebras are used to place conditions on the acceptable properties of a candidate symmetry. We find that quite general arguments require that such a symmetry have a minimum of 21 generators with a microscopic fermion interpretation
Discrete symmetries and coset space dimensional reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.
1989-01-01
We consider the discrete symmetries of all the six-dimensional coset spaces and we apply them in gauge theories defined in ten dimensions which are dimensionally reduced over these homogeneous spaces. Particular emphasis is given in the consequences of the discrete symmetries on the particle content as well as on the symmetry breaking a la Hosotani of the resulting four-dimensional theory. (orig.)
The near-symmetry of proteins.
Bonjack-Shterengartz, Maayan; Avnir, David
2015-04-01
The majority of protein oligomers form clusters which are nearly symmetric. Understanding of that imperfection, its origins, and perhaps also its advantages requires the conversion of the currently used vague qualitative descriptive language of the near-symmetry into an accurate quantitative measure that will allow to answer questions such as: "What is the degree of symmetry deviation of the protein?," "how do these deviations compare within a family of proteins?," and so on. We developed quantitative methods to answer this type of questions, which are capable of analyzing the whole protein, its backbone or selected portions of it, down to comparison of symmetry-related specific amino-acids, and which are capable of visualizing the various levels of symmetry deviations in the form of symmetry maps. We have applied these methods on an extensive list of homomers and heteromers and found that apparently all proteins never reach perfect symmetry. Strikingly, even homomeric protein clusters are never ideally symmetric. We also found that the main burden of symmetry distortion is on the amino-acids near the symmetry axis; that it is mainly the more hydrophilic amino-acids that take place in symmetry-distortive interactions; and more. The remarkable ability of heteromers to preserve near-symmetry, despite the different sequences, was also shown and analyzed. The comprehensive literature on the suggested advantages symmetric oligomerizations raises a yet-unsolved key question: If symmetry is so advantageous, why do proteins stop shy of perfect symmetry? Some tentative answers to be tested in further studies are suggested in a concluding outlook. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Inverse semigroups the theory of partial symmetries
Lawson, Mark V
1998-01-01
Symmetry is one of the most important organising principles in the natural sciences. The mathematical theory of symmetry has long been associated with group theory, but it is a basic premise of this book that there are aspects of symmetry which are more faithfully represented by a generalization of groups called inverse semigroups. The theory of inverse semigroups is described from its origins in the foundations of differential geometry through to its most recent applications in combinatorial group theory, and the theory tilings.
Broken SU(4) symmetry and new resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueda, Y.
1975-11-01
Weinberg's spectral function sum rules are modified to accommodate broken symmetry effects of SU(4). With a simple choice of the symmetry-breaking term, the spectral function sum rules yield the observed vector meson mass spectrum as well as sum rules for the e - e + decay rates of vector mesons. In particular, a new mass formula, which can be interpreted as the broken symmetry version of the Schwinger formula, is derived, the agreement with experiments is excellent. (Ueda, Y.)
Dark matter reflection of particle symmetry
Khlopov, Maxim Yu.
2017-05-01
In the context of the relationship between physics of cosmological dark matter and symmetry of elementary particles, a wide list of dark matter candidates is possible. New symmetries provide stability of different new particles and their combination can lead to a multicomponent dark matter. The pattern of symmetry breaking involves phase transitions in the very early Universe, extending the list of candidates by topological defects and even primordial nonlinear structures.
Forbidden transitions in the EPR spectrum of the ferric ion cubic symmetry in magesium oxide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Biasi, R S [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia e Ciencia dos Materiais
1979-03-01
The spectrum of the ..delta..m /sub s/=2 transitions of Fe/sup 3 +/ in cubic symmetry sites in MgO has been measured at 9.25GHz. The orientation dependence of the transitions is found to be consistent with a spin Hamiltonian of cubic symmetry with g=2.0037(isotropic), a=0.0205/sup +/-0.00005 cm/sup -1/.
Elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields.
Pan, Yue; Li, Yongnan; Li, Si-Min; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian
2014-08-11
We present in principle and demonstrate experimentally a new kind of vector fields: elliptic-symmetry vector optical fields. This is a significant development in vector fields, as this breaks the cylindrical symmetry and enriches the family of vector fields. Due to the presence of an additional degrees of freedom, which is the interval between the foci in the elliptic coordinate system, the elliptic-symmetry vector fields are more flexible than the cylindrical vector fields for controlling the spatial structure of polarization and for engineering the focusing fields. The elliptic-symmetry vector fields can find many specific applications from optical trapping to optical machining and so on.
A κ-symmetry calculus for superparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauntlett, J.P.
1991-01-01
We develop a κ-symmetry calculus for the d=2 and d=3, N=2 massive superparticles, which enables us to construct higher order κ-invariant actions. The method relies on a reformulation of these models as supersymmetric sigma models that are invariant under local worldline superconformal transformations. We show that the κ-symmetry is embedded in the superconformal symmetry so that a calculus for the κ-symmetry is equivalent to a tensor calculus for the latter. We develop such a calculus without the introduction of a wordline supergravity multiplet. (orig.)
Symmetry, Wigner functions and particle reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chavlejshvili, M.P.
1994-01-01
We consider the great principle of physics - symmetry - and some ideas, connected with it, suggested by a great physicist Eugene Wigner. We will discuss the concept of symmetry and spin, study the problem of separation of kinematics and dynamics in particle reactions. Using Wigner rotation functions (reflecting symmetry properties) in helicity amplitude decomposition and crossing-symmetry between helicity amplitudes (which contains the same Wigner functions) we get convenient general formalism for description of reactions between particles with any masses and spins. We also consider some applications of the formalism. 17 refs., 1 tab
Spontaneous symmetry breaking and its cosmological consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobzarev, I.Yu.
1975-01-01
The concept of symmetry and of the spontaneous symmetry breaking are presented in popular form as applied to quantum physics. Though the presence of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is not proved directly for interactions of elementary particles, on considering the hypothesis of its presence as applied to the hot Universe theory a possibility of obtaining rather uncommon cosmological consequences is discussed. In particular, spontaneous symmetry breaking of vacuum and the rather hot Universe lead necessarily to the presence of the domain structure of the Universe with the surfase energy at the domain interface in the form of a real physical object
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
METODIJA NAJDOSKI
2000-07-01
Full Text Available Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR reflection spectra, asquired at nearnormal incidence, were recorded from single crystals belonging to six crystal systems: CsCr(SO42.12H2O (alum, cubic, K2CuCl2·2H2O (Mitscherlichite, tetragonal, CaCO3 (calcite, hexagonal, KHSO4 (mercallite, orthorhombic, CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum, monoclinic and CuSO4·5H2O (chalcantite, triclinic. The acquired IR reflection spectra were further transformed into absorption spectra, employing the Kramers-Kronig transformation. Except for the cubic alums, the spectra strongly depend on the crystal face from which they were recorded; this is a consequence of anisotropy. Phonons of a given symmetry (E-species, in tetragonal/hexagonal and B-species, in monoclinic crystals may be resolved without using a polariser. The spectrum may be simplified in the case of an orthorhombic crystal, as well. The longitudinal-optical (LO and transversal-optical (TO mode frequencies were calculated in the case of optically isotropic and the simplified spectra of optically uniaxial crystals.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coimbatore Balram, Ajit; Jain, Jainendra
2017-01-01
The particle-hole (PH) symmetry of {\\em electrons} is an exact symmetry of the electronic Hamiltonian confined to a specific Landau level, and its interplay with the formation of composite fermions has attracted much attention of late. This article investigates an emergent symmetry...... in the fractional quantum Hall effect, namely the PH symmetry of {\\em composite fermions}, which relates states at composite fermion filling factors $\
Nuclear probes of fundamental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adelberger, E.G.
1983-01-01
Nuclear experiments which probe the parity (P) and time-reversal (T) symmetries and lepton-number conservation are reviewed. The P-violating NN interaction, studied in the NN system and in light nuclei, provides an unique window on ΔS=0 hadronic weak processes. Results are in accord with expectations. Sensitive searches for T-violation via detailed balance, T-odd correlations in γ and β-decay, and a possible neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) are discussed. No T-violation is observed. The EDM limit is almost good enough to eliminate one of the leading theoretical explanations for CP violation. Experimental studies of double β-decay are reviewed. Although ββ nu nu decay has been convincingly detected in geochemical experiments there is no evidence for the lepton number violating ββ decay mode
Pomeranchuk conjecture and symmetry schemes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galindo, A.; Morales, A.; Ruegg, H. [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)
1963-01-15
Pomeranchuk has conjectured that the cross-sections for charge-exchange processes vanish asymptotically as the energy tends to infinity. (By ''charge'' it is meant any internal quantum number, like electric charge, hypercharge, .. . ). It has been stated by several people that this conjecture implies equalities among the total cross-sections whenever any symmetry scheme is invoked for the strong interactions. But to our knowledge no explicit general proof of this statement has been given so far. We want to give this proof for any compact Lie group. We also prove, under certain assumptions, that the equality of the total cross-sections implies that s{sup -l} times the charge-exchange forward scattering absorptive amplitudes tend to zero as s -> ∞.
Symmetry breaking in gauge glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, K.
1988-09-01
In order to explain why nature selects the gauge groups of the Standard Model, Brene and Nielsen have proposed a way to break gauge symmetry which does not rely on the existence of a Higgs field. The observed gauge groups will in this scheme appear as the only surviving ones when this mechanism is applied to a random selection of gauge groups. The essential assumption is a discrete space-time with random couplings. Some working assumptions were made for computational reasons of which the most important is that quantum fluctuations were neclected. This work presents an example which under the same conditions show that a much wider class of groups than predicted by Brene and Nielsen will be broken. In particular no possible Standard Model Group survives unbroken. Numerical calculations support the analytical result. (orig.)
Neutrino properties and fundamental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowles, T.J.
1996-01-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There are two components to this work. The first is a development of a new detection scheme for neutrinos. The observed deficit of neutrinos from the Sun may be due to either a lack of understanding of physical processes in the Sun or may be due to neutrinos oscillating from one type to another during their transit from the Sun to the Earth. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is designed to use a water Cerenkov detector employing one thousand tonnes of heavy water to resolve this question. The ability to distinguish muon and tau neutrinos from electron neutrinos is crucial in order to carry out a model-independent test of neutrino oscillations. We describe a developmental exploration of a novel technique to do this using 3 He proportional counters. Such a method offers considerable advantages over the initially proposed method of using Cerenkov light from capture on NaCl in the SNO. The second component of this work is an exploration of optimal detector geometry for a time-reversal invariance experiment. The question of why time moves only in the forward direction is one of the most puzzling problems in modern physics. We know from particle physics measurements of the decay of kaons that there is a charge-parity symmetry that is violated in nature, implying time-reversal invariance violation. Yet, we do not understand the origin of the violation of this symmetry. To promote such an understanding, we are developing concepts and prototype apparatus for a new, highly sensitive technique to search for time-reversal-invariance violation in the beta decay of the free neutron. The optimized detector geometry is seven times more sensitive than that in previous experiments. 15 refs
Cohomology for Lagrangian systems and Noetherian symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popp, O.T.
1989-06-01
Using the theory of sheaves we find some exact sequences describing the locally Lagrangian systems. Using cohomology theory of groups with coefficients in sheaves we obtain some exact sequences describing the Noetherian symmetries. It is shown how the results can be used to find all locally Lagrangian dynamics Noetherian invariant with respect to a given group of kinematical symmetries.(author)
Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scadron, M.D.
1982-01-01
The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)
Effective lagrangian description on discrete gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banks, T.
1989-01-01
We exhibit a simple low-energy lagrangian which describes a system with a discrete remnant of a spontaneously broken continuous gauge symmetry. The lagrangian gives a simple description of the effects ascribed to such systems by Krauss and Wilczek: black holes carry discrete hair and interact with cosmic strings, and wormholes cannot lead to violation of discrete gauge symmetries. (orig.)
Pauli-Guersey symmetry in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stern, J.
1983-05-01
Gauge theories with massless or massive fermions in a selfcontragredient representation exhibit global symmetries of Pauli-Guersey type. Some of them are broken spontaneously leading to a difermion Goldstone bosons. An example of a boson version of the Pauli-Guersey symmetry is provided by the Weinberg-Salam model in the limit THETAsub(w)→O
Early space symmetry restoration and neutrino experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkov, G.G.; Liparteliani, A.G.; Monich, V.A.
1986-01-01
The problem of early space symmetry restoration on the left-right symmetry models and the models with the extended (due to mirror quarks and leptons) fermion sector is being discussed. The experiments in which the derivations from the standard model of electroweak interactions should be studied are presented
Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kubis, Bastian, E-mail: kubis@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics (Germany)
2011-11-15
A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon's strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for {sup 4}He.
Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubis, Bastian
2011-01-01
A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon’s strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for 4 He.
Broken color symmetry and weak currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stech, B.
1976-01-01
Broken colour symmetry predicts a very rich spectrum of new particles. If broken colour is relevant at all, charged psi-particles should be found in particular at the 4 GeV region. For the weak hadronic currents no completely satisfactory suggestion exists. Broken colour symmetry describes qualitatively several of the new effects observed recently. (BJ) [de
Symmetries of Taub-NUT dual metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baleanu, D.; Codoban, S.
1998-01-01
Recently geometric duality was analyzed for a metric which admits Killing tensors. An interesting example arises when the manifold has Killing-Yano tensors. The symmetries of the dual metrics in the case of Taub-NUT metric are investigated. Generic and non-generic symmetries of dual Taub-NUT metric are analyzed
Reflections on symmetries at SPIN '94
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Page, S.A.
1995-01-01
In my view, the parallel sessions on ''Symmetries'' were amongst the most stimulating sessions of this conference. Speakers reported on experimental tests of Charge Symmetry, Parity, and Time Reversal violation and their theoretical interpretation, spanning a wide range of energy scales and experimental techniques. I hope that this brief summary will whet the reader's appetite to explore the many contributed papers which follow
Space-time and Local Gauge Symmetries
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Symmetries of Particle Physics: Space-time and Local Gauge Symmetries. Sourendu Gupta. General Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 29-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deser, S; Franklin, J
2010-01-01
We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null. (note)
NOTE: Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity
Deser, S.; Franklin, J.
2010-05-01
We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null.
Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deser, S [Physics Department, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Franklin, J, E-mail: deser@brandeis.ed, E-mail: jfrankli@reed.ed [Reed College, Portland, OR 97202 (United States)
2010-05-21
We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null. (note)
Lie symmetries for systems of evolution equations
Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Tsamparlis, Michael
2018-01-01
The Lie symmetries for a class of systems of evolution equations are studied. The evolution equations are defined in a bimetric space with two Riemannian metrics corresponding to the space of the independent and dependent variables of the differential equations. The exact relation of the Lie symmetries with the collineations of the bimetric space is determined.
Symmetry properties of fractional diffusion equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gazizov, R K; Kasatkin, A A; Lukashchuk, S Yu [Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Karl Marx strausse 12, Ufa (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gazizov@mail.rb.ru, E-mail: alexei_kasatkin@mail.ru, E-mail: lsu@mail.rb.ru
2009-10-15
In this paper, nonlinear anomalous diffusion equations with time fractional derivatives (Riemann-Liouville and Caputo) of the order of 0-2 are considered. Lie point symmetries of these equations are investigated and compared. Examples of using the obtained symmetries for constructing exact solutions of the equations under consideration are presented.
Symmetry Properties of Potentiometric Titration Curves.
Macca, Carlo; Bombi, G. Giorgio
1983-01-01
Demonstrates how the symmetry properties of titration curves can be efficiently and rigorously treated by means of a simple method, assisted by the use of logarithmic diagrams. Discusses the symmetry properties of several typical titration curves, comparing the graphical approach and an explicit mathematical treatment. (Author/JM)
Order in the Universe: The Symmetry Principle.
Foundation for Integrative Education, Inc., New York, NY.
The first two papers in this booklet provide a review of the pervasiveness of symmetry in nature and art, discussing how symmetry can be traced through every domain open to our understanding, from all aspects of nature to the special provinces of man; the checks and balances of government, the concept of equal justice, and the aesthetic ordering…
Symmetry breaking and restoration in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Natale, A.A.
A review is made of the utilization of the Higgs mechanism in spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that such as ideas came from an analogy with the superconductivity phenomenological theory based on a Ginzburg-Landau lagrangean. The symmetry restoration through the temperature influence is studied. (L.C.) [pt
Discrete symmetries and their stringy origin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayorga Pena, Damian Kaloni
2014-05-01
Discrete symmetries have proven to be very useful in controlling the phenomenology of theories beyond the standard model. In this work we explore how these symmetries emerge from string compactifications. Our approach is twofold: On the one hand, we consider the heterotic string on orbifold backgrounds. In this case the discrete symmetries can be derived from the orbifold conformal field theory, and it can be shown that they are in close relation with the orbifold geometry. We devote special attention to R-symmetries, which arise from discrete remnants of the Lorentz group in compact space. Further we discuss the physical implications of these symmetries both in the heterotic mini-landscape and in newly constructed models based on the Z 2 x Z 4 orbifold. In both cases we observe that the discrete symmetries favor particular locations in the orbifold where the particles of standard model should live. On the other hand we consider a class of F-theory models exhibiting an SU(5) gauge group, times additional U(1) symmetries. In this case, the smooth compactification background does not permit us to track the discrete symmetries as transparently as in orbifold models. Hence, we follow a different approach and search for discrete subgroups emerging after the U(1)s are broken. We observe that in this approach it is possible to obtain the standard Z 2 matter parity of the MSSM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G M; Zank, G P
2007-01-01
We explore the role of the Lagrangian map for Lie symmetries in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and gas dynamics. By converting the Eulerian Lie point symmetries of the Galilei group to Lagrange label space, in which the Eulerian position coordinate x is regarded as a function of the Lagrange fluid labels x 0 and time t, one finds that there is an infinite class of symmetries in Lagrange label space that map onto each Eulerian Lie point symmetry of the Galilei group. The allowed transformation of the Lagrangian fluid labels x 0 corresponds to a fluid relabelling symmetry, including the case where there is no change in the fluid labels. We also consider a class of three, well-known, scaling symmetries for a gas with a constant adiabatic index γ. These symmetries map onto a modified form of the fluid relabelling symmetry determining equations, with non-zero source terms. We determine under which conditions these symmetries are variational or divergence symmetries of the action, and determine the corresponding Lagrangian and Eulerian conservation laws by use of Noether's theorem. These conservation laws depend on the initial entropy, density and magnetic field of the fluid. We derive the conservation law corresponding to the projective symmetry in gas dynamics, for the case γ = (n + 2)/n, where n is the number of Cartesian space coordinates, and the corresponding result for two-dimensional (2D) MHD, for the case γ = 2. Lie algebraic structures in Lagrange label space corresponding to the symmetries are investigated. The Lie algebraic symmetry relations between the fluid relabelling symmetries in Lagrange label space, and their commutators with a linear combination of the three symmetries with a constant adiabatic index are delineated
Some general constraints on identical band symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M.W.; Strayer, M.R.; Wu, C.; Feng, D.H.
1993-01-01
We argue on general grounds that nearly identical bands observed for superdeformation and less frequently for normal deformation must be explicable in terms of a symmetry having a microscopic basis. We assume that the unknown symmetry is associated with a Lie algebra generated by terms bilinear in fermion creation and annihilation operators. Observed features of these bands and the general properties of Lie groups are then used to place constraints on acceptable algebras. Additional constraints are placed by assuming that the collective spectrum is associated with a dynamical symmetry, and examining the subgroup structure required by phenomenology. We observe that requisite symmetry cannot be unitary, and that the simplest known group structures consistent with these minimal criteria are associated with the Ginocchio algebras employed in the fermion dynamical symmetry model. However, our arguments are general in nature, and we propose that they imply model-independent constraints on any candidate explanation for identical bands
Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries
Leach, P. G. L.; Karasu Kalkanli, A.; Nucci, M. C.; Andriopoulos, K.
2005-11-01
We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R). The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.
Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.G.L. Leach
2005-11-01
Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R. The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.
Braided quantum field theories and their symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasai, Yuya; Sasakura, Naoki
2007-01-01
Braided quantum field theories, proposed by Oeckl, can provide a framework for quantum field theories that possess Hopf algebra symmetries. In quantum field theories, symmetries lead to non-perturbative relations among correlation functions. We study Hopf algebra symmetries and such relations in the context of braided quantum field theories. We give the four algebraic conditions among Hopf algebra symmetries and braided quantum field theories that are required for the relations to hold. As concrete examples, we apply our analysis to the Poincare symmetries of two examples of noncommutative field theories. One is the effective quantum field theory of three-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to spinless particles formulated by Freidel and Livine, and the other is noncommutative field theory on the Moyal plane. We also comment on quantum field theory in κ-Minkowski spacetime. (author)
Atomic Nuclei with Tetrahedral and Octahedral Symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudek, J.; Gozdz, A.; Schunck, N.
2003-01-01
We present possible manifestations of octahedral and tetrahedral symmetries in nuclei. These symmetries are associated with the O D h and T D d double point groups. Both of them have very characteristic finger-prints in terms of the nucleonic level properties - unique in the Fermionic universe. The tetrahedral symmetry leads to the four-fold degeneracies in the nucleonic spectra; it does not preserve the parity. The octahedral symmetry leads to the four-fold degeneracies in the nucleonic spectra as well but it does preserve the parity. Microscopic predictions have been obtained using mean-field theory based on the relativistic equations and confirmed by using ''traditional'' Schrodinger equation formalism. Calculations are performed in multidimensional deformation spaces using newly designed algorithms. We discuss some experimental fingerprints of the hypothetical new symmetries and possibilities of their verification through experiments. (author)
From affine Hecke algebras to boundary symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doikou, Anastasia
2005-01-01
Motivated by earlier works we employ appropriate realizations of the affine Hecke algebra and we recover previously known non-diagonal solutions of the reflection equation for the U q (gl n -bar ) case. The corresponding N site spin chain with open boundary conditions is then constructed and boundary non-local charges associated to the non-diagonal solutions of the reflection equation are derived, as coproduct realizations of the reflection algebra. With the help of linear intertwining relations involving the aforementioned solutions of the reflection equation, the symmetry of the open spin chain with the corresponding boundary conditions is exhibited, being essentially a remnant of the U q (gl n -bar ) algebra. More specifically, we show that representations of certain boundary non-local charges commute with the generators of the affine Hecke algebra and with the local Hamiltonian of the open spin chain for a particular choice of boundary conditions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the transfer matrix of the open spin chain commutes with a certain number of boundary non-local charges, depending on the choice of boundary conditions
Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, J.T.
1981-01-01
A formal Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking is studied in an attempt to reduce the arbitrariness of Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) models which include several free parameters and/or ad hoc symmetry groups. From Lie algebra it is shown that the unbroken Lagrangian vacuum symmetry can be identified from a linear function of integers which are Cartan matrix elements. In broken symmetry if the breaking operators form an algebra then the breaking symmetry (or symmetries) can be identified from linear functions of integers characteristic of the breaking symmetries. The results are applied to the Dirac Hamiltonian of a sum of flavored fermions and colored bosons in the absence of dynamical symmetry breaking. In the partially reduced quadratic Hamiltonian the breaking-operator functions are shown to consist of terms of order g 2 , g, and g 0 in the color coupling constants and identified with strong (boson-boson), medium strong (boson-fermion), and fine-structure (fermion-fermion) interactions. The breaking operators include a boson helicity operator in addition to the familiar fermion helicity and ''spin-orbit'' terms. Within the broken vacuum defined by the conventional formalism, the field divergence yields a gauge which is a linear function of Cartan matrix integers and which specifies the vacuum symmetry. We find that the vacuum symmetry is chiral SU(3) x SU(3) and the axial-vector-current divergence gives a PCAC -like function of the Cartan matrix integers which reduces to PCAC for SU(2) x SU(2) breaking. For the mass spectra of the nonets J/sup P/ = 0 - ,1/2 + ,1 - the integer runs through the sequence 3,0,-1,-2, which indicates that the breaking subgroups are the simple Lie groups. Exact axial-vector-current conservation indicates a breaking sum rule which generates octet enhancement. Finally, the second-order breaking terms are obtained from the second-order spin tensor sum of the completely reduced quartic Hamiltonian
Efficient Symmetry Reduction and the Use of State Symmetries for Symbolic Model Checking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Appold
2010-06-01
Full Text Available One technique to reduce the state-space explosion problem in temporal logic model checking is symmetry reduction. The combination of symmetry reduction and symbolic model checking by using BDDs suffered a long time from the prohibitively large BDD for the orbit relation. Dynamic symmetry reduction calculates representatives of equivalence classes of states dynamically and thus avoids the construction of the orbit relation. In this paper, we present a new efficient model checking algorithm based on dynamic symmetry reduction. Our experiments show that the algorithm is very fast and allows the verification of larger systems. We additionally implemented the use of state symmetries for symbolic symmetry reduction. To our knowledge we are the first who investigated state symmetries in combination with BDD based symbolic model checking.
Crystal Symmetry Algorithms in a High-Throughput Framework for Materials
Taylor, Richard
The high-throughput framework AFLOW that has been developed and used successfully over the last decade is improved to include fully-integrated software for crystallographic symmetry characterization. The standards used in the symmetry algorithms conform with the conventions and prescriptions given in the International Tables of Crystallography (ITC). A standard cell choice with standard origin is selected, and the space group, point group, Bravais lattice, crystal system, lattice system, and representative symmetry operations are determined. Following the conventions of the ITC, the Wyckoff sites are also determined and their labels and site symmetry are provided. The symmetry code makes no assumptions on the input cell orientation, origin, or reduction and has been integrated in the AFLOW high-throughput framework for materials discovery by adding to the existing code base and making use of existing classes and functions. The software is written in object-oriented C++ for flexibility and reuse. A performance analysis and examination of the algorithms scaling with cell size and symmetry is also reported.
Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Levin
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.
Nuclear symmetries at low isospin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juillet, Olivier
1999-01-01
With the development of radioactive beams, an area of intense research in nuclear physics concerns the structure of exotic systems with roughly equal numbers of protons and neutrons. These nuclei might in fact develop a proton-neutron superfluidity whose importance compared to pairing correlations between like nucleons is currently investigated. The work presented in this thesis suggests to look at such a competition in an algebraic framework based on a Wigner SU(4) symmetry that combines the pseudo-spin and isospin degrees of freedom. After a detailed review of group theory in quantum mechanics, the validity of the pseudo-SU(4) classification is shown via a direct analysis of realistic shell model states. Its consequences on binding energies and β decay are also studied. Moreover, a simplified boson realisation with zero orbital angular momentum is used to find some physical features of N=Z nuclei such as the condensation of α-like structures or the destruction of isoscalar superfluid correlations by the spin-orbit potential. Finally, another bosonization scheme that includes quadrupole degrees of freedom (IBM-4 model) is tested for the first time by diagonalization of a full Hamiltonian deduced from a realistic shell model interaction. The quality of the results, especially for odd-odd nuclei, allows one to consider this boson approximation as an alternative to standard fermionic approaches for the collective structure of the exotic line N∼Z=28-50. (author) [fr
Higher spins and Yangian symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaberdiel, Matthias R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gopakumar, Rajesh [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences-TIFR, Survey No. 151, Shivakote, Hesaraghatta Hobli, Bengaluru North 560 089 (India); Li, Wei [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,100190 Beijing (China); Peng, Cheng [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)
2017-04-26
The relation between the bosonic higher spin W{sub ∞}[λ] algebra, the affine Yangian of gl{sub 1}, and the SH{sup c} algebra is established in detail. For generic λ we find explicit expressions for the low-lying W{sub ∞}[λ] modes in terms of the affine Yangian generators, and deduce from this the precise identification between λ and the parameters of the affine Yangian. Furthermore, for the free field cases corresponding to λ=0 and λ=1 we give closed-form expressions for the affine Yangian generators in terms of the free fields. Interestingly, the relation between the W{sub ∞} modes and those of the affine Yangian is a non-local one, in general. We also establish the explicit dictionary between the affine Yangian and the SH{sup c} generators. Given that Yangian algebras are the hallmark of integrability, these identifications should pave the way towards uncovering the relation between the integrable and the higher spin symmetries.
PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XIV
Schuch, Dieter; Ramek, Michael
2010-04-01
Symmetries Logo This volume of the proceedings "Symmetries in Science XIV" is dedicated to the memory of our colleagues and dear friends Marcos Moshinsky and Yuriĭ Smirnov who regularly participated in these Symposia and were a great inspiration to many. We shall miss them. Dieter Schuch and Michael Ramek The international symposium "Symmetries in Science XIV" held at Collegium Mehrerau in Bregenz, Austria from July 19-24, 2009, attended by 32 scientists from 11 countries, was an experiment, performed by theoreticians. Aim of this experiment was to find out if the desire to revive or even continue this conference series was stronger than the very restricted pecuniary boundary conditions. It obviously was! After its establishment by Bruno Gruber in 1979, the biennial series settled in the very stimulating atmosphere of the monastery Mehrerau, which provided the ideal environment for a limited number of invited participants to exchange ideas, without parallel sessions, and pursue deeper discussions (at the latest in the evening at "Gasthof Lamm"). When the conference series terminated in 2003, former participants were quite disappointed. Meeting again at several (larger) conferences in subsequent years, there were repeated expressions of "the lack of a Bregenz-type meeting in our field nowadays" and the question of a possible "revitalization", even without external funding. After some hesitation, but also driven by our own desire to reinstate the series, we consulted Bruno who not only approved wholeheartedly but also offered his full support. It all finally led to the symposium in July 2009. The atmosphere was really like in the "good old days" and the interesting and thought-provoking presentations culminated in the publication of these Proceedings. We are grateful to Carl Bender for establishing contact with IOP making it possible for us to publish these Proceedings in the Journal of Physics Conference Series. A majority of the participants contributed to these
Group symmetries and information propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Draayer, J.P.
1980-01-01
Spectroscopy concerns itself with the ways in which the Hamiltonian and other interesting operators defined in few-particle spaces are determined or determine properties of many-particle systems. But the action of the central limit theorem (CLT) filters the transmission of information between source and observed so whether propagating forward from a few-particle defining space, as is usual in theoretical studies, or projecting backward to it from measured things, each is only sensitive to averaged properties of the other. Our concern is with the propagation of spectroscopic information in the presence of good symmetries when filtering action of the CLT is effective. Specifically, we propose to address the question, What propagates and how. We begin with some examples, using both scalar and isospin geometries to illustrate simple propagation. Examples of matrix propagation are studied; contact with standard tensor algebra is established and an algorithm put forward for the expansion of any operator in terms of another set, complete or not; shell-model results for 20 Ne using a realistic interaction and two trace-equivalent forms are presented; and some further challenges are mentioned
PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XVI
2014-10-01
This volume of the proceedings ''Symmetries in Science XVI'' is dedicated to the memory of Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon who both participated several times in these Symposia. We lost not only two great scientists and colleagues, but also two wonderful persons of high esteem whom we will always remember. Dieter Schuch, Michael Ramek There is a German saying ''all good things come in threes'' and ''Symmetries in Science XVI'', convened July 20-26, 2013 at the Mehrerau Monastery, was our third in the sequel of these symposia since taking it over from founder Bruno Gruber who instigated it in 1988 (then in Lochau). Not only the time seemed to have been perfect (one week of beautiful sunshine), but also the medley of participants could hardly have been better. This time, 34 scientists from 16 countries (more than half outside the European Union) came together to report and discuss their latest results in various fields of science, all related to symmetries. The now customary grouping of renowned experts and talented newcomers was very rewarding and stimulating for all. The informal, yet intense, discussions at ''Gasthof Lamm'' occurred (progressively later) each evening till well after midnight and finally till almost daybreak! However, prior to the opening ceremony and during the conference, respectively, we were informed that Miguel Lorente and Allan Solomon had recently passed away. Both attended the SIS Symposia several times and had many friends among present and former participants. Professor Peter Kramer, himself a long-standing participant and whose 80th birthday commemoration prevented him from attending SIS XVI, kindly agreed to write the obituary for Miguel Lorente. Professors Richard Kerner and Carol Penson (both also former attendees) penned, at very short notice, the tribute to Allan Solomon. The obituaries are included in these Proceedings and further tributes have been posted to our conference website. In 28 lectures and an evening poster
Conformal symmetry and string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, A.
1987-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the study of various aspects of the 2-dimensional conformal field theory and its applications to strings. We make a short review of the conformal field theory and its supersymmetric extension, called superconformal field theory. We present an elegant superspace formulation of these theories and solve the condition for the closure of the superconformal algebra. The we go on to classify the superconformal field theories according to these solutions. We prove that N ≥ 5 superconformal algebra, with N being the number of supersymmetries, does not have central charge. We find the primary representations of all the interesting superconformal algebra. We study the quantization of the superconformal theories and derive the constraints on the central charge of the algebra that has to be satisfied for a consistent quantum theory. This quantization process also determines the ground state energy of the system and the spectrum of the model. We study the global aspects of the conformal symmetry and its role in the construction of consistent heterotic string theories. We prove the uniqueness of heterotic superstring theories in 10 dimensions in the fermionic constructions. We show how the vertex operators are closely associated with the primary field representation of the conformal algebra. We utilize these vertex operator constructions to obtain tree amplitudes in the 10-dimensional heterotic string theory. We show by explicit calculation at the 3-point level that the scattering amplitudes derived from the heterotic superstring are same as the ones obtained from 10-dimensional supergravity theories
Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson chiral fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mandula, Jeffrey E.
2009-01-01
The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luescher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter invariant subgroup, and the factor group, whose elements are its cosets, is isomorphic to the continuum chiral symmetry group. Features of the currents associated with these symmetries are discussed, including the fact that some different, noncommuting symmetry generators lead to the same Noether current. These are universal features of lattice chiral fermions based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation; they occur in the overlap, domain-wall, and perfect-action formulations. In a solvable example, free overlap fermions, these noncanonical elements of lattice chiral symmetry are related to complex energy singularities that violate reflection positivity and impede continuation to Minkowski space.
Geometric phases and hidden local gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo
2005-01-01
The analysis of geometric phases associated with level crossing is reduced to the familiar diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in the second quantized formulation. A hidden local gauge symmetry, which is associated with the arbitrariness of the phase choice of a complete orthonormal basis set, becomes explicit in this formulation (in particular, in the adiabatic approximation) and specifies physical observables. The choice of a basis set which specifies the coordinate in the functional space is arbitrary in the second quantization, and a subclass of coordinate transformations, which keeps the form of the action invariant, is recognized as the gauge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this hidden local gauge symmetry in detail by analyzing geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. It is shown that the hidden local symmetry provides a basic concept alternative to the notion of holonomy to analyze geometric phases and that the analysis based on the hidden local gauge symmetry leads to results consistent with the general prescription of Pancharatnam. We however note an important difference between the geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. We also explain a basic difference between our hidden local gauge symmetry and a gauge symmetry (or equivalence class) used by Aharonov and Anandan in their definition of generalized geometric phases
Quantum Tunneling Symmetry of Single Molecule Magnet Mn_12-acetate
del Barco, E.; Kent, A. D.; Rumberger, E.; Hendrikson, D. N.; Christou, G.
2003-03-01
We have studied the symmetry of magnetic quantum tunneling (MQT) in single crystals of single molecular magnet (SMM) Mn_12-acetate. A superconducting high field vector magnet was used to apply magnetic fields in arbitrary directions respect to the axes of the crystal. The MQT probability is extracted from the change in magnetization measured on sweeping the field through a MQT resonance. This is related to the quantum splitting of the molecules relaxing in the time window of the experiment [1]. The dependence of the MQT probability on the angle between the applied transverse field and the crystallographic axes shows a four-fold rotation pattern, with maxima at angles separated by 90 degrees. By selecting a part of the splitting distribution of the sample by applying an initial transverse field in the direction of one of the observed maxima the situation changes completely. The resulting behavior of the MQT probability shows a two-fold rotation pattern with maxima separated by 180 degrees. Moreover, if the selection is made by applying the initial transverse field in the direction of a complementary four-fold maximum the behavior shows again two-fold symmetry. However, the maxima are found to be shifted by 90 degrees respect to the first selection. The fact that we observe two-fold symmetry for different selections is a clear evidence of the existence of different molecules with lower anisotropy than the imposed by the tetragonal crystallographic site symmetry. The general four-fold symmetry observed is thus due in large part to equal populations of molecules with opposite signs of the second order anisotropy, as suggested by Cornia et al. and appears to be a consequence of to the existence of a discrete set of lower symmetry isomers in a Mn_12-acetate crystal [2]. [1] E. del Barco, A. D. Kent, E. Rumberger, D. N. Hendrikson and G. Christou, Europhys. Lett. 60, 768 (2002) [2] A. Cornia, R. Sessoli, L. Sorace, D. Gatteschi, A. L. Barra and C. Daiguebonne, Phys. Rev
Hairs of discrete symmetries and gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Kang Sin [Scranton Honors Program, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Fields, Gravity and Strings, CTPU, Institute for Basic Sciences, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jihn E., E-mail: jihnekim@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, 26 Gyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (IBS), 291 Daehakro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kyae, Bumseok [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, 2 Busandaehakro-63-Gil, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Soonkeon [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, 26 Gyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-10
Gauge symmetries are known to be respected by gravity because gauge charges carry flux lines, but global charges do not carry flux lines and are not conserved by gravitational interaction. For discrete symmetries, they are spontaneously broken in the Universe, forming domain walls. Since the realization of discrete symmetries in the Universe must involve the vacuum expectation values of Higgs fields, a string-like configuration (hair) at the intersection of domain walls in the Higgs vacua can be realized. Therefore, we argue that discrete charges are also respected by gravity.
Hairs of discrete symmetries and gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kang Sin Choi
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Gauge symmetries are known to be respected by gravity because gauge charges carry flux lines, but global charges do not carry flux lines and are not conserved by gravitational interaction. For discrete symmetries, they are spontaneously broken in the Universe, forming domain walls. Since the realization of discrete symmetries in the Universe must involve the vacuum expectation values of Higgs fields, a string-like configuration (hair at the intersection of domain walls in the Higgs vacua can be realized. Therefore, we argue that discrete charges are also respected by gravity.
Fermion dynamical symmetry and identical bands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M.
1995-01-01
Recent general attention has been directed to the phenomenon of identical bands in both normally deformed and superdeformed nuclei. This paper discusses the possibility that such behavior results from a dynamical symmetry of the nuclear many-body system. Phenomenology and the basis principles of Lie algebras are used to place conditions on the acceptable properties of a candidate symmetry. We find that quite general arguments require that such a symmetry have a minimum of 21 generators with a microscopic fermion interpretation. (author). 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab
Appreciation of symmetry in natural product synthesis.
Bai, Wen-Ju; Wang, Xiqing
2017-12-13
Covering: 2012 to June 2017This review aims to show that complex natural product synthesis can be streamlined by taking advantage of molecular symmetry. Various strategies to construct molecules with either evident or hidden symmetry are illustrated. Insights regarding the origins and adjustments of these strategies as well as inspiring new methodological developments are deliberated. When a symmetric strategy fails, the corresponding reason is analysed and an alternative approach is briefly provided. Finally, the importance of exploiting molecular symmetry and future research directions are discussed.
Interdependence of different symmetry energy elements
Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.; Centelles, M.; Viñas, X.
2017-08-01
Relations between the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient and its density derivatives are derived. The relations hold for a class of interactions with quadratic momentum dependence and a power-law density dependence. The structural connection between the different symmetry energy elements as obtained seems to be followed by almost all reasonable nuclear energy density functionals, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, suggesting a universality in the correlation structure. This, coupled with known values of some well-accepted constants related to nuclear matter, helps in constraining values of different density derivatives of the nuclear symmetry energy, shedding light on the isovector part of the nuclear interaction.
Exploring Symmetry to Assist Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis
Illán, I. A.; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J.; Salas-Gonzalez, D.; López, M.; Padilla, P.; Chaves, R.; Segovia, F.; Puntonet, C. G.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder first affecting memory functions and then gradually affecting all cognitive functions with behavioral impairments and eventually causing death. Functional brain imaging as Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is commonly used to guide the clinician's diagnosis. The essential left-right symmetry of human brains is shown to play a key role in coding and recognition. In the present work we explore the implications of this symmetry in AD diagnosis, showing that recognition may be enhanced when considering this latent symmetry.
Symmetries of collective models in intrinsic frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gozdz, A.; Pedrak, A.; Szulerecka, A.; Dobrowolski, A.; Dudek, J.
2013-01-01
In the paper a very general definition of intrinsic frame, by means of group theoretical methods, is introduced. It allows to analyze nuclear properties which are invariant in respect to the group which defines the intrinsic frame. For example, nuclear shape is a well determined feature in the intrinsic frame defined by the Euclidean group. It is shown that using of intrinsic frame gives an opportunity to consider intrinsic nuclear symmetries which are independent of symmetries observed in the laboratory frame. An importance of the notion of partial symmetries is emphasized. (author)
Symmetry and bifurcations of momentum mappings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arms, J.M.; Marsden, J.E.; Moncrief, V.
1981-01-01
The zero set of a momentum mapping is shown to have a singularity at each point with symmetry. The zero set is diffeomorphic to the product of a manifold and the zero set of a homogeneous quadratic function. The proof uses the Kuranishi theory of deformations. Among the applications, it is shown that the set of all solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on a Lorentz manifold has a singularity at any solution with symmetry, in the sense of a pure gauge symmetry. Similarly, the set of solutions of Einstein's equations has a singularity at any solution that has spacelike Killing fields, provided the spacetime has a compact Cauchy surface. (orig.)
Discrete symmetries and de Sitter spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cotăescu, Ion I., E-mail: gpascu@physics.uvt.ro; Pascu, Gabriel, E-mail: gpascu@physics.uvt.ro [West University of Timişoara, V. Pârvan Ave. 4, RO-300223 Timişoara (Romania)
2014-11-24
Aspects of the ambiguity in defining quantum modes on de Sitter spacetime using a commuting system composed only of differential operators are discussed. Discrete symmetries and their actions on the wavefunction in commonly used coordinate charts are reviewed. It is argued that the system of commuting operators can be supplemented by requiring the invariance of the wavefunction to combined discrete symmetries- a criterion which selects a single state out of the α-vacuum family. Two such members of this family are singled out by particular combined discrete symmetries- states between which exists a well-known thermality relation.
The zonal satellite problem. III Symmetries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mioc V.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The two-body problem associated with a force field described by a potential of the form U =Sum(k=1,n ak/rk (r = distance between particles, ak = real parameters is resumed from the only standpoint of symmetries. Such symmetries, expressed in Hamiltonian coordinates, or in standard polar coordinates, are recovered for McGehee-type coordinates of both collision-blow-up and infinity-blow-up kind. They form diffeomorphic commutative groups endowed with a Boolean structure. Expressed in Levi-Civita’s coordinates, the problem exhibits a larger group of symmetries, also commutative and presenting a Boolean structure.
Symmetry and bifurcations of momentum mappings
Arms, Judith M.; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Moncrief, Vincent
1981-01-01
The zero set of a momentum mapping is shown to have a singularity at each point with symmetry. The zero set is diffeomorphic to the product of a manifold and the zero set of a homogeneous quadratic function. The proof uses the Kuranishi theory of deformations. Among the applications, it is shown that the set of all solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on a Lorentz manifold has a singularity at any solution with symmetry, in the sense of a pure gauge symmetry. Similarly, the set of solutions of Einstein's equations has a singularity at any solution that has spacelike Killing fields, provided the spacetime has a compact Cauchy surface.
Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanciu, S.
1993-09-01
We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: The SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. The main technical tool is the supersymmetric generalisation of a map originally due to Radul between the Lie algebra of superdifferential operators and the Lie algebra of vector fields on the space of supersymmetric Lax operators. In the case of the Manin-Radul SKP hierarchy we identify additional symmetries which form an algebra isomorphic to a subalgebra of superdifferential operators; whereas in the case of the Jacobian SKP, the (additional) symmetries are identified with the algebra itself. (orig.)
Gauge origin of discrete flavor symmetries in heterotic orbifolds
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Florian Beye
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We show that non-Abelian discrete symmetries in orbifold string models have a gauge origin. This can be understood when looking at the vicinity of a symmetry enhanced point in moduli space. At such an enhanced point, orbifold fixed points are characterized by an enhanced gauge symmetry. This gauge symmetry can be broken to a discrete subgroup by a nontrivial vacuum expectation value of the Kähler modulus T. Using this mechanism it is shown that the Δ(54 non-Abelian discrete symmetry group originates from a SU(3 gauge symmetry, whereas the D4 symmetry group is obtained from a SU(2 gauge symmetry.
Symmetry and group theory throughout physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Villain J.
2012-03-01
Full Text Available As noticed in 1884 by Pierre Curie [1], physical properties of matter are tightly related to the kind of symmetry of the medium. Group theory is a systematic tool, though not always easy to handle, to exploit symmetry properties, for instance to find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of an operator. Certain properties (optical activity, piezoelectricity are forbidden in molecules or crystals of high symmetry. A few theorems (Noether, Goldstone establish general relations between physical properties and symmetry. Applications of group theory to condensed matter physics, elementary particle physics, quantum mechanics, electromagnetism are reviewed. Group theory is not only a tool, but also a beautiful construction which casts insight into natural phenomena.
Covariant Quantization with Extended BRST Symmetry
Geyer, B.; Gitman, D. M.; Lavrov, P. M.
1999-01-01
A short rewiev of covariant quantization methods based on BRST-antiBRST symmetry is given. In particular problems of correct definition of Sp(2) symmetric quantization scheme known as triplectic quantization are considered.
Contact interactions, stress and material symmetry
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Podio-Guidugli P.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available An argument is given intimating that, for nonsimple materials, the concepts of contact interaction and material symmetry, as well as the bridging concept of stress, should be carefully revised and generalized. .
Coupled oscillators with parity-time symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsoy, Eduard N., E-mail: etsoy@uzsci.net
2017-02-05
Different models of coupled oscillators with parity-time (PT) symmetry are studied. Hamiltonian functions for two and three linear oscillators coupled via coordinates and accelerations are derived. Regions of stable dynamics for two coupled oscillators are obtained. It is found that in some cases, an increase of the gain-loss parameter can stabilize the system. A family of Hamiltonians for two coupled nonlinear oscillators with PT-symmetry is obtained. An extension to high-dimensional PT-symmetric systems is discussed. - Highlights: • A generalization of a Hamiltonian system of linear coupled oscillators with the parity-time (PT) symmetry is suggested. • It is found that an increase of the gain-loss parameter can stabilize the system. • A family of Hamiltonian functions for two coupled nonlinear oscillators with PT-symmetry is obtained.
Infinite symmetry in the quantum Hall effect
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Lütken C.A.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The new states of matter and concomitant quantum critical phenomena revealed by the quantum Hall effect appear to be accompanied by an emergent modular symmetry. The extreme rigidity of this infinite symmetry makes it easy to falsify, but two decades of experiments have failed to do so, and the location of quantum critical points predicted by the symmetry is in increasingly accurate agreement with scaling experiments. The symmetry severely constrains the structure of the effective quantum field theory that encodes the low energy limit of quantum electrodynamics of 1010 charges in two dirty dimensions. If this is a non-linear σ-model the target space is a torus, rather than the more familiar sphere. One of the simplest toroidal models gives a critical (correlation length exponent that agrees with the value obtained from numerical simulations of the quantum Hall effect.
Symmetries and statistical behavior in fermion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
French, J.B.; Draayer, J.P.
1978-01-01
The interplay between statistical behavior and symmetries in nuclei, as revealed, for example, by spectra and by distributions for various kinds of excitations is considered. Methods and general results, rather than specific applications, are given. 16 references
Nobel Prize for work on broken symmetries
2008-01-01
The 2008 Nobel Prize for Physics goes to three physicists who have worked on broken symmetries in particle physics. The announcement of the 2008 Nobel Prize for physics was transmitted to the Globe of Science and Innovation via webcast on the occasion of the preview of the Nobel Accelerator exhibition.On 7 October it was announced that the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences had awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize for physics to three particle physicists for their fundamental work on the mechanisms of broken symmetries. Half the prize was awarded to Yoichiro Nambu of Fermilab for "the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics". The other half is shared by Makato Kobayashi of Japan’s KEK Institute and Toshihide Maskawa of the Yukawa Institute at the University of Kyoto "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in Nature". At th...
Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kallosh, Renata [Physics Department, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)
2017-03-07
There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E{sub 7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N≥5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.
Tracking gauge symmetry factorizability on intervals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ngoc-Khanh Tran
2006-01-01
We track the gauge symmetry breaking pattern by boundary conditions on fifth and higher-dimensional intervals. It is found that, with Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions, the Kaluza-Klein decomposition in five-dimension for arbitrary gauge group can always be factorized into that for separate subsets of at most two gauge symmetries, and so is completely solvable. Accordingly, we present a simple and systematic geometric method to unambiguously identify the gauge breaking/mixing content by general set of Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions. We then formulate a limit theorem on gauge symmetry factorizability to recapitulate this interesting feature. Albeit the breaking/mixing, a particularly simple check of orthogonality and normalization of fields' modes in effective 4-dim picture is explicitly obtained. An interesting chained-mixing of gauge symmetries in higher dimensions by Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions is also explicitly constructed. This study has direct applications to higgsless/GUT model building
Symmetries and statistical behavior in fermion systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
French, J.B.; Draayer, J.P.
1978-01-01
The interplay between statistical behavior and symmetries in nuclei, as revealed, for example, by spectra and by distributions for various kinds of excitations is considered. Methods and general results, rather than specific applications, are given. 16 references. (JFP)
Gapless Symmetry-Protected Topological Order
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Thomas Scaffidi
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We introduce exactly solvable gapless quantum systems in d dimensions that support symmetry-protected topological (SPT edge modes. Our construction leads to long-range entangled, critical points or phases that can be interpreted as critical condensates of domain walls “decorated” with dimension (d-1 SPT systems. Using a combination of field theory and exact lattice results, we argue that such gapless SPT systems have symmetry-protected topological edge modes that can be either gapless or symmetry broken, leading to unusual surface critical properties. Despite the absence of a bulk gap, these edge modes are robust against arbitrary symmetry-preserving local perturbations near the edges. In two dimensions, we construct wave functions that can also be interpreted as unusual quantum critical points with diffusive scaling in the bulk but ballistic edge dynamics.
Symmetry and the Cosmic Microwave Background
Wollock, Edward J.
2012-01-01
A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy and cosmology will be presented. The close relationship between the properties of light, symmetry, and our understanding the contents of our universe will be explored.
Spacetime symmetries and topology in bimetric relativity
Torsello, Francesco; Kocic, Mikica; Högâs, Marcus; Mörtsell, Edvard
2018-04-01
We explore spacetime symmetries and topologies of the two metric sectors in Hassan-Rosen bimetric theory. We show that, in vacuum, the two sectors can either share or have separate spacetime symmetries. If stress-energy tensors are present, a third case can arise, with different spacetime symmetries within the same sector. This raises the question of the best definition of spacetime symmetry in Hassan-Rosen bimetric theory. We emphasize the possibility of imposing ansatzes and looking for solutions having different Killing vector fields or different isometries in the two sectors, which has gained little attention so far. We also point out that the topology of spacetime imposes a constraint on possible metric combinations.
Symmetry and fermion degeneracy on a lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raszillier, H.
1982-03-01
In this paper we consider the general form of finite difference approximation to the Dirac (Weyl) Hamiltonian on a lattice and investigate systematically the dependence on symmetry of the number of particles described by it. Our result is, that to a symmetry - expressed by a crystallographic space group - there corresponds a minimal number of particles, which are associated to prescribed points of momentum space (the unit cell of the reciprocal lattice). For convenience of the reader we show, using the existing detailed descriptions of space groups, how these results look for all the relevant (symmorphic) symmetry groups. Only for lattice Hamiltonians with a momentum dependent mass term can this degeneracy be reduced and even eliminated without reducing the symmetry. (orig./HSI)
The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Natale, A.A.
1983-01-01
The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy in grand unified theories is discussed, proving the impossibility to get a big hierarchy of interactions, in a natural way within the framework of perturbation theory. (L.C.) [pt
N=1 superstrings with spontaneously broken symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrara, S.
1988-01-01
We construct N=1 chiral superstrings with spontaneously broken gauge symmetry in four space-time dimensions. These new string solutions are obtained by a generalized coordinate-dependent Z 2 orbifold compactification of some non-chiral five-dimensional N=1 and N=2 superstrings. The scale of symmetry breaking is arbitrary (at least classically) and it can be chosen hierarchically smaller than the string scale (α') -1/2 . (orig.)
Extended nonabelian symmetries for free fermionic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaikov, R.P.
1993-08-01
The higher spin symmetry for both Dirac and Majorana massless free fermionic field models are considered. An infinite Lie algebra which is a linear realization of the higher spin extension of the cross products of the Virasoro and affine Kac-Moody algebras is obtained. The corresponding current algebra is closed which is not the case of analogous current algebra in the WZNW model. The gauging procedure for the higher spin symmetry is also given. (author). 12 refs
Ricci inheritance symmetry in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bokhari, A.H.; Al-Dweik, A.; Zaman, F.D.; Karim, M.; Kubel, D.
2010-01-01
In an earlier paper (see Nuovo Cimento B, 19 (2004) 1187) it was conjectured that none of the well-known spherically symmetric static space-time solutions of the Einstein equations admit non-trivial Ricci inheritance symmetry. In this paper we discuss Ricci inheritance (R I) symmetry in three well-known non static spherically symmetric space-time metrics and show that our conjecture is also valid in non-static space-time metrics.
Nonlinear realizations of W3 symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, E.A.; Krivonos, S.O.
1991-01-01
We derive the Toda lattice realization of classical W 3 symmetry on two scalar fields in a purely geometric way, proceeding from a nonlinear realization of some associate higher-spin symmetry W 3 ∞ is derived. The Toda lattice equations are interpreted as the constraints singling out a two-dimensional fully geodesic subspace in the initial coset space of W 3 ∞ . This subspace is the quotient of SL(3,R) over its maximal parabolic subgroup. 20 refs
Broken colour symmetry and liberated quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, E.
1976-01-01
A quark model of hadrons is presented and discussed, in which local SU(3) gauge symmetry is completely broken and yet asymptotic freedom is preserved. There is no infrared slavery in this model, and isolated quarks are free to exist. Colour becomes a global symmetry which is only approximate under SU(3) but nearly exact under SU(2) x U(1), as far as the usual hadron spectroscopy is concerned. (Auth.)
Discrete symmetries and solar neutrino mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kapetanakis, D.; Mayr, P.; Nilles, H.P. (Physik Dept., Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany) Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Inst., Muenchen (Germany))
1992-05-21
We study the question of resonant solar neutrino mixing in the framework of the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Discrete symmetries that are consistent with solar neutrino mixing and proton stability are classified. In the minimal model they are shown to lead to two distinct patterns of allowed dimension-four operators. Imposing anomaly freedom, only three different discrete Z{sub N}-symmetries (with N=2, 3, 6) are found to be phenomenologically acceptable. (orig.).
Discrete symmetries and solar neutrino mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapetanakis, D.; Mayr, P.; Nilles, H.P.
1992-01-01
We study the question of resonant solar neutrino mixing in the framework of the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Discrete symmetries that are consistent with solar neutrino mixing and proton stability are classified. In the minimal model they are shown to lead to two distinct patterns of allowed dimension-four operators. Imposing anomaly freedom, only three different discrete Z N -symmetries (with N=2, 3, 6) are found to be phenomenologically acceptable. (orig.)
Relabeling symmetries in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padhye, N.; Morrison, P.J.
1996-04-01
Lagrangian symmetries and concomitant generalized Bianchi identities associated with the relabeling of fluid elements are found for hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In hydrodynamics relabeling results in Ertel's theorem of conservation of potential vorticity, while in MHD it yields the conservation of cross helicity. The symmetries of the reduction from Lagrangian (material) to Eulerian variables are used to construct the Casimir invariants of the Hamiltonian formalism
Bag model with broken chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.
1986-01-01
A variant of the bag model in which chiral symmetry is broken and which provides a description of all the experimental data on the light hadrons, including the pion, is discussed. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated in this model. The problem of taking into account the center-of-mass motion in bag models and the boundary conditions in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry are also discussed
Group theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghaboussi, F.
1987-01-01
The connection between the minimality of the Higgs field potential and the maximal little groups of its representation obtained by spontaneous symmetry breaking is analyzed. It is shown that for several representations the lowest minimum of the potential is related to the maximal little group of those representations. Furthermore, a practical necessity criterion is given for the representation of the Higgs field needed for spontaneous symmetry breaking
Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y.; Karlsson, K. F.; Dalessi, S.; Gallinet, B.; Svendsen, G.
2014-01-01
We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented
Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y. [Laboratory for Physics of Nanostructure, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Karlsson, K. F. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University (Sweden); Dalessi, S. [Computational Biology Group, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne (Switzerland); Gallinet, B. [Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Svendsen, G. [Dept. of Electronics and Telecom., Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)
2014-03-31
We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented.
Inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dafermos, Mihalis [University of Cambridge, Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Rendall, Alan D [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)
2005-12-07
A new criterion for inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry is presented. It is applied to derive a number of new results and to simplify the proofs of existing ones. In particular, it shows that the solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system with T{sup 2} symmetry, including the vacuum solutions, are inextendible in the future. The technique introduced adds a qualitatively new element to the available tool-kit for studying strong cosmic censorship. (letter to the editor)
Teaching symmetry in the introductory physics curriculum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Christopher T.; Lederman, Leon M.
2000-01-01
Modern physics is largely defined by fundamental symmetry principles and Noether's Theorem. Yet these are not taught, or rarely mentioned, to beginning students, thus missing an opportunity to reveal that the subject of physics is as lively and contemporary as molecular biology, and as beautiful as the arts. We prescribe a symmetry module to insert into the curriculum, of a week's length.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, L. F.; Xiao, H.; Fan, W. L.; Yin, Z. Q.; Zhao, H. T.
2010-01-01
The temporal behavior of individual filament in different spatial symmetry filaments patterns in dielectric barrier discharge is investigated by using an optical method. A series of return maps of the discharge moments of individual filaments is given. It is found that the temporal symmetry of individual filament changes with the change of the spatial symmetry of filaments pattern as the applied voltage increases. The role of wall charges for this phenomenon is analyzed.
Deconfined Quantum Critical Points: Symmetries and Dualities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chong Wang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The deconfined quantum critical point (QCP, separating the Néel and valence bond solid phases in a 2D antiferromagnet, was proposed as an example of (2+1D criticality fundamentally different from standard Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson-Fisher criticality. In this work, we present multiple equivalent descriptions of deconfined QCPs, and use these to address the possibility of enlarged emergent symmetries in the low-energy limit. The easy-plane deconfined QCP, besides its previously discussed self-duality, is dual to N_{f}=2 fermionic quantum electrodynamics, which has its own self-duality and hence may have an O(4×Z_{2}^{T} symmetry. We propose several dualities for the deconfined QCP with SU(2 spin symmetry which together make natural the emergence of a previously suggested SO(5 symmetry rotating the Néel and valence bond solid orders. These emergent symmetries are implemented anomalously. The associated infrared theories can also be viewed as surface descriptions of (3+1D topological paramagnets, giving further insight into the dualities. We describe a number of numerical tests of these dualities. We also discuss the possibility of “pseudocritical” behavior for deconfined critical points, and the meaning of the dualities and emergent symmetries in such a scenario.
Hidden symmetries in five-dimensional supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poessel, M.
2003-05-01
This thesis is concerned with the study of hidden symmetries in supergravity, which play an important role in the present picture of supergravity and string theory. Concretely, the appearance of a hidden G 2(+2) /SO(4) symmetry is studied in the dimensional reduction of d=5, N=2 supergravity to three dimensions - a parallel model to the more famous E 8(+8) /SO(16) case in eleven-dimensional supergravity. Extending previous partial results for the bosonic part, I give a derivation that includes fermionic terms. This sheds new light on the appearance of the local hidden symmetry SO(4) in the reduction, and shows up an unusual feature which follows from an analysis of the R-symmetry associated with N=4 supergravity and of the supersymmetry variations, and which has no parallel in the eleven-dimensional case: The emergence of an additional SO(3) as part of the enhanced local symmetry, invisible in the dimensional reduction of the gravitino, and corresponding to the fact that, of the SO(4) used in the coset model, only the diagonal SO(3) is visible immediately upon dimensional reduction. The uncovering of the hidden symmetries proceeds via the construction of the proper coset gravity in three dimensions, and matching it with the Lagrangian obtained from the reduction. (orig.)
Hidden symmetries of the Principal Chiral Model unveiled
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devchand, C.; Schiff, J.
1996-12-01
By relating the two-dimensional U(N) Principal Chiral Model to a Simple linear system we obtain a free-field parametrization of solutions. Obvious symmetry transformations on the free-field data give symmetries of the model. In this way all known 'hidden symmetries' and Baecklund transformations, as well as a host of new symmetries, arise. (author). 21 refs
At the origins of mass: elementary particles and fundamental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iliopoulos, Jean; Englert, Francois
2015-01-01
After a brief recall of the history of cosmology, the author proposes an overview of the different symmetries (symmetries in space and in time, internal symmetries, local or gauge symmetries), describes the mass issue (gauge interactions, quarks and leptons as matter mass constituents, chirality), addresses the spontaneous symmetry breaking (the Curie theorem, spontaneous symmetry breaking in classical physics and in quantum physics, the Goldstone theorem, spontaneous symmetry breaking in presence of gauge interactions), presents the standard theory (electromagnetic and weak interactions, strong interactions, relationship with experiment). An appendix presents elementary particles, and notably reports the story of the neutrino
Approximate Noether symmetries and collineations for regular perturbative Lagrangians
Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Jamal, Sameerah
2018-01-01
Regular perturbative Lagrangians that admit approximate Noether symmetries and approximate conservation laws are studied. Specifically, we investigate the connection between approximate Noether symmetries and collineations of the underlying manifold. In particular we determine the generic Noether symmetry conditions for the approximate point symmetries and we find that for a class of perturbed Lagrangians, Noether symmetries are related to the elements of the Homothetic algebra of the metric which is defined by the unperturbed Lagrangian. Moreover, we discuss how exact symmetries become approximate symmetries. Finally, some applications are presented.
Fuchigami, Kei; Schrandt, Matthew; Miessler, Gary L.
2016-01-01
A hands-on symmetry project is proposed as an innovative way of teaching point groups to undergraduate chemistry students. Traditionally, courses teaching symmetry require students to identify the point group of a given object. This project asks the reverse: students are instructed to identify an object that matches each point group. Doing so…
Nuclear symmetry energy in density dependent hadronic models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddad, S.
2008-12-01
The density dependence of the symmetry energy and the correlation between parameters of the symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb are investigated in relativistic Hadronic models. The dependency of the symmetry energy on density is linear around saturation density. Correlation exists between the neutron skin thickness in the nucleus 208 Pb and the value of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density, but not with the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. (author)
Family symmetries in F-theory GUTs
King, S F; Ross, G G
2010-01-01
We discuss F-theory SU(5) GUTs in which some or all of the quark and lepton families are assigned to different curves and family symmetry enforces a leading order rank one structure of the Yukawa matrices. We consider two possibilities for the suppression of baryon and lepton number violation. The first is based on Flipped SU(5) with gauge group SU(5)\\times U(1)_\\chi \\times SU(4)_{\\perp} in which U(1)_{\\chi} plays the role of a generalised matter parity. We present an example which, after imposing a Z_2 monodromy, has a U(1)_{\\perp}^2 family symmetry. Even in the absence of flux, spontaneous breaking of the family symmetry leads to viable quark, charged lepton and neutrino masses and mixing. The second possibility has an R-parity associated with the symmetry of the underlying compactification manifold and the flux. We construct an example of a model with viable masses and mixing angles based on the gauge group SU(5)\\times SU(5)_{\\perp} with a U(1)_{\\perp}^3 family symmetry after imposing a Z_2 monodromy.
Quasi Hopf quantum symmetry in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.
1991-05-01
In quantum theory, internal symmetries more general than groups are possible. We show that quasitriangular quasi Hopf algebras G * as introduced by Drinfeld permit a consistent formulation of a transformation law of states in the physical Hilbert space H, of invariance of the ground state, and of a transformation law of field operators which is consistent with local braid relations of field operators as proposed by Froehlich. All this remains true when Drinfelds axioms are suitably weakened in order to build in truncated tensor products. Conversely, all the axioms of a weak quasitriangular quasi Hopf algebra are motivated from what physics demands of a symmetry. Unitarity requires in addition that G * admits a * -operation with certain properties. Invariance properties of Greens functions follow from invariance of the ground state and covariance of field operators as usual. Covariant adjoints and covariant products of field operators can be defined. The R-matrix elements in the local braid relations are in general operators in H. They are determined by the symmetry up to a phase factor. Quantum group algebras like U q (sl 2 ) with vertical strokeqvertical stroke=1 are examples of symmetries with special properties. We show that a weak quasitriangular quasi Hopf algebra G * is canonically associated with U q (sl 2 ) if q P =-1. We argue that these weak quasi Hopf algebras are the true symmetries of minimal conformal models. Their dual algebras G ('functions on the group') are neither commutative nor associative. (orig.)
Translational spacetime symmetries in gravitational theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petti, R J
2006-01-01
How to include spacetime translations in fibre bundle gauge theories has been a subject of controversy, because spacetime symmetries are not internal symmetries of the bundle structure group. The standard method for including affine symmetry in differential geometry is to define a Cartan connection on an affine bundle over spacetime. This is equivalent to (1) defining an affine connection on the affine bundle, (2) defining a zero section on the associated affine vector bundle and (3) using the affine connection and the zero section to define an 'associated solder form', whose lift to a tensorial form on the frame bundle becomes the solder form. The zero section reduces the affine bundle to a linear bundle and splits the affine connection into translational and homogeneous parts; however, it violates translational equivariance/gauge symmetry. This is the natural geometric framework for Einstein-Cartan theory as an affine theory of gravitation. The last section discusses some alternative approaches that claim to preserve translational gauge symmetry
Patterns of symmetry breaking in chiral QCD
Bolognesi, Stefano; Konishi, Kenichi; Shifman, Mikhail
2018-05-01
We consider S U (N ) Yang-Mills theory with massless chiral fermions in a complex representation of the gauge group. The main emphasis is on the so-called hybrid ψ χ η model. The possible patterns of realization of the continuous chiral flavor symmetry are discussed. We argue that the chiral symmetry is broken in conjunction with a dynamical Higgsing of the gauge group (complete or partial) by bifermion condensates. As a result a color-flavor locked symmetry is preserved. The 't Hooft anomaly matching proceeds via saturation of triangles by massless composite fermions or, in a mixed mode, i.e. also by the "weakly" coupled fermions associated with dynamical Abelianization, supplemented by a number of Nambu-Goldstone mesons. Gauge-singlet condensates are of the multifermion type and, though it cannot be excluded, the chiral symmetry realization via such gauge invariant condensates is more contrived (requires a number of four-fermion condensates simultaneously and, even so, problems remain) and less plausible. We conclude that in the model at hand, chiral flavor symmetry implies dynamical Higgsing by bifermion condensates.
Dynamical symmetries of the shell model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Isacker, P.
2000-01-01
The applications of spectrum generating algebras and of dynamical symmetries in the nuclear shell model are many and varied. They stretch back to Wigner's early work on the supermultiplet model and encompass important landmarks in our understanding of the structure of the atomic nucleus such as Racah's SU(2) pairing model and Elliot's SU(3) rotational model. One of the aims of this contribution has been to show the historical importance of the idea of dynamical symmetry in nuclear physics. Another has been to indicate that, in spite of being old, this idea continues to inspire developments that are at the forefront of today's research in nuclear physics. It has been argued in this contribution that the main driving features of nuclear structure can be represented algebraically but at the same time the limitations of the symmetry approach must be recognised. It should be clear that such approach can only account for gross properties and that any detailed description requires more involved numerical calculations of which we have seen many fine examples during this symposium. In this way symmetry techniques can be used as an appropriate starting point for detailed calculations. A noteworthy example of this approach is the pseudo-SU(3) model which starting from its initial symmetry Ansatz has grown into an adequate and powerful description of the nucleus in terms of a truncated shell model. (author)
Violation of Particle Anti-particle Symmetry
CERN. Geneva
2001-01-01
Symmetry is a fundamental concept which can be found in the whole range of human activities e. g. from arts to science. The beauty of a statues is often related to its symmetric form. In physics, all the laws are related to some sort of symmetry. Equally important is a small breakdown ofsymmetry. Even for the case of a statue, its beauty might be enhanced by introducing small distortions. In this course, we investigate the role symmetry in the world of elementary particles. Some symmetries found there are very similar to those which can be seen in our daily life, while others are more exotic and related to the quantum nature of the elementary particles. Our particular focus ismade on symmetry and its violation between the matter and anti-matter, known as CP violation. It is experimentally well established that particleand anti-particle behave a tiny bit differently in the world of elementary particles. We discuss how this would be explained and how we can extendour knowledge. Evolution of our universe is stro...
Translational spacetime symmetries in gravitational theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petti, R J [MathWorks, Inc., 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick, MA 01760 (United States)
2006-02-07
How to include spacetime translations in fibre bundle gauge theories has been a subject of controversy, because spacetime symmetries are not internal symmetries of the bundle structure group. The standard method for including affine symmetry in differential geometry is to define a Cartan connection on an affine bundle over spacetime. This is equivalent to (1) defining an affine connection on the affine bundle, (2) defining a zero section on the associated affine vector bundle and (3) using the affine connection and the zero section to define an 'associated solder form', whose lift to a tensorial form on the frame bundle becomes the solder form. The zero section reduces the affine bundle to a linear bundle and splits the affine connection into translational and homogeneous parts; however, it violates translational equivariance/gauge symmetry. This is the natural geometric framework for Einstein-Cartan theory as an affine theory of gravitation. The last section discusses some alternative approaches that claim to preserve translational gauge symmetry.
Symmetry in social exchange and health
Siegrist, Johannes
2005-10-01
Symmetry is a relevant concept in sociological theories of exchange. It is rooted in the evolutionary old norm of social reciprocity and is particularly important in social contracts. Symmetry breaking through violation of the norm of reciprocity generates strain in micro-social systems and, above all, in victims of non-symmetric exchange. In this contribution, adverse healthconsequences of symmetry breaking in contractual social exchange are analysed, with a main focus on the employment contract. Scientific evidence is derived from prospective epidemiological studies testing the model of effort-reward imbalance at work. Overall, a twofold elevated risk of incident disease is observed in employed men and women who are exposed to non-symmetric exchange. Health risks include coronary heart disease, depression and alcohol dependence, among others. Preliminary results suggest similar effects on health produced by symmetry breaking in other types of social relationships (e.g. partnership, parental roles). These findings underline the importance of symmetry in contractual social exchange for health and well-being.
Enlarged symmetry algebras of spin chains, loop models, and S-matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Read, N.; Saleur, H.
2007-01-01
The symmetry algebras of certain families of quantum spin chains are considered in detail. The simplest examples possess m states per site (m>=2), with nearest-neighbor interactions with U(m) symmetry, under which the sites transform alternately along the chain in the fundamental m and its conjugate representation m-bar. We find that these spin chains, even with arbitrary coefficients of these interactions, have a symmetry algebra A m much larger than U(m), which implies that the energy eigenstates fall into sectors that for open chains (i.e., free boundary conditions) can be labeled by j=0,1,...,L, for the 2L-site chain such that the degeneracies of all eigenvalues in the jth sector are generically the same and increase rapidly with j. For large j, these degeneracies are much larger than those that would be expected from the U(m) symmetry alone. The enlarged symmetry algebra A m (2L) consists of operators that commute in this space of states with the Temperley-Lieb algebra that is generated by the set of nearest-neighbor interaction terms; A m (2L) is not a Yangian. There are similar results for supersymmetric chains with gl(m+n|n) symmetry of nearest-neighbor interactions, and a richer representation structure for closed chains (i.e., periodic boundary conditions). The symmetries also apply to the loop models that can be obtained from the spin chains in a spacetime or transfer matrix picture. In the loop language, the symmetries arise because the loops cannot cross. We further define tensor products of representations (for the open chains) by joining chains end to end. The fusion rules for decomposing the tensor product of representations labeled j 1 and j 2 take the same form as the Clebsch-Gordan series for SU(2). This and other structures turn the symmetry algebra A m into a ribbon Hopf algebra, and we show that this is 'Morita equivalent' to the quantum group U q (sl 2 ) for m=q+q -1 . The open-chain results are extended to the cases vertical bar m vertical
Lynch, Michael
2017-08-01
This essay takes up a series of questions about the connection between 'symmetry' in Science and Technology Studies (STS) and 'post-truth' in contemporary politics. A recent editorial in this journal by Sergio Sismondo argues that current discussions of 'post-truth' have little to do with conceptions of 'symmetry' or with concerns about 'epistemic democracy' in STS, while others, such as Steve Fuller and Harry Collins, insist that there are such connections. The present essay discusses a series of questions about the meaning of 'post-truth' and 'symmetry', and the connections of those concepts to each other and to 'epistemic democracy'. The essay ends with a series of other questions about STS and contemporary politics, and an invitation to further discussions.
Operational symmetries basic operations in physics
Saller, Heinrich
2017-01-01
This book describes the endeavour to relate the particle spectrum with representations of operational electroweak spacetime, in analogy to the atomic spectrum as characterizing representations of hyperbolic space. The spectrum of hyperbolic position space explains the properties of the nonrelativistic atoms; the spectrum of electroweak spacetime is hoped to explain those of the basic interactions and elementary particles. In this book, the theory of operational symmetries is developed from the numbers, from Plato’s and Kepler’s symmetries over the simple Lie groups to their applications in nonrelativistic, special relativistic and general relativistic quantum theories with the atomic spectrum for hyperbolic position and, in first attempts, the particle spectrum for electroweak spacetime. The standard model of elementary particles and interactions is characterized by a symmetry group. In general, as initiated by Weyl and stressed by Heisenberg, quantum theory can be built as a theory of operation groups an...
Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry.
Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham
2013-01-01
The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.
Large lepton mixings from continuous symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Everett, Lisa; Ramond, Pierre
2007-01-01
Within the broad context of quark-lepton unification, we investigate the implications of broken continuous family symmetries which result from requiring that in the limit of exact symmetry, the Dirac mass matrices yield hierarchical masses for the quarks and charged leptons, but lead to degenerate light neutrino masses as a consequence of the seesaw mechanism, without requiring hierarchical right-handed neutrino mass terms. Quark mixing is then naturally small and proportional to the size of the perturbation, but lepton mixing is large as a result of degenerate perturbation theory, shifted from maximal mixing by the size of the perturbation. Within this approach, we study an illustrative two-family prototype model with an SO(2) family symmetry, and discuss extensions to three-family models
Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinchliffe, I. (ed.)
1984-10-01
A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented.
Arithmetic crystal classes of magnetic symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelova, M.N.; Boyle, L.L.
1993-01-01
The symmetries and properties of a broad class of magnetic crystals are described by magnetic space groups which contain both (unitary) spatial symmetry operations and their combinations with the (anti-unitary operation of) time inversion, 0. The spatial symmetry operations form a halving, non-magnetic, space group H of the magnetic group M such that M=H+aH. As an abstract group the magnetic group M is isomorphic to a non-magnetic group G. The anti-unitary operator a is simply the time inversion 0 when M is a grey group but a product of time inversion with some spatial operation belonging to the coset G-H when M is a black-and-white group. (Author)
Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinchliffe, I.
1984-10-01
A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented
Anomalous Abelian symmetry in the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1995-01-01
The observed hierarchy of quark and lepton masses can be parametrized by nonrenormalizable operators with dimensions determined by an anomalous Abelian family symmetry, a gauge extension to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Such an Abelian symmetry is generic to compactified superstring theories, with its anomalies compensated by the Green-Schwarz mechanism. If we assume these two symmetries to be the same, we find the electroweak mixing angle to be sin 2 θ ω = 3/8 at the string scale, just by setting the ratio of the product of down quark to charged lepton masses equal to one at the string scale. This assumes no GUT structure. The generality of the result suggests a superstring origin for the standard model. We generalize our analysis to massive neutrinos, and mixings in the lepton sector
Quantum mechanics and hidden superconformal symmetry
Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.
2017-12-01
Solvability of the ubiquitous quantum harmonic oscillator relies on a spectrum generating osp (1 |2 ) superconformal symmetry. We study the problem of constructing all quantum mechanical models with a hidden osp (1 |2 ) symmetry on a given space of states. This problem stems from interacting higher spin models coupled to gravity. In one dimension, we show that the solution to this problem is the Vasiliev-Plyushchay family of quantum mechanical models with hidden superconformal symmetry obtained by viewing the harmonic oscillator as a one dimensional Dirac system, so that Grassmann parity equals wave function parity. These models—both oscillator and particlelike—realize all possible unitary irreducible representations of osp (1 |2 ).
Reverse-symmetry waveguides: Theory and fabrication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Horvath, R.; Lindvold, Lars René; Larsen, N.B.
2002-01-01
We present an extensive theoretical analysis of reverse-symmetry waveguides with special focus on their potential application as sensor components in aqueous media and demonstrate a novel method for fabrication of such waveguides. The principle of reverse symmetry is based on making the refractive...... index of the waveguide substrate less than the refractive index of the medium covering the waveguiding film (n(water) = 1.33). This is opposed to the conventional waveguide geometry, where the substrate is usually glass or polymers with refractive indices of approximate to1.5. The reverse configuration...... are combined with air-grooved polymer supports to form freestanding single-material polymer waveguides of reverse symmetry capable of guiding light....
The symmetry of large N=4 holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Peng, Cheng
2014-01-01
For the proposed duality relating a family of N=4 superconformal coset models to a certain supersymmetric higher spin theory on AdS_3, the asymptotic symmetry algebra of the bulk description is determined. It is shown that, depending on the choice of the boundary charges, one may obtain either the linear or the non-linear superconformal algebra on the boundary. We compare the non-linear version of the asymptotic symmetry algebra with the non-linear coset algebra and find non-trivial agreement in the ’t Hooft limit, thus giving strong support for the proposed duality. As a by-product of our analysis we also show that the W_∞ symmetry of the coset theory is broken under the exactly marginal perturbation that preserves the N=4 superconformal algebra
Automorphic Lie algebras with dihedral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knibbeler, V; Lombardo, S; A Sanders, J
2014-01-01
The concept of automorphic Lie algebras arises in the context of reduction groups introduced in the early 1980s in the field of integrable systems. automorphic Lie algebras are obtained by imposing a discrete group symmetry on a current algebra of Krichever–Novikov type. Past work shows remarkable uniformity between algebras associated to different reduction groups. For example, if the base Lie algebra is sl 2 (C) and the poles of the automorphic Lie algebra are restricted to an exceptional orbit of the symmetry group, changing the reduction group does not affect the Lie algebra structure. In this research we fix the reduction group to be the dihedral group and vary the orbit of poles as well as the group action on the base Lie algebra. We find a uniform description of automorphic Lie algebras with dihedral symmetry, valid for poles at exceptional and generic orbits. (paper)
Homological mirror symmetry and tropical geometry
Catanese, Fabrizio; Kontsevich, Maxim; Pantev, Tony; Soibelman, Yan; Zharkov, Ilia
2014-01-01
The relationship between Tropical Geometry and Mirror Symmetry goes back to the work of Kontsevich and Y. Soibelman (2000), who applied methods of non-archimedean geometry (in particular, tropical curves) to Homological Mirror Symmetry. In combination with the subsequent work of Mikhalkin on the “tropical” approach to Gromov-Witten theory, and the work of Gross and Siebert, Tropical Geometry has now become a powerful tool. Homological Mirror Symmetry is the area of mathematics concentrated around several categorical equivalences connecting symplectic and holomorphic (or algebraic) geometry. The central ideas first appeared in the work of Maxim Kontsevich (1993). Roughly speaking, the subject can be approached in two ways: either one uses Lagrangian torus fibrations of Calabi-Yau manifolds (the so-called Strominger-Yau-Zaslow picture, further developed by Kontsevich and Soibelman) or one uses Lefschetz fibrations of symplectic manifolds (suggested by Kontsevich and further developed by Seidel). Tropical Ge...
Symmetry and bifurcations of momentum mappings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arms, J.M.; Marsden, J.E.; Moncrief, V.
1981-01-01
The zero set of a momentum mapping is shown to have a singularity at each point with symmetry. The zero set is diffeomorphic to the product of a manifold and the zero set of a homogeneous quadratic function. The proof uses the Kuranishi theory of deformations. Among the applications, it is shown that the set of all solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on a Lorentz manifold has a singularity at any solution with symmetry, in the sense of a pure gauge symmetry. Similarly, the set of solutions of Einstein's equations has a singularity at any solution that has spacelike Killing fields, provided the spacetime has a compact Cauchy surface.
High-energy symmetries of string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee Jenchi.
1990-01-01
The author studies the high-energy symmetry structure of string theory corresponding to the massive excitations of the string. These enlarged gauge symmetries are closely related to the existence of zero-norm states in the string spectrum. He has derived these symmetries in the framework of the Hamiltonian version of the first-quantized generalized σ-model formalism. It is conjectured that these infinite space-time symmetry structures could shed light on the finiteness of string perturbation theory. Two interesting phenomena were discovered for these massive states symmetries. One is the inter-'spin' symmetry for the different 'spin' states at each fixed mass level. Specifically, the four physical propagating states with 'spins' up to six of the second massive level of the closed bosonic string are found to form a large gauge multiplet. This is demonstrated by the existence of gauge transformations induced by the type II zero-norm states at this mass level. It is argued that this is a σ-model three loop result for the second massive level and is a general feature for higher massive levels at each fixed mass. The other one is the decoupling of some degenerate positive-norm states. As an example, he explicitly demonstrates that the 'spin' two and scalar physical propagating fields of the third massive level of the open bosonic string are mere gauge artifacts of the higher 'spin' fields at the same mass level. It is conjectured that this phenomenon comes from the well-known ambiguity in defining the positive-norm states due to the existence of zero-norm states in the same Young representation
Symmetries and groups in particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scherer, Stefan
2016-01-01
The aim of this book consists of a didactic introduction to the group-theoretical considerations and methods, which have led to an ever deeper understanding of the interactions of the elementary particles. The first three chapters deal primarily with the foundations of the representation theory of primarily finite groups, whereby many results are also transferable to compact Lie groups. In the third chapter we discuss the concept of Lie groups and their connection with Lie algebras. In the remaining chapter it is mainly about the application of group theory in physics. Chapter 4 deals with the groups SO(3) and SU(2), which occur in connection with the description of the angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We discuss the Wigner-Eckar theorem together with some applications. In chapter 5 we are employed to the composition properties of strongly interacting systems, so called hadrons, and discuss extensively the transformation properties of quarks with relation to the special unitary groups. The Noether theorem is generally treated in connection to the conservation laws belonging to the Galilei group and the Poincare group. We confine us in chapter 6 to internal symmetries, but explain for that extensively the application to quantum field theory. Especially an outlook on the effect of symmetries in form of so called Ward identities is granted. In chapter 7 we turn towards the gauge principle and discuss first the construction of quantum electrodynamics. In the following we generalize the gauge principle to non-Abelian groups (Yang-Mills theories) and formulate the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Especially we take a view of ''random'' global symmetries of QCD, especially the chiral symmetry. In chapter 8 we illuminate the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking both for global and for local symmetries. In the final chapter we work out the group-theoretical structure of the Standard Model. Finally by means of the group SU(5) we take a view to
Neutron matter, symmetry energy and neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stefano, Gandolfi [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Steiner, Andrew W [ORNL
2016-01-01
Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron-rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry, and its connection to the structure of neutron stars. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.
Deriving GENERIC from a Generalized Fluctuation Symmetry
Kraaij, Richard; Lazarescu, Alexandre; Maes, Christian; Peletier, Mark
2018-02-01
Much of the structure of macroscopic evolution equations for relaxation to equilibrium can be derived from symmetries in the dynamical fluctuations around the most typical trajectory. For example, detailed balance as expressed in terms of the Lagrangian for the path-space action leads to gradient zero-cost flow. We expose a new such fluctuation symmetry that implies GENERIC, an extension of gradient flow where a Hamiltonian part is added to the dissipative term in such a way as to retain the free energy as Lyapunov function.
Super-Laplacians and their symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howe, P.S.; Lindström, University
2017-01-01
A super-Laplacian is a set of differential operators in superspace whose highest-dimensional component is given by the spacetime Laplacian. Symmetries of super-Laplacians are given by linear differential operators of arbitrary finite degree and are determined by superconformal Killing tensors. We investigate these in flat superspaces. The differential operators determining the symmetries give rise to algebras which can be identified in many cases with the tensor algebras of the relevant superconformal Lie algebras modulo certain ideals. They have applications to Higher Spin theories.
Zero-norm states and stringy symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, C.-T.; Ho, P.-M.; Lee, J.-C.; Yang Yi; Teraguchi, Shunsuke
2006-01-01
We identify spacetime symmetry charges of string theory from an infinite number of zero-norm states (ZNS) with arbitrary high spin in the old covariant first quantized string spectrum. We give various evidences to support this identification. These include massive sigma-model calculation, Witten string field theory calculation, 2D string theory calculation and, most importantly, three methods of high-energy stringy scattering amplitude calculation. The last calculations explicitly prove Gross's conjectures in 1988 on high energy symmetry of string theory
Zero-norm states and stringy symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, C-T; Ho, P-M; Lee, J-C; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Yang Yi
2006-01-01
We identify spacetime symmetry charges of 26D open bosonic string theory from an infinite number of zero-norm states (ZNS) with arbitrary high spin in the old covariant first quantized string spectrum. We give various evidences to support this identification. These include massive sigma-model calculation, Witten string field theory calculation, 2D string theory calculation and, most importantly, three methods of high-energy stringy scattering amplitude calculations. The last calculations explicitly prove Gross's conjectures in 1988 on high energy symmetry of string theory
High-symmetry organic scintillator systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Patrick L.
2018-03-13
An ionizing radiation detector or scintillator system includes a scintillating material comprising an organic crystalline compound selected to generate photons in response to the passage of ionizing radiation. The organic compound has a crystalline symmetry of higher order than monoclinic, for example an orthorhombic, trigonal, tetragonal, hexagonal, or cubic symmetry. A photodetector is optically coupled to the scintillating material, and configured to generate electronic signals having pulse shapes based on the photons generated in the scintillating material. A discriminator is coupled to the photon detector, and configured to discriminate between neutrons and gamma rays in the ionizing radiation based on the pulse shapes of the output signals.
Quregisters, Symmetry Groups and Clifford Algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cervantes, D; Morales-Luna, G
2016-01-01
Natural one-to-one and two-to-one homomorphisms from SO(3) into SU(2) are built conventionally, and the collection of qubits, is identified with a subgroup of SU(2). This construction is suitable to be extended to corresponding tensor powers. The notions of qubits, quregisters and qugates are translated into the language of symmetry groups. The corresponding elements to entangled states in the tensor product of Hilbert spaces reflect entanglement properties as well, and in this way a notion of entanglement is realised in the tensor product of symmetry groups. (paper)
Symmetry-adapted Liouville space. Pt. 7
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temme, F.P.
1990-01-01
In examining nuclear spin dynamics of NMR spin clusters in density operator/generalized torque formalisms over vertical strokekqv>> operator bases of Liouville space, it is necessary to consider the symmetry mappings and carrier spaces under a specialized group for such (k i = 1) nuclear spin clusters. The SU2 X S n group provides the essential mappings and the form of H carrier space, which allows one to: (a) draw comparisons with Hilbert space duality, and (b) outline the form of the Coleman-Kotani genealogical hierarchy under induced S n -symmetry. (orig.)
Super-Laplacians and their symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howe, P.S. [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lindström, University [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University,Uppsala, SE-751 20 (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2017-05-22
A super-Laplacian is a set of differential operators in superspace whose highest-dimensional component is given by the spacetime Laplacian. Symmetries of super-Laplacians are given by linear differential operators of arbitrary finite degree and are determined by superconformal Killing tensors. We investigate these in flat superspaces. The differential operators determining the symmetries give rise to algebras which can be identified in many cases with the tensor algebras of the relevant superconformal Lie algebras modulo certain ideals. They have applications to Higher Spin theories.
Nuclear Symmetry Energy with QCD Sum Rule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, K.S.; Lee, S.H.
2013-01-01
We calculate the nucleon self-energies in an isospin asymmetric nuclear matter using QCD sum rule. Taking the difference of these for the neutron and proton enables us to express an important part of the nuclear symmetry energy in terms of local operators. Calculating the operator product expansion up to mass dimension six operators, we find that the main contribution to the difference comes from the iso-vector scalar and vector operators, which is reminiscent to the case of relativistic mean field type theories where mesons with aforementioned quantum numbers produce the difference and provide the dominant mechanism for nuclear symmetry energy. (author)
High-symmetry organic scintillator systems
Feng, Patrick L.
2017-07-18
An ionizing radiation detector or scintillator system includes a scintillating material comprising an organic crystalline compound selected to generate photons in response to the passage of ionizing radiation. The organic compound has a crystalline symmetry of higher order than monoclinic, for example an orthorhombic, trigonal, tetragonal, hexagonal, or cubic symmetry. A photodetector is optically coupled to the scintillating material, and configured to generate electronic signals having pulse shapes based on the photons generated in the scintillating material. A discriminator is coupled to the photon detector, and configured to discriminate between neutrons and gamma rays in the ionizing radiation based on the pulse shapes of the output signals.
Dynamical symmetries for odd-odd nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balantekin, A.B.
1986-01-01
Recent work for developing dynamical symmetries and supersymmetries is reviewed. An accurate description of odd-odd nuclei requires inclusion of the fermion-fermion force (the residual interaction) and the distinguishing of fermion configurations which are particle like and those which are hole like. A parabolic dependence of the proton-neutron multiplet in odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. It is shown that a group structure for Bose-Fermi symmetries can be embedded in a supergroup. These methods are used to predict level schemes for Au-196 and Au-198. 11 refs., 3 figs
Toward Measuring Network Aesthetics Based on Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zengqiang Chen
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In this exploratory paper, we discuss quantitative graph-theoretical measures of network aesthetics. Related work in this area has typically focused on geometrical features (e.g., line crossings or edge bendiness of drawings or visual representations of graphs which purportedly affect an observer’s perception. Here we take a very different approach, abandoning reliance on geometrical properties, and apply information-theoretic measures to abstract graphs and networks directly (rather than to their visual representaions as a means of capturing classical appreciation of structural symmetry. Examples are used solely to motivate the approach to measurement, and to elucidate our symmetry-based mathematical theory of network aesthetics.
Deformations of spacetime and internal symmetries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gresnigt Niels G.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Algebraic deformations provide a systematic approach to generalizing the symmetries of a physical theory through the introduction of new fundamental constants. The applications of deformations of Lie algebras and Hopf algebras to both spacetime and internal symmetries are discussed. As a specific example we demonstrate how deforming the classical flavor group S U(3 to the quantum group S Uq(3 ≡ U q (su(3 (a Hopf algebra and taking into account electromagnetic mass splitting within isospin multiplets leads to new and exceptionally accurate baryon mass sum rules that agree perfectly with experimental data.
Discrete Symmetries and Models of Flavour Mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, Stephen F
2015-01-01
In this talk we shall give an overview of the role of discrete symmetries, including both CP and family symmetry, in constructing unified models of quark and lepton (including especially neutrino) masses and mixing. Various different approaches to model building will be described, denoted as direct, semi-direct and indirect, and the pros and cons of each approach discussed. Particular examples based on Δ(6n 2 ) will be discussed and an A to Z of Flavour with Pati-Salam will be presented. (paper)
Symmetry energy II: Isobaric analog states
Danielewicz, Pawel; Lee, Jenny
2014-02-01
Using excitation energies to isobaric analog states (IAS) and charge invariance, we extract nuclear symmetry coefficients, representing a mass formula, on a nucleus-by-nucleus basis. Consistently with charge invariance, the coefficients vary weakly across an isobaric chain. However, they change strongly with nuclear mass and range from aa˜10 MeV at mass A˜10 to aa˜22 MeV at A˜240. Variation with mass can be understood in terms of dependence of nuclear symmetry energy on density and the rise in importance of low densities within nuclear surface in smaller systems. At A≳30, the dependence of coefficients on mass can be well described in terms of a macroscopic volume-surface competition formula with aaV≃33.2 MeV and aaS≃10.7 MeV. Our further investigation shows, though, that the fitted surface symmetry coefficient likely significantly underestimates that for the limit of half-infinite matter. Following the considerations of a Hohenberg-Kohn functional for nuclear systems, we determine how to find in practice the symmetry coefficient using neutron and proton densities, even when those densities are simultaneously affected by significant symmetry-energy and Coulomb effects. These results facilitate extracting the symmetry coefficients from Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) calculations, that we carry out using a variety of Skyrme parametrizations in the literature. For the parametrizations, we catalog novel short-wavelength instabilities. In our further analysis, we retain only those parametrizations which yield systems that are adequately stable both in the long- and short-wavelength limits. In comparing the SHF and IAS results for the symmetry coefficients, we arrive at narrow (±2.4 MeV) constraints on the symmetry-energy values S(ρ) at 0.04≲ρ≲0.13 fm. Towards normal density the constraints significantly widen, but the normal value of energy aaV and the slope parameter L are found to be strongly correlated. To narrow the constraints, we reach for the
High-symmetry organic scintillator systems
Feng, Patrick L.
2018-02-06
An ionizing radiation detector or scintillator system includes a scintillating material comprising an organic crystalline compound selected to generate photons in response to the passage of ionizing radiation. The organic compound has a crystalline symmetry of higher order than monoclinic, for example an orthorhombic, trigonal, tetragonal, hexagonal, or cubic symmetry. A photodetector is optically coupled to the scintillating material, and configured to generate electronic signals having pulse shapes based on the photons generated in the scintillating material. A discriminator is coupled to the photon detector, and configured to discriminate between neutrons and gamma rays in the ionizing radiation based on the pulse shapes of the output signals.
Antiunitary symmetry operators in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carinena, J.F.; Santander, M.
1981-01-01
A criterion to decide that some symmetries of a quantum system must be realized as antiunitary operators is given. It is based on some mathematical theorems about the second cohomology group of the symmetry group when expressed in terms of those of a normal subgroup and the corresponding factor group. It is also shown that this criterion implies that the only possibility for the unitary subgroup in the Galilean case is that generated by the space reflection and the connected component containing the identity; otherwise only massless systems would arise. (author)
Cosmoparticle physics of family symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khlopov, M.Yu.
1993-07-01
The foundations of both particle theory and cosmology are hidden at super energy scale and can not be tested by direct laboratory means. Cosmoparticle physics is developed to probe these foundations by the proper combination of their indirect effects, thus providing definite conclusions on their reliability. Cosmological and astrophysical tests turn to be complementary to laboratory searches of rare processes, induced by new physics, as it can be seen in the case of gauge theory of broken symmetry of quark and lepton families, ascribing to the hierarchy of the horizontal symmetry breaking the observed hierarchy of masses and the mixing between quark and lepton families. 36 refs
Symmetry characterization of electrons and lattice excitations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schober H.
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Symmetry concerns all aspects of a physical system from the electronic orbitals to structural and magnetic excitations. In this article we will try to elaborate the fundamental connection between symmetry and excitations. As excitations are manyfold in physical systems it is impossible to treat them exhaustively. We thus concentrate on the two topics of Bloch electrons and phonons. These two examples are complementary in the sense that Bloch electrons describe single particles in an external periodic potential while phonons exemplify a decoupled system of interacting particles. The way we develop the argument gives as by-product a short account of molecular orbitals and molecular vibrations.
Symmetry, winding number, and topological charge of vortex solitons in discrete-symmetry media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-March, Miguel-Angel; Zacares, Mario; Ferrando, Albert; Sahu, Sarira; Ceballos-Herrera, Daniel E.
2009-01-01
We determine the functional behavior near the discrete rotational symmetry axis of discrete vortices of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We show that these solutions present a central phase singularity whose charge is restricted by symmetry arguments. Consequently, we demonstrate that the existence of high-charged discrete vortices is related to the presence of other off-axis phase singularities, whose positions and charges are also restricted by symmetry arguments. To illustrate our theoretical results, we offer two numerical examples of high-charged discrete vortices in photonic crystal fibers showing hexagonal discrete rotational invariance.
Stringy origin of non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ploeger, Felix; Raby, Stuart; Ratz, Michael
2007-01-01
We study the origin of non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries in superstring theory. We classify all possible non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries which can appear in heterotic orbifold models. These symmetries include D 4 and Δ(54). We find that the symmetries of the couplings are always larger than the symmetries of the compact space. This is because they are a consequence of the geometry of the orbifold combined with the space group selection rules of the string. We also study possible breaking patterns. Our analysis yields a simple geometric understanding of the realization of non-Abelian flavor symmetries
Dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng, Keke, E-mail: pengkeke88@126.com; Luo, Yiping, E-mail: zjstulyp@126.com [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)
2014-04-15
In this paper, the dynamics symmetries of Hamiltonian system on time scales are studied. We study the symmetries and quantities based on the calculation of variation and Lie transformation group. Particular focus lies in: the Noether symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity and the Lie symmetry leads to the Noether conserved quantity if the infinitesimal transformations satisfy the structure equation. As the new application of result, at end of the article, we give a simple example of Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry on time scales.
Symmetry problems in particle physics: Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabir, P.K.; Fishbane, P.F.
1988-01-01
Progress is reported in the areas of family symmetry and the fermion mass matrix, consequences of heavy isosinglet fermions, and dynamics of confinement. Theorems were discovered relating the polarization of the transmitted neutrons after passage through a polarized medium to the initial polarization
Symmetries in confined classical Coulomb systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiffer, J.P.
1991-01-01
The properties of charged particles confined in a harmonic oscillator potential have become of increased interest lately in view of the development of techniques in ion traps and storage rings. The symmetries in such systems intrigued the imagination of Ted Hecht in connection with the storage ring at Heidelberg, and so perhaps it is an appropriate subject for this symposium
Large hierarchies from approximate R symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kappl, Rolf; Ratz, Michael; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S.
2008-12-01
We show that hierarchically small vacuum expectation values of the superpotential in supersymmetric theories can be a consequence of an approximate R symmetry. We briefly discuss the role of such small constants in moduli stabilization and understanding the huge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales. (orig.)
Symmetries and retracts of quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kallus, M.; Trnkova, V.
1987-01-01
The authors prove that there are arbitrarily many quantum logics, none of which is similar to a part of another and each of which has the group of all symmetries isomorphic to a given abstract group. Moreover, each of them contains a given logic with atomic blocks as its sublogic
Flavor universal dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burdman, G.; Evans, N.
1999-01-01
The top condensate seesaw mechanism of Dobrescu and Hill allows electroweak symmetry to be broken while deferring the problem of flavor to an electroweak singlet, massive sector. We provide an extended version of the singlet sector that naturally accommodates realistic masses for all the standard model fermions, which play an equal role in breaking electroweak symmetry. The models result in a relatively light composite Higgs sector with masses typically in the range of (400 - 700) GeV. In more complete models the dynamics will presumably be driven by a broken gauged family or flavor symmetry group. As an example of the higher scale dynamics a fully dynamical model of the quark sector with a GIM mechanism is presented, based on an earlier top condensation model of King using broken family gauge symmetry interactions (that model was itself based on a technicolor model of Georgi). The crucial extra ingredient is a reinterpretation of the condensates that form when several gauge groups become strong close to the same scale. A related technicolor model of Randall which naturally includes the leptons too may also be adapted to this scenario. We discuss the low energy constraints on the massive gauge bosons and scalars of these models as well as their phenomenology at the TeV scale. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. T. Kotvytskiy
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.
Pole Inflation - Shift Symmetry and Universal Corrections
Broy, Benedict J.; Galante, Mario; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander
2015-01-01
An appealing explanation for the Planck data is provided by inflationary models with a singular non-canonical kinetic term: a Laurent expansion of the kinetic function translates into a potential with a nearly shift-symmetric plateau in canonical fields. The shift symmetry can be broken at large
Symmetry and physical properties of crystals
Malgrange, Cécile; Schlenker, Michel
2014-01-01
Crystals are everywhere, from natural crystals (minerals) through the semiconductors and magnetic materials in electronic devices and computers or piezoelectric resonators at the heart of our quartz watches to electro-optical devices. Understanding them in depth is essential both for pure research and for their applications. This book provides a clear, thorough presentation of their symmetry, both at the microscopic space-group level and the macroscopic point-group level. The implications of the symmetry of crystals for their physical properties are then presented, together with their mathematical description in terms of tensors. The conditions on the symmetry of a crystal for a given property to exist then become clear, as does the symmetry of the property. The geometrical representation of tensor quantities or properties is presented, and its use in determining important relationships emphasized. An original feature of this book is that most chapters include exercises with complete solutions. This all...
Symmetry and resonance in Hamiltonian systems
Tuwankotta, J.M.; Verhulst, F.
2000-01-01
In this paper we study resonances in two degrees of freedom, autonomous, hamiltonian systems. Due to the presence of a symmetry condition on one of the degrees of freedom, we show that some of the resonances vanish as lower order resonances. After giving a sharp estimate of the resonance domain, we
Symmetry and resonance in Hamiltonian systems
Tuwankotta, J.M.; Verhulst, F.
1999-01-01
In this paper we study resonances in two degrees of freedom, autonomous, hamiltonian systems. Due to the presence of a symmetry condition on one of the degrees of freedom, we show that some of the resonances vanish as lower order resonances. After determining the size of the resonance domain, we
Discrete symmetries, strong CP problem and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senjanovic, G.
1993-05-01
Spontaneous breaking of parity or time reversal invariance offers a solution to the strong CP problem, the stability of which under quantum gravitational effects provides an upper limit on the scale of symmetry breaking. Even more important, these Planck scale effects may provide a simple and natural way out of the resulting domain wall problem. (author). 22 refs
Spin polarized atom traps and fundamental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haeusser, O.
1994-10-01
Plans are described to couple a neutral atom trap to an upgraded version of TRIUMF's TISOL on-line mass separator. The unique properties of trapped and cooled atoms promise improvements of some symmetry tests of the Standard Model of the electroweak and strong interactions. (author). 33 refs., 3 figs
Deriving GENERIC from a generalized fluctuation symmetry
Kraaij, R.; Lazarescu, A.; Maes, C.; Peletier, M.A.
2018-01-01
Much of the structure of macroscopic evolution equations for relaxation to equilibrium can be derived from symmetries in the dynamical fluctuations around the most typical trajectory. For example, detailed balance as expressed in terms of the Lagrangian for the path-space action leads to gradient
Unified flavor symmetry from warped dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frank, Mariana, E-mail: mariana.frank@concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Hamzaoui, Cherif, E-mail: hamzaoui.cherif@uqam.ca [Groupe de Physique Théorique des Particules, Département des Sciences de la Terre et de L' Atmosphère, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case Postale 8888, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Pourtolami, Nima, E-mail: n_pour@live.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Toharia, Manuel, E-mail: mtoharia@physics.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada)
2015-03-06
In a model of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk, we propose a scenario which explains all the masses and mixings of the SM fermions. In this scenario, the same flavor symmetric structure is imposed on all the fermions of the Standard Model (SM), including neutrinos. Due to the exponential sensitivity on bulk fermion masses, a small breaking of this symmetry can be greatly enhanced and produce seemingly un-symmetric hierarchical masses and small mixing angles among the charged fermion zero-modes (SM quarks and charged leptons), thus washing out visible effects of the symmetry. If the Dirac neutrinos are sufficiently localized towards the UV boundary, and the Higgs field leaking into the bulk, the neutrino mass hierarchy and flavor structure will still be largely dominated and reflect the fundamental flavor structure, whereas localization of the quark sector would reflect the effects of the flavor symmetry breaking sector. We explore these features in an example based on which a family permutation symmetry is imposed in both quark and lepton sectors.
New symmetries in heavy flavor physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjorken, J.D.
1990-06-01
Isgur and Wise have found that the formal limit M b , M c → ∞ leads to very great simplification in the general structure of the electroweak matrix elements of hadrons containing those quarks. In additions, interesting new symmetries appear in this limit. Their results are discussed, as well as some natural extensions to matrix elements of products of currents. 11 refs
Electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
words, now that the gauge symmetry is established with a significant ..... picture, the Higgs is some kind of a composite bound state emerging from a strongly .... (i) Little Higgs vs. composite: Little Higgs models were introduced to solve the little ...
Symmetries, conservation laws and least action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maher, P.J.
1982-01-01
This article is a non-technical account of some recent work on the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. This recent work-which uses the modern algebraic concept of naturality-yields a new interpretation of the variational, or least action, principle. (author)
Symmetries of nonlinear ordinary differential equations: The ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-10-21
Oct 21, 2015 ... These λ-symmetries can be derived by a well-defined algorithm which includes ... general reader can understand the advantages, disadvantages and ... urations of a spherical gas cloud acting under the mutual attraction of its ...
A convolutional approach to reflection symmetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cicconet, Marcelo; Birodkar, Vighnesh; Lund, Mads
2017-01-01
We present a convolutional approach to reflection symmetry detection in 2D. Our model, built on the products of complex-valued wavelet convolutions, simplifies previous edge-based pairwise methods. Being parameter-centered, as opposed to feature-centered, it has certain computational advantages w...
Symmetries and Interactions in Matrix String Theory
Hacquebord, F.H.
1999-01-01
This PhD-thesis reviews matrix string theory and recent developments therein. The emphasis is put on symmetries, interactions and scattering processes in the matrix model. We start with an introduction to matrix string theory and a review of the orbifold model that flows out of matrix string theory
Introduction "Workplace (a)symmetries: multimodal perspectives"
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmuss, Birte
studied in everyday and professional settings (Ariss, 2009; Glenn, 2010; Maynard, 1991; Roberts, 2000; Robinson, 2001). Numerous studies have pointed out that (a)symmetries in talk can be results of underlying interactional micro-practices like uneven turn distribution and question-answer formats...
Involution symmetries and the PMNS matrix
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Palash B Pal
2017-10-09
Oct 9, 2017 ... 1Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Block-AF, Sector-1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064, India ... paper [3] we take the third assumption in addition, and try to find symmetries ..... a finite subgroup of it that can fit the bill. We make ...
Symmetries and conserved quantities in geodesic motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojman, S.; Nunez, L.; Patino, A.; Rago, H.
1986-01-01
Recently obtained results linking several constants of motion to one (non-Noetherian) symmetry to the problem of geodesic motion in Riemannian space-times are applied. The construction of conserved quantities in geodesic motion as well as the deduction of geometrical statements about Riemannian space-times are achieved
Some aspects of fundamental symmetries and interactions
Jungmann, KP; Grzonka, D; Czyzykiewicz, R; Oelert, W; Rozek, T; Winter, P
2005-01-01
The known fundamental symmetries and interactions are well described by the Standard Model. Features of this powerful theory, which are described but not deeper explained, are addressed in a variety of speculative models. Experimental tests of the predictions in such approaches can be either through
Neutrino mass and mixing with discrete symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, Stephen F; Luhn, Christoph
2013-01-01
This is a review paper about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of see-saw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mechanisms for flavon vacuum alignment and different model building strategies that have been proposed to generate the reactor angle. We then briefly review grand unified theories (GUTs) and how they may be combined with discrete family symmetry to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing. Finally, we discuss three model examples which combine an SU(5) GUT with the discrete family symmetries A 4 , S 4 and Δ(96). (review article)
Symmetries and singularities in Hamiltonian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranda, Eva
2009-01-01
This paper contains several results concerning the role of symmetries and singularities in the mathematical formulation of many physical systems. We concentrate in systems which find their mathematical model on a symplectic or Poisson manifold and we present old and new results from a global perspective.
The quantum symmetry of rational field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, J.
1993-12-01
The quantum symmetry of a rational quantum field theory is a finite-dimensional multi-matrix algebra. Its representation category, which determines the fusion rules and braid group representations of superselection sectors, is a braided monoidal C*-category. Various properties of such algebraic structures are described, and some ideas concerning the classification programme are outlined. (orig.)
The Symmetry Group of the Permutahedron
Crisman, Karl-Dieter
2011-01-01
Although it can be visualized fairly easily and its symmetry group is easy to calculate, the permutahedron is a somewhat neglected combinatorial object. We propose it as a useful case study in abstract algebra. It supplies concrete examples of group actions, the difference between right and left actions, and how geometry and algebra can work…
Hidden symmetry of a free fermion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazhanov, V.V.; Stroganov, Yu.G.
1984-01-01
A well-known eight-vertex free fermion model on a plane lattice is considered. Solving triangle equations and using the symmetry properties of the model, an elliptic parametrization for Boltzmann vertex weights is constructed. In the parametrization the weights are meromorphic functions of three complex variables
Chiral symmetry breaking in finite quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montero, J.C.; Pleitez, V.
1987-01-01
The dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry in a finite Abelian gauge theory using a variational approach for the effective potential for composite operators is discussed. It is shown that, at least in a variational approach, the fermion either remains massless or gets a dynamical mass for every non-zero coupling constant. (Author) [pt
Preserving Symmetry in Convection-Diffusion Schemes
Verstappen, R.W.C.P.; Veldman, A.E.P.; Drikakis, D.; Geurts, B.J.
2002-01-01
We propose to perform turbulent flow simulations in such manner that the difference operators do have the same symmetry properties as the corresponding differential operators. That is, the convective operator is represented by a skew-symmetric difference operator and the diffusive operator is
Tunneling magnetoresistance from a symmetry filtering effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butler, William H
2008-01-01
This paper provides a brief overview of the young, but rapidly growing field of spintronics. Its primary objective is to explain how as electrons tunnel through simple insulators such as MgO, wavefunctions of certain symmetries are preferentially transmitted. This symmetry filtering property can be converted into a spin-filtering property if the insulator is joined epitaxially to a ferromagnetic electrode with the same two-dimensional symmetry parallel to the interface. A second requirement of the ferromagnetic electrodes is that a wavefunction with the preferred symmetry exists in one of the two spin channels but not in the other. These requirements are satisfied for electrons traveling perpendicular to the interface for Fe-MgO-Fe tunnel barriers. This leads to a large change in the resistance when the magnetic moment of one of the electrodes is rotated relative to those of the other electrode. This large tunneling magnetoresistance effect is being used as the read sensor in hard drives and may form the basis for a new type of magnetic memory. (topical review)
Realization of chiral symmetry in the ERG
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Echigo, Yoshio; Igarashi, Yuji
2011-01-01
We discuss within the framework of the ERG how chiral symmetry is realized in a linear σ model. A generalized Ginsparg-Wilson relation is obtained from the Ward-Takahashi identities for the Wilson action assumed to be bilinear in the Dirac fields. We construct a family of its non-perturbative solutions. The family generates the most general solutions to the Ward-Takahashi identities. Some special solutions are discussed. For each solution in this family, chiral symmetry is realized in such a way that a change in the Wilson action under non-linear symmetry transformation is canceled with a change in the functional measure. We discuss that the family of solutions reduces via a field redefinition to a family of the Wilson actions with some composite object of the scalar fields which has a simple transformation property. For this family, chiral symmetry is linearly realized with a continuum analog of the operator extension of γ 5 used on the lattice. We also show that there exist some appropriate Dirac fields which obey the standard chiral transformations with γ 5 in contrast to the lattice case. Their Yukawa interaction with scalars, however, becomes non-linear. (author)
Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacDowell, S.W.
1975-01-01
Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt
Tests of fundamental symmetries with trapped antihydrogen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Chris Ørum
2016-01-01
Antihydrogen is the simplest pure antimatter atomic system, and it allows for direct tests of CPT symmetry as well as the weak equivalence principle. Furthermore the study of antihydrogen may provide clues to the matter- antimatter asymmetry observed in the universe - one of the major unanswered...
Fundamental symmetries and interactions-selected topics
Jungmann, Klaus P.
2015-01-01
In the field of fundamental interactions and symmetries numerous experiments are underway or planned in order to verify the standard model in particle physics, to search for possible extensions to it or to exploit the standard model for extracting most precise values for fundamental constants. We
Holography with broken Poincaré symmetry
Korovins, J.
2014-01-01
This thesis deals with the extensions of the holographic dualities to the situations where part of the Poincaré group has been broken. Such theories are particularly relevant for applications of gauge/gravity dualities to condensed matter systems, which usually exhibit non-relativistic symmetry.
The nucleon- nucleon interaction and symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Oers, W.T.H.
1992-11-01
With the advent of the possibility to study nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies, its extension to investigate fundamental symmetries was recognized early on. It was precisely the introduction of rotational invariance, parity conservation, time reversal invariance, and isotopic spin conversation that led to the description of the N - N scattering matrix in terms of five complex amplitudes: one set of five for proton-proton scattering and one set of five for neutron-proton scattering, or alternatively, one set for the isotopic spin state ι=ο and the other for the isotopic spin state ι=1. Clearly, if one or more of the above constraints are removed, there are additional amplitudes that need to be considered. To be meaningful, experiment requires observables that are particularly sensitive to the violation of a conservation law or symmetry principle. During the last decade a series of precision experiments has been performed to measure charge- symmetry breaking in n - p elastic scattering (corresponding to isotopic spin non-conservation), and to measure parity violation in p-p scattering. For a particle-anti-particle system,like the pp or λλ system one can raise the question of CP violation in a system other than the neutral kaon system may become possible in the near future through pp →λλ and pp→ ≡ ≡. A description is given of the ongoing efforts to measure charge symmetry breaking, parity violation and CP violation.(author). 42 refs., 6 figs
Systematic model building with flavor symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plentinger, Florian
2009-12-19
The observation of neutrino masses and lepton mixing has highlighted the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particle physics. In conjunction with this discovery, new questions arise: why are the neutrino masses so small, which form has their mass hierarchy, why is the mixing in the quark and lepton sectors so different or what is the structure of the Higgs sector. In order to address these issues and to predict future experimental results, different approaches are considered. One particularly interesting possibility, are Grand Unified Theories such as SU(5) or SO(10). GUTs are vertical symmetries since they unify the SM particles into multiplets and usually predict new particles which can naturally explain the smallness of the neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. On the other hand, also horizontal symmetries, i.e., flavor symmetries, acting on the generation space of the SM particles, are promising. They can serve as an explanation for the quark and lepton mass hierarchies as well as for the different mixings in the quark and lepton sectors. In addition, flavor symmetries are significantly involved in the Higgs sector and predict certain forms of mass matrices. This high predictivity makes GUTs and flavor symmetries interesting for both, theorists and experimentalists. These extensions of the SM can be also combined with theories such as supersymmetry or extra dimensions. In addition, they usually have implications on the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe or can provide a dark matter candidate. In general, they also predict the lepton flavor violating rare decays {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} which are strongly bounded by experiments but might be observed in the future. In this thesis, we combine all of these approaches, i.e., GUTs, the seesaw mechanism and flavor symmetries. Moreover, our request is to develop and perform a systematic model building approach with flavor symmetries and
Systematic model building with flavor symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plentinger, Florian
2009-01-01
The observation of neutrino masses and lepton mixing has highlighted the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particle physics. In conjunction with this discovery, new questions arise: why are the neutrino masses so small, which form has their mass hierarchy, why is the mixing in the quark and lepton sectors so different or what is the structure of the Higgs sector. In order to address these issues and to predict future experimental results, different approaches are considered. One particularly interesting possibility, are Grand Unified Theories such as SU(5) or SO(10). GUTs are vertical symmetries since they unify the SM particles into multiplets and usually predict new particles which can naturally explain the smallness of the neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. On the other hand, also horizontal symmetries, i.e., flavor symmetries, acting on the generation space of the SM particles, are promising. They can serve as an explanation for the quark and lepton mass hierarchies as well as for the different mixings in the quark and lepton sectors. In addition, flavor symmetries are significantly involved in the Higgs sector and predict certain forms of mass matrices. This high predictivity makes GUTs and flavor symmetries interesting for both, theorists and experimentalists. These extensions of the SM can be also combined with theories such as supersymmetry or extra dimensions. In addition, they usually have implications on the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe or can provide a dark matter candidate. In general, they also predict the lepton flavor violating rare decays μ → eγ, τ → μγ, and τ → eγ which are strongly bounded by experiments but might be observed in the future. In this thesis, we combine all of these approaches, i.e., GUTs, the seesaw mechanism and flavor symmetries. Moreover, our request is to develop and perform a systematic model building approach with flavor symmetries and to search for phenomenological
Asymptotic symmetries, holography and topological hair
Mishra, Rashmish K.; Sundrum, Raman
2018-01-01
Asymptotic symmetries of AdS4 quantum gravity and gauge theory are derived by coupling the holographically dual CFT3 to Chern-Simons gauge theory and 3D gravity in a "probe" (large-level) limit. Despite the fact that the three-dimensional AdS4 boundary as a whole is consistent with only finite-dimensional asymptotic symmetries, given by AdS isometries, infinite-dimensional symmetries are shown to arise in circumstances where one is restricted to boundary subspaces with effectively two-dimensional geometry. A canonical example of such a restriction occurs within the 4D subregion described by a Wheeler-DeWitt wavefunctional of AdS4 quantum gravity. An AdS4 analog of Minkowski "super-rotation" asymptotic symmetry is probed by 3D Einstein gravity, yielding CFT2 structure (in a large central charge limit), via AdS3 foliation of AdS4 and the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. The maximal asymptotic symmetry is however probed by 3D conformal gravity. Both 3D gravities have Chern-Simons formulation, manifesting their topological character. Chern-Simons structure is also shown to be emergent in the Poincare patch of AdS4, as soft/boundary limits of 4D gauge theory, rather than "put in by hand" as an external probe. This results in a finite effective Chern-Simons level. Several of the considerations of asymptotic symmetry structure are found to be simpler for AdS4 than for Mink4, such as non-zero 4D particle masses, 4D non-perturbative "hard" effects, and consistency with unitarity. The last of these in particular is greatly simplified because in some set-ups the time dimension is explicitly shared by each level of description: Lorentzian AdS4, CFT3 and CFT2. Relatedly, the CFT2 structure clarifies the sense in which the infinite asymptotic charges constitute a useful form of "hair" for black holes and other complex 4D states. An AdS4 analog of Minkowski "memory" effects is derived, but with late-time memory of earlier events being replaced by (holographic) "shadow" effects. Lessons
Spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karnaukhov, Igor N., E-mail: karnaui@yahoo.com
2017-06-21
Highlights: • Proposed a new approach for description of phase transitions in topological insulators. • Considered the mechanism of spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators. • The Haldane model can be implemented in real compounds of the condensed matter physics. - Abstract: The system of spinless fermions on a hexagonal lattice is studied. We have considered tight-binding model with the hopping integrals between the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor lattice sites, that depend on the direction of the link. The links are divided on three types depending on the direction, the hopping integrals are defined by different phases along the links. The energy of the system depends on the phase differences, the solutions for the phases, that correspond to the minimums of the energy, lead to a topological insulator state with the nontrivial Chern numbers. We have analyzed distinct topological states and phase transitions, the behavior of the chiral gapless edge modes, have defined the Chern numbers. The band structure of topological insulator (TI) is calculated, the ground-state phase diagram in the parameter space is obtained. We propose a novel mechanism of realization of TI, when the TI state is result of spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry due to nontrivial stable solutions for the phases that determine the hopping integrals along the links and show that the Haldane model can be implemented in real compounds of the condensed matter physics.
Mambrini, Matthieu; Orús, Román; Poilblanc, Didier
2016-11-01
We elaborate a simple classification scheme of all rank-5 SU(2) spin rotational symmetric tensors according to (i) the onsite physical spin S , (ii) the local Hilbert space V⊗4 of the four virtual (composite) spins attached to each site, and (iii) the irreducible representations of the C4 v point group of the square lattice. We apply our scheme to draw a complete list of all SU(2)-symmetric translationally and rotationally invariant projected entangled pair states (PEPS) with bond dimension D ≤6 . All known SU(2)-symmetric PEPS on the square lattice are recovered and simple generalizations are provided in some cases. More generally, to each of our symmetry class can be associated a (D -1 )-dimensional manifold of spin liquids (potentially) preserving lattice symmetries and defined in terms of D -independent tensors of a given bond dimension D . In addition, generic (low-dimensional) families of PEPS explicitly breaking either (i) particular point-group lattice symmetries (lattice nematics) or (ii) time-reversal symmetry (chiral spin liquids) or (iii) SU(2) spin rotation symmetry down to U(1 ) (spin nematics or Néel antiferromagnets) can also be constructed. We apply this framework to search for new topological chiral spin liquids characterized by well-defined chiral edge modes, as revealed by their entanglement spectrum. In particular, we show how the symmetrization of a double-layer PEPS leads to a chiral topological state with a gapless edge described by a SU (2) 2 Wess-Zumino-Witten model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruber, B.; Thomas, M.S.
1980-01-01
In this article the symmetry chains for the atomic shell model are classified in such a way that they lead from the group SU(4l+2) to its subgroup SOsub(J)(3). The atomic configurations (nl)sup(N) transform like irreducible representations of the group SU(4l+2), while SOsub(J)(3) corresponds to total angular momentum in SU(4l+2). The defining matrices for the various embeddings are given for each symmetry chain that is obtained. These matrices also define the projection onto the weight subspaces for the corresponding subsymmetries and thus relate the various quantum numbers and determine the branching of representations. It is shown in this article that three (interrelated) symmetry chains are obtained which correspond to L-S coupling, j-j coupling, and a seniority dependent coupling. Moreover, for l<=6 these chains are complete, i.e., there are no other chains but these. In articles to follow, the symmetry chains that lead from the group SO(8l+5) to SOsub(J)(3) will be discussed, with the entire atomic shell transforming like an irreducible representation of SO(8l+5). The transformation properties of the states of the atomic shell will be determined according to the various symmetry chains obtained. The symmetry lattice discussed in this article forms a sublattice of the larger symmetry lattice with SO(8l+5) as supergroup. Thus the transformation properties of the states of the atomic configurations, according to the various symmetry chains discussed in this article, will be obtained too. (author)
Relativistic U(3) symmetry and pseudo-U(3) symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginocchio, Joseph N.
2010-01-01
The Dirac Hamiltonian with relativistic scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials has been solved analytically in two limits. One is the spin limit for which spin is an invariant symmetry of the the Dirac Hamiltonian and the other is the pseudo-spin limit for which pseudo-spin is an invariant symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian. The spin limit occurs when the scalar potential is equal to the vector potential plus a constant, and the pseudospin limit occurs when the scalar potential is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the vector potential plus a constant. Like the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator, each of these limits has a higher symmetry. For example, for the spherically symmetric oscillator, these limits have a U(3) and pseudo-U(3) symmetry respectively. We shall discuss the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of these two limits and derive the relativistic generators for the U(3) and pseudo-U(3) symmetry. We also argue, that, if an anti-nucleon can be bound in a nucleus, the spectrum will have approximate spin and U(3) symmetry.
Ji, Q.; Xin, C.; Tang, S. X.; Huang, J. P.
2018-02-01
Crowd panic has incurred massive injuries or deaths throughout the world, and thus understanding it is particularly important. It is now a common knowledge that crowd panic induces "symmetry break" in which some exits are jammed while others are underutilized. Amazingly, here we show, by experiment, simulation and theory, that a class of symmetry patterns come to appear for ants and humans escaping from multiple-exit rooms while the symmetry break exists. Our symmetry pattern is described by the fact that the ratio between the ensemble-averaging numbers of ants or humans escaping from different exits is equal to the ratio between the widths of the exits. The mechanism lies in the effect of heterogeneous preferences of agents with limited information for achieving the Nash equilibrium. This work offers new insights into how to improve public safety because large public areas are always equipped with multiple exits, and it also brings an ensemble-averaging method for seeking symmetry associated with symmetry breaking.
Is space-time symmetry a suitable generalization of parity-time symmetry?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier
2014-01-01
We discuss space-time symmetric Hamiltonian operators of the form H=H 0 +igH ′ , where H 0 is Hermitian and g real. H 0 is invariant under the unitary operations of a point group G while H ′ is invariant under transformation by elements of a subgroup G ′ of G. If G exhibits irreducible representations of dimension greater than unity, then it is possible that H has complex eigenvalues for sufficiently small nonzero values of g. In the particular case that H is parity-time symmetric then it appears to exhibit real eigenvalues for all 0
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, Philippe [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)
1998-12-31
In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation 17 refs., 16 figs.
Neutrino mixing: from the broken μ-τ symmetry to the broken Friedberg–Lee symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xing, Zhizhong
2007-01-01
I argue that the observed flavor structures of leptons and quarks might imply the existence of certain flavor symmetries. The latter should be a good starting point to build realistic models towards deeper understanding of the fermion mass spectra and flavor mixing patterns. The μ-τ permutation symmetry serves for such an example to interpret the almost maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle (θ 23 ~ 45°) and the strongly suppressed CHOOZ neutrino mixing angle (θ 13 < 10°). In this talk I like to highlight a new kind of flavor symmetry, the Friedberg–Lee symmetry, for the effective Majorana neutrino mass operator. Luo and I have shown that this symmetry can be broken in an oblique way, such that the lightest neutrino remains massless but an experimentally-favored neutrino mixing pattern is achievable. We get a novel prediction for θ 13 in the CP-conserving case: sinθ 13 = tanθ 12 |(1 - tanθ 23 )/(1 + tanθ 23 )|. Our scenario can simply be generalized to accommodate CP violation and be combined with the seesaw mechanism. Finally I stress the importance of probing possible effects of μ-τ symmetry breaking either in terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments or with ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrino telescopes. (author)
Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems
Lima, Ricardo
2015-12-11
This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.
On the character of scale symmetry breaking in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gusijnin, V.P.; Kushnir, V.A.; Miransky, V.A.
1988-01-01
The problem of scale symmetry breaking in gauge theories is discussed. It is shown that the phenomenon of spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry in gauge theories is incompatible with the PCAAC dynamics. 12 refs
Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems
Lima, Ricardo; Novais, Augusto Q.
2015-01-01
This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.
Symmetries in physics and harmonics; Symmetrien in Physik und Harmonik
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolk, D.
2006-07-01
In this book the symmetries of elementary particles are described in relation to the rules of harmonics in music. The selection rules are described in connections with harmonic intervals. Also symmetry breaking is considered in this framework. (HSI)
Symmetries and casimir of an extended classical long wave system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Dispersionless equations; symmetries; casimir; conserved quantities. ... Application of Lie symmetry analysis to integro-differential equations or infinite systems ..... The financial support in the form of Senior Research Fellowship.
Applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri
2011-01-01
This work is a brief review of applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics. Symmetry is one of the most important concepts of the science. In physics and mathematics the symmetry allows one to simplify a problem, and often to make it solvable. According to the Noether theorem symmetries are responsible for conservation laws. Besides evident (explicit) spacetime symmetries, responsible for conservation of energy, momentum, and angular momentum of a system, there also exist what is called hidden symmetries, which are connected with higher order in momentum integrals of motion. A remarkable fact is that black holes in four and higher dimensions always possess a set ('tower') of explicit and hidden symmetries which make the equations of motion of particles and light completely integrable. The paper gives a general review of the recently obtained results. The main focus is on understanding why at all black holes have something (symmetry) to hide.
Nonlocal Symmetries to Systems of Nonlinear Diffusion Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qu Changzheng; Kang Jing
2008-01-01
In this paper, we study potential symmetries to certain systems of nonlinear diffusion equations. Those systems have physical applications in soil science, mathematical biology, and invariant curve flows in R 3 . Lie point symmetries of the potential system, which cannot be projected to vector fields of the given dependent and independent variables, yield potential symmetries. The class of the system that admits potential symmetries is expanded.
Explicit symmetry breaking in electrodynamic systems and electromagnetic radiation
Sinha, Dhiraj
2016-01-01
This book is an introduction to the concept of symmetries in electromagnetism and explicit symmetry breaking. It begins with a brief background on the origin of the concept of symmetry and its meaning in fields such as architecture, mathematics and physics. Despite the extensive developments of symmetry in these fields, it has yet to be applied to the context of classical electromagnetism and related engineering applications. This book unravels the beauty and excitement of this area to scientists and engineers.
On the geometry of lambda-symmetries and PDE reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaeta, Giuseppe; Morando, Paola
2004-01-01
We give a geometrical characterization of λ-prolongations of vector fields, and hence of λ-symmetries of ODEs. This allows an extension to the case of PDEs and systems of PDEs; in this context the central object is a horizontal 1-form μ, and we speak of μ-prolongations of vector fields and μ-symmetries of PDEs. We show that these are as good as standard symmetries in providing symmetry reduction of PDEs and systems, and explicit invariant solutions
Symmetry of semi-reduced lattices.
Stróż, Kazimierz
2015-05-01
The main result of this work is extension of the famous characterization of Bravais lattices according to their metrical, algebraic and geometric properties onto a wide class of primitive lattices (including Buerger-reduced, nearly Buerger-reduced and a substantial part of Delaunay-reduced) related to low-restricted semi-reduced descriptions (s.r.d.'s). While the `geometric' operations in Bravais lattices map the basis vectors into themselves, the `arithmetic' operators in s.r.d. transform the basis vectors into cell vectors (basis vectors, face or space diagonals) and are represented by matrices from the set {\\bb V} of all 960 matrices with the determinant ±1 and elements {0, ±1} of the matrix powers. A lattice is in s.r.d. if the moduli of off-diagonal elements in both the metric tensors M and M(-1) are smaller than corresponding diagonal elements sharing the same column or row. Such lattices are split into 379 s.r.d. types relative to the arithmetic holohedries. Metrical criteria for each type do not need to be explicitly given but may be modelled as linear derivatives {\\bb M}(p,q,r), where {\\bb M} denotes the set of 39 highest-symmetry metric tensors, and p,q,r describe changes of appropriate interplanar distances. A sole filtering of {\\bb V} according to an experimental s.r.d. metric and subsequent geometric interpretation of the filtered matrices lead to mathematically stable and rich information on the Bravais-lattice symmetry and deviations from the exact symmetry. The emphasis on the crystallographic features of lattices was obtained by shifting the focus (i) from analysis of a lattice metric to analysis of symmetry matrices [Himes & Mighell (1987). Acta Cryst. A43, 375-384], (ii) from the isometric approach and invariant subspaces to the orthogonality concept {some ideas in Le Page [J. Appl. Cryst. (1982), 15, 255-259]} and splitting indices [Stróż (2011). Acta Cryst. A67, 421-429] and (iii) from fixed cell transformations to transformations
Gauge principle, vector-meson dominance, and spontaneous symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nambu, Yoichiro
1989-01-01
The author concentrates on certain theoretical developments of the late 1950s which are concerned with the meaning and role of symmetries and symmetry breaking, and especially work done in Chicago, and notes his own involvement in this debate. He worked on symmetry-breaking in superconductivity, using a four-fermion interaction model. (UK)
Symmetries and conservation laws of the damped harmonic oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We work with a formulation of Noether-symmetry analysis which uses the properties of infinitesimal point transformations in the space-time variables to establish the association between symmetries and conservation laws of a dynamical system. Here symmetries are expressed in the form of generators. We have studied the ...
Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in onedimensional loop ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 6. Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in ... Keywords. Non-local transformation; broken symmetry; sine-Gordon; sech interaction. ... A specific type of classically broken symmetry is restored in quantum theory. One-dimensional sine-Gordon system and ...
Dynamics of symmetry breaking in strongly coupled QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, W.A.
1988-10-01
I review the dynamical structure of strong coupled QED in the quenched planar limit. The symmetry structure of this theory is examined with reference to the nature of both chiral and scale symmetry breaking. The renormalization structure of the strong coupled phase is analysed. The compatibility of spontaneous scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied using effective lagrangian methods. 14 refs., 3 figs
Quantized Response and Topological Magnetic Insulators with Inversion Symmetry
Turner, A.M.; Zhang, Y.; Mong, R.S.K.; Vishwanath, A.
2012-01-01
We study three-dimensional insulators with inversion symmetry in which other point group symmetries, such as time reversal, are generically absent. We find that certain information about such materials’ behavior is determined by just the eigenvalues under inversion symmetry of occupied states at
Optimal Spatial Harvesting Strategy and Symmetry-Breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurata, Kazuhiro; Shi Junping
2008-01-01
A reaction-diffusion model with logistic growth and constant effort harvesting is considered. By minimizing an intrinsic biological energy function, we obtain an optimal spatial harvesting strategy which will benefit the population the most. The symmetry properties of the optimal strategy are also discussed, and related symmetry preserving and symmetry breaking phenomena are shown with several typical examples of habitats
Probing the density content of the nuclear symmetry energy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The nature of equation of state for the neutron star matter is crucially governed by the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. We attempt to probe the behaviour of the nuclear symmetry energy around the saturation density by exploiting the empirical values for volume and surface symmetry energy ...
On nonlocal symmetries of some shallow water equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reyes, Enrique G [Departamento de Matematicas y Ciencia de la Computacion, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307 Correo 2 Santiago (Chile)
2007-04-27
A recent construction of nonlocal symmetries for the Korteweg-de Vries, Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton equations is reviewed, and it is pointed out that-in the Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton case-these symmetries can be considered as (nonlocal) symmetries of integro-differential equations.
Ratchet device with broken friction symmetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Norden, Bengt; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2002-01-01
An experimental setup (gadget) has been made for demonstration of a ratchet mechanism induced by broken symmetry of a dependence of dry friction on external forcing. This gadget converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation, the direction of which is in ac......An experimental setup (gadget) has been made for demonstration of a ratchet mechanism induced by broken symmetry of a dependence of dry friction on external forcing. This gadget converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation, the direction of which...... is in accordance with given theoretical arguments. Despite the setup being three dimensional, the ratchet rotary motion is proved to be described by one simple dynamic equation. This kind of motion is a result of the interplay of friction and inertia....
New particles and breaking the colour symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolikowski, W.
1975-01-01
In the framework of one-gluon-exchange static forces mediated by a colour octet or nonet of vector gluons, we discuss quark binding in coloured-meson states and its connection with breaking the colour symmetry. A possible identification of psi (3.1), psi(3.7) and the broad bump at 4.1 GeV with some coloured bound states of quarks and antiquarks is pointed out. This identification implies the existence of a second bump in the region of 5 GeV. The general conclusion of the paper is that the colour interpretation of the new particles may be true only if the colour symmetry is badly broken (provided the considered forces are relevant). (author)
Symmetry tests with intense hadron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogt, E.W.
1994-08-01
The Government of Canada has pulled the plug on funding of the KAON facility in Canada. But the science opportunities for symmetry tests with the kinds of beams that KAON would have provided remain. For example, the full intensity of kaons, which KAON would have provided, is needed to find the magnitude and phase of V td and therefore to describe direct CP violation. The combination of K + → π + ν ν - and K L o → π o ν ν - serve this purpose. A variety of other symmetry tests are possible with the kind of intense beams of kaons, antinucleons, other hadrons and neutrinos which KAON would have provided. A perspective will be given for such experiments and their future prospects, now that KAON will not be built. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs