WorldWideScience

Sample records for tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate poisoning

  1. Thirteen-year follow-up of patients with tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate poisoning in northern suburbs of Xi'an in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian; Liu, Yong-Hong; Xu, Yan; Yin, Wen; Huang, Yuan-Gui

    2009-11-01

    Based on reports published so far, organophosphorus (OP) compounds do remarkable harm to human health. In 1995 there was an outbreak of organophosphorus-ester induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) due to tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) poisoning in northern suburbs of Xi'an in China. The 74 affected patients were treated and followed up after definite diagnosis. 13 years later, all the epidemiological data obtained from 61 survivors were evaluated, and 15 patients underwent clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging and electrophysiological examinations. In addition, a review of the literature about the possible mechanism of OPIDN was made. According to our investigation, of 61 survivors, 35 patients almost regained normal function of limbs and work outside; 23 patients walked with bilateral support and could perform housework; and 3 patients could not self-care. The patients undergoing examinations presented spasticity and minor lower leg muscle atrophy without sensory impairment. Laboratory investigations and brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging examinations were normal. Neurophysiological investigations also showed normal electroencephalogram and visual, brainstem auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials. Motor evoked potential (MEP) obtained from the upper limbs had normal central motor conduction time (CMCT). However, the CMCT of MEP response recorded from the bilateral lower limbs was delayed, or showed even no MEP responses. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and electromyography studies were normal except for two severely affected patients. TOCP showed long-term effects on the nervous system and influenced the quality of life. OP compounds should be strictly regulated to prevent similar occurrences.

  2. Characterization of human cytochrome P450s involved in the bioactivation of tri-Ortho-Cresyl phosphate (ToCP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinen, J.; Nematollahi, L.; Fidder, A.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.; Noort, D.; Commandeur, J.N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (ToCP) is a multipurpose organophosphorus compound that is neurotoxic and suspected to be involved in aerotoxic syndrome in humans. It has been reported that not ToCP itself but a metabolite of ToCP, namely, 2-(ortho-cresyl)-4H-1,2,3-benzodioxaphosphoran-2-one (CBDP), may

  3. October 1942: a strange epidemic paralysis in Saval, Verona, Italy. Revision and diagnosis 50 years later of tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Tosi, L; Righetti, C; Adami, L; Zanette, G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1942 a strange epidemic paralysis started in Saval, at that time a country area but now part of the city of Verona. The epidemic went on for several months and affected 41 people, all working as owners or labourers on the same farm. Some of the farm animals (chickens, horses, cattle, pigs) also became ill. About 20 patients were admitted to the nearby city hospital. The outbreak was diagnosed as polyneuritis with a probable viral cause. Fifty years later, seven people with se...

  4. Health risk assessment of exposure to TriCresyl Phosphates (TCPs) in aircraft : A commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ree, Hans; van den Berg, Martin; Brand, Teus; Mulder, Gerard J; Simons, Ries; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Brinio; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Possible exposure to TriCresyl Phosphates (TCPs) has led to concerns among airline crew members. One isomer, Tri-ortho-Cresyl Phosphate (ToCP) is known to be neurotoxic and exposure to ToCP via contaminated cabin air has been suggested to be associated with the alleged Aerotoxic syndrome. The

  5. Induction of plasma acetylcholinesterase activity in mice challenged with organophosphorus poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duysen, Ellen G.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    The restoration of plasma acetylcholinesterase activity in mice following inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents has been attributed to synthesis of new enzyme. It is generally assumed that activity levels return to normal, are stable and do not exceed the normal level. We have observed over the past 10 years that recovery of acetylcholinesterase activity levels in mice treated with organophosphorus agents (OP) exceeds pretreatment levels and remains elevated for up to 2 months. The most dramatic case was in mice treated with tri-cresyl phosphate and tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate, where plasma acetylcholinesterase activity rebounded to a level 250% higher than the pretreatment activity. The present report summarizes our observations on plasma acetylcholinesterase activity in mice treated with chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos oxon, diazinon, tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate, tri-cresyl phosphate, tabun thiocholine, parathion, dichlorvos, and diisopropylfluorophosphate. We have developed a hypothesis to explain the excess acetylcholinesterase activity, based on published observations. We hypothesize that acetylcholinesterase activity is induced when cells undergo apoptosis and that consequently there is a rise in the level of plasma acetylcholinesterase. - Highlights: → Acetylcholinesterase activity is induced by organophosphorus agents. → AChE induction is related to apoptosis. → Induction of AChE activity by OP is independent of BChE.

  6. In vitro neurotoxic hazard characterization of different tricresyl phosphate (TCP) isomers and mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Daniel J; Rutten, Joost M M; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H S

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to tricresyl phosphates (TCPs), via for example contaminated cabin air, has been associated with health effects including the so-called aerotoxic syndrome. While TCP neurotoxicity is mainly attributed to ortho-isomers like tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (ToCP), recent exposure and risk assessments indicate that ToCP levels in cabin air are very low. However, the neurotoxic potential of non-ortho TCP isomers and TCP mixtures is largely unknown. We therefore measured effects of exposure (up to 48h) to different TCP isomers, mixtures and the metabolite of ToCP (CBDP: cresyl saligenin phosphate) on cell viability and mitochondrial activity, spontaneous neuronal electrical activity, and neurite outgrowth in primary rat cortical neurons. The results demonstrate that exposure to TCPs (24-48h, up to 10μM) increases mitochondrial activity, without affecting cell viability. Effects of acute TCP exposure (30min) on neuronal electrical activity are limited. However, electrical activity is markedly decreased for the majority of TCPs (10μM) following 48h exposure. Additional preliminary data indicate that exposure to TCPs (48h, 10μM) did not affect the number of neurites per cell or average neurite length, except for TmCP and the analytical TCP mixture (Sigma) that induced a reduction of average neurite length. The combined neurotoxicity data demonstrate that the different TCPs, including ToCP, are roughly equipotent and a clear structure-activity relation is not apparent for the studied endpoints. The no-observed-effect-concentrations (1μM) are well above current exposure levels indicating limited neurotoxic health risk, although exposures may have been higher in the past. Moreover, prolonged and/or repeated exposure to TCPs may exacerbate the observed neurotoxic effects, which argues for additional research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Health risk assessment of exposure to TriCresyl Phosphates (TCPs) in aircraft: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ree, Hans; van den Berg, Martin; Brand, Teus; Mulder, Gerard J; Simons, Ries; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Brinio; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-12-01

    Possible exposure to TriCresyl Phosphates (TCPs) has led to concerns among airline crew members. One isomer, Tri-ortho-Cresyl Phosphate (ToCP) is known to be neurotoxic and exposure to ToCP via contaminated cabin air has been suggested to be associated with the alleged Aerotoxic syndrome. The symptoms associated with Aerotoxic syndrome are diverse, including headaches, loss of balance, numbness and neurobehavioral abnormalities such as emotional instability, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Other ortho-isomers are toxic as well, but the non-ortho isomers are regarded as less toxic. In a collaborative effort to increase insight into the possible association between exposure to TCPs via contaminated cabin air and Aerotoxic syndrome, we performed an exposure- and toxicological risk assessment. Measurements in KLM 737 aircraft have demonstrated the presence of non-ortho isomers in low concentrations, though ToCP and other ortho-isomers could not be detected. Based on this exposure assessment, we established a toxicological risk model that also takes into account human differences in bioactivation and detoxification to derive a hazard quotient. From this model it appears unlikely that the health effects and alleged Aerotoxic syndrome are due to exposure to ToCP. Alternative explanations for the reported symptoms are discussed, but evaluation of the current findings in light of the criteria for occupational disease leads to the conclusion that the Aerotoxic Syndrome cannot be regarded as such. Additional research is thus required to unravel the underlying causes for the reported health complaints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood Levels of Free Fatty Acids and Energy-Rich Phosphates in Patients with Acute Acetic Acid Poisoning Complicated by Toxic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the blood levels of free fatty acids (FFA and adenyl nucleotides in patients with acute acetic acid poisoning (AAAP complicated with exotoxic shock (ES. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 33 patients with severe AAAP (with (n=10 and without (n=23 ES, of them there were 5 deaths. The patients’ age was 31.6±11.6 years. A control group comprised 16 healthy individuals. The total level of FFA and the concentration of glycerol were measured in the plasma. Red blood cells were as an object for investigation of ATP, ADP, and AMP. Hearts were morphologically studied in 5 patients died from shock. The data were statistically processed using the Mann-Whitney rank nonparametric tests. The differences were regarded as statistically significant at the achieved significance level of pConclusion. Microscopic studies of the hearts from the deceased patients revealed multiple cardiomyocyte necroses. All the patients with severe AAAP showed a considerably elevated blood level of FFAs with their impaired myocardial utilization and decreased red blood cell ATP and ADP concentrations. The most pronounced changes were found in a group of patients with AAAP and ES. Key words: acetic acid poisoning, exotoxic shock, free fatty acids, energy-rich phosphates.

  9. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  10. Philodendron poisoning

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    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Copper poisoning

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    ... swallowed or inhaled The amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison control center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Yew poisoning

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    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Ammonia poisoning

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    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Poison Ivy KidsHealth / For Kids / Poison Ivy What's in ... the leaves of the plants. Look Out for Poison Plants These plants can be anywhere — from the ...

  16. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  19. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002696.htm Deodorant poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Deodorant poisoning occurs when someone swallows deodorant. This article ...

  20. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  1. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious. Let's find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... you're feeling, when you first felt sick, what you ate in the past few days, and ... might have caused food poisoning. The type of treatment you'll get ...

  2. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  3. Poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, T S

    2009-03-01

    South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which--not surprisingly--includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  4. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... whitish-green fruits hang in loose clusters. Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  5. Efficacious Oxime for Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Minireview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Wilson IB, Ginsburg SA. Powerful reactivator of alkyl phosphate inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1955; 18: 168-170. 13. Namba T, Hiraki K. PAM (pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide) therapy for alkyl-phosphate poisoning. J Am Med Assoc 1958; 166: 1834-. 1839. 14. Antonijevic B, Stojijkovic MP. Unequal ...

  6. Beryllium poisonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibert, S.

    1959-03-01

    This note reports a bibliographical study of beryllium toxicity. Thus, this bibliographical review addresses and outlines aspects and issues like aetiology, cases of acute poisoning (cutaneous manifestations, pulmonary manifestations), chronic poisoning (cutaneous, pulmonary and bone manifestations), excretion and localisation, and prognosis

  7. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Paradichlorobenzene is a white, solid chemical with a very strong odor. Poisoning can occur if you swallow this chemical. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If you or someone you are with ...

  8. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002510.htm Nicotine poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nicotine is a bitter-tasting compound that naturally occurs ...

  9. Acetone poisoning

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002480.htm Acetone poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. ...

  10. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care Wipe out the mouth with a cold, wet cloth. Rinse the person's eyes and skin well if they touched the plant. Give milk to drink. Call poison control for more guidance. ...

  11. Sachet poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of perfumed powder or a mix of dried flowers, herbs, spices, and aromatic wood shavings (potpourri). Some ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  12. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pyrethrins. These chemicals were originally isolated from chrysanthemum flowers and are generally not harmful. However, they can ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  13. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  14. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is more common after eating at picnics, school cafeterias, large social functions, or restaurants. When germs get ... the food poisoning. These may include: Arthritis Bleeding problems Damage to the nervous system Kidney problems Swelling ...

  15. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson JK. Plant poisons and traditional medicines. In: Farrar J, Hotez PJ, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 76. Davison K, Frank BL. Ethnobotany: ...

  16. Antifreeze poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The poisonous ingredients in antifreeze are: Ethylene glycol Methanol Propylene glycol ... For ethylene glycol: Death may occur within the first 24 hours. If ... little as 2 tablespoons (1 ounce or 30 milliliters) can kill a ...

  17. Tetrahydrozoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you or someone you are with has an exposure, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can ... under the following brand names: Eyesine Geneye Murine Tears Plus Opti-Clear ...

  18. A Rare but Potentially Fatal Poisoning; Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun Tolunay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphide, a very toxic gas, is used in our country as aluminium phosphide tablets impregnated in clay. It is widely used since it has a very high diffusion capacity, whereby it can eradicate all living creatures in any form of their life cycle and does not leave any remnants in agricultural products. Aluminum phosphide poisoning is among intoxications for which there are still no true antidotes. Mortality rate varies between 30% and 100%. This paper presents a case of aluminum phosphide poisoning caused by the uncompleted suicide attempt. A 14-year-old girl, who swallowed aluminum phosphate tablets, was brought to the emergency department with the complaints of nausea and vomiting. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal. Since the patient ingested a lethal amount of aluminum phosphide, she was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit. The patient was discharged in stable condition after supportive care and monitoring. Specific antidotes are life-saving in poisonings. However, this case was presented to show how general treatment principles and quick access to health services affect the result of treatment. Also, we aimed to highlight the uncontrolled selling of aluminum phosphate, which results in high mortality rates in case of poisoning.

  19. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical tests or the treatment of thyroid disease Tincture of iodine Iodine is also used during the ... Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional. Give the person milk, or ...

  20. Kerosene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. DO NOT ...

  1. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get follow-up care. If you or your teen has been treated for alcohol poisoning, be sure to ask about follow-up care. Meeting with a health professional, particularly an experienced chemical dependency professional, can help you prevent future binge drinking. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic ...

  2. Mushroom Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Dibek Misirlioglu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autumn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. Best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 281-284

  3. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson JK. Plant poisons and traditional medicines. In: Farrar J, Hotez PJ, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, eds. Manson's Tropical Diseases . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 76. Mofenson HC, Caraccio TR, McGuigan ...

  4. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  5. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredient can be found in: Bruised roots, stems, flowers, leaves, fruit Pollen of poison ivy , poison oak, ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  6. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  7. Cuticle remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  9. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  10. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  11. Blue nightshade poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney transplantation may be needed. Prevent absorption of poison Stomach emptying (inducing vomiting or stomach pumping), once ... iron, or many household chemicals. Increase elimination of poison If a poison remains life threatening despite the ...

  13. Shaving cream poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  14. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  15. Hair bleach poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Black nightshade poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  20. Perceived poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nañagas, Kristine A; Kirk, Mark A

    2005-11-01

    Perceived poisoning may manifest in numerous ways; however, all cases share certain characteristics. All are fostered by the wide availability of unreliable information about chemical safety, poor understanding of scientific principles, and ineffective risk communication. Although this problem is still incompletely understood, some approaches have been demonstrated to be useful, such as education about risk, appropriate reassurance, and empathy on the part of the practitioner. Successful management may curtail the spread or exacerbation of symptoms, whereas unsuccessful treatment may cause the problems to escalate, with detrimental effects on both society and patient.

  1. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  2. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  3. Phosphate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many different combinations of the chemical phosphate with salts and minerals. Foods high in phosphate include dairy products, whole grain cereals, nuts, and certain meats. Phosphates found in dairy products ... People use phosphate salts for medicine. Be careful not to confuse phosphate ...

  4. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  5. Scandium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, P.P.; Komissarova, L.N.

    1988-01-01

    The review deals with scandium phosphates known by now, including mono- and condensed phosphates (di-, tri-, tetra phosphates and more condensed forms). Phosphates with complex cation and anion parts are also considered. The methods of preparation, structural types, structure peculiarities, physicochemical characteristics are generalized and application fields of the compounds mentioned are indicated

  6. Preventing food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007441.htm Preventing food poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. To prevent food poisoning , take the following steps when preparing food: Carefully ...

  7. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  8. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  9. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  10. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  11. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  12. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  13. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  14. EDITORIAL POISONING PATTERN Human poisoning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    Human poisoning with chemicals, including drugs, is emotive because of the real possibility that it often culminates in death. In acute poisoning, clinical symptoms such as vomiting, delirium, diarrhoea, convulsions, et cetera, are very dramatic, yet the onlookers with no medical background can only watch helplessly as the ...

  15. EDITORIAL POISONING PATTERN Human poisoning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    Bioaccumulation of methylmercury then occurred in fish which were eventually eaten by humans. Thallium poisoning is characterized by alopecia often seen one to two weeks later when the patient is about to be discharged from hospital. Thus, in chronic poisoning, it is difficult to establish definitive cause-effect relationship.

  16. Phosphate sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Human phosphate homeostasis is regulated at the level of intestinal absorption of phosphate from the diet, release of phosphate through bone resorption, and renal phosphate excretion and involves the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2-D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) to maintain circulating phosphate levels within a narrow normal range, which is essential for numerous cellular functions, for the growth of tissues and for bone mineralization. Prokaryotic and single cellular eukaryotic organisms such as bacteria and yeast “sense” ambient phosphate with a multi-protein complex located in their plasma membrane, which modulates the expression of genes important for phosphate uptake and metabolism (pho pathway). Database searches based on amino acid sequence conservation alone have been unable to identify metazoan orthologs of the bacterial and yeast phosphate sensors. Thus little is known about how human and other metazoan cells sense inorganic phosphate to regulate the effects of phosphate on cell metabolism (“metabolic” sensing) or to regulate the levels of extracellular phosphate via feedback system(s) (“endocrine” sensing). Whether the “metabolic” and the “endocrine” sensor use the same or different signal transduction cascades is unknown. This chapter will review the bacterial and yeast phosphate sensors, and then discuss what is currently known about the metabolic and endocrine effects of phosphate in multicellular organisms and humans. PMID:21406298

  17. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  18. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  19. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  20. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  1. Pattern of Acute Poisoning Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Prasad Shakya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poisoning with various substances is a major public health problem and a reason for significant morbidity and mortality throughout the globe. It is one of the most common presentation in an emergency department. This study was conducted to determine the sociodemographic, poisoning types, and mode of poisoning in cases attending a tertiary hospital of Western Nepal. Methods: A retrospective observational study of two years was conducted from July 2014 to June 2016. Demography details, name of poisonous substance, and reasons for poisoning were reviewed and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 65 cases of poisoning were recorded. The occurrence was more common in female (n=44, 67.7% than in male (n=21, 32.3% with a F:M ratio of 2.1:1.  Poisoning  was most  common in the age group of 11-20 years (32.3%. Most of the cases were students (37% followed by farmers (26%. The most commonly abused poisoning substance were organophosphorous compounds, zinc-phosphate,  and  kerosene in adults, adolescents, and children respectively. Oral route was the most common (99% route of administration. Suicidal attempt, as a mode of poisoning, accounted for 70.8% of total poisoning cases. Conclusion: Female and young people are at greater risk of acute poisoning. Insecticide was the most common agent and self administer poisoning was the most common mode of poisoning. The occurrence of poisoning and its morbidity and mortality can be reduced by developing and implementation of effective prevention strategies like restricting easy poison sales, establishing drug and poison information centers,  and community awareness programs.

  2. Anatomy of lead poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Abstract. Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most.

  3. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Since then, the death or stranding of other marine animals, including whales, has been suspected or confirmed to ... sickened or die due to domoic acid poisoning. Animals poisoned by domoic acid include seabirds and marine mammals, including sea lions, sea otters, whales. Domoic- ...

  4. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  5. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email not for emergency use. Ohio Central Texas Poison Center Address Scott and White Memorial Hospital 2401 South 31st Street Temple, TX 76508 Service area: Central Texas Mail donation to: Central Texas Poison Center (Above address) For questions contact: jennifer.watson@ ...

  6. Arsenical poisoning of racehorses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.N.; Fawell, E.V.; Brown, J.K.

    1964-03-07

    A case of arsenic poisoning in a training stable of Thoroughbred racehorses is described. This was due to the accidental spilling of an arsenical rat poison into the corn bin. Nine horses were affected. The mortality rate was 100 per cent. 1 table.

  7. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  8. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally considered nonpoisonous, but it can ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  9. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  10. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms will be followed soon after by strange sensations that may include numbness or tingling in your mouth, headache, dizziness, and hot and cold temperature reversal. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: This is a ...

  11. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  12. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  13. The Poisons Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  14. Pine oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. ...

  15. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  16. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause choking and serious breathing problems. Symptoms of sodium hypochlorite poisoning may include: Burning, red eyes Chest pain Coma Coughing (from the fumes) Delirium Gagging sensation Low blood pressure Pain in the ...

  17. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and poison sumac: Farming Forestry Landscaping Gardening Firefighting Construction Camping Fishing from the shoreline or hunting Cable ... wash any other contaminated items — such as outdoor gear, garden tools, jewelry, shoes and even shoelaces — as ...

  18. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  19. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed t...

  20. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  1. Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective

  2. Pyopneumothorax following kerosene poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B E; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

    2014-01-01

    Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.

  3. Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Parra, Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural and industrial development that is reaching our country has conditioned the emergence of numerous types of occupational diseases, among which stand out the poison in the work environment, and within poisoning organophosphorus insecticides. Substances acting on harmful insects transmit diseases to both the man and the vegetable kingdom. The recent and ever-increasing use of new insecticides, raises the need to know the physiological actions of these products so that their bene...

  4. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  5. Burnable poison irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The topical report describes the irradiation program developed to investigate different burnable poison rod material and designs. The purpose of the report is to present (1) technical support for the irradiation of several test burnable poison rod designs that have not been previously reviewed, and (2) describe the parameters that will be employed in the surveillance program for Combustion Engineering's (CE) standard burnable poison rod for 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. The test burnable poison rods will be placed in a CE reactor using 16 x 16 fuel assemblies, the first such reactor is Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 2. The irradiation program has four phases. Phase I involves the irradiation of 48 standard burnable poison rods which (1) will be extensively precharacterized prior to irradiation and (2) will undergo interim performance evaluation and detailed post-irradiation examination. Phase II, III, and IV involve irradiation and performance evaluation of a small number of burnable poison rods of different proprietary designs. The report discusses the materials to be used in each phase, the methods of fabricating the rods, and the rods expected behavior in a reactor

  6. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  7. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build up in a home and poison the people and animals inside. Every year, at least 430 people die ... build up in enclosed or partially enclosed spaces. People and animals in these spaces can be poisoned and can ...

  8. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...

  9. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  11. [Paralytic shellfish poisoning (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, J C; Essaïd el Feydi, A; Kadiri, A

    Different diseases as viral or bacterian gastro-enteritis, Tiphoid, viral hepatitis can come from shellfishes. Less known is the shellfish poisoning although recent outbreaks took place in Spain, France, England, Morocco. Toxic poisoning is caused by a poison produced by dinoflagelates of plankton which get developped in shells and make them dangerous, even cooked, to be eaten. A respiratory failure can result from this neurotropic poison.

  12. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review of the litera......BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review...

  13. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  14. (IV) phosphates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M(IV) phosphates of the class of tetravalent metal acid (TMA) salts where M (IV) = Zr, Ti, Sn has been synthesized by the sol-gel method. These materials have been characterized for elemental analysis (ICP-AES), thermal analysis (TGA, DSC), X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical resistivity of these materials ...

  15. Amitraz poisoning: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alexander Molina-Bolaños

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amitraz is an insecticide compound used worldwide for controlling pests, especially in agricultural and livestock areas. However, amitraz poisoning in Colombia is rare. This article reports the case of an 18-year-old female patient who was admitted in the emergency service 3 hours after the intake of an unknown amount of Triatox® (amitraz. The patient presented with a depressed level of consciousness, respiratory distress, hypotension, bradycardia, myosis and metabolic acidosis compensated with respiratory alkalosis. Initial treatment was provided using life support measures in the emergency ward, and subsequent transfer and support in the intensive care unit. She was discharged 24 hours after admission. This case considers the clinical similarity between amitraz poisoning and poisoning caused by other more frequent toxic compounds such as carbamates, organophosphates and opioids, which require different management.

  16. Thallium poisoning in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsmon, J; Taliansky, E; Landau, M; Neufeld, M Y

    2000-11-01

    We report the first case of thallium poisoning in Israel in almost 30 years. A 40-year-old man was apparently poisoned by a business associate when, on several occasions, he unknowingly drank an alcoholic beverage containing the toxic substance. Delayed admission and recurrent thallium ingestion resulted in both acute and chronic symptoms being present concomitantly. Conventional treatment modalities (Prussian blue and forced diuresis) were employed. The patient survived, although neurological sequelae ensued. The problems encountered in diagnosis and treatment of this relatively uncommon entity are discussed.

  17. Haemarthrosis after superwarfarin poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsaftis, Panagiotis; Girtovitis, Fotios; Boutou, Afroditi; Ntaios, George; Makris, Pantelis E

    2007-09-01

    Superwarfarins are widely used as rodenticides. They are similar to warfarin, but they are more potent and act longer. In case of poisoning, they cause severe bleeding, usually from multiple sites. A 67-yr-old man was admitted with melaena, epistaxis and haemarthrosis in his left knee. PT, INR and aPTT were markedly increased. Initially, the patient was treated with blood and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions. However at the second day, PT, INR and aPTT were even worse. The combination of persistent coagulopathy, normal mixing studies, normal liver function tests and absence of hepatic failure or malabsorption syndromes lead to the suspicion of vitK dependent clotting factors deficiency due to superwarfarin poisoning. Indeed, the patient admitted a suicide attempt with rodenticide, although he had previously denied it. Psychiatric evaluation revealed a disturbed personality. Melaena stopped after 7 d. Then, the patient was administered 30 mg of vitK daily for a total period of 4 months. Superwarfarin poisoning leads to severe bleeding, usually from multiple sites. Prolonged treatment with high doses of vitK is necessary. Haemarthrosis, as a complication of superwarfarin poisoning, is presented here for the first time in literature.

  18. Ink remover poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ink remover is a chemical used to get out ink stains. Ink remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... These ingredients can be found in: Ink removers Liquid bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of ink removers.

  19. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Sergio; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1989-01-01

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C and Al 2 O 3 -Gd 2 O 3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B 4 C or Gd 2 O 3 in Al 2 O 3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author) [es

  20. Oven cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a provider. If the ...

  1. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care If the plant was eaten, wipe out the mouth with a cold, wet cloth, and give the person milk to drink. Call poison control for more treatment information. If the eyes or skin touched the plant, rinse them well with water. ...

  2. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do so by poison control or a health care provider. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the metal cleaner, give them water or milk right away, unless a provider tells you not ...

  3. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outcome will depend on the extent of this damage. Opening a large bucket of chlorine tablets can expose you to a powerful chlorine gas that can be very poisonous. Always open the container outdoors. Keep your face as far away from ...

  4. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes used. With this procedure, a solution containing sodium bicarbonate (the chemical in baking soda) is given by vein to make the urine ... acetaminophen (antidote is N - acetylcysteine ), aspirin (antidote is sodium bicarbonate), and heroin (antidote is naloxone ). Some poisonous bites ...

  5. Kerosene poisoning in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, L.; Al-Rahim, K.

    1970-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical aspects of 100 cases of kerosene poisoning have been studied. The use of gastric lavage is discussed, and it is considered that this measure is probably valuable in treatment. The importance of preventive measures is stressed. PMID:5416507

  6. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  7. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  8. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  9. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; Jacobson, R R; Gross, M

    1997-08-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

  10. Management of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, P W

    2000-09-01

    A case of acute thallium poisoning in a 67-year-old Chinese woman is described. She presented with acute pain in the chest, abdomen, and lower limbs. The diagnosis was not made, however, until alopecia developed. Detoxification treatment, which included Prussian blue (potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate) was then given, but further neurological damage occurred. The patient's motor function recovered after 1 year, but residual sensory neuropathy remained. This case illustrates that tissue-bound thallium may cause prolonged neurological damage if detoxification therapy is not commenced within 72 hours of the onset of acute poisoning. Acute abdominal pain and painful neuropathy in the lower extremities are important early diagnostic clues for timely therapy. However, by the time alopecia develops-typically around 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms-detoxification therapy may not be able to prevent the development of prolonged neurological damage.

  11. Small dose... big poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitberg, George; Oakley, Ed

    2010-11-01

    It is not possible to identify all toxic substances in a single journal article. However, there are some exposures that in small doses are potentially fatal. Many of these exposures are particularly toxic to children. Using data from poison control centres, it is possible to recognise this group of exposures. This article provides information to assist the general practitioner to identify potential toxic substance exposures in children. In this article the authors report the signs and symptoms of toxic exposures and identify the time of onset. Where clear recommendations on the period of observation and known fatal dose are available, these are provided. We do not discuss management or disposition, and advise readers to contact the Poison Information Service or a toxicologist for this advice.

  12. Lead poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapul, Heda; Laraque, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    There is no safe lead level in children. Primary prevention is the most effective way to bring about the complete removal of lead from the environment and eliminate lead poisoning as a public health concern. The National Lead Information Center can be reached via the Internet at www.epa.gov/lead and www.hud.gov/lead, or via phone at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).

  13. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  14. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene glycol poisoning. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency centre after drinking 300 ml of antifreeze. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for a respiratory rate of 28 bpm, GCS of 9 and slight nystagmus. Arterial blood gas revealed: pH 7.167, pCO2. 3.01 kPa, pO2 13.0 kPa (on room air), HCO3-.

  15. [Toxic alcohol poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicki, Paweł; Głogowski, Tomasz

    Accidental or intentional poisonings with ethylene glycol or methanol constitute a serious toxicological problem in many countries. Both alcohols are quickly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to toxic metabolites responsible for high anion gap severe metabolic acidosis and profound neurological, cardiopulmonary, renal disturbances and death. In the early period, the competing inhibition the alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizol may successfully prevent the formation of the toxic metabolites. Once severe acidosis develops an emergency hemodialysis is required.

  16. Organophosphate poisoning : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K. Sinha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7

  17. Metaldehyde poisoning in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaldehyde is an active substance used for extermination of slugs and snail population. This paper presents the very first case of metaldehyde intentional poisoning of dogs in Serbia. Three-year-old and a six-year-old Swiss white shepard dogs were poisoned. The owner noticed frequent defecation, skeletal muscles spasms and impossibility to put any weight on their back extremities. The vomit of the younger dog was made of green-turquoise colored gut content. Twenty minutes after the onset of the first clinical symptoms dogs died. Macroscopic examination showed congestion of lungs, in the liver and intestines, as well as chemorage in the pancreas, bladder and intestines. Nonspecific pathological lesions were present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, gut, intestines and brain. Pathohistological examination showed dystrophic changes and necrosis in kidneys, brain and intestines. According to anamnestic data, clinical signs, macroscopic and microscopic examination as well as characteristic smell of gut content, one could say that metaldehyde poisoning is the case. Toxicological analysis of gut content samples was performed by using gas chromatography with mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. Used diagnostic methodology and gut content toxicology results obtained was the base for crime case according to article 269. Republic of Serbia Crime law.

  18. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  19. Methanol poisoning: characteristic MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nirdesh; Himanshu, Dandu; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Parihar, Anit

    2013-01-01

    Acute methanol intoxication is not an unusual poisoning. It can have serious neurological sequelae. We emphasize how neuroimaging can help in distinguishing methanol poisoning from other causes of acute unconsciousness in alcoholic patients such as hypoglycemic brain damage and carbon monoxide poisoning or head injury, which are frequently observed in alcoholic patients and are also responsible for altered sensorium. The most important findings in MR brain imaging in methanol poisoning have been bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis. Other less common findings are subcortical and deep white matter lesions, cerebral and cerebellar cortical lesions, and midbrain lesions, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, and even enhancement of necrotic lesions, we found almost the entire spectrum of MRI findings in this patient with methanol poisoning. Neurological sequelae can entail the course and prognosis in methanol poisoning. The patient died because of ventilator-associated pneumonia that developed in the course of prolonged hospitalization.

  20. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  1. Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Diagnosis of acute poisoning | Tygerberg Poison Information Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 8 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Diagnosis of acute poisoning. - Tygerberg Poison ...

  4. Cyanide Self-poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Jones, M.; Bennett, M. A.; Sherwell, Janet M.

    1970-01-01

    Four cases of cyanide self-poisoning were admitted to one hospital over a period of two years. Two of the patients died. The diagnosis in the unconscious patient may be suggested by the finding of bradycardia and the absence of cyanosis (despite inadequate ventilation). The diagnosis can be confirmed in 5 to 10 minutes by a simple test on gastric aspirate, performed by the casualty officer. Cardiac pacing was used in two patients and may have a place in the supportive management of severe cases. PMID:5497407

  5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  6. The prognosis following amphetamine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Henrik; Dalhoff, Kim P.; Klemp, Marc

    2017-01-01

    the background population. Results: From August 2006 to December 2013 we identified 1444 patients (70% males) who experienced amphetamine poisoning; 52% of the cases were classified as mixed poisonings and the average age at first contact was 24.8 years (SD 8.6). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders, HIV...

  7. Poisoning with organophosphates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phosphorothioates (P=S) which include malathion, parathion, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, disulfoton, phosmet, fenitrothion and the phosphates (P=O) which include dichlorvos and trichlorfon. What is their toxic action? They are easily absorbed through the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts and significantly through the skin.

  8. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  9. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the POISON...

  11. Glycemic Status in Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S; Nanda, R; Mangaraj, M; Rathod, P K; Mishra, P K

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus(OP) poisoning, in addition to its cholinergic manifestations shows metabolic derangements leading to hyperglycemia. Apart from inhibiting acetylcholinesterase it also induces oxidative stress to exhibit this manifestation. The present study aims to assess the glycemic status of OP poisoned patients and its association with various factors in OP poisoning like oxidative stress and dose of atropine. This is a prospective study which recruited 102 patients above 18 years of age with history of OP poisoning. They were categorized into 3 grades-mild, moderate and severe based on the Peradeniya Organophosphorus Poisining Scale. The routine biochemical parameters along with serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and cholinesterase were estimated in the study group. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria were observed, with majority cases of hyperglycemia (57%) noticed in the severe group. There was a rise in the random plasma glucose (RPG), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total dose of atropine across the groups along with a fall in the serum cholinesterase with increase in severity of poisoning. The fall in plasma glucose at the time of discharge was significant in all three groups when compared to the admission random plasma glucose(RPG) level. This transient hyperglycemia exhibited a significant positive association with serum MDA and dose of atropine administered during treatment (p<0.05). Glycemic status in OP poisoning may play a role in identifying the severity of poisoning at the time of admission.

  12. Regulation of serum phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  13. [Poisonous animals at bathing beaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghanss, T; Bodio, M

    2000-05-18

    Tourists and native inhabitants of tropical and subtropical regions differ significantly with regard to the risk and nature of incidents involving venomous and poisonous animals. While the indigenous population encounters such risks daily during work and other activities, tourists are usually endangered while swimming or diving, or by ingesting toxin-containing fish and/or other seafood. Whether abroad or at home, allergic reactions to the stings of bees, wasps and hornets are probably the most common manifestations of an encounter with a "poisonous animal". Travellers should be well acquainted with the dangers entailed in encountering or ingesting a venomous or poisonous animal--prevention is the most important measure.

  14. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  15. Corrosive Poisonings in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, Andon; Pereska, Zanina; Chibisheva, Vesna; Simonovska, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of corrosive substances may cause severe to serious injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the poisoning can even result in death. Acute corrosive intoxications pose a major problem in clinical toxicology since the most commonly affected population are the young with psychic disorders, suicidal intent and alcohol addiction. The golden standard for determination of the grade and extent of the lesion is esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed in the first 12-24 hours following corrosive ingestion. The most common late complications are esophageal stenosis, gastric stenosis of the antrum and pyloris, and rarely carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Treatment of the acute corrosive intoxications include: neutralization of corrosive agents, antibiotics, anti-secretory therapy, nutritional support, collagen synthesis inhibitors, esophageal dilation and stent placement, and surgery. PMID:23678319

  16. Phosphate Uptake by Phosphate-Starved Euglena

    Science.gov (United States)

    BLUM, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Phosphate-deprived Euglena acquire the ability to rapidly in-corporate added phosphate and, also, synthesize an induced acid phosphatase localized in the pellicle. The phosphate uptake system is saturated at low concentrations of phosphate and is inhibited by dinitrophenol, by low temperature, by K+, Li+, and Na+ ions, and competitively by arsenate. The orthophosphate incorporated into the cell is rapidly converted into organic forms but enough remains unesterified to suggest that the uptake is an active transport process. The data do not rule out the possibility that the induced phosphatase is involved in the transport process. PMID:5924104

  17. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... and toxicokinetic data were extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled...

  18. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    in poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Salicylate poisoning is a challenging clinical entity associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The indications for extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis are poorly defined. We present a systematic review of the literature along with evidence- and consensus......-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment in salicylate poisoning. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup is a multidisciplinary group with international representation whose aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments...

  19. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all...... articles, extracted data, summarized key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 617 articles met......-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory...

  20. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    in carbamazepine poisoning. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, the subgroup extracted the data and summarized the findings following a pre-determined format. The entire workgroup voted via a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness......CONTEXT: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence and consensus-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and provide clinical recommendations for ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...

  1. FTIR analysis of food poisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Sritana C.

    1992-03-01

    Single and rapid analyses of chemical poisons or contaminants in different food matrices are explored. Various FT-IR accessories are utilized and compared for the detection sensitivity. Detection enhancements by combining with chromatographic techniques are investigated.

  2. The poisoning of NRX pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.H.

    1959-09-01

    The experimental methods used to study the poisoning of the NRX reactor are described and the operation of the reactor in relation to these methods is reviewed for the period February to September 1948. (author)

  3. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  4. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    Dit literatuuroverzicht bevat informatie betreffende het "neurotoxic shellfish poisoning" (NSP) syndroom en de veroorzakende toxines, nl.de brevetoxines, welke geproduceerd worden door de dinoflagellaat Gymnodinium breve. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van de brevetoxines,

  5. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  6. Cyanide poisoning deaths in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Yilmaz, R; Bagdas, D; Ozyigit, M O

    2006-12-01

    In 2005, the deaths of three dogs were reported in Erdek, Turkey. Examining appropriate historical and clinical signs, postmortem findings and the discovery of cyanide in their stomachs and intestinal contents and livers supported a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning.

  7. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  8. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  9. Scombroid fish poisoning: an overlooked marine food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M L; Yang, C C; Yang, G Y; Ger, J; Deng, J F

    1997-08-01

    Scombroid fish poisoning is a food-borne chemical intoxication caused by certain spoiled fish that contain a large amount of histamine and some biogenic diamines. It has gradually become a world-wide medical problem and probably is the most common cause of fish poisoning. As the data on the incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Taiwan remains scarce, we report 2 incidents of scombroid fish poisoning in Northern Taiwan. We collected data of the 2 outbreaks of suspected fish poisoning which were reported to us in 1996. An epidemiological investigation was undertaken. Questionnaire interviews were given to persons who ate lunch in the same cafeteria in outbreak 2. The leftover fish were sent for species identification and toxin analysis. The first incident involving 4 women occurred in March 1996. All cases experienced flush, dizziness, blurred vision and skin rashes after eating lunch. A non-scombroid fish of Makaira with histamine levels as high as 84.13 mg/100 g flesh was implicated in this incident. In August 1996, another incident involving some cases who ate lunch at the same cafeteria were investigated. A total of 146 questionnaires were distributed with a return of 132 questionnaires (90.4%). Fifty-five employees reported positive signs or symptoms; 48 persons who ate fish and 7 women who did not eat fish were ill. Fish was the only food associated with the illness with an attack rate of 73.8% (p leftover piece and 118.5 mg/100 g flesh in another piece. Most cases in these 2 outbreaks received treatment with antihistamines and had rapid and complete recovery. The diagnosis of scombroid fish poisoning could be misdiagnosed as food allergy or bacterial food poisoning if physicians are not aware of such poisoning. The nonspecific but characteristic symptomatology of histamine food poisoning and previous consumption of fish should alert physicians to the possibility of scombroid fish poisoning. Unless complicated with shock or respiratory distress, supportive

  10. Amitraz poisoning treatment: still supportive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Yaraghi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Amitraz is a triazapentadiene, an α2 adrenergic agonist and a member of the amidine chemical family. A limited number of human intoxication cases have been published in the literature. Lack of a clear and specific protocol for the therapy of amitraz intoxication may make its successfully managed case reports useful and valuable for other clinical practitioners in poisoning departments. The case is about a 22 years old female, single, university student, ingested a glass of amitraz poison (about 100 mL of a 20% solution) as a suicidal attempt on 11:30 am which was about 3.5 h before her hospital admission. She found nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Immediately, her family took her to a clinic near their house. At that clinic (13:30 pm) she had miosis and they did gastric lavage , one adult dose of activated charcoal (50 g) and referred her to our Poisoning Emergency Department, where she was managed supportively and successfully. Amitraz is a poisonous chemical which may cause central nervous system depression and also respiratory/cardiovascular symptoms as well. Several studies reported that using atropine for those amitraz poisoned patients with both miosis and bradycardia resolved the problem and recommend it as the first line of drug therapy when bradycardia occurs from vagal stimulation and atrioventricular block. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic. Although the effects of activated charcoal and cathartics have not been studied, they may still be considered for treatment.

  11. Methemoglobinemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Hassanian-Moghadam, Hossein; Sadeghi, Anahaita; Rahimzadeh, Hormat; Zamani, Nasim; Ghasemi-Toussi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common causes of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Hydrogen phosphide or phosphine gas is produced following reaction of AlP with water even at ambient humidity. Methemoglobinemia is a rare finding following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, two cases of fatal AlP poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia are reported. Two patients presented following suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage with sodium bicarbonate and potassium permanganate. Both of them received supportive care. In each case, hematuria and hemolysis were significant events. The patients also showed a decrease in O(2) saturation in spite of high FIO(2). Methemoglobin levels of 40% and 30% were detected by co-oximetry. Neither patient responded to treatment (ascorbic acid in one case, methylene blue in the other). Both patients died due to systemic effects of phosphine poisoning. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia may complicate the course of phosphine poisoning that seems resistant to methylene blue and ascorbic acid. Therefore, other treatments including hyperbaric oxygen therapy and exchange blood transfusion should be considered.

  12. Uranium from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that ...

  14. Histamine Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirone, Maria; Visciano, Pierina; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of food containing high amounts of histamine and other biogenic amines can cause food poisoning with different symptoms linked to the individual sensitivity and the detoxification activity. Histamine is the only biogenic amine with regulatory limits set by the European Commission in fish and fishery products, because it can lead to a fatal outcome. However, also fermented foods can be involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases of intoxication. The factors affecting the presence of histamine in food are variable and product specific including the availability of the precursor amino acid, the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases, and the conditions allowing their growth and enzyme production. Generally, the good quality of raw material and hygienic practices during food processing as well as the use of histidine decarboxylase-negative starter cultures can minimize the occurrence of histamine. Further studies are necessary to estimate the human exposure and the relationship between the total amount of the biogenic amines ingested with food and health effects.

  15. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  16. Medicine poisoning in suicidal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušic Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigations shows that on every realized suicide comes 8 to 25 non realized attempts. Individuals which tried suicide with medicine poisoning mostly quote that they have been overwhelmed with feelings and thoughts which was unbearable in that moment. They wished to escape from that unbearable situation or they lost self control. Between individuals whom tried suicide with medicine poisoning, desire to really die, to disappear was very rare. Mostly it was wish 'just to sleep a little, to take a rest, make pause'. Aim of work: to identified most frequently method for suicidal attempt in both sex and resources which was used in these purposes. Results: most frequently method for suicidal attempt for both sex in our investigation was medicine poisoning - 91,1%, veins cutting - 5,4% and jump from height - 3,6%. Mostly used medicines were anxiolytics - 55,4%, combination of different drugs - 25,0%, antidepressants - 8,9%, neuroleptics - 7,1%, drugs and alcohol - 3,6%. Most frequent method for suicidal attempt in both sex was medicine poisoning. From drugs most frequently used drugs were anxiolytics and in minimum percent combination of drugs and alcohol. After suicidal attempt 90% of individuals experienced relief because their suicidal attempt was unsuccessful. In 3% individuals there was new suicidal attempt on same way, medicine poisoning.

  17. Organophosphate-Induced Changes in the PKA Regulatory Function of Swiss Cheese/NTE Lead to Behavioral Deficits and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is a Wallerian-type axonopathy that occurs weeks after exposure to certain organophosphates (OPs). OPs have been shown to bind to Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE), thereby inhibiting its enzymatic activity. However, only OPs that also induce the so-called aging reaction cause OPIDN. This reaction results in the release and possible transfer of a side group from the bound OP to NTE and it has been suggested that this induces an unknown toxic function of NTE. To further investigate the mechanisms of aging OPs, we used Drosophila, which expresses a functionally conserved orthologue of NTE named Swiss Cheese (SWS). Treating flies with the organophosporous compound tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) resulted in behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration two weeks after exposure, symptoms similar to the delayed effects observed in other models. In addition, we found that primary neurons showed signs of axonal degeneration within an hour after treatment. Surprisingly, increasing the levels of SWS, and thereby its enzymatic activity after exposure, did not ameliorate these phenotypes. In contrast, reducing SWS levels protected from TOCP-induced degeneration and behavioral deficits but did not affect the axonopathy observed in cell culture. Besides its enzymatic activity as a phospholipase, SWS also acts as regulatory PKA subunit, binding and inhibiting the C3 catalytic subunit. Measuring PKA activity in TOCP treated flies revealed a significant decrease that was also confirmed in treated rat hippocampal neurons. Flies expressing additional PKA-C3 were protected from the behavioral and degenerative phenotypes caused by TOCP exposure whereas primary neurons were not. In addition, knocking-down PKA-C3 caused similar behavioral and degenerative phenotypes as TOCP treatment. We therefore propose a model in which OP-modified SWS cannot release PKA-C3 and that the resulting loss of PKA-C3 activity plays a crucial role in developing

  18. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and

  19. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A 2-round modified Delphi method was used to reach a consensus on voting statements, and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. 51 articles met the inclusion......) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia...

  20. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...... extracted and summarized following a predetermined format. The entire workgroup voted through a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements. A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement, and anonymous votes were compiled and discussed in person...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context...

  1. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method......BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing......) and made the following recommendations: extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe metformin poisoning (1D). Indications for extracorporeal treatment include lactate concentration greater than 20 mmol/L (1D), pH less than or equal to 7.0 (1D), shock (1D), failure of standard supportive measures (1D...

  2. [Acute poisoning with industrial products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, R

    2000-02-15

    Poisonings with industrial products represent approximately 7% of the cases reported to the poison centres. Ingestion of petroleum distillates induces irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system depression and aspiration pneumonitis which may be severe; treatment is mainly supportive. Ethylene and diethylene glycol poisonings produce central nervous system depression, anion gap metabolic acidosis, osmolar gap and acute tubular necrosis; in severe cases, hypocalcaemia, cerebral oedema and heart failure may be observed; treatment often associates supportive measures, haemodialysis and administration of competitive inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase (ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole). Glycol ethers induce central nervous system depression and metabolic acidosis; in addition, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether produces haemolysis; monomethyl and monoethyl ethers are responsible for bone marrow and lymphoid organ toxicity, they adversely affect spermatogenesis and are teratogens.

  3. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute Alopecia: Evidence to Thallium Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2017-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.

  5. Accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Raimundo A

    2002-02-01

    Datura stramonium is potentially poisonous to humans and livestock; however, there's little description of clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally intoxicated. We report an accidental Datura stramonium poisoning in a dog emphasizing the importance of recognizing the classical signs of anticholinergic poisoning.

  6. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... public education about poison prevention and clinical toxicology training for many different healthcare... Control Center. These transfers are necessary in order to maintain poison control services and education... currently provide poison center services to the citizens of New York, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. These...

  7. Acute Alopecia: Evidence to Thallium Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurugan, Namasivayam; Jena, Narendra Nath; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2017-01-01

    Thallium is a toxic heavy metal often involved in criminal poisonings and occasionally in accidental poisoning. Here, we report a case of acute, nonintentional thallium poisoning due to thallium-contaminated alternative medicine for its rarity and to create awareness about the combination of rapid, diffuse alopecia with neurologic and gastrointestinal symptoms among practitioners, professionals, public, and policymakers.

  8. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (ALP is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  9. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Sodhi, Mandeep K; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2012-10-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  10. Pleural effusion in aluminum phosphide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Kranti; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Sodhi, Mandeep K.; Janmeja, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (ALP) is a common agrochemical pesticide poisoning with high mortality rate. Primary manifestations are due to myocardial and gastrointestinal involvement. Pleural effusion in ALP poisoning is occasionally reported. We report a case of pleural effusion that developed after ALP ingestion and resolved along with recovery from poisoning.

  11. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  12. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  13. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Sahajal Dhooria; Ritesh Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Amitraz is a member of formamidine family of pesticides. Poisoning from amitraz is underrecognized even in areas where it is widely available. It is frequently misdiagnosed as organophosphate poisoning. This systematic review provides information on the epidemiology, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis and management of amitraz poisoning. Methods: Medline and Embase databases were searched systematically (since inception to January...

  14. Is poisoning a problem in South Sudan?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-04

    Nov 4, 2011 ... (e.g. mesothelioma caused by contact with asbestos). Criminal act of poisoning: e.g. “spiking” of a drink at a party. Poisoning in uganda. When I was working in Uganda I saw several cases of poisoning with organophosphates and was horrified by the mortality. Almost ten years ago, we carried out a simple.

  15. Accidental poisoning with autumn crocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrscek, Lucija; Lesnicar, Gorazd; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd; Sibanc, Branko; Blatnik, Janja; Jagodic, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of a 43-yr-old female with severe multiorgan injury after accidental poisoning with Colchicum autumnale, which was mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Both plants grow on damp meadows and can be confused in the spring when both plants have leaves but no blossoms. The autumn crocus contains colchicine, which inhibits cellular division. Treatment consisted of supportive care, antibiotic therapy, and granulocyte-directed growth factor. The patient was discharged from the hospital after three weeks. Three years after recovery from the acute poisoning, the patient continued to complain of muscle weakness and intermittent episodes of hair loss.

  16. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The chemical and energetic properties of muscles poisoned with fluorodinitrobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dydyńska, M; Wilkie, D R

    1966-06-01

    1. The heat production and mechanical responses of frogs' sartorii have been recorded at 0 degrees C after immersion in normal Ringer solution, and also after poisoning with 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (FDNB) and nitrogen. The muscles were later analysed chemically for changes in ATP, phosphocreatine (PC), inorganic phosphate (P(i)), lactate, total adenine nucleotide and total inosine nucleotide.2. Analysis of paired resting muscles established that the resting levels of these substances found in our experiments were similar to those reported elsewhere.3. Resting muscles that had been poisoned with FDNB and N(2) contained significantly more PC and less ATP than unpoisoned controls. Moreover, some of their adenine had been deaminated to inosine.4. In a normal muscle in oxygen, the PC that breaks down as a result of a 30 sec tetanus is restored with a roughly exponential time course whose half-time is about 10 min. Thus at least 40 min rest must be allowed between the different stages of an experiment.5. Isometric twitches of the poisoned muscle rapidly decline in size, but small twitches continue to be produced for a very long time. If stimulation is discontinued, substantial recovery takes place. The total tension development is equivalent to at least thirty normal twitches, and correspondingly, the total heat production is greater than could be accounted for even by complete break-down of the ATP in the muscle. In fact, the ATP break-down, though highly significant, is not nearly complete.6. In short series of isometric twitches there is significant break-down of ATP and, less consistently, of PC; also a significant increase in P(i) but no additional deamination of adenine. The rate of development of isometric tension is slightly decreased.7. The results described under (6) are definitely due to the presence of FDNB. In similar experiments with the muscles in N(2) but not otherwise poisoned the only significant change is a break-down of PC.8. In a long series of

  18. [Analysis of characteristics of acute poisoning caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, De-hong; Zhang, Zhen-ming; Liu, Qing-hua; Jiang, Dong-fang

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of acute poisonings caused by various poisons in Guangxi, China. A retrospective investigation was performed in 5859 cases of acute poisonings who were admitted to 63 hospitals in 11 cities, as well as 531 types of poisons involved. The poisons were categorized into 6 groups; each group of cases was stratified by the rural or urban settings, frequency of poisoning, and cause of poisoning to analyze the numbers of cases and constituent ratios. Most types of poisons (68.74%) belonged to drugs (217 types) and pesticides (148 types). Most cases of poisonings (61.63%) were caused by pesticides (n = 2547) and chemicals (n = 1064). Pesticides, poisons of plant origins, and poisons of animal origins were responsible for most of the cases in rural settings; 88.46%, 79.10%, and 66.74% of the cases of these poison categories happened in rural settings. Chemicals, drugs, and other poisons were responsible for most of the cases in urban settings; 70.20%, 61.74%, and 63.73% of the cases of these poison categories happened in urban settings. The numbers of cases in 5-year-poisoning groups were the highest in all categories of poisons, accounting for 85.24%, 88.57%, 55.16%, 70.79%, 68.36%, and 66.44%of cases of respective categories. Most cases of poisonings by chemicals, poisons of animal origin, and other poisons were accident-related (86.24%, 72.66%, and 46.71%of the poison categories). Most cases of poisonings by pesticides and drugs were suicide-related (59.39% and 33.52% of the poison categories). Most cases by poisons of plant origin were caused by accidental ingestion (70.36% of the poison category). Most of the acute poisonings in Guangxi area are caused by pesticides and chemicals; the most common causes of poisoning are accidents, accidental ingestion, and suicide. There are significant differences in the causes of acute poisonings between the urban and rural settings.

  19. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk

    1974-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  1. Fuel elements containing burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, K.J.; Eaton, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    A burnable poison such as gadolinia is introduced into a nuclear fuel pin by way of thermal insulating pellets which serve to protect end caps from exposure to the intense heat generated by the fuel during irradiation. The pellets may comprise a sintered mixture of aluminia and gadolinia. (author)

  2. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  3. Poisoning Safety Fact Sheet (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Control Website. Unintentional poisoning fatalities and nonfatal injuries, children ages 19 and under. Available from: http: / / www. cdc. gov/ injury/ wisqars/ . Accessed February 23, ... In-Depth Look at Keeping Young Children Safe Around Medicine. Washington, DC: Safe Kids Worldwide, ...

  4. Intensive therapy for chloroquine poisoning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lavage, intravenous diazepam, mechanical ventilation when necessary, and occasionally inotropic infusions. Four patients suffered cardiac arrest during gastric lavage. There were 6 deaths (mortality 20.7%). Conclusions. This study indicates the common clinical features of acute chloroquine poisoning. A survival rate of.

  5. Therapeutic problems in cyanide poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, A. N.; Douze, J. M.; van Kesteren, R. G.; van Bergen, J. E.; van Dijk, A.

    1987-01-01

    In three patients with severe acute cyanide poisoning, a cyanosis was observed instead of the bright pink skin coloration often mentioned as a sign in textbooks. Treatment of cardiopulmonary insufficiency is as essential as antidotal therapy and the use of sodium nitrite and 4-DMAP is not without

  6. Hemodialysis in the Poisoned Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This classic team based learning (cTBL didactic is aimed for emergency medicine residents and fourth year medical students entering emergency medicine. Introduction: Over one million visits per year to United States (US emergency departments (ED are related to poisonings.1 Extracorporeal treatment (ECTR, specifically hemodialysis (HD, is one potential method to enhance elimination of certain drugs and their toxic metabolites.2-12 While HD may be life-saving in certain poisonings, it may have no effect on others and it carries associated risks and costs. It is essential that emergency physicians know the indications for HD in the poisoned patient. This cTBL reviews many poisonings which may be managed by HD. Objectives: By the end of this cTBL, the learner will: 1 recognize laboratory abnormalities related to toxic alcohol ingestion; 2 calculate an anion gap and osmolal gap; 3 know the characteristics of drugs that are good candidates for HD; 4 discuss the management of patients with toxic alcohol ingestions; 5 discuss the management of patients with salicylate overdose; 6 know the indications for HD in patients with overdoses of antiepileptic drugs; 7 discuss the management of patients with lithium toxicity. Method: This didactic session is a cTBL (classic team based learning.

  7. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  8. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  9. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO42・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and conventional zinc phosphate coating are discussed.

  10. Phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheagwara, O Susan; Ing, Todd S; Kjellstrand, Carl M; Lew, Susie Q

    2013-10-01

    This article distinguishes the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" which are frequently used interchangeably. We point out the difference between phosphorus and phosphate, with an emphasis on the unit of measure. Expressing a value without the proper name or unit of measure may lead to misunderstanding and erroneous conclusions. We indicate why phosphate must be expressed as milligrams per deciliter or millimoles per liter and not as milliequivalents per liter. Therefore, we elucidate the distinction among the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" and the importance of saying precisely what one really means. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  11. Phosphate acquisition efficiency and phosphate starvation tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011 Developing rice with high yield under phosphorus deficiency: Pup1 sequence to application. Plant Physiol. 156, 1202–1216. Ciereszko I., Gniazdowska A., Mikulska M. and Rychter A. M.. 1996 Assimilate translocation in bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris. L.) during phosphate deficiency. J. Plant Physiol. 149, 343–. 348.

  12. Phosphate acquisition efficiency and phosphate starvation tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we have reported the presence as well as the expression of a previously characterized rice gene, phosphate starvation tolerance ... from a cross between Gobindabhog and Satabdi, also did not show any linkage with P-deficiency tolerance ability. Thus, ... vated in P-limiting conditions which work in a cascade and.

  13. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  14. [Star anise poisoning in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, P; Pommier, P; Moulène, E; Retornaz, K; Prost, N; Deharo, L

    2003-07-01

    Star anise is used as herbal tea, for the treatment of colicky pain in infants. It may cause neurological troubles. We report 2 cases of star anise poisoning in infants before 6 months of age. Star anise herbal tea was given by parents. Tremors or spasms, hypertonia, hyperexcitability with crying, nystagmus, and vomiting were observed. Contamination or adulteration of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook), with Japanese star anise (Illicium religiosum) was proved in one child. Confusion or blending between Chinese and Japanese star anise may cause poisoning. Japanese star anise is a neurotoxic plant indeed, because it contains sesquiterpenic lactones. From November 2001, star anise products are theoretically prohibited in France, but they may be still available in some small groceries, or imported by families themselves.

  15. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children.

  16. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, L.

    1977-06-01

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  17. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Branislava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate mineral products (phosphate fertilizer and phosphate mineral feed additives contribute to the contamination of soil, plants and animals.

  18. Phosphate Management: FY2010 Results Of Phosphate Precipitation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na 7 F(PO 4 ) 2 · 19H 2 O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  19. Outbreak investigation: Salmonella food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, R; Singh, Harpreet; Mangla, Vipra; Hiremath, R

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning was reported from a Military establishment on 29 May 2011 when 43 cases of food poisoning reported sick in a span of few hours. A retrospective-prospective study was conducted. Data regarding the onset of symptoms, presenting features and history of food items consumed was collected. A detailed inspection of the mess for hygiene and sanitary status, cooking and storage procedure, and rodent nuisance was also carried out. A total of 53 cases of food poisoning occurred between 29 and 31 May 2011. All cases had symptoms of diarrohea followed by fever (96.2%), headache (84.9%), abdominal pain (50.1%), nausea and vomiting (49.1%) and bodyache (39.6%) respectively. Based on the Attributable Risk (AR = 46.67%) and Relative Risk (RR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.22-16.54) Potato-bitter gourd vegetable served during dinner on 28 May 2011 was incriminated as the food item responsible for outbreak. Symptomatology, incubation period and presence of rodent nuisance suggested contamination of Potato-bitter gourd vegetable with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp.

  20. Poisoning deaths in married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virendra

    2004-02-01

    Unnatural deaths of married women amongst the total female deaths have been an increasing trend in Indian society during the recent past years. These unnatural deaths may be suicide, homicide or even accidents. But these suicides and homicides are currently more commonly associated with the dowry disputes. In India, dowries are a continuing series of gifts endowed before and after the marriage. When dowry expectations are not met, the young bride may be killed or compelled to commit suicide, either by burning, poisoning or by some other means. Here, in the study, the main objective is to present the different epidemiological and medicolegal aspects of poisoning deaths in the married women. In a cohort of 200 married female deaths, 35 (18%) were poisoning deaths and these were analyzed from both epidemiological and medicolegal aspects. In this series, most of the women consumed organophosphorus compound and died within 10 days. The majority of the affected wives due to dowry problems were below 35 years of age. Most incidents occurred either during morning hour or during daytime.

  1. Childhood poisoning: a community hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, S H; Wall, J B

    1977-06-01

    We reviewed medical records of 53 children who ingested poison and were treated as inpatients and 107 who were treated as outpatients in a Southeastern community hospital. Findings included a much higher incidence of petroleum distillate poisoning than is found nationally, and a low frequency of aspirin ingestions. Data on packaging of the poisons indicate that one third was stored in food containers. Of the products encountered, 33% currently require safety packaging but were found in obsolete containers.

  2. Role and functions of Poisons Information Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Peshin, S S

    1997-01-01

    The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) is a specialized unit providing information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of poisoning and hazard management. Most of the developed and many developing countries have well established poison control centres with poisons information service, patient management facility and analytical laboratory. In India, the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) was established in February, 1995 in the Department of Pharmacology at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The centre provides toxicological information and advice on the management of poisoned patients adopted to the level of the enquirer. The basis of this service are the databases on poisoning, drug reactions and also the continuous and systematic collection of data from the library. This information service is available round the clock. The PIC has the training responsibility extending to medical and other health professionals and community. The NPIC organized two successive training courses for medical professionals and para professionals at all health levels. Further, NPIC is a participant of INTOX project of IPCS/WHO, receiving regular yearly training on the use of INTOX database. Laboratory service is an essential component of a poisons control programme, providing analytical services on emergency basis to help in diagnosis and management. The NPIC is developing facilities for quick diagnosis of poisoning cases. Toxicovigilance and prevention of poisoning is another major function of PIC. The Centre has prepared manuals and leaflets on prevention and management cards on treatment of various poisonings. Thus the Centre provides a service with considerable health benefits, reducing morbidity and mortality from poisoning and gives significant financial savings to the community.

  3. Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood c...

  4. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be white. The word “TOXIC” may be used in lieu of the word “POISON”. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66258, Dec... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as...

  5. Analysis of intentional drug poisonings using Ohio Poison Control Center Data, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Kelsey; Caupp, Sarah; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Xiang, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical drug poisonings, especially those that are intentional, are a serious problem for adolescents and young adults. Poison control center data is a viable tool to track intentional drug poisonings in near real-time. To determine intentional drug poisoning rates among adolescents and young adults in Ohio using poison control center data. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2014 obtained by Ohio's three poison control centers. Inclusion variables were calls made to the centers that had appropriate subject age (10-29 years old), subject sex, involved substance (all drug classes), and medical outcome (no effect, minor effect, moderate effect, major effect, and death). Intentional drug poisoning reports were also separated into subgroups to compare suspected suicide reports to misuse and abuse reports. Finally, resident population estimates were used to generate 2014 intentional drug poisoning rates for each county in Ohio. The most common age group for intentional drug poisonings was 18-24. Females reported more suspected suicide drug poisonings while males reported more misuse/abuse drug poisonings. The most reported drug class across all ages was analgesics. Of the 88 counties in Ohio, Hamilton, Williams, Washington, and Guernsey counties had the highest rates of intentional drug poisonings. The high report rate of suspected suicides and analgesic class drugs demonstrates the need for preventative measures for adolescents and young adults in Ohio. Any interventions, along with legislative changes, will need to take place in our local communities.

  6. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorny, P.; Tej, P.; Szelag, P.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO4)2・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite) coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and convention...

  7. Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... large ingestions. These poisonings can be very dangerous. Symptoms may include: Vomiting Stomach or abdominal pain Diarrhea Fever Delirium Dilated pupils Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Lower ...

  8. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  9. Manganese phosphate-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyre, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese phosphate-coating is one of the numerous chemical surface treatment which is used industrially. Its applications are usual for improving the friction properties of a lot of mechanical parts. Used for the treatment of steels and cast steels, baths (containing phosphoric acid, manganese phosphate and different additives) lead to the formation of nonmetal coatings of a few micrometers. These manganese-iron or manganese phosphates crystals reduce the friction coefficient and retain the lubricant film in contact with the moving parts. The running noises, the wear and the seizure risks are then strongly reduced. Pure manganese phosphate-coating is currently developing because the obtained coatings are thinner and more regular. (O.M.)

  10. Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the National Poison Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2015-04-01

    Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Poisoning in Israel: annual report of the Israel Poison Information Center, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Lurie, Yael; Cahana, Alfred; Kovler, Nona; Bloom-Krasik, Anna; Gurevych, Bella; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    The Israel National Poison Information Center (IPIC), Rambam Health Care Campus, provides 24 hour telephone consultations in clinical toxicology as well as drug and teratogen information. It participates in research, teaching and regulatory activities, and also provides laboratory services. To report data on the epidemiology of poisonings and poison exposures in Israel. We made computerized queries and descriptive analyses of the medical records database of the IPIC during 2012. A total of 31,519 poison exposure cases were recorded, a 157.6% increase compared with 1995. Children Poison exposures and poisonings have increased significantly and have contributed substantially to morbidity and mortality in Israel. The IPIC database is a valuable national resource for the collection and monitoring of poisoning exposure cases. It can be used as a real-time surveillance system for the benefit of public health. It is recommended that reporting to the IPIC become mandatory and its activities be adequately supported by national resources.

  12. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Intensive Care Management of Organophosphate Poisoned Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    challenging, more so in the setting of poor critical care facilities. The management requires the administration .... at the scene of the incident, signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning and improvement .... outcomes in human organophosphate poisoning: an evaluation using meta-analytic techniques. Crit.

  14. Heavy metal poisoning: clinical presentations and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Danyal; Froberg, Blake; Wolf, Andrea; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2006-03-01

    Humans have had a long and tumultuous relationship with heavy metals. Their ubiquitous nature and our reliance on them for manufacturing have resulted at times in exposures sufficient to cause systemic toxicity. Their easy acquisition and potent toxicity have also made them popular choices for criminal poisonings. This article examines the clinical manifestation and pathophysiology of poisoning from lead, mercury, arsenic, and thallium.

  15. Mercury poisoning | Shamley | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of mercury poisoning requires a high index of suspicion. Mercury poisoning in a patient involved in illicit gold extraction is reported and 6 other cases considered. Some of the clinical features and treatment of this condition are discussed. S Afr Med J 1989; 76: 114-116 ...

  16. NCHS Data on Drug-poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hispanic white persons, 12.2 for non-Hispanic black persons, and 7.7 for Hispanic persons. Age In 2015, the drug-poisoning death rate was highest for adults aged 45–54. SOURCE: NCHS, National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Drug-poisoning death rates, by state ...

  17. Accidental Poisoning with Otapiapia: a Local Organophasphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children are prone to accidental poisoning. We report this fatal organophosphate poisoning of a 3-year-old Nigerian boy following accidental ingestion of a homemade cocktail of kerosene and 'Otapiapia': a local rodenticide to highlight the dangers inherent in un-regulated production, home use and storage of this ...

  18. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  19. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  20. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  1. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  2. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended

  3. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause serious harm to young children. Opioid (Narcotic) Pain Medications Poison center data indicate that opioid and sedatives exposures are steadily increasing year over year. View all alerts right left NEW! Check out PoisonHelp.org Now there are two ...

  4. Poison centre network saves lives | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... Snakebites, food poisoning, exposure to toxic chemicals: all are potentially fatal if the correct antidote isn't identified and applied — fast. Since 1988, INTOX, a computer-based program involving a global network of poison centres, has been providing those life-saving capabilities in minutes.

  5. [Mushroom poisoning. New possibilities for treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, O

    1976-04-08

    Poisonous species of fungi in Germany are very few. Dangerous is the ingestion of raw, spoiled or poisonous mushrooms. There exist no reliable tests to determine whether a mushroom is safe except by expert examination and identification of the mushroom. In clinical practice the classification of mushroom poisoning is possible in muscarine-syndrome, gastroenteritic syndrome and in two-phase-syndrome. 90-95% of lethal mushroom poisonings are due to ingestion of Amanita phalloides. In severe cases extensive hepatic necrosis occurs, characterized by profound abnormalities in liver function caused by hepatic coma. In deep coma mortality rates amount to 70% or more. A new therapeutic measure (coated charcoal hemoperfusion)-first applied in liver failure by Chang (1972) and Williams (1973)-has been performed in 3 patients with severe poisoning after ingestion of Amanita phalloides (each patient had eaten at least 7-10 fungi Amanita phalloides). Two of the patients survived.

  6. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A.; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms...... patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases...

  7. Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood cyanide levels persisted for over 24 hours after ingestion. Departments treating or advising in cases of poisoning need to be aware of the delayed toxicity of acetonitrile. Monitoring in an intensive care unit of cases of acetonitrile poisoning should continue for 24-48 hours. PMID:9196706

  8. Determinants of U.S. poison center utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovitz, Toby; Benson, Blaine E; Youniss, Jessica; Metz, Edward

    2010-06-01

    High poison center utilization has been associated with decreased emergency department usage and hospitalization rates. However, utilization requires awareness of the poison center. Penetrance, defined as the number of human poison exposures reported to a poison center per 1,000 population, has been used as a marker of poison center awareness. To identify factors that influence poison center penetrance to optimize the life- and cost-saving benefits of poison control centers. Human poison exposures that were reported to the National Poison Data System in 2001 were analyzed to identify and rank factors affecting poison center penetrance. Overall penetrance correlated with pediatric penetrance (R(2) = 0.75, p poison center that were already in or en route to a healthcare facility at the time of the call to the poison center (R(2) = 0.41, p poison center service populations were associated with lower penetrance (R(2) = 0.23, p poison center (multiple regression). Positive predictors included the percentage of the population younger than 5 years, the percentage of the adult population with a bachelor's degree, poison center certification, poison center educator FTEs (full time equivalents), Asian population percentage, and population density. The inverse correlation between pediatric penetrance and healthcare facility utilization supports prior observations of excessive healthcare utilization when a poison center is not called. Since race, language and distance are barriers to poison center utilization, and since healthcare utilization increases when poison center penetrance declines, low penetrance suggests a lack of awareness of the poison center rather than a low incidence of poisonings. Strategies to raise penetrance should be informed by an understanding of the barriers to utilization - language, Black/African American race, distance from the poison center, poverty, and lower education levels.

  9. [Rapeseed poisoning of wild herbivores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Schmid, H

    1992-06-01

    Beginning with the simultaneous occurrence of the first extensive sowing of 00-rape and local increased losses among hares and roe deer in Western Germany and Austria at the end of 1986, the clinical and morphological symptoms of rape poisoning are discussed. They consist of damage to endo- and epithelium, cell membranes, blood, liver and in the so called "rape-blindness". Subsequently, the most important toxic agents of rape including their metabolites are presented. They consist in alkenyl- and indolyl-glucosinolates, leading to isothiocyanates (mustard oils), thiocyanates or thiocyanate ions resp., nitriles and antithyroid agents (e.g. goitrin) as well as S-methylcysteine sulphoxide and its metabolites, particularly dimethyl disulphide. Finally, the activity spectrum of the toxic agents or the metabolites and the clinical picture of the affected wildlife in 1986 are compared with the result that the losses of that period are most likely to be traced back to rape poisoning and that the rape-blindness mentioned is to be interpreted as a thiocyanate-psychosis.

  10. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  11. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzinel, Z.; Folkman, Y.

    1979-05-01

    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P 2 O 5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  12. Comparison of poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration hospitals reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, M B

    2017-01-01

    There is little information on poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. This investigation described and compared poisonings reported to Texas poison centers that were managed at military and VA hospitals. Retrospective analysis of poison centre data. Cases were poisonings among patients aged 18 years or more reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015 where management occurred at a military or VA hospital. The distribution of exposures for various demographic and clinical factors was determined for military and veterans hospitals and comparisons were made between the two groups. There were 4353 and 1676 poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, resepctively. Males accounted for 50.5% of the military hospital patients and 84.9% of the VA hospital patients. The mean age for military hospital patients was 31 years and for VA hospital patients was 50 years. The proportion of poisonings managed at military hospitals and VA hospitals, respectively, were intentional (70.0% vs 64.1%), particularly suspected attempted suicide (57.3% vs 47.7%), and unintentional (25.0% vs 30.5%). More than one substance was reported in 37.7% of military and 33.2% of VA hospital poisonings. The most commonly reported substance categories for poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, respectively, were analgesics (28.4% vs 19.7%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (24.7% vs 23.4%), antidepressants (18.7% vs 19.7%) and alcohol (11.3% vs 10.6%). A number of differences were observed between poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals. These differing patterns of poisonings may need to be taken into account in the education, prevention and treatment of poisonings at these hospitals and among the populations they serve. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and BodyGenetic Testing: What You Should KnowRead Article >>Genetic Testing: What You Should KnowSocial PhobiaRead Article >>Social Phobia Visit our interactive symptom checker Visit our interactive ...

  14. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enghorm B, Flerlage J, eds. Johns Hopkins: The Harriet Lane Handbook . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap ... by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason ...

  15. Food poisoning and house gecko: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotangale, J P

    2011-04-01

    The reason behind the food-poisoning due to felling of house geckos in eatables is described in this paper. House geckos are known to carry various types of pathogens in their bodies which cause food-poisoning after consuming the contaminated foods. Since these geckos are non-poisonous, the food poisoning due to their presence in food is not possible.

  16. Unearthing poison use and consequent anecdotal vulture mortalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldicarb or carbofuran were the most commonly used poisons, but strychnine is still used by about one farmer out of 10. Poison is typically used by means of distributing poisoned baits in the landscape. Furthermore, willingness to use poison in the future was highest for farmers who own large properties with high livestock ...

  17. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label...

  18. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS...

  19. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Amira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine (PPD represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was renal failure and the treatment was basically symptomatic.

  20. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.

  1. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  2. Lead poisoning in children: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhadi, Zineb; Bensabbahia, Dalal; Chafiq, Fouad; Oukkache, Bouchra; Guebessi, Nisrine Bennani; Abdellah, El Abidi; Najib, Jilali

    2016-01-01

    Lead colic is a rare cause of abdominal pain. The diagnosis of lead poisoning is most often mentioned in at risk populations (children, psychotic). We report the case of a 2 year old child that was presented for acute abdomen. Abdominal plain radiograph showed multiple intra-colonic metallic particles and suggested lead poisoning diagnosis. Anamnesis found a notion of pica and consumption of peeling paint. Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) confirmed the diagnosis. The lead poisoning is a public health problem especially in children, but its manifestation by a lead colic is rare and could simulate an acute abdomen table.

  3. Five cases of arsine poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phoon, W.H.; Chan, M.O.; Goh, C.H.; Edmondson, R.P.; Kwek, Y.K.; Gan, S.L.; Ngui, S.J.; Kwok, S.F.

    1984-04-01

    Arsine is one of the most potent haemolytic agents found in industry. Four workers presented with abdominal pain, jaundice and passing tea-coloured urine. A fifth worker also passed dark urine but had no other symptoms. Investigation revealed that all five workers were from a tin smelting plant where they were involved in mixing tin ore with dross. They were exposed to arsine gas after mixing a particularly large quantity of dross with tin ore which was wet because of rain. Three of the cases developed renal impairment and also a mild sensory neuropathy. All survived with proper management in hospital which included exchange blood transfusions, and peritoneal dialysis where indicated. Prevention of such poisoning includes keeping dross away from all moisture, good ventilation in work areas, and adding dross directly to the furnace.

  4. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Alinejad; Nasim Zamani; Mohammad Abdollahi; Omid Mehrpour

    2017-01-01

    Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in nor...

  5. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of Histamine-Producing Bacteria and Histamine Formation in Fish Muscle by Trisodium Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Green, David P; Bolton, Greg E; McClellan-Green, Patricia D

    2015-06-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning remains the primary cause of seafood poisoning outbreaks despite preventive guidelines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of pH for the control of growth and histamine formation by histamine-producing bacteria in fish muscle. We examined pH effects on growth and histamine formation in tuna fish infusion broth and in inoculated tuna and mahi-mahi fish muscle. Histamine production was significantly less for all bacterial strains at pH 8.5 compared to pH 5.5 in tuna fish infusion broth with no significant difference in growth. Elevated pH due to phosphate treatment of fish muscle tissues significantly reduced histamine formation with no effect on the growth of histamine-producing bacteria. This study revealed that phosphate treatment of mahi-mahi and tuna fish muscle resulted in significantly lower histamine production over 4 d of storage at 10 °C. Phosphate treatment of fish muscle may serve as a secondary barrier in addition to FDA recommended time and temperature controls for reducing public health concerns of scombrotoxin fish poisoning. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  8. [The reporting system of acute pesticides poisoning and general situation of pesticides poisoning in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-yang; Wang, Hong-fei; Yin, Yu

    2005-10-01

    To introduce the reporting system of acute pesticides poisoning and analyze epidemiologic characteristics of pesticides poisoning from reported cases in China. Case reports in the data base of reporting system for occupational diseases were computed by Excel for windows and statistical significance by SAS 6.12. A total of 108 372 cases were reported from 1997 to 2003. Among them, the incidence of occupational poisoning, and non-occupational poisoning accounted for 25.39%, and 74.61% respectively. The fatality rate was 6.86%. The average age was 36.83 years for all pesticides poisoning patients, and 15-59 years old patients accounted for 84.11%. Among 0-14 years old non-occupational poisoning patients, 0-4 years children accounted for 33.51%. Male patients were in the majority in occupational pesticides poisoning, female in non-occupational. Insecticides especially organophosphorus insecticides such as methamidophos, parathion, and omethoate comprised a higher proportion, accounting for 86.02% of the pesticides poisoning. More attention should be paid to pesticides poisoning by the government and medical workers engaged in public health.

  9. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    methodology, the subgroup responsible for this poison reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND......The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...... yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 108 patients, including 12 fatalities, were abstracted. The workgroup concluded that TCAs are not dialyzable and made the following recommendation: ECTR is not recommended in severe TCA poisoning (1D). The workgroup considers...

  10. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2016-01-01

    Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.

  11. Food poisoning associated with Kudoa septempunctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yoshiaki; Kamijo, Yoshito; Nakahashi, Susumu; Shindo, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Akitaka; Omori, Yukinari; Ishikura, Ken; Fujioka, Masaki; Hatada, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Taichi; Maruyama, Kazuo; Imai, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Kudoa septempunctata is a recently identified cause of food poisoning. We report three cases of food poisoning due to ingestion of this parasite. Among the 358 people exposed during the same catered meal, 94 (including our 3 patients) developed vomiting and diarrhea within 1-9 h after ingestion of raw muscle from contaminated aquacultured olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus). These symptoms occurred frequently but were temporary; only 1 patient was hospitalized for dehydration and was discharged 2 days later. In Japan, cases of food poisoning due to eating olive flounder have increased during recent years. This increase should prompt heightened awareness among clinicians diagnosing food poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Blood Poisoning: When to See a Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I suspect I have blood poisoning. Should I see my doctor? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M. ... illness and requires prompt medical attention. When to see a doctor If you recently had a medical ...

  13. Poisoned after Dinner: Dolma with Datura Stramonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana DISEL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Datura stramonium, which is also known as Thorn Apple or Jimson Weed, is an alkaloid containing plant that is entirely toxic. The active toxic constituents of the plant are atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine. It has been abused worldwide for hundreds of years because of its hallucinogenic properties. Previous reports have shown that herbal medication overdose and accidental food contamination are ways it can cause poisoning. Herein we present a family that had three of its members poisoned after eating a traditional meal “dolma” made of datura flowers. None had fatal complications and all were discharged healthy. Datura stromonium may be used accidentally as a food ingredient. Since its poisonous effects are not known, people should be informed and warned about the effects of this plant. Key words: Anticholinergic effects, Datura stramonium, plant poisoning, rhabdomyolysis

  14. Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  15. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Medical students' knowledge towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of organic materials. It is particularly dangerous as it cannot be detected by man's natural sense organs. There is hardly a month without one or two newspaper reports of death ...

  16. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: 6th Edition manual gives healthcare providers a quick reference resource for the best toxicology and treatment information for patients with pesticide exposures.

  17. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum Poisoning In A Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capan KONCA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  18. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  19. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  20. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus) that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing...

  1. The toxicology of honey bee poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, Maria; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Koutselinis, Antonios

    2003-10-01

    The use of insecticides continues to be a basic tool in pest management, since there are many pest situations for which there are no known alternative management methods. However, the harmful effects of insecticides against beneficial Insects continuous to be a serious problem. Poisoning of bee pollinators is a serious adverse effect of insecticide use which leads to a decrease in insect population, to reduction of honey yields, to destruction of plant communities, to insecticide residues in food, and to a significant loss of beekeepers' income. In bee poisoning, the identification of the responsible toxicant is necessary by both environmental and biological monitoring, to prevent bee poisoning and for the protection of public health. The different aspects of bee poisoning with anticholinesterase insecticides are discussed in detail.

  2. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002743.htm Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers are substances used to ...

  3. A fatal case of creosote poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C. E.; Muhleman, M. F.; Walters, E.

    1984-01-01

    A case of fatal creosote poisoning is described. On presentation, extensive oropharyngeal ulceration was noted and gastric lavage withheld. Post-mortem examination showed an intact oesophagus and stomach. PMID:6463007

  4. A fatal case of creosote poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, C. E.; Muhleman, M. F.; Walters, E.

    1984-01-01

    A case of fatal creosote poisoning is described. On presentation, extensive oropharyngeal ulceration was noted and gastric lavage withheld. Post-mortem examination showed an intact oesophagus and stomach.

  5. Inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase protects hepatocytes from aluminum phosphide-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Paeezi, Maryam; Yousefsani, Bahareh Sadat; Shadnia, Shahin; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is a severe toxicity with 30-70% mortality rate. However, several case reports presented AlP-poisoned patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and extensive hemolysis who survived the toxicity. This brought to our mind that maybe G6PD deficiency could protect the patients from severe fatal poisoning by this pesticide. In this research, we investigated the protective effect of 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN)- as a well-established inhibitor of the NADP + - dependent enzyme 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase- on isolated rat hepatocytes in AlP poisoning. Hepatocytes were isolated by collagenase perfusion method and incubated into three different flasks: control, AlP, and 6-AN+ALP. Cellar parameters such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondria membrane potential collapse (MMP), lysosomal integrity, content of reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and lipid peroxidation were assayed at intervals. All analyzed cellular parameters significantly decreased in the third group (6-AN+AlP) compared to the second group (AlP), showing the fact that G6PD deficiency induced by 6-AN had a significant protective effect on the hepatocytes. It was concluded that G6PD deficiency significantly reduced the hepatotoxicity of AlP. Future drugs with the power to induce such deficiency may be promising in treatment of AlP poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  7. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-01-01

    Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to...

  8. [Peripheral neuropathy caused by thallium poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, N; Talamon, C; Smadja, D; Said, G

    1997-10-01

    A 20-year-old man developed over three weeks a sensory and painful neuropathy associated with diffuse alopecia. There was motor weakness, and superficial and deep hypoesthesia of the inferior limbs. Deep tendon reflexes were normal. Electrophysiological study mainly showed axonal motor neuropathy. This patient was admitted six weeks after the first symptoms. The clinical picture suggested thallium poisoning, which was confirmed by thallium concentrations in plasma, urine, hair and nails. After search, thallium was identified in a rat poison.

  9. Changing Spectrum Of Poisoning In Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav R.S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involved 1504 patients admitted with acute poisoning (985 males and 519 females with a mean age of 24.5 + -8.3 years, belonging mainly to the rural population (72% and middle income group (65.8%. Aluminum phosphide was the commonest poison ingested followed by Organ phosphorus, Copper Sulphate and Barbiturates. The overall mortality rate was 36.3% and suicidal intent was present most commonly. The underlying socio- economic factors have been discussed.

  10. Renal Failure Prevalence in Poisoned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better th...

  11. Acute Cyanide Poisoning from Jewelry Cleaning Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Bel Waer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is one of the most lethal and devastating poisons. It causes acute toxicity through smoke inhalation simultaneously with carbon monoxide, or by ingestion of cyanide salts that are commonly used in metallurgy and in jewelry or textile industries. Cyanide intoxication is an extremely rare event; in the present study, we report a case of cyanide poisoning involving a 25-year-old jeweler, who ingested a jewelry cleaning solution containing potassium cyanide in a suicide attempt.

  12. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  13. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  14. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A. S. Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  15. Calcium phosphate coating on titanium induced by phosphating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, B. [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Engineering Research Center in Biomaterials; Sichuan Inst. of Tech., Chengdu (China). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering; Chen, J.Y.; Zhang, X.D. [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Engineering Research Center in Biomaterials

    2001-07-01

    The phosphatization has been used in anti-corrosion treatment for metals for many years. In this work, the calcium phosphate ceramic coatings (Ca-P coatings) based on titanium were prepared by phosphating titanium and then soaking in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. The effect of phosphatization of titanium on the formation of Ca-P coating was investigated. The analysis with a scanning electron microscopy showed microporous surfaces of titanium after phosphatization. The spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the surfaces contained PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sub 2}PO{sup -}. The induced couple plasma atomic emission spectroscopy suggested that precipitation of P be prior to Ca during immersion in the supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. (orig.)

  16. [Consequences of thallium poisoning in adolescent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steczkowska-Klucznik, Małgorzata; Kubik, Alicja; Pietrzyk, Jacek A; Gergont, Aleksandra

    2005-01-01

    Thallium poisoning appears very rare in developmental age and its consequences are quite different. The aim of this study was to characterised the course of thallium poisoning in adolescent and especially electroneurophysiological consequences of it. In a 15 year old boy with sensory-motor polyneuropathy thallium poisoning was recognised in the third week duration of the symptoms. Hemodialysis and hemodiaperfusion were used in the therapy. Data of the repeated electroneurographic and videoEEG examinations were collected. First electroneurographic data showed axonal motor polyneuropathy. Control after 1 year presented the largest form of the motor-sensory polyneuropathy. On videoEEG tape rejestered in the 5th month of clinical symptoms of poisoning, present were tonic seizures (although EEG pattern was flat with short low voltage theta activity). After next the 3 months of encephalopathy and phenobarbital therapy, voltage of the EEG pattern was slightly higher without any background and seizure activity. Thallium poisoning may result with catastrophic clinical consequences of polyneuropathy and encephalopathy. Electroneurographic and electroencephalographic changes 1 year after indicate that clinical consequences of the poisoning are un-remediable.

  17. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  18. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Andersen, Klaus E.; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri...... triphenyl phosphate allergy in our patient....

  20. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O...

  1. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  2. [Development and application of poison databank and poisonous animal and plants sample databank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu; Jiang, Shao-Feng; Cai, Jun; Luo, Tao; Xie, Li-Jing; Zhou, Jing; Sun, Cheng-Ye

    2008-03-01

    To establish a comprehensive,easily approached, operated, and searched internet poison databank as to providing professional poison data and knowledge of effective treatment for those consented such as medical staff, and emergency response team in the shortest time. We established a computer poison databank, by adopting B/S structure, using SQL Server databank, and explore technology, in which all information may easily be explored and obtained by users. The database integrated the information in relating to the substances identifiers, physical and chemical properties, toxicology data, clinical manifestation while intoxication, emergency response guides, effective treatment, anything related to the special antidotes, preventive measures, poison analysis, and manufacturers of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, herbs, pesticides, animal, plant, bacteria, fungi, productions and toxins. Otherwise some information about poison control organizations and experts, literatures about poison case reports, poison incidents, were also involved in the system, which can also provide a shortcut, convenient, and exact search. The databank might be easily used on several fields, providing important information with acute poison incidents disposal and clinic treatment.

  3. Analysis of nine cases of acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiwei; Huang, Xiaojiang; Liu, Liang

    2007-04-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  4. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New syndromes in mushroom poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviuc, Philippe; Danel, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Several new mushroom poisoning syndromes have been described since the early 1990s. In these syndromes, the onset of symptoms generally occurs >6 hours after ingestion. Treatment is mainly supportive. The syndrome induced by Amanita smithiana/proxima consists of acute tubulopathy, which appears earlier and does not have the same poor prognosis as the orellanine-induced syndrome. It has been described since 1992 in the US and Canada with A. smithiana; in France, Spain and Italy with A. proxima; and in Japan with A. pseudoporphyria. The responsible toxin is probably 2-amino-4,5-hexadienoic acid. The erythromelalgia syndrome has been described as early as the late 19th century in Japan and South Korea with Clitocybe acromelalga, and since 1996 in France and then Italy with C. amoenolens. Responsible toxins are probably acromelic acids identified in both species. Several cases of massive rhabdomyolysis have been reported since 1993 in France and 2001 in Poland after ingestion of large amounts of an edible and, until then, valuable species called Tricholoma equestre. These cases of rhabdomyolysis are associated with respiratory and cardiac (myocarditis) complications leading to death. Rhabdomyolysis with an apparently different mechanism was described in Taiwan in 2001 with Russula subnigricans. Finally, cases of encephalopathy were observed twice after ingestion of Hapalopilus rutilans in Germany in 1992 and Pleurocybella porrigens in Japan in 2004, where a convulsive encephalopathy outbreak was reported in patients with history of chronic renal failure.

  6. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  7. Poisoning cases and their management in emergency centres of government hospitals in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Mequanint Adinew

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Young females comprise a group at increased risk for suicidal poisonings. As a developing nation, pesticide and bleaching agents remain a significant cause of acute poisonings in Ethiopia. Intentional poisoning remains the most significant identified cause of poisoning overall.

  8. Mothers' Knowledge Levels Related to Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen BILGEN SIVRI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: This study was done to evaluate mothers’ level of knowledge regarding poisoning, to plan training for issues with an identified lack of knowledge, to collect required data regarding protection and approach issues on poisoning cases which may occur in children for various reasons. Methods: This descriptive study was performed after obtaining permission from the County Health Department and involved mothers who applied to Family Health Centers No. 1-7 between April 1st and May 31st 2012, and who agreed to participate in the study (n=290. The questionnaire was composed of three parts: “Personal Information Form,” “House Poisoning Evaluation Form” and “Home Poisoning Prevention Knowledge Level Form.” Results: Participant ages were between 16 and 50 years and the mean age was 33.09±7.10 years. The number of children ranged from 1 to 6, and 203 people had seven children under the age of six. 37.6% of the mothers were primary school graduates, while 74.5% were housewives. There was a significant relationship between the knowledge score of the mothers on poisoning and education, career, neighborhood, and social security (p<0.05. Conclusions: Childhood poisoning is the most common cause of admission to the hospital. Protective precautions such as family education, storage of medication out of reach of children and use of secure lids are thought to be important. Key words: First aid, level of knowledge, mother-child, nurses, poisoning

  9. Mechanism of calcium phosphates precipitation in liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelot, B.; Zemb, T.

    2004-04-01

    The possibility of using as a precursor an easily wet meso-porous powder would be a breakthrough in the preparation of nuclear waste storage ceramics. A concentrated solution containing ions to be stored would wet a dry powder and then, subjected to mild compression, lead to a micro-crystalline matrix of calcium phosphate at acceptable temperatures. Since no porous calcium phosphate different from calcined bone (patented) is described as porous precursor, we have compared the different synthesis routes towards meso-porous ceramics. First, we considered homogeneous precipitation of slats in water: using initially off-stoichiometry in reaction, micron-sized hydroxyapatite particles are produced with a specific surface up to 100 m 2 /g. Then, we consider the classical route of precipitation of an hybrid material in the miscibility gap of a phase diagram, when an hexagonal liquid crystal is used a matrix for precipitation. The surfactant family consists in single chain surfactants containing phosphates as head-group to poison the growing surface of calcium phosphate nano-domains. Since the reaction is still too brutal, we considered using a cat-anionic precursor material of controllable surface charge. For certain concentrations and molar ratios, a new structure not yet described in surfactant precipitation literature is observed: since the periodicity is lower than twice the chain length, a disordered constant curvature monolayer (instead of the classical cylinder of twice chain length diameter) of surfactant is implied. Finally, we have investigated synthesis routes implying slow dissolution of pre-formed calcium phosphate in an already existing hexagonal matrix. For all these routes of synthesis, micro-structural determinations using SAXS, WARS and BET are performed, with a special attention to comparison of the precipitation material, the matrix obtained with all elements present, and also the material obtained after calcinations. (authors)

  10. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...

  11. [Charcoal, cocaine and rattlesnakes: evidence-based treatment of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, A

    2013-10-01

    Since ancient times poisoning has been treated medicinally. Clinical toxicology, in the narrow sense of the term, developed from the foundation of specialized medical treatment units for poisoning and the formation of the first poison information centers in the second half of the twentieth century. Historically, the first poison information centers were often localized at pediatric clinics or departments of internal medicine. It became increasingly more obvious that this pooling of competences made sense. This article gives a general introduction in clinical toxicology and presents the functions and key activities of emergency poison centers. The organisation and work of a poisons centre is demonstrated on the basis of the Poisons Information Center (GIZ) North annual report for 2011. In a short summary the basic principles of clinical toxicology are elucidated: the primary removal of poisons by gastric lavage and administration of activated charcoal, secondary removal of poisons by enhanced elimination using hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, multi-dose activated charcoal and molecular adsorbent recirculating systems (MARS) and the indications for administration of specific antidotes or antivenins (antisera against poisoning by poisonous animals). Gastric lavage is indicated within 1 h after ingestion of a potentially life-threatening dose of a poison. In cases of poisoning with substances which penetrate the central nervous system (CNS) gastric lavage should be performed only after endotracheal intubation due to the risk of aspiration. The basic management of poisoned patients by emergency medicine personnel out of hospital and on the way to hospital is presented. The Bremen list, a compilation of the five antidotes, atropine, 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-DMAP), tolonium chloride, naloxone and activated charcoal for out of hospital treatment by emergency doctors is presented. In all, even questionable cases of poisoning consultation at emergency poison centers is

  12. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.

  13. Mechanism of calcium phosphates precipitation in liquid crystals; Mecanisme de precipitation de phosphates de calcium dans des cristaux liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prelot, B.; Zemb, T

    2004-04-01

    The possibility of using as a precursor an easily wet meso-porous powder would be a breakthrough in the preparation of nuclear waste storage ceramics. A concentrated solution containing ions to be stored would wet a dry powder and then, subjected to mild compression, lead to a micro-crystalline matrix of calcium phosphate at acceptable temperatures. Since no porous calcium phosphate different from calcined bone (patented) is described as porous precursor, we have compared the different synthesis routes towards meso-porous ceramics. First, we considered homogeneous precipitation of slats in water: using initially off-stoichiometry in reaction, micron-sized hydroxyapatite particles are produced with a specific surface up to 100 m{sup 2}/g. Then, we consider the classical route of precipitation of an hybrid material in the miscibility gap of a phase diagram, when an hexagonal liquid crystal is used a matrix for precipitation. The surfactant family consists in single chain surfactants containing phosphates as head-group to poison the growing surface of calcium phosphate nano-domains. Since the reaction is still too brutal, we considered using a cat-anionic precursor material of controllable surface charge. For certain concentrations and molar ratios, a new structure not yet described in surfactant precipitation literature is observed: since the periodicity is lower than twice the chain length, a disordered constant curvature monolayer (instead of the classical cylinder of twice chain length diameter) of surfactant is implied. Finally, we have investigated synthesis routes implying slow dissolution of pre-formed calcium phosphate in an already existing hexagonal matrix. For all these routes of synthesis, micro-structural determinations using SAXS, WARS and BET are performed, with a special attention to comparison of the precipitation material, the matrix obtained with all elements present, and also the material obtained after calcinations. (authors)

  14. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  15. VALUE OF ED50 TESTING IN ASSESSING HAZARDS OF ACUTE POISONING BY CARBAMATES AND ORGANOPHOSPHATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekar, M.; Reiner, E.; Svetličić, B.; Fajdetić, T.

    1965-01-01

    It is shown from the kinetics of inhibition of cholinesterase by N-methylcarbamates and organophosphates that the LD50 dose is likely to be a much greater multiple of the dose causing signs of poisoning in 50% of the animals (the ED50) for the carbamates than for the organophosphates. The expected difference was demonstrated by a comparison of the LD50s and ED50s, intravenous and intramuscular, of five carbamates (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate, 3-isopropylphenyl N-methylcarbamate, 6-chloro-3,4-xylyl N-methylcarbamate, 3,4,5-trimethylphenyl N-methylcarbamate, and 3-methyl-5-isopropylphenyl N-methylcarbamate) and two organophosphorus compounds (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate and dimethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate). The slightest evoked tremor was chosen as the most reliable sign of poisoning from which to estimate the ED50 values. Carbamates gave much greater LD50/ED50 ratios than organophosphorus compounds. It is likely that occupational exposure to carbamates will produce incapacitating symptoms at doses well below lethal levels. PMID:5836574

  16. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  17. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety.

  18. [Lead poisoning from traditional Indian medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Robert; Poupon, Joël

    2006-01-01

    The use of traditional remedies is spreading rapidly in developed countries. Although it is commonly thought that such medications are not harmful because they are of natural origin, they often contain dangerous ingredients, especially heavy metals. Several cases of poisoning, mainly lead poisoning, have been published, but none to our knowledge in France. We recently observed a case of lead poisoning in a man who had been taking ayurvedic remedies. A 32-year-old man was repeatedly hospitalized for paroxysmal abdominal pain with constipation, weight loss, anemia, and mild elevation of liver enzyme levels. Four months after the initial admission, blood lead measurement showed heavy metal poisoning. The patient was treated with a chelating agent and recovered uneventfully. Investigation revealed that the lead source was self-medication with an ayurvedic remedy, a powder used for four weeks before the first hospitalization. To our knowledge this is the first reported French case of lead poisoning due to a traditional remedy. The problem is undoubtedly more widespread, however, for use of traditional remedies is growing more here, and many of them contain dangerous ingredients. Patients from communities known to use traditional medicines or recently returned from countries where such treatments are widespread should be directly questioned about their use of these remedies, because this information will not usually be volunteered. Information directed at populations at risk is also advisable, for most users are unaware that so-called 'natural' medicines can be dangerous.

  19. An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey (Symphytum officinale leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged “comfrey” herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40–80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning.

  1. Serum phosphate is an early predictor of outcome in severe acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    the KCH criteria, and it identified patients significantly earlier after transferal [median 1 hour (range 1-38 hours) vs. 12 hours (2-192 hours), P degree of hyperphosphatemia correlated with renal dysfunction (R =.55; P =.02). In conclusion, hyperphosphatemia....... Prospectively, serial measurements of serum phosphate were performed in 125 patients with severe acetaminophen poisoning. The optimum threshold value of serum phosphate to discriminate nonsurvivors was identified. Prognostic value and speed of identification were compared with those of the King's College...... Hospital (KCH) criteria. Phosphate concentrations were significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors at 48 to 72 hours after overdose (mean 2.65 +/- 1.18 mmol/L vs. 0.68 +/- 0.22 mmol/L, P vs. 0.59 +/- 0.23 mmol/L, P

  2. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  3. Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent neonatal epileptic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bagci, S; Zschocke, J; Hoffmann, G F; Bast, T; Klepper, J; Müller, A; Heep, A; Bartmann, P; Franz, A R

    2009-01-01

    Pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase converts pyridoxine phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in many metabolic reactions, including neurotransmitter synthesis. A family with a mutation in the pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase gene presenting with neonatal seizures unresponsive to pyridoxine and anticonvulsant treatment but responsive to pyridoxal phosphate is described. Pyridoxal phosphate should be considered in neonatal epileptic encephalopathy unrespons...

  4. [Poisonous plants: An ongoing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Monseny, A; Martínez Sánchez, L; Margarit Soler, A; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2015-05-01

    A medical visit for plant ingestion is rare in the pediatric emergency services but may involve a high toxicity. The botanical toxicology training of health staff is often very limited, and it can be difficult to make a diagnosis or decide on the appropriate treatment. To study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of poisoning due to plant ingestion in order to increase the knowledge of the health professional. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on patients seen in a pediatric emergency department after the ingestion of plant substances from January 2008 to December 2012. During the period of study, 18 patients had ingested possible toxic plants. In 14 cases, it was considered to be potentially toxic: broom, oleander, mistletoe, butcher's-broom, and vulgar bean (2), Jerusalem tomato, castor (2), Jimson weed, potus, marijuana, and mushrooms with digestive toxicity (2). Among the potentially toxic cases, the ingestion was accidental in 10 patients, 2 cases were classed as infantile mistreatment, 1 case had recreational intention, and another one suicidal intentions. The ingestion of oleander, castor and Jimson weed had major toxicity. The potential gravity of the ingestion of plant substances and the variety of the exposure mechanism requires the pediatrician to bear in mind this possibility, and to be prepared for its diagnosis and management. Specific preventive information measures need to be designed for the families and for the regulation of toxic plants in playgrounds. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [The most popular poisons from Graeco-Roman world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Bartlomiej; Rys, Anna; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the most popular antique poisons. Information from encyclopaedic literature and literary texts of the Roman Empire period has been compared with the etymology of the names of some poisons of plant and animal origin.

  7. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the county level by selected demographic characteristics and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug poisoning...

  8. Poison blamed for decline of Spain's majestic Black Vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    catastrophic” decline in numbers because of illegal poisoning by hunters. The use of poisoned bait to kill foxes, badgers, wild dogs, feral cats and smaller birds of prey has reduced the population by almost a half in the past decade,.

  9. Poison prevention practices and medically attended poisoning in young children: multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Timblin, Clare; Hayes, Mike; Goodenough, Trudy; Hawkins, Adrian; Reading, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Childhood poisonings are common, placing a substantial burden on health services. Case-control studies have found inconsistent evidence about modifiable risk factors for poisonings among children aged 0-4 years. This study quantifies associations between poison prevention practices and medically attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. Multicentre case-control study conducted at hospitals, minor injury units and family practices from four study centres in England between 2010 and 2013. Participants comprised 567 children presenting with unintentional poisoning occurring at home and 2320 community control participants matched on age, sex, date of event and study centre. Parents/caregivers provided data on safety practices, safety equipment use, home hazards and potential confounders by means of self-completion questionnaires. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with community controls, parents of poisoned children were significantly more likely not to store medicines out of reach (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.59; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.09; population attributable fraction (PAF) 15%), not to store medicines safely (locked or out of reach (AOR 1.83; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.42; PAF 16%) and not to have put all medicines (AOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.90; PAF 20%) or household products (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.48; PAF 11%) away immediately after use. Not storing medicines out of reach or locked away and not putting medicines and household products away immediately after use increased the odds of secondary care attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. If associations are causal, implementing these poison prevention practices could each prevent between 11% and 20% of poisonings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  11. Pattern of Poisoning Cases in a Tertiary Hospital in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    AKM Rafique Uddin; Md Imran Ali; Nazmul Haque; Naser Ahmed; Rukhsana Parvin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Poisoning with various substances is a global problem. It is one of the most important reasons for emergency admission in the hospital. The earlier the initial resuscitations, gastric decontamination and use of specific antidotes, the better is the outcome. Epidemiology of poisoning differs from region to region. This study was carried out to determine the pattern and severity of poisoning in a tertiary care hospital. Objective: To characterize the poisoning cases admitted in Enam...

  12. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature...... search, extracted the data, summarized the key findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement....... The workgroup concluded that VPA is moderately dialyzable (level of evidence = B) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe VPA poisoning (1D); recommendations for ECTR include a VPA concentration > 1300 mg/L (9000 μmol/L)(1D), the presence of cerebral edema (1D) or shock (1D...

  13. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  14. Thallium poisoning from maliciously contaminated food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggs, W J; Hoffman, R S; Shih, R D; Weisman, R S; Goldfrank, L R

    1994-01-01

    Four young adults presented two days after one of them had received marzipan balls packaged in a box from an expensive candy manufacturer. Two ate one candy ball, while two others shared a third. The next day, variable gastrointestinal symptoms developed. On the third day, two patients developed painful paresthesiae of the hands and feet, an early but nonspecific clinical marker of thallium poisoning. A tentative diagnosis of thallium poisoning was made based on symptoms, and treatment was initiated. The remaining candies were radiographed. Metallic densities in the candies supported the diagnosis, and atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantitate thallium content. Each candy contained a potentially fatal dose. Five to seven days later, hypertension and tachycardia developed in the two patients who had ingested an entire candy. All patients developed alopecia but recovered without overt neurologic or other sequelae. While the diagnosis of thallium poisoning is often delayed until alopecia develops, an early diagnosis favors an effective treatment strategy.

  15. Poisoned after Dinner: Dolma with Datura Stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disel, Nezihat Rana; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kekec, Zeynep; Karanlik, Meryem

    2015-03-01

    Datura stramonium, which is also known as Thorn Apple or Jimson Weed, is an alkaloid containing plant that is entirely toxic. The active toxic constituents of the plant are atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine. It has been abused worldwide for hundreds of years because of its hallucinogenic properties. Previous reports have shown that herbal medication overdose and accidental food contamination are ways it can cause poisoning. Herein we present a family that had three of its members poisoned after eating a traditional meal "dolma" made of datura flowers. None had fatal complications and all were discharged healthy. Datura stromonium may be used accidentally as a food ingredient. Since its poisonous effects are not known, people should be informed and warned about the effects of this plant.

  16. Teenagers with Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Sean P; Taddei, Anthony

    2007-11-01

    We report 2 cases of teenagers who were poisoned with Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) and presented to the emergency department with a severe acute anticholinergic toxidrome after ingestion of several hundred seeds. The patients presented with visual hallucinations, disorientation, incomprehensible and nonsensical speech, and dilated sluggish pupils. Both patients required restraints for combativeness until adequate sedation with lorazepam and haloperidol was achieved. Jimson weed is found in southern Canada and the United States and can cause acute anticholinergic poisoning and death in humans and animals. The treatment of choice for anticholinergic poisoning is mainly supportive care and gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal. Jimson weed intoxication should be considered in cases of patients presenting with unexplained peripheral and central anticholinergic symptoms including delirium, agitation and seizures, especially among younger patients and partygoers. It is important that health care professionals recognize that Jimson weed is a toxic, indigenous, "wild" growing plant, subject to misuse and potentially serious intoxication requiring hospitalization.

  17. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hyperamylasaemia and acute pancreatitis in paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperamylasaemia and even acute pancreatitis have been reported in patients with paracetamol poisoning. AIMS: To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic implications of hyperamylasaemia in paracetamol poisoning. PATIENTS: Six hundred and two patients transferred...... to a specialized unit with severe paracetamol poisoning and 212 unselected patients admitted from the local region. METHODS: Retrospective study based on hospital charts. The optimum threshold of serum amylase to discriminate non-survivors was identified. RESULTS: An elevated serum amylase (>100 U/L) occurred...... in 28 of the unselected patients (13%), in 218 of the transferred patients (36%), and in 118 of 148 patients (80%) with fulminant hepatic failure. Only 33 cases of paracetamol-associated acute pancreatitis were diagnosed. A threshold serum amylase of 150 U/L to discriminate non-survivors had sensitivity...

  19. Laser Sintered Calcium Phosphate Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vail, Neil

    1999-01-01

    ...) technology selective laser sintering (SLS). BME has successfully implemented a pilot facility to fabricate calcium phosphate implants using anatomical data coupled with the selective laser sintering process...

  20. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M; Narahari, M G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. This was a prospective observational study. The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephone service, internet and online services) to provide poison information services. The poison information services provided by the center were recorded in documentation forms. The documentation form consists of numerous sections to collect information on: (a) Type of population (children, adult, elderly or pregnant) (b) poisoning agents (c) route of exposure (d) type of poisoning (intentional, accidental or environmental) (e) demographic details of patient (age, gender and bodyweight) (f) enquirer details (background, place of call and mode of request) (g) category and purpose of query and (h) details of provided service (information provided, mode of provision, time taken to provide information and references consulted). The nature and quality of poison information services provided was assessed using a quality assessment checklist developed in accordance with DSE/World Health Organization guidelines. Chi-Square test (χ(2)). A total of 419 queries were received by the center. A majority (n = 333; 79.5%) of the queries were asked by the doctors to provide optimal care (n = 400; 95.5%). Most of the queries were received during ward rounds (n = 201; 48.0%), followed by direct access (n = 147; 35.1%). The poison information services were predominantly provided through verbal communication (n = 352; 84.0%). Upon receipt of queries, the required service was provided immediately (n = 103; 24.6%) or within 10-20 min (n = 296; 70.6%). The queries were mainly related to intentional poisoning (n = 258; 64.5%), followed by accidental poisoning

  2. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  3. Acute kidney injury from Paraquat poisoning: a case report. | Slater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute kidney injury from Paraquat poisoning: a case report. H. E. Slater, O.C.A. Okoye, O. Okperi, N. Rajora. Abstract. Paraquat is a salt widely used as a herbicide. Although paraquat poisoning is rare in the general population, it may be considered as one of the most toxic poisons frequently used for suicide attempts, and is ...

  4. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  5. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700... PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging..., using, or ingesting household substances, the Commission has determined that packaging designed and...

  6. Characteristics of Acute Poisoning at Two Referral Hospitals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poisoning by household chemicals, particularly paraffin, affected mainly children under 12, while poisoning by pharmaceuticals involved mainly teenagers. With regard to outcomes, three of the female victims died, representing a case fatality rate of 2.6%. One death was due to paraffin poisoning and two to traditional ...

  7. Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Sumeet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature.

  8. Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Sumeet; Rastogi, Rajul; Agarwal, Ajay; Jindal, Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula) has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature.

  9. Esophagobronchial fistula - A rare complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Sumeet; Rastogi, Rajul; Agarwal, Ajay; Jindal, Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide is a systemic lethal poison. Fistulous communication between esophagus and airway tract (esophagorespiratory fistula) has rarely been reported in the survivors of aluminum phosphide poisoning. We report a case of benign esophagobronchial fistula secondary to aluminum phosphide poisoning, which to best of our knowledge has not been reported in the medical literature.

  10. 76 FR 16521 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... March 23, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8638--National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 #0; #0..., 2011 National Poison Prevention Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... cases, these tragic incidents are preventable. During National Poison Prevention Week, I encourage all...

  11. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal Insecticide...

  12. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8940 of March 15, 2013 National Poison..., Americans have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to protect... encouraging common-sense precautions and raising awareness about how to respond in a poison emergency. Thanks...

  13. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition to...

  14. Paraffin (kerosene) poisoning in childhood is prevention affordable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 436 children with paraffin poisoning, 288 (66%) were black and 99 (23%) coloured. Only 4 patients (1 %) in the series were white. Paraffin poisoning occurred more frequently (62,5%) in boys. Age distribution. From Fig. 1, it is clear that paraffin poisoning in the Cape. Peninsula occurred mainly in children under 3 ...

  15. Notification ofpesticide poisoning in the western Cape, 1987 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    notification of pesticide poisoning so as to facili- tate control of an iInportant potential public health probleIn. ... Poisoning caused by paraquat and organophosphate insecticides have been reported to be an important rea- .... were white, the majority (78%) being coloured. The circumstances of poisonings are summarised in.

  16. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with § 172.407, the background on the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label and the symbol must be white. The... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and...

  17. Profile of hospital Admissions of childhood poisoning at a North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood poisoning is an important but preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the paediatric subpopulation. There is the continuous need to describe the pattern of childhood poisoning and to create public awareness on the common agents of poison in this environment. Objectives: To determine the ...

  18. Emetic food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J R; Plunkett, T; Pate, P; Roper, W L; Alexander, W J

    1981-05-01

    Symptoms of acute food poisoning developed in eight members of a group who ate lunch at a cafeteria. After brief incubation periods, all affected individuals complained of nausea and abdominal cramps. Four persons promptly experienced vomiting. None of those affected was found to have fever and all recovered with 48 hours. Epidemiologic investigation incriminated macaroni and cheese as a cause of the illness and samples of this food contained large numbers of Bacillus cereus. Previous outbreaks of B cereus emetic food poisoning have been associated with consumption of contaminated fried rice and may occur after ingestion of other foods.

  19. [Hemolysis in mushroom poisoning: facts and hypotheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, R; Gallen, S

    1983-10-22

    Primary hemolysis induced by antigens and toxins of mushrooms must be distinguished from hemolysis secondary to shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation with disruption of erythrocytes caused by severe poisoning with many mushroom species. Primary hemolysis is well documented as immunohemolysis after repeated ingestion of involute paxillus (Paxillus involutus). Direct hemolysis is reported after eating raw mushrooms with a high content of hemolysins. Hemolysis is only speculative in monomethylhydrazine poisoning by false morels (Gyromitra esculenta). Secondary hemolysis due to shock is not uncommon. Hemolysis in connection with enzymopenia of erythrocytes has not been documented as yet. In the present study the various hemolytic syndromes are described and discussed.

  20. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  1. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  2. [Venomous and poisonous animals--I. Overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Goyffon, M

    2006-06-01

    Venomous animals that are able to innoculate or inject venom and poisonous animals that cannot inject venom but are toxic when ingested belong to all zoological groups. They can be encountered worldwide in any ecosystem on land and at sea but they are more common and more dangerous in tropical areas. This first article of a series to appear in the next issues of Medecine Tropicale presents an overview of species involved in envenomations and poisonings. In addition to a brief reviewing geographic risks and circumstances in which bites, stings or ingestion occur, some information is provided about antivenim therapy, the only etiological treatment.

  3. Certain cases of poisoning by arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristol, P.; Fourcade, J.; Ravoire, J.; Bezenech, C.

    1939-05-01

    Cases of acute and chronic poisoning by arsenic are reported. Diffuse pains, angor, edema of the limbs and genitals, complicated by heptic insufficiency and chronic bronchitis were determined in a subject having lived near an industrial plant processing arseniferous ores for several years. The plant emitted several hundred kg of finely dispersed arsenic oxide daily which settled on forage and vegetables. Symptoms of poisoning by arsenic were also detected in cattle in the same area. The installation of Cottrell type dust separators has helped to suppress the arsenic oxide emissions.

  4. Kerosene poisoning in children in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, N. A.; Abdulallah, Z. A.

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and three children with kerosene poisoning were studied. The majority of the patients were under five years of age and included a newborn baby. More patients were seen in spring and fewer in winter months. Most of the patients were children of poor families living in overcrowded conditions. Negligence and ignorance were the main causes of poisoning. Respiratory and central nervous systems were mainly involved. Chest X-ray abnormalities were frequently seen. The patients were treated symptomatically. Only one patient died, he had been in a coma on admission to the hospital. All other patients had rapid and complete recoveries. PMID:7567734

  5. Phosphate Recovery From Sewage Sludge Containing Iron Phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to lay the basis for a phosphate recovery technology that can be applied on sewage sludge containing iron phosphate. Such a technology should come with minimal changes to the existing sludge treatment configuration while keeping the use of chemicals or energy as small as

  6. The Use of Rock Phosphate and Phosphate Solubilising Fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Department of Soil Science, University of Ghana, Legon. *Corresponding author; Email: sbrempong@yahoo.com. Abstract. Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of rock phosphate (RP) and phosphate solubilizing fungi application on upland rice yield intercropped with pigeon pea from 2009 to 2011 at the ...

  7. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and phosphated...

  8. Erbium: alternative poison? stabilisation additive? what future?; Erbium: poison alternatif? additif de stabilisation? quel devenir?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta, J. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Asou, M. [CEA Marcoule, DRN/DCP, 30 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Erbium was proposed as alternative poison to gadolinium at a very early stage. The potential interest of this poison compared to gadolinium is that it presents a relatively low ({sup 167}Er) absorption cross section in the thermal range and a non-negligible resonance integral that lead to a relatively slow consumption kinetic rather adapted to long or even very long cycles. The poisoning mode adapted to this poison, homogeneous in low concentration (< 3 %), does not downgrade the power distribution, on the one hand, as the absorption is low and spatially homogeneous, and the thermal conductivity, on the other hand, as the addition in the fuel oxide is in low quantity. A review of knowledge acquired as regards Er, from the 1960's to now, is presented. (authors)

  9. Transdermal carbamate poisoning – a case of misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar Rajbanshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pesticide poisoning is a common mode of intentional self harm. Oral ingestion is the usual mode of poisoning. However, inhalation, accidental or occupational transdermal exposure leading to acute or chronic poisoning can be the other route of poisoning. It has been seen that the purpose of poising is suicidal intensity in most of the cases. We report an unusual case where the victim had acute pesticide poisoning through transdermal route that was intended for non suicidal purpose. The patient was managed successfully with immediate decontamination and adequate antidote.

  10. Outpatient treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo: poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization, and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Cathrine; Vallersnes, Odd M; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hovda, Knut E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Most patients with acute poisoning are treated as outpatients worldwide. In Oslo, these patients are treated in a physician-led outpatient clinic with limited diagnostic and treatment resources, which reduces both the costs and emergency department overcrowding. We describe the poisoning patterns, treatment, mortality, factors associated with hospitalization and follow-up at this Emergency Medical Agency (EMA, "Oslo Legevakt"), and we evaluate the safety of this current pr...

  11. Evaluation of poison information services provided by a new poison information center

    OpenAIRE

    Churi, Shobha; Abraham, Lovin; Ramesh, M.; Narahari, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature and quality of services provided by poison information center established at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, Mysore. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The poison information center was officially established in September 2010 and began its functioning thereafter. The center is equipped with required resources and facility (e.g., text books, Poisindex, Drugdex, toll free telephon...

  12. Phosphate glasses, containing nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsyna, E.A.; Khalilev, V.D.; Koryavin, A.A.; Goncharova, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of nitrogen-containing glass synthesis by the introduction into the charge of ammonium salts, as well as aluminium nitride, are studied. Zinc alumoyttrium phosphate glass (mol. %) Zn(PO 3 ) 2 - 4O, Al(PO 3 ) 3 - 3O, Y(PO 3 ) 3 -3O is suggested as a matrix. It is shown that the effect of amide and imide groups on the properties of the glass is less noticeable than the effect of nitride groups. Direct introduction of nitride constituent was realized using AlN, but aluminium introduction was taken into account so that the oxide was subtracted. The attempt to introduce more than 2.5 mass % of nitrogen into initial matrix by aluminium nitride has failed due to repeated restoration of glass with amorphous phosphorus isolation

  13. Light weight phosphate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  14. Copper scandium zirconium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew David; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, with nominal formula Cu(2)ScZr(PO(4))(3), has a beige coloration and displays fast Cu(+) cation conduction at elevated temperatures. It adopts a NASICON-type structure in the space group R3c. The examined crystal was an obverse-reverse twin with approximately equal twin...... components. The [Sc(III)Zr(IV)(PO(4))(3)](2-) framework is composed of corner-sharing Sc/ZrO(6) octahedra and PO(4) tetrahedra. The Sc and Zr atoms are disordered on one atomic site on a crystallographic threefold axis. The P atom of the phosphate group lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. Nonframework...... Cu(+) cations occupy three positions. Two of the Cu(+) positions generate an approximately circular distribution around a site of 3 symmetry, referred to as the M1 site in the NASICON-type structure. The other Cu(+) position is situated close to the twofold symmetric M2 site, displaced...

  15. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning cases admitted to the tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. ... Young adult males were more commonly involved than females (M:F 2.5:1). The mean age of the patients was 28 years (range 2-72 years, SD ± 14.3 years). Mean time to receive treatment ...

  16. Gastrointestinal decontamination in the acutely poisoned patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the role of gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Sources A computer-based PubMed/MEDLINE search of the literature on GI decontamination in the poisoned patient with cross referencing of sources. Study Selection and Data Extraction Clinical, animal and in vitro studies were reviewed for clinical relevance to GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. Data Synthesis The literature suggests that previously, widely used, aggressive approaches including the use of ipecac syrup, gastric lavage, and cathartics are now rarely recommended. Whole bowel irrigation is still often recommended for slow-release drugs, metals, and patients who "pack" or "stuff" foreign bodies filled with drugs of abuse, but with little quality data to support it. Activated charcoal (AC), single or multiple doses, was also a previous mainstay of GI decontamination, but the utility of AC is now recognized to be limited and more time dependent than previously practiced. These recommendations have resulted in several treatment guidelines that are mostly based on retrospective analysis, animal studies or small case series, and rarely based on randomized clinical trials. Conclusions The current literature supports limited use of GI decontamination of the poisoned patient. PMID:21992527

  17. Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning, Washington, USA, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Jennifer K.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.; Borchert, Jerry; Quintana, Harold Flores; Robertson, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks.

  18. Acute Poisoning with Methadone (Dolphin (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy A. Livanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most publications report on the use of methadone as a medication, however an increase of the illegal use of methadone has been demonstrated worldwide over the recent years, thus increasing the number of hospitalizations due to acute poisoning with this synthetic opioid. The aim of the present review was to summarize current data on the mechanisms of toxicity, selective toxicity, toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of methadone (Dolphin. The involvement of CNS, respiratory, cardiovascular and urinary systems in acute poisoning with methadone was dis- cussed. The practice of use of methadone in many countries as a medicine for the replacement therapy for opiate addicts was analyzed. In addition, it was suggested that the results of the use of naloxone antidote therapy in acute opioid poisoning do not always clearly demonstrate its sufficient efficacy. Ways to improve of the intensive therapy of severe acute poisoning by methadone were substantiated; in addition to general critical care methods, treatment with a complex metabolic antihypoxant cytoflavin should be considered. 

  19. Poisonous plants of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  20. The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    and ratified. Methods rely on evidence appraisal and, in the absence of robust studies, on a thorough and transparent process of consensus statements. Twenty-four poisons were chosen according to their frequency, available evidence, and relevance. A systematic literature search was performed in order...

  1. Spider and burnable poison rod combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.T.; Schluderberg, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    An improved design of burnable poison rods and associated spiders used in fuel assemblies of pressurized water power reactor cores, is described. The rods are joined to the spider arms in a manner which is proof against the reactor core environment and yet allows the removal of the rods from the spider simply, swiftly and delicately. (U.K.)

  2. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenkova-Saeva J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves, Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley, Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides - oleandrin, nerin, digitoxigenin, and olinerin of which oleandrin is the principal toxin. The bark contains the toxic substances of rosagenin which causes strychnine-like effects. Signs of poisoning appear a few hours after the adoption of the parts of the plant. Two cases of Nerium Oleander poisoning were presented. Clinical picture included gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects. The clinical symptoms were characterized by nausea, vomiting, salivation, colic, diarrhoea, ventricular tachycardia, dysrhythmia, heart block, ataxia, drowsiness, muscular tremor. Treatment included administration of activated charcoal, symptomatic and supportive care.

  3. Neonatal cholinergic syndrome – organophosphate poisoning or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single case of neonatal organophosphate-like poisoning is presented, presumed to have been caused by traditional medicine intake. The dangers of traditional medications and naturally occurring anticholinergics are discussed. South African Journal of Child Health Vol. 2 (1) 2008: pp. 26-27 ...

  4. Paediatric organophosphate poisoning - a rural hospital experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To document the presentation and course of organophosphate poisoning (OPP) in children and to record the frequency of atropine toxicity during treatment. ... The study was conducted at Eben Donges Hospital, a regional hospital in the Boland/Overberg area of the Western Cape, where pesticide-intensive fruit farming ...

  5. Protect the Ones You Love From Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 12/10/2008.

  6. Efficacious Oxime for Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Minireview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oximes are well known as acetylcholinesterase reactivators and are used in organophosphorus poisoning to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Therapeutically available oximes, namely, pralidoxime (2-PAM), obidoxime, trimedoxime and Hagedorn oxime (HI-6), have no broad-spectrum activity against structurally ...

  7. Poisonous Plants. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    There are a number of sources of information on the more than 700 species of plants, ferns, horsetails, and fungi that can cause toxic, though rarely fatal, reactions in humans and animals. This guide is intended for those who wish to review published materials on poisonous plants in the collections of the Library of Congress. It is not intended…

  8. "The Most Poisonous Force in Technology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Walt Mossberg, personal-technology columnist for "The Wall Street Journal," highlighted technology trends in his speech to a group of college presidents and other administrators. Mr. Mossberg touched a nerve when he called information-technology departments of large organizations, including colleges, "the most regressive and poisonous force in…

  9. A retrospective analysis of acute organophosphorus poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Organization (WHO) and several other studies have estimated that OP pesticides were responsible for majority of self-attempted deaths in the developing world.[2,4-6,12-14,22,23] In this study, we have reported our experience with the pattern of presentation of cases of acute OP poisoning cases in a tertiary care ...

  10. Castor Seed Poisoning in Humans: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-18

    groin. Interstitial hemorrhages were also present in the intestines, testicles , pancreas, inguinal lymph glands and the adrenals. Subsequent histology...molecule of ricin attached to a specific antibody destroys a specific tumor or cancerous cell. Such immunotoxins are used as cancer chemotherapeutic...Other interventions were provided as indicated by the symptoms (38). After observing these poisoned patients, the Russian investigators used guinea

  11. Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    1994-01-01

    Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

  12. Tension Pneumothorax following an Accidental Kerosene Poisoning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tension pneumothorax is a rare complication following an accidental kerosene poisoning. In such situation, a bed-side needle thoracocentesis is performed because of its potential of becoming fatal; hence its clinical importance. A case of 15 month old boy with tension pneumothorax following accidental kerosene ...

  13. Kerosene poisoning--varied systemic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A L; Shaikh, W A; Patel, H L; Deshmukh, D; Malaviya, A P; Janawar, P; Londhe, V; Dodheja, H

    2004-01-01

    We report here unusual clinical manifestations in a case of kerosene poisoning. The patient presented with encephalopathy and in the course of stay in the hospital developed renal tubular acidosis, delayed first-degree burns and myocarditis. With supportivetherapy the patient recovered completely and was discharged without any sequelae.

  14. Datura stramonium poisoning in children | Adegoke | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed ...

  15. Cutaneous manifestations of acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, R.; Greer, K.E.; Harman, L.E. Jr.

    1979-10-01

    A patient with acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to leakage of gas from the exhaust system in his automobile noted edema and blister formation over large areas of the skin of one half of his body. Rhabdomyolysis, acute but transient renal insufficiency, and hemolytic anemia developed subsequently.

  16. Toxic Agents Responsible for Acute Poisonings Treated at Four Medical Settings in Iran during 2012-2013: A Report from Iran's National Drug and Poison Information Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Ghane

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Pharmaceutical products, substances of abuse and pesticides are the most common causes of poisoning-related admissions to referral Iranian poison treatment centers. Effective measures to reduce poisoning with these substances should be done.

  17. Renal failure prevalence in poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Taghaddosinejad, Fakhroddin; Salamaty, Peyman; Soroosh, Davood; Ashraf, Hami; Ebrahimi, Mohsen

    2014-03-01

    Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients. The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. This cross-sectional study surveyed 1500 poisoned patients referred to the Emergency Department of Baharloo Hospital in Tehran during 2010. Demographic data including age and gender as well as clinical data including type of medication, duration of hospital stay, and presence of renal failure were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the results. A total number of 435 patients were poisoned with several drugs, 118 patients were intoxicated with sedative-hypnotic drugs, 279 patients were exposed to opium, and 478 patients were administered to other drugs. The method of intoxication included oral 84.3%, injective 9%, inhalation 4.3% and finally a combination of methods 2.3%. Laboratory results revealed that 134 cases had renal failure and 242 had rhabdomyolysis. The incidence of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure increased significantly with age, and also with time of admission to the hospital. Renal failure was reported in 25.1% of patients exposed to opium, vs. 18.2% of patients poisoned with aluminum phosphide, 16.7% of those with organophosphate, 8% with multiple drugs, 6.7% with alcohol, heavy metals and acids, and 1.7% with sedative hypnotics. Based on the findings of this study, there is a high probability of renal failure for patients poisoned with drugs such as opium, aluminum phosphide, and multiple drugs as well as the patients with delayed admission to

  18. National carbon monoxide poisoning surveillance framework and recent estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H; King, Michael; Bell, Jeneita; Yip, Fuyuen Y

    2012-01-01

    Unintentional, non-fire-related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of poisoning in the United States. A comprehensive national CO poisoning surveillance framework is needed to obtain accurate estimates of CO poisoning burden and guide prevention efforts. This article describes the current national CO poisoning surveillance framework and reports the most recent national estimates. We analyzed mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System multiple cause-of-death file, emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Emergency Department Sample and Nationwide Inpatient Sample, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) data from HBOT facilities, exposure data from the National Poison Data System, and CO alarm prevalence data from the American Housing Survey and the National Health Interview Survey. In the United States, 2,631 UNFR CO deaths occurred from 1999 to 2004, an average of 439 deaths annually. In 2007, there were 21,304 (71 per one million population) ED visits and 2,302 (eight per one million population) hospitalizations for confirmed cases of CO poisoning. In 2009, 552 patients received HBOT, and from 2000 to 2009, 68,316 UNFR CO exposures were reported to poison centers. Most nonfatal poisonings were among children (65 years of age). More poisonings occurred during winter months and in the Midwest and Northeast. UNFR CO poisoning poses a significant public health burden. Systematic evaluation of data sources coupled with modification and expansion of the surveillance framework might assist in developing effective prevention strategies.

  19. Intentional and accidental paracetamol poisoning in childhood - a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominek, Katarzyna; Pawłowska-Kamieniak, Agnieszka; Mroczkowska-Juchkiewicz, Agnieszka; Krawiec, Paulina; Pac-Kożuchowska, Elżbieta

    2015-04-09

    Paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics and antipyretics available without limits as preparations of the OTC group (over the counter drugs). Overdose and poisoning with this drug always brings about the risk of acute hepatic failure. The objective of the study was a retrospective evaluation of patients hospitalized in the Paediatric Clinic during the period 2004-2012 due to poisoning with paracetamol. The analysis covered 44 patients hospitalized in the Paediatric Clinic during 2004-2012 due to poisoning with paracetamol. Patients were divided into three groups: intentional poisonings, accidental poisonings, and drug overdose. During the period of the study, 44 patients aged 2.1-17.1, poisoned with paracetamol, were hospitalized. Among these patients there were 30 (68.2%) cases of intentional poisonings, 10 (22.7%) of accidental poisonings, and only 4 patients (9.1%) were children hospitalized after a paracetamol overdose. The majority of patients in all groups were females (93.3%). Paracetamol intoxication may occur after exceeding a single allowable dose, in the case of intentional poisoning, more rarely after exceeding the daily dose, in the case of intense pain complaints, or in the treatment of persistent fever. Based on the analysis performed, an increase was observed in the frequency of poisoning with paracetamol, especially intentional poisoning. Unlimited access to paracetamol as an OTC drug should be reconsidered.

  20. Electrochemical Reduction of Zinc Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jung Hyun; Shin, Woon Sup

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated first that the electrochemical reduction of zinc phosphate in neutral phosphate buffer is possible and potentially applicable to bio-compatible rechargeable battery. The actual redox component is Zn(s)/Zn phosphate(s) and the future research about the control of crystal formation for the better cyclability is required. In lead-acid battery, the electrochemical redox reaction of Pb (s) /PbSO 4(s) is used by reducing Pb(II) and oxidizing Pb(0) in sulfate rich solution. Since both reduced form and oxidized form are insoluble, they cannot diffuse to the opposite electrodes and react. It is a very common strategy to make a stable battery electrode that a metal element is reduced and oxidized in solution containing an abundance of anion readily precipitating with the metal ion. For the application of this strategy to construction of rechargeable battery using bio-compatible electrode materials and electrolytes, the use of phosphate ion can be considered as anion readily precipitating with metal ions. If phosphate buffer with neutral pH is used as electrolyte, the better bio-compatibility will be achieved than most of rechargeable battery using strong acid, strong base or organic solvent as electrolyte solution. There are many metal ions readily precipitating with phos-phate ion, and zinc is one of them

  1. Poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel: a National Poison Center Data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir; Bentur, Yedidia

    2017-06-01

    To characterize poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel as reported to the national poison center. Retrospective poison center chart review over a 14-year period. Cases included were Israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, the compulsory military service age required by the Israeli law. 1770 records of poison exposures in young military personnel were identified. Most exposed individuals involved males (n = 1268, 71.6%). Main routes of exposure were ingestion (n = 854, 48.3%), inhalation (n = 328, 18.6%) and ocular (n = 211, 11.9%). Accidents or misuse (n = 712, 40.2%) were the most frequently reported circumstances, followed by suicide attempts (370, 20.9%), and bites and stings (161, 9.1%). More than half of the cases involved chemicals (n = 939, 53.1%); hydrocarbons, gases and corrosives were the main causative agents. Pharmaceuticals (mainly analgesics) were involved in 519 (29.3%) cases, venomous animals (mainly scorpions, centipedes, and snakes) in 79 (4.5%). Clinical manifestations were reported in 666 (37.6%) cases, mostly gastrointestinal, neurologic, and respiratory. The vast majority of cases (1634, 92.3%) were asymptomatic or mildly affected; no fatalities were recorded. In 831 (46.9%) cases the clinical toxicologist recommended referral to an emergency department; ambulatory observation was recommended in 563 (31.8%) cases, and hospitalization in 86 (4.9%). Our data show that poison exposures among young soldiers involve mainly males, accidents, misuse and suicides, oral route and chemicals; most exposures were asymptomatic or with mild severity. Repeated evaluations of poison center data pertaining to military personnel is advised for identifying trends in poison exposure and characteristics in this particular population.

  2. Acute Poisoning in Adults Admitted in Ardabil Imam Khomeini Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Farzaneh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective s: Poisoning is one of the most common causes that referred to the Emergence and one of the most important Medicine immediacy. Correct and immediate diagnosis and accommodative treatment can be life saving. Knowing the overall pattern of poisoning in any geographical area would help to better manage and treat the victims.   Methods : In a cross sectional descriptive study, the required information was collected from the records of patients showing drugs and chemical poisoning who referred to Imam Khomeini hospital Collected data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software.   Results : Out of 2852 case of poisoning, 106 people passed away due to severe complication. Of these 56.8% were men and 43.2% were women. The majority of cases (76.8% were from urban areas. Suicide was the main cause of poisoning (66.53%. Accidental poisoning was recorded for 5.01% of cases. In 28.45% of cases, the cause of poisoning was not identified. The age group 21-30 years made the highest number of cases (52.3%. Tramadol, Benzodiazepines and Aceteminophen were the most poisons used respectively. Benzodiazeine was the most taken drug is in suicide (19.97%.   Conclusion : Results showed that poisoning with Tramadol and Benzodiazepines is high in Ardabil Province. Opioids, Aluminum Phosphide and Organophosphores are the main causative of death in poisoned victims in the province of Ardabil.

  3. Epidemiology of acute organophosphate poisoning in hospital emergency room patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmani, Chandrabhan; Jaga, Kushik

    2005-01-01

    Acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a major health issue in developing countries. Organophosphate insecticides inhibit cholinesterase (ChE) enzymatic activity, thereby eliciting cholinergic signs and symptoms. Victims of OP poisoning require immediate hospital emergency room (ER) treatment to prevent a fatal outcome. We present an epidemiologic review of acute OP poisoning in hospital ER patients. Areas of interest include countries with acute OP poisoning, nature of exposure, gender and age of patients, clinical cholinergic features, ChE activity, and health outcome, including recovery rate, case fatality rate, and post-ER complications. The review comprises case reports, hospital surveys, and clinical studies on acute OP poisoning. More studies were conducted in developed than in developing countries. Suicidal and occupational OP poisoning in agricultural workers was prevalent in developing countries, whereas accidental OP poisoning was prevalent in developed countries. Healthcare workers in the ER were also affected by OP poisoning. Both males and females were affected. Children accounted for 35% of the OP-poisoned victims. Patients presented with a classic cholinergic syndrome and serum ChE depresssion, with a recovery rate above 90%. Neurologic impairment was the most frequent complication. Preventing environmental OP exposure and increasing the awareness of pesticide toxicity would reduce acute OP poisoning and protect human health.

  4. CIGUATERA POISONING: PACIFIC DISEASE, FOODBORNE POISONING FROM FISH IN WARM SEAS AND OCEANS. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezha Zlateva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The review is provoked because of lack of awareness of the medical practitioners in Bulgaria concerning of the ethnology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and treatment of the ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. This can be a source of prolonged diagnostic delays, as some cases reporting in another country in Europe, for example Germany, Spain and UK. Varna is the sea town with many sailor crews returning from tropical and subtropical regions, or CFP can affect people who travel to the Pacific and Caribbean or ate exotic fish from supermarket. The information of this fish food-borne poisoning is part of student’s education in discipline “Marine medicine” in Medical University, Varna. Materials and methods: To present better information from different authors and last scientific data, we made review of published materials of 58 issues to construct definition, history, etiology, pathogenesis (toxins and mechanisms of action, clinical symptoms, treatment and prevention of the Ciguatera or ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide spread food-born poisoning. Results: Ciguatera poisoning is ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide-spread foodborne poisoning in people after consumption of flesh of different kinds of fishes in which toxins produced by poisonous microorganisms (Dinoflagellates have accumulated. The poisoning develops by accumulating toxins higher up the food chain starting with toxin producing dinoflagellates (species: Gambierdiscus toxicus, Prorocentrum concavum, Pr. lima, Ostreoposis lenticularis, Ostr. Siamensis and others, continuing with the poisoned algae (species: Portieria, Halymenia, Turbinaria, Sargassum, and after that involving small crustacea and small fishes to greater fishes (vector fishes, genus Herbivores and Carnivores, in which the toxins have been stored in amount, great enough to cause foodborne poisoning in humans. This poisoning is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, but because of its delayed toxic effects, lasting

  5. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  6. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Canillas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies.

  7. Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AMBIENT VOLATILITY OF TRIETHYL PHOSPHATE ECBC-TR-1476 James H. Buchanan John J. Mahle RESEARCH AND...2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Oct 2016 – Jan 2017 4. TITLE: Ambient Volatility of Triethyl Phosphate 5a. CONTRACT...humidity on TEPO volatility is nearly as predicted by Raoult’s law, that is, vapor pressure suppression is proportional to ambient relative humidity. An

  8. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol, the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients.

  9. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, Prevention and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Bienfang, Paul; Schrank, Kathleen; Dickey, Robert; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Backer, Lorraine; Ayyar, Ram; Weisman, Richard; Watkins, Sharon; Granade, Ray; Reich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world, and it causes substantial physical and functional impact. It produces a myriad of gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. Although there are reports of symptom amelioration with some interventions (e.g. IV mannitol), the appropriate treatment for CFP remains unclear to many physicians. We review the literature on the treatments for CFP, including randomized controlled studies and anecdotal reports. The article is intended to clarify treatment options, and provide information about management and prevention of CFP, for emergency room physicians, poison control information providers, other health care providers, and patients. PMID:19005579

  10. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  11. Poisoning by Gyromitra esculenta--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, D; Toth, B

    1991-08-01

    Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.: Fr.) Fr. and a few other mushrooms have caused severe poisonings and even deaths in humans. Clinical data are characterized primarily by vomiting and diarrhoea, followed by jaundice, convulsions and coma. Gastrointestinal disorders distinguish this poisoning. Frequent consumption can cause hepatitis and neurological diseases. The species of concern are mainly G. esculenta and G. gigas (Kromb.) Cooke (non Phill.). Nevertheless, recent advances in chromatography, biochemistry and toxicology have established that other Ascomycetes species also may prove toxic. Gyromitrin (acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone, G) and its homologues are toxic compounds that convert in vivo into N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine (MFH), and then into N-methylhydrazine (MH). The toxicity of these chemicals, which are chiefly hepatotoxic and even carcinogenic, has been established through in vivo and in vitro experiments using animals, cell cultures and biochemical systems. When we consider the chemical nature and the reactivity of these natural compounds, we suggest that chemical and biochemical mechanisms may explain their intrinsic biological activity.

  12. [Mushroom poisoning--classification, symptoms and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, R; Mot'ovská, Z

    1997-04-01

    The most serious poisonings are the hepatotoxic ones which are caused above all by Amanita phalloides, virosa, verna, Lepiota helveola, Galerina marginata, Gyromitra esculenta, Hypholoma fasciculare, and nephroptoxic intoxications which are caused above all by Cortinarius orrelanus and Paxillus involutus. Neurotoxic and psychotropic intoxications develop after ingestion of Inocybe, Clitocybe, Amanita-panterina, muscaria and Psilocybe. Most frequently the gastroenteric type of mushroom poisoning is encountered which is caused by many species e.g. Boletus satanas, Entoloma sinuatum and others. In the diagnosis anamnestic data are used, the clinical picture, mycological and toxicological examinations of residues of mushrooms, their spores and toxins. Therapeutic strategy comprises elimination methods gastric lavage, intestinal lavage and administration of large amounts of animal charcoal, forced diuresis, haemoperfusion, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, administration of antidotes and symptomatic treatment, i.e. mainly rehydration and restoration of the mineral balance. Early and comprehensive treatment are important.

  13. [Strychnine poisoning: uncommon, but does still happen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlo-van de Laar, Inge R F; Arbouw, Maurits E L; Bles, Carmen M A

    2015-01-01

    Acute strychnine poisoning is an uncommon form of intoxication, characterized by severe tonic clonic seizures and tetanus-like contractions while the patient is fully conscious. It can result in respiratory failure, leading to death. A 47-year-old man was admitted to the casualty department 2 hours after self-poisoning with strychnine. The clinical picture consisted of persistent seizures, which were treated with midazolam and propofol. The patient went into respiratory failure and asystole, so intubation and cardiac massage were initiated. Other complications were severe metabolic acidosis, hyperthermia and rhabdomyolysis with renal failure. The treatment consisted of cooling, hyperhydration and intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate. He was discharged to a mental care institution with no persistent symptoms 11 days later. Early aggressive treatment of a strychnine intoxication can be life-saving. Knowledge of the clinical picture and the right treatment is important. Treatment is primarily focussed on stopping the convulsions and securing the airway.

  14. [Staphylococcal food poisoning and MRSA enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Yusuke; Yoshida, Norimasa

    2012-08-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness. It is caused by eating foods contaminated with enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. The enterotoxins are fast acting, sometimes causing illness within one to six hours. Patients typically experience nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and diarrhea. Diagnosis of staphylococcal food poisoning is generally based only on the symptoms of patients. The treatments for these patients are rest and plenty of fluids. Antibiotics are not useful in treating this illness. On the other hand, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) enteritis and colitis caused by microbial substitution with administration of antibiotics is aggressive and sick with severe diarrhea. The treatment of those patients are as follows; antibiotics now in use are stopped and oral administration of vancomycin is started as soon as possible.

  15. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

    2015-01-01

    Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  18. Brain MRI findings of carbon disulfide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Mi Jung; Yim, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Heon; Kim, Rok Ho

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results

  19. Chest radiographic findings in acute paraquat poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Hee Jun; Sun, In O

    2016-01-01

    To describe the chest radiographic findings of acute paraquat poisoning. 691 patients visited the emergency department of our hospital between January 2006 and October 2012 for paraquat poisoning. Of these 691, we identified 56 patients whose initial chest radiographs were normal but who developed radiographic abnormalities within one week. We evaluated their radiographic findings and the differences in imaging features based on mortality. The most common finding was diffuse consolidation (29/56, 52%), followed by consolidation with linear and nodular opacities (18/56, 32%), and combined consolidation and pneumomediastinum (7/56, 13%). Pleural effusion was noted in 17 patients (30%). The two survivors (4%) showed peripheral consolidations, while the 54 patients (96%) who died demonstrated bilateral (42/54, 78%) or unilateral (12/54, 22%) diffuse consolidations. Rapidly progressing diffuse pulmonary consolidation was observed within one week on follow-up radiographs after paraquat ingestion in the deceased, but the survivors demonstrated peripheral consolidation

  20. Chest radiographic findings in acute paraquat poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Hee Jun; Sun, In O [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the chest radiographic findings of acute paraquat poisoning. 691 patients visited the emergency department of our hospital between January 2006 and October 2012 for paraquat poisoning. Of these 691, we identified 56 patients whose initial chest radiographs were normal but who developed radiographic abnormalities within one week. We evaluated their radiographic findings and the differences in imaging features based on mortality. The most common finding was diffuse consolidation (29/56, 52%), followed by consolidation with linear and nodular opacities (18/56, 32%), and combined consolidation and pneumomediastinum (7/56, 13%). Pleural effusion was noted in 17 patients (30%). The two survivors (4%) showed peripheral consolidations, while the 54 patients (96%) who died demonstrated bilateral (42/54, 78%) or unilateral (12/54, 22%) diffuse consolidations. Rapidly progressing diffuse pulmonary consolidation was observed within one week on follow-up radiographs after paraquat ingestion in the deceased, but the survivors demonstrated peripheral consolidation.

  1. Epidemiology of organophosphate pesticide poisoning in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzeng Jih; Walter, Frank Gardner; Hung, Dong Zong; Tsai, Jin Lian; Hu, Sheng Chuan; Chang, Jung San; Deng, Jou-Fang; Chase, Jung San; Denninghoff, Kurt; Chan, Hon Man

    2008-11-01

    The nationwide epidemiology of organophosphate pesticide (OP) poisoning has never been reported in detail for Taiwan. This study retrospectively reviewed all human OP exposures reported to Taiwan's Poison Control Centers (PCCs) from July 1985 through December 2006. There were 4799 OP exposures. Most OP exposures were acute (98.37%) ingestions (74.50%) of a single OP (80.37%) to attempt suicide (64.72%) in adults (93.25%). Males were the most common gender (64.95%). Most patients (61.97%) received atropine and/or pralidoxime. The mortality rate for all 4799 OP exposures was 12.71%. Exposures to single OPs without co-intoxicants caused 524 deaths; of these, 63.36% were due to dimethyl OPs. Dimethyl OPs cause the majority of deaths in Taiwan.

  2. short communication agronomic effectiveness of novel phosphate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of literature shows that work on non-conventional phosphate fertilisers has been done exclusively on sedimentary phosphate rocks. The potential of using novel phosphate fertiliser materials derived from unreactive igneous Dorowa (Zimbabwe) phosphate rock was investigated in a greenhouse experiment.

  3. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphate solubilizing efficiencies of the strains were analyzed using different insoluble phosphorus sources and the results show that most isolates released a substantial amount of soluble phosphate from tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate and bone meal. Screening for multiple plant growth promoting attributes ...

  4. 21 CFR 573.320 - Diammonium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diammonium phosphate. 573.320 Section 573.320 Food... Additive Listing § 573.320 Diammonium phosphate. The food additive diammonium phosphate may be safely used... crude protein from diammonium phosphate, adequate directions for use and a prominent statement, “Warning...

  5. Electrical properties of phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogus-Milankovic, A; Santic, A; Reis, S T; Day, D E

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of the electrical properties of phosphate glasses where transition metal oxide such as iron oxide is the network former and network modifier is presented. Phosphate glasses containing iron are electronically conducting glasses where the polaronic conduction is due to the electron hopping from low to high iron valence state. The identification of structural defects caused by ion/polaron migration, the analysis of dipolar states and electrical conductivity in iron phosphate glasses containing various alkali and mixed alkali ions was performed on the basis of the impedance spectroscopy (IS). The changes in electrical conductivity from as-quenched phosphate glass to fully crystallized glass (glass-ceramics) by IS are analyzed. A change in the characteristic features of IS follows the changes in glass and crystallized glass network. Using IS, the contribution of glass matrix, crystallized grains and grain boundary to the total electrical conductivity for iron phosphate glasses was analyzed. It was shown that decrease in conductivity is caused by discontinuities in the conduction pathways as a result of the disruption of crystalline network where two or more crystalline phases are formed. Also, phosphate-based glasses offer a unique range of biomaterials, as they form direct chemical bonding with hard/soft tissue. The surface charges of bioactive glasses are recognized to be the most important factors in determining biological responses. The improved bioactivity of the bioactive glasses as a result of the effects of the surface charges generated by electrical polarization is discussed.

  6. [Acute poisoning by Gyromitra esculenta (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, R; Conso, F; Efthymiou, M L; Riboulet, G; Gaultier, M

    1978-11-01

    This kind of poisoning is scarce in France, on the contrary it is most frequent in Eastern Europe. Clinical picture associating cytolytic hepatitis, seizures, and hemolysis reminds us intoxication by hydrazine. In fact there is some evidence that the toxin of this mushroom--called gyromitrin--is transformed in the stomach in methylhydrazine. The mechanism of hepatotoxicity of the later can be compared with that of the metabolites of isoniazid.

  7. Strychnine poisoning: gone but not forgotten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A J; Lee, J B; Redman, J; Jolliffe, L

    2011-01-01

    Strychnine was used as a pesticide until 1968 and a rodenticide until 2006 when its sale was banned throughout the EU and all supplies recalled. A case of strychnine poisoning seen in a UK emergency department in 2009 is reported to remind clinicians of the features and management of this increasingly rare presentation. Prompt recognition and early intensive supportive therapy can result in a favourable outcome.

  8. Cadmium poisoning. Knowledge of the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, A.; Demange, M.; Carton, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    This data sheet provides an up-to-date summary of information on cadmium poisoning. The following points are examined: - the problem of increasing pollution of soil, water and the food chain; - physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial applications; - the toxic action of cadmium and its derivatives; - methods and apparatus for taking and analysis samples from the atmosphere and from body fluids; - existing French regulations; - technical control and medical surveillance [fr

  9. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-30

    Virgin Gorda Prorocu’nt~um lirna 885 Little Lameshur Bay, St. John Prorocentrum lima 838 Unknown (cold water form) Prorocontrum lima 62, 105, 142... Prorocentrum concavum, Conference on Natural Toxins from Aquatic and Marine Environments. 4. Tindall, D.R. and Miller, D.M., (1987) Two potent tox-is fiom...NO. NO. N. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (iclude Security Classification) DINOFLAGELLATE TOXINS RESPONSIBLE FOR CIGUATERA POISONING 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  10. Xylazine Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2016-10-01

    Xylazine is a sedative, analgesic, anesthetic, and central muscle relaxant approved for animals but not humans. Although xylazine is an emerging drug of abuse, there are limited data on potentially adverse exposures to the drug. The intent of this study was to describe potentially adverse xylazine exposures reported to a large poison center system. All xylazine exposures reported to Texas poison centers between 2000 and 2014 were included. The distribution of cases by select variables was determined. Of 76 total cases, 93% of the patients were ≥20 years of age, and 54% were male. Fifty-one percent of the exposures occurred by injection, 28% by ingestion, 16% were dermal, 14% were ocular, and 3% by inhalation. Sixty-four percent of the exposures were unintentional, 32% were intentional, and 1% each was related to malicious use and adverse reaction. Sixty-seven percent of the patients were already at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, 21% were managed on-site, and 9% were referred to a health care facility. The most common clinical effects were drowsiness or lethargy (47%), bradycardia (20%), hypotension (11%), hypertension (9%), puncture or wound (8%), and slurred speech (8%). Xylazine exposures tended to involve patients who were adult males, exposures were typically unintentional; and most often occurred by injection. Most of the patients were already at or en route to a health care facility when a poison center was contacted. The most frequently reported adverse effects were cardiovascular or neurologic in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Greene; Velez, Larissa I

    2008-05-01

    To review the recently approved cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin, and describe its role in therapy. Relevant publications were identified through a systematic search of PubMed using the MeSH terms and key words hydroxocobalamin and cyanide. This search was then limited to human studies published since 2000. Systematic searches were conducted through January 2008. References from identified articles were reviewed for additional pertinent human studies. The literature search retrieved 7 studies on the safety and/or efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in humans. Four new studies were identified by the search and 3 studies were identified from the references. Studies of antidote efficacy in humans are ethically and logistically difficult. A preclinical study demonstrated that intravenous doses of hydroxocobalamin 5 g are well tolerated by volunteer subjects. Hydroxocobalamin has been shown to reduce cyanide concentrations in controlled studies of nitroprusside therapy and in heavy smokers. A retrospective study of 14 acute cyanide poisonings also demonstrated hydroxocobalamin's safety and efficacy. Two studies examining hydroxocobalamin for smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning indicated a possible benefit, but they are insufficient to establish definitive criteria for use in this setting. Randomized controlled trials of hydroxocobalamin and traditional cyanide antidotes (nitrites/thiosulfate) are lacking. Cyanide poisoning can rapidly cause death. Having an effective antidote readily available is essential for facilities that provide emergency care. In cases of cyanide ingestion, both the nitrite/thiosulfate combination and hydroxocobalamin are effective antidotes. Hydroxocobalamin offers an improved safety profile for children and pregnant women. Hydroxocobalamin also appears to have a better safety profile in the setting of cyanide poisoning in conjunction with smoke inhalation. However, current data are insufficient to recommend the empiric administration of

  12. Pediatric Tricyclic Antidepressant Poisoning: Approach and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán Ovalle, Tatiana; Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio; López Millán, Angelo; Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Antidepressants are agents that cause significant morbidity and mortality with important toxicity particularly on cardiovascular and neurological systems, which is mainly based on their pharmacology and is that determines specific treatment. Unfortunately, children are vulnerable population because the increase in psychiatric disorders which are treated with these drugs. The purpose of this article is to review the pharmacokinetics, clinical presentation and treatment of acute poisoning with ...

  13. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  14. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sumesh Raj; Sheetal S.

    2014-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a thiocarbamate insecticide used for control of chewing and sucking insects of all stages of development, on many crops. It is an analogue of nereistoxin. Poisoning with cartap is very rarely reported from India. We report a 46 year old man who consumed cartap with alcohol, presented with nausea & vomiting and improved with supportive measures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000): 360-361

  15. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Boorugu, Hari K.; Chrispal, Anugrah

    2012-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular to...

  16. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  17. A Spur to Atavism: Placing Platypus Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, Peter

    2015-11-01

    For over two centuries, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has been constructed and categorized in multiple ways. An unprecedented mélange of anatomical features and physiological functions, it long remained a systematic quandary. Nevertheless, since 1797, naturalists and biologists have pursued two recurring obsessions. Investigations into platypus reproduction and lactation have focused attention largely upon females of the species. Despite its apparent admixture of avian, reptilian and mammalian characters, the platypus was soon placed as a rudimentary mammal--primitive, naïve and harmless. This article pursues a different taxonomic trajectory, concentrating on a specifically male anatomical development: the crural spur and venom gland on the hind legs. Once the defining characteristic of both the platypus and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), by 1830 this sexed spur had been largely dismissed as inactive and irrelevant. For a creature regularly depicted as a biological outlier, the systematic and evolutionary implications of platypus poison have remained largely overlooked. In Australia, however, sporadic cases of 'spiking' led to consistent homologies being remarked between the platypus crural system and the venom glands of snakes. As with its reproductive reliance upon eggs, possession of an endogenous poison suggested significant reptilian affinities, yet the platypus has rarely been classed as an advanced reptile. Indeed, ongoing uncertainty regarding the biological purpose of the male's spur has ostensibly posed a directional puzzle. As with so many of its traits, however, platypus poison has been consistently described as a redundant remnant, rather than an emergent feature indicating evolutionary advance.

  18. Poisoning, envenomation, and trauma from marine creatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R Allen; Morgan, Shannon S

    2004-02-15

    In the course of their clinical work or during leisure activity, family physicians occasionally may encounter patients with injuries from marine creatures. Poisoning, envenomation, and direct trauma are all possible in the marine environment. Ciguatera poisoning can result from ingestion of predatory fish that have accumulated biotoxins. Symptoms can be gastrointestinal or neurologic, or mixed. Management is mostly symptomatic. Scombroid poisoning results from ingestion of fish in which histamine-like substances have developed because of improper refrigeration. Gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms occur. Treatment is based on antihistamines. Envenomations from jellyfish in U.S. waters and the Caribbean are painful but rarely deadly. Household vinegar deactivates the nematocysts, and manual removal of tentacles is important. Treatment is symptomatic. Heat immersion may help with the pain. Stingrays cause localized damage and a typically severe envenomation. The venom is deactivated by heat. The stingray spine, including the venom gland, typically is difficult to remove from the victim, and radiographs may be necessary to localize the spine or fragment. Surgical débridement occasionally is needed. Direct trauma can result from contact with marine creatures. Hemorrhage and tissue damage occasionally are severe. Infections with organisms unique to the marine environment are possible; antibiotic choices are based on location and type of injury. Shark attacks, although rare, require immediate attention.

  19. Rhabdomyolysis as a manifestation of clomipramine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Nathalie Oliveira de; Góis, Aécio Flávio Teixeira de

    2013-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressive agents are widely used in suicide attempts and present a variety of deleterious effects. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of such poisoning. A 55-year-old woman ingested 120 pills of 25 mg clomipramine in a suicide attempt two days before admission. After gastric lavage in another emergency department on the day of intake, 80 pills were removed. On admission to our department, she was disoriented, complaining of a dry mouth and tremors at the extremities. An electrocardiogram showed a sinus rhythm with narrow QRS complexes. Laboratory results showed high creatine phosphokinase (CK = 15,094 U/l on admission; normal range = 26 to 140 U/l), hypocalcemia, slightly increased serum transaminases and mild metabolic acidosis. The patient's medical history included depression with previous suicide attempts, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hypothyroidism and osteoporosis. She presented cardiac arrest with pulseless electric activity for seven minutes and afterwards, without sedation, showed continuous side-to-side eye movement. She developed refractory hypotension, with need for vasopressors. Ceftriaxone and clindamycin administration was started because of a hypothesis of bronchoaspiration. The patient remained unresponsive even without sedation, with continuous side-to-side eye movement and a decerebrate posture. She died two months later. Rhabdomyolysis is a very rare complication of poisoning due to tricyclic drugs. It had only previously been described after an overdose of cyclobenzaprine, which has a toxicity profile similar to tricyclic drugs. Although arrhythmia is the most important complication, rhabdomyolysis should be investigated in cases of clomipramine poisoning.

  20. Redotex ingestions reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although the multi-component weight loss supplement Redotex is banned in the United States, the supplement can be obtained in Mexico. The intent of this report was to describe the pattern of Redotex calls received by a statewide poison center system. Cases were all Redotex calls received by Texas poison centers during 2000-2008. The distribution of total calls and those involving ingestion of the supplement were determined for selected demographic and clinical factors. Of 34 total Redotex calls received, 55.9% came from the 14 Texas counties that border Mexico. Of the 22 reported Redotex ingestions, 77.3% of the patients were female and 45.5% 20 years or more. Of the 17 ingestions involving no co-ingestants, 52.9% were already at or en route to a health care facility, 41.2% were managed on site, and 5.9% was referred to a health care facility. The final medical outcome was no effect in 23.5% cases, minor effect in 5.9%, moderate effect in 11.8%, not followed but minimal clinical effects possible in 47.1%, and unable to follow but judged to be potentially toxic in 11.8%. Most Redotex calls to the Texas poison center system originated from counties bordering Mexico.

  1. Review article: management of cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reade, Michael C; Davies, Suzanne R; Morley, Peter T; Dennett, Jennifer; Jacobs, Ian C

    2012-06-01

    Cyanide poisoning is uncommon, but generates interest because of the presumed utility of an antidote immediately available in those areas with a high risk of cyanide exposure. As part of its regular review of guidelines, the Australian Resuscitation Council conducted a systematic review of the human evidence for the use of various proposed cyanide antidotes, and a narrative review of the relevant pharmacological and animal studies. There have been no relevant comparative or placebo-controlled human trials. Nine case series were identified. Treatment with hydroxocobalamin was reported in a total of 361 cases. No serious adverse effects of hydroxocobalamin were reported, and many patients with otherwise presumably fatal poisoning survived. Sodium thiosulphate use was reported in two case series, similarly with no adverse effects. Treatment with a combination of sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate was reported in 74 patients, with results indistinguishable from those of hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate. No case series using dicobalt edetate or 4-dimethylaminophenol were identified, but successful use in single cases has been reported. Hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate differ from alternatives in having negligible adverse effects, and on the basis of current evidence are the antidotes of choice. The indications for the use of an antidote, the requirements for supportive care and a recommended approach for workplaces where there is a risk of cyanide poisoning are presented. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. Yam bean seed poisoning mimicking cyanide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Y-M; Hung, S-Y; Olson, K R; Chou, K-J; Lin, S-L; Chung, H-M; Tung, C-N; Chang, J-C

    2007-02-01

    Yam bean is a common food in southern Taiwan. However, its seeds are rarely consumed. We describe five patients of yam bean seed poisoning in Taiwan, one of them life-threatening. The five patients presented with perioral numbness, nausea and vomiting after eating a same soup made from yam bean seeds. One of them, a 54-year-old woman, had difficulty breathing and lost consciousness. Physical examination showed dilated pupils and coma with no focal neurological signs. The initial blood pressure was normal. Laboratory data showed a severe anion gap metabolic acidosis, with a serum lactate level of 185 mg/dL. An initial diagnosis of cyanide intoxication was considered and she was given sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate i.v. Hypotension ensued shortly afterwards and pulmonary artery catheterization showed a decreased cardiac index. Aggressive fluid and inotropic therapy were given and the patient eventually recovered. The other four patients suffered only minor gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms and received supportive treatment. Cyanide levels were negative in all five patients. Yam bean seed poisoning can cause acute metabolic acidosis and altered mental status, which could be confused with acute cyanide intoxication from a cyanogenic glycoside-containing plant. To our knowledge, this is the first outbreak of yam bean seed poisoning reported in the English published work.

  3. Cyanide poisoning and cardiac disorders: 161 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-Luc; Desmettre, Thibault; Manzon, Cyril; Judic-Peureux, Virginie; Peugeot-Mortier, Caroline; Giocanti, Jean-Pascal; Hachelaf, Mohamed; Grangeon, Marie; Hostalek, Ulrike; Crouzet, Julien; Capellier, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    Inhalation of hydrogen cyanide from smoke in structural fires is common, but cardiovascular function in these patients is poorly documented. The objective was to study the cardiac complications of cyanide poisoning in patients who received early administration of a cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany [in the United States, marketed by Meridian Medical Technologies, Bristol, TN]). The medical records of 161 fire survivors with suspected or confirmed cyanide poisoning were reviewed in an open, multicenter, retrospective review of cases from the Emergency Medical Assistance Unit (Service d'Aide Médical d'Urgence) in France. Cardiac arrest (61/161, 58 asystole, 3 ventricular fibrillation), cardiac rhythm disorders (57/161, 56 supraventricular tachycardia), repolarization disorders (12/161), and intracardiac conduction disorders (5/161) were observed. Of the total 161 patients studied, 26 displayed no cardiac disorder. All patients were given an initial dose of 5 g of hydroxocobalamin. Non-responders received a second dose of 5 g of hydroxocobalamin. Of the patients initially in cardiac arrest, 30 died at the scene, 24 died in hospital, and 5 survived without cardiovascular sequelae. Cardiac disorders improved with increasing doses of hydroxocobalamin, and higher doses of the antidote seem to be associated with a superior outcome in patients with initial cardiac arrest. Cardiac complications are common in cyanide poisoning in fire survivors. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velev Romel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential trace elements. However, when they are present in greater quantities, like the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury which are already toxic in very low concentrations, they can cause metabolic anomalies or poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning of domestic animals could result, for instance, from drinking-water contamination, high ambient air concentrations near emission sources, or intake via the food chain. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in a biological organism over time. Manifestation of toxicity of individual heavy metals varies considerably, depending on dose and time of exposure, species, gender and environmental and nutritional factors. Large differences exist between the effects of a single exposure to a high concentration, and chronic exposures to lower doses. The aim of this work is to present the source of poisoning and toxicity of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, thallium, arsenic, as well as new data about effects of those heavy metals on the health of domestic animals. .

  5. Understanding lactic acidosis in paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anoop D; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2011-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken drugs in overdose in many areas of the world, and the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the UK and USA. Paracetamol poisoning can result in lactic acidosis in two different scenarios. First, early in the course of poisoning and before the onset of hepatotoxicity in patients with massive ingestion; a lactic acidosis is usually associated with coma. Experimental evidence from studies in whole animals, perfused liver slices and cell cultures has shown that the toxic metabolite of paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine, inhibits electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and thus inhibits aerobic respiration. This occurs only at very high concentrations of paracetamol, and precedes cellular injury by several hours. The second scenario in which lactic acidosis can occur is later in the course of paracetamol poisoning as a consequence of established liver failure. In these patients lactate is elevated primarily because of reduced hepatic clearance, but in shocked patients there may also be a contribution of peripheral anaerobic respiration because of tissue hypoperfusion. In patients admitted to a liver unit with paracetamol hepatotoxicity, the post-resuscitation arterial lactate concentration has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality, and is included in the modified King's College criteria for consideration of liver transplantation. We would therefore recommend that post-resuscitation lactate is measured in all patients with a severe paracetamol overdose resulting in either reduced conscious level or hepatic failure. PMID:21143497

  6. Poisonous plants : historical overview : Onderstepoort and veterinary research in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Kellerman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which - not surprisingly - includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP. The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  7. Study on the treatment of acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Qiao, Bao-Ping; Liu, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Xian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Acute thallium poisoning rarely occurs but is a serious and even fatal medical condition. Currently, patients with acute thallium poisoning are usually treated with Prussian blue and blood purification therapy. However, there are few studies about these treatments for acute thallium poisoning. Nine patients with acute thallium poisoning from 1 family were treated successfully with Prussian blue and different types of blood purification therapies and analyzed. Prussian blue combined with sequential hemodialysis, hemoperfusion and/or continuous veno-venous hemofiltration were effective for the treatment of patients with acute thallium poisoning, even after delayed diagnosis. Blood purification therapies help in the clearance of thallium in those with acute thallium poisoning. Prussian blue treatment may do the benefit during this process.

  8. Prospects of poisoning – a multi facet study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep K. Mishra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to find out demographic profile, clinical characteristics and analysis of poison in clinical set up. The study carried out in Sri Aurobindo Medical College and PG Institute Indore, Madhya Pradesh. Total 75 cases of poisoning were studied for demographic profile, vitals (BP, pulse, heart rate, pupils, etc., clinical features (such as vomiting, salivation, consciousness, etc., type of poison and its analysis. Results : Poisoning was more common in cases between 15 and 25 years of age, in males than in females and in Hindu religion. Poisoning cases were predominantly from rural areas and in married people. Majority of cases were discharged after proper treatment and counseling. Altered vitals and clinical features were found in most of the cases. Organophosphate and aluminum phosphide compound were evaluated in most of the cases. Conclusions : Preventive measures should be applied through educating people, proper counseling, promoting poison information centers, and introducing separate toxicological units in hospitals.

  9. Spontaneous ignition due to intentional acute aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz

    2011-02-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common cause of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Spontaneous ignition is a rare finding in AlP poisoning. To present two cases of fatal AlP poisoning that involved spontaneous ignition. Two patients presented with suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage. During insertion of a nasogastric tube, both patients experienced spontaneous ignition, and flames were witnessed by the medical personnel. Unfortunately, both patients died due to systemic effects of AlP poisoning. Patients who present with acute aluminum phosphide poisoning may experience spontaneous ignition in the ED. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Most cases occurred among young adults and the large majority (84%) was because of intentional self......This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were...... of pesticide poisoning and having ended an emotional relationship in the past year was clearly associated with intentional self-poisoning. The presence of mental disorders could only be assessed for a subsample of the cases and controls and this showed that alcohol dependence was a risk factor. This study...

  11. Lead poisoning--Part I. Incidence, etiology, and toxicokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A T; Gerson, B

    1994-06-01

    In summary, we review the recent and not so recent but lesser known information on lead poisoning. We review the incidence of lead poisoning and find that no one is really safe from its effects. We have also examined the many and varied sources of lead poisoning, and critically review the ubiquitous ways in which lead enters the body and is eventually dealt with in the body.

  12. Finding of CT and clinical in paraquat poisoning pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zaifang; Li Hongbing; Cheng Shoulin; Li Qixiang; Huang Zhen; Zeng Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of pulmonary injury in paraquat poisoning. Methods: The chest CT image of lung injury in 6 cases of paraquat poisoning were analyzed retrospectively. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 types:the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), the late stage of poisoning (>14 d). A comparison between CT signs and the pathological features of patients was made. Results: Among this 6 cases, 3 cases died, 2 cases pulmonary fibrosis was noted, 1 cases recovered. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 stages: in the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), 3 cases of all patients showed nothing remarkable, 2 cases showed ground-glass opacity, 1 case showed fuzzy lung-marking.In the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), all 6 cases showed ground-glass opacity, mosaic attenuation; 6 cases showed pulmonary consolidation; 4 cases showed subpleural lines; 4 cases showed bronchiectasis; 2 cases showed mid-lower pleural effusion. In the late stage of poisoning (>14 d), 4 cases showed pulmonary consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis, 3 cases showed ground-glass opacity and mosaic attenuation, 1 case showed mid-lower pleural effusion; 1 case showed mediastinal emphysema. Conclusion: The clinical pathology process of paraquat poisoning was in line with CT finding which was related with clinical stage and was helpful for clinical assessment of paraquat poisoning promptly and to guide the clinical treatment. (authors)

  13. Erosion of nails following thallium poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A; Sadhu, H G; Karnik, A B; Patel, T S; Sinha, S N; Saiyed, H N

    2004-07-01

    This case report describes a patient with thallium poisoning caused by repeated exposure to low doses of thallium. Alopecia and nail changes were the most prominent features of this case. There was dystrophy of nails in the form of whitish lunular stripes. This is the first report of complete erosion of proximal parts of nails following thallium poisoning. This case is the first report of thallium poisoning from India occurring from repeated low dose exposure.

  14. The use of boron as burnable poison in anular form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, L.A.; Sannazzaro, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is done a study for an arrangement of rods of fuel and burnable poison (B 10 ) concentrating the absorber in anular form. It is verified that there is an optimum thickness of the ring, which is reached higher effectiveness in compensation of reactivity by burnable poison. The anular form rendes possible another flexibility degree in the dimension of burnable poison. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Status and trends in poisonings in Denmark 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgevig, Søren; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Dalhoff, Kim Peder

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC) provides information to the public and health care professionals on acute poisonings. The DPIC received 41,000 enquiries during the first three years of its existence as an open 24h telephone service. The aim of this data register study was to classify...... all substance exposures, to gain knowledge of the status and trends in poisonings (toxico-surveillance) and to evaluate the development in the number of contacts....

  16. Evaluation Of Methadone Poisoning in Hospitalized Children: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Maamouri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Upload poisoning is one of the most dangerous and common poisoning in Iranian children. Depression of the respiratory and central nervous systems may lead to significant toxicity. Even low doses of uploads are dangerous in pediatrics under 6 years old. Methadone is the most toxic of the uploads; small doses as low as a single tablet can lead to death. According to this information we decided to evaluate methadone poisoning in Hospitalized Children

  17. Comparison of poison exposure data: NHIS and TESS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Barbara J; Elliott, Michael B; Wolowich, William R

    2002-01-01

    To identify age-adjusted poisoning episode rates, and poison control center contacts due to poisonings in children under 6 years old based on 1997-1999 National Health Interview Survey data; and compare findings with 1997-1999 Toxic Exposure Surveillance System data. Secondary analysis of National Health Interview Survey poisoning episode data for children 5 years and younger. Respondents were asked about poison exposures during the previous 3 months. Based on National Health Interview Survey population weighted data there were 196/10,000 poisonings to young children < 6 years. These exposures resulted primarily from harmful solid or liquid substances. A poison control center was called in 86% of exposures to children < 4 years, but only in 70% of the 4-5 year old exposures. The odds of a poison control center not being called were 3.2 times greater for 4-5 year olds (compared to < or = 3 years) and 4.5 times greater for African-American (compared with White-Americans). Comparison of National Health Interview Survey data with data in the 1997-1999 Annual Reports of the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System revealed the number of estimated exposures in the National Health Interview Survey data were approximately half those reported in the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System data. In both datasets, children 1-2 years of age had the highest percent of poisoning exposures. Using multiple datasets to explore poisoning rates in young children provides a broader perspective. Differences in findings reflect divergent data collection methods and biases inherent in each database. Although the majority of National Health Interview Survey respondents reporting contacting a poison control center for a poisoning exposure, rates are lower in specific subgroups indicating a need for targeted educational efforts.

  18. Non-phosphate degradation products of tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Y.; Kodama, R.; Sugai, H.

    1995-01-01

    Tributyl phosphate(TBP) was compulsively degraded with nitric acid and/or uranium nitrate at elevated temperature around 105 degrees C. Experimental results indicates major non-phosphate degradation products are butyl nitrate (C 4 H 9 NO 3 ), propionic acid (C 2 H 5 COOH), acetic acid (CH 3 COOH), butyric acid (C 3 H 7 COOH) and butyl alcohol (C 4 H 9 OH) in ascending order of quantity. Degrading rate in uranium free system is less than that in uranium coexisting system. Carboxylic acids were not produced in uranium free system, and only acetic acid was identified in case of without supplying nitric acid from aqueous phase. Moreover, from the experimental study on the reactivity of each non-phosphate product with nitric acid, carboxylic acids were identified as byproducts of butyl alcohol and butyl nitrate, and each carboxylic acid was stable in these degrading conditions. Finally, butyl alcohol is considered as one of intermediate products to butyl nitrate and carboxylic acids. From this study, the non-phosphate degradation products of TBP is identified and the degrading reaction pass is proposed. Extraction behavior of each non-phosphate product and reactivity of degraded TBP are also elucidated

  19. Food poisoning outbreak in Thailand: A review on situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An important consideration in public health management is gastrointestinal disorder. Of several gastrointestinal problems, the food poisoning is an important disorder. Food poisoning can be seen worldwide with high prevalence in developing countries. This disorder can cause both morbidity and mortality to the patient. The food sanitation is required for successful management of food poisoning. In this article, the authors briefly review and discuss on the data on food poisoning outbreak in Thailand. The article focuses on the problem that is existed in this tropical country.

  20. A Successfully Treated Case of Criminal Thallium Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Tetsuya; Tsukahara, Kohei; Naito, Hiromichi; Iida, Atsuyoshi; Nakao, Atsunori

    2017-04-01

    Thallium was once commonly used as a household rodent or ant killer, but many countries have banned such use due to unintentional or criminal poisonings of humans. A common initial clinical manifestation of thallium poisoning is gastrointestinal symptoms followed by delayed onset of neurological symptoms and alopecia. These clinical characteristics can provide important diagnostic clues regarding thallium poisoning. Here, we report a 23-year-old woman who was poisoned by a business colleague when she unknowingly drank tea containing the toxic substance several times. The patient was treated with multi-dose activated charcoal with airway protection and Prussian blue.

  1. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Alinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in northern agricultural regions, whereas bites and stings were seen more commonly in southern Iran. Carbon monoxide poisoning was common in cities with many motor vehicles such as Tehran and in colder climates such as in northern and western regions due to inadequately vented gas appliances such as stoves and heaters. Majoon Birjandi (containing cannabis is a unique substance used in eastern Iran. Poisoning by opioids, tramadol, and pesticides (organophosphate and aluminum phosphide has remained a common hazard in Iran. Poisoning-associated morbidity and mortality rates vary by region and have changed over time due to the introduction of new drugs and chemicals. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may be lifesaving; thus, understanding the general pattern of poisoning in different regions is important.

  2. Soluble or insoluble prussian blue for radiocesium and thallium poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Callen, Erin D

    2004-09-01

    To review the available English-language literature concerning the efficacy of soluble and insoluble Prussian blue used as a therapeutic agent in radiocesium and thallium poisoning. A thorough search of MEDLINE, Toxline, and EMBASE databases (1960s-August 2003) was performed. Search terms included Prussian blue, thallium, and radiocesium poisoning. Bibliographies of relevant papers were reviewed for additional citations. study selection AND DATA EXTRACTION: Reports and studies of human trials and cases, along with animal and relevant in vitro data, were sought. Data were categorized as insoluble and soluble Prussian blue and by thallium and radiocesium poisoning. The majority of evidence describing the efficacy of Prussian blue for radiocesium poisoning is based on the use of the insoluble form. In contrast, the majority of data supporting the efficacy of Prussian blue in thallium poisoning involves the use of the soluble form. Insoluble Prussian blue has recently been approved in the US for treatment of both thallium and radiocesium poisoning. While there is sufficient evidence that the insoluble form of Prussian blue is effective in radiocesium poisoning, there is a paucity of analogous data supporting its use in thallium poisoning. Whether the physicochemical differences between soluble and insoluble Prussian blue have any effect on outcomes in human poisoning is not known.

  3. A Narrative Review of Acute Adult Poisoning in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, Samira; Zamani, Nasim; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-01-01

    Poisoning is a frequent cause of referral to medical emergencies and a major health problem around the world, especially in developing countries. We aimed to review the epidemiology and pattern of adult poisoning in Iran in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and management of poisoning. The pattern of poisoning is different in various parts of Iran. Pharmaceutical compounds were the most common cause of poisoning in most parts of Iran. Pesticide-related toxicities were more common in northern agricultural regions, whereas bites and stings were seen more commonly in southern Iran. Carbon monoxide poisoning was common in cities with many motor vehicles such as Tehran and in colder climates such as in northern and western regions due to inadequately vented gas appliances such as stoves and heaters. Majoon Birjandi (containing cannabis) is a unique substance used in eastern Iran. Poisoning by opioids, tramadol, and pesticides (organophosphate and aluminum phosphide) has remained a common hazard in Iran. Poisoning-associated morbidity and mortality rates vary by region and have changed over time due to the introduction of new drugs and chemicals. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may be lifesaving; thus, understanding the general pattern of poisoning in different regions is important. PMID:28761199

  4. Russula subnigricans Poisoning: From Gastrointestinal Symptoms to Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shide; Mu, Maoyuan; Yang, Fangwan; Yang, Chunfei

    2015-09-01

    Wild mushroom poisoning is often reported to cause acute liver or renal failure. However, acute rhabdomyolysis caused by wild mushroom poisoning has rarely been reported. We describe 7 patients of 1 family with Russula subnigricans Hongo poisoning. Their clinical manifestations varied from gastrointestinal symptoms to rhabdomyolysis, with 1 fatality. Our report provides supporting evidence that rhabdomyolysis may result from ingestion of R subnigricans mushrooms. A key to survival for patients with rhabdomyolysis caused by R subnigricans poisoning may be early recognition and intensive supportive care. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hemoperfusion for the treatment of poisoning: technology, determinants of poison clearance, and application in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Bouchard, Josée; Nolin, Thomas D; Ouellet, Georges; Roberts, Darren M

    2014-01-01

    Hemoperfusion is an extracorporeal treatment based on adsorption, historically reserved for the treatment of acute poisonings. Its use was popularized in the 1970s after several in vitro and animal experiments had demonstrated its efficacy, and was even preferred over hemodialysis in the management of overdosed patients. With the advent of new and more efficient dialytic modalities, hemoperfusion is now less frequently performed in the Western world. However, hemoperfusion still remains popular in developing countries. The present article reviews the technique of hemoperfusion, the factors influencing poison clearance through adsorption and its current applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 49 CFR 176.605 - Care following leakage or sifting of Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) and Division 6.1 (poisonous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of Division 2.3... (Poisonous Gas) and Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 176.605 Care following leakage or sifting of... package of a Division 2.3 (poisonous gas) or Division 6.1 (poisonous) material which has leaked or sifted...

  7. Does prearrival communication from a poison center to an emergency department decrease time to activated charcoal for pediatric poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuri, Rachel E; Wright, Joseph L; He, Jianping; McCarter, Robert J; Ryan, Leticia M

    2011-11-01

    A poison center plays an important role in directing appropriate care, which is critical in reducing morbidity due to poisoning. Activated charcoal (AC) is one intervention for some poisonings. This study examined whether children with a poisoning who were preannounced by a poison center received AC earlier than patients without a referral. A retrospective review of AC administration in children aged 0 to 18 years in a pediatric emergency department (ED) from 2000 to 2006 was performed. Abstracted covariates were poison center referral status, age, sex, acuity, disposition, transportation mode, triage time, and time of AC administration. Analysis of variance controlling for covariates tested the equality of mean time intervals between the groups with and without a poison center referral. Three hundred fifty-one cases met the inclusion criteria. One hundred thirty-five (39%) were male. Eighty cases (23%) had a poison center referral. Time from triage to charcoal administration for patients with a poison center referral was a mean of 59 (SD, 34) minutes. Time for the group without a referral was a mean of 71 (SD, 43) minutes (P = 0.0036). Advanced communication from a poison center was associated with earlier administration of AC in the ED for this population. Nevertheless, the duration to charcoal administration was frequently suboptimal. Triage and prehospital practices should be reexamined to improve timeliness of AC when indicated and consider exclusion of administration if beyond an appropriate time frame. Advanced notification should be the paradigm for all poison centers, and early response protocols for poison center referrals should be used by EDs.

  8. Using poison center data for national public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposure and associated illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, Colleen A; Law, Royal K; Schier, Josh G; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is a national near-real-time surveillance system that improves situational awareness for chemical and poison exposures, according to data from US poison centers. NPDS is the successor to the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) use these data, which are owned and managed by the American Association of Poison Control Centers, to improve public health surveillance for chemical and poison exposures and associated illness, identify early markers of chemical events, and enhance situational awareness during outbreaks. Information recorded in this database is from self-reported calls from the public or health care professionals. In 2009, NPDS detected 22 events of public health significance and CDC used the system to monitor several multistate outbreaks. One of the limitations of the system is that exposures do not necessarily represent a poisoning. Incorporating NPDS data into the public health surveillance network and subsequently using NPDS to rapidly identify chemical and poison exposures exemplifies the importance of the poison centers and NPDS to public health surveillance. This integration provides the opportunity to improve the public health response to chemical and poison exposures, minimizes morbidity and mortality, and serves as an important step forward in surveillance technology and integration. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyether esters of zirconium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Avila, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction of ethylene oxide with α-zirconium phosphate, α-Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O was investigated. γ-Zirconium phosphate, Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O, with a 12.2A interlayer spacing is known to react with ethylene oxide solutions to esterify the monohydrogen phosphate groups. It has been shown that α-zirconium phosphate with a smaller interlayer distance, 7.6 A, also behaves similarly. With highly crystalline samples of α-zirconium phosphate, reaction takes place only at the surface. However, if the interlayer distance is first increased (by means of amine, alcohol, or glycol intercalates, or by use of the more hydrated theta-phase, with a 10.4 A of interlayer spacing) so that ethylene oxide can diffuse into the interior, complete reaction occurs. Less crystalline samples were found to react directly with ethylene oxide, either gaseous or as a solution. Attempts to form long chains by direct reaction with ethylene oxide were unsuccessful

  10. An updated checklist of poisonous fishes of Turkish Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current status of marine poisonous fish species ranging in the Aegean Sea coastline in Turkey were introduced. Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by seas with different ecological features on three sides. The total length of shoreline is 8 333 km including the islands. The total number of fish species in Turkish seas is 512, of which 449 live in the Aegean Sea followed by the Mediterranean Sea (441 species, the Marmara Sea (257 species and the Black Sea (154species. On the Aegean Sea coasts, the richest sea regarding fish diversity, the number of poisonous fish species is also high. This mini-review revealed 51 poisonous fish species belonging to 14 families in the Turkish Aegean Sea. On the Aegean Sea coasts poisonous fish species can be categorized into three groups: (i Fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum (ii Fish that carry poisonous bite and (iii Fish having poisonous flesh or liver. Poisoning fish that contain venomous spines on the tail or on the operculum mostly are dangerous because of their poisonous thorns whereas the passive poisonous fish species poison when they are eaten. These toxins can cause morbidity and rarely, mortality in humans. Apart from these, swallowing the blood of species such as European eel Anguilla anguilla and European conger Conger conger might also cause poisoning. Besides, as there has been an invasion of puffer fish especially on the Turkish Mediterranean and Aegean coasts in recent years, there is a danger in question. Thus, it is very important to particularly draw attention to these fish on the Turkish coasts.

  11. Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

    2014-07-30

    The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings.

  12. Poisonings in animals: the 1993-1994 report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, C S; Murphy, M J

    1997-12-01

    More than 82% of the 140,614 animal poison exposures reported in 1993 and 1994 occurred in dogs and almost 14% occurred in cats. Almost all reported were acute exposures to a single product. Tables of detailed data are provided.

  13. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: e.schnug@tu-braunschweig.de [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.frossard@usys.ethz.ch [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  14. Food poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, María Ángeles; Mendoza, María Carmen; Rodicio, María Rosario

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated.

  15. Rhabdomyolysis as a manifestation of clomipramine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Oliveira de Santana

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Tricyclic antidepressive agents are widely used in suicide attempts and present a variety of deleterious effects. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of such poisoning. CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old woman ingested 120 pills of 25 mg clomipramine in a suicide attempt two days before admission. After gastric lavage in another emergency department on the day of intake, 80 pills were removed. On admission to our department, she was disoriented, complaining of a dry mouth and tremors at the extremities. An electrocardiogram showed a sinus rhythm with narrow QRS complexes. Laboratory results showed high creatine phosphokinase (CK = 15,094 U/l on admission; normal range = 26 to 140 U/l, hypocalcemia, slightly increased serum transaminases and mild metabolic acidosis. The patient's medical history included depression with previous suicide attempts, obsessive-compulsive disorder, hypothyroidism and osteoporosis. She presented cardiac arrest with pulseless electric activity for seven minutes and afterwards, without sedation, showed continuous side-to-side eye movement. She developed refractory hypotension, with need for vasopressors. Ceftriaxone and clindamycin administration was started because of a hypothesis of bronchoaspiration. The patient remained unresponsive even without sedation, with continuous side-to-side eye movement and a decerebrate posture. She died two months later. Rhabdomyolysis is a very rare complication of poisoning due to tricyclic drugs. It had only previously been described after an overdose of cyclobenzaprine, which has a toxicity profile similar to tricyclic drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Although arrhythmia is the most important complication, rhabdomyolysis should be investigated in cases of clomipramine poisoning.

  16. Inner organ damages after acute radioactive poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyuk, Valeriy

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are some difficulties in making early diagnosis on acute radioactive poisoning. Clinical disorders from a poison in November 2006 in London has not given an opportunity to doctors to reveal radiation as the reason of the acute injury before the death. The report purpose is to give more diagnostic possibilities to reveal early signs of acute radioactive poisoning. It provides an evaluation of clinical observation data on a difference of clinical symptoms after internal or external exposure, activities of some radioactive isotopes that are able to cause ARS with bone marrow failure or damages to different organs and tissues. The report contains descriptions of some clinical cases of radioactive poisonings. Prodromal responses after acute internal expose are significant only in cases of the following early death but are not typical for the most clinical cases of internal exposure. Lethal gastrointestinal or cutaneous damages are not characteristic. Early radiation vasculitis (blood vessel endotheliitis) sings: bloody rash on the trunk, blood in the urine, hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes at blood platelet count in excess of 40 x 10 9 l -1 . Death from lung radiation injury could be expected in all individuals from as little as 7 MBq of inhaled alpha emitter with energy of about 5 MeV and an effective half-life greater than 100 days. Death from severe bone marrow syndrome for the first month or death from liver insufficiency for the following 6 months is typical after ingestion or injection of radioactive materials at lethal doses. Hemolytic sings after acute exposure should be confirmed by the following clinical investigations. It is known the erythrocyte hemolysis and the following hemoglobin decay is a significant source of the endogenous CO that release from the hem. So estimation of CO and methemoglobin in the blood is a way for revealing of the higher erythrocyte destroy. If hemolytic syndrome is characteristic for early acute

  17. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2013-01-01

    Kratom use is a growing problem in the United States. Kratom exposures reported to Texas poison centers between January 1998 and September 2013 were identified. No kratom exposures were reported from 1998 to 2008 and 14 exposures were reported from 2009 to September 2013. Eleven patients were male, and 11 patients were in their 20s. The kratom was ingested in 12 patients, inhaled in 1, and both ingested and inhaled in 1. Twelve patients were managed at a healthcare facility and the remaining 2 were managed at home.

  18. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  19. POISONOUS PLANTS – TWO CASES OF POISONING WITH THORN APPLE (DATURA STRAMONIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Gangl-Žvikart

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background. In attempt to provoke hallucinations two adolescents were poisoned with thorn apple. This plant could be easily found near urban and rural areas such as fields and dykes. It spreads around as a weed and its seeds are found even in bird’s food. In nowadays these seeds could be found in seedman’s shops offered for sale as decorative plants. While free acces to the internet enables the targeted population, in this case mostly adolescents, to gather large amount of information on hallucinogenic effects of seeds described above. It does not provide them with information on negative side effects which causes urgent visits at intensive care units of hospitals. The fact that the abuse of thorn apple’s seeds causes intoxications is more and more often described in scientific literature. In 1997/98 the paediatricians from Maribor described three cases of accidental poisoning of adolescents. In Slovenia there are only four out of twelve pediatric departments which haven’t had any case of poisoning of that kind yet.Results. Clinical data – simptoms of central and peripherial anticholinergic syndrom and the history (heteroanamnesy showed the possibility of poisoning with plant’s alkaloids with anticholinergic activity which was comfirmed by doctor on duty. She provided me in person with exact, specific and detailed description of seeds consumed by two young men. Physostigmine salicilate is the drug of choice and it is used in cases of serious poisoning.Conclusions. After serious clinical simptoms at the beginning both adolescents recovered well and after three days of medical supervision they were released from the hospital without any consequences harmful to their health.   

  20. Edible and poisonous species of cucurbitaceae in the central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family Cucurbitaceae includes species cultivated for vegetables and fruits. Some wild species are used locally as vegetables; others are given to domestic animals as fodder. Some wild species are poisonous, and cases of poisoning both of people and domestic animals, arise from misidentification of the wild species.

  1. Teenage organophosphate insecticide poisoning: An ugly trend in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    media influence or breakdown of our traditional social fabric. A ten-year retrospective study of childhood poisoning in. Warri, South-south Nigeria, noted that intentional poisoning occurred in the adolescent age group and mainly involved female teenagers.8 Shwe et al12 observed that organophosphates were the sole ...

  2. Teenage organophosphate insecticide poisoning: An ugly trend in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Organophosphate poisoning is still a major problem in developing countries owing to indiscriminate use of these compounds in many households. The risk of poisoning is worsened by uncontrolled sale of organophosphorus insecticides on the streets and in open markets. We report three cases of ...

  3. Topoisomerase II poisoning by indazole and imidazole complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of topoisomerase II by forming a ternary cleavage complex of DNA, drug and topoisomerase II. The thymidine incorporation assays show that the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation correlates with topoisomerase II poisoning. The present study on topoisomerase II poisoning by these two compounds opens a new avenue ...

  4. Burnup calculation and analysis of burnable poison gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei

    1989-01-01

    The analysis and calculation of thermal group parameters of gadolinium oxide as burnable poison, and characteristics of energy spectrum with change of burnup are presented. At the same time the theoretical problems of this new type of burnable poison which is used in PWR design is discussed

  5. Prevention of Food Poisoning in Hospital Patients | Horwitz | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological investigations of raw and cooked foods and of food handlers in abattoirs, food factories and hospital kitchens show that they are potential sources of food poisoning organisms. The use of reheated (reconstituted) frozen foods is recommended as an ideal means of preventing food poisoning among hospital ...

  6. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... reported poisonings involve children under the age of six, and the vast majority take place in the home... exposure. To encourage Americans to learn more about the dangers of accidental poisonings and to take... Stat. 681), has authorized and requested the President to issue a proclamation designating the third...

  7. Clinical and laboratory findings in mad honey poisoning: A single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... differential diagnosis, as well as primary cardiac, neurologic, and metabolic disorders. Mad honey poisoning may be presented with life-threatening symptoms without any hematological and biochemical disorder. Key words: ... of mad honey poisoning, such as fatigue, nausea, dizziness, bradycardia, and ...

  8. 4-Aminopyridine (fampridine) effectively treats amlodipine poisoning: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilffert, B.; Boskma, R.J.; Van Der Voort, P.H.J.; Uges, D.R.A.; Van Roon, E.N.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    A case of a serious poisoning with the calcium entry blocker amlodipine is described, which was treated effectively with 4-aminopyridine. Calcium is suggested as general treatment of poisoning with calcium entry blockers in many guidelines. The use of intravenous 4-aminopyridine is theoretically

  9. Reactivity effects due to beryllium poisoning of BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalcheva, S.; Ponsard, B.; Koonen, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates the impact of the poisoning of the beryllium reflector on reactivity variations of the Belgian MTR BR2 in SCK.CEN. Detailed calculations by MCNP-4C of reactivity effects caused by strong neutron absorbers 3 He and 6 Li during reactor operation history are presented. The importance of beryllium poisoning for the accuracy of reactivity predictions is discussed. (authors)

  10. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Donald P.

    This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

  11. 4-Aminopyridine (fampridine) effectively treats amlodipine poisoning : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilffert, B.; Boskma, R. J.; van der Voort, P. H. J.; Uges, D. R. A.; van Roon, E. N.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.

    2007-01-01

    A case of a serious poisoning with the calcium entry blocker amlodipine is described, which was treated effectively with 4-aminopyridine. Calcium is suggested as general treatment of poisoning with calcium entry blockers in many guidelines. The use of intravenous 4-aminopyridine is theoretically

  12. Epidemiology of paediatric poisoning reporting to a tertiary hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median age of the children was 24 months (interquartile range 24 - 48 months). Kerosene was the leading cause of poisoning (39.5%). Conclusion. Paediatric poisoning is a major health hazard in children living in Kumasi and its environs. This can possibly be attributed to a lack of adequate supervision of children and ...

  13. Transport signatures of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, S. M.; Hansen, E. B.; Higginbotham, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state...

  14. Paraffin poisoning in children: what can we do differently? | Malangu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence, health cost and management of paraffin poisoning in a rural South African hospital. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of 145 children admitted with a diagnosis of paraffin poisoning at Philadelphia Hospital, Mpumalanga from January 2000 ...

  15. A restrospective study of acute systemic poisoning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is commonly used in several industries (dyeing furs, photochemical processes, tyre vulcanisation industries, oxidisable hair dye, etc.). Its allergic effect is well established and many studies are devoted to the subject, but PPD systemic poisoning is not understood. Several acute PPD poisoning ...

  16. Acute organo-phosphorus pesticide poisoning in North Karnataka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pesticide poisoning is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Objectives: To assess the oxidative damage, hemoglobin level and leukocyte count in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods: Plasma cholinesterase was assessed as a toxicity marker. Oxidative damage was ...

  17. Pesticide Poisonings in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Neupane, Dinesh; London, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'.......Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'....

  18. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added...

  19. Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

    2013-12-01

    Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718