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Sample records for trematoda microphallidae transmitted

  1. [Contribution to the study of Microphallidae Travassos 1920 (trematoda). XXXII. Microphallus breviatus n. sp., a species with an abbreviated evolutive cycle from a Mediterranean pond in the Languedoc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblock, S; Maillard, C

    1975-01-01

    Contribution to the study of Microphallidae Travassos, 1920 (Trematoda). XXXII. - Microphallus breviatus n. sp., a short life-cycle species of a mediterranean pond of Languedoc. The whole larval life-cycle of M. breviatus takes place in one host, Hydrobia ventrosa (Montagu), Mollusc Hydrobiidae. Hepato-pancreatic sporocysts produce morphologically altered xiphidio-cercariae which become encysted metacercariae in the sporocyts themselves. This species is defined in the genus by the anatomic characteristics of its cercariae and metacercariae, allied with its uncommon biology including two hosts only.

  2. A new species of Microphallus (Trematoda: Microphallidae from Venezuela

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    M.T Díaz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available During 1997-1999, a total of 94 crabs, Uca rapax were collected from La Sabana, La Ceiba and El Paujil, Sucre State, Venezuela. Of these 36 were infected with metacercariae. Two parasites were located in the abdominal muscles and one under the tissue of carapace and gonad. These metacercariae grew to adults in the following genera: Levinseniella, Microphallus and Maritrema, in the period of 2-5 days after feeding experimentally to the rat Rattus norvegicus, mice Mus musculus and duck Cairinia moschata. Specimens of the genus Microphallus were described herein as a new species M. sabanensis. The life cycle of M. sabanensis sp.nov. were studied experimentally using rat, mice and duck. All developmental stages and the adult are described. In addition, M. sabanensis was collected from wild birds Anas discors, Pluvialis squatarola, Butorides striatus, Egretta caerulea and Nycticorax violaceus from the same localitiesDurante 1997-1999, se recolectaron en La Sabana, La Ceiba y El Paujil del Distrito Cajigal, Estado Sucre, Venezuela, un total de 94 cangrejos Uca rapax, 36 de ellos estaban parasitados con tres especies de metacercarias de digéneos. Dos de ellos localizados en la musculatura del abdomen y una en el tejido que recubre internamente el caparazón y las gónadas. Estas metacercarias fueron dadas como alimento a ratones Mus musculus, ratas Rattus norvegicus, y patos Cairina moschata y tres genéros de microfálidos, Levinseniella, Microphallus y Maritrema fueron recuperados del intestino delgado de estos animales después de 2-5 días de la infección. Especimenes del genero Microphallus de este estudio se describen como Microphallus sabanensis sp.n. Se estudió experimentalmente los aspectos de ciclo vida de la especie, utilizando ratas, ratones y patos. Se describen todas las estapas larvales y los adultos. Además, M. sabanensis se encuentra naturalmente en las aves: Anas discors, Pluvialis squatarola, Butorides striatus, Egretta caerulea y Nycticorax violaceus

  3. [Muscular system of the Microphallus pygmaeus metacercaria (Trematoda: microphallidae)].

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    Krupenko, D Iu

    2010-01-01

    The musculature of body wall, attachment organs (oral and ventral suckers), and internal organs (alimentary tract, excretory bladder, and ducts of reproductive system) of the Microphallus pygmaeus metacercaria are described. An unusual arrangement of longitude and diagonal muscles was found in the hind part of the metacercaria body. Longitude fibers of dorsal and lateral body surfaces are bow-shaped and bend round the excretory pore along its ventral margin. An additional group of diagonal fibers is situated in the hind part of ventral body surface.

  4. Two new species of Maritrema Nicoll, 1907 (Digenea: Microphallidae) from New Zealand: morphological and molecular characterisation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Presswell, B.; Blasco-Costa, I.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 5 (2014), s. 1641-1656 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Maritrema * Microphallidae * taxonomy * phylogeny * New Zealand Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  5. Discovery of Maritrema jebuensis n. sp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, in Korea.

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    Chung, Ok-Sik; Lee, Hye-Jung; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Seung-Ha; Park, Il-Yong; Oh, Sang-Ah; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

    2010-12-01

    Maritrema spp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) are parasites of birds, but have not been found in the Republic of Korea. In this study, metacercariae of Maritrema sp. were discovered in the Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, caught in the mud-flats of Jebu-do, Hwasung-gun, Gyeonggi-do, and the adult flukes were confirmed by experimental infection into mice. Based on the symmetric ribbon-like vitellarium, adult flukes of Maritrema sp. were identified, but did not belong to previously described species in terms of the following morphologic characteristics: ceca reaching to the lateral wall at the anterior border of the ovary; ventral sucker larger than oral sucker; a prominent metraterm; and vitellarium forming a complete ring. Hence, we named this microphallid M. jebuensis n. sp. after the island where the second intermediate hosts were collected. From this study, it has been shown that Maritrema sp. is distributed in Korea and transmitted by the Asian shore crab, H. sanguineus.

  6. Prevalence, geographic distribution, and fitness effects of Microphallus turgidus (trematoda: Microphallidae) in grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) from coastal Georgia.

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    Pung, Oscar J; Khan, Ritindra N; Vives, Stephen P; Walker, Casey B

    2002-02-01

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis and P. vilgaris (Say), were collected at 11 localities along the coast of Georgia and surveyed for digenetic trematode metacercariae. The effect of trematode infection on grass shrimp fitness was also examined. Microphallus turgidas (Leigh) was the only trematode observed. The prevalence of metacercarial cysts of this parasite in P. pugio (75%) was higher than in P. vulgaris (24%), as were the mean intensity, abundance, and population density (no. cysts/cm host body length) of the parasite. Infected shrimp were found at every collection locality and parasite prevalence and density were greatest in P. pugio from higher salinity localities (> or = 20 parts per thousand [ppt]). There was no relation between host body size and parasite density in P. vulgaris, and parasite density increased with host body size in P. pugio, suggesting that the parasite does not affect host survival. There was no relation between parasite density and shrimp egg mass, but nonovigerous female P. pugio were more heavily infected than ovigerous ones. In addition, 1 metacercaria of M. turgidus in each of 2 specimens of P. vulgaris was parasitized by the haplosporidian Urosporidium crescens De Turk. This represents a new shrimp host record for this hyperparasite.

  7. Effects of Microphallus turgidus (Trematoda: Microphallidae) on the predation, behavior, and swimming stamina of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Alyssa K; Pung, Oscar J

    2004-06-01

    The effect of the trematode Microphallus turgidus on its second intermediate host, the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was tested. To do so, we measured the susceptibility of infected and uninfected shrimp to predation by the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. Shrimp behavior was compared in the presence and absence of a fish predator, and the swimming stamina and backthrust escape responses of infected and uninfected shrimp were measured. Infected shrimp were more likely to be eaten by a predator than uninfected shrimp, had lower swimming stamina, and spent more time swimming and less time motionless in the presence of a predator. There was no difference between backthrust distances traveled in response to a stimulus by either infected or uninfected shrimp. Thus, M. turgidus may increase the predation of P. pugio in the wild, possibly by affecting the swimming stamina and predator avoidance responses of the shrimp.

  8. Maritrema corai n. sp (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the white ibis Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus) (Aves: Threskiornithidae) in Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernández-Orts, J.S.; Pinacho-Pinacho, C.D.; García-Varela, M.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 2 (2016), s. 547-559 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Maritrema * Eudocimus albus * Microphallidae * 28S rDNA * phylogeny * North America Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  9. Furcocercous cercariae (Trematoda) from freshwater snails in Central Finland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Niewiadomska, K.; Santos, M. J.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 310-317 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others: Portuguese FCT(PT) SFRH/BSAB/492/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cercariae * Mollusca * Finland * Trematoda * Pulmonata * Prosobranchia * Valvata macrostoma Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.814, year: 2007

  10. Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae) in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaisiri, K.; Morand, S.; Ribas, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2011), s. 35-38 ISSN 1252-607X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Trematoda * lesser rice field rat * Thailand Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  11. Morphological and molecular data for three species of the Microphallidae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Australia, including the first descriptions of the cercariae of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudlai, Olena; Cutmore, S.C.; Cribb, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, 16 September (2015), č. článku 053. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : larval stages * life cycle * morphology * rDNA sequences * freshwaters * Brisbane River Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.271, year: 2015

  12. HISTOPATOLOGI INSANG IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasius hypophthalmus YANG TERINFESTASI TREMATODA MONOGENEA

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    Ida Ayu N. S. Utami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ikan patin siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus yang terinfestasi parasit trematoda monogenea tidak mudah dikenali gejala klinisnya secara spesifik, mengingat parasit ini menyerang organ insang. Infeksi parasit ini dapat menyebabkan kematian ikan sehingga sangat merugikan budidaya ikan patin siam. Tujuan penelitian adalah memberikan informasi secara histopatologi tentang perubahan jaringan insang ikan patin siam yang terinfestasi parasit trematoda monogenea. Penelitian ini diawali dengan pemeriksaan natif insang patin siam yang terinfestasi parasit trematoda monogenea dan dilanjutkan dengan pemeriksaan histopatologi. Pengambilan sampel ikan patin siam dilakukan sebanyak dua kali pada Mei dan Oktober 2015 di beberapa kolam budidaya. Pengamatan sampel dilakukan secara mikroskopik di Laboratorium Balai Karantina Ikan, Pengendalian Mutu dan Keamanan Hasil Perikanan, Palembang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari total 150 sampel yang diamati terdapat 35 sampel atau kasus insang ikan yang terinfestasi parasit trematoda monogenea yaitu: masing-masing sebanyak 10 sampel diperoleh pada Mei dan 25 sampel pada Oktober. Pemeriksaan patologi terhadap organ insang yang terinfestasi trematoda monogenea menunjukkan bahwa lamella insang mengalami pembengkakan dan berwarna merah pucat. Parasit trematoda monogenea pada insang atau yang lebih dikenal dengan cacing insang memiliki panjang tubuh berkisar antara 0,7-0,9 mm dengan lebar 0,05-0,10 mm. Pengamatan histopatologi menunjukkan bahwa jaringan insang yang terinfestasi parasit trematoda monogenea ditandai adanya perubahan yang konsisten, yaitu hiperplasia tulang rawan hyalin, proliferasi sel mukus, hiperplasia lamella sekunder, dan fusi lamella sekunder. Perubahan ini dapat mengakibatkan kematian pada ikan akibat kekurangan oksigen dan perubahan osmoregulasi ion dalam tubuh ikan. The gills of striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus infested with parasitic trematodes monogenea are not easy to observe specifically

  13. Comparative study of the sensibility of Metacercaria cysts of Phagicola Faust, 1920 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) to ionizing radiation and to freezing in raw mullets Mugil Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Mugilidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Ivany Rodrigues de

    2005-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses have been a growing concern to the governments, international organizations and consumers, mainly regarding the damages they cause to human health. This issue is the result of the substitution of imported food habits, which enable the consumption of raw fish or wrongly prepared fish. Among the emergent parasitic zoonosis, the Fagicolose stands out. It is transmitted by Phagicola longa, a trematoda of great importance in public health and responsible for high percentages of Mugilidae infections, that is able to produce humans' parasitism. In this experiment, the studies were focused to the radio sensibility of metacercaria of Phagicola longa exposed to a treatment with ionizing radiation (gamma rays and electron beams) and the sensibility to freezing, in artificially infected fish. Some data were acquired regarding the occurrence of Phagicola longa in mullets bought in the local market, the freezer temperature of 10 domestic refrigerators, and the origin and preservation of the mullets in some Japanese-type restaurants in Sao Paulo. The results indicated more effectiveness in the treatment with the electron accelerator, as well as with the freezing at the temperature of-16 deg C. (author)

  14. External morphological differences between Crepidostomum farionis and Crepidostomum metoecus (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae), parasites of salmonids, as revealed by SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2002), s. 211-217 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Trematoda * Crepidostomum * surface morphology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.515, year: 2002

  15. Infection, specificity and host manipulation of Australapatemon sp (Trematoda, Strigeidae) in two sympatric species of leeches (Hirudinea)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karvonen, A.; Faltýnková, Anna; Choo, J. M.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 10 (2017), s. 1346-1355 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : complex life cycle * Digenea * host manipulation * host-parasite relationship * spatiotemporal variation * specificity * Trematoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2016

  16. Comparative study of the sensibility of Metacercaria cysts of Phagicola Faust, 1920 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) to ionizing radiation and to freezing in raw mullets Mugil Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Mugilidae); Estudo comparativo da sensibilidade de cistos de Metacercarias de Phagicola Faust, 1920 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) a radiacao ionizante e ao congelamento em peixes crus preparados a partir de tainha Mugil Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Mugilidae)

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    Moraes, Ivany Rodrigues de

    2005-07-01

    Foodborne illnesses have been a growing concern to the governments, international organizations and consumers, mainly regarding the damages they cause to human health. This issue is the result of the substitution of imported food habits, which enable the consumption of raw fish or wrongly prepared fish. Among the emergent parasitic zoonosis, the Fagicolose stands out. It is transmitted by Phagicola longa, a trematoda of great importance in public health and responsible for high percentages of Mugilidae infections, that is able to produce humans' parasitism. In this experiment, the studies were focused to the radio sensibility of metacercaria of Phagicola longa exposed to a treatment with ionizing radiation (gamma rays and electron beams) and the sensibility to freezing, in artificially infected fish. Some data were acquired regarding the occurrence of Phagicola longa in mullets bought in the local market, the freezer temperature of 10 domestic refrigerators, and the origin and preservation of the mullets in some Japanese-type restaurants in Sao Paulo. The results indicated more effectiveness in the treatment with the electron accelerator, as well as with the freezing at the temperature of-16 deg C. (author)

  17. [Genomics and transcriptomics of the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis (Opisthorchiidae, Trematoda)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelomina, G N

    2017-01-01

    The review summarizes the results of first genomic and transcriptomic investigations of the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis (Opisthorchiidae, Trematoda). The studies mark the dawn of the genomic era for opisthorchiids, which cause severe hepatobiliary diseases in humans and animals. Their results aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of adaptation to parasitism, parasite survival in mammalian biliary tracts, and genome dynamics in the individual development and the development of parasite-host relationships. Special attention is paid to the achievements in studying the codon usage bias and the roles of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Interspecific comparisons at the genomic and transcriptomic levels revealed molecular differences, which may contribute to understanding the specialized niches and physiological needs of the respective species. The studies in C. sinensis provide a basis for further basic and applied research in liver flukes and, in particular, the development of efficient means to prevent, diagnose, and treat clonorchiasis.

  18. Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae parasito intestinal de Carollia perspicillata L. (Chiroptera en Colombia

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    Imelda Velez

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae is described on the basis of specimens from the intestinal tracts of three Colombian bats of the species Carollia perspicillata L. The new species resembles both of the genera of the family, Nudacotyle and Neocotyle, in the general position of the organs and in having a vertical cleft. It differs from Nudacotyle in the position of the ovary and cirrus sac and in the lenth of the ceca. The new species differs from Neocotyle in the shape of the body and the vitelline lobes and in the length of the ceca. The ventral cleft is considered to be an important generic character which can be used to unit all the species of both genera in the single genus, Nudacotyle.

  19. Sexually transmitted diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Anja; Lensing, Carmen; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Hogardt, Michael; Sing, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Diphtheria is caused by diphtheria toxin-producing Corynebacterium species. While classical respiratory diphtheria is transmitted by droplets, cutaneous diphtheria often results from minor trauma. This report concerns the first case of sexually transmitted diphtheria in a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis after orogenital contact.

  20. Observations on two species of phyllodistomes (Trematoda : Gorgoderidae) from fishes of the Hubei Province, central China, with an erection of Neophyllodistomum gen. n

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Nie, P.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2002), s. 221-225 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Trematoda * parasites * fish Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.646, year: 2002

  1. Trematoda: Echinostomatidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-08-18

    Aug 18, 1995 ... tron microscopy. The species belongs to the 43-spined. Echinoparyphium group which is characterised by a collar spine arrangement of 5-5-3-3-27. A natural infection of six parasites was found in the duodenum of the cattle egret. Bubulcus ihis collected from the same area. However, owing to insufficient ...

  2. Sexually transmitted infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard ... In Nigeria, the deteriorating economic situation has led to ..... female sex workers from Mexico City.

  3. El rol de Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura en los ciclos de vida de Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: algunos aspectos de su ecologia parasitaria The role of Cytograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura in the life cycles of Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: some aspects of their ecological parasitology

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    Sergio R. Martorelli

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos se pudo concluir que: a C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati.Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977, from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host the following conclusions have been reached: a C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations

  4. Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA operons of two species of Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda): a molecular resource for taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of important fish pathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Jan; Kostadinova, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D. T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, JUN 19 2015 (2015), s. 336 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14198S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) * fish pathogens * mitochondrial genome * ribosomal RNA * illumina next-generation sequencing * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  5. A new species of Limnoderetrema (Trematoda, Digenea from the freshwater Atherinid fish Basilichthys australis Eigenmann, 1927 from the south of Chile

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    Patricio Torres

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Limnoderetrema tolosai sp. n. (Trematoda, Digenea within an autochthonous freshwater fish, the silverside Basilichthys autralis Eigenmann, 1927, from Lakes Riñihue and Ranco in Southern Chile is described. The species is distinguished from Limnoderetrema minutum (Manter, 1954 by the presence of one spine in the cirrus and cecal bifurcation nearer to ventral sucker than to pharinx. It is proposed Limnoderetrema macrophallus (Szidat & Nani, 1951 n. comb. (originally Steganoderma. Limnoderetrema tolosai differs from L. macrophallus since it cirrus has a distal spine and by its vitelline follicles distribution. It seems that Limnoderetrema spp. of South America are highly specific unlike L. minutum of New Zealand.

  6. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures - ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD ...

  7. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections More about neglected tropical diseases News WHO recommends large-scale deworming to improve children’s health and nutrition 29 September 2017 About us ...

  8. Morphometric, molecular and histopathologic description of hepatic infection by Orthosplanchnus arcticus (Trematoda: Digenea: Brachycladiidae) in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie; Lehnert, Kristina; Leifsson, Páll S.

    2018-01-01

    For the first time in > 30 years of routine sampling under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, a parasite was found in the liver of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) collected near Qaanaaq (Thule), Northwest Greenland, in 2008 and 2014. Concerns regarding changes to parasite occurrence......, possibly related to climate change and bioaccumulation of immunomodulating anthropogenic pollutants, spurred further investigations into parasite characterization, and implications for wildlife health and seal hunters. Microscopic, molecular, and morphometric analyses are presented herein. Of 40 seals, 6...... (15%) were infected, and 5 of 6 of these seals had severe infections. The parasite was identified morphologically as Orthosplanchnus arcticus Odhner, 1905 (Trematoda; Digenea: Brachycladiidae). Macro- and microscopic pathologic study indicated mild-to-severe biliary hyperplasia associated, stasis...

  9. Internationalism in sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, M A

    1997-12-01

    The International Union Against the Venereal Diseases and the Treponematoses (IUVDT) became the International Union Against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) at the Union's 37th General Assembly, held in Melbourne, Australia. The name change reflects the increasing use by international donor organizations of the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs are a major problem in Africa, South East Asia, India, Russia, and the European countries which were formerly within the Communist bloc. The epidemic of syphilis together with HIV increases daily in Eastern Europe and Russia. There have, however, been some successes in developing countries with the syndromic method, the promotion of sexual health, and the prevention of STIs. While the UK has the largest body of fully trained sexually transmitted disease (STD) specialists in the world, comparatively few of them participate in large international commitments. These specialists should instead become more involved with STIs in areas of need. Furthermore, more aid should be provided by governmental, nongovernmental, and charitable sources. IUSTI is willing to cooperate with any efforts to fight STDs anywhere in the world.

  10. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES - HISTORY, TYPES, PREVALENCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY

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    Valentin Irmov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections affect persons of active sex and cause serious consequences for the human organism, society and the generation. They spread sporadically, epidemically, and in some of them there are pandemics. For example, humanity is currently in a third viral hepatitis pandemic and a first AIDS pandemic. Another group of diseases can also be transmitted through sexual contact, but this is not the main mode of transmission. Such are salmonellosis, amoebiasis, influenza, various causes of meningitis and pneumonia. Despite being sexually transmitted, this is not a major and almost irrelevant way of transmitting the infection. Therefore, the diseases themselves are not included in the group of sexually transmitted diseases.

  11. In vitro cultivation of Maritrema novaezealandensis (Microphallidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the composition of culture medium on excystation, growth, survival and egg production was investigated for the recently discovered microphallid trematode Maritrema novaezealandensis. Metacercariae from the two second intermediate crab hosts, Macrophthalmus hirtipes an...

  12. Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardis, C; Mosca, L; Mastromarino, P

    2013-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is an important biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with prevalence and incidence of several sexually transmitted infections. This review provides background on BV, discusses the epidemiologic data to support a role of altered vaginal microbiota for acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and analyzes mechanisms by which lactobacilli could counteract sexually transmitted viral infections.

  13. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  14. CDC WONDER: Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Morbidity online databases on CDC WONDER contain case reports reported from the 50 United States and D.C., Puerto Rico, Virgin...

  15. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2014: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance Table of Contents Introductory Section Foreword Preface Acronyms Figures- National Profile Figures – ... GISP Profiles Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data – 1996-2013 STD ...

  16. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    .... In addition, STDs increase the risk of HIV transmission. The Hidden Epidemic examines the scope of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and provides a critical assessment of the nation's response to this public health crisis...

  17. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in three public secondary schools in Ogbondoroko and Laduba .... population live in the rural areas where information on sexually transmitted ..... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) Diagnoses of HIV ...

  18. Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA operons of two species of Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda): a molecular resource for taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of important fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Jan; Kostadinova, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2015-06-19

    The genus Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Diplostomidae) is a diverse group of freshwater parasites with complex life-cycles and global distribution. The larval stages are important pathogens causing eye fluke disease implicated in substantial impacts on natural fish populations and losses in aquaculture. However, the problematic species delimitation and difficulties in the identification of larval stages hamper the assessment of the distributional and host ranges of Diplostomum spp. and their transmission ecology. Total genomic DNA was isolated from adult worms and shotgun sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons were assembled using established bioinformatic tools and fully annotated. Mt protein-coding genes and nuclear rRNA genes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood and the resulting topologies compared. We characterised novel complete mt genomes and nuclear rRNA operons of two closely related species, Diplostomum spathaceum and D. pseudospathaceum. Comparative mt genome assessment revealed that the cox1 gene and its 'barcode' region used for molecular identification are the most conserved regions; instead, nad4 and nad5 genes were identified as most promising molecular diagnostic markers. Using the novel data, we provide the first genome wide estimation of the phylogenetic relationships of the order Diplostomida, one of the two fundamental lineages of the Digenea. Analyses of the mitogenomic data invariably recovered the Diplostomidae as a sister lineage of the order Plagiorchiida rather than as a basal lineage of the Diplostomida as inferred in rDNA phylogenies; this was concordant with the mt gene order of Diplostomum spp. exhibiting closer match to the conserved gene order of the Plagiorchiida. Complete sequences of the mt genome and rRNA operon of two species of Diplostomum provide a valuable resource for novel genetic markers for species delineation and

  19. USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    the TAG block for the correct transmitters, and then send to the USACE AIS network. B. Outbound openings in the USCG firewall for the USCG Message...USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...September 2014 Report No. CD-D-09-15 USACE AIS Transmit Technical Support Summary Report ii UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | I. Gonin et al. Public

  20. Ocular Manifestations of Mosquito-Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, James W; Mazzoli, Robert A; Heintz, Shannon K

    2018-03-01

    Of the 3,548 known mosquito species, about 100 transmit human diseases. Mosquitoes are distributed globally throughout tropical and temperate regions where standing water sources are available for egg laying and the maturation of larva. Female mosquitoes require blood meals for egg production. This is the main pathway for disease transmission. Mosquitoes carry several pathogenic organisms responsible for significant ocular pathology and vision loss including West Nile, Rift Valley, chikungunya, dengue viruses, various encephalitis viruses, malarial parasites, Francisella tularensis, microfilarial parasites, including Dirofilaria, Wuchereria, and Brugia spp., and human botfly larvae. Health care providers may not be familiar with many of these mosquito-transmitted diseases or their associated ocular findings delaying diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of visual function. This article aims to provide an overview of the ocular manifestations associated with mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  1. Adaptive transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit channel selection in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to- interference-plus- noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms, which are the dominant cancelation and the less complex arbitrary cancelation, are considered, for which the receive antenna array is assumed to have small angular spread. Analytical formulation for some performance measures in addition to several processing complexity and numerical comparisons between various adaptation schemes are presented. ©2010 IEEE.

  2. Syndromes Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Excellent technologies have been developed to identify the specific microbial agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, chancroid, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus and HIV infection. However, it is also crucial to recognize syndromes that may be caused by one or more sexually transmitted pathogens. When laboratory services are lacking or are inadequate to provide timely results to enable appropriate treatment, some patients must be managed and treated syndromically. Most Canadian laboratories should be able to provide diagnostic services to determine the etiology of syndromes such as cervicitis, urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, genital ulcers, sexually transmitted infection (STI-related enteric infections, epididymitis, hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, vulvovaginitis and vaginosis.

  3. On reflectionless equi-transmitting matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kurasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflectionless equi-transmitting unitary matrices are studied in connection to matching conditions in quantum graphs. All possible such matrices of size 6 are described explicitly. It is shown that such matrices form 30 six-parameter families intersected along 12 five-parameter families closely connected to conference matrices.

  4. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    ... of Sexually Transmitted Diseases INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this ...

  5. [Condom effectiveness to prevent sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Eduardo Gayón; Orozco, Hilda Hernández; Soto, Selene Sam; Aburto, Esther Lombardo

    2008-02-01

    Sexual transmitted diseases (included HIV/AIDS) are a common and preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. When used consistently and correctly, condoms are effective to prevent these diseases, however, its protection does not account for 100%. To know the effectiveness of male condom, through bibliographic evidence, to prevent sexual transmitted infections in heterosexual serodiscordant partners. A bibliographical review of Medline/Pubmed, LILACS and Cochrane databases, and publications of the National Health Institutes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and WHO AIDS Global Program was done to analyze male condom effectiveness to prevent sexual transmitted diseases. Reports demonstrated that male condom protection against HIV/AIDS in heterosexual serodiscordant partners goes from 60 to 95%. Most recent information (2006) showed 80%. Two studies demonstrated no HPV protection with male condom, and another one 70% of protection. Male condom demonstrated no HPV-1 protection, but decrease of risk in HVS-2 transmission in women (0.85 of protection). Male condom protection against sexual transmitted diseases is not 100%. There must be used additional measures that have demonstrated its utility to decrease transmission risk.

  6. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools' curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before ...

  7. Inductive Reasoning about Causally Transmitted Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; Coley, John D.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2008-01-01

    Different intuitive theories constrain and guide inferences in different contexts. Formalizing simple intuitive theories as probabilistic processes operating over structured representations, we present a new computational model of category-based induction about causally transmitted properties. A first experiment demonstrates undergraduates'…

  8. Evaluation of transmitted images by teleradiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshikawa, Yoshikazu

    1993-01-01

    Teleradiology system is a combination of digital data networks and computer systems, which is the electric transmission of radiographs and/or radiologic images from local to center radiological system. The author evaluated reproducibility of transmitted images using Photophone (Image Data Corporation) as teleradiology system. Proven cases of abdominal free air (38 plain films, 15 CT), pneumothorax (24 plain films, 20 CT) and small bowel obstruction (30 plain films, 8 CT) were transmitted. Findings could be identified on non-magnified plain films in 75.6%, 83.3% and 96.7% respectively and on magnified CT in 100%, 100% and 100%. Transmitted images of 57 cases of abdominal trauma were read for positive findings and diagnosis by three radiologists. Average positive ratio was 47.3% on plain films and 70.9% on CT. Diagnosis was correct in 66.7% on CT. Specificity and sensitivity were 81.9% and 61.6% respectively on plain film and 88.6% and 93.9% on CT. The accuracy of transmitted images appears to be unsatisfactory on this study. It is suggested that the system is useful for consultation of already identified findings on the original images. (author)

  9. Evaluation of transmitted images by teleradiology system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshikawa, Yoshikazu (St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-12-01

    Teleradiology system is a combination of digital data networks and computer systems, which is the electric transmission of radiographs and/or radiologic images from local to center radiological system. The author evaluated reproducibility of transmitted images using Photophone (Image Data Corporation) as teleradiology system. Proven cases of abdominal free air (38 plain films, 15 CT), pneumothorax (24 plain films, 20 CT) and small bowel obstruction (30 plain films, 8 CT) were transmitted. Findings could be identified on non-magnified plain films in 75.6%, 83.3% and 96.7% respectively and on magnified CT in 100%, 100% and 100%. Transmitted images of 57 cases of abdominal trauma were read for positive findings and diagnosis by three radiologists. Average positive ratio was 47.3% on plain films and 70.9% on CT. Diagnosis was correct in 66.7% on CT. Specificity and sensitivity were 81.9% and 61.6% respectively on plain film and 88.6% and 93.9% on CT. The accuracy of transmitted images appears to be unsatisfactory on this study. It is suggested that the system is useful for consultation of already identified findings on the original images. (author).

  10. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are a major health problem affecting mostly young people in both developed and developing countries. Insufficient knowledge about STDs is a major impediment to successfully prevent the diseases among adolescent populations in developing countries. Objective: To ...

  11. Soil transmitted helminths infections, malnutrition and anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are a major public health problem in many developing countries. Establishment of prevalence and intensity of infections is important in designing, implementating and evaluating control programs. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and intensity of STH infections, malnutrition ...

  12. [Diseases transmitted through water for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, E; Dentamaro, M

    2003-01-01

    The water for human consumption maintains a biological risk and can transmit diseases. The classical waterborne and the presently frequent diseases caused by protozoi Giardia and Cryptosporidium are considered and Arcobacter butzleri, a new waterborne pathogen, is described. Many measures have been adopted by institutions to ensure the quality of the drinking water. Managers and public health operators is working in order to verify the efficiency of more suitable indicators for its monitoring.

  13. Stochastic dynamics for reinfection by transmitted diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alessandro S.; Pinho, Suani T. R.

    2017-06-01

    The use of stochastic models to study the dynamics of infectious diseases is an important tool to understand the epidemiological process. For several directly transmitted diseases, reinfection is a relevant process, which can be expressed by endogenous reactivation of the pathogen or by exogenous reinfection due to direct contact with an infected individual (with smaller reinfection rate σ β than infection rate β ). In this paper, we examine the stochastic susceptible, infected, recovered, infected (SIRI) model simulating the endogenous reactivation by a spontaneous reaction, while exogenous reinfection by a catalytic reaction. Analyzing the mean-field approximations of a site and pairs of sites, and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the particular case of exogenous reinfection, we obtained continuous phase transitions involving endemic, epidemic, and no transmission phases for the simple approach; the approach of pairs is better to describe the phase transition from endemic phase (susceptible, infected, susceptible (SIS)-like model) to epidemic phase (susceptible, infected, and removed or recovered (SIR)-like model) considering the comparison with MC results; the reinfection increases the peaks of outbreaks until the system reaches endemic phase. For the particular case of endogenous reactivation, the approach of pairs leads to a continuous phase transition from endemic phase (SIS-like model) to no transmission phase. Finally, there is no phase transition when both effects are taken into account. We hope the results of this study can be generalized for the susceptible, exposed, infected, and removed or recovered (SEIRIE) model, for which the state exposed (infected but not infectious), describing more realistically transmitted diseases such as tuberculosis. In future work, we also intend to investigate the effect of network topology on phase transitions when the SIRI model describes both transmitted diseases (σ social contagions (σ >1 ).

  14. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workowski, Kimberly A.; Bolan, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 30–May 2, 2013. The information in this report updates the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010 (MMWR Recomm Rep 2010;59 [No. RR–12]). These updated guidelines discuss 1) alternative treatment regimens for Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) the use of nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis; 3) alternative treatment options for genital warts; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) updated HPV vaccine recommendations and counseling messages; 6) the management of persons who are transgender; 7) annual testing for hepatitis C in persons with HIV infection; 8) updated recommendations for diagnostic evaluation of urethritis; and 9) retesting to detect repeat infection. Physicians and other health-care providers can use these guidelines to assist in the prevention and treatment of STDs. PMID:26042815

  15. Multiple routes transmitted epidemics on multiplex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dawei; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Luo, Qun; Yang, Yixian

    2014-01-01

    This letter investigates the multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. We propose detailed theoretical analysis that allows us to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. It is found that the epidemic can spread across the multiplex network even if all the network layers are well below their respective epidemic thresholds. Strong positive degree–degree correlation of nodes in multiplex network could lead to a much lower epidemic threshold and a relatively smaller outbreak size. However, the average similarity of neighbors from different layers of nodes has no obvious effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. -- Highlights: •We studies multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. •SIR model and bond percolation theory are used to analyze the epidemic processes. •We derive equations to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •ASN has no effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •Strong positive DDC leads to a lower epidemic threshold and a smaller outbreak size.

  16. Multiple routes transmitted epidemics on multiplex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dawei [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computer Network, Shandong Computer Science Center, Jinan 250014 (China); Li, Lixiang [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Peng, Haipeng, E-mail: penghaipeng@bupt.edu.cn [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Luo, Qun; Yang, Yixian [Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 145, Beijing 100876 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Disaster Backup and Recovery, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2014-02-01

    This letter investigates the multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. We propose detailed theoretical analysis that allows us to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. It is found that the epidemic can spread across the multiplex network even if all the network layers are well below their respective epidemic thresholds. Strong positive degree–degree correlation of nodes in multiplex network could lead to a much lower epidemic threshold and a relatively smaller outbreak size. However, the average similarity of neighbors from different layers of nodes has no obvious effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. -- Highlights: •We studies multiple routes transmitted epidemic process on multiplex networks. •SIR model and bond percolation theory are used to analyze the epidemic processes. •We derive equations to accurately calculate the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •ASN has no effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. •Strong positive DDC leads to a lower epidemic threshold and a smaller outbreak size.

  17. The other epidemics. Sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L

    1993-01-01

    Around 70% of female infertility in developing countries is caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that can be traced back to husbands or partners. STDs and reproductive tract infections cause 750,000 deaths and 75 million illnesses among women each year worldwide, and these deaths may more than double by the year 2000. Death rates are rising fastest in Africa, followed by Asia and Latin America. About 450,000 cases of potentially fatal reproductive tract cancers are diagnosed annually: an estimated 354,000 occur in Third World women, virtually all of whom die. Worldwide, roughly 250 million new infections of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and the human papillomavirus are sexually transmitted each year. Chlamydia and the human papillomavirus account for 50 million and 30 million new cases per year, respectively. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected 1 million people worldwide between April and December 1991, according to the World Health Organization. A study in the Indian state of Maharashtra revealed that 92% of the 650 rural women examined had an average of 3.6 infections of gynecological type or sexually transmitted type per women. Another study in 2 rural Egyptian villages found that half of 509 nonpregnant women aged 20 to 60 years had infections. Only 2 facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of STDs exist in all of Kenya. In Ibadan, Nigeria, with a population of 2 million, there is only 1 recognized STD clinic. The physical consequences of several STDs have been linked to increased risks of AIDS transmission. Early recognition and treatment of STDs in pregnant women would cut infant mortality. Maternal infections with chlamydia, gonorrhea, or herpes are transferred to infants at birth 25% to 50% of the time. In Africa, infant blindness caused by gonorrhea infection is 50 times more common than in industrial countries. The International Women's Health Coalition's March 1992 meeting of more than 50 Third World scientists, health advocates, and

  18. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Leichliter, Jami S

    2008-12-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission and acquisition; consequently, racial and ethnic disparities among social determinants are influences upon disparities in STD rates. In this narrative review, we outline a general model showing the relationship between social determinants and STD outcomes, mediated by epidemiologic context. We then review 4 specific social determinants relevant to STD disparities: segregation, health care, socioeconomics and correctional experiences, followed by 2 facets of the resultant epidemiologic context: core areas and sexual networks. This review shows that disparities exist among the social determinants and that they are related to each other, as well as to core areas, sexual networks, and STD rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for STD prevention and control with particular attention to STD program collaboration and service integration.

  19. Rapid diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Guerra, Luis; Fernández-Blázquez, Ana; Vazquez, Fernando

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are responsible for an enormous burden of morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, millions of cases of STIs, such as syphilis, chlamydia, or gonorrhoea occur every year, and there is now an increase in antimicrobial resistance in pathogens, such as gonococcus. Delay in diagnosis is one of the factors that justifies the difficulty in controlling these infections. Rapid diagnostic tests allow the introduction of aetiological treatment at the first visit, and also leads to treating symptomatic and asymptomatic patients more effectively, as well as to interrupt the epidemiological transmission chain without delay. The World Health Organisation includes these tests in its global strategy against STIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Pattern of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective,data analysis of sexually transmitted diseases was carried out to study the pattern of these diseases prevalent in the region. One thousand′five hundred and seventy,one patients′were seen from January 1977 to October 1985. Maks constituted 95.5% of this group and females the remaining 4.5%. Commonest age group affected was 20-29 years in both sexes. Condytoma acuminata was the commonest STD (21.40/o, followed by gonorrhoea (16.9%, chancroid (12.2% genital herpes (11.4%, syphilis (10.4%, not′specific ulcers (7.1%, donovanosis (6.3%,mixed infections (5.3% and NSU (4.1% Secondary syphilis was the most common (48.6% presentation of syphik and in women it od 75.8% of all the cases of syphilis. In′more than a quarter of patients, psycho- problems were the reason for attendance.

  1. [Anorectal manifestations of sexually transmitted infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of sexually transmitted infections is rising in Europe and in Switzerland since the beginning of the third millenium. Many organisms may affect the perianal skin and the anorectum. While some of these infections are a result of contigous spread from genital infection, most result from receptive anal intercourse affecting males who have sex with males but is seen increasingly in females as well since there is evidence of the increasing popularity of anal sex among heterosexuals. The symptoms of specific infections are largely dependent on the route and site of inoculation. Organisms that cause typical genital symptoms - such as syphilis, chancroid, herpes simplex or HPV-infection - result in similar symptoms when the perianal skin, the anoderm or the distal anal canal are the site of infection. Patients with proctitis may have unspecific signs in various degrees including mucous discharge, rectal bleeding, anorectal pain, superficial ulcers and sometimes generalized lymphadenopathy and fever. It is of utmost importance to include STIs (e. g. lymphogranuloma venereum, gonorrhea, non-LGV-chlamydia and herpes simplex) in the differential diagnosis in these patients. Unfortunately rectal infection with chlamydia and gonorrhea is asymptomatic in the majority of cases of men having sex with men and in high-risk females. A careful history and physical examination is essential in establishing a correct diagnosis, usually supported by proctoscopy, culture, PCR, serology and histology. Certain organisms, more commonly thought of as food- or water-borne disease may be sexually transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact from various sexual practices.

  2. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eCameron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead people to infer that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance, instructions and social observation, on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+ and another was a safety cue (CS-. Groups then were either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock presentations (instructed-learning group or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group. During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed.

  3. Transmit-receive eddy current probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Sullivan, S.P.; Cecco, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, due to increased inspection demands, eddy current instrumentation has advanced from single-frequency, single-output instruments to multifrequency, computer-aided systems. This has significantly increased the scope of eddy current testing, but, unfortunately, it has also increased the cost and complexity of inspections. In addition, this approach has not always improved defect detectability or signal-to-noise. Most eddy current testing applications are still performed with impedance probes, which have well known limitations. However, recent research at AECL has led to improved eddy current inspections through the design and development of transmit-receive (T/R) probes. T/R eddy current probes, with laterally displaced transmit and receive coils, present a number of advantages over impedance probes. They have improved signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of variable lift-off compared to impedance probes. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection, and possess good phase discrimination to surface defects. They can significantly increase the scope of eddy current testing permitting reliable detection and sizing of cracks in heat exchanger tubing as well as in welded areas of both ferritic and non-ferromagnetic components. This presentation will describe the operating principles of T/R probes with the help of computer-derived normalized voltage diagrams. We will discuss their directional properties and analyze the advantages of using single and multiple T/R probes over impedance probes for specific inspection cases. Current applications to surface and tube testing and some typical inspection results will be described. (author)

  4. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE METACERCÁRIAS DE ASCOCOTYLE SP (TREMATODA: DIGENEA DOS TECIDOS DE MUGIL LIZA VALENCIENNES, 1836 (TELEOSTEI: MUGILIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixer. Twentysix samples of M. liza were collected, being 16 liver samples and 10 samples of muscle tissue. Approximately 5g of each sample were processed by blender and mixer techniques homogenization for metacercariae extraction. In liver samples, up to 46 metacercariae were found in samples homogenized in blender. The lowest amount found was 2 metacercariae for blender and mixer techniques. In samples of muscle tissue, 4 metacercariae were observed in the mixer extraction. The lowest amount was found to be 2 parasites to blender and mixer. The mean metacercariae found and extracted from muscle tissue were 0.2 (+0.357 and 1.2 (+0.963 for blender and mixer, respectively. The averages of metacercariae found and extracted from fish liver, in blender and mixer, were 24 (+15.145 and 18 (+8.246, respectively. The homogenization techniques for blender and mixer were effective for the extraction of metacercariae of mullet fish tissues, suggesting that they may be directly applicable in the field of study, especially due to the ease of testing.

  5. Transmit Power Optimisation in Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Terziu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transmit power optimisation in wireless networks based on beamforming have emerged as a promising technique to enhance the spectrum efficiency of present and future wireless communication systems. The aim of this study is to minimise the access point power consumption in cellular networks while maintaining a targeted quality of service (QoS for the mobile terminals. In this study, the targeted quality of service is delivered to a mobile station by providing a desired level of Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR. Base-stations are coordinated across multiple cells in a multi-antenna beamforming system. This study focuses on a multi-cell multi-antenna downlink scenario where each mobile user is equipped with a single antenna, but where multiple mobile users may be active simultaneously in each cell and are separated via spatial multiplexing using beamforming. The design criteria is to minimize the total weighted transmitted power across the base-stations subject to SINR constraints at the mobile users. The main contribution of this study is to define an iterative algorithm that is capable of finding the joint optimal beamformers for all basestations, based on a correlation-based channel model, the full-correlation model. Among all correlated channel models, the correlated channel model used in this study is the most accurate, giving the best performance in terms of power consumption. The environment here in this study is chosen to be Non-Light of- Sight (NLOS condition, where a signal from a wireless transmitter passes several obstructions before arriving at a wireless receiver. Moreover there are many scatterers local to the mobile, and multiple reflections can occur among them before energy arrives at the mobile. The proposed algorithm is based on uplink-downlink duality using the Lagrangian duality theory. Time-Division Duplex (TDD is chosen as the platform for this study since it has been adopted to the latest technologies in Fourth

  6. VIS-IR transmitting BGG glass windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayya, Shyam S.; Chin, Geoff D.; Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2003-09-01

    BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 (BGG) glasses have the desired properties for various window applications in the 0.5-5 μm wavelength region. These glasses are low cost alternatives to the currently used window materials. Fabrication of a high optical quality 18" diameter BGG glass window has been demonstrated with a transmitted wave front error of λ/10 at 632 nm. BGG substrates have also been successfully tested for environmental weatherability (MIL-F-48616) and rain erosion durability up to 300 mph. Preliminary EMI grids have been successfully applied on BGG glasses demonstrating attenuation of 20dB in X and Ku bands. Although the mechanical properties of BGG glasses are acceptable for various window applications, it is demonstrated here that the properties can be further improved significantly by the glassceramization process. The ceramization process does not add any significant cost to the final window material. The crystallite size in the present glass-ceramic limits its transmission to the 2-5 μm region.

  7. Inductive reasoning about causally transmitted properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; Coley, John D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2008-11-01

    Different intuitive theories constrain and guide inferences in different contexts. Formalizing simple intuitive theories as probabilistic processes operating over structured representations, we present a new computational model of category-based induction about causally transmitted properties. A first experiment demonstrates undergraduates' context-sensitive use of taxonomic and food web knowledge to guide reasoning about causal transmission and shows good qualitative agreement between model predictions and human inferences. A second experiment demonstrates strong quantitative and qualitative fits to inferences about a more complex artificial food web. A third experiment investigates human reasoning about complex novel food webs where species have known taxonomic relations. Results demonstrate a double-dissociation between the predictions of our causal model and a related taxonomic model [Kemp, C., & Tenenbaum, J. B. (2003). Learning domain structures. In Proceedings of the 25th annual conference of the cognitive science society]: the causal model predicts human inferences about diseases but not genes, while the taxonomic model predicts human inferences about genes but not diseases. We contrast our framework with previous models of category-based induction and previous formal instantiations of intuitive theories, and outline challenges in developing a complete model of context-sensitive reasoning.

  8. Genital elephantiasis and sexually transmitted infections - revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Sehgal, Virendra N; Kumar, Bhushan; Mete, Uttam

    2006-03-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an important medical problem in the tropics. It usually affects young and productive age group, and is associated with physical disability and extreme mental anguish. The majority of cases are due to filariasis; however, a small but significant proportion of patients develop genital elephantiasis due to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and donovanosis. STI-related genital elephantiasis should be differentiated from elephantiasis due to other causes, including filariasis, tuberculosis, haematological malignancies, iatrogenic, or dermatological diseases. Laboratory investigations like microscopy of tissue smear and nucleic acid amplification test for donovanosis, and serology and polymerase chain reaction for LGV may help in the diagnosis, but in endemic areas, in the absence of laboratory facilities, diagnosis largely depends on clinical characteristics. The causative agent of LGV, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1-L3, is a lymphotropic organism which leads to the development of thrombolymphangitis and perilymphangitis, and lymphadenitis. Long-standing oedema, fibrosis and lymphogranulomatous infiltration result in the final picture of elephantiasis. Elephantiasis in donovanosis is mainly due to constriction of the lymphatics which are trapped in the chronic granulomatous inflammatory response generated by the causative agent, Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis. The LGV-associated genital elephantiasis should be treated with a prolonged course of doxycycline given orally, while donovanosis should be treated with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole combination given for a minimum of three weeks. Genital elephantiasis is not completely reversible with medical therapy alone and often needs to be reduced surgically.

  9. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe A Teasdale

    Full Text Available Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI is high among pregnant women in certain settings. We estimated STI incidence and compared STI risk in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data came from the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA study conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe 2003-2006. Women aged 18-50 years with at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of enrollment were included. Follow-up visits included laboratory testing for pregnancy, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV, as well as self-report of hormonal contraceptive (HC use, sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices. All visits were classified according to pregnancy status. Incidence of each STI was calculated using follow-up time. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted using pregnancy as a time-varying exposure and sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices as time-varying covariates. Among 4,549 women, 766 (16.8% had a positive pregnancy test. Median follow-up time was 18 months [IQR: 12-24]. The overall incidence rate of chlamydia was 6.7 per 100 person years (py and 9.9/100py during pregnancy; gonorrhea incidence was 2.7/100py and 4.9/100py during pregnancy; trichomoniasis incidence was 7.1/100py overall and 9.2/100py during pregnancy. Overall HIV incidence was 3.9/100py and 3.8/100py during pregnancy. In crude models, pregnancy increased risk for chlamydia (hazard ratio (HR 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.2, however there was no increased risk of any measured STI in adjusted models. STI Incidence was high during pregnancy however pregnancy did not increase STI risk after adjustment for sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to help pregnant women avoid STIs.

  10. Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani Tariq A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs in Saudi Arabia (SA and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%, trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%, gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%, syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%, human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%, genital warts (1382, 3.5%, genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%, and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%. The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.

  11. Note on transmitted complexity for quantum dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noboru; Muto, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Transmitted complexity (mutual entropy) is one of the important measures for quantum information theory developed recently in several ways. We will review the fundamental concepts of the Kossakowski, Ohya and Watanabe entropy and define a transmitted complexity for quantum dynamical systems. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  12. Integrated Reconfigurable High-Voltage Transmitting Circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2014-01-01

    -out and measurements are performed on the integrated circuit. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes, pulse voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V and frequencies up to 5 MHz. The area...

  13. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of transmitting stations. 25.271 Section 25.271 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.271 Control of transmitting stations. (a) The licensee of...

  14. GNSS satellite transmit power and its impact on orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Thoelert, Steffen; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2018-06-01

    Antenna thrust is a small acceleration acting on Global Navigation Satellite System satellites caused by the transmission of radio navigation signals. Knowledge about the transmit power and the mass of the satellites is required for the computation of this effect. The actual transmit power can be obtained from measurements with a high-gain antenna and knowledge about the properties of the transmit and receive antennas as well as losses along the propagation path. Transmit power measurements for different types of GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou-2 satellites were taken with a 30-m dish antenna of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) located at its ground station in Weilheim. For GPS, total L-band transmit power levels of 50-240 W were obtained, 20-135 W for GLONASS, 95-265 W for Galileo, and 130-185 W for BeiDou-2. The transmit power differs usually only slightly for individual spacecraft within one satellite block. An exception are the GLONASS-M satellites where six subgroups with different transmit power levels could be identified. Considering the antenna thrust in precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites decreases the orbital radius by 1-27 mm depending on the transmit power, the satellite mass, and the orbital period.

  15. Discourse on the values transmitted in universities Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study delved into the values transmitted in Universities in Uganda. Data were collected from a sample of 850 respondents who were drawn from faith-based, for–profit and public universities in the country. It was found that material, social/ public, personal and religious values are transmitted to students in the selected ...

  16. 22 CFR 1203.735-214 - Transmitting communications and gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Transmitting communications and gifts. 1203.735....735-214 Transmitting communications and gifts. (a) Correspondence. In corresponding with anyone other... it to be clearly in the public interest to do so. (c) Gifts. An employee shall not act as an agent...

  17. Sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Maria Rita Teixeira; Campos, Lorenza Nogueira; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are still highly prevalent worldwide and represent an important public health problem. Psychiatric patients are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases but there are scarce published studies with representative data of this population. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among patients with mental illnesses under care in a national representative sample in Brazil (n=2145). More than one quarter of the sample (25.8%) reported a lifetime history of sexually transmitted disease. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with a lifetime sexually transmitted disease history were older, had history of homelessness, used more alcohol and illicit drugs, suffered violence, perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV and had high risk sexual behavioral: practised unprotected sex, started sexual life earlier, had more than ten sexual partners, exchanged money and/or drugs for sex and had a partner that refused to use condom. Our findings indicate a high prevalence of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among psychiatric patients in Brazil, and emphasize the need for implementing sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs in psychiatric settings, including screening, treatment, and behavioral modification interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Ultrasonic Transmitted Signal for Apple using Wavelet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Lee, Sang Dae; Choi, Man Yong; Kim, Man Soo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple using wavelet transform. Fruit consists of nonlinear visco-elastic properties such as flesh, an ovary and rind and lienee most ultrasonic wave is attenuated and its frequency is shifted during passing the fruit. Thus it is not easy to evaluate the internal quality of the fruit using typical ultrasonic parameters such as wave velocity, attenuation, and frequency spectrum. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple. The magnitude of the first peak frequency of the wavelet basis from the ultrasonic transmitted signal showed a close correlation to the storage time of apple

  19. Switch and examine transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a switch and examine transmit diversity algorithm for spectrum sharing cognitive networks. We consider a cognitive network composed of a primary link that employs constant rate and constant power transmission scheme

  20. Adaptive single-antenna transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    -efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer

  1. Integrated reconfigurable high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a high-voltage transmitting circuit aimed for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in scanners for medical applications is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able...... to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes with voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V, frequencies up to 5 MHz and different driving slew rates. Measurements are performed on the circuit in order to assess its functionality and power consumption...... performance. The design occupies an on-chip area of 0.938 mm2 and the power consumption of a 128-element transmitting circuit array that would be used in an portable ultrasound scanner is found to be a maximum of 181 mW....

  2. Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ... sharing of personal effects, malnourishment and sexual harassment. ... Development of risk reduction and appropriate sexual health interventions targeted at prevention ...

  3. Pair formation models for sexually transmitted infections : A primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, MEE; Heijne, Janneke C M

    For modelling sexually transmitted infections, duration of partnerships can strongly influence the transmission dynamics of the infection. If partnerships are monogamous, pairs of susceptible individuals are protected from becoming infected, while pairs of infected individuals delay onward

  4. Alfalfa Leaf Curl Virus: an Aphid-Transmitted Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumagnac, Philippe; Granier, Martine; Bernardo, Pauline; Deshoux, Maëlle; Ferdinand, Romain; Galzi, Serge; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Julian, Charlotte; Abt, Isabelle; Filloux, Denis; Mesléard, François; Varsani, Arvind; Blanc, Stéphane; Martin, Darren P; Peterschmitt, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The family Geminiviridae comprises seven genera differentiated by genome organization, sequence similarity, and insect vector. Capulavirus, an eighth genus, has been proposed to accommodate two newly discovered highly divergent geminiviruses that presently have no known vector. Alfalfa leaf curl virus, identified here as a third capulavirus, is shown to be transmitted by Aphis craccivora. This is the first report of an aphid-transmitted geminivirus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON LIGHT TRANSMITTING CONCRETE BY USING OPTICAL FIBRE

    OpenAIRE

    S. Suganya; S. Minu Gopika

    2017-01-01

    Light transmitting concrete is one of the fibre reinforced concrete which is mainly used for aesthetic application by incorporating the optical fibres in concrete. Optical fibres help to transmit the light through the fibres and the end-light type of fibre is used to increase the aesthetic appearance of the concrete which is like a transparent concrete. Fibres are arranged in different layers, to increase the load carrying capacity and also the pattern can be created to make the concrete deco...

  6. Secure direct communication based on secret transmitting order of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Aidong; Zhang Shou; Xia Yan; Fan Qiubo

    2006-01-01

    We propose the schemes of quantum secure direct communication based on a secret transmitting order of particles. In these protocols, the secret transmitting order of particles ensures the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the communication is interrupted for security. This strategy of security for communication is also generalized to a quantum dialogue. It not only ensures the unconditional security but also improves the efficiency of communication

  7. Nosocomial Infections Transmitted Via Computers : A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Atanda, Angela Achieng; Nwaoha, Nkechi Naomi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to discuss how current literature described nosocomial infections transmitted via computers in hospitals. It also described the various methods used to disinfect computers. The research questions in this study were; What are nosocomial infections? How do contaminated computer devices transmit nosocomial infections? and What infection control methods are applied to decontaminate computers within hospitals? The aim of conducting this study was to create an aw...

  8. Some Models for Epidemics of Vector-Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Fred; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Mubayi, Anuj; Towers, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya have been spreading rapidly in many parts of the world. The Zika virus has been known since 1947 and invaded South America in 2013. It can be transmitted not only by (mosquito) vectors but also directly through sexual contact. Zika has developed into a serious global health problem because, while most cases are asymptomatic or very light, babies born to Zika - infected mothers may develop microcephaly and other very serious birt...

  9. The Control of Transmitted Power in an Active Isolation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, S.J.; Gardonio, P.; Pinnington, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The isolation of vibration through a system with multiple active mounts is discussed, in which each of the mounts can transmit vibration in several degrees of freedom. Theoretical models of the various parts of this system have been developed which include a flexible receiving structure and distr......The isolation of vibration through a system with multiple active mounts is discussed, in which each of the mounts can transmit vibration in several degrees of freedom. Theoretical models of the various parts of this system have been developed which include a flexible receiving structure...... and distributed active mounts, and these models can be connected together to produce an overall theoretical description of a realistic active isolation system. Total transmitted power has been found to be an excellent criterion to quantify the effect of various control strategies in this model in which...... the contributions to the transmitted power in the various degrees of freedom can be clearly understood. It has also been found, however, that an active control system which minimises a practical estimate of transmitted power, calculated from the product of the axial forces and velocities under the mounts, can give...

  10. Decreasing Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infection in Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion transmitted infections are major problem associated with blood transfusion. Accurate estimates of risk of TTIs are essential for monitoring the safety of blood supply and evaluating the efficacy of currently employed screening procedures. The present study was carried out to assess the percentage of voluntary donors and replacement donors and to find out prevalence and changing trends of various TTIs blood donors in recent years. A study was carried out on blood units of voluntary and replacement donors which were collected from January 2008 to December 2012. On screening of 180,371 replacement units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in replacement donors was 0.15% in HIV, 1.67% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.49% in hepatitis C virus, 0.01% in VDRL, and 0.009% in malaria. Of 11,977 voluntary units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in voluntary donors was 0.08% in HIV, 0.24% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.001% in hepatitis C virus, 0.008% in VDRL (sexually transmitted disease, and 0.01% in malaria. From results it has been concluded that prevalence of transfusion transmitted infection (HIV, HBV, HCV, VDRL, and malaria was more in replacement donors in comparison to voluntary donors. Extensive donor selection and screening procedures will help in improving the blood safety.

  11. Influence of sexually transmitted infections in a horse breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent problems in horses reproduction are generally divided into those of infectious and non infectious etiology. Common causes of infectious diseases are usual­ly viruses and bacteria, and less frequently protozoa, mykoplasma and fungi. In this work there are presented the most important fact about sexually transmitted diseases, their clinical picture, risk factors, preventive measures as well as measures to prevent and eradicate the diseases. The biggest risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases in horses are breeding stallions, both in natural mating and in artificial insemination. Therefore, in order to prevent genital infections in horses, it is essential that the stallions used for breeding are healthy (non-infected. That can be determined with certainty only if the stallions are examined (tested just before the breeding season on most frequent sexually transmitted diseases (CEM,EAV. It is well known that in most cases the clinical picture of sexually transmitted diseses is not manifested on genitals. As well, variations in clinical picture can be expected also in mares, depending on the stage of the disease and its etiology. Harms arising from sexually transmitted diseases can be divided into direct and indirect. Direct damage occurs in the form of endometritis, miscarriage, stillbirths and births of weak foals, and indirect in restricting the traffic of infected and suspicios animals, isolation of the infected ones as well as medical treatment and interrupting mating.

  12. Nematode infections: soil-transmitted helminths and trichinella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Stefanie; Steinmann, Peter; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-06-01

    Infection with soil-transmitted helminths occurs via ingestion of nematode eggs with contaminated food and water, via hands, or inhalation of dust, or by penetration of larvae through the skin. Trichinella infections are caused by the ingestion of larvae contained in undercooked meat. In highly endemic areas, preventive chemotherapy (ie, regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the key strategy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Integrated control approaches, including improved hygiene, sanitation, and water, are required for lasting effects. Because of growing tourism, travel, and migration, clinicians and specialized travel clinics must remain aware of the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of soil-transmitted helminth and Trichinella infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. How the position of mussels at the intertidal lagoon affects their infection with the larvae of parasitic flatworms (Trematoda: Digenea): A combined laboratory and field experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Kirill E.; Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Levakin, Ivan A.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.

    2017-10-01

    In the complex trematode life cycle, cercariae transmit infection from the first to the second intermediate host. These short-lived lecithotrophic larvae possess a complex of behavioural responses for finding and infecting the host. We studied strategies used by cercariae of Himasthla elongata and Cercaria parvicaudata (Renicola sp.) infecting mussels Mytilus edulis at the White Sea intertidal. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in parallel. Geotactic response of cercariae was tested in an experimental chamber. Their distribution in nature was studied by counting larvae infecting mussels in cages installed in pairs (a ground and a suspended cage) in an intertidal lagoon. In the chamber H. elongata cercariae concentrated at the bottom, C. parvicaudata cercariae aged 1 h mostly concentrated near the surface and those aged 6 h sank to the bottom. A few larvae of both species ("evaders") showed behavioural patterns antithetic to the prevalent ones. Infection was the highest in mussels in ground cages. In suspended cages mussel infection with H. elongata cercariae was much lower than with C. parvicaudata cercariae. Our study confirmed that results of experiments on cercarial behaviour could be extrapolated to natural conditions. Cercariae of two species using the same intermediate hosts and co-occurring in a biotope implemented dramatically different strategies. This might be associated with differences in cercarial output by parthenitae groups. The presence of "evaders" might be useful for successful transmission. Our results indicate that mussels cultivated in suspended cultures are at the least risk of infection with trematode larvae.

  14. Emergence of Arthropod Transmitted infections in Kennel Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Jameel

    Full Text Available Changing scenario of climate resulting from global warming and adversity of nature has also resulted in emergence and re-emergence of diseases transmitted by arthropods. Increasing trends of population growth of dogs has increased the chance of disease transmission due to readily available susceptible host. Babesiosis and Hepatozoonosis and Ehrlichiosis are the main arthropod borne diseases of dogs prevalent in India. The present article explains the importance of these arthropod transmitted infections in kennel dogs, research progress and reason for their emergence in the present scenario. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 522-528

  15. Integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Farch, Kjartan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the integrated circuit in order...... to assess its performance. The circuit generates pulses at differential voltage levels of 60V, 80V and 100 V, a frequency up to 5MHz and a measured driving strength of 1.75 V/ns with the CMUT connected. The total on-chip area occupied by the transmitting circuit is 0.18 mm2 and the power consumption...

  16. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Yilmaz, Ahmet Oǧuz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kucur, Oǧuz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new transmit antenna selection scheme based on shadowing side information. In the proposed scheme, single transmit antenna which has the highest shadowing coefficient is selected. By the proposed technique, usage of the feedback channel and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We consider independent but not identically distributed Generalized-K composite fading model, which is a general composite fading & shadowing channel model for wireless environments. Exact closed-form outage probability, moment generating function and symbol error probability expressions are derived. In addition, theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. An Accurate Transmitting Power Control Method in Wireless Communication Transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naikang; Wen, Zhiping; Hou, Xunping; Bi, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Power control circuits are widely used in transceivers aiming at stabilizing the transmitted signal power to a specified value, thereby reducing power consumption and interference to other frequency bands. In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional modes of power control, this paper proposes an accurate signal power detection method by multiplexing the receiver and realizes transmitting power control in the digital domain. The simulation results show that this novel digital power control approach has advantages of small delay, high precision and simplified design procedure. The proposed method is applicable to transceivers working at large frequency dynamic range, and has good engineering practicability.

  19. Transfusion transmitted malaria in three major blood banks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimates the risk of acquiring malaria from a single unit of blood in North of Pakistan. A prospective study was conducted to investigate transfusion transmitted malaria in three major blood banks of Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 1558 (1534 males and 24 females) healthy volunteer blood donors were screened for ...

  20. Adaptive single-antenna transmit selection with interference suppression

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2011-10-01

    This paper studies the performance of adaptive transmit selection with co-channel interference suppression in multipath fading channels. The adaptive selection algorithms are configured for single-antenna bandwidth-efficient or power-efficient transmission with as low transmit channel estimations as possible. Due to the fact that the number of active co-channel interfering signals and their corresponding powers experience random behavior, the adaptation to channels conditions, assuming uniform buffer and traffic loading, is proposed to be jointly based on the transmit channels instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs). Two interference cancelation algorithms are considered. The first algorithm assumes that the receiver eliminates the impact of the strongest subset of interferers, whereas the second algorithm suggests random cancelation of interferers to further reduce processing complexity. The impact of outdated ordering of interferers powers on the efficiency of interference cancelation, and the effect of imperfect prediction of transmit channels for desired user adaptation are investigated. Analytical formulations for various performance measures and comparisons between the performance and processing complexity of different adaptation schemes are presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.

  2. Nurses stigmatization of sufferers of sexually transmitted diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study's objective is to assess nurses' stigmatization of sufferers of sexual transmitted diseases and its implications on treatment options. The study's method was the survey research through structured questionnaire and interview technique for selected sample of students and nurses. The multistage random sampling ...

  3. High rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV ...

  4. Device for transmitting pictures and device for receiving said pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1993-01-01

    Device for transmitting television pictures in the form of transform coefficients and motion vectors. The motion vectors of a sub-picture are converted (20) into a series of difference vectors and a reference vector. Said series is subsequently applied to a variable-length encoder (22) which encodes

  5. A review of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of parasitic origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fore a now recognized mode of transmission – sexual contact. This in turn has led to giardiasis being classified as a sexually transmitted disease by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. This review identifies its occurrence mainly in homosexual populations of the developed world ...

  6. Fourier-Based Transmit Beampattern Design Using MIMO Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John

    2014-05-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar settings, it is often desirable to transmit power only to a given location or set of locations defined by a beampattern. Transmit waveform design is a topic that has received much attention recently, involving synthesis of both the signal covariance matrix,, as well as the actual waveforms. Current methods involve a two-step process of designing via iterative solutions and then using to generate waveforms that fulfill practical constraints such as having a constant-envelope or drawing from a finite alphabet. In this paper, a closed-form method to design for a uniform linear array is proposed that utilizes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients and Toeplitz matrices. The resulting covariance matrix fulfills the practical constraints such as positive semidefiniteness and the uniformelemental power constraint and provides performance similar to that of iterative methods, which require a much greater computation time. Next, a transmit architecture is presented that exploits the orthogonality of frequencies at discrete DFT values to transmit a sum of orthogonal signals from each antenna. The resulting waveforms provide a lower mean-square error than current methods at a much lower computational cost, and a simulated detection scenario demonstrates the performance advantages achieved.

  7. The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfusion-transmitted virus (TTV) is an unenveloped circular single-stranded DNA virus with a diameter of 30 to 32 nm that was first described in 1997 in Japan. TTV was detected in various populations without proven pathology, including blood donors and in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C ...

  8. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2014-10-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.

  9. Transfusion transmitted infections – A retrospective analysis from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The emergence of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) especially HIV/AIDS has created a huge obstacle in ensuring blood safety. To assess the situation in Eritrea, we carried out a retrospective study of 29,501 blood donors for the prevalence of TTI's i.e. HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis. Methods: The study ...

  10. An autochthonous sexually transmitted Zika virus infection in Italy 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Percivalle, Elena; Campanini, Giulia; Sarasini, Antonella; Premoli, Marta; Zavattoni, Maurizio; Girello, Alessia; Dalla Gasperina, Daniela; Balsamo, Maria Luisa; Baldanti, Fausto; Rovida, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    We describe two cases of Zika virus infection involving an Italian patient returning from the Dominican Republic and his wife, who remained in Italy and had not travelled to Zika virus endemic areas in the previous months. The infection was transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse after the man's return to Italy.

  11. Knowledge and practices related to sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) still stand as one of the commonest health problems affecting women of reproductive age. The knowledge and .... With the help of local leaders, one of 4 in- terview teams approached ... Ethical clearance to conduct the study was sought from the Makerere University School ...

  12. Geospatial forecast model for tsetse-transmitted animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that GIS model developed for parasitic diseases based on growing degree day (GDD) concept can be applied to tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis. GIS for animal trypanosomosis was created using Food and Agriculture Organization – Crop Production System Zones (FAO-CPSZ) database and Normalized ...

  13. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, in the Netherlands in 2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedijk, F.D.H.; Vriend, H.J.; Veen, M.G. van; Coul, E.L.M. Op de; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Sighem, A.I. van; Verheij, R.A.; Sande, M.A.B. van der

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis. Chlamydia was the most common bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) diagnosed in Dutch STI centres in 2008. Similar to previous years, infections were reported as occurring especially in young heterosexuals and men who have sex with men (MSM) in 2008, the

  14. Profile Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In And Around Lucknow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal A K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was undertaken from the year 1988 to 1998 to study the pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in and around Lucknow. Among 1890 patients examined, chancroid predominated followed by syphilis, gonorrhoea, genital warts, herpes genitalis, LGV and non-specific urethritis. The incidence of donovanosis was the lowest.

  15. partner notification in the management of sexually transmitted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-12-12

    Dec 12, 2003 ... Objective: To assess utilization of partner notification as a tool in prevention and control of Sexually transmitted ... being out of town (44.6%) fear of quarrels and violence from partners (32.5%) and ..... More than half of the men in this study reported ... patients give reasons that justify their actions. Such.

  16. Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlton, Jane M.; Hirt, Robert P.; Silva, Joana C.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion...... environment. The genome sequence predicts previously unknown functions for the hydrogenosome, which support a common evolutionary origin of this unusual organelle with mitochondria....

  17. Sexually transmitted infections and mate-finding Allee effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Janoušková, E.; Theuer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, APR 01 (2017), s. 59-69 ISSN 0040-5809 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Allee effect * mating * sexually transmitted disease Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040580916301186

  18. Mechanical transport and dissemination of soil-transmitted helminth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous studies, helminth eggs were isolated from wild-caught Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). This laboratory study investigated the potential of the fly for mechanical transport and transmission of soil-transmitted helminths. Naïve, 2-3 day old, laboratory-reared adult flies were exposed to a mixture of Ascaris ...

  19. ABO, rhesus blood groups and transfusion-transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Few studies focused on the study of blood groups in Gabon. This study aimed to determine the phenotypic frequency of ABO and Rhesus antigens in blood donors of Libreville and to assess the association between ABO blood groups and transfusion-transmitted infections. Materials and Methods: The study of ...

  20. Some models for epidemics of vector-transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Brauer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya have been spreading rapidly in many parts of the world. The Zika virus has been known since 1947 and invaded South America in 2013. It can be transmitted not only by (mosquito vectors but also directly through sexual contact. Zika has developed into a serious global health problem because, while most cases are asymptomatic or very light, babies born to Zika - infected mothers may develop microcephaly and other very serious birth defects.We formulate and analyze two epidemic models for vector-transmitted diseases, one appropriate for dengue and chikungunya fever outbreaks and one that includes direct transmission appropriate for Zika virus outbreaks. This is especially important because the Zika virus is the first example of a disease that can be spread both indirectly through a vector and directly (through sexual contact. In both cases, we obtain expressions for the basic reproduction number and show how to use the initial exponential growth rate to estimate the basic reproduction number. However, for the model that includes direct transmission some additional data would be needed to identify the fraction of cases transmitted directly. Data for the 2015 Zika virus outbreak in Barranquilla, Colombia has been used to fit parameters to the model developed here and to estimate the basic reproduction number.

  1. Multielement Synthetic Transmit Aperture Imaging Using Temporal Encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    A new method to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of synthetic transmit aperture imaging is investigated. The approach utilizes multiple elements to emulate a spherical wave, and the conventional short excitation pulse is replaced by a linear frequency-modulated (FM) signal. The approach i...

  2. Digital Receiver Design for Transmitted Reference Ultra-Wideband Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Leus, G.; Van der Veen, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    A complete detection, channel estimation, synchronization, and equalization scheme for a transmitted reference (TR) ultra-wideband (UWB) system is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on a data model which admits a moderate data rate and takes both the interframe interference (IFI) and the

  3. Comparative Costs of Antibacterial Usage in Sexually Transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To evaluate the cost of antibacterial usage to patients in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Methods: Drug utilization evaluation was carried out retrospectively among patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) over a one-year period between 2005 and 2006 in Lagos University. Teaching Hospital (LUTH) ...

  4. Stigma and stereotypes: women and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise; Peters, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections have long been associated with stigma and stereotypes due to their very nature. Throughout history sexually transmitted infections have been associated with female prostitution and deviant immoral behaviour making women who contract these infections particularly vulnerable to being stigmatised and stereotyped. Although the stigma attached to such infections has previously been documented in the literature, the aim of this research was to gain in depth insight into young Australian women's experiences of having a sexually transmitted infection from a feminist perspective. Findings from this study provide insight into the onerous effects stigma can have on women with these infections and sheds light on how these effects can influence self-perceptions, fear of rejection and feelings of unworthiness. These findings can provide nurses with greater understanding and insight into the effects of stigma on women's experiences of having a sexually transmitted infection. Having this understanding and insight has the potential to promote therapeutic care and minimise the stigma that may be felt among women who have contracted this type of infection.

  5. Transmit beamforming for optimal second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoilund-Kaupang, Halvard; Masoy, Svein-Erik

    2011-08-01

    A simulation study of transmit ultrasound beams from several transducer configurations is conducted to compare second-harmonic imaging at 3.5 MHz and 11 MHz. Second- harmonic generation and the ability to suppress near field echoes are compared. Each transducer configuration is defined by a chosen f-number and focal depth, and the transmit pressure is estimated to not exceed a mechanical index of 1.2. The medium resembles homogeneous muscle tissue with nonlinear elasticity and power-law attenuation. To improve computational efficiency, the KZK equation is utilized, and all transducers are circular-symmetric. Previous literature shows that second-harmonic generation is proportional to the square of the transmit pressure, and that transducer configurations with different transmit frequencies, but equal aperture and focal depth in terms of wavelengths, generate identical second-harmonic fields in terms of shape. Results verify this for a medium with attenuation f1. For attenuation f1.1, deviations are found, and the high frequency subsequently performs worse than the low frequency. The results suggest that high frequencies are less able to suppress near-field echoes in the presence of a heterogeneous body wall than low frequencies.

  6. Effect of window glazing on colour quality of transmitted daylight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangol, R.; Kruisselbrink, T.W.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The

  7. GOOD HOMOSEXUAL BEHAVIOUR DECREASE PREVALENCE OF SEXUAL TRANSMITTED DISSEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The homosexual behaviour were become indicators of sexually transmitted diseases’s (STDs prevalencies. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual community was very high but until recently study it was conducted sporadically. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation of homosexual behaviour with prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency. Method:  Analytic design with cross sectional methode was used in this study. The population were all visitors of Mobile Clinic Community Centre of IGAMA collaborating with Public Health Centre Sumberpucung of Malang Regency (353 people. Sample were 40 people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was homosexual behaviour and the dependent variable was prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Data for homosexual behaviour were collected by using questionnaire and indhept interview with content analyze and data for prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were collected by using laboratorium test for STDs. Result: The research result was presented in the form diagram, table of cross tabulation and analyzed by using Spearman Rho with significance level ρ=0.005. The result showed that there was correlation of homosexual knowledge (ρ=0.001, attitude (ρ=0.000 and  practice (ρ=0.000 with prevalence of STDs. Dsicussion:  It can be concluded that the better knowledge, attitude and practice of homosexual could be decrease prevalence of STDs. Futher studies are recomended to analyze the correlation between homosexual behaviour and prevalence of STDs with Health Believe approach.

  8. Signaling Architectures that Transmit Unidirectional Information Despite Retroactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rushina; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2017-08-08

    A signaling pathway transmits information from an upstream system to downstream systems, ideally in a unidirectional fashion. A key obstacle to unidirectional transmission is retroactivity, the additional reaction flux that affects a system once its species interact with those of downstream systems. This raises the fundamental question of whether signaling pathways have developed specialized architectures that overcome retroactivity and transmit unidirectional signals. Here, we propose a general procedure based on mathematical analysis that provides an answer to this question. Using this procedure, we analyze the ability of a variety of signaling architectures to transmit one-way (from upstream to downstream) signals, as key biological parameters are tuned. We find that single stage phosphorylation and phosphotransfer systems that transmit signals from a kinase show a stringent design tradeoff that hampers their ability to overcome retroactivity. Interestingly, cascades of these architectures, which are highly represented in nature, can overcome this tradeoff and thus enable unidirectional transmission. By contrast, phosphotransfer systems, and single and double phosphorylation cycles that transmit signals from a substrate, are unable to mitigate retroactivity effects, even when cascaded, and hence are not well suited for unidirectional information transmission. These results are largely independent of the specific reaction-rate constant values, and depend on the topology of the architectures. Our results therefore identify signaling architectures that, allowing unidirectional transmission of signals, embody modular processes that conserve their input/output behavior across multiple contexts. These findings can be used to decompose natural signal transduction networks into modules, and at the same time, they establish a library of devices that can be used in synthetic biology to facilitate modular circuit design. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by

  9. Environmental pollution with soil-transmitted helminths in Sanliurfa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulukanligil Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil transmitted helminth (STH infection are endemic in developing countries. A study was carried out of sewage farms, streams and vegetables to determine the sources and routes of STH infection in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Stool samples from farmhouse inhabitants as well as soil and vegetable samples from the gardens were collected and examined. In addition, water samples from streams and vegetable samples from the city market were collected and examined. One hundred and eighty-seven (59.5% of a total of 314 samples, including 88.4% of the stool samples, 60.8% of the water samples, 84.4% of the soil samples and 14% of the vegetable samples, were found to be positive for STH eggs. These results indicate that the water, soil and vegetables are heavily contaminated, and suggest a vicious circle between humans and the environment. Improving environmental sanitation is imperative for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sanliurfa.

  10. Primary care management of sexually transmitted urethritis in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Claire E

    2003-04-01

    To describe current knowledge about diagnosis, screening, and treatment of sexually transmitted urethritis among adolescent and young adult males. Current research, systematic reviews, consensus guidelines and the author's clinical experience. Urethritis, the most common sexually transmitted syndrome in young males, is most frequently caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhea. Symptoms include dysuria and penile discharge, although up to 50% of males are asymptomatic. Risky sexual behaviors and lack of access to healthcare increase incidence of this infection. Transmission to female partners can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and neonatal infection. Young males with urethritis must be treated as soon as diagnosis is established. Consensus guidelines exist for diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis. Careful patient education is necessary to ensure successful treatment. Prevention of repeat infections requires partner treatment and detailed education about safer sexual practices. Improved access to preventive services for young males should be a healthcare priority.

  11. Spectrally efficient switched transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to increase the spectral efficiency of the secondary link. The proposed bandwidth efficient scheme (BES) uses the scan and wait (SWC) combining technique where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance is found, otherwise data is buffered. In our scheme, the modulation constellation size and the used transmit branch are determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. Selected numerical examples show that the BES scheme increases the capacity of the secondary link when compared to an existing switching efficient scheme (SES). This spectral efficiency comes at the expense of an increased average number of switched branches and thus an increased average delay. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Spectrally efficient switched transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2011-09-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to increase the spectral efficiency of the secondary link. The proposed bandwidth efficient scheme (BES) uses the scan and wait (SWC) combining technique where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance is found, otherwise data is buffered. In our scheme, the modulation constellation size and the used transmit branch are determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. Selected numerical examples show that the BES scheme increases the capacity of the secondary link when compared to an existing switching efficient scheme (SES). This spectral efficiency comes at the expense of an increased average number of switched branches and thus an increased average delay. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Three Dimensional Energy Transmitting Boundary in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro eNakamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the energy transmitting boundary is accurate and efficient for the FEM earthquake response analysis, it could be applied in the frequency domain only. In the previous papers, the author proposed an earthquake response analysis method using the time domain energy transmitting boundary for two dimensional problems. In this paper, this technique is expanded for three dimensional problems. The inner field is supposed to be a hexahedron shape and the approximate time domain boundary is explained, first. Next, two dimensional anti-plane time domain boundary is studied for a part of the approximate three dimensional boundary method. Then, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are confirmed by example problems.

  14. Canadian Laboratory Standards for Sexually Transmitted Infections: Best Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI continue to spread, and show no international boundaries. Diseases such as gonorrhea and syphilis, which we thought were under control in Canadian populations, have increased in incidence. Sexually transmitted or associated syndromes such as cervicitis, enteric infections, epididymitis, genital ulcers, sexually related hepatitis, ophthalmia neonatorum, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis and vulvovaginitis present a challenge for the physician to identify the microbial cause, treat the patient and manage contacts. During the past 10 years, new technologies developed for the diagnosis of STIs have provided a clearer understanding of the real accuracy of traditional tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis B virus, human papillomaviruses, HIV, Haemophilus ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasmas. This has presented a major challenge to the diagnostic laboratory, namely, selecting the most sensitive and specific test matched with the most appropriate specimens to provide meaningful and timely results to facilitate optimal patient care.

  15. Human bubonic plague transmitted by a domestic cat scratch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Warren, A J; Forseth, V; Shipps, G W; Creelman, T; Gorton, J; Barnes, A M

    1984-02-17

    Bubonic plague was transmitted to a 10-year-old girl in Oregon by a scratch wound inflicted by a domestic cat. The cat probably was infected by contact with infected wild rodents or their fleas. Yersinia pestis was identified in Diamanus montanus fleas collected from an abandoned burrow near the patient's home. Domestic cats may infect humans with Y pestis by inoculation from a scratch.

  16. Congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis: report of two brazilian human cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrlena Regina Machado Mescouto-Borges

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a relevant public health problem worldwide. Most of the reported cases in Latin America are from Brazil. Herein we report two human cases of congenitally transmitted visceral leishmaniasis in two patients who developed symptoms during pregnancy. The diagnosis was made by visual examination of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates of the mothers and by detecting parasite kDNA in bone marrow samples of the newborn children using polymerase chain reaction.

  17. Using Piezoelectric Devices to Transmit Power through Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2008-01-01

    A method denoted wireless acoustic-electric feed-through (WAEF) has been conceived for transmitting power and/or data signals through walls or other solid objects made of a variety of elastic materials that could be electrically conductive or nonconductive. WAEF would make it unnecessary to use wires, optical fibers, tubes, or other discrete wall-penetrating signal-transmitting components, thereby eliminating the potential for structural weakening or leakage at such penetrations. Avoidance of such penetrations could be essential in some applications in which maintenance of pressure, vacuum, or chemical or biological isolation is required. In a basic WAEF setup, a transmitting piezoelectric transducer on one side of a wall would be driven at resonance to excite ultrasonic vibrations in the wall. A receiving piezoelectric transducer on the opposite side of the wall would convert the vibrations back to an ultrasonic AC electric signal, which would then be detected and otherwise processed in a manner that would depend on the modulation (if any) applied to the signal and whether the signal was used to transmit power, data, or both. An electromechanical-network model has been derived as a computationally efficient means of analyzing and designing a WAEF system. This model is a variant of a prior model, known in the piezoelectric-transducer art as Mason's equivalent-circuit model, in which the electrical and mechanical dynamics, including electromechanical couplings, are expressed as electrical circuit elements that can include inductors, capacitors, and lumped-parameter complex impedances. The real parts of the complex impedances are used to account for dielectric, mechanical, and coupling losses in all components (including all piezoelectric-transducer, wall, and intermediate material layers). In an application to a three-layer piezoelectric structure, this model was shown to yield the same results as do solutions of the wave equations of piezoelectricity and acoustic

  18. Transmit coil design for Wireless Power Transfer for medical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemdiasov, Rosti; Venkatasubramanian, Arun

    2017-07-01

    A new design approach for the design of transmit coils for Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is presented. The theoretical formulation involves a figure of merit that has to be maximized to solve for the surface current. Numerical predictions and comparisons with practical measurements for the coil parameters (inductance. resistance) underscore the success of this approach in terms of achieving strong coupling with a receive coil while maintaining low resistance.

  19. Perception of health care providers about sexually transmitted infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Izhar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections represent a global health problem leading to social stigma and early morbidity and mortality. Prior to this study, different health care providers were dealing with sexually transmitted infections with various parameters and were not following the standard regime given by the WHO. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of health care providers about sexually transmitted infections and its treatment guidelines. Methods: Cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted from health care providers(specialists, family physicians, homeopaths and others )of Lahore from Jan 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected with consent through convenience purposive sampling of randomly selected 100 specialists, 200 family physicians, 100 homeopaths and 100 others. Trained investigators pre-tested the validity and reliability of the questionnaire before use. Data of response was coded, entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Out of 500 practitioners 475 (95%) completed the questionnaire. Those excluded were due to insufficient data in questionnaire. Almost all respondents were aware of STIs and the guidelines and claimed to have decent knowledge. Apart from some disagreement on the user- friendliness and communication facilitating properties, the health care provider's attitude were positive. Conclusion: Overall, all the health care providers knew about sexually transmitted infections. It was the treatment according to the guidelines, in which they differed. Specialists and Family physician in Lahore, Pakistan knew and followed the STIs guidelines while managing the patients. Homeopaths and others were receiving patients and treating most of these infections but were not aware of the standard guidelines yet somehow their patients were treated and satisfied. Enhancing the familiarity of the guidelines among users can result in a positive outcome on the treatment of STIs. (author)

  20. Automatic Identification System (AIS) Transmit Testing in Louisville Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Firewall Louisville QM 65.206.28.x NAIS Site Controller PC RS232 Serial cable TV32 Computer Cmd Center Serial splitter SAAB R40 AIS Base Station...172.17.14.6 Rack mount computer AIS Radio Interface Ethernet Switch 192.168.0.x Firewall Cable Modem 192.168.0.1 VTS Accred. Boundary serial connection...Automatic Identification System ( AIS ) Transmit Testing in Louisville Phase 2 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release

  1. Pattern of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in and Around Udaipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Bansal

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The patients who attended the STD clinic of our hospital during the last 10 years were studied retrospectively to work out the pattern of major sexually transmitted diseases viz. -syphilis, ionorrhoea, chancroid, lymphogranuloma vencreum and donovinosis. The total number of patients was 1093, The relative incidence of chancroid was found. higher (37.78% than syphilis (32.47%, gonorrhoea (24 79% mixed infections (3.38%, donovanosis (1.18% and lymphogranuloma venereum (0.36%.

  2. Recommendation on vectors and vector-transmitted diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority

    2009-01-01

    In view of their increasing risk of introduction and their possible implications in causing major disease outbreaks, vectors, as well as vector-transmitted diseases like dengue, West Nile disease, Lyme disease and bluetongue need to be recognised as a threat to public and animal health and to the economy, also in the Netherlands. There has been an increase in the incidence of these diseases in the past two to three decades. Climate changes and changes in the use of land, water managemen...

  3. MIMO Radar Transmit Beampattern Design Without Synthesising the Covariance Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2013-10-28

    Compared to phased-array, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radars provide more degrees-offreedom (DOF) that can be exploited for improved spatial resolution, better parametric identifiability, lower side-lobe levels at the transmitter/receiver, and design variety of transmit beampatterns. The design of the transmit beampattern generally requires the waveforms to have arbitrary auto- and crosscorrelation properties. The generation of such waveforms is a two step complicated process. In the first step a waveform covariance matrix is synthesised, which is a constrained optimisation problem. In the second step, to realise this covariance matrix actual waveforms are designed, which is also a constrained optimisation problem. Our proposed scheme converts this two step constrained optimisation problem into a one step unconstrained optimisation problem. In the proposed scheme, in contrast to synthesising the covariance matrix for the desired beampattern, nT independent finite-alphabet constantenvelope waveforms are generated and pre-processed, with weight matrix W, before transmitting from the antennas. In this work, two weight matrices are proposed that can be easily optimised for the desired symmetric and non-symmetric beampatterns and guarantee equal average power transmission from each antenna. Simulation results validate our claims.

  4. Imperfect generalized transmit beamforming with co-channel interference cancelation

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-10-01

    The performance of a generalized single-stream transmit beamforming scheme employing receive co-channel interference -steering algorithms in slowly varying and flat fading channels is analyzed. The impact of imperfect prediction of channel state information (CSI) for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels is considered. Both dominant interference cancelation and adaptive arbitrary interference cancelation algorithms for closely spaced receive antennas are used. The impact of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers instantaneous powers on the effectiveness of dominant interference cancelation is investigated against the less complex adaptive arbitrary cancelation scheme. For the system models described above, new exact formulas for the statistics of combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) are derived, from which results for conventional maximum ratio transmission (MRT) and best transmit channel selection schemes can be deduced as limiting cases. The results presented herein can be used to obtain quantitative measure for various performance metrics, and in addition to investigate the performance-complexity tradeoff for different multiple-antenna system models. © 2010 IEEE.

  5. Selective wave-transmitting electromagnetic absorber through composite metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Zhao, Junming; Zhu, Bo; Jiang, Tian; Feng, Yijun

    2017-11-01

    Selective wave-transmitting absorbers which have one or more narrow transmission bands inside a wide absorption band are often demanded in wireless communication and radome applications for reducing the coupling between different systems, improving anti-jamming capability, and reducing antennas' radar cross section. Here we propose a feasible method that utilizing composite of two metasurfaces with different polarization dependent characteristics, one works as electromagnetic polarization rotator and the other as a wideband polarization dependent electromagnetic wave absorber. The polarization rotator produces a cross polarization output in the wave-transmitting band, while preserves the polarization of the incidence outside the band. The metasurface absorber works for certain linear polarization with a much wider absorption band covering the wave-transmitting frequency. When combining these two metasurfaces properly, the whole structure behaves as a wideband absorber with a certain frequency transmission window. The proposal may be applied in radome designs to reduce the radar cross section of antenna or improving the electromagnetic compatibility in communication devices.

  6. Switch and examine transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a switch and examine transmit diversity algorithm for spectrum sharing cognitive networks. We consider a cognitive network composed of a primary link that employs constant rate and constant power transmission scheme with automatic-and-repeat request (ARQ) protocol, while the secondary link is composed of a fixed power multiple-antenna secondary transmitter and a single antenna receiver. Our objective is to develop a low complex transmit diversity algorithm at the secondary transmitter that maximizes the performance of the secondary link in terms of the effective throughput while maintaining a predetermined maximum loss in the packet rate of the primary link. In achieving this objective, we develop an algorithm that selects the best antenna, which maintains the quality of the secondary link in terms of signal-to-noise ratio above a specific threshold, based on overhearing the acknowledgment (ACK) and negative acknowledgment (NACK) feedback messages transmitted over the primary link. We also develop closed form expressions for the bit error rates and the effective throughput of the secondary link. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej eHajdusek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia, rickettsiae (Anaplasma, and protozoans (Babesia. Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens.

  8. Pair formation models for sexually transmitted infections: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Kretzschmar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For modelling sexually transmitted infections, duration of partnerships can strongly influence the transmission dynamics of the infection. If partnerships are monogamous, pairs of susceptible individuals are protected from becoming infected, while pairs of infected individuals delay onward transmission of the infection as long as they persist. In addition, for curable infections re-infection from an infected partner may occur. Furthermore, interventions based on contact tracing rely on the possibility of identifying and treating partners of infected individuals. To reflect these features in a mathematical model, pair formation models were introduced to mathematical epidemiology in the 1980's. They have since been developed into a widely used tool in modelling sexually transmitted infections and the impact of interventions. Here we give a basic introduction to the concepts of pair formation models for a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS epidemic. We review some results and applications of pair formation models mainly in the context of chlamydia infection. Keywords: Pair formation, Mathematical model, Partnership duration, Sexually transmitted infections, Basic reproduction number

  9. Estimating Transmitted-Signal Phase Variations for Uplink Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paal, Leslie; Mukai, Ryan; Vilntrotter, Victor; Cornish, Timothy; Lee, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A method of estimating phase drifts of microwave signals distributed to, and transmitted by, antennas in an array involves the use of the signals themselves as phase references. The method was conceived as part of the solution of the problem of maintaining precise phase calibration required for proper operation of an array of Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas on Earth used for communicating with distant spacecraft at frequencies between 7 and 8 GHz. The method could also be applied to purely terrestrial phased-array radar and other radio antenna array systems. In the DSN application, the electrical lengths (effective signal-propagation path lengths) of the various branches of the system for distributing the transmitted signals to the antennas are not precisely known, and they vary with time. The variations are attributable mostly to thermal expansion and contraction of fiber-optic and electrical signal cables and to a variety of causes associated with aging of signal-handling components. The variations are large enough to introduce large phase drifts at the signal frequency. It is necessary to measure and correct for these phase drifts in order to maintain phase calibration of the antennas. A prior method of measuring phase drifts involves the use of reference-frequency signals separate from the transmitted signals. A major impediment to accurate measurement of phase drifts over time by the prior method is the fact that although DSN reference-frequency sources separate from the transmitting signal sources are stable and accurate enough for most DSN purposes, they are not stable enough for use in maintaining phase calibrations, as required, to within a few degrees over times as long as days or possibly even weeks. By eliminating reliance on the reference-frequency subsystem, the present method overcomes this impediment. In a DSN array to which the present method applies (see figure), the microwave signals to be transmitted are generated by exciters in a signal

  10. Quantitative Estimation of Transmitted and Reflected Lamb Waves at Discontinuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Sohn, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    For the application of Lamb wave to structural health monitoring(SHM), understanding its physical characteristic and interaction between Lamb wave and defect of the host structure is an important issue. In this study, reflected, transmitted and mode converted Lamb waves at discontinuity of a plate structure were simulated and the amplitude ratios are calculated theoretically using Modal decomposition method. The predicted results were verified comparing with finite element method(FEM) and experimental results simulating attached PZTs. The result shows that the theoretical prediction is close to the FEM and the experimental verification. Moreover, quantitative estimation method was suggested using amplitude ratio of Lamb wave at discontinuity

  11. Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-08-25

    Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common-shot gather should abruptly change near the surface projection of the fault. We present ray-map imaging method that migrates transmitted surface waves to the fault plane, and therefore it roughly estimates the orientation, depth, and location of the near-surface fault. The main benefits of this method are that it is computationally inexpensive and robust in the presence of noise.

  12. Venereal worms: sexually transmitted nematodes in the decorated cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, L T; Platzer, E G; Zuk, M; Giblin-Davis, R M

    2000-06-01

    The nematode, Mehdinema alii, occurs in the alimentary canal of the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus. Adult nematodes occur primarily in the hindgut of mature male crickets, whereas juvenile nematodes are found in the genital chambers of mature male and female crickets. Here, we present experimental evidence for the venereal transmission of M. alii in G. sigillatus. Infectivity experiments were conducted to test for transmission via oral-fecal contamination, same-sex contact, and copulation. The infective dauers of the nematode are transferred from male to female crickets during copulation. Adult female crickets harboring infective dauers subsequently transfer the nematode to their next mates. Thus, M. alii is transmitted sexually during copulation.

  13. Counterfactual quantum cloning without transmitting any physical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Zhai, Shuqin; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2017-11-01

    We propose a counterfactual 1 →2 economical phase-covariant cloning scheme. Compared with the existing protocols using flying qubits, the main difference of the presented scheme is that the cloning can be achieved without transmitting the photon between the two parties. In addition, this counterfactual scheme does not need to construct controlled quantum gates to perform joint logical operations between the cloned qubit and the blank copy. We also numerically evaluate the performance of the present scheme in the practical experiment, which shows this cloning scheme can be implemented with a high success of probability and the fidelity is close to the optimal value in the ideal asymptotic limit.

  14. The value transmitted by woman in Disney animated films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Marín Díaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The animated films, has taken in the last decade of great relevance. This study aims to analyse the values that the female of the films from Disney. Through a descriptive and correlational study, we have proceeded to consult a group of teachers (N = 27 of said educational level, through a questionnaire of Marin and Sanchez (2015. The main result achieved has been the realization of the development of women and their role in society. It has also been confirmed that all transmit at least one traditional socially accepted value.

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. A female perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, M

    2012-02-03

    Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.

  16. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Data Transmitted from Satellite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USCRN Raw Transmitted Data is level 0 data received from the USCRN stations that are transmitted continuously. The data values are ingested with a unique 18-bit...

  17. Comparisons of receive array interference reduction techniques under erroneous generalized transmit beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    information for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels on the effectiveness of transmit beamforming for different interference reduction techniques is investigated. The case of over-loaded receive array with closely-spaced elements

  18. 75 FR 79006 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Transfusion-Transmitted Retrovirus and Hepatitis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Transfusion- Transmitted Retrovirus and Hepatitis Virus Rates and Risk Factors: Improving... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Transfusion-transmitted retrovirus and hepatitis virus rates...

  19. [Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, O.P.; Meijden, W.I. van der; Wittenberg, J.; Bergen, J.E. van; Boeke, A.J.; Doornum, G.J.J. van; Henquet, C.J.; Galama, J.M.D.; Postma, M.J.; Prins, J.M.; Voorst Vader, P.C. van

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement revised guideline, 'Sexually transmitted diseases and neonatal herpes' summarises the current scientific position on the diagnosis and treatment of a great number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and neonatal herpes. Symptomatic treatment of

  20. The capacity to transmit classical information via black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Christoph; Ver Steeg, Greg

    2013-03-01

    One of the most vexing problems in theoretical physics is the relationship between quantum mechanics and gravity. According to an argument originally by Hawking, a black hole must destroy any information that is incident on it because the only radiation that a black hole releases during its evaporation (the Hawking radiation) is precisely thermal. Surprisingly, this claim has never been investigated within a quantum information-theoretic framework, where the black hole is treated as a quantum channel to transmit classical information. We calculate the capacity of the quantum black hole channel to transmit classical information (the Holevo capacity) within curved-space quantum field theory, and show that the information carried by late-time particles sent into a black hole can be recovered with arbitrary accuracy, from the signature left behind by the stimulated emission of radiation that must accompany any absorption event. We also show that this stimulated emission turns the black hole into an almost-optimal quantum cloning machine, where the violation of the no-cloning theorem is ensured by the noise provided by the Hawking radiation. Thus, rather than threatening the consistency of theoretical physics, Hawking radiation manages to save it instead.

  1. General aspects concerning strictly meat and fish transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infested fleshes, where man is definitive host too, are represented by four groups of helminths: the cestodes Dyphyllobothrium spp and Spirometra spp. (Sparganum proliferum is the name of the immature plerocercoid larva, the trematodes Opisthorchis Clonorchis “group” (many could be the genera and species involved, and the nematode Capillaria philippinensis. So, for fishes humans foods (fresh or salted water the control and prevention in veterinary health must be directed to investigation regarding intermediate stages of these parasites in fishes for human alimentation; if present, they must be eliminated. The helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infected mammals meats, are represented by taeniasis (Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. saginata asiatica, where man id definitive host and the infection is caused by ingestion of bovine or swine meat, containing larvae of these cestodes, and by trichinellosis, where humans represent a intermediate stage, and the eventual pathology is caused as by adult (acute infection as by larvae (chronic infection of this nematode: usually the meats responsible are infected pork, wild pork or horse (Trichinella spp. Is inside the meats of these animals. So the veterinary control and prophylaxis are necessary to avoid this disease and preventing the infection that could be severe.

  2. Indigenous Healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Mulaudzi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Grounded Theory study has been used, based on its Theory of Symbolic Interactionism, to explore indigenous healers’ beliefs and practices concerning sexually transmitted diseases amongst the Vhavenda. Initial data collection has been done, using purposive sampling and when categories started emerging, theoretical sampling was then used. Data were analysed by using three basic types of coding namely, open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The findings of the study revealed a variety of terms used to identify STDs. It then also became evident that there are similarities between gonorrhoea, syphilis and condylomata as shown in the orthodox Sexually transmitted diseases posters used in orthodox medicine with some of the STDs that the indigenous healers are familiar with. In accordance with the Grounded Theory, the description of types of diseases, disease patterns as well as signs and symptoms culminated in the emergence of the Dirt Theory. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that guidelines for designing a module for teaching health professionals be formulated to assist nurses in understanding the beliefs and practices of the people they serve.

  3. MIMO transmit scheme based on morphological perceptron with competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Raul Ambrozio; Abrão, Taufik

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transmit scheme aided by artificial neural network (ANN). The morphological perceptron with competitive learning (MP/CL) concept is deployed as a decision rule in the MIMO detection stage. The proposed MIMO transmission scheme is able to achieve double spectral efficiency; hence, in each time-slot the receiver decodes two symbols at a time instead one as Alamouti scheme. Other advantage of the proposed transmit scheme with MP/CL-aided detector is its polynomial complexity according to modulation order, while it becomes linear when the data stream length is greater than modulation order. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared to the traditional MIMO schemes, namely Alamouti scheme and maximum-likelihood MIMO (ML-MIMO) detector. Also, the proposed scheme is evaluated in a scenario with variable channel information along the frame. Numerical results have shown that the diversity gain under space-time coding Alamouti scheme is partially lost, which slightly reduces the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the proposed MP/CL-NN MIMO scheme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Narrative Review: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Homeless Youth-What Do We Know About Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevalence and Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P

    2017-08-01

    Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000-2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review.

  5. Sexually transmitted infections: old foes on the rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Kainz, Katharina; Madeo, Frank

    2016-09-05

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are commonly spread via sexual contact. It is estimated that one million STIs are acquired every day worldwide. Besides their impact on sexual, reproductive and neonatal health, they can cause disastrous and life-threatening complications if left untreated. In addition to this personal burden, STIs also represent a socioeconomic problem, deriving in treatment costs of tremendous proportions. Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis, treatment and prevention, the incidence of many common STIs is increasing, and STIs continue to represent a global public health problem and a major cause for morbidity and mortality. With this Special Issue, Microbial Cell provides an in-depth overview of the eight major STIs, covering all relevant features of each infection.

  6. Closed form fourier-based transmit beamforming for MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John J.

    2014-05-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar setting, it is often desirable to design correlated waveforms such that power is transmitted only to a given set of locations, a process known as beampattern design. To design desired beam-pattern, current research uses iterative algorithms, first to synthesize the waveform covariance matrix, R, then to design the actual waveforms to realize R. In contrast to this, we present a closed form method to design R that exploits discrete Fourier transform and Toeplitz matrix. The resulting covariance matrix fulfills the practical constraints and performance is similar to that of iterative methods. Next, we present a radar architecture for the desired beampattern that does not require the synthesis of covariance matrix nor the design of correlated waveforms. © 2014 IEEE.

  7. Microanalysis by spectroscopy of transmitted electron energy losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colliex, C.; Trebbia, P.

    1978-01-01

    Among the various signals which, in a transmission electron microscope, result from the interactions between the primary beam of well defined energy E 0 and the sample, the spectrum of the energy distribution of the electrons transmitted contains useful informations on the chemical and physical properties of the sample. Consequently the adaptation of an energy dispersive system on an electron microscope enables new fields of research to be investigated, particularly a localised chemical analysis technique with a space resolution scale equal to that of the electron microscope. It is this second aspect that we suggest describing in particular here. Already, this technique appears to be indispensable in the problems arising from the analysis of very small quantities of matter: detection limits in the order of 10 -19 to 10 -20 g (around 100 to 1000 atoms) would seem to be resonably possible [fr

  8. Trichomonas vaginalis - an indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases and 68 men counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female SID cases′ and in 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 216 cases of T.vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with infection with Candida species; 29 (23% with Neisseria gonorrhoea. 18 cases (14.3% with Haemophilus ducreyi and 11 cases (8.7%, Chlamydia trachomatis. Treponema pallidum was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constituted a low percentage. Present study highlighted the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-third cases which suggested that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  9. Sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy: a synthesis of particularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mariana Carvalho; Bornhausen Demarch, Eduardo; Azulay, David Rubem; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Nery, José Augusto da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have a significant prevalence in both the general population and pregnant women. Accordingly, we consider the physiological changes of the maternal organism that can alter the clinical course of these diseases. In addition, obstetric and neonatal complications may occur, resulting in increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We explore features of the natural course and treatment during pregnancy of the major STDs: soft chancre, donovanosis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, viral hepatitis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, and vulvovaginitis. We believe that health professionals should pay careful attention to STDs, particularly in relation to early diagnosis and precautions on the use of drugs during pregnancy. Prevention and partner treatment to achieve effective results are also extremely relevant.

  10. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  11. Transmitting information of an object behind the obstacle to infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bai Bing; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Meng, Ling Ling; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-08-01

    We propose an illusion device that transforms a metallic cylinder into a Luneburg lens by using transformation optics. Such a transformed focusing lens guides electromagnetic waves to propagate around the central metallic cylinder smoothly and be focused on one spot, and thus the information of an object behind the obstacle can be transmitted to infinity. In order to realize the required-anisotropic parameters with high permittivity and low permeability, we design embedded split-ring resonators (SRRs) to increase the permittivity of the traditional SRR structures. In experiments, we fabricate and measure the transformed lens, and the tested results agree well with the numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. The proposed transformation lens can mimic some properties of Einstein gravitational lens because their wave propagation behaviors are very similar.

  12. Polarization Patterns of Transmitted Celestial Light under Wavy Water Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to describe the polarization patterns of celestial light, which includes sunlight and skylight, when refracted by wavy water surfaces. The polarization patterns and intensity distribution of refracted light through the wave water surface were calculated. The model was validated by underwater experimental measurements. The experimental and theoretical values agree well qualitatively. This work provides a quantitative description of the repolarization and transmittance of celestial light transmitted through wave water surfaces. The effects of wind speed and incident sources on the underwater refraction polarization patterns are discussed. Scattering skylight dominates the polarization patterns while direct solar light is the dominant source of the intensity of the underwater light field. Wind speed has an influence on disturbing the patterns under water.

  13. Hiv infection in patients of sexually transmitted disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1027 male patients suffering from sexually transmitted diseases (STD during 1990 to 1996 were screened for HIV infection. All cases were in the age group 17 years to 48 years. One hundred and sixty-seven STD cases (16.3% were found to have HIV infection. A rising trend in incidence of HIV infection in STD patients from 1990 (2.8% to 1996 (27.8% was noticed countrary to declining trend of STDs from 213 cases in 1990 to 79 cases in 1996. The incidence of HIV infection was 30.3% in lymphogranuloma venereum, 19.5% in chancroid, 13.5% in syphilis, 17.6% in herpes genitatis, 6.7% in gonorrhoea and 11.2% in other STD cases.

  14. Dynein Transmits Polarized Actomyosin Cortical Flows to Promote Centrosome Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro De Simone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The two centrosomes present at the onset of mitosis must separate in a timely and accurate fashion to ensure proper bipolar spindle assembly. The minus-end-directed motor dynein plays a pivotal role in centrosome separation, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, particularly regarding how dynein coordinates this process in space and time. We addressed these questions in the one-cell C. elegans embryo, using a combination of 3D time-lapse microscopy and computational modeling. Our analysis reveals that centrosome separation is powered by the joint action of dynein at the nuclear envelope and at the cell cortex. Strikingly, we demonstrate that dynein at the cell cortex acts as a force-transmitting device that harnesses polarized actomyosin cortical flows initiated by the centrosomes earlier in the cell cycle. This mechanism elegantly couples cell polarization with centrosome separation, thus ensuring faithful cell division.

  15. Searching for unknown transfusion-transmitted hepatitis viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, G.; Hjalgrim, H.; Rostgaard, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Both hepatitis B and C viruses were transmitted through blood transfusion before implementation of donor screening. The existence of additional, yet unknown transfusion transmittable agents causing liver disease could have important public health implications. Methods: Analyses were...... 1992 to account for the effect of screening for hepatitis C virus. Results: A total of 1 482 922 transfused patients were included in the analyses. Analyses showed evidence of transfusion transmission of liver diseases before, but not after the implementation of hepatitis C virus screening in 1992...... for transfusion transmission of agents causing liver disease after the implementation of screening for hepatitis B and C, and suggest that if such transmission does occur, it is rare....

  16. Arsenolite: a quasi-hydrostatic solid pressure-transmitting medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sans, J A; Manjón, F J; Popescu, C; Muñoz, A; Rodríguez-Hernández, P; Jordá, J L; Rey, F

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the experimental characterization of the hydrostatic properties of arsenolite (As 4 O 6 ), a molecular solid which is one of the softest minerals in the absence of hydrogen bonding. The high compressibility of arsenolite and its stability up to 15 GPa have been proved by x-ray diffraction measurements, and the progressive loss of hydrostaticity with increasing pressure up to 20 GPa has been monitored by ruby photoluminescence. Arsenolite has been found to exhibit hydrostatic behavior up to 2.5 GPa and a quasi-hydrostatic behavior up to 10 GPa at room temperature. This result opens the way to explore other molecular solids as possible quasi-hydrostatic pressure-transmitting media. The validity of arsenolite as an insulating, stable, non-penetrating and quasi-hydrostatic medium is explored by the study of the x-ray diffraction of zeolite ITQ-29 at high pressure. (paper)

  17. The pressure distribution for biharmonic transmitting array: theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, A.

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the paper is theoretical analysis of the finite amplitude waves interaction problem for the biharmonic transmitting array. We assume that the array consists of 16 circular pistons of the same dimensions that regrouped in two sections. Two different arrangements of radiating elements were considered. In this situation the radiating surface is non-continuous without axial symmetry. The mathematical model was built on the basis of the Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya - Kuznetsov (KZK) equation. To solve the problem the finite-difference method was applied. On-axis pressure amplitude for different frequency waves as a function of distance from the source, transverse pressure distribution of these waves at fixed distances from the source and pressure amplitude distribution for them at fixed planes were examined. Especially changes of normalized pressure amplitude for difference frequency were studied. The paper presents mathematical model and some results of theoretical investigations obtained for different values of source parameters.

  18. Vaccination strategies for SIR vector-transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Pacheco, Gustavo; Esteva, Lourdes; Vargas, Cristobal

    2014-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the major public health problems in the world with the fastest spreading rate. Control measures have been focused on vector control, with poor results in most cases. Vaccines should help to reduce the diseases incidence, but vaccination strategies should also be defined. In this work, we propose a vector-transmitted SIR disease model with age-structured population subject to a vaccination program. We find an expression for the age-dependent basic reproductive number R(0), and we show that the disease-free equilibrium is locally stable for R(0) ≤ 1, and a unique endemic equilibrium exists for R(0) > 1. We apply the theoretical results to public data to evaluate vaccination strategies, immunization levels, and optimal age of vaccination for dengue disease.

  19. Drug resistance in the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REBECCA L DUNNE; LINDA A DUNN; PETER UPCROFT; PETER J O'DONOGHUE; JACQUELINE A UPCROFT

    2003-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the highest prevalence and incidence of any sexually transmitted infection. The 5-nitroimidazole drugs, of which metronidazole is the most prescribed, are the only approved,effective drugs to treat trichomoniasis. Resistance against metronidazole is frequently reported and crossresistance among the family of 5-nitroimidazole drugs is common, leaving no alternative for treatment, with some cases remaining unresolved. The mechanism of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis from treatment failures is not well understood, unlike resistance which is developed in the laboratory under increasing metronidazole pressure. In the latter situation, hydrogenosomal function which is involved in activation of the prodrug, metronidazole, is down-regulated. Reversion to sensitivity is incomplete after removal of drug pressure in the highly resistant parasites while clinically resistant strains, so far analysed, maintain their resistance levels in the absence of drug pressure. Although anaerobic resistance has been regarded as a laboratory induced phenomenon, it clearly has been demonstrated in clinical isolates. Pursuit of both approaches will allow dissection of the underlying mechanisms. Many alternative drugs and treatments have been tested in vivo in cases of refractory trichomoniasis, as well as in vitro with some successes including the broad spectrum anti-parasitic drug nitazoxanide. Drug resistance incidence in T. vaginalis appears to be on the increase and improved surveillance of treatment failures is urged.

  20. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections among Male Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.

  1. The prevalence of Proctoeces (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-03

    May 3, 1988 ... between sex of host and parasitic infection, with female mussels harbouring the most metacercariae. ... possible pathogenic effects of Proctoeces on such highly stressed mussel populations clearly ... Histological studies of the reproductive cycle of the ..... variations in transmission success are undoubtedly.

  2. Pharmacist-led screening in sexually transmitted infections: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood H

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen Wood, Sajni Gudka School of Allied Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia Introduction: Sexually transmitted infection (STI screening is a crucial initiative that aims to reduce the increasing global prevalence of many common STIs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes simplex virus (HSV. Many STIs are either asymptomatic or show mild symptoms that are often attributed to other infections; hence, screening is the only way to identify – and by extension, treat – them. In this way, the spread of STIs can be reduced, and the health implications of an untreated STI are minimized. Community pharmacies could provide an avenue to convenient, confidential STI screening by using noninvasive or minimally invasive sample collection techniques that are used by the consumer or pharmacist. We identified the most common STIs found globally and investigated the current and potential role of pharmacists in provision of STI screening interventions.Discussion: There is sufficient evidence for pharmacy-based chlamydia screening, with many consumers and pharmacists finding it an acceptable and highly valued service. Some evidence was found for pharmacy-based gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV screening. Appropriate sample collection for gonorrhea screening needs to be further examined in a pharmacy setting. HBV screening presented an increased risk of personal injury to pharmacists through the collection of whole blood specimens, which could be reduced through consumer self-sampling. Pharmacist-collected specimens for HIV is less risky as an oral swab can be used, nullifying the risk of transmission; but pre- and post-screen consultations can be time-intensive; hence, pharmacists would require remuneration to provide an ongoing HIV screening service. Not enough evidence was found for syphilis screening through community pharmacies; more studies are

  3. Can blood tranfusion transmit cancer? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hung; Lee, June; Seed, Clive R; Keller, Anthony J

    2010-07-01

    Blood services around the world face increasing challenges in recruiting voluntary blood donors. With increasing donor restrictions and ageing populations, it is essential to look for any existing restrictions that may be relaxed in the light of currently available evidence. We propose that one such restriction is the exclusion of blood donors with a history of a malignancy. Most blood services apart from the United States and Australia continue the historical precaution of permanently excluding donors with a history of cancer, despite the absence of any convincing reports of cancer transmission among the millions of allogeneic blood transfusions performed since the advent of blood banking. In 2007, workers in Scandinavia published convincing data from the SCANDAT (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database that showed no increase in cancer risk among recipients of blood from "precancerous" donors (ie, donors who were later diagnosed with cancer within 5 years of donating) vs recipients of blood from other donors. This review aims to reconcile this finding with other data available in the published literature that is pertinent to the risk of transmitting cancer via blood transfusion, with a view to establishing that there is now sufficient evidence to support the acceptance of carefully selected blood donors with a history of malignant disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Parasitic zoonoses transmitted by drinking water. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, M; Gornik, V

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the parasitic zoonose organisms Giardia lamblia und Cryptosporidium spp. are among the most relevant pathogens of drinking water-associated disease outbreaks. These pathogens are transmitted via a fecal-oral route; in both cases the dose of infection is low. Apart from person-to-person or animal-to-person transmissions, the consumption of contaminated food and water are further modes of transmission. The disease is mainly characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. In industrialized countries, the prevalence rate of giardiasis is 2-5 % and of cryptosporidiosis 1-3%. Throughout the world, a large number of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with drinking water were published; in 2001 the first case in Germany was identified. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are detected in surface water and sporadically in unprotected groundwater. Use of these waters for drinking water abstraction makes high demands on the technology of the treatment process: because of the disinfectant resistance of the parasites, safe elimination methods are needed, which even at high contamination levels of source water guarantee safe drinking water. Further measures for prevention and control are implementation of the HACCP concept, which includes the whole chain of procedures of drinking water supply from catchment via treatment to tap and a quality management system.

  5. Failure to transmit avian vacuolar myelinopathy to mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R.S.; Nutter, F.B.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease that has been diagnosed in free-ranging birds in the southeastern United States. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leuocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been affected. Previous investigations have not determined the etiology of this disease. In November and December 2002, we attempted to induce AVM in game-farmed mallards through four, 7-day exposure trials. Mallards were housed in six groups of eight, with two of these groups serving as controls. One group was housed with AVM-affected coots; one group was tube fed daily with water from the lake where affected coots were captured; one group was tube fed daily with aquatic vegetation (Hydrilla verticillata) from the same lake; and another group was tube fed daily with sediment from the lake. No ducks exhibited clinical neurologic abnormalities consistent with AVM and no evidence of AVM was present at histopathologic examination of brain tissue. Although limitations in sample size, quantity of individual doses, frequency of dose administration, duration of exposure, and timing of these trials restrict the interpretation of the findings, AVM was not readily transmitted by direct contact, water, hydrilla, or sediment in this investigation.

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel: From Boudoir to Bordello.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Ann K; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Travel has historically been an important risk factor for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Travel is often associated with a sense of adventure, periods of loneliness, and exploration away from one's home environment-which often form a milieu in which sexual activity can occur with new partners. Survey data clearly demonstrate that out-of-country travel is associated with recruitment of new sex partners and increased STI risk. Pretravel counseling to prevent STI risk is variable, and there is little evidence that it modifies risk behavior. Some travel occurs specifically for sexual purposes, such as the sexual tourism junkets to Southeast Asian destinations which became popular during the 1980s or the more recent rise in the popularity of circuit parties for men who have sex with men. Some travel situations pose particularly high risks. For example, military deployments and assignments to work camps such as those for oil extraction occur in the context of large groups of individuals of reproductive age, often predominantly males, exposed to high levels of stress in unfamiliar environments. Additionally, over the past decade, the Internet has dramatically changed the ability to identify sexual partners while traveling.

  7. Physical and Sexual Violence and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mallika; Redding, Colleen A.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate whether women aged 13–35 who were victims of interpersonal violence were more likely than nonvictims to experience incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods We examined 542 women aged 13–35 enrolled in Project PROTECT, a randomized clinical trial that compared two different methods of computer-based intervention to promote the use of dual methods of contraception. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included questions about their history of interpersonal violence and were followed for incident STIs over the 2-year study period. We compared the incidence of STIs in women with and without a history of interpersonal violence using bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. Results In the bivariate analyses, STI incidence was found to be significantly associated with African American race/ethnicity, a higher number of sexual partners in the past month, and a lower likelihood of avoidance of sexual partners who pressure to have sex without a condom. In both crude and adjusted regression analyses, time to STI incidence was faster among women who reported physical or sexual abuse in the year before study enrollment (HRRadj = 1.68, 95% CI 1.06, 2.65). Conclusions Women with a recent history of abuse are at significantly increased risk of STI incidence than are nonvictims. PMID:19245303

  8. Vaginal DNA vaccination against infectious diseases transmitted through the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-06-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of vaccines against genital virus infections that are transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, including the HIV and HPV. In general, the surface of female genital mucosa, including vaginal mucosa, is the most common site of initiation of these infections. Thus, it is becoming clear that successful vaccines must induce both cellular and humoral immune responses in both the local genital tract and systemically. We believe that a strong vaginal immune response could be obtained by inducing strong gene expression of antigen-coding DNA in the local targeted tissue. In order to improve transfection efficiency in the vagina, it is important that methods allowing breakthrough of the various barriers, such as the epithelial layer, cellular and nuclear membrane, are developed. Therefore, systems providing less invasive and more effective delivery into the subepithelial layer are required. In this review, we will introduce our studies into efficient vaginal DNA vaccination methods, focusing on the effects of the menstrual cycle, utilization of the combination of functional peptides, and use of a needle-free injector.

  9. Disparities in sexually transmitted disease rates across the "eight Americas".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.

  10. Prevalence and patterns of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos R; García-Morales, Claudia; Soto-Nava, Maribel; Escobar, Ingrid; Mendizabal, Ricardo; Girón, Amalia; García, Leticia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Guatemala. One hundred forty-five antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients referred to the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City were enrolled from October 2010 to March 2011. Plasma HIV pol sequences were obtained and TDR was assessed with the Stanford algorithm and the World Health Organization (WHO) TDR surveillance mutation list. HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Guatemala (96.6%, 140/145), and a 2.8% (4/145) prevalence of BF1 recombinants and 0.7% (1/145) prevalence of subtype C viruses were found. TDR prevalence for the study period was 8.3% (12/145) with the Stanford database algorithm (score > 15) and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. Most TDR cases were associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) (83.3%, 10/12); a low prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors was observed in the cohort (Guatemala. TDR prevalence in Guatemala was at the intermediate level. Most TDR cases were associated with NNRTIs. Further and continuous TDR surveillance is necessary to gain more indepth knowledge about TDR spread and trends in Guatemala and to optimize treatment outcomes in the country.

  11. Trichomoniasis as sexually transmitted disease in sex partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 30 male consorts of 30 cases of vaginal trichomoniasis with high levels of parasitic infection was undertaken to evaluate the sexually transmitted role of trichomoniasis in sex partners. There were 20 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic male partners, who revealed T. vaginalis in 80.0% and 60.0 of the cases respectively and the overall prevalence was 73.3% (22 Of 30. T. vaginalis was detected in 83.3% male with urethritis and 50.0% males with prostatitis. Detection of trichomonas in urethral discharge, morning drop secretion, urine deposit and prostatic fluid was 80.0%, 50.0% 35.7% and 21.4% in that order. It is evident from these results that the sex consorts of all cases of trichomoniasis should be considered as harbouring T. vaginalis in their genito-urinary tract as carriers and be treated to break the chain of transmission. Fontanna smear was superior to culture and wet mount in the detection of T. vaginalis, the success rates being 73.3%, 63.3% and 53.3%. A good correlation was observed between smear and culture at high levels of parasitic infection.

  12. The capacity of black holes to transmit quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brádler, Kamil; Adami, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We study the properties of the quantum information transmission channel that emerges from the quantum dynamics of particles interacting with a black hole horizon. We calculate the quantum channel capacity in two limiting cases where a single-letter capacity is known to exist: the limit of perfectly reflecting and perfectly absorbing black holes. We find that the perfectly reflecting black hole channel is closely related to the Unruh channel and that its capacity is non-vanishing, allowing for the perfect reconstruction of quantum information outside of the black hole horizon. We also find that the complementary channel (transmitting entanglement behind the horizon) is entanglement-breaking in this case, with vanishing capacity. We then calculate the quantum capacity of the black hole channel in the limit of a perfectly absorbing black hole and find that this capacity vanishes, while the capacity of the complementary channel is non-vanishing instead. Rather than inviting a new crisis for quantum physics, this finding instead is in accordance with the quantum no-cloning theorem, because it guarantees that there are no space-like surfaces that contain both the sender’s quantum state and the receiver’s reconstructed quantum state

  13. On the power amplifier nonlinearity in MIMO transmit beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, single-carrier multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems in the presence of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity are investigated. Specifically, due to the suboptimality of the conventional maximal ratio transmission/maximal ratio combining (MRT/MRC) under HPA nonlinearity, we propose the optimal TB scheme with the optimal beamforming weight vector and combining vector, for MIMO systems with nonlinear HPAs. Moreover, an alternative suboptimal but much simpler TB scheme, namely, quantized equal gain transmission (QEGT), is proposed. The latter profits from the property that the elements of the beamforming weight vector have the same constant modulus. The performance of the proposed optimal TB scheme and QEGT/MRC technique in the presence of the HPA nonlinearity is evaluated in terms of the average symbol error probability and mutual information with the Gaussian input, considering the transmission over uncorrelated quasi-static frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects on the performance of several system parameters, namely, the HPA parameters, numbers of antennas, quadrature amplitude modulation modulation order, number of pilot symbols, and cardinality of the beamforming weight vector codebook for QEGT. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Sex Work Regulation and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Troy; Gonzalez, Fidel

    2017-05-01

    While reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections is a common argument for regulating sex work, relatively little empirical evidence is available regarding the effectiveness of these policies. We investigate the effects of highly publicized sex work regulations introduced in 2005 in Tijuana, Mexico on the incidence of trichomoniasis. State-level, annual data for the 1995-2012 period are employed that include the incidence rates of trichomoniasis by age group and predictor variables. We find that the regulations led to a decrease in the incidence rate of trichomoniasis. Specifically, while our estimates are somewhat noisy, the all-ages incidence rate in the 2005-2012 period is roughly 37% lower than what is predicted by our synthetic control estimates and corresponds to approximately 800 fewer reported cases of trichomoniasis per year. We find that the decreases are especially pronounced for 15-24 and 25-44 age cohorts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The role of fear in predicting sexually transmitted infection screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lee; Smith, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    This study assessed the extent to which social-cognitive factors (attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and the fear of a positive test result predict sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening intentions and subsequent behaviour. Study 1 (N = 85) used a longitudinal design to assess the factors that predict STI screening intention and future screening behaviour measured one month later at Time 2. Study 2 (N = 102) used an experimental design to determine whether the relationship between fear and screening varied depending on whether STI or HIV screening was being assessed both before and after controlling for social-cognitive factors. Across the studies the outcome measures were sexual health screening. In both studies, the fear of having an STI positively predicted STI screening intention. In Study 1, fear, but not the social-cognitive factors, also predicted subsequent STI screening behaviour. In Study 2, the fear of having HIV did not predict HIV screening intention, but attitude negatively and response efficacy positively predicted screening intention. This study highlights the importance of considering the nature of the health condition when assessing the role of fear on health promotion.

  16. Reflection on care in recurrent sexually transmitted co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparello, Joel Zamora; Beyers, Carl; Por, Jitna

    Reflection is a skill that nurses are expected to practise to help them continually re-evaluate their personal effectiveness in problem solving. This skill is necessary when caring for patients who are experiencing the complex challenges linked to psychosexual and psychosociological behavioural changes associated with HIV infection and recurrent sexually transmitted co-infections (STC-I). The Johns model of structured reflection was used in the reflection described here to aid the critical thinking process in helping a nurse to manage and deliver up-to-date, effective care and to develop a strong nurse-patient therapeutic relationship. A holistic approach is key to delivering care to patients with recurrent STC-I. This involves taking a sexual health history and establishing the correct diagnosis, followed by the administration of pharmaceutical and psychotherapeutic treatments to facilitate psychosexual, psychosocial, and psychological changes. This article uses a reflective learning experience in caring for a patient with recurrent STC-I to give insights on psychosexual and psychosociological behavioural strategies. Used with a diagnosis and pharmacological intervention, these strategies can be put into nursing practice and enhance the quality of nursing care.

  17. On Secure NOMA Systems with Transmit Antenna Selection Schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Jianming; Park, Kihong; Xu, Peng; Ansari, Imran Shafique; Pan, Gaofeng; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the secrecy performance of a two-user downlink non-orthogonal multiple access systems. Both single-input and single-output and multiple-input and singleoutput systems with different transmit antenna selection (TAS) strategies are considered. Depending on whether the base station has the global channel state information of both the main and wiretap channels, the exact closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) with suboptimal antenna selection and optimal antenna selection schemes are obtained and compared with the traditional space-time transmission scheme. To obtain further insights, the asymptotic analysis of the SOP in high average channel power gains regime is presented and it is found that the secrecy diversity order for all the TAS schemes with fixed power allocation is zero. Furthermore, an effective power allocation scheme is proposed to obtain the nonzero diversity order with all the TAS schemes. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to verify the proposed analytical results.

  18. Haemophilus ducreyi: from sexually transmitted infection to skin ulcer pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David A; Mitjà, Oriol

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the biology, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tests, and treatment of Haemophilus ducreyi infection, with special reference to the decline of chancroid and the recent emergence of H. ducreyi as a pathogen responsible for chronic limb ulceration clinically similar to yaws. Chancroid has declined in importance as a sexually transmitted infection in most countries where it was previously endemic. Chancroid may be caused by either class I or class II H. ducreyi isolates; these two classes diverged from each other approximately 1.95 million years ago. H. ducreyi has recently emerged as a cause of chronic skin ulceration in the Pacific region and Africa. Based on sequencing of whole genomes and defined genetic loci, it appears that the cutaneous H. ducreyi strains diverged from the class I genital strains relatively recently. H. ducreyi should be considered as a major cause of chronic limb ulceration in both adults and children and appropriate molecular diagnostic assays are required to determine ulcer aetiology. The high prevalence of H. ducreyi-related cutaneous ulceration in yaws-endemic countries has challenged the validity of observational surveys to monitor the effectiveness of the WHO's yaws eradication campaign.

  19. The capacity of black holes to transmit quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brádler, Kamil [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary’s University,Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Adami, Christoph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    We study the properties of the quantum information transmission channel that emerges from the quantum dynamics of particles interacting with a black hole horizon. We calculate the quantum channel capacity in two limiting cases where a single-letter capacity is known to exist: the limit of perfectly reflecting and perfectly absorbing black holes. We find that the perfectly reflecting black hole channel is closely related to the Unruh channel and that its capacity is non-vanishing, allowing for the perfect reconstruction of quantum information outside of the black hole horizon. We also find that the complementary channel (transmitting entanglement behind the horizon) is entanglement-breaking in this case, with vanishing capacity. We then calculate the quantum capacity of the black hole channel in the limit of a perfectly absorbing black hole and find that this capacity vanishes, while the capacity of the complementary channel is non-vanishing instead. Rather than inviting a new crisis for quantum physics, this finding instead is in accordance with the quantum no-cloning theorem, because it guarantees that there are no space-like surfaces that contain both the sender’s quantum state and the receiver’s reconstructed quantum state.

  20. On Secure NOMA Systems with Transmit Antenna Selection Schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-08-09

    This paper investigates the secrecy performance of a two-user downlink non-orthogonal multiple access systems. Both single-input and single-output and multiple-input and singleoutput systems with different transmit antenna selection (TAS) strategies are considered. Depending on whether the base station has the global channel state information of both the main and wiretap channels, the exact closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability (SOP) with suboptimal antenna selection and optimal antenna selection schemes are obtained and compared with the traditional space-time transmission scheme. To obtain further insights, the asymptotic analysis of the SOP in high average channel power gains regime is presented and it is found that the secrecy diversity order for all the TAS schemes with fixed power allocation is zero. Furthermore, an effective power allocation scheme is proposed to obtain the nonzero diversity order with all the TAS schemes. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to verify the proposed analytical results.

  1. [Soil transmitted helminthiasis in Argentina. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socías, M Eugenia; Fernández, Anabel; Gil, José F; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of surveys performed between 1980 and 2011 (published in MEDLINE/Pubmed and/or LILACS indexed journals, available in the baseline data from a Mass Deworming National Program (MDNP, 2005) was used to identify the prevalence, distribution and detection of risk areas for soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) in Argentina. We found 310 publications in the database using the pre-defined key-words (medical subject headings) for research purposes. Only 24 articles with 26 surveillance sites in 8 provinces and a total of 5495 surveyed individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequency rates for STH had a wide range: Ascaris lumbricoides: 0-67%, hookworms: 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura: 0-24.6 and Strongyloides stercoralis: 0-83%. The estimated combined incidence varied from 0.8% to 88.6%. Baseline surveys from the MDNP reporting on 1943 children from 12 provinces confirmed the heterogeneity, with combined STH frequency rates ranging from 0 to 42.7%. Surveys included in this review showed that the distribution of STH in Argentina is not homogeneous, with areas of high incidence (> 20%) in the northeastern and northwestern provinces where mass deworming activities would be highly beneficial. In several surveys, the high overall incidence was mostly due to hookworms and S. stercoralis, a situation to be considered when selecting diagnostic and therapeutic control strategies. The scarcity or absence of data from various provinces and the availability of less than 8000 surveyed individuals should be considered.

  2. [Awareness and education regarding sexually transmitted diseases among undergraduate students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eneida Lazzarini de; Caldas, Tânia Alencar de; Morcillo, André Moreno; Pereira, Elisabete Monteiro de Aguiar; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the main global cause of acute illness and death and represent a high socioeconomic cost. Undergraduate students are highly exposed to STDs. The research developed at UNICAMP sought to quantify and generate self-perception of knowledge(or lack thereof) about STDs, as well as evaluate the interest of the students in a course on the topic. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire sent electronically to students about to graduate at the end of 2011 and to freshmen in 2012. The questionnaire was answered by 1,448 seniors and 371 freshmen. Twenty percent of seniors and 38% of freshmen had no sexual activity. Among sexually active students, 26.9% had no regular partner and 28.2% more than two partners per year. The condom was used by 99% of students, but less than 20% used them appropriately. About 80% were unaware that condoms do not provide protection outside the barrier area; they intended to read more about STDs and learnt something about the subject. Nearly half of the students considered that a course should be offered to all undergraduates. These findings will be of use in defining strategies for prevention and the teaching tool could be used in other learning environments.

  3. Digital Receiver Design for Transmitted Reference Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yiyin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A complete detection, channel estimation, synchronization, and equalization scheme for a transmitted reference (TR ultra-wideband (UWB system is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on a data model which admits a moderate data rate and takes both the interframe interference (IFI and the intersymbol interference (ISI into consideration. Moreover, the bias caused by the interpulse interference (IPI in one frame is also taken into account. Based on the analysis of the stochastic properties of the received signals, several detectors are studied and evaluated. Furthermore, a data-aided two-stage synchronization strategy is proposed, which obtains sample-level timing in the range of one symbol at the first stage and then pursues symbol-level synchronization by looking for the header at the second stage. Three channel estimators are derived to achieve joint channel and timing estimates for the first stage, namely, the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE estimator, the least squares (LS estimator, and the matched filter (MF. We check the performance of different combinations of channel estimation and equalization schemes and try to find the best combination, that is, the one providing a good tradeoff between complexity and performance.

  4. Digital Receiver Design for Transmitted Reference Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete detection, channel estimation, synchronization, and equalization scheme for a transmitted reference (TR ultra-wideband (UWB system is proposed in this paper. The scheme is based on a data model which admits a moderate data rate and takes both the interframe interference (IFI and the intersymbol interference (ISI into consideration. Moreover, the bias caused by the interpulse interference (IPI in one frame is also taken into account. Based on the analysis of the stochastic properties of the received signals, several detectors are studied and evaluated. Furthermore, a data-aided two-stage synchronization strategy is proposed, which obtains sample-level timing in the range of one symbol at the first stage and then pursues symbol-level synchronization by looking for the header at the second stage. Three channel estimators are derived to achieve joint channel and timing estimates for the first stage, namely, the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE estimator, the least squares (LS estimator, and the matched filter (MF. We check the performance of different combinations of channel estimation and equalization schemes and try to find the best combination, that is, the one providing a good tradeoff between complexity and performance.

  5. Potential drug development candidates for human soil-transmitted helminthiases.

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    Piero Olliaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Few drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH; the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole are the only drugs being used for preventive chemotherapy as they can be given in one single dose with no weight adjustment. While generally safe and effective in reducing intensity of infection, they are contra-indicated in first-trimester pregnancy and have suboptimal efficacy against Trichuris trichiura. In addition, drug resistance is a threat. It is therefore important to find alternatives.We searched the literature and the animal health marketed products and pipeline for potential drug development candidates. Recently registered veterinary products offer advantages in that they have undergone extensive and rigorous animal testing, thus reducing the risk, cost and time to approval for human trials. For selected compounds, we retrieved and summarised publicly available information (through US Freedom of Information (FoI statements, European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR and published literature. Concomitantly, we developed a target product profile (TPP against which the products were compared.The paper summarizes the general findings including various classes of compounds, and more specific information on two veterinary anthelmintics (monepantel, emodepside and nitazoxanide, an antiprotozoal drug, compiled from the EMA EPAR and FDA registration files.Few of the compounds already approved for use in human or animal medicine qualify for development track decision. Fast-tracking to approval for human studies may be possible for veterinary compounds like emodepside and monepantel, but additional information remains to be acquired before an informed decision can be made.

  6. Nudging Armed Groups: How Civilians Transmit Norms of Protection

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    Oliver Kaplan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available What are the varying roles that norms play to either enable or constrain violence in armed conflict settings? The article examines this question by drawing on experiences from communities and armed groups in Colombia and Syria. It begins by presenting an explanation of how norms of violence and nonviolence may arise within communities and influence the behavior of civilian residents, reducing the chances of them becoming involved with armed groups. It then considers how civilian communities can transmit those same norms, shared understandings, and patterns of interaction to the ranks of illegal armed groups and subsequently shape their decisions about the use of violence against civilians. The author argues that civilians may be better positioned to promote the principles codified in International Humanitarian Law than international humanitarian organizations because they have closer contact with irregular armed actors and are viewed with greater legitimacy. The analysis illustrates that to better understand civilian protection mechanisms it is essential to study the interactions between communities and armed actors.

  7. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  8. EPA-Registered Repellents for Mosquitoes Transmitting Emerging Viral Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Radha V; Shaeer, Kristy M; Patel, Pooja; Garmaza, Aleksey; Wiangkham, Kornwalee; Franks, Rachel B; Pane, Olivia; Carris, Nicholas W

    2016-12-01

    In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including West Nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing to use DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify which EPA-registered personal mosquito repellent provides the best protection from A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We abstracted data from 62 published reports of EPA-registered mosquito repellents. The conventional repellent picaridin has the strongest data to support its use as a second-line agent, while IR3535 and oil of lemon eucalyptus are reasonably effective natural products. Citronella, catnip, and 2-undecanone offer limited protection or have limited data. These results can be used by pharmacists and other health care professionals to advise patients on the selection of an EPA-registered mosquito repellent. Regardless of the repellent chosen, it is vital for patients to follow all instructions/precautions in the product labeling to ensure safe and effective use. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  9. Aerosols transmit prions to immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice.

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    Johannes Haybaeck

    Full Text Available Prions, the agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, colonize the brain of hosts after oral, parenteral, intralingual, or even transdermal uptake. However, prions are not generally considered to be airborne. Here we report that inbred and crossbred wild-type mice, as well as tga20 transgenic mice overexpressing PrP(C, efficiently develop scrapie upon exposure to aerosolized prions. NSE-PrP transgenic mice, which express PrP(C selectively in neurons, were also susceptible to airborne prions. Aerogenic infection occurred also in mice lacking B- and T-lymphocytes, NK-cells, follicular dendritic cells or complement components. Brains of diseased mice contained PrP(Sc and transmitted scrapie when inoculated into further mice. We conclude that aerogenic exposure to prions is very efficacious and can lead to direct invasion of neural pathways without an obligatory replicative phase in lymphoid organs. This previously unappreciated risk for airborne prion transmission may warrant re-thinking on prion biosafety guidelines in research and diagnostic laboratories.

  10. On the power amplifier nonlinearity in MIMO transmit beamforming systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aissa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, single-carrier multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmit beamforming (TB) systems in the presence of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity are investigated. Specifically, due to the suboptimality of the conventional maximal ratio transmission/maximal ratio combining (MRT/MRC) under HPA nonlinearity, we propose the optimal TB scheme with the optimal beamforming weight vector and combining vector, for MIMO systems with nonlinear HPAs. Moreover, an alternative suboptimal but much simpler TB scheme, namely, quantized equal gain transmission (QEGT), is proposed. The latter profits from the property that the elements of the beamforming weight vector have the same constant modulus. The performance of the proposed optimal TB scheme and QEGT/MRC technique in the presence of the HPA nonlinearity is evaluated in terms of the average symbol error probability and mutual information with the Gaussian input, considering the transmission over uncorrelated quasi-static frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show the effects on the performance of several system parameters, namely, the HPA parameters, numbers of antennas, quadrature amplitude modulation modulation order, number of pilot symbols, and cardinality of the beamforming weight vector codebook for QEGT. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Effect of Window Glazing on Colour Quality of Transmitted Daylight

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    Rajendra Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The spectral transmittance data of different window glazing types are taken from the International Glazing Data Base (IGDB, which is maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL. The study showed that the CIE CRI does not always seem to be the suitable method to predict the colour quality of daylight in building for particular situations. However, in the context of this study, the prediction of colour rendering properties of window glazing by other metrics such as Colour Quality Scale (version 9, Memory CRI, Ra,D65 (adjusted CRI metric with D65 as the reference illuminant performed better. For most of the daylit situations inside the building, the chromaticity difference criterion was not met. Judging the colour quality of such situations requires different method.

  12. [Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through the public water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Borrull, C; Palà, M; Caubet, I; Bach, P; Nuín, C; Espinet, L; Torres, J; Mirada, G

    2003-01-01

    The chlorination of public water supplies has led researchers to largely discard drinking water as a potential source of gastroenteritis outbreaks. The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak of waterborne disease associated with drinking water from public supplies. A historical cohort study was carried out following notification of a gastroenteritis outbreak in Baqueira (Valle de Arán, Spain). We used systematic sampling to select 87 individuals staying at hotels and 67 staying in apartments in the target area. Information was gathered on four factors (consumption of water from the public water supply, sandwiches, water and food in the ski resorts) as well as on symptoms. We assessed residual chlorine in drinking water, analyzed samples of drinking water, and studied stool cultures from 4 patients. The risk associated with each water source and food type was assessed by means of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The overall attack rate was 51.0% (76/149). The main symptoms were diarrhea 87.5%, abdominal pain 80.0%, nausea 50.7%, vomiting 30.3%, and fever 27.0%. The only factor associated with a statistically significant risk of disease was consumption of drinking water (RR = 11.0; 95% CI, 1.6-74.7). No residual chlorine was detected in the drinking water, which was judged acceptable. A problem associated with the location of the chlorinator was observed and corrected. We also recommended an increase in chlorine levels, which was followed by a reduction in the number of cases. The results of stool cultures of the four patients were negative for enterobacteria. This study highlights the potential importance of waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis transmitted through drinking water considered acceptable and suggests the need to improve microbiological research into these outbreaks (viruses and protozoa detection).

  13. Observations of sexually transmitted disease consultations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, T E; Smith, G D; Kantharaj, K; Mugrditchian, D; Radhakrishnan, K M

    1998-03-01

    To assess the quality of sexually transmitted disease (STD) case management provided in public and private health facilities in selected areas of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India, in order to make recommendations for improving the quality of care and promote the syndromic approach to STD treatment. Structured observations of consultations for STDs in health care facilities. Scoring of the observations according to standards for history taking, examination, treatment and provision of basic health promotion advice allows evaluation of STD case management. With STD treatment adequacy scored against Indian national guidelines (which recommend aetiologic treatment), history taking, examination and treatment were satisfactory in 76 out of 108 (70%) of observed consultations. However, if STD treatment adequacy is scored with respect to the syndrome approach towards selected STD (male urethritis and non herpetic genital ulcer for both sexes), only 8 out of 81 (10%) of the patients were satisfactory managed. During 32 out of 108 (30%) of the consultations, advice on the use of condoms in order to prevent STD or HIV/AIDS was given. Instructions regarding how to use condoms were offered to seven (6%) patients and condoms were only provided to one patient (1%). Patients were urged to refer their partner(s) for treatment during 29 (27%) of consultations. A criterion of adequate use of the STD consultation for health promotion, requiring both promotion of condoms and encouragement to refer partner(s) for treatment, was met during 13 (12%) of consultations. Monitoring and improving the standards of care at facilities at which STDs are treated have become key roles of STD/HIV/AIDS programmes. The present report suggests that in Madras the activities of medical practitioners who treat STD patients are far from ideal at present. Improvements would involve simplifying existing treatment guidelines by promoting the syndromic approach to STD management, continuing education programmes for

  14. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs among young adult in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Salfa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs include a large group of widespread infectious diseases, which may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long term complications.The control and prevention of these infections are public health priorities for several reasons: • the large number of people that acquire an STI per year; • the major proportion of asymptomatic infected individuals; • the high circulation in patients with sexual risk behavior (young adults, pluripartner, men who have sex with men, foreigners, commercial sex workers; • increased biological susceptibility of some subjects, such as young adults (immature genital tissues and more receptive to pathogens, women (genital apparatus more complex and extended in which pathogens are more likely to settle, or individuals carrying states of severe immunodeficiency; • the serious complications in the event of failure or incorrect diagnosis and treatment (chronic disease, infertility, oncogenic transformation, synergy with HIV infection; • the possibility of preventing and treating many of these infections. Therefore, recent guidelines from international agencies have recommended countries from the European Union to improve epidemiological STI surveillance systems in order to standardize data collection to facilitate their comparability between different geographical areas and to improve the information flow for faster tracking of the impact; furthermore, to extend surveillance to widespread, but often asymptomatic, disease (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, to conduct behavioural surveillance in patients with STIs, to increase public awareness of the role of STIs in the transmission/acquisition of HIV, and to increase the commitment of institutions in the prevention and control of STIs.

  15. Improving sexually transmitted infection results notification via mobile phone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Huppert, Jill S; Taylor, Regina G; Gillespie, Gordon L; Byczkowski, Terri L; Kahn, Jessica A; Alessandrini, Evaline A

    2014-11-01

    To improve adolescent notification of positive sexually transmitted infection (STI) tests using mobile phone technology and STI information cards. A randomized intervention among 14- to 21-year olds in a pediatric emergency department (PED). A 2 × 3 factorial design with replication was used to evaluate the effectiveness of six combinations of two factors on the proportion of STI-positive adolescents notified within 7 days of testing. Independent factors included method of notification (call, text message, or call + text message) and provision of an STI information card with or without a phone number to obtain results. Covariates for logistic regression included age, empiric STI treatment, days until first attempted notification, and documentation of confidential phone number. Approximately half of the 383 females and 201 males enrolled were ≥18 years of age. Texting only or type of card was not significantly associated with patient notification rates, and there was no significant interaction between card and notification method. For females, successful notification was significantly greater for call + text message (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.9), and documenting a confidential phone number was independently associated with successful notification (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.5). We found no significant predictors of successful notification for males. Of patients with a documented confidential phone number who received a call + text message, 94% of females and 83% of males were successfully notified. Obtaining a confidential phone number and using call + text message improved STI notification rates among female but not male adolescents in a pediatric emergency department. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Partner notification of sexually transmitted diseases: practices and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursahaney, Priya R; Jeong, Kwonho; Dixon, Bruce W; Wiesenfeld, Harold C

    2011-09-01

    Timely notification and treatment of sex partners exposed to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is essential to reduce reinfection and transmission. Our objectives were to determine factors associated with patient-initiated notification of sex partners and preferences regarding standard partner referral versus expedited partner therapy (EPT). Participants diagnosed with gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, or nongonococcal urethritis within the previous year were administered a baseline survey asking about demographics, sexual history, and partner treatment preferences (standard partner referral vs. EPT). They identified up to 4 sex partners within the past 2 months, and answered questions on relationship characteristics, quality, and notification self-efficacy. At follow-up, participants with a current STD were asked whether they notified their partners. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between predictor variables and partner notification. Of the 201 subjects enrolled, 157 had a current STD diagnosis, and 289 sex partners were identified. The rate of successful partner notification was 77.3% (157/203 sex partners). Partner notification was increased if the subject had a long-term relationship with a sex partner (odds ratio: 3.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), considered the partner to be a main partner (odds ratio: 2.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), or had increased notification self-efficacy. Overall, participants did not prefer EPT over standard referral; however, females, those with higher education levels, and those with a prior STD preferred EPT. Patient-initiated partner referral is more successful in patients with increased self-efficacy who have stronger interpersonal relationships with their sex partners.

  17. AABB Committee Report: reducing transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddle, Nancy M; Boeckh, Michael; Grossman, Brenda; Jacobson, Jessica; Kleinman, Steven; Tobian, Aaron A R; Webert, Kathryn; Wong, Edward C C; Roback, John D

    2016-06-01

    Transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (TT-CMV) is often asymptomatic, but certain patient populations, such as very low birth weight neonates, fetuses requiring intrauterine transfusion, pregnant women, patients with primary immunodeficiencies, transplant recipients, and patients receiving chemotherapy or transplantation for malignant disease, may be at risk of life-threatening CMV infection. It is unclear whether leukoreduction of cellular blood components is sufficient to reduce TT-CMV or whether CMV serological testing adds additional benefit to leukoreduction. The AABB CMV Prevention Work Group commissioned a systematic review to address these issues and subsequently develop clinical practice guidelines. However, the data were of poor quality, and no studies of significant size have been performed for over a decade. Rather than creating guidelines of questionable utility, the Work Group (with approval of the AABB Board of Directors) voted to prepare this Committee Report. There is wide variation in practices of using leukoreduced components alone or combining CMV-serology and leukoreduction to prevent TT-CMV for at-risk patients. Other approaches may also be feasible to prevent TT-CMV, including plasma nucleic acid testing, pathogen inactivation, and patient blood management programs to reduce the frequency of inappropriate transfusions. It is unlikely that future large-scale clinical trials will be performed to determine whether leukoreduction, CMV-serology, or a combination of both is superior. Consequently, alternative strategies including pragmatic randomized controlled trials, registries, and collaborations for electronic data merging, nontraditional approaches to inform evidence, or development of a systematic approach to inform expert opinion may help to address the issue of CMV-safe blood components. © 2016 AABB.

  18. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Guthrie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI.Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01.Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.

  19. [Sexually transmitted infections in Germany : The current epidemiological situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Viviane; Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Buder, Susanne; An der Heiden, Matthias; Jansen, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can impair sexual health. Surveillance and study data were used to provide an overview over STIs in Germany. We estimated 3900 new HIV diagnoses in 2015. Of newly diagnosed infections, 57% were attributed to men who have sex with men (MSM). It was further estimated that there were 3200 new HIV infections and 84,700 people living with HIV in 2015. A total of 6834 syphilis infections were recorded in 2015, which corresponds to an increase of 149% since 2009. The incidence in men was 16-times higher than in women. Of syphilis infections, 85% could be attributed to MSM. Antimicrobial resistance of gonococci against the broad-spectrum antibiotic cefixime decreased between 2014 and 2016 after a change of therapy guidelines and remained stable on a low level regarding the antibiotic ceftriaxone. After an increase of resistance against the antibiotic azithromycin to 11.3% in 2015, we observed a decreasing trend in 2016. Between 2013 and 2015, 2,355,336 chlamydia tests were reported through the chlamydia sentinel network. Of these, 92.5% of samples were from women. Uptake for screening for women human papilloma virus (HPV) of 38.1% was observed. A total of 30.5% of 15-year-old women were vaccinated against HPV in 2014. Data suggest that STIs represent a high burden of disease. Knowledge of STI prevention should be improved by targeted education campaigns. Extending existing offers for counselling and testing through cooperation between different health sectors would improve early diagnosis and treatment of STIs.

  20. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-06-27

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  1. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  2. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  3. Diagnosis of vascular injuries caused by hand-transmitted vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, N; Mahbub, M H

    2008-04-01

    For a reliable objective diagnosis of vascular injuries in hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), the standardized cold provocation tests--finger skin temperature measurement during hand(s) immersion in cold water (FST test) and finger systolic blood pressure measurement during local cold exposure (FSBP test)--are widely used. In recent years there is a growing controversy regarding the diagnostic value of these tests. The aim of this study was to describe particularly the diagnostic performance of FST and FSBP tests, and also to focus on the problems and uncertainties regarding the test conditions and results, in the laboratory diagnosis of vascular injuries caused by hand-transmitted vibration. A review of pertinent published English- and Japanese-language articles and conference proceedings (between 1976 and 2006) was conducted. From the reports with regard to diagnostic significance of the FSBP test, it seems to be an important laboratory test for diagnosing vibration-induced white finger (VWF). On the other hand, despite a large number of research studies with the FST test, there is a lack of data for the standardized FST test, which can confirm the value of it in diagnosing VWF. Moreover, there is no agreement on effective parameter/s to quantify and compare the responses in FST induced by immersion in cold water. While assessing and staging vascular injuries in HAVS, inquiry regarding finger coldness appears to be useful. As there is no single test with satisfactory diagnostic ability for VWF, at present it is reasonable to use the cold provocation tests as a part of the comprehensive approach to evaluate HAVS patients. In addition to the objective methods, the index of finger coldness may be useful while diagnosing the vascular component of HAVS.

  4. Parental perspectives on vaccinating children against sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Rose M; Sturm, Lynne A; Zimet, Gregory D

    2004-04-01

    Several vaccines for sexually transmitted infections (STI) are presently in development and the eventual availability of such vaccines is expected to result in the prevention of a significant number of burdensome conditions. Young adolescents are presumed to be likely targets for these vaccines since adolescents' risk for STI increases as they age and become sexually active. It is unclear, however, to what extent parents will agree to having adolescents receive STI vaccines. Inasmuch as acceptance is the foundation for effective immunization programs, an understanding of parental perspectives about this issue is required to inform future STI vaccine program strategies. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that used in-depth interviews to elicit attitudes from 34 parents about accepting vaccines for genital herpes, human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus and gonorrhea for their children (aged 8-17). Data were collected from parents bringing their children for care at an urban clinic and a suburban private office. Content analysis of the responses revealed that most parents (>70%) approved the administration of all four of the STI vaccines proposed. Parents' reasons for acceptance included wanting to protect their children, being concerned about specific disease characteristics, and previous experience with the infections. Parents who declined the vaccines did so primarily because they perceived their children to be at low risk for the infections or they had low concern about features of the diseases. Most parents thought they should be the decision-maker regarding children receiving an STI vaccine. Results from this study will be used to plan subsequent investigations of the determinants of STI vaccine acceptance by parents.

  5. Frequency of sexually transmitted diseases and main methodological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaleida Napoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV persistence is the most important cervical cancer risk factor, while Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium(MG, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and parvum (UP are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs causing infertility, pregnancy complication, lung problems in newborns. Methods. 135 urine, 135 urethral swabs, 553 cervical swabs, 110 seminal fluids and 1440 Thin Prep, were tested with culture methods, Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR and multiplex SYBR Green PCR-endpoint to detect STDs. PCR- endpoint was performed to detect HPV. Results. Culture methods showed the lowest sensitivity: for MH it was only 24% (compared to RT-PCR. UP/UU were the most frequent pathogens (13% with culture, 29% with PCR-endpoint, 41,67% with RT-PCR. Turn Around Time was respectively: 48h, 6h and 2h. RT-PCR cervical frequencies for CT, MH, MG, UU, UP were: 5.42%, 11.03%, 1.81%, 11.21% and 35.08%. HPV positivity in primary and secondary screening was 17.33% and 51.14%. Highes t positivity age group was: 23-32 years for CT (17%, and 18-27 years for HPV (33%. Conclusions. RT-PCR is more sensitive, faster, less expensive than other molecular tests like PCR-endpoint and microarrays. It allows more efficient laboratory organization: pre-analytical phase is more automated and enable the implementation of further diagnostic tests for pathologies that need rapid identification, such as meningitidis and sepsis, with reduced human and instrumental resource. Regarding STDs screening, it should be performed in women: for CT at least up to 27 years; for HPV between 35-50 years, since persisting HR-HPV infection is responsible of high-grade lesions.

  6. Evolution of the apomixis transmitting chromosome in Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada-Akiyama Hitomi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apomixis is an intriguing trait in plants that results in maternal clones through seed reproduction. Apomixis is an elusive, but potentially revolutionary, trait for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. Recent studies arguing that apomicts are not evolutionary dead ends have generated further interest in the evolution of asexual flowering plants. Results In the present study, we investigate karyotypic variation in a single chromosome responsible for transmitting apomixis, the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region carrier chromosome, in relation to species phylogeny in the genera Pennisetum and Cenchrus. A 1 kb region from the 3' end of the ndhF gene and a 900 bp region from trnL-F were sequenced from 12 apomictic and eight sexual species in the genus Pennisetum and allied genus Cenchrus. An 800 bp region from the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region also was sequenced from the 12 apomicts. Molecular cytological analysis was conducted in sixteen Pennisetum and two Cenchrus species. Our results indicate that the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region is shared by all apomictic species while it is absent from all sexual species or cytotypes. Contrary to our previous observations in Pennisetum squamulatum and Cenchrus ciliaris, retrotransposon sequences of the Opie-2-like family were not closely associated with the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region in all apomictic species, suggesting that they may have been accumulated after the Apospory-Specific Genomic Region originated. Conclusions Given that phylogenetic analysis merged Cenchrus and newly investigated Pennisetum species into a single clade containing a terminal cluster of Cenchrus apomicts, the presumed monophyletic origin of Cenchrus is supported. The Apospory-Specific Genomic Region likely preceded speciation in Cenchrus and its lateral transfer through hybridization and subsequent chromosome repatterning may have contributed to further speciation in the two genera.

  7. A New Resource for STD Clinical Providers: The Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinical Consultation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragol, Laura A; Wendel, Karen A; Anderson, Teri S; Burnside, Helen C; Finkenbinder, Allison; Fitch, John D; Kelley, Destiny H; Stewart, Terry W; Thrun, Mark; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A

    2017-08-01

    An online consultation tool, the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinical Consultation Network is a new resource for sexually transmitted disease clinicians and clinic managers. An initial evaluation shows that most requests (29%) were from medical doctors, followed by nurse practitioners (22%). Syphilis queries comprised 39% of consults followed by gonorrhea (12%) and chlamydia (11%).

  8. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations. 25.220 Section 25.220 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.220 Non-conforming transmit/receive...

  9. 48 CFR 245.7206 - Transmitting DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitting DD Form 1342... Instructions 245.7206 Transmitting DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record. As a minimum, the plant clearance officer will provide the following information in a letter forwarding DD Forms 1342 to DSCR— (a) Number of DD...

  10. 76 FR 75523 - Vessel Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service Providers for Use in... relevant features of the enhanced mobile transmitting unit (E-MTU) VMS and communications service providers... with the Orbcomm mobile communications provider service. Skymate can be reached at 866-SKYMATE and...

  11. 75 FR 63445 - Vessel Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service Providers for Use in the... features of the VMS. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the list of NOAA-approved VMS mobile transmitting units and NOAA-approved VMS communications service providers, please contact the VMS Support Center at...

  12. A final size relation for epidemic models of vector-transmitted diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Brauer

    2017-01-01

    We formulate and analyze an age of infection model for epidemics of diseases transmitted by a vector, including the possibility of direct transmission as well. We show how to determine a basic reproduction number. While there is no explicit final size relation as for diseases transmitted directly, we are able to obtain estimates for the final size of the epidemic.

  13. Secret-Sharing over Multiple-Antenna Channels with Transmit Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-01-07

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over Rayleigh fastfading channels with transmit correlation. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the transmit correlation matrix. First, We derive the expression of the key capacity under the considered setup. Then, we show that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the key capacity consists in transmitting Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the channel covariance matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution of a numerical optimization problem that we derive. We also provide a waterfilling interpretation of the optimal power allocation. Finally, we develop a necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming to be optimal, i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode only is key capacity-achieving.

  14. Secret-Sharing over Multiple-Antenna Channels with Transmit Correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen; Rezki, Zouheir; Alomair, Basel; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over Rayleigh fastfading channels with transmit correlation. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge while the transmitter has only knowledge of the transmit correlation matrix. First, We derive the expression of the key capacity under the considered setup. Then, we show that the optimal transmit strategy achieving the key capacity consists in transmitting Gaussian signals along the eingenvectors of the channel covariance matrix. The powers allocated to each channel mode are determined as the solution of a numerical optimization problem that we derive. We also provide a waterfilling interpretation of the optimal power allocation. Finally, we develop a necessary and sufficient condition for beamforming to be optimal, i.e., transmitting along the strongest channel mode only is key capacity-achieving.

  15. Interlaboratory comparison of dicentric chromosome assay using electronically transmitted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M. B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M. R.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Stuck Oliveira, M.; Valdivia, P.; Lamadrid, A. I.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Romero, I.; Mandina, T.; Pantelias, G.; Terzoudi, G.; Guerrero-Carbajal, C.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.; Oliveros, N.; Martinez-Lopez, W.; Di Tomaso, M. V.; Mendez-Acuna, L.; Puig, R.; Roy, L.; Barquinero, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    The bottleneck in data acquisition during biological dosimetry based on a dicentric assay is the need to score dicentrics in a large number of lymphocytes. One way to increase the capacity of a given laboratory is to use the ability of skilled operators from other laboratories. This can be done using image analysis systems and distributing images all around the world. Two exercises were conducted to test the efficiency of such an approach involving 10 laboratories. During the first exercise (E1), the participant laboratories analysed the same images derived from cells exposed to 0.5 and 3 Gy; 100 images were sent to all participants for both doses. Whatever the dose, only about half of the cells were complete with well-spread metaphases suitable for analysis. A coefficient of variation (CV) on the standard deviation of 15 % was obtained for both doses. The trueness was better for 3 Gy (0.6 %) than for 0.5 Gy (37.8 %). The number of estimated doses classified as satisfactory according to the z-score was 3 at 0.5 Gy and 8 at 3 Gy for 10 dose estimations. In the second exercise, an emergency situation was tested, each laboratory was required to score a different set of 50 images in 2 d extracted from 500 downloaded images derived from cells exposed to 0.5 Gy. Then the remaining 450 images had to be scored within a week. Using 50 different images, the CV on the estimated doses (79.2 %) was not as good as in E1, probably associated to a lower number of cells analysed (50 vs. 100) or from the fact that laboratories analysed a different set of images. The trueness for the dose was better after scoring 500 cells (22.5 %) than after 50 cells (26.8 %). For the 10 dose estimations, the number of doses classified as satisfactory according to the z-score was 9, for both 50 and 500 cells. Overall, the results obtained support the feasibility of networking using electronically transmitted images. However, before its implementation some issues should be elucidated, such as the

  16. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in rural South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Coetzee, D J; Fehler, H G; Bellingan, A; Dangor, Y; Radebe, F; Ballard, R C

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports on a study undertaken in a rural area of South Africa, to develop a non-laboratory tool to screen for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among family planning clients. A cross sectional study was performed of 249 consecutive women attending a family planning service between November and December 1994. A questionnaire was administered, and a clinical examination and laboratory tests conducted. Sociodemographic, clinical, and other non-laboratory variables that were significantly associated with laboratory evidence of infection were combined to produce non-hierarchical scoring systems for three "syndromes": gonococcal and/or chlamydial cervical infection, trichomoniasis, and cervical infection and/or trichomoniasis combined. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the scoring systems as a screening tool were assessed against the gold standard of laboratory tests. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections among the study participants was as follows: Chlamydia trachomatis 12%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 3%, Trichomonas vaginalis 18%, and bacterial vaginosis 29%. Although vaginal discharge and other symptoms were frequently reported, symptoms bore no relation to the presence of infection. The following independent associations with gonococcal/chlamydial cervical infection were found: age less than 25 years and cervical mucopus and/or friability. Abnormal discharge on examination, visible inflammatory changes of the cervix (increased redness), no recent travel, and unemployment were associated with trichomoniasis. The combination of trichomonas and/or cervical infection ("STD syndrome") was associated with cervical mucopus/friability, unemployment, lack of financial support, and increased redness of the cervix. Of the three scoring systems developed on the basis of these associations, that of the "STD syndrome" achieved the best performance characteristics as a screening tool, with a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 74%, and

  17. [Vector transmitted diseases and climate changes in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2014-09-01

    The increase in temperatures recorded since the mid-nineteenth century is unprecedented in the history of mankind. The consequences of climate changes are numerous and can affect human health through direct (extreme events, natural disasters) or indirect (alteration of the ecosystem) mechanisms. Climate changes have repercussions on ecosystems, agriculture, social conditions, migration, conflicts and the transmission mode of infectious diseases. Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomines, sand flies and flies. Epidemiological cornerstones of vector-borne diseases are: the ecology and behaviour of the host, the ecology and behaviour of the vector, and the population's degree of immunity. Mosquito vectors related to human diseases mainly belong to the genus Culex, Aedes and Mansonia. Climate changes in Europe have increased the spread of new vectors, such as Aedes albopictus, and in some situations have made it possible to sustain the autochthonous transmission of some diseases (outbreak of Chukungunya virus in northern Italy in 2007, cases of dengue in the South of France and in Croatia). Despite the eradication of malaria from Europe, anopheline carriers are still present, and they may allow the transmission of the disease if the climatic conditions favour the development of the vectors and their contacts with plasmodium carriers. The tick Ixodes ricinus is a vector whose expansion has been documented both in latitude and in altitude in relation to the temperature increase; at the same time the related main viral and bacterial infections have increased. In northern Italy and Germany, the appearance of Leishmaniasis has been associated to climatic conditions that favour the development of the vector Phlebotomus papatasi and the maturation of the parasite within the vector, although the increase of cases of visceral leishmaniasis is also related to host immune factors, particularly

  18. Knowledge of adolescents regarding sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rebeca Aranha Arrais Santos; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Rolim, Isaura Letícia Tavares Palmeira; Hora, Jessica Marques da; Linard, Andrea Gomes; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Oliveira, Priscila da Silva

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge of adolescents related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), AIDS, and pregnancy, and understand the role of school in sex education. A qualitative descriptive study, developed through a semi-structured interview and a form for participant characterization, with 22 high school students from a public school aged 16 to 19 years. Data were submitted to content analysis. After analysis, four thematic categories were developed: sexuality and sex education; understanding of risk behaviors; knowledge of STI/AIDS; and knowledge of and practices for prevention. This study showed the need for preventive educational actions for adolescents, because the lack of information contributes to their vulnerability. The adolescents recognize the importance of sex education; therefore it is important to implement strategies to promote and protect health in the school environment to encourage and strengthen self-care in health. investigar o conhecimento de adolescentes relacionado às Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (IST), AIDS e gravidez, além de conhecer a compreensão sobre o papel da escola na educação sexual. estudo qualitativo, descritivo, desenvolvido por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e formulário para caracterização dos participantes, com 22 adolescentes entre 16 e 19 anos de idade, estudantes do Ensino Médio em uma escola pública. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo. da análise emergiram quatro categorias temáticas: Sexualidade e educação sexual; Compreensão de comportamentos de risco; Conhecimento de IST/AIDS; Conhecimento e práticas de prevenção. revelou-se a necessidade de ações educativas de prevenção para os adolescentes, pois a falta de informações contribui para a sua vulnerabilidade. Os adolescentes reconhecem a importância da educação sexual; consequentemente, é importante a implementação de estratégias de promoção e de proteção à saúde no ambiente escolar para contribuir e

  19. Analytical Model and Optimized Design of Power Transmitting Coil for Inductively Coupled Endoscope Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Quan; Luo, Weijie; Yan, Guozheng; Yang, Kai

    2016-04-01

    A wireless power transfer system based on the weakly inductive coupling makes it possible to provide the endoscope microrobot (EMR) with infinite power. To facilitate the patients' inspection with the EMR system, the diameter of the transmitting coil is enlarged to 69 cm. Due to the large transmitting range, a high quality factor of the Litz-wire transmitting coil is a necessity to ensure the intensity of magnetic field generated efficiently. Thus, this paper builds an analytical model of the transmitting coil, and then, optimizes the parameters of the coil by enlarging the quality factor. The lumped model of the transmitting coil includes three parameters: ac resistance, self-inductance, and stray capacitance. Based on the exact two-dimension solution, the accurate analytical expression of ac resistance is derived. Several transmitting coils of different specifications are utilized to verify this analytical expression, being in good agreements with the measured results except the coils with a large number of strands. Then, the quality factor of transmitting coils can be well predicted with the available analytical expressions of self- inductance and stray capacitance. Owing to the exact estimation of quality factor, the appropriate coil turns of the transmitting coil is set to 18-40 within the restrictions of transmitting circuit and human tissue issues. To supply enough energy for the next generation of the EMR equipped with a Ø9.5×10.1 mm receiving coil, the coil turns of the transmitting coil is optimally set to 28, which can transfer a maximum power of 750 mW with the remarkable delivering efficiency of 3.55%.

  20. Prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and impact of transmitted resistance on treatment success in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bartmeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance, TDR, and the impact of TDR on treatment success in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort. METHODS: Genotypic resistance analysis was performed in treatment-naïve study patients whose sample was available 1,312/1,564 (83.9% October 2008. A genotypic resistance result was obtained for 1,276/1,312 (97.3%. The resistance associated mutations were identified according to the surveillance drug resistance mutations list recommended for drug-naïve patients. Treatment success was determined as viral suppression below 500 copies/ml. RESULTS: Prevalence of TDR was stable at a high level between 1996 and 2007 in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort (N = 158/1,276; 12.4%; CI(wilson 10.7-14.3; p(for trend = 0.25. NRTI resistance was predominant (7.5% but decreased significantly over time (CI(Wilson: 6.2-9.1, p(for trend = 0.02. NNRTI resistance tended to increase over time (NNRTI: 3.5%; CI(Wilson: 2.6-4.6; p(for trend= 0.07, whereas PI resistance remained stable (PI: 3.0%; CI(Wilson: 2.1-4.0; p(for trend = 0.24. Resistance to all drug classes was frequently caused by singleton resistance mutations (NRTI 55.6%, PI 68.4%, NNRTI 99.1%. The majority of NRTI-resistant strains (79.8% carried resistance-associated mutations selected by the thymidine analogues zidovudine and stavudine. Preferably 2NRTI/1PIr combinations were prescribed as first line regimen in patients with resistant HIV as well as in patients with susceptible strains (susceptible 45.3%; 173/382 vs. resistant 65.5%; 40/61. The majority of patients in both groups were treated successfully within the first year after ART-initiation (susceptible: 89.9%; 62/69; resistant: 7/9; 77.8%. CONCLUSION: Overall prevalence of TDR remained stable at a high level but trends of resistance against drug classes differed over time. The significant decrease of NRTI-resistance in patients newly infected

  1. Tweet content related to sexually transmitted diseases: no joking matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Serrano, J Artur; Wynn, Rolf; Lau, Annie Y S

    2014-10-06

    Online social media, such as the microblogging site Twitter, have become a space for speedy exchange of information regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), presenting a potential risk environment for how STDs are portrayed. Examining the types of "tweeters" (users who post messages on Twitter) and the nature of "tweet" messages is important for identifying how information related to STDs is posted in online social media. The intent of the study was to describe the types of message emitters on Twitter in relation to two different STDs-chlamydia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-as well as the nature of content tweeted, including how seriously the topic was treated. We used the Twitter search engine to look for tweets posted worldwide from August 1-7, 2013, and from September 1-7, 2013, containing the words "chlamydia" or "HIV", and the hashtags "#chlamydia" or "#HIV". Tweeters were classified by two independent reviewers according to the type of avatar of the user (human, logo, or fantasy), the identification of the emitter (identifiable, semi-identifiable, or non-identifiable), and the source (private company, general media, scientific media, non-governmental, individual account, academic institution, government department, or undefined). Tweet messages were also independently classified according to their nature (serious or jokes/funny), and whether their main message was factual or of a personal nature/experience. A total of 694 tweets were posted by 426 different users during the first 7 days of August and September, containing the hashtags and/or simple words "chlamydia" and/or "HIV". Jokes or funny tweets were more frequently posted by individual users (89%, 66/74), with a human avatar (81%, 60/74), from a non-identifiable user (72%, 53/74), and they were most frequently related to chlamydia (76%, 56/74). Serious tweets were most frequently posted by the general media (20.6%, 128/620), using a logo avatar (66.9%, 415/620), and with identifiable

  2. Effects of a transmitted light device for pediatric peripheral venipuncture and intravenous cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Shinya Yamazaki1, Shu Tomita1, Masahiro Watanabe1, Hiroyoshi Kawaai1, Kazuhiro Shimamura2 1Department of Dental Anesthesiology; 2Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Ohu University Dental Hospital, Koriyama City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan Abstract: Pediatric peripheral venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are difficult. However, successful venipuncture and intravenous cannulation are absolutely required for pediatric clinical risk management. This study assessed the success rate of venipuncture and intravenous cannulation when transmitted light was applied to the pediatric dorsum manus. The subjects included 100 young children who were scheduled for dental treatment or oral surgery under general anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced, and insertion of an intravenous catheter into the dorsum manus was attempted with or without using transmitted light. The patients were evaluated to determine whether the venipuncture was successful, and whether the intravenous cannulation of the external catheter was successful. The success rate of venipuncture was 100% when transmitted light was used, and 83% when the transmitted light was not used (P = 0.000016. In addition, the success rate of intravenous cannulation was 88% when transmitted light was used, and 55% when the transmitted light was not used (P = 0.0000002. The shape of the vein in the dorsum manus can be clearly recognized when transmitted light is used. The use of light significantly increased the success rate of intravenous cannulation, because it allowed direct confirmation of the direction to push the intravenous catheter forward. The use of transmitted light allows for more successful venipuncture and intravenous cannulation in young children. Keywords: transmitted light, pediatric peripheral venipuncture, pediatric peripheral intravenous cannulation

  3. Effect of backing material on the transmitting response level and bandwidth of a wideband underwater transmitting transducer using 1-3 piezocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nicolaides, K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available : Transducer design The 1-3 piezocomposite (40% VF) active element was designed to resonate at around 300 kHz see figure 2. 1-3 piezocomposite material with 40% VF was selected due its excellent wide bandwidth and high transmitting response characteristics... is shown in figure 3(a). These results demonstrate the wide bandwidth characteristics for such a design. The transmitting response and acoustic characteristics (bandwidth and level) of this configuration will be used as our base line and all...

  4. Analysis of Transmitted Optical Spectrum Enabling Accelerated Testing of CPV Designs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2009-07-01

    Reliability of CPV systems' materials is not well known; methods for accelerated UV testing have not been developed. UV and IR spectra transmitted through representative optical systems are evaluated.

  5. The vaginal microbiome: Associations with sexually transmitted infections and the mucosal immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, H.

    2016-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by lactobacilli. Disturbance of the microbiological vaginal microbiota balance ("dysbiosis") is associated with an increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and preterm birth in pregnant women. Since 2002, studies have

  6. Preliminary In-vivo Results For Spatially Coded Synthetic Transmit Aperture Ultrasound Based On Frequency Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using spatial coding based on frequency division for in-vivo synthetic transmit aperture (STA) ultrasound imaging. When using spatial encoding for STA, it is possible to use several transmitters simultaneously and separate the signals at the receiver....... This increases the maximum transmit power compared to conventional STA, where only one transmitter can be active. The signal-to-noise-ratio can therefore he increased and better penetration can be obtained. For frequency division, the coding is achieved by designing a number of transmit waveforms with disjoint...... spectral support, spanning the passband of the ultrasound transducer. The signals can therefore he separated at the receiver using matched filtering. The method is tested using a commercial linear array transducer with a center frequency of 9 MHz and 68% fractional bandwidth. In this paper, the transmit...

  7. Joint switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Bouida, Zied; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to minimize the average number of switched branches at the secondary

  8. Lethal pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome due to Leptospira infection transmitted by pet rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of leptospirosis was made after the patient died. The transmitting animal was a pet rat. Leptospirosis has to be considered in case of rapid multi-organ failure presenting with pulmonary hemorrhage.

  9. Transmit Antenna Selection for Multi-User Underlay Cognitive Transmission with Zero-Forcing Beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We present a transmit antenna subset selection scheme for an underlay cognitive system serving multiple secondary receivers. The secondary system employs zero-forcing beamforming to nullify the interference to multiple primary users and eliminate

  10. Transmit Antenna Selection for Underlay Cognitive Radio with Instantaneous Interference Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad; Yang, Hong Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) technology addresses the problem of spectrum under-utilization. In underlay CR mode, the secondary users are allowed to communicate provided that their transmission is not detrimental to primary user communication. Transmit

  11. An Update on the Potential of North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit West Nile Virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turell, Michael J; Dohm, David J; Sardelis, Michael R; O 'Guinn, Monica L; Andreadis, Theodore G; Blow, Jamie A

    2004-01-01

    .... To develop appropriate surveillance and control strategies, the identification of which mosquito species are competent vectors and how various factors influence their ability to transmit this virus must be determined...

  12. Voice-band Modem: A Device to Transmit Data over Telephone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    over Telephone Networks. 2. Advanced Ideas ... transmitted signal power and No is the noise power spec- ... power distribution over all frequencies, and the samples of noise .... Figure 3, dmin=2fl, and average signal energy, assum- ing that ...

  13. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections for HIV prevention: end of the road or new beginning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Celum, Connie; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Wasserheit, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Observational and biological data provide compelling evidence of the importance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in HIV transmission, but only one of nine intervention trials has shown an effect. This article reviews the observational studies, critically examines the nine randomized

  14. Recreational Drug Use During Sex and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Clients of a City Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligenberg, Marlies; Wermeling, Paulien R.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; Urbanus, Anouk T.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Heijman, Titia; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recreational drug use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of drug use during sex and the associations between such use and STI (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis). Methods: During 3 periods in 2008 and 2009,

  15. The Affordability of Providing Sexually Transmitted Disease Services at a Safety-net Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; Montgomery, Madeline C; Raifman, Julia; Nunn, Amy; Bertrand, Thomas; Almonte, Alexi; Chan, Philip A

    2018-04-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases continue to increase in the U.S. There is a growing need for financially viable models to ensure the longevity of safety-net sexually transmitted disease clinics, which provide testing and treatment to high-risk populations. This micro-costing analysis estimated the number of visits required to balance cost and revenue of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in a Medicaid expansion state. In 2017, actual and projected cost and revenues were estimated from the Rhode Island sexually transmitted disease clinic in 2015. Projected revenues for a hypothetical clinic offering a standard set of sexually transmitted disease services were based on Medicaid; private ("commercial") insurance; and institutional ("list price") reimbursement rates. The number of visits needed to cover clinic costs at each rate was assessed. Total operating cost for 2,153 clinic visits was estimated at $255,769, or $119 per visit. Laboratory testing and salaries each accounted for 44% of operating costs, medications for treatment 7%, supplies 5%, and 28% of visits used insurance. For a standard clinic offering a basic set of sexually transmitted disease services to break even, a projected 73% of visits need to be covered at the Medicaid rate, 38% at private rate, or 11% at institutional rate. Sexually transmitted disease clinics may be financially viable when a majority of visits are billed at a Medicaid rate; however, mixed private/public models may be needed if not all visits are billed. In this manner, sexually transmitted disease clinics can be solvent even if not all visits are billed to insurance, thus ensuring access to uninsured or underinsured patients. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Performance of an 8-channel Digital Phased Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-16

    hardware. An 8-channel ALSTAR array prototype was constructed and demonstrated to achieve 125.5 dB effective isotropic isolation between broadside...transmit and receive beams over a 100 MHz instantaneous band centered at 2.45 GHz. I. INTRODUCTION A phased array capable of Simultaneous Transmit and...Receive (STAR) could provide significant benefits for many applications including communications, radar, spectral sens- ing, and multifunctional systems

  17. Successive Interference Cancellation for DS-CDMA Systems with Transmit Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new successive interference cancellation (SIC technique for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA systems with transmit diversity. The transmit diversity is achieved with a space-time block code (STBC. In our work we first consider hard decision SIC with an STBC, and then investigate the performance of soft decision SIC with an STBC. System performance over a Rayleigh fading channel is investigated and the analysis is confirmed by simulation.

  18. Level of Knowledge of Pregnant women on Sexual Organs, Contraceptive Methods and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray Bozkurt; Aydan Biri; Ümit Korucuoglu; Nur Aksakal; Tuncay Nas; Onur Karabacak; Özdemir Himmetoglu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. METHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS: Mean age of the ...

  19. Sexually transmitted parasites and host mating behavior in the decorated cricket

    OpenAIRE

    Lien T. Luong; Harry K. Kaya

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases play a potentially important role in the ecology and evolution of host mating behavior. Here, we use a sexually transmitted nematode-cricket (Mehdinema alii--Gryllodes sigillatus) system to examine the effects of parasitism on host mating activity and female choice. Previous work has shown that infected male crickets produce a significantly smaller nuptial gift (spermatophylax) than uninfected males. This is expected to result in reduced spermatophylax feeding du...

  20. Sexually transmitted nematodes affect spermatophylax production in the cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus

    OpenAIRE

    Lien T. Luong; Harry K. Kaya

    2005-01-01

    Parasites can influence various aspects of host reproduction and mating, including spermatophore production. In the cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, males transfer to females a two-part spermatophore containing a sperm-filled ampulla and a gelatinous spermatophylax (nuptial gift). Here we investigate the effects of a sexually transmitted nematode on male spermatophylax production. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to reduce host fertility or fecundity in insect hosts. To o...

  1. Standard generalized markup language: A guide for transmitting encoded bibliographic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides the guidance necessary to transmit to DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) an encoded bibliographic record that conforms to International Standard ISO 8879, Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Included in this document are element and attribute tag definitions, sample bibliographic records, the bibliographic document type definition, and instructions on how to transmit a bibliographic record electronically to OSTI

  2. Standard generalized markup language: A guide for transmitting encoded bibliographic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides the guidance necessary to transmit to DOE`s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) an encoded bibliographic record that conforms to International Standard ISO 8879, Information Processing -- Text and office systems -- Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Included in this document are element and attribute tag definitions, sample bibliographic records, the bibliographic document type definition, and instructions on how to transmit a bibliographic record electronically to OSTI.

  3. High Levels of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance in a Study in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavu, Evelyn; Kave, Ellan; Mosoro, Euodia; Markby, Jessica; Aleksic, Eman; Gare, Janet; Elsum, Imogen A; Nano, Gideon; Kaima, Petronia; Dala, Nick; Gurung, Anup; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Crowe, Suzanne M; Myatt, Mark; Hearps, Anna C; Jordan, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is a Pacific Island nation of 7.3 million people with an estimated HIV prevalence of 0.8%. ART initiation and monitoring are guided by clinical staging and CD4 cell counts, when available. Little is known about levels of transmitted HIV drug resistance in recently infected individuals in Papua New Guinea. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a total of 123 individuals recently infected with HIV and aged less than 30 years was implemented in Port Moresby (n = 62) and Mount Hagen (n = 61) during the period May 2013-April 2014. HIV drug resistance testing was performed using dried blood spots. Transmitted HIV drug resistance was defined by the presence of one or more drug resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance drug resistance mutations list. The prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 16.1% (95% CI 8.8%-27.4%) and 8.2% (95% CI 3.2%-18.2%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. The prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was 3.2% (95% CI 0.2%-11.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI 0.2%-11.8%) in Port Moresby and Mount Hagen, respectively. No protease inhibitor transmitted HIV drug resistance was observed. The level of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug resistance in antiretroviral drug naïve individuals recently infected with HIV in Port Moresby is amongst the highest reported globally. This alarming level of transmitted HIV drug resistance in a young sexually active population threatens to limit the on-going effective use of NNRTIs as a component of first-line ART in Papua New Guinea. To support the choice of nationally recommended first-line antiretroviral therapy, representative surveillance of HIV drug resistance among antiretroviral therapy initiators in Papua New Guinea should be urgently implemented.

  4. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  5. Modeling the transmitted and stored energy in multilayer protective clothing under low-level radiant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yun; He, Jiazhen; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical model from heating source to skin tissues through multilayer fabric system is developed. • The numerical model is comprehensively validated with experimental data. • The model is used to investigate the relationship between the transmitted and stored energy and the influencing factors. - Abstract: A finite difference model was introduced to simulate the transmitted and stored energy in firefighters' protective clothing exposed to low-level thermal radiation. The model domain consists of a three-layer fire-resistant fabric system (outer shell, moisture barrier, and thermal liner), the human skin, and the air gap between clothing and the skin. The model accounted for the relationship between the transmitted heat during the exposure and the discharged heat during the cooling-down period. The numerical model predictions were compared with experimental data. Additionally, the parameters that affect the transmitted and stored energy of protective clothing were investigated. The results demonstrate that for the typical multilayer firefighter protective clothing, the transmitted heat during exposure and the discharged heat after exposure totally determine the skin burn under low-level heat exposure, especially for third-degree skin burns. The findings obtained in this study can be used to engineer fabric systems that provide better protection for the stored thermal burn.

  6. Super-Orthogonal Space-Time Turbo Transmit Diversity for CDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter G. W. van Rooyen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that transmit and receive diversity employing a combination of multiple transmit-receive antennas (given ideal channel state information (CSI and independent fading between antenna pairs will potentially yield maximum achievable system capacity. In this paper, the concept of a layered super-orthogonal turbo transmit diversity (SOTTD for downlink direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (CDMA systems is explored. This open-loop transmit diversity technique improves the downlink performance by using a small number of antenna elements at the base station and a single antenna at the handset. In the proposed technique, low-rate super-orthogonal code-spread CDMA is married with code-division transmit diversity (CDTD. At the mobile receiver, space-time (ST RAKE CDTD processing is combined with iterative turbo code-spread decoding to yield large ST gains. The performance of the SOTTD system is compared with single- and multiantenna turbo-coded (TC CDTD systems evaluated over a frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel. The evaluation is done both by means of analysis and computer simulations. The performance results illustrate the superior performance of SOTTD compared to TC CDTD systems over practically the complete useful capacity range of CDMA. It is shown that the performance degradation characteristic of TC CDTD at low system loads (due to the inherent TC error floor is alleviated by the SOTTD system.

  7. Reduction of vibration forces transmitted from a radiator cooling fan to a vehicle body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jonghyuk; Sim, Woojeong; Yun, Seen; Lee, Dongkon; Chung, Jintai

    2018-04-01

    This article presents methods for reducing transmitted vibration forces caused by mass unbalance of the radiator cooling fan during vehicle idling. To identify the effects of mass unbalance upon the vibration characteristics, vibration signals of the fan blades were experimentally measured both with and without an added mass. For analyzing the vibration forces transmitted to the vehicle body, a dynamic simulation model was established that reflected the vibration characteristics of the actual system. This process included a method described herein for calculating the equivalent stiffness and the equivalent damping of the shroud stators and rubber mountings. The dynamic simulation model was verified by comparing its results with experimental results of the radiator cooling fan. The dynamic simulation model was used to analyze the transmitted vibration forces at the rubber mountings. Also, a measure was established to evaluate the effects of varying the design parameters upon the transmitted vibration forces. We present design guidelines based on these analyses to reduce the transmitted vibration forces of the radiator cooling fan.

  8. Cooperative Spatial Reuse with Transmit Beamforming in Multi-rate Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Chenguang; Fitzek, Frank; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a cooperative spatial reuse (CSR) scheme as a cooperative extension of the current TDMA-based MAC to enable spatial reuse in multi-rate wireless networks. We model spatial reuse as a cooperation problem on utilizing the time slots obtained from the TDMA-based MAC. In CSR, there are two...... operation modes. One is TDMA mode while the other is spatial reuse mode in which links transmit simultaneously. Links contribute their own time slots to form a cooperative group to do spatial reuse. Each link joins the group only if it can benefit in capacity or energy efficiency. Otherwise, the link...... will leave spatial reuse mode and switch back to TDMA. In this work, we focus on the transmit beamforming techniques to enable CSR by interference cancellation on MISO (Multiple Input Single Output) links. We compare the CSR scheme using zero-forcing (ZF) transmit beamforming, namely ZF-CSR, to the TDMA...

  9. Information guided channel hopping with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli; Aï ssa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize the information guided channel hopping, also known as spatial modulation, with more design flexibility, in this paper we propose a novel scheme that allows operation with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas. Once the number of transmit antennas is not a power of two, the antennas' symbols are mapped by different numbers of bits. Subsequently, constellations with different orders are exploited for the modulation of radiated symbols so as to guarantee that the total number of bits transmitted at each time slot remains the same. Furthermore, we introduce a decoding algorithm with low complexity for this design. Numerical results on bit error rate performance are provided and substantiate that the proposed scheme turns out to be a promising alternative to the design of information guided channel hopping. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Information guided channel hopping with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2012-10-01

    In order to realize the information guided channel hopping, also known as spatial modulation, with more design flexibility, in this paper we propose a novel scheme that allows operation with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas. Once the number of transmit antennas is not a power of two, the antennas\\' symbols are mapped by different numbers of bits. Subsequently, constellations with different orders are exploited for the modulation of radiated symbols so as to guarantee that the total number of bits transmitted at each time slot remains the same. Furthermore, we introduce a decoding algorithm with low complexity for this design. Numerical results on bit error rate performance are provided and substantiate that the proposed scheme turns out to be a promising alternative to the design of information guided channel hopping. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Impact of sensing errors on the queueing delay and transmit power in cognitive radio access

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.; Aissa, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    We study a multiple-access system with a primary user (PU) and a secondary user (SU) utilizing the same frequency band and communicating with a common receiver. Both users transmit with a fixed transmission rate by employing a channel inversion power control scheme. The SU transmits with a certain probability that depends on the sensing outcome, its queue length and whether it has a new packet arrival. We consider the case of erroneous sensing. The goal of the SU is to find the optimal transmission scheduling policy so as to minimize its queueing delay under constraints on its average transmit power and the maximum tolerable primary outage probability caused by miss-detection. The access probabilities are obtained efficiently using linear programming. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Coherent Code Tracking for Spatial Transmit Diversity DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Stewart

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial transmit diversity schemes are now well integrated into third-generation cellular mobile communication system specifications. When DS-CDMA-based technology is deployed in typical macro- and microcell environments, multipath diversity and spatial diversity may be exploited simultaneously by a 2D RAKE receiver. The work presented in this paper focuses on taking advantage of spatial transmit diversity in synchronising the 2D RAKE structure. We investigate the use of coherent and noncoherent techniques for tracking the timing parameters of each multipath component. It is shown that both noncoherent and coherent techniques benefit from transmit diversity. Additionally the performance gap between these two techniques increases with the number of antennas.

  13. Three Co-Existing Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a Heterosexual Male Youth: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theetat M. Surawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are asymptomatic, leading to widespread underdiagnoses estimated at 50% or higher. The presence of one STD significantly indicates an individual’s sexual health risk since an STD contributes to the transmission and acquisition of other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Multiple co-existing STDs, thus, further increase the susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV by twofold or more. Therefore, the comprehensive STD prevention strategies play a major role in reducing the transmission of HIV infection. We report an interesting case of a heterosexual male youth who presented at dermatology clinic with three concurrent sexually transmitted diseases: gonococcal urethritis, genital wart, and late latent syphilis. The case demonstrated significant issues for appropriate approaches and management of multiple co-existing STDs. Also, it reinforced the necessity for STD counselling for the patient, his partners, and family.

  14. Impact of sensing errors on the queueing delay and transmit power in cognitive radio access

    KAUST Repository

    Hamza, Doha R.

    2011-03-01

    We study a multiple-access system with a primary user (PU) and a secondary user (SU) utilizing the same frequency band and communicating with a common receiver. Both users transmit with a fixed transmission rate by employing a channel inversion power control scheme. The SU transmits with a certain probability that depends on the sensing outcome, its queue length and whether it has a new packet arrival. We consider the case of erroneous sensing. The goal of the SU is to find the optimal transmission scheduling policy so as to minimize its queueing delay under constraints on its average transmit power and the maximum tolerable primary outage probability caused by miss-detection. The access probabilities are obtained efficiently using linear programming. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Vector-transmitted disease vaccines: targeting salivary proteins in transmission (SPIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mary Ann

    2015-08-01

    More than half the population of the world is at risk for morbidity and mortality from vector-transmitted diseases, and emerging vector-transmitted infections are threatening new populations. Rising insecticide resistance and lack of efficacious vaccines highlight the need for novel control measures. One such approach is targeting the vector-host interface by incorporating vector salivary proteins in anti-pathogen vaccines. Debate remains about whether vector saliva exposure exacerbates or protects against more severe clinical manifestations, induces immunity through natural exposure or extends to all vector species and associated pathogens. Nevertheless, exploiting this unique biology holds promise as a viable strategy for the development of vaccines against vector-transmitted diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Double-transmitting and Sextuple-receiving Borehole Transient Electromagnetic Method and Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous improvement of precision requirements for borehole geophysical exploration, the application of transient electromagnetic method (from now on referred to as TEM in a borehole has become a hot spot. The conventional borehole TEM can only determine the longitudinal depth of the geological anomaly, the radial azimuth and depth cannot be resolved. A double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM is proposed, through which the radial anomaly is excited by the electromagnetic field generated by the double-emitting loops, and the azimuth and depth of the anomaly will be identified by the difference characteristics of the six receiving loops signals. In this paper, the response equations of the transmitting-receiving mode of double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM are deduced, and the response characteristics of the induction segment and the attenuation segment of the receiving loops are obtained based on the response equations under ramp function turn-off condition, providing the basis for theoretical analysis. Due to the negative value of the double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving transient electromagnetic response signals, a negative transformation algorithm under the double logarithmic coordinate system is proposed to provide the essential method for the analysis of two kinds of physical simulation experimental data of the radial azimuth and radial depth detection of the anomaly. The results show that the double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM has decent resolution ability in detecting the radial azimuth of the anomaly, and the effective resolution is 30°. The geometric difference among induced voltages of different measuring points can be used to evaluate the radial depth of the anomaly qualitatively. It is expected that the double-transmitting and sextuple-receiving borehole TEM can provide technical guidance for little borehole geophysical exploration in the fields of oil, natural

  17. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an

  18. Simplified methods for estimating gamma exposure fields transmitted through straight rectangular ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultis, J.K.; Thompson, K.R.; Faw, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Approximate computational models are developed to describe the spatial variation in the radiation field transmitted through a straight reactangular duct obliquely illuminated by monoenergetic gamma photons. These models account for single and multiple scattering from the duct walls and lips as well as for direct penetration by the photons. Results of calculations are compared to results from a recent benchmark duct streaming experiment, and empirical correction factors are obtained which enable the models to predict the transmitted exposure rates to within 20% of the experimental values

  19. Inter-Vehicle Communication System Utilizing Autonomous Distributed Transmit Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuji; Sawa, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yukio; Kumazawa, Hiroyuki

    In ad-hoc network such as inter-vehicle communication (IVC) system, safety applications that vehicles broadcast the information such as car velocity, position and so on periodically are considered. In these applications, if there are many vehicles broadcast data in a communication area, congestion incurs a problem decreasing communication reliability. We propose autonomous distributed transmit power control method to keep high communication reliability. In this method, each vehicle controls its transmit power using feed back control. Furthermore, we design a communication protocol to realize the proposed method, and we evaluate the effectiveness of proposed method using computer simulation.

  20. Multiple X-ray tomography using transmitted, scattered and fluorescent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Golosio, B.; Lopes, R.T.; Barroso, R.C.; Donativi, M.; Castellano, A.; Quarta, S.

    2003-01-01

    A multiple CT-scanner is described, which contemporaneously uses transmitted, scattered and fluorescent X-rays for Imaging. The scanner is characterized by a small size X-ray tube and by four detectors: a ''pencil'' X-ray NaI(Tl) for transmitted tomography, a larger size NaI(Tl) for 90 C o Compton tomography, a thermoelectrically cooled Si-PIN or CdZnTe for fluorescent imaging and a CdZnTe for Rayleigh (or diffraction) tomography. Examples of applications are shown

  1. A Study Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases With Application Of Syndromic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Hasan Hana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in Assam Medical College was studied for a period of one year. The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases was 1.43%. Out of 150 patients the number of patients with genitoulcerative diseases was syphilis 27 (18%, herpes genitalis 26(17.33%, condyloma acuminate 30 (20%, chancroid 11 (7.33%, donovanosis 2(1.33% and LGV 1(0.67%. Patients with urethral or vaginal discharge comprised of gonorrhoea 4(2.67% Vulvovaginitis 14 (9.33%, NGU 12(8.00%, trichomoniasis 2(1.33%, balanoposthitis 17(11.33%.

  2. Controlling the transmitted information of a multi-photon interacting with a single-Cooper pair box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadry, Heba, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com; Abdel-Aty, Abdel-Haleem, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com; Zakaria, Nordin, E-mail: hkadry1@yahoo.com [Computer and Information Science Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Cheong, Lee Yen [Fundamental and Applied Science Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    We study a model of a multi-photon interaction of a single Cooper pair box with a cavity field. The exchange of the information using this system is studied. We quantify the fidelity of the transmitted information. The effect of the system parameters (detuning parameter, field photons, state density and mean photon number) in the fidelity of the transmitted information is investigated. We found that the fidelity of the transmitted information can be controlled using the system parameters.

  3. Controlling the transmitted information of a multi-photon interacting with a single-Cooper pair box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadry, Heba; Abdel-Aty, Abdel-Haleem; Zakaria, Nordin; Cheong, Lee Yen

    2014-01-01

    We study a model of a multi-photon interaction of a single Cooper pair box with a cavity field. The exchange of the information using this system is studied. We quantify the fidelity of the transmitted information. The effect of the system parameters (detuning parameter, field photons, state density and mean photon number) in the fidelity of the transmitted information is investigated. We found that the fidelity of the transmitted information can be controlled using the system parameters

  4. [Current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis monitoring in China and working keys in future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-dan; Zang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Soil-transmitted nematodiasis is widely epidemic in rural areas in China. It was showed that the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19.56% while the overall number of persons infected was 129,000,000, which was supported by the results of the National Survey of Current Situation of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China in 2005 published by former Ministry of Health. Therefore, soil-transmitted nematodiasis was included in the national infectious diseases and pathogenic media monitoring system by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2006, and subsequently 22 monitoring spots were established nationwide. From 2006 to 2013, the human infection rate of intestinal nematodes in national monitoring spots decreased from 20.88% to 3.12%, which showed a declining trend year by year. Meanwhile, the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis decreased from 10.10%, 5.88%, 8.88%, 10.00% in 2006 to 0.76%, 0.42%, 2.04%, 6.78% in 2013 respectively. In this paper, the current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis is overviewed based on a summary of the 8 years' monitoring work, as well as the experiences, challenges and key of monitoring work in the future.

  5. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in Zarima town, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Abebe; Atnafu, Asmamaw; Addis, Zelalem; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Teklu, Takele; Mathewos, Biniam; Birhan, Wubet; Gebretsadik, Simon; Gelaw, Baye

    2011-07-09

    In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22%) followed by Hookworms (19%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%). Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH) and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  6. A fluid-coupled transmitting CMUT operated in collapse mode : Semi-analytic modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pekař, Martin; van Nispen, Stephan H.M.; Fey, Rob H.B.; Shulepov, Sergei; Mihajlović, Nenad; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2017-01-01

    An electro-mechanical, semi-analytic, reduced-order (RO) model of a fluid-loaded transmitting capacitive-micromachined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) operated in collapse mode is developed. Simulation of static deflections, approximated by a linear combination of six mode shapes, are benchmarked

  7. Blind synchronization in asynchronous UWB networks based on the transmit-reference scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djapic, R.; Leus, G.; Veen, A.-J. van der; Trindade, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless communication systems are based on the transmission of extremely narrow pulses, with a duration inferior to a nanosecond. The application of transmit reference(TR) to UWB systems allows to side-step channel estimation at the receiver, with a tradeoff of the effective

  8. [Soil-transmitted helminth trends and prevalence in La Virgen, Colombia 1995-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián A; Reyes-Harker, Patricia; Moncada-Alvarez, Ligia I; López, Myriam C; Cháves, María Del Pilar; Knudson, Angélica; Ariza, Yoseth

    2007-01-01

    Describing soil-transmitted helminthiasis prevalence and trends in children aged less than 15 in the village of La Virgen, Cundinamarca. Three non-random surveys were carried out on school-children aged 0 to 15 years. Intestinal parasitism was determined In the three cross-sectional studies by direct examination of fecal samples and modified Ritchie-Frick concentration method. Intestinal parasitism distribution was analysed and the trend during 1995-2005 described. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism in children aged less than 5 increased from 62,5 % in 1995 to 66,7 % in 2001 and to 69 % in 2005; soil-transmitted helminthiasis prevalence in this age group was 37,5 % in 1995, 23,6 % in 2001 and 27,6 % in 2005. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism for children aged over 5 increased from 86,2 % in 1995 to 89,1 % in 2005; soil-transmitted helminthiasis prevalence was 62,9 % in 1995, 39,8 % in 2001 and 23,9 % in 2005. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis was endemic and presented high prevalence during the study period. Effective control measures are needed to prevent intestinal parasitism in pre-school and schoolchildren.

  9. Paradoxical associations between soil-transmitted helminths and Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián A; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Cucunubá, Zulma M; Reyes-Harker, Patricia; Guerra, Ángela P; Moncada, Ligia I; López, Myriam C; Barrera, Sandra M; Cortés, Liliana J; Olivera, Mario; Nicholls, Rubén S

    2012-11-01

    Evidence on the comorbidity between soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria is scarce and divergent. This study explored the interactions between soil-transmitted helminth infections and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an endemic area of Colombia. A paired case-control study matched by sex, age and location in Tierralta, Cordoba, was done between January and September 2010. The incident cases were 68 patients with falciparum malaria and 178 asymptomatic controls. A questionnaire was used to gather information on sociodemographic variables. Additionally physical examinations were carried out, stool samples were analysed for intestinal parasites and blood samples for Ig E concentrations. We found associations between infection with hookworm (OR: 4.21; 95% CI: 1.68-11.31) and Ascaris lumbricoides (OR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.18-1.04) and the occurrence of falciparum malaria. The effects of soil-transmitted helminths on the occurrence of malaria were found to be paradoxical. While hookworm is a risk factor, A. lumbricoides has a protective effect. The findings suggest that, in addition to the comorbidity, the presence of common determinants of soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria could also exist. While the biological mechanisms involved are not clear, public health policies aimed at the control of their common social and environmental determinants are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NMR transmit-receive system with short recovery time and effective isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurga, K.; Reynhardt, E. C.; Jurga, S.

    A transmit-receive system with a short recovery time and excellent isolation has been developed. The system operates in conjunction with an ENI Model 3200L broadband amplifier and a spin-lock NMR pulse spectrometer. The system has been tested in the frequency range 5.5 to 52 MHz and seems not to generate any background noise.

  11. 15 CFR 30.9 - Transmitting and correcting Electronic Export Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmitting and correcting Electronic Export Information. 30.9 Section 30.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Requirements...

  12. 77 FR 4059 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2869] Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting... Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Electronic...

  13. 77 FR 11588 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-831] Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission... Trade Commission on January 10, 2012, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C...

  14. The Effects of Cultural Transmission Are Modulated by the Amount of Information Transmitted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L.; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Kalish, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Information changes as it is passed from person to person, with this process of cultural transmission allowing the minds of individuals to shape the information that they transmit. We present mathematical models of cultural transmission which predict that the amount of information passed from person to person should affect the rate at which that…

  15. Developing hygiene protocols against mechanically transmitted pathogens in greenhouse tomato production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse tomato propagation and production require intensive crop work that promotes the spread of mechanically transmitted pathogens (e.g. fungi, bacteria, viruses and viroids). Therefore, a clean seed program is very important to prevent any un-intentional introduction of seed-borne pathogens t...

  16. Individuality evaluation for paper based artifact-metrics using transmitted light image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Manabu; Tanaka, Junichi; Furuie, Makoto; Hirabayashi, Masashi; Matsumoto, Tsutomu

    2008-02-01

    Artifact-metrics is an automated method of authenticating artifacts based on a measurable intrinsic characteristic. Intrinsic characters, such as microscopic random-patterns made during the manufacturing process, are very difficult to copy. A transmitted light image of the distribution can be used for artifact-metrics, since the fiber distribution of paper is random. Little is known about the individuality of the transmitted light image although it is an important requirement for intrinsic characteristic artifact-metrics. Measuring individuality requires that the intrinsic characteristic of each artifact significantly differs, so having sufficient individuality can make an artifact-metric system highly resistant to brute force attack. Here we investigate the influence of paper category, matching size of sample, and image-resolution on the individuality of a transmitted light image of paper through a matching test using those images. More concretely, we evaluate FMR/FNMR curves by calculating similarity scores with matches using correlation coefficients between pairs of scanner input images, and the individuality of paper by way of estimated EER with probabilistic measure through a matching method based on line segments, which can localize the influence of rotation gaps of a sample in the case of large matching size. As a result, we found that the transmitted light image of paper has a sufficient individuality.

  17. Low complexity transmit antenna selection with power balancing in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong; Ko, Youngchai; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    of the power amplifier of the RF chain. Applying transmit antenna selection and fixed-power variable-rate transmission per subcarrier as a function of channel variations, we propose an implementation-friendly antenna selection method which offers a reduced

  18. Comparisons of receive array interference reduction techniques under erroneous generalized transmit beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    This paper studies generalized single-stream transmit beamforming employing receive array co-channel interference reduction algorithms under slow and flat fading multiuser wireless systems. The impact of imperfect prediction of channel state information for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels on the effectiveness of transmit beamforming for different interference reduction techniques is investigated. The case of over-loaded receive array with closely-spaced elements is considered, wherein it can be configured to specified interfering sources. Both dominant interference reduction and adaptive interference reduction techniques for statistically ordered and unordered interferers powers, respectively, are thoroughly studied. The effect of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers powers on the efficiency of dominant interference reduction is studied and then compared against the adaptive interference reduction. For the system models described above, new analytical formulations for the statistics of combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio are presented, from which results for conventional maximum ratio transmission and single-antenna best transmit selection can be directly deduced as limiting cases. These results are then utilized to obtain quantitative measures for various performance metrics. They are also used to compare the achieved performance of various configuration models under consideration. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  19. Vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses are found across three insect families and have dynamic interactions with their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Day, Jonathan P; Schulz, Nora; Leftwich, Philip T; de Jong, Maaike A; Breuker, Casper J; Gibbs, Melanie; Obbard, Darren J; Wilfert, Lena; Smith, Sophia C L; McGonigle, John E; Houslay, Thomas M; Wright, Lucy I; Livraghi, Luca; Evans, Luke C; Friend, Lucy A; Chapman, Tracey; Vontas, John; Kambouraki, Natasa; Jiggins, Francis M

    2017-01-25

    A small number of free-living viruses have been found to be obligately vertically transmitted, but it remains uncertain how widespread vertically transmitted viruses are and how quickly they can spread through host populations. Recent metagenomic studies have found several insects to be infected with sigma viruses (Rhabdoviridae). Here, we report that sigma viruses that infect Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata), Drosophila immigrans, and speckled wood butterflies (Pararge aegeria) are all vertically transmitted. We find patterns of vertical transmission that are consistent with those seen in Drosophila sigma viruses, with high rates of maternal transmission, and lower rates of paternal transmission. This mode of transmission allows them to spread rapidly in populations, and using viral sequence data we found the viruses in D. immigrans and C. capitata had both recently swept through host populations. The viruses were common in nature, with mean prevalences of 12% in C. capitata, 38% in D. immigrans and 74% in P. aegeria We conclude that vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses may be widespread in a broad range of insect taxa, and that these viruses can have dynamic interactions with their hosts. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses are found across three insect families and have dynamic interactions with their hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jonathan P.; Schulz, Nora; Leftwich, Philip T.; de Jong, Maaike A.; Wilfert, Lena; Smith, Sophia C. L.; McGonigle, John E.; Houslay, Thomas M.; Livraghi, Luca; Evans, Luke C.; Friend, Lucy A.; Vontas, John; Kambouraki, Natasa

    2017-01-01

    A small number of free-living viruses have been found to be obligately vertically transmitted, but it remains uncertain how widespread vertically transmitted viruses are and how quickly they can spread through host populations. Recent metagenomic studies have found several insects to be infected with sigma viruses (Rhabdoviridae). Here, we report that sigma viruses that infect Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata), Drosophila immigrans, and speckled wood butterflies (Pararge aegeria) are all vertically transmitted. We find patterns of vertical transmission that are consistent with those seen in Drosophila sigma viruses, with high rates of maternal transmission, and lower rates of paternal transmission. This mode of transmission allows them to spread rapidly in populations, and using viral sequence data we found the viruses in D. immigrans and C. capitata had both recently swept through host populations. The viruses were common in nature, with mean prevalences of 12% in C. capitata, 38% in D. immigrans and 74% in P. aegeria. We conclude that vertically transmitted rhabdoviruses may be widespread in a broad range of insect taxa, and that these viruses can have dynamic interactions with their hosts. PMID:28100819

  1. Blind Synchronization in Asynchronous UWB Networks Based on the Transmit-Reference Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djapic, R.; Leus, G.; Van Der Veen, A.J.; Trinda, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless communication systems are based on the transmission of extremely narrow pulses, with a duration inferior to a nanosecond. The application of transmit reference (TR) to UWB systems allows to side-step channel estimation at the receiver, with a tradeoff of the effective

  2. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013.  Created: 10/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/23/2014.

  3. Is the begomovirus, sweet potato leaf curl virus, really seed transmitted in sweetpotato?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato is one of the major root crops in the world and is also widely grown in the southern United States. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) is a begomovirus posing a serious threat to sweetpotato production worldwide and is primarily transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) or through veget...

  4. Urban Men's Knowledge and Perceptions regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…

  5. Level of Knowledge of Pregnant women on Sexual Organs, Contraceptive Methods and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Bozkurt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tMETHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tRESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 27.5±4.08. When they were asked about contraceptive methods, 61.2 % had knowledge about oral contraceptives, 78.7 % about preservatives, and 38 % had knowledge about tube ligation. 96.1 % of patients cited AIDS, 39.2 % hepatitis B and C, 29.4 % gonorrhea, 3.9 % chlamydia, 9.8 % herpes virus, 11.8 % HPV (genital wart and 27.5 % syphilisis as sexually transmitted diseases.\tCONCLUSION: The reason why this study is performed with pregnant women is that they have a sexual life, they are under the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and they need contraception. Finding out that pregnant women don’t have enough knowledge is important in regard to education of the population and preventive medicine.

  6. HIV in Kenya: Sexual behaviour and quality of care of sexually transmitted diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes three important determinants of HIV spread in Kenya: 1. Sexual behaviour of female sex workers, their clients, and young adults 2. Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 3. Quality of STD care in the public and private health

  7. Housing values of adult children and their parents. Is the quality of housing transmitted between generations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.; Michielin, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent the value of housing is transmitted from one generation to the next. Using the Social Statistical dataBase (SSB) for the Netherlands in 2003 and OLS regression analysis, it is found that the value of the parents’ home is an important predictor of housing value.

  8. Power balance and loss mechanism analysis in RF transmit coil arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Andre; Goluch, Sigrun; Waxmann, Patrick; Seifert, Frank; Ittermann, Bernd; Moser, Ewald; Laistler, Elmar

    2015-10-01

    To establish a framework for transmit array power balance calculations based on power correlation matrices to accurately quantify the loss contributions from different mechanisms such as coupling, lumped components, and radiation. Starting from Poynting's theorem, power correlation matrices are derived for all terms in the power balance, which is formulated as a matrix equation. Finite-difference time-domain simulations of two 7 T eight-channel head array coils at 297.2 MHz are used to verify the theoretical considerations and demonstrate their application. Care is taken to accurately incorporate all loss mechanisms. The power balance for static B1 phase shims as well as two-dimensional spatially selective transmit SENSE pulses is shown. The simulated power balance shows an excellent agreement with theory, with a maximum power imbalance of less than 0.11%. Power loss contributions from the different loss mechanisms vary significantly between the investigated setups, and depending on the excitation mode imposed on the coil. The presented approach enables a straightforward loss evaluation for an arbitrary excitation of transmit coil arrays. Worst-case power imbalance and losses are calculated in a straightforward manner. This allows for deeper insight into transmit array loss mechanisms, incorporation of radiated power components in specific absorption rate calculations and verification of electromagnetic simulations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Stability analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model of a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-07-01

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination of a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the population is in steady state and the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We determine the steady states and examine their stabilities. (author). 24 refs

  10. Transmitted wavefront testing with large dynamic range based on computer-aided deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daodang; Xu, Ping; Gong, Zhidong; Xie, Zhongmin; Liang, Rongguang; Xu, Xinke; Kong, Ming; Zhao, Jun

    2018-06-01

    The transmitted wavefront testing technique is demanded for the performance evaluation of transmission optics and transparent glass, in which the achievable dynamic range is a key issue. A computer-aided deflectometric testing method with fringe projection is proposed for the accurate testing of transmitted wavefronts with a large dynamic range. Ray tracing of the modeled testing system is carried out to achieve the virtual ‘null’ testing of transmitted wavefront aberrations. The ray aberration is obtained from the ray tracing result and measured slope, with which the test wavefront aberration can be reconstructed. To eliminate testing system modeling errors, a system geometry calibration based on computer-aided reverse optimization is applied to realize accurate testing. Both numerical simulation and experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and high accuracy of the proposed testing method. The proposed testing method can achieve a large dynamic range compared with the interferometric method, providing a simple, low-cost and accurate way for the testing of transmitted wavefronts from various kinds of optics and a large amount of industrial transmission elements.

  11. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  12. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…

  13. Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths Is Associated with Increased Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, A.E.; Hamid, F.; Wammes, L.J.; Prasetyani, M.A.; Dekkers, O.M.; May, L.; Kaisar, M.M.; Verweij, J.J.; Guigas, B.; Partono, F.; Sartono, E.; Supali, T.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given that helminth infections have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in animal studies, which may be explained by beneficial effects on energy balance or by a shift in the immune system to an anti-inflammatory profile, we investigated whether soil-transmitted helminth

  14. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS: In this...

  15. Arrangement of nuclear structures is not transmitted through mitosis but is identical in sister cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlova, Darya Yu; Stixová, Lenka; Kozubek, Stanislav; Gierman, Hinco J.; Šustáčková, Gabriela; Chernyshev, Andrei V.; Medvedev, Ruslan N.; Legartová, Soňa; Versteeg, Rogier; Matula, Pavel; Stoklasa, Roman; Bártová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well known that chromosomes are non-randomly organized during interphase, it is not completely clear whether higher-order chromatin structure is transmitted from mother to daughter cells. Therefore, we addressed the question of how chromatin is rearranged during interphase and whether

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases: educational intervention among teenagers in a technical-professional teaching center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dair García de la Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sexually transmitted diseases are among the leading health problems of humankind. They are highly prevalent diseases that cause distress, disability and significant severe complications. These infections do not have high mortality rates in general, with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, and Hepatitis B that cause a significant number of deaths. Objective. To improve the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among a group of teenagers of Bernabé Boza Technical School, county of Camagüey, and assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Methods. Knowledge assessments were conducted before and after the intervention in Bernabé Boza Technical School between January and June 2012. The sample universe was 120 students who comprised the complete second year enrollment. Results. There was a predominance of female sixteen-year-old teenagers. The knowledge level about features of sexually transmitted diseases increased significantly after the intervention among the teenagers in the study (71.7% versus 95.8% p<0.0001, route of infection (74.2% versus 100% p<0.0001, and prevention (20% versus 91.7% p<0.0001. Conclusion. The educational intervention increased significantly the level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases among the teenagers, Thus, this is an important educational tool in this age group.

  17. Management of whitefly-transmitted viruses in open-field production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteflies are a key pest of crops in open field production throughout the tropics and subtropics. This is due in large part to the long and diverse list of devastating plant viruses transmitted by these vectors. Open field production provides many challenges to manage these viruses and in many case...

  18. Inflammasomes and Their Role in Innate Immunity of Sexually Transmitted Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Vivek; Dhanda, Rakesh Singh; Møller, Niels Frimodt

    2016-01-01

    the mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced inflammasome activation is important if we are to develop novel therapeutic strategies to target sexually transmitted infections (STIs) related pathogens. This information is currently lacking in literature. In this review, we have discussed the role of various...

  19. Voice-band Modems: A Device to Transmit Data Over Telephone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Voice-band Modems: A Device to Transmit Data. Over Telephone Networks. 1. Basic Principles of Data Trans.mission v U Reddy is with the. Electrical Communica- tion Engineering. Department, Indian. Institute of Science. His research areas are adaptive signal process- ing, multirate filtering and wavelets, and multi-.

  20. Identification of structural similarities between putative transmission proteins of Polymyxa and Spongospora transmitted bymoviruses and furoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessens, J T; Meyer, M

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of amino acid sequence and hydropathy profiles shows conserved, structural similarities between the capsid readthrough protein of potato mop top virus (transmitted by Spongospora subterranea) and furovirus and bymovirus proteins implicated in transmission by Polymyxa spp. This suggests that these proteins have a common ancestry and are involved in a common biological process: virus transmission by plasmodiophorid fungi.

  1. Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Goesling; Silvie Colman; Christopher Trenholm; Mary Terzian; Kristin Moore

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the analysis.

  2. A 32-channel lattice transmission line array for parallel transmit and receive MRI at 7 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriany, Gregor; Auerbach, Edward J; Snyder, Carl J; Gözübüyük, Ark; Moeller, Steen; Ritter, Johannes; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Vaughan, Tommy; Uğurbil, Kâmil

    2010-06-01

    Transmit and receive RF coil arrays have proven to be particularly beneficial for ultra-high-field MR. Transmit coil arrays enable such techniques as B(1) (+) shimming to substantially improve transmit B(1) homogeneity compared to conventional volume coil designs, and receive coil arrays offer enhanced parallel imaging performance and SNR. Concentric coil arrangements hold promise for developing transceiver arrays incorporating large numbers of coil elements. At magnetic field strengths of 7 tesla and higher where the Larmor frequencies of interest can exceed 300 MHz, the coil array design must also overcome the problem of the coil conductor length approaching the RF wavelength. In this study, a novel concentric arrangement of resonance elements built from capacitively-shortened half-wavelength transmission lines is presented. This approach was utilized to construct an array with whole-brain coverage using 16 transceiver elements and 16 receive-only elements, resulting in a coil with a total of 16 transmit and 32 receive channels. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  4. Sensitivity and Specificity of Empiric Treatment for Sexually Transmitted Infections in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Kristen; Tuchman, Lisa; Hayes, Katie L; Badolato, Gia; Goyal, Monika K

    2017-10-01

    To determine test characteristics of provider judgment for empiric antibiotic provision to patients undergoing testing for a sexually transmitted infection. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional electronic health record review of all patients aged 13-19 years who had Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing sent from an urban, academic pediatric emergency department in 2012. We abstracted data, including patient demographics, chief complaint, sexually transmitted infection test results, and treatment. We calculated test characteristics comparing clinician judgment for presumptive treatment for a sexually transmitted infection with the reference standard of the actual results of testing for a sexually transmitted infection. Of 1223 patient visits meeting inclusion criteria, 284 (23.2%) had a positive GC and/or CT test result. Empiric treatment was provided in 615 encounters (50.3%). Provider judgment for presumptive treatment had an overall sensitivity of 67.6% (95% CI, 61.8-73.0) and a specificity of 55% (95% CI, 51.7-58.2) for accurate GC and/or CT detection. Many adolescents tested for GC and CT receive empiric treatment at the initial emergency department visit. Provider judgment may lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity for identifying infected patients, resulting in the potential for undertreatment of true disease, overtreatment of uninfected patients, or both. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…

  6. 1993 ABC of Sexually Transmitted Diseases· Introduction to Minimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    covering the major sexually transmitted disease syndromes such as urethral and vaginal discharges and genital ... will certainly be a worthwhile investment. J. Terblanche. ABC of Brainstem Death· ... In the early 1980's the cultural implications of brainstem death were largely unexplored. Today the criteria must be.

  7. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvendijk, Gilian; Coipan, Claudia; Wagemakers, Alex; Fonville, Manoj; Ersöz, Jasmin; Oei, Anneke; Földvári, Gábor; Hovius, Joppe; Takken, Willem; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi (s.l) is

  8. Larvae of Ixodes ricinus transmit Borrelia afzelii and B. miyamotoi to vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian; Coipan, Claudia; Wagemakers, Alex; Fonville, Manoj; Ersöz, Jasmin; Oei, Anneke; Földvári, Gábor; Hovius, Joppe; Takken, Willem; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne human disease and is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochaete, is transmitted transovarially, whereas this has not been shown for B. burgdorferi (s.l). Therefore, B. burgdorferi

  9. Optimal control design of turbo spin-echo sequences with applications to parallel-transmit systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbrizzi, Alessandro; Hoogduin, Hans; Hajnal, Joseph V; van den Berg, CAT; Luijten, Peter R; Malik, Shaihan J

    PURPOSE: The design of turbo spin-echo sequences is modeled as a dynamic optimization problem which includes the case of inhomogeneous transmit radiofrequency fields. This problem is efficiently solved by optimal control techniques making it possible to design patient-specific sequences online.

  10. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results: The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%. The use of the intrauterine device (IUD as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas.

  11. Determining composition of a substance by the use of both reflected and transmitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, S.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for the determination of the content of sulfur in hydrocarbon fuels comprising a primary and a secondary source of γ- or x-rays arranged on opposite sides of a test zone and a detector connected to a recording device for detecting and recording backscattered and transmitted rays emitted by the radiation sources is described

  12. The risk of HIV infection being transmitted by the oral route | Matee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparently, the risk of HIV infection being transmitted by the oral route is small. This information should serve to alleviate fears and concerns of the rapidly growing number of household members and other close. contacts of patients with AIDS, professionals attending these patients, as well as the population at large.

  13. An Evaluation of Phylogenetic Methods for Reconstructing Transmitted HIV Variants using Longitudinal Clonal HIV Sequence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Rosemary M.; Liang, Richard H.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Brumme, Zabrina L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A population of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) within a host often descends from a single transmitted/founder virus. The high mutation rate of HIV, coupled with long delays between infection and diagnosis, make isolating and characterizing this strain a challenge. In theory, ancestral reconstruction could be used to recover this strain from sequences sampled in chronic infection; however, the accuracy of phylogenetic techniques in this context is unknown. To evaluate the accuracy of these methods, we applied ancestral reconstruction to a large panel of published longitudinal clonal and/or single-genome-amplification HIV sequence data sets with at least one intrapatient sequence set sampled within 6 months of infection or seroconversion (n = 19,486 sequences, median [interquartile range] = 49 [20 to 86] sequences/set). The consensus of the earliest sequences was used as the best possible estimate of the transmitted/founder. These sequences were compared to ancestral reconstructions from sequences sampled at later time points using both phylogenetic and phylogeny-naive methods. Overall, phylogenetic methods conferred a 16% improvement in reproducing the consensus of early sequences, compared to phylogeny-naive methods. This relative advantage increased with intrapatient sequence diversity (P reconstructing ancestral indel variation, especially within indel-rich regions of the HIV genome. Although further improvements are needed, our results indicate that phylogenetic methods for ancestral reconstruction significantly outperform phylogeny-naive alternatives, and we identify experimental conditions and study designs that can enhance accuracy of transmitted/founder virus reconstruction. IMPORTANCE When HIV is transmitted into a new host, most of the viruses fail to infect host cells. Consequently, an HIV infection tends to be descended from a single “founder” virus. A priority target for the vaccine research, these transmitted/founder viruses are

  14. Sexually transmitted infections: prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices among female sex workers in a cosmopolitan city in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekoni, Adekemi O; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Onajole, Adebayo T; Odeyemi, Kofoworola A

    2013-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard for female sex workers. Targeted interventions for this population can reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus, but barriers exists which can hinder effective implementation of such programs. This descriptive cross sectional study sought to assess the prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices of sexually transmitted infections among brothel based female sex workers. Three hundred and twenty three consenting female sex workers were surveyed using pre tested, interviewer administered questionnaires. More than half of the respondents (54.2%) had poor knowledge of symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Only 13.9% were aware that sexually transmitted infections could be asymptomatic. The self reported prevalence of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections was 36.5%. About half of those with sexually transmitted infectionss sought treatment in a hospital or health centre while 32.5% from a patent medicine vendor. Most respondents (53.8%) mentioned the perceived quality of care as the main reason for seeking treatment in their chosen place. More of the respondents with good knowledge of sexually transmitted infections reported symptoms compared to those with fair and poor knowledge. The knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among these female sex workers is poor and the prevalence is relatively high. Efforts to improve knowledge promote and encourage preventive as well as effective treatment practices must be made for this population.

  15. The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme and the Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme on soil-transmitted helminthiasis in schoolchildren in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Khalid; Magnussen, Pascal; Sheshe, Amir; Ntakamulenga, Robert; Ndawi, Benedict; Olsen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (LFEP) and the National Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme (NSSCP) on soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) was evaluated. In September 2004, before mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP in October, the prevalence and intensity of STH were recorded in 228 pupils in one primary school. After 8 months, all available pupils were re-examined, and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm had decreased from 0.9 to 0.7% (P=0.84), from 4.8 to 0.7% (P=0.004) and from 45.6 to 11.9% (P<0.001), respectively. Overall, 81.2% of the schoolchildren stated that they were treated by the LFEP in October 2004. After the 8 months follow-up, pupils were treated with praziquantel and albendazole by the present project (substitute for the NSSCP). After another 4 months (at 12 months follow-up), the prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced to 4.8% (P=0.003), while the prevalence of T. trichiura was reduced to 0.3% (P=0.54) and the prevalence of A. lumbricoides remained unchanged. Mass co-administration of ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP had a significant effect on STH, which was further amplified by treatment with praziquantel and albendazole 4 months later.

  16. Spatio-temporal distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Guimarães, Luiz H; Scholte, Ronaldo Gc; Bavia, Mara E; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2014-09-18

    In Brazil, preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminthiasis is being scaled-up. Hence, spatially explicit estimates of infection risks providing information about the current situation are needed to guide interventions. Available high-resolution national model-based estimates either rely on analyses of data restricted to a given period of time, or on historical data collected over a longer period. While efforts have been made to take into account the spatial structure of the data in the modelling approach, little emphasis has been placed on the temporal dimension. We extracted georeferenced survey data on the prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura) in Brazil from the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases (GNTD) database. Selection of the most important predictors of infection risk was carried out using a Bayesian geostatistical approach and temporal models that address non-linearity and correlation of the explanatory variables. The spatial process was estimated through a predictive process approximation. Spatio-temporal models were built on the selected predictors with integrated nested Laplace approximation using stochastic partial differential equations. Our models revealed that, over the past 20 years, the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection has decreased in Brazil, mainly because of the reduction of A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections. From 2010 onwards, we estimate that the infection prevalences with A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura are 3.6%, 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively. We also provide a map highlighting municipalities in need of preventive chemotherapy, based on a predicted soil-transmitted helminth infection risk in excess of 20%. The need for treatments in the school-aged population at the municipality level was estimated at 1.8 million doses of anthelminthic tablets per year. The analysis of the spatio-temporal aspect of the risk of infection

  17. 18 CFR 2.20 - Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting utilities. 2.20 Section 2.20 Conservation of... Power Act § 2.20 Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting...

  18. A Simple Differential Modulation Scheme for Quasi-Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes with Partial Transmit Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyang Song

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple differential modulation scheme for quasi-orthogonal space-time block codes. A new class of quasi-orthogonal coding structures that can provide partial transmit diversity is presented for various numbers of transmit antennas. Differential encoding and decoding can be simplified for differential Alamouti-like codes by grouping the signals in the transmitted matrix and decoupling the detection of data symbols, respectively. The new scheme can achieve constant amplitude of transmitted signals, and avoid signal constellation expansion; in addition it has a linear signal detector with very low complexity. Simulation results show that these partial-diversity codes can provide very useful results at low SNR for current communication systems. Extension to more than four transmit antennas is also considered.

  19. The effect of abortion legalization on sexual behavior: evidence from sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, Jonathan; Stratmann, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Unwanted pregnancy represents a major cost of sexual activity. When abortion was legalized in a number of states in 1969 and 1970 (and nationally in 1973), this cost was reduced. We predict that abortion legalization generated incentives leading to an increase in sexual activity, accompanied by an increase in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using Centers for Disease Control data on the incidence of gonorrhea and syphilis by state, we test the hypothesis that abortion legalization led to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases. We find that gonorrhea and syphilis incidences are significantly and positively correlated with abortion legalization. Further, we find a divergence in STD rates among early legalizing states and late legalizing states starting in 1970 and a subsequent convergence after the Roe v. Wade decision, indicating that the relation between STDs and abortion is casual. Abortion legalization accounts for about one-fourth of the average disease incidence.

  20. Reproduction of cultural values: a cross-cultural examination of stories people create and transmit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshie; Yussen, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Narratives are one of the oldest and universal forms of communication in human societies. In the present research, the authors hypothesized that narratives play an important role in the reproduction of cultural values. To test this idea, Study 1 examined the contents of stories created by American and Japanese participants for their reflection of individualistic and collectivistic values, and Study 2 examined whether information consistent with cultural values would be more likely to be retained and passed onto others. The studies found that American participants created stories that reflected individualistic values and retained more individualistic information than collectivistic information when they transmitted a story to others. In contrast, Japanese participants created stories that reflected collectivistic values and retained more collectivistic information than individualistic information when they transmitted a story to others. These findings support the idea that narrative communication is an important part of cultural reproduction mechanism.

  1. Where do youth in foster care receive information about preventing unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Angela L

    2012-10-01

    Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transmit power optimization for green multihop relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimal transmit power strategy to maximize the energy efficiency of a multihop relaying network. Considering the communication between a source and a destination through multiple Amplify-and-Forward relays, we first give the expression of the total instantaneous system energy consumption. Then, we define the energy efficiency in our context and obtain its expression in closed-form when the communication is over Nakagami-m fading channels. The analysis yields to the derivation of a global transmit power strategy where each individual node is contributing to the end-to-end overall energy efficiency. Numercial results are presented to illustrate the analysis. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulation results confirms the accuracy of our derivations, and assesses the gains of the proposed power optimization strategy. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Transmitted ion energy loss distributions to detect cluster formation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selen, L.J.M.; Loon, A. van; IJzendoorn, L.J. van; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    2002-01-01

    The energy loss distribution of ions transmitted through a 5.7±0.2 μm thick Si crystal was measured and simulated with the Monte Carlo channeling simulation code FLUX. A general resemblance between the measured and simulated energy loss distributions was obtained after incorporation of an energy dependent energy loss in the simulation program. The energy loss calculations are used to investigate the feasibility to detect the presence of light element dopant clusters in a host crystal from the shape of the energy loss distribution, with transmission ion channeling. A curved crystal structure is used as a model for a region in the host crystal with clusters. The presence of the curvature does have a large influence on the transmitted energy distribution, which offers the possibility to determine the presence of dopant clusters in a host crystal with transmission ion channeling

  4. Low complexity transmit antenna selection with power balancing in OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-carrier systems with multiple transmit antennas under the power balancing constraint, which is defined as the constraint that the power on each antenna should be limited under a certain level due to the linearity of the power amplifier of the RF chain. Applying transmit antenna selection and fixed-power variable-rate transmission per subcarrier as a function of channel variations, we propose an implementation-friendly antenna selection method which offers a reduced complexity in comparison with the optimal antenna selection scheme. More specifically, in order to solve the subcarrier imbalance across the antennas, we operate a two-step reallocation procedure to minimize the loss of spectral efficiency. We also provide an analytic lower bound on the spectral efficiency for the proposed scheme. From selected numerical results, we show that our suboptimal scheme offers almost the same spectral efficiency as the optimal one. © 2010 IEEE.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. High-voltage integrated transmitting circuit with differential driving for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Færch, Kjartan Ullitz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high-voltage integrated differential transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is presented. Due to its application, area and power consumption are critical and need to be minimized. The circuitry...... is designed and implemented in AMS 0.35 μ m high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the fabricated integrated circuit in order to assess its performance. The transmitting circuit consists of a low-voltage control logic, pulse-triggered level shifters and a differential output stage that generates...... conditions is 0.936 mW including the load. The integrated circuits measured prove to be consistent and robust to local process variations by measurements....

  7. Recent advances towards azobenzene-based light-driven real-time information-transmitting materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume García-Amorós

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Photochromic switches that are able to transmit information in a quick fashion have attracted a growing interest within materials science during the last few decades. Although very fast photochromic switching materials working within hundreds of nanoseconds based on other chromophores, such as spiropyranes, have been successfully achieved, reaching such fast relaxation times for azobenzene-based photochromic molecular switches is still a challenge. This review focuses on the most recent achievements on azobenzene-based light-driven real-time information-transmitting systems. Besides, the main relationships between the structural features of the azo-chromophore and the thermal cis-to-trans isomerisation, the kinetics and mechanism are also discussed as a key point for reaching azoderivatives endowed with fast thermal back-isomerisation kinetics.

  8. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  9. [Infectious pathology: vulvovaginitis, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubo-ovarian abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola Vidaurre, M; Benito, J; Azcona, B; Zubeldía, N

    2009-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are those where the principal path of infection is through intimate contact. Numerous patients attend Accidents and emergencies for this reason, both because of the clinical features and because of social implications. The most frequent symptoms are lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding or excessive or troubling vaginal flow. Vulvovaginites are one of the principal problems in the everyday clinical practice of gynaecology. A genital ulcer whose principal aetiology is herpes, followed by syphilis and chancroid, increases the risk of contracting HIV infection and alters the course of other sexually transmitted diseases. Inflammatory pelvic disease encompasses infections of the upper female genital tract. The importance of early diagnosis and suitable treatment is both due to the complications in its acute phase and to its sequels, which include chronic pain and sterility.

  10. An industrial radiography exposure device based on measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polee, C; Chankow, N; Srisatit, S; Thong-Aram, D

    2015-01-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking information of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a small detector. Application software was developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display counting data via Bluetooth communication. Prior to film exposure, the device is placed behind a specimen to measure transmitted intensity which is inversely proportional to the exposure. Unlike in using the conventional exposure curve, correction factors for source decay, source-to- film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material are not needed. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable. (paper)

  11. An Industrial Radipgraphy Exposure Device Based on Measurement of Transmitted Gamma-Ray Intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polee, C.; Chankow, N.; Srisatit, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2014-01-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking knowledge of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a D3372 Hamamatsu small GM tube. Application software is developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display the counting data via Bluetooth. Prior to placing film, the device is placed behind the specimen to be radiographed to determine the exposure time from the transmitted intensity which is independent on source activity, source-to-film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable.

  12. Dual branch transmit switch-and-stay diversity for underlay cognitive networks

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.; Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study applying dual branch transmit switch-and-stay combining (SSC) technique for underlay cognitive radio (UCR) networks. In UCR, the secondary user is allowed to share the spectrum with the primary (licensed) user under the condition that interference at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. Assuming binary phaseshift keying (BPSK) modulation and Rayleigh fading channels, we develop a closed form expression for the average bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link as a function of the switching threshold. We then find a closed form expression for the optimal switching threshold in the sense of minimizing the average BER. For the sake of comparison we derive an expression for the average BER of the dual branch transmit selection combining (SC) technique. We finally investigate the effect of correlation between secondary and interference channels on the average BER and the associated optimal switching threshold. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Eddy Current Signal Analysis for Transmit-Receive Pancake Coil on ECT Array Probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyang Beom

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the eddy current signals come from a pair of transmit-receive (T/R) pancake coil on ECT array Probe are analyzed with the variations of the lift-of and of the distance between transmit and receive coils. To obtain the electromagnetic characteristics of the probes, the governing equation describing the eddy current problems is derived from Maxwell's equation and is solved using three-dimensional finite element method. Eddy current signals from T/R coils on ECT array probe have quite different characteristics compared with ones from impedance coil on rotating pancake coil probe. The results in this paper ran be helpful when the field eddy current signals from ECT array probe are evaluated

  14. Transmit Antenna Selection for Underlay Cognitive Radio with Instantaneous Interference Constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad

    2016-03-28

    Cognitive radio (CR) technology addresses the problem of spectrum under-utilization. In underlay CR mode, the secondary users are allowed to communicate provided that their transmission is not detrimental to primary user communication. Transmit antenna selection is one of the low-complexity methods to increase the capacity of wireless communication systems. In this article, we propose and analyze the performance benefit of a transmit antenna selection scheme for underlay secondary system that ensures the instantaneous interference caused by the secondary transmitter to the primary receiver is below a predetermined level. Closed-form expressions of the secondary link outage probability, higher order amount of fading, and ergodic capacity are derived for the proposed scheme. Monte-carlo simulations are also carried out to confirm various mathematical results presented in this article.

  15. Dual branch transmit switch-and-stay diversity for underlay cognitive networks

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we study applying dual branch transmit switch-and-stay combining (SSC) technique for underlay cognitive radio (UCR) networks. In UCR, the secondary user is allowed to share the spectrum with the primary (licensed) user under the condition that interference at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. Assuming binary phaseshift keying (BPSK) modulation and Rayleigh fading channels, we develop a closed form expression for the average bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link as a function of the switching threshold. We then find a closed form expression for the optimal switching threshold in the sense of minimizing the average BER. For the sake of comparison we derive an expression for the average BER of the dual branch transmit selection combining (SC) technique. We finally investigate the effect of correlation between secondary and interference channels on the average BER and the associated optimal switching threshold. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Transmit power optimization for green multihop relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa; Benjillali, Mustapha; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimal transmit power strategy to maximize the energy efficiency of a multihop relaying network. Considering the communication between a source and a destination through multiple Amplify-and-Forward relays, we first give the expression of the total instantaneous system energy consumption. Then, we define the energy efficiency in our context and obtain its expression in closed-form when the communication is over Nakagami-m fading channels. The analysis yields to the derivation of a global transmit power strategy where each individual node is contributing to the end-to-end overall energy efficiency. Numercial results are presented to illustrate the analysis. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulation results confirms the accuracy of our derivations, and assesses the gains of the proposed power optimization strategy. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. Joint Transmit Antenna Selection and Power Allocation for ISDF Relaying Mobile-to-Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingwei; Zhang, Hao; Gulliver, T Aaron

    2016-02-19

    The outage probability (OP) performance of multiple-relay incremental-selective decode-and-forward (ISDF) relaying mobile-to-mobile (M2M) sensor networks with transmit antenna selection (TAS) over N-Nakagami fading channels is investigated. Exact closed-form OP expressions for both optimal and suboptimal TAS schemes are derived. The power allocation problem is formulated to determine the optimal division of transmit power between the broadcast and relay phases. The OP performance under different conditions is evaluated via numerical simulation to verify the analysis. These results show that the optimal TAS scheme has better OP performance than the suboptimal scheme. Further, the power allocation parameter has a significant influence on the OP performance.

  18. On the performance of transmit antenna selection based on shadowing side information

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ahmet Oǧuz; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kucur, Oǧuz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a transmit antenna selection scheme, which is based on shadowing side information, is investigated. In this scheme, the selected single transmit antenna provides the highest shadowing coefficient between a transmitter and a receiver. By the proposed technique, the frequency of the usage of the feedback channel from the receiver to the transmitter and channel estimation complexity at the receiver can be reduced. We study the performance of our proposed technique, and in the analysis, we consider an independent but not identically distributed generalized-K composite fading model. More specifically, exact and closed-form expressions for the outage probability, the moment-generating function, the moments of signal-to-noise ratio, and the average symbol error probability (SEP) are derived. In addition, asymptotic outage probability and SP expressions are also presented to investigate the diversity order and the array gain. Finally, our theoretical performance results are validated by Monte Carlo simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhan Wubet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value Results Out of 319 study subjects, 263 (82.4% of the study participants infected with one or more parasites. From soil transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22% followed by Hookworms (19% and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%. Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  20. Diamond Thermal Expansion Measurement Using Transmitted X-ray Back-diffraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Carlos; Adriano, Cris; Lubambo, Adriana Freire; Cusatis, Cesar; Mazzaro, Irineu; Hönnicke, Marcelo Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    The linear thermal expansion coefficient of diamond has been measured using forward-diffracted profiles in X-ray backscattering. This experimental technique is presented as an alternative way of measuring thermal expansion coefficients of solids in the high-resolution Bragg backscattering geometry without the intrinsic difficulty of detecting the reflected beam. The temperature dependence of the lattice parameter is obtained from the high sensitivity of the transmitted profiles to the Bragg a...

  1. Maryland Alcohol Sales Tax and Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Natural Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staras, Stephanie A S; Livingston, Melvin D; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are common causes of morbidity and mortality, including infertility and certain types of cancer. Alcohol tax increases may decrease sexually transmitted infection rates overall and differentially across population subgroups by decreasing alcohol consumption in general and prior to sex, thus decreasing sexual risk taking and sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This study investigated the effects of a Maryland increase in alcohol beverage sales tax on statewide gonorrhea and chlamydia rates overall and within age, gender, and race/ethnicity subpopulations. This study used an interrupted time series design, including multiple cross-state comparisons, to examine the effects of the 2011 alcohol tax increase in Maryland on chlamydia and gonorrhea cases reported to the U.S. National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System for January 2003 to December 2012 (N=120 repeated monthly observations, analyzed in 2015). Effects were assessed with Box-Jenkins autoregressive moving average models with structural parameters. After the alcohol-specific sales tax increase, gonorrhea rates decreased 24% (95% CI=11%, 37%), resulting in 1,600 fewer statewide gonorrhea cases annually. Cohen's d indicated a substantial effect of the tax increase on gonorrhea rates (range across control group models, -1.25 to -1.42). The study did not find evidence of an effect on chlamydia or differential effects across age, race/ethnicity, or gender subgroups. Results strengthen the evidence from prior studies of alcohol taxes influencing gonorrhea rates and extend health prevention effects from alcohol excise to sales taxes. Alcohol tax increases may be an efficient strategy for reducing sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dermal neutrophil, macrophage and dendritic cell responses to Yersinia pestis transmitted by fleas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shannon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is typically transmitted by the bite of an infected flea. Many aspects of mammalian innate immune response early after Y. pestis infection remain poorly understood. A previous study by our lab showed that neutrophils are the most prominent cell type recruited to the injection site after intradermal needle inoculation of Y. pestis, suggesting that neutrophil interactions with Y. pestis may be important in bubonic plague pathogenesis. In the present study, we developed new tools allowing for intravital microscopy of Y. pestis in the dermis of an infected mouse after transmission by its natural route of infection, the bite of an infected flea. We found that uninfected flea bites typically induced minimal neutrophil recruitment. The magnitude of neutrophil response to flea-transmitted Y. pestis varied considerably and appeared to correspond to the number of bacteria deposited at the bite site. Macrophages migrated towards flea bite sites and interacted with small numbers of flea-transmitted bacteria. Consistent with a previous study, we observed minimal interaction between Y. pestis and dendritic cells; however, dendritic cells did consistently migrate towards flea bite sites containing Y. pestis. Interestingly, we often recovered viable Y. pestis from the draining lymph node (dLN 1 h after flea feeding, indicating that the migration of bacteria from the dermis to the dLN may be more rapid than previously reported. Overall, the innate cellular host responses to flea-transmitted Y. pestis differed from and were more variable than responses to needle-inoculated bacteria. This work highlights the importance of studying the interactions between fleas, Y. pestis and the mammalian host to gain a better understanding of the early events in plague pathogenesis.

  3. Testing of dogs with meningitis and meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology for vector-transmitted microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzerini, Kali

    2016-01-01

    In many cases of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system in dogs, no aetiological infectious agent can be found. These inflammatory conditions are thus named inflammations of unknown aetiology. Results of immunpathological studies imply that an antigen may trigger an autoimmune response (Hit-and-Run-Hypothesis). Serum was analyzed for antibodies against vector-transmitted pathogens and blood and cerebrospinal fluid for DNA of such infectious agents in order to further define th...

  4. Testing nonlinear electrodynamics in waveguides: the effect of magnetostatic fields on the transmitted power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-05-14

    In Born-Infeld theory and other nonlinear electrodynamics, the presence of a magnetostatic field modifies the dispersion relation and the energy velocity of waves propagating in a hollow waveguide. As a consequence, the transmitted power along a waveguide suffers slight changes when a magnetostatic field is switched on and off. This tiny effect could be better tested by operating the waveguide at a frequency close to the cutoff frequency.

  5. Testing nonlinear electrodynamics in waveguides: the effect of magnetostatic fields on the transmitted power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In Born-Infeld theory and other nonlinear electrodynamics, the presence of a magnetostatic field modifies the dispersion relation and the energy velocity of waves propagating in a hollow waveguide. As a consequence, the transmitted power along a waveguide suffers slight changes when a magnetostatic field is switched on and off. This tiny effect could be better tested by operating the waveguide at a frequency close to the cutoff frequency.

  6. Resource allocation for transmit hybrid beamforming in decoupled millimeter wave multiuser-MIMO downlink

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Irfan; Khammari, Hedi; Shahid, Adnan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study on joint radio resource allocation and hybrid precoding in multicarrier massive multiple-input multiple-output communications for 5G cellular networks. In this paper, we present the resource allocation algorithm to maximize the proportional fairness (PF) spectral efficiency under the per subchannel power and the beamforming rank constraints. Two heuristic algorithms are designed. The proportional fairness hybrid beamforming algorithm provides the transmit precoder ...

  7. Selective detection of Escherichia coli by imaging of the light intensity transmitted through an optical disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Chiaki; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Shima, Takayuki; Wang, Xiaomin; Fujimaki, Makoto

    2018-03-01

    We have developed an optical disk system for imaging transmitted light from Escherichia coli dispersed on an optical disk. When E. coli was stained using Bismarck brown, the transmittance was found to decrease in images obtained at λ = 405 nm. The results indicate that transmittance imaging is suitable for finding the difference in light intensity between stained and unstained E. coli, whereas the reflectance images were scarcely changed by staining. Therefore, E. coli can be selectively discriminated from abiotic contaminants using transmittance imaging.

  8. The spatial context of clinic-reported sexually transmitted infection in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shui-Shan; Ho, King-Man; Cheung, Georgiana MT

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in China has been on the rise in the past decade. Delineation of epidemiologic pattern is often hampered by its uneven distribution. Spatial distribution is often a neglected aspect of STI research, the description of which may enhance epidemiologic surveillance and inform service development. Methods Over a one month-period, all first time attendees of 6 public STI clinics in Hong Kong were interviewed b...

  9. Antenatal marijuana use is unrelated to sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, J M; Goodridge, C

    2000-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between marijuana use and sexually transmitted diseases in pregnant women.Methods: A retrospective review of clinic records over a 12-1/2 month period identified all women entering prenatal care. Eighty-six women using no illicit substance other than marijuana were compared to 441 drug-free women. The prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B surface antigen, human papilloma virus, and herpes was as...

  10. Transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to brucella abortus biotype 1 in sprague-dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Baek, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    In the investigation on the transplacentally transmitted congenital brucellosis due to Brucella abortus biotype 1 in Sprague- Dawley rats, neither any stillbirth, abortion or premature birth nor any abnormality of fetus was observed in the infected group or in the control group. B. abortus biotype was isolated from the fetus of infected rats only. Only one band of 498 base pair DNA was obtained in polymerase chain reaction products from DNA of the fetuses of infected SD rats. (author)

  11. Design of a K-Band Transmit Phased Array For Low Earth Orbit Satellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Thomas; Miller, Stephen; Kershner, Dennis; Anzic, Godfrey

    2000-01-01

    The design of a light weight, low cost phased array antenna is presented. Multilayer printed wiring board (PWB) technology is utilized for Radio Frequencies (RF) and DC/Logic manifold distribution. Transmit modules are soldered on one side and patch antenna elements are on the other, allowing the use of automated assembly processes. The 19 GHz antenna has two independently steerable beams, each capable of transferring data at 622 Mbps. A passive, self-contained phase change thermal management system is also presented.

  12. Behavioral Interventions for Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancies: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya Pascual, A; Ferreres Riera, J R; Campoy Sánchez, A

    2016-05-01

    Countless sex education programs have been implemented worldwide in recent decades, but epidemiological data show no improvement in rates of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. To summarize the evidence from higher-quality systematic reviews on the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. We conducted an overview of reviews by selecting systematic reviews that met minimum quality criteria in terms of the design of the studies reviewed. We compared the results obtained when the effects of interventions were assessed on the basis of objective criteria (biological data) to those obtained when outcomes were assessed on the basis of subjective criteria (self-reports). The results of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were also compared. We identified 55 systematic reviews. No overall effect on the sexual behavior of program participants was observed in 72.5% of the reviews that used objective criteria and in 48.1% of the reviews based on subjective criteria. In the Cochrane reviews, no evidence of an overall effect was observed in 86% of reviews based on objective variables and in 70.5% of those based on subjective variables. There is no evidence that behavioral interventions modify rates of sexually transmitted infections (including human immunodeficiency virus infections) or unintended pregnancies, particularly when effects are assessed using objective, biological data. Primary prevention strategies for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Validation of an HIV and other sexually transmitted infections knowledge scale in an adolescent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José Pedro; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to specifically assess the knowledge of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a Spanish adolescent population. Cross-sectional study for the validation of a questionnaire. A total of 17 schools in five Spanish provinces. A total of 1,570 adolescent schoolchildren between 13 and 17 years old. A pool of 40 items relating to knowledge about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections was established. This pool was analyzed by an expert panel. It was then administered to a pilot group with the same demographic characteristics of the sample, to ensure comprehension. Item analysis, internal consistency, test/retest and exploratory factorial analysis. A factor analysis was performed, in which five factors that explained 46% of the total variance were retained: general knowledge about HIV, condom as a protective method, routes of HIV transmission, the prevention of HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Reliability measures ranged from 0.66 to 0.88. The test-retest correlation was 0.59. There were gender differences in the knowledge of infections. These factors have adequate internal consistency and acceptable test-retest correlation. Theoretically, these factors fit properly with the content of the items. The factors have a moderate relationship, indicating that a high degree of knowledge about an aspect, but not a guarantee of general knowledge. The availability of a questionnaire to assess knowledge of sexually transmitted infections is helpful to evaluate prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge and misconceptions about sexually transmitted infections in married women--perspective from Islamabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, S B; Agha, M A; Shaikh, M A

    2006-01-01

    To study the knowledge of married women regarding existence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) their complications, treatment seeking, ways of preventing STI acquisition and opinion about sex education in schools/colleges and media. The Mother and Child Health Center, a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad. A cross-sectional survey based on sample of convenience was conducted, using a structured questionnaire with both close and open-ended questions. Trained women physician interviewers conducted the interviews after obtaining verbal consent. Out of 218 women approached for interviewing, only two refused to participate in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 28.5 years (range 18-53 years). One hundred and sixty-eight (77.8%) respondents had heard/knew about sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Two hundred and ten (97.2%) respondents had heard/ knew about AIDS and out of these 162 (77.1%) knew that it is also transmitted through sexual contact. One hundred and eighty two (84.2%) felt a need for sex education in the media, both print and electronic and 204 (94.4%) respondents said that they would like to learn more about sexually transmitted infections. One hundred ninety four (98.8%) respondents had heard the Latin term Leukorrhoea. Of these 158 (81.5%) thought it was a gynecological disease. Majority thought it caused weakness. Widespread misperceptions were found to exist, which does not augur well for the effective prevention of STIs in the country. Population based studies are required to study the knowledge and epidemiology of STIs, as well as a need for a health education campaign in the country (JPMA 51:389; 2001).

  15. High-speed photography of light beams transmitted through pinhole targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaonan, D.; Haien, He.; Lian, C.; Huifang, Z.; Zhijian, Z.

    1988-01-01

    A method of high speed photography is presented. It was designed and performed in order to study temporal behaviors of plasma closure effects of pinhole targets in laser plasma experiments. A series of high speed photographs were taken for the laser beam transmitted through the pinhole targets. Spatially resolved and integrated temporal histories of closure effects were observed, respectively. Some physical information about closure effect and closure speed have been studied

  16. Transmit Antenna Selection for Multi-User Underlay Cognitive Transmission with Zero-Forcing Beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Hanif, Muhammad

    2017-03-20

    We present a transmit antenna subset selection scheme for an underlay cognitive system serving multiple secondary receivers. The secondary system employs zero-forcing beamforming to nullify the interference to multiple primary users and eliminate inter-user interference to the secondary users simultaneously. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves near-optimal performance with low computational complexity. Lastly, an optimal power allocation strategy is also introduced to improve the secondary network throughput.

  17. Analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model for a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-05-01

    A SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination for a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the total population is time dependent, and fertility, mortality and removal rates depend on age. We establish the existence and the uniqueness of the solution and obtain the asymptotic behaviour for the solution. For the steady state solution a critical vaccination coverage which will eventually eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 18 refs

  18. The traditional use of Vachellia nilotica for sexually transmitted diseases is substantiated by the antiviral activity of its bark extract against sexually transmitted viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Manuela; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Gibellini, Davide; Musumeci, Giuseppina; Rittà, Massimo; Ghosh, Manik; Lembo, David

    2018-03-01

    Vachellia (Acacia) nilotica and other plants of this genus have been used in traditional medicine of Asian and African countries to treat many disorders, including sexually transmitted diseases, but few studies were performed to validate their anti-microbial and anti-viral activity against sexually transmitted infections. The present study was undertaken to explore whether the ethnomedical use of V.nilotica to treat genital lesions is substantiated by its antiviral activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV). The antiviral activity of V.nilotica was tested in vitro by virus-specific inhibition assays using HSV-2 strains, sensible or resistant to acyclovir, HIV-1IIIb strain and HPV-16 pseudovirion (PsV). The potential mode of action of extract against HSV-2 and HPV-16 was further investigated by virus inactivation and time-of-addition assays on cell cultures. V.nilotica chloroform, methanolic and water bark extracts exerted antiviral activity against HSV-2 and HPV-16 PsV infections; among these, methanolic extract showed the best EC50s with values of 4.71 and 1.80µg/ml against HSV-2 and HPV-16, respectively, and it was also active against an acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strain with an EC50 of 6.71µg/ml. By contrast, no suppression of HIV infection was observed. Investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that the methanolic extract directly inactivated the infectivity of the HPV-16 particles, whereas a partial virus inactivation and interference with virus attachment (EC50 of 2.74µg/ml) were both found to contribute to the anti-HSV-2 activity. These results support the traditional use of V.nilotica applied externally for the treatment of genital lesions. Further work remains to be done in order to identify the bioactive components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. FPGA implementation of a ZigBee wireless network control interface to transmit biomedical signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez López, M. A.; Goy, C. B.; Bolognini, P. C.; Herrera, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, cardiac hemodynamic monitors have incorporated new technologies based on wireless sensor networks which can implement different types of communication protocols. More precisely, a digital conductance catheter system recently developed adds a wireless ZigBee module (IEEE 802.15.4 standards) to transmit cardiac signals (ECG, intraventricular pressure and volume) which would allow the physicians to evaluate the patient's cardiac status in a noninvasively way. The aim of this paper is to describe a control interface, implemented in a FPGA device, to manage a ZigBee wireless network. ZigBee technology is used due to its excellent performance including simplicity, low-power consumption, short-range transmission and low cost. FPGA internal memory stores 8-bit signals with which the control interface prepares the information packets. These data were send to the ZigBee END DEVICE module that receives and transmits wirelessly to the external COORDINATOR module. Using an USB port, the COORDINATOR sends the signals to a personal computer for displaying. Each functional block of control interface was assessed by means of temporal diagrams. Three biological signals, organized in packets and converted to RS232 serial protocol, were sucessfully transmitted and displayed in a PC screen. For this purpose, a custom-made graphical software was designed using LabView.

  20. Correlation between malaria incidence and prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Colombia: an ecologic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Carlos Andrés; Fernández, Julián Alfredo; Cucunubá, Zulma Milena; Reyes, Patricia; López, Myriam Consuelo; Duque, Sofía

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested an association between the soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria incidence. However, published evidence is still insufficient and diverging. Since 1977, new ecologic studies have not been carried out to explore this association. Ecologic studies could explore this correlation on a population level, assessing its potential importance on public health. The aim of this evaluation is to explore the association between soil-transmitted helminths prevalence and malaria incidence, at an ecologic level in Colombia. Using data from the National Health Survey, which was carried out in 1980 in Colombia, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between the prevalence of: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, with the 1980 malaria incidence data of the same year provided from the Colombian Malaria National Eradication Service. A robust regression analysis with least trimmed squares was performed. Falciparum malaria incidence and Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence had a low correlation (R²= 0.086) but this correlation was stronger into the clusters of towns with prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides infection above 30% were only included (R²= 0.916). This work showed an ecologic correlation in Colombia between malaria incidence and soil-transmitted helminths prevalence. This could suggest that either there is an association between these two groups of parasites, or could be explained by the presence of common structural determinants for both diseases.

  1. FPGA implementation of a ZigBee wireless network control interface to transmit biomedical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, M A Gómez; Goy, C B; Bolognini, P C; Herrera, M C

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, cardiac hemodynamic monitors have incorporated new technologies based on wireless sensor networks which can implement different types of communication protocols. More precisely, a digital conductance catheter system recently developed adds a wireless ZigBee module (IEEE 802.15.4 standards) to transmit cardiac signals (ECG, intraventricular pressure and volume) which would allow the physicians to evaluate the patient's cardiac status in a noninvasively way. The aim of this paper is to describe a control interface, implemented in a FPGA device, to manage a ZigBee wireless network. ZigBee technology is used due to its excellent performance including simplicity, low-power consumption, short-range transmission and low cost. FPGA internal memory stores 8-bit signals with which the control interface prepares the information packets. These data were send to the ZigBee END DEVICE module that receives and transmits wirelessly to the external COORDINATOR module. Using an USB port, the COORDINATOR sends the signals to a personal computer for displaying. Each functional block of control interface was assessed by means of temporal diagrams. Three biological signals, organized in packets and converted to RS232 serial protocol, were successfully transmitted and displayed in a PC screen. For this purpose, a custom-made graphical software was designed using LabView.

  2. SVD-BASED TRANSMIT BEAMFORMING FOR VARIOUS MODULATIONS WITH CONVOLUTION ENCODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a new beamforming technique using singular value decomposition (SVD for closed loop Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO wireless systems with various modulation techniques such as BPSK, 16-QAM, 16-PSK, DPSK and PAM along with convolution encoder. The channel matrix is decomposed into a number of independent orthogonal modes of excitation, which refer to as eigenmodes of the channel. Transmit precoding is performed by multiplying the input symbols with unitary matrix to produce the transmit beamforming, and the precoded symbols are transmitted over Rayleigh fading channel. At the receiver, combining process is performed by using maximum ratio combiner (MRC, and the receiver shaping is performed to retrieve the original input symbols by multiplying the received signal with conjugate transpose of the unitary matrix. Furthermore, the expressions for average bit error rate (BER for M-PSK and average BER for M-QAM are derived. The superiority of the proposed work is proved by simulation results and the proposed work is compared to the other beamforming methods.

  3. Oral manifestations of sexually transmitted diseases identified in three stomatology services in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Carmona-Lorduy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted diseases are defined as a group of infections caused by various agents which are acquired during sexual intercourse. They also tend to generate manifestations in the mouth. Objective: To determine the typical lesions in oral cavity of sexually transmitted diseases. Materials and methods: A descriptive transversal study was conducted with 37 patients who attended the stomatology services of the University of Buenos Aires, University of Cartagena and the Aleman Hospital in Buenos Aires during 2015 and 2016. A complete clinical history was carried out with Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL and Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody Absortion (FTA-ABS tests in patients with presumption of syphilis. In addition, histopathological analysis and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was made in patients with presumption of Human papillomavirus (HPV. Results: The average age of the patients was 38, where male sex predominated. 54.1% were diagnosed with syphilis and the most found lesion in them was the papule. The remaining 45.9% were diagnosed with HPV, the predominant lesion in them was a wart. Conclusions: The dentist should contribute to the early detection of sexually transmitted diseases by identifying manifestations of these in the mouth in order to prevent their evolution and prevent their transmission.

  4. Intervention for the control of Soil -transmitted helminthiasis in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albonico, Marco; Montresor, Antonio; Crompton, DWT; Savioli, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, based on regular anthelminthic treatment, health education, and improved sanitation standards, is reviewed. The reasons for the development of a control strategy based on population intervention rather than on individual treatment are explained. The evidence and experience from control programmes that created the basis for i) the definition of the intervention package, ii) the identification of the groups at risk, iii) the standardization of the community diagnosis, and iv) the selection of the appropriate intervention for each category in the community are discussed. How to best deliver the appropriate intervention, the impact of the control measures on morbidity and on indicators such as school attendance, cognitive development and productivity are presented. The factors influencing the cost-benefits of helminth control are also considered. The recent progress on the control of soil-transmitted helminth infections is illustrated. Research needs are analysed in relation to the most recent perceptions from private-public partnerships involved in helminth control. The way forward for the control of soil-transmitted helminth infections is described as a multi-disease approach that goes beyond deworming and fosters a pro-poor strategy that supports the aims of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16735168

  5. KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, PRACTICE AMONG ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN URBAN SLUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Rai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases?  Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel.  Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted.

  6. [Infections which humans in the household transmit to dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A

    1989-04-01

    An overview of the most important infections which can be transmitted from humans to pet dogs and cats is presented. Two quite different sources of infection stand diametrically opposite each other: 1. The transmission of active human infections to dogs and cats and 2. the transmission of infectious agents by feeding raw meat, offal, unsterilized milk products, kitchen scraps and contaminated feedstuffs. Humans can be the source of the following infections: 1. Zoonoses with reciprocal modes of transmission, e.g. Campylobacter and E. coli infections, trichophyton and microsporum infections, reo-, parainfluenza-, adeno, rota- and corona infections. 2. Zoonoses in which the main direction of infection is human----animal, e.g. tuberculosis and influenza A. 3. Infections originally pathogenic to humans which meet an impasse in dogs and cats (blind alley hosts), e.g. herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, measles and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Listeria, salmonella, campylobacteria, toxoplasma, fungi, yeasts and viruses are transmitted via feed. The most dangerous virus infection to be transmitted to cats and dogs via raw pork leftovers is Aujeszky's disease. The dog or cat, which is the last link in the infection chain, suffers an agonizing death. The other infections originating from feed must be assessed quite differently. They are links in infection chains, which spread pathogens and endanger the health of man and animal in turn. A typical example is toxoplasmosis. Man becomes infected via sporulated oocysts from feces. Pet cats mainly become infected via raw pork containing cysts.

  7. Aerially transmitted human fungal pathogens: what can we learn from metagenomics and comparative genomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliouat-Denis, Cécile-Marie; Chabé, Magali; Delhaes, Laurence; Dei-Cas, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades, aerially transmitted human fungal pathogens have been increasingly recognized to impact the clinical course of chronic pulmonary diseases, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thanks to recent development of culture-free high-throughput sequencing methods, the metagenomic approaches are now appropriate to detect, identify and even quantify prokaryotic or eukaryotic microorganism communities inhabiting human respiratory tract and to access the complexity of even low-burden microbe communities that are likely to play a role in chronic pulmonary diseases. In this review, we explore how metagenomics and comparative genomics studies can alleviate fungal culture bottlenecks, improve our knowledge about fungal biology, lift the veil on cross-talks between host lung and fungal microbiota, and gain insights into the pathogenic impact of these aerially transmitted fungi that affect human beings. We reviewed metagenomic studies and comparative genomic analyses of carefully chosen microorganisms, and confirmed the usefulness of such approaches to better delineate biology and pathogenesis of aerially transmitted human fungal pathogens. Efforts to generate and efficiently analyze the enormous amount of data produced by such novel approaches have to be pursued, and will potentially provide the patients suffering from chronic pulmonary diseases with a better management. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential for North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit rift valley fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, Michael J; Wilson, William C; Bennett, Kristine E

    2010-09-01

    To determine which arthropods should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America, we evaluated Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex erythrothorax Dyar, Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex pipiens L., Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Aedes dorsalis (Wiedemann), Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones from the western, midwestern, and southern United States for their ability to transmit RVFV. Female mosquitoes were allowed to feed on adult hamsters inoculated with RVFV, after which engorged mosquitoes were incubated for 7-21 d at 260C, then allowed to refeed on susceptible hamsters, and tested to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Other specimens were inoculated intrathoracically, held for 7 d, and then allowed to feed on a susceptible hamster to check for a salivary gland barrier. When exposed to hamsters with viremias > or =10(8.8) plaque-forming units/ml blood, Cx. tarsalis transmitted RVFV efficiently (infection rate = 93%, dissemination rate = 56%, and estimated transmission rate = 52%). In contrast, when exposed to the same virus dose, none of the other species tested transmitted RVFV efficiently. Estimated transmission rates for Cx. erythrothorax, Cx. pipiens, Cx. erraticus, and Ae. dorsalis were 10, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively, and for the remaining species were feeding preference, longevity, and foraging behavior should be considered when determining the potential role that these species could play in RVFV transmission.

  9. Impact of co-channel interference on the performance of adaptive generalized transmit beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2011-08-01

    The impact of co-channel interference on the performance of adaptive generalized transmit beamforming for low-complexity multiple-input single-output (MISO) configuration is investigated. The transmit channels are assumed to be sufficiently separated and undergo Rayleigh fading conditions. Due to the limited space, a single receive antenna is employed to capture desired user transmission. The number of active transmit channels is adjusted adaptively based on statistically unordered and/or ordered instantaneous signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), where the transmitter has no information about the statistics of undesired signals. The adaptation thresholds are identified to guarantee a target performance level, and the adaptation schemes with enhanced spectral efficiency or power efficiency are studied and their performance are compared under various channels conditions. To facilitate comparison studies, results for the statistics of instantaneous combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) are derived, which can be applied for different fading conditions of interfering signals. The statistics for combined SNR and combined SINR are then used to quantify various performance measures, considering the impact of non-ideal estimation of the desired user channel state information (CSI) and the randomness in the number of active interferers. Numerical and simulation comparisons for the achieved performance of the adaptation schemes are presented. © 2006 IEEE.

  10. Climate Chage in Spain and its Influence on Vector-Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Iriso Calle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades Spain has experienced a resurgence of some vector-transmitted diseases which were thought to be under control and the appearance of new ones. Likewise, the arrival of new vectors and, in some cases, their establishment and expansion is creating to new public health risks. In general, these phenomena have been associated with complex ecological and climate-driven changes which have favored and increased the densities of vectors and their reservoirs, but they have also been affected by processes that have been triggered or accelerated by man such as globalization, urban development, deforestation and land-use changes.Changes in the distribution of vectors and their capacity to transmit pathogens owing to climate change will become more evident in areas that lie within their distribution limits, as is Spain’s case.This is compounded by Spain’s proximity to Africa and the potential entry of new vectors and pathogens from this continent.This scenario necessitates setting up action programs aimed at both identifying risks posed by vectors and preventing vector-borne diseases, and efficiently managing possible outbreaks that could occur in the future.We have reviewed the scenarios which Spain is expected to experience in connection with climate change and its impact on the incidence of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, phlebotomine sand flies, ticks and other arthropods, and rodents.

  11. Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis in the United States: a systematic review--1940-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Michelle C; Montgomery, Susan P

    2011-10-01

    The epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminth infections (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) in the United States is poorly understood. To gain understanding of the status of disease, a systematic review was performed to assess the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections in the United States. Of all studies reviewed, 14 were designated as high-quality. High-quality studies were published from 1942 to 1982 and showed that infection was prevalent throughout the southern United States and Appalachia as recently as 1982, finding that hookworm (19.6%), T. trichiura (55.2%), A. lumbricoides (49.4%), and S. stercoralis (3.8%) affected significant percentages of the population. However, because the most recent high-quality studies were published over 25 years ago, the literature does not provide sufficient data to assess current endemic transmission. Because the status of disease remains unclear, there is a need for additional studies to determine if soil-transmitted helminths remain endemic in the United States.

  12. Low-Complexity Transmit Antenna Selection and Beamforming for Large-Scale MIMO Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmit antenna selection plays an important role in large-scale multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communications, but optimal large-scale MIMO antenna selection is a technical challenge. Exhaustive search is often employed in antenna selection, but it cannot be efficiently implemented in large-scale MIMO communication systems due to its prohibitive high computation complexity. This paper proposes a low-complexity interactive multiple-parameter optimization method for joint transmit antenna selection and beamforming in large-scale MIMO communication systems. The objective is to jointly maximize the channel outrage capacity and signal-to-noise (SNR performance and minimize the mean square error in transmit antenna selection and minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR beamforming without exhaustive search. The effectiveness of all the proposed methods is verified by extensive simulation results. It is shown that the required antenna selection processing time of the proposed method does not increase along with the increase of selected antennas, but the computation complexity of conventional exhaustive search method will significantly increase when large-scale antennas are employed in the system. This is particularly useful in antenna selection for large-scale MIMO communication systems.

  13. Tightness of Semidefinite Programming Relaxation to Robust Transmit Beamforming with SINR Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a multiuser transmit beamforming problem under uncertain channel state information (CSI subject to SINR constraints in a downlink multiuser MISO system. A robust transmit beamforming formulation is proposed. This robust formulation is to minimize the transmission power subject to worst-case signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR constraints on the receivers. The challenging problem is that the worst-case SINR constraints correspond to an infinite number of nonconvex quadratic constraints. In this paper, a natural semidifinite programming (SDP relaxation problem is proposed to solve the robust beamforming problem. The main contribution of this paper is to establish the tightness of the SDP relaxation problem under proper assumption, which means that the SDP relaxation problem definitely yields rank-one solutions under the assumption. Then the SDP relaxation problem provides globally optimum solutions of the primal robust transmit beamforming problem under proper assumption and norm-constrained CSI errors. Simulation results show the correctness of the proposed theoretical results and also provide a counterexample whose solutions are not rank one. The existence of counterexample shows that the guess that the solutions of the SDP relaxation problem must be rank one is wrong, except that some assumptions (such as the one proposed in this paper hold.

  14. Dynamic facial expressions of emotion transmit an evolving hierarchy of signals over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Rachael E; Garrod, Oliver G B; Schyns, Philippe G

    2014-01-20

    Designed by biological and social evolutionary pressures, facial expressions of emotion comprise specific facial movements to support a near-optimal system of signaling and decoding. Although highly dynamical, little is known about the form and function of facial expression temporal dynamics. Do facial expressions transmit diagnostic signals simultaneously to optimize categorization of the six classic emotions, or sequentially to support a more complex communication system of successive categorizations over time? Our data support the latter. Using a combination of perceptual expectation modeling, information theory, and Bayesian classifiers, we show that dynamic facial expressions of emotion transmit an evolving hierarchy of "biologically basic to socially specific" information over time. Early in the signaling dynamics, facial expressions systematically transmit few, biologically rooted face signals supporting the categorization of fewer elementary categories (e.g., approach/avoidance). Later transmissions comprise more complex signals that support categorization of a larger number of socially specific categories (i.e., the six classic emotions). Here, we show that dynamic facial expressions of emotion provide a sophisticated signaling system, questioning the widely accepted notion that emotion communication is comprised of six basic (i.e., psychologically irreducible) categories, and instead suggesting four. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexually transmitted diseases among adults who had been abused and neglected as children: a 30-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy S

    2009-04-01

    We examined associations between childhood abuse and neglect and the risk in adulthood for sexually transmitted diseases. In a prospective cohort design, we matched children aged 0 to 11 years with documented cases of abuse or neglect during 1967 to 1971 with a control group of children who had not been maltreated (754 participants in all) and followed them into adulthood. Information about lifetime history of sexually transmitted diseases was collected as part of a medical status examination when participants were approximately 41 years old. Childhood sexual abuse increased risk for any sexually transmitted disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00, 3.77; P = .05) and more than 1 type of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.33, 8.22; P = .01). Physical abuse increased risk for more than 1 type of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.39, 9.38; P = .009). Our results provided the first prospective evidence that child physical and sexual abuse increases risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Early screening and interventions are needed to identify and prevent sexually transmitted diseases among child abuse victims.

  16. A 16-channel receive, forced current excitation dual-transmit coil for breast imaging at 7T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha By

    Full Text Available To enable high spatial and temporal breast imaging resolution via combined use of high field MRI, array coils, and forced current excitation (FCE multi channel transmit.A unilateral 16-channel receive array insert was designed for use in a transmit volume coil optimized for quadrature operation with dual-transmit RF shimming at 7 T. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR maps, g-factor maps, and high spatial and temporal resolution in vivo images were acquired to demonstrate the utility of the coil architecture.The dual-transmit FCE coil provided homogeneous excitation and the array provided an increase in average SNR of 3.3 times (max 10.8, min 1.5 compared to the volume coil in transmit/receive mode. High resolution accelerated in vivo breast imaging demonstrated the ability to achieve isotropic spatial resolution of 0.5 mm within clinically relevant 90 s scan times, as well as the ability to perform 1.0 mm isotropic resolution imaging, 7 s per dynamics, with the use of bidirectional SENSE acceleration of up to R = 9.The FCE design of the transmit coil easily accommodates the addition of a sixteen channel array coil. The improved spatial and temporal resolution provided by the high-field array coil with FCE dual-channel transmit will ultimately be beneficial in lesion detection and characterization.

  17. Soil transmitted helminths and associated factors among schoolchildren in government and private primary school in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debalke, Serkadis; Worku, Amare; Jahur, Nejat; Mekonnen, Zeleke

    2013-11-01

    Soil transmitted helminth infections are among the most common human infections. They are distributed throughout the world with high prevalence rates in tropical and sub-tropical countries mainly because of lack of adequate sanitary facilities, inappropriate waste disposal systems, lack of safe water supply, and low socio-economic status. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to June 2012 to determine and assess the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and their associated factors among government and private primary school children. Stool samples were collected from 369 randomly selected children and examined microscopically for eggs of soil transmitted helminth following McMaster techniques. Soil samples were collected from different parts of the school compound and microscopic examination was performed for eggs of the helminths using sodium nitrate flotation technique. The overall prevalence rate of soil transmitted helminth infections in private and government schools was 20.9% and 53.5% respectively. T. trichiura was the most common soil transmitted helminth in both schools while hookworm infections were identified in government school students only. Type of school and sex were significantly associated with soil transmitted helminth. Soil contamination rate of the school compounds was 11.25% with predominant parasites of A. lumbricoides. Higher prevalence of soil transmitted helminth infection was found among government school students. Thus, more focus, on personal hygiene and sanitary facilities, should be given to children going to government schools.

  18. Properties of spectra of the reflected and transmitted radiation during propagation of relativistically strong laser pulses in underdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.Z.; Naumova, N.M.

    1996-01-01

    Particle-in-cell simulation has been performed to study the spatial-temporal evolution of the pulse propagating in an underdense plasma. The spectra both of the reflected and transmitted radiation are investigated. The spectrum structure of the reflected radiation is due to the backward stimulated Raman scattering meanwhile the transmitted radiation structure is mainly due to the nonlinear self-phase-modulation. The influence of the pulse shape on the transmitted radiation spectrum is revealed. The dependence of the main features of the spectrum and the self-consistent pulse distortion is found. The pulse distortion is accompanied by the relativistic electrons generation. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Joint switched multi-spectrum and transmit antenna diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.

    2013-10-01

    In spectrum sharing systems, a secondary user (SU) is allowed to share the spectrum with a primary (licensed) network under the condition that the interference observed at the receivers of the primary users (PU-Rxs) is below a predetermined level. In this paper, we consider a secondary network comprised of a secondary transmitter (SU-Tx) equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna secondary receiver (SU-Rx) sharing the same spectrum with multiple primary users (PUs), each with a distinct spectrum. We develop transmit antenna diversity schemes at the SU-Tx that exploit the multi-spectrum diversity provided by the existence of multiple PUs so as to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the SU-Rx. In particular, assuming bounded transmit power at the SU-Tx, we develop switched selection schemes that select the primary spectrum and the SU-Tx transmit antenna that maintain the SNR at the SU-Rx above a specific threshold. Assuming Rayleigh fading channels and binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) transmission, we derive the average bit-error-rate (BER) and average feedback load expressions for the proposed schemes. For the sake of comparison, we also derive a BER expression for the optimal selection scheme that selects the best antenna/spectrum pair that maximizes the SNR at the SU-Rx, in exchange of high feedback load and switching complexity. Finally, we show that our analytical results are in perfect agreement with the simulation results. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Spatial distribution of soil-transmitted helminths, including Strongyloides stercoralis, among children in Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Knopp

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2% was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0% in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6% and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%. A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar.

  1. Knowledge of Married Women in Kohgilouyeh & Boyerahmad Urban Areas on AIDS and Sexualy Transmitted Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Goshtasbi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Sexualy transmitted infections (STIs and AIDS are the most common diseases worldwide. Women are more affected by STIs and AIDS due to gender-related factors such as biological, cultural and so on. This study was conducted to investigate knowledge about AIDS and STIs among married women in Kohgilouyeh & BoyerAhmad Province/Iran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban areas of Kohgilouyeh and Boyerahmad province. Using stratifed cluster sampling, a valid questionnaire covering demographic variables and items related to knowledge about AIDS and STIs was administered to 1379 women covered by the urban PHC clinics. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 33.3 (SD=±9.3. Most were household (%85 and the mean level of their formal education was 7.2 years (SD=±4.8. The results also showed that women had the most knowledge with the statements that "using condom protects against AIDS" (%63.9 and "asymptomatic persons would be as AIDS vectors" (%65.1. There was a significant relation between education and recognizing AIDS as a sexualy transmitted infection (p=0.004. Albeit, women were poorly familiar with the STIs, the most knowledge was found with gonorrhea (%40.5 and the least with chlamydia (%12.2. The most knowledge was observed with the statements that "STIs would induce PID in women" and "using condom protects against all the venereal diseases" (both %61.1. A significant corelation was found between education and job and fimiliarity with STIs (p<0.001. Conclusion: Findings showed limited knowledge on sexualy transmitted infections and fairely good knowledge on AIDS. There is need for the promotion of women's knowledge in sexual health field.

  2. [Knowledge of university students in Szeged, Hungary about reliable contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devosa, Iván; Kozinszky, Zoltán; Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Fáyné Dombi, Alice; Barabás, Katalin

    2016-04-03

    Promiscuity and lack of use of reliable contraceptive methods increase the probability of sexually transmitted diseases and the risk of unwanted pregnancies, which are quite common among university students. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of university students about reliable contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases, and to assess the effectiveness of the sexual health education in secondary schools, with specific focus on the education held by peers. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out in a randomized sample of students at the University of Szeged (n = 472, 298 women and 174 men, average age 21 years) between 2009 and 2011. 62.1% of the respondents declared that reproductive health education lessons in high schools held by peers were reliable and authentic source of information, 12.3% considered as a less reliable source, and 25.6% defined the school health education as irrelevant source. Among those, who considered the health education held by peers as a reliable source, there were significantly more females (69.3% vs. 46.6%, p = 0.001), significantly fewer lived in cities (83.6% vs. 94.8%, p = 0.025), and significantly more responders knew that Candida infection can be transmitted through sexual intercourse (79.5% versus 63.9%, p = 0.02) as compared to those who did not consider health education held by peers as a reliable source. The majority of respondents obtained knowledge about sexual issues from the mass media. Young people who considered health educating programs reliable were significantly better informed about Candida disease.

  3. Knowledge and Attitude Risky Transvestite with the Scene Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI on Transvestite in Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resti Suwandani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 the WHO declared as many as 457 million people worldwide were affected by sexually transmitted infections. Transvestite is one of a high-risk group for contracting STIs and HIV. STI prevalence is still high on tranvestite, this is due to the use of condoms is still low and this can trigger the occurrence of STI. This study aimed to look at sexual behavior risk of transvestites, includes knowledge and attitudes related to the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs on transvestites in Sidoarjo. This research used analytic study design in which the type of research is a case control. Respondents in the research were transvestites within the range of KPA Sidoarjo, as many as 54 people who were divided into two groups: 18 in cases group and 36 in control group. Age of the respondents from both groups were the same. >40 years, the highest educational level in case group was senior high school and for the control group was high school junior, both groups had the same marital status which was not married, the occupation mostly in the case group was sex workers and as beauty shop workers in the control group, lenght of time been being transvestite on case group vary for 1-12 years and 13-24 years in the control group. There was a relationship between knowledge of the incidence of STIs in transgender (p = 0.007 p < α. There was a relationship between the attitude of the incidence of STIs in transgender (p = 0.001 p < α. Keyword: transvestite, Sexual Transmitted Disease, risk behaviour, knowledge, attitude

  4. Tool-specific performance of vibration-reducing gloves for attenuating fingers-transmitted vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fingers-transmitted vibration can cause vibration-induced white finger. The effectiveness of vibration-reducing (VR) gloves for reducing hand transmitted vibration to the fingers has not been sufficiently examined. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to examine tool-specific performance of VR gloves for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions (3D) from powered hand tools. METHODS A transfer function method was used to estimate the tool-specific effectiveness of four typical VR gloves. The transfer functions of the VR glove fingers in three directions were either measured in this study or during a previous study using a 3D laser vibrometer. More than seventy vibration spectra of various tools or machines were used in the estimations. RESULTS When assessed based on frequency-weighted acceleration, the gloves provided little vibration reduction. In some cases, the gloves amplified the vibration by more than 10%, especially the neoprene glove. However, the neoprene glove did the best when the assessment was based on unweighted acceleration. The neoprene glove was able to reduce the vibration by 10% or more of the unweighted vibration for 27 out of the 79 tools. If the dominant vibration of a tool handle or workpiece was in the shear direction relative to the fingers, as observed in the operation of needle scalers, hammer chisels, and bucking bars, the gloves did not reduce the vibration but increased it. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that the effectiveness for reducing vibration varied with the gloves and the vibration reduction of each glove depended on tool, vibration direction to the fingers, and finger location. VR gloves, including certified anti-vibration gloves do not provide much vibration reduction when judged based on frequency-weighted acceleration. However, some of the VR gloves can provide more than 10% reduction of the unweighted vibration for some tools or workpieces. Tools and gloves can be matched for

  5. Management of whitefly-transmitted viruses in open-field production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidot, Moshe; Legg, James P; Wintermantel, William M; Polston, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies are a key pest of crops in open-field production throughout the tropics and subtropics. This is due in large part to the long and diverse list of devastating plant viruses transmitted by these vectors. Open-field production provides many challenges to manage these viruses and in many cases adequate management has not been possible. Diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted viruses have become limiting factors in open-field production of a wide range of crops, i.e., bean golden mosaic disease in beans, tomato yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease in cassava, and cotton leaf crumple disease in cotton. While host resistance has proven to be the most cost-effective management solution, few examples of host resistance have been developed to date. The main strategy to limit the incidence of virus-infected plants has been the application of insecticides to reduce vector populations aided to some extent by the use of selected cultural practices. However, due to concerns about the effect of insecticides on pollinators, consumer demand for reduced pesticide use, and the ability of the whitefly vectors to develop insecticide-resistance, there is a growing need to develop and deploy strategies that do not rely on insecticides. The reduction in pesticide use will greatly increase the need for genetic resistance to more viruses in more crop plants. Resistance combined with selected IPM strategies could become a viable means to increase yields in crops produced in open fields despite the presence of whitefly-transmitted viruses.

  6. Fluorinert as a pressure-transmitting medium for high-pressure diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Tamas; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Angel, Ross J.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorinert is a liquid pressure-transmitting medium that is widely used in high-pressure diffraction work. A systematic study of five different fluorinerts was carried out using single-crystal x-ray diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell in order to determine the pressure range over which they provide a hydrostatic stress state to the sample. It was found that none of the fluorinerts studied can be considered hydrostatic above 1.2 GPa, a lower pressure than reported previously

  7. Vaginal microbiota and sexually transmitted infections that may influence transmission of cell-associated HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Richard A

    2014-12-15

    Vaginal microbiota and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are likely to influence the transmission of cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota (Nugent score 0-3) will likely inhibit transmission, especially female-to-male transmission. In contrast, polymicrobial microbiota (Nugent score 4-10), community state types IV-A and IV-B, and STIs will likely increase transmission of cell-associated HIV. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Intracellular signaling by diffusion: can waves of hydrogen peroxide transmit intracellular information in plant cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian L.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Møller, Ian Max

    2012-01-01

    of the physical and biochemical conditions in plant cells. As model system, we use a H(2)O(2) signal originating at the plasma membrane (PM) and spreading through the cytosol. We consider two maximally simple types of signals, isolated pulses and harmonic oscillations. First we consider the basic limits......Amplitude- and frequency-modulated waves of Ca(2+) ions transmit information inside cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), specifically hydrogen peroxide, have been proposed to have a similar role in plant cells. We consider the feasibility of such an intracellular communication system in view...

  9. Sexual behaviour in adolescents and young people attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic, Ile Ife, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olasode Olayinka

    2007-01-01

    WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD) each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age) attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms,...

  10. Spectra transmitted by mortar barite in X-Ray qualities applied in diagnostic radiology as shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Airton T., E-mail: airton.almeida@fundacentro.gov.br [Fundacaoo Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Araujo, F.G.S. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (REDEMAT/UFOP), MG (Brazil); Nogueira, M.S., E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, M.A.P. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Concrete which contains water, cement and aggregate, is widely used in building construction such as medical hospitals. The CdZnTe spectrometry system was used to acquire the transmitted spectra in the RQR qualities and the stripping procedure was performed by taking into account both the contributions of efficiency and x-ray escape fraction, experimentally determined. The samples were prepared in rectangular plate format with dimensions of (5 x 5) cm with thicknesses varying from 0.2cm to 2cm and exposed to x-ray beams generated. The HVL and the mean energy in this energy range was determined. (author)

  11. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-08-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

  12. Perceived versus actual condom skills among clients at sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, L M; Zimmerman, R S; Cabral, R J

    1994-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether individual self-reports of perceived ability to use a condom correctly correlated with the actual ability to do so. Participants in the study were 3,059 clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The findings revealed that the participants' perceived self-efficacy with regard to using a condom effectively was a poor indicator of their clinically demonstrated skills using a penile model as scored on the 6-point Condom Skills Index...

  13. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  14. Transmitted wavefront error of a volume phase holographic grating at cryogenic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Taylor, Gordon D; Baillie, Thomas E C; Montgomery, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the results of transmitted wavefront error (WFE) measurements on a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating operating at a temperature of 120 K. The VPH grating was mounted in a cryogenically compatible optical mount and tested in situ in a cryostat. The nominal root mean square (RMS) wavefront error at room temperature was 19 nm measured over a 50 mm diameter test aperture. The WFE remained at 18 nm RMS when the grating was cooled. This important result demonstrates that excellent WFE performance can be obtained with cooled VPH gratings, as required for use in future cryogenic infrared astronomical spectrometers planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope.

  15. Transmitting Performance Evaluation of ASICs for CMUT-Based Portable Ultrasound Scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Diederichsen, Søren Elmin; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2017-01-01

    Portable ultrasound scanners (PUS) have, in recent years, raised a lot of attention, as they can potentially overcome some of the limitations of static scanners. However, PUS have a lot of design limitations including size and power consumption. These restrictions can compromise the image quality...... of the scanner. In order to overcome these restrictions, application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are needed to implement the electronics. In this work, a comparative study of the transmitting performance of a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) driven by a commercial generic ultrasound...

  16. Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Vitamin A Deficiency: Two Problems, One Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Eric C; Suchdev, Parminder S; Addiss, David G

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) represent two widely prevalent and often overlapping global health problems. Approximately 75% of countries with moderate or severe VAD are coendemic for STH. We reviewed the literature on the complex relationship between STH and VAD. Treatment for STH significantly increases provitamin A (e.g., β-carotene) levels but is associated with minimal increases in preformed vitamin A (retinol). Interpretation of the data is complicated by variations in STH infection intensity and limitations of vitamin A biomarkers. Despite these challenges, increased coordination of STH and VAD interventions represents an important public health opportunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Co-infection with Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths in rural South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvik, Mari; Helland, Elin; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift

    2017-01-01

    trichiura in schoolgirls in the rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We also explored if S. haematobium can serve as a predictor for soil-transmitted helminths in this area. From 15 selected schools, 726 primary schoolgirls aged 10–12 years provided both urine and stool samples. The samples were...... interval =1.58–2.93; pwater contact and haematuria) were significantly associated with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection. We have demonstrated a highly significant correlation and overall association between urogenital...

  18. Signal enhancement by spectral equalization of high frequency broadband signals transmitted through optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Ogle, J.W.; Holzman, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new technique is discussed for enhancing the bandwidth and intensity of high frequency (> 1 GHz) analog, spectrally broad (40 nm) signals transmitted through one kilometer of optical fiber. The existing method for bandwidth enhancement of such a signal uses a very narrow (approx. 1 nm) filter between the fiber and detector to limit bandwidth degradation due to material dispersion. Using this method, most of the available optical intensity is rejected and lost. This new technique replaces the narrow-band filter with a spectral equalizer device which uses a reflection grating to disperse the input signal spectrum and direct it onto a linear array of fibers

  19. Sexually transmitted infection screening uptake and knowledge of sexually transmitted infection symptoms among female sex workers participating in a community randomised trial in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Transmit selection algorithms for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in the presence of co-channel interference

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    The performance of transmit antenna selection for threshold-based maximal ratio combining (MRC) diversity receivers in the presence of multiple co-channel interfering signals is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation of desired user

  1. Performance Analysis of an Alternative Link-16/JTIDS Waveform Transmitted Over a Channel with Pulse-Noise Interference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Ho K

    2008-01-01

    ...) RS encoding, but each pair of five-bit symbols at the output of the RS encoder undergoes serial-to-parallel conversion to two five-bit symbols, which are then independently transmitted on the in...

  2. Occupational Hazards, Public Health Risks: Sex Work and Sexually Transmitted Infections, their Epidemiological Liaisons and Disease Control Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Steen (Richard)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a large and diverse category within communicable diseases, comprising more than thirty-five pathogens transmissible through sexual contact. [1] Common, curable bacterial and protozoal STIs manifest with

  3. [Investigation on prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections and influencing factors for children in southwest areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Guo-Fei; Zhang, Lin-Xiu; Luo, Ren-Fu; Tian, Hong-Chun; Tang, Li-Na; Wang, Ju-Jun; Medina, Alexis; Wise, Paul; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-06-01

    To understand the infection status and main risk factors of soil-transmitted nematodes in southwest China so as to provide the evidence for making the control programs for soil-transmitted nematodiasis. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections was determined by Kato-Katz technique and influencing factors were surveyed by using a standardized questionnaire, and in part of the children, the examination of Enterobius vermicularis eggs was performed by using the cellophane swab method. The relationship between soil-transmitted nematode infections and influencing factors was analyzed by the multiple probit estimated method. A total of 1 707 children were examined, with a soil-transmitted nematode infection rate of 22.2%, the crowd infection rates ofAscaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura were 16.0%, 3.8% and 6.6% respectively and 495 children were examined on Enterobius vermicularis eggs, with the infection rate of 5.1%. The results of probit estimated analysis suggested that the effects of 4 factors on soil-transmitted nematode infections were significant (all P values were less than 0.05), namely the number of sib, educational level of mother, drinking unboiled water and raising livestock and poultry. Among the factors above, the educational level of mother could reduce the probability of infection (ME = -0.074), while the number of sib, drinking unboiled water and raising livestock and poultry could increase the probability of the infections (with ME of 0.028, -0.112 and 0.080, respectively). Soil-transmitted nematode infection rates are still in a high level for children in southwest poor areas of China, with Ascaris lumbricoides as a priority. The changes of children's bad health habits, raising livestock and poultry habits, and implementing the health education about parasitic diseases in mothers would be of great significance for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted nematodiasis.

  4. «La vida alegre». How Important is Condom Used for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio PINTOR HOLGUÍN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Action takes place in Spain in the mid?eighties (1987 with the change in Spanish society and the appearance of the first cases of AIDS in our country. From a comical sight, the adventures of a dermatologist particularly interested on sexually transmitted diseases prevention; especially in patients with risk behaviors, such as homosexuals, prostitutes and drug addicts injecting. The entire film revolves around the importance of condom use in preventing all sexually transmitted diseases.

  5. LOADS TRANSMITED TO THE METALLIC TOWERS OF THE EXTRACTING INSTALLATIONS IN THE CASE OF THE APPLICATION OF THE SAFETY BRAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan Itu; Alexandru Ioan Pop

    2016-01-01

    In the paper there are presented certain aspects concerning the determination of loads transmitted through the bearings of the extracting pulleys of the structure of the metallic towers of the extracting installations In the case of the application of the safety brake The exemplification of the determination of the loads transmitted to the metallic tower in the case of the application of the emergency brake has been done by taking into study the extracting installation ,, Auxiliar...

  6. Therapeutic effects of various concentrations of lincomycin in drinking water on experimentally transmitted swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, A H

    1978-07-01

    Three experimental studies were conducted in 232 growing pigs (8 to 12 weeks old) to evaluate the therapeutic effects of various concentrations of lincomycin in drinking water, against swine dysentery experimentally transmitted, by oral inoculation or by contact-commingling exposure. Four or 5 concentrations of lincomycin were used in each experiment (132, 66, 33, 16.5 or 0.0 mg/L of drinking water). Medication was initiated 7 to days after exposure and was continued for 6 to 10 days. Both methods of exposure were capable of transmitting the disease successfully. A more marked dose response was noticed in pigs inoculated orally than in pigs that were exposed by contact. All concentrations of lincomycin were effective for the treatment of swine dysentery by oral or by contact exposure. At the smaller concentration of 16.5 mg/L of drinking water, lincomycin was less effective for treating the disease than it was at greater concentrations. The suggested optimal concentration was 33 mg of lincomycin/L of drinking water for the treatment of swine dysentery.

  7. Blind Synchronization in Asynchronous UWB Networks Based on the Transmit-Reference Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leus Geert

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-wideband (UWB wireless communication systems are based on the transmission of extremely narrow pulses, with a duration inferior to a nanosecond. The application of transmit reference (TR to UWB systems allows to side-step channel estimation at the receiver, with a tradeoff of the effective transmission bandwidth, which is reduced by the usage of a reference pulse. Similar to CDMA systems, different users can share the same available bandwidth by means of different spreading codes. This allows the receiver to separate users, and to recover the timing information of the transmitted data packets. The nature of UWB transmissions—short, burst-like packets—requires a fast synchronization algorithm, that can accommodate several asynchronous users. Exploiting the fact that a shift in time corresponds to a phase rotation in the frequency domain, a blind and computationally effcient synchronization algorithm that takes advantage of the shift invariance structure in the frequency domain is proposed in this paper. Integer and fractional delay estimations are considered, along with a subsequent symbol estimation step. This results in a collision-avoiding multiuser algorithm, readily applicable to a fast acquisition procedure in a UWB ad hoc network.

  8. Omnidirectional Wireless Power Transfer System Based on Rotary Transmitting Coil for Household Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjun Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An omnidirectional magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transfer (WPT system based on rotary transmitting coil is presented. The proposed scheme can ease the variations of the transfer efficiency and output power caused by the deviation of transfer direction, and improve the unbalanced power distribution phenomenon between the receivers, which are still not fully achieved in current WPT systems. The modified coupled-mode model is built first to describe the non-rotary multi-receiver WPT system. The analysis indicates that the transfer efficiency and output power of the system can be expressed as functions of the deviation angle between the transmitting coil and receiving coil, which has a non-negligible influence on the system performances. Then, the modified high order coupled-mode model containing time-varying parameters about the deviation angle is derived for the proposed omnidirectional WPT system. Theoretical analysis and simulated results indicate that this system can transfer power to multiple receivers around the transmitter synchronously and evenly, which is very suitable for wireless charging for household appliances indoors. The scheme feasibility and theoretical analysis are verified by experimental results.

  9. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among visually impaired people: educational text validation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. Method: a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. Results: on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. Conclusion: the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. PMID:27556880

  10. [Biological factors influencing infectious diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boštíková, Vanda; Pasdiorová, Markéta; Marek, Jan; Prášil, Petr; Salavec, Miloslav; Sleha, Radek; Střtítecká, Hana; Blažek, Pavel; Hanovcová, Irena; Šošovičková, Renáta; Špliňo, Milan; Smetana, Jan; Chlíbek, Roman; Hytych, Václav; Kuča, Kamil; Boštík, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Studies focused on arbovirus diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes have become increasingly significant in recent years, due to the fact that these vectors have successfully migrated to Europe and become established in the region. Mosquitoes, represented by more than 3 200 species, occur naturally worldwide, except in Antarctica. They feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals and by this route, they are capable of transmitting dangerous diseases. Some species can travel a distance of 10 km per night and can fly continuously for up to 4 hours at a speed of 1-2 km/h. Most species are active at night, in the evening or morning. It usually takes a mosquito female about 50 seconds to penetrate the skin of mammals and the subsequent blood meal usually takes about 2.5 minutes. Mosquitoes live for several weeks or months, depending on the environmental conditions. The VectorNet project is a European network of information exchange and sharing of data relating to the geographical distribution of arthropod vectors and transmission of infectious agents between human populations and animals. It aims at the development of strategic plans and vaccination policies which are the main tasks of this time, as well as the development and application of new disinfectants to control vector populations.

  11. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas.

  12. Joint switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2011-01-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to minimize the average number of switched branches at the secondary transmitter while increasing the capacity of the secondary link. The proposed switching efficient scheme (SES) uses the scan and wait (SWC) combining technique where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance is found, otherwise data is buffered. In our scheme, the modulation constellation size and the used transmit branch are determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency with a minimum processing power, given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. Selected numerical examples show that the SES scheme minimizes the average number of switched branches for the average and the high secondary signal-to-noise ratio range. This improvement comes at the expense of a small delay introduced by the SWC technique. For reference, we also compare the performance of the SES scheme to the selection diversity scheme (SDS) where the best branch verifying the modulation mode and the interference constraint is always selected. © 2011 ICST.

  13. Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the city of Portoviejo (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Andrade

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied the stool samples of 151 school children in a district of the city of Portoviejo (Ecuador in order to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH and their relationships with anthropometric indices. The samples were analyzed with the semiquantitative Kato-Katz technique and the intensity of infections was categorized as light, moderate or high according to the thresholds set by the World Health Organization. Prevalence of soil transmitted helmintiasis was 65% (92 out of 141 collected samples, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common STH (63% followed by Trichuris trichiura (10% and hookworm (1.4%. Heavy intensity infections were found in 8.5% of the stool samples, with T. trichiura showing higher worm burdens than A. lumbricoides. Sixteen percent of the children were below the third percentile for weight (wasted, while 27% were below the third percentile for height (stunted. A significant relationship was found between the worm burden and the degree of stunting. This study suggests that the periodic administration of an antihelminthic drug should be targeted to preschool and school children to allow a normal growth spurt and prevent stunting.

  14. Soil transmitted Helminthiasis and associated risk factors among elementary school children in ambo town, western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikreslasie Samuel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs are widespread in underdeveloped countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence and distribution of helminth infection varies by different exposing risk factors. We therefore investigated the prevalence of and risk factors of STHs infection in school children living in Ambo town, west Shoa Ethiopia. Methods In 2014/15, among 375 school children planed to be included in this study, only 321 school children were recruited in the study. Data onto school children from different schools were collected, including stool samples for qualitative STHs analysis. Questionnaire data on various demographic, housing and lifestyle variables were also available. Results Prevalence of any STHs infection was 12.6%. The respective prevalence of major soil-transmitted helminths is Ascaris (7.8%, Hookworm (2.8% and Trichuris (2.2%. This study result shows STHs prevalence varies regards to age, sex, latrine use, family size and nail trimming. Conclusion The results of the present study indicated that the percentage of positive finding for STHs in Ambo area is low. Besides, Large Family size, not nail trimming and unavailability of improved latrine were identified as predisposing factor for STHs infections. All school children enrolled and not enrolled in this study should be treated twice a year until the prevalence falls below the level of public health importance.

  15. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections at the Gabonese National Blood Transfusion Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerambiah, Leonard Kounegnigan; Rerambiah, Laurence Essola; Bengone, Calixte; Djoba Siawaya, Joel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood transfusions carry the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections. In contrast to the situation in the developed world, there is a limited number of studies examining this problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we aimed to calculate the risks of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from units of blood issued by the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre between 2009 and 2011. Materials and methods All the donations were tested for infectious diseases and the seroconversion incidence rates of HIV, HBV and HCV were calculated. The residual risk of transfusion-associated transmission for each virus was calculated by multiplying the seroconversion rates by the window period expressed in fractions of a year. Results The risks of becoming infected with HIV, HCV, and HBV in subjects receiving units of blood from the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre were 64.7, 207.94 and 534.53 per million donations, respectively. Conclusions This study, which is the first to quantify the true risks of transfusion-transmitted infections in Gabon, reveals and confirms the need to reinforce preventative and screening strategies to improve transfusion safety in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24333085

  16. Embryonic effects transmitted by male mice irradiated with 512 MeV/u 56Fe nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, L.M.; Van Beek, M.E.A.B.; Raabe, O.G.

    1994-01-01

    High-energy, high-charge nuclei may contribute substantially to the yearly equivalent dose in space flight from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) at solar minimum. The largest single heavy-ion component is 56 Fe. We used the mouse embryo chimera assay to test 512 MeV/u 56 Fe nuclei for effects on the rate of proliferation of embryonic cells transmitted by sperm from irradiated mice. Male CD1 mice were acutely irradiated with 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 Gy (LET, 184 keV/μm; fluence, 3.5 x 10 4 -3.3 x 10 5 nuclei/cm 2 ; average dose rate, 0.02 Gy/min) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory BEVATRON/BEVALAC Facility in Berkeley, CA. Irradiated males were bred weekly for 7 weeks to nonirradiated females and their four-cell embryos were paired with control embryos, forming aggregation chimeras. After 30-35 h of culture, chimeras were dissociated to obtain open-quotes proliferation ratiosclose quotes (number of cells contributed by the embryo from the irradiated male/total number of cells in the chimera). Significant dose-dependent decreases in proliferation ratios were obtained across all three dose groups for postirradiation week 2 (P 56 Fe nuclei. However, up to 47% of sperm during postirradiation weeks 1 and 2 transmitted proliferation ratios that were at or below one standard deviation from control mean proliferation ratios. 26 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  17. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-04-13

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  18. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Drago

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy. For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  19. Measurement of crack in rock using transmitted elastic wave; Toka danseiha ni yoru ganbannai kiretsu keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomishima, Y [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    With an objective to measure at high accuracy the positions and sizes of cracks existing in rocks, a theoretical study has been carried out on a method which utilizes initial movement characteristics of P-wave. The P-wave which diffracts and propagates at a crack tip has a characteristic that its phase may reverse according to the positional relationship between vibration transmitting and receiving points. This positional relationship is decided by the Poisson ratio of media alone. Therefore, when the P-wave is measured while the vibration transmitting and receiving points are moved sandwiching a crack, the polarity of received waveform is changed from negative to positive at a certain position as a boundary. In order to measure this change at high accuracy, an elastic wave of high frequency is required, but it is not easy to obtain the wave in situ. In contrast, utilizing the initial movement polarity can not only identify the change in the polarity, but also perform measurement at high accuracy. The present study discussed a case where cracks are parallel with a free surface and a case where the cracks have angles with the free surface, whereas it was shown that positions of the upper and lower tips of a crack, and length of the crack can be measured accurately. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Time-domain full waveform inversion using the gradient preconditioning based on transmitted waves energy

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2017-06-01

    The gradient preconditioning approach based on seismic wave energy can effectively avoid the huge storage consumption in the gradient preconditioning algorithms based on Hessian matrices in time-domain full waveform inversion (FWI), but the accuracy is affected by the energy of reflected waves when strong reflectors are present in velocity model. To address this problem, we propose a gradient preconditioning method, which scales the gradient based on the energy of the “approximated transmitted wavefield” simulated by the nonreflecting acoustic wave equation. The method does not require computing or storing the Hessian matrix or its inverse. Furthermore, it can effectively eliminate the effects caused by geometric diffusion and non-uniformity illumination on gradient. The results of model experiments confirm that the time-domain FWI using the gradient preconditioning based on transmitted waves energy can achieve higher inversion precision for high-velocity body and the deep strata below when compared with using the gradient preconditioning based on seismic waves energy.

  1. The ecology and epidemiology of whitefly-transmitted viruses in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Francisco J; Jones, Peter G

    2004-03-01

    Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses are the most important constraint to the production of common bean and vegetable crops in the tropical lowlands and mid-altitude valleys of Latin America. Currently, over 30 distinct species of geminiviruses that are transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci infect common bean, tomato, pepper, cucurbits and other horticultural crops. A climate probability model (using FloraMap) was obtained using data from 304 geo-referenced locations where B. tabaci and geminiviruses cause significant damage. Clustering of the 304 points produced a simple model with two climatic variables: a dry season of at least 4 months each with less than 80 mm of rain and a mean temperature of the hottest month exceeding 21 degrees C. A modified Koeppen climate classification showed that 55% of the geminivirus-affected localities are in the tropical wet/dry region, 22% in the tropical and subtropical dry/humid climates and the remaining locations belonged to the wet equatorial and trade wind litoral climates. These findings contribute to understanding whitefly/geminivirus epidemics and implementation of sustainable integrated pest and disease management practices.

  2. Currencies of Mutualisms: Sources of Alkaloid Genes in Vertically Transmitted Epichloae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Schardl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae. Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes, and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens, which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS, indole-diterpenes (IDT, and lolines (LOL in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed.

  3. Currencies of Mutualisms: Sources of Alkaloid Genes in Vertically Transmitted Epichloae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L.; Young, Carolyn A.; Pan, Juan; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E.; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Farman, Mark L.; Webb, Jennifer S.; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Charlton, Nikki D.; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Chen, Li; Shi, Chong; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae). Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes), and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens), which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS), indole-diterpenes (IDT), and lolines (LOL) in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed. PMID:23744053

  4. Study of sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysanek Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae are very widespread in the Czech Republic. Beet soil-borne virus (BSBV is present in almost all fields used for sugar beet growing, beet virus Q (BVQ is present in about 50% of fields but beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV is present in some limited regions only. It means that mixed infections of sugar beet by at least two viruses are quite common in the field. P. betae also occurs in almost all fields where sugar beet is now grown. Only two populations of P. betae not transmitting any virus were found. Cystosori of P. betae can harbour viruses without loosing infectivity for a very long time. We were able to detect these viruses in plants grown in soil stored dry for 12 years. BNYVV can cause serious yield losses under mideuropean conditions reaching up to 50% of sugar yield, whereas harmfulness BSBV and BVQ is questionable, because they also occur in fields with no problems concerning sugar beet growing. The host range of these viruses was studied. Both infect all types of beet (sugar fodder, red beet, mangold and spinach and usually are detectable in root system only. Other chenopodiaceous plants are infected only by some virus strains. These strains are also able to spread into above-ground parts of plants.

  5. Currencies of mutualisms: sources of alkaloid genes in vertically transmitted epichloae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L; Young, Carolyn A; Pan, Juan; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E; Panaccione, Daniel G; Farman, Mark L; Webb, Jennifer S; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Charlton, Nikki D; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Chen, Li; Shi, Chong; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2013-06-06

    The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae). Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes), and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens), which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS), indole-diterpenes (IDT), and lolines (LOL) in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed.

  6. Platelet concentrates: reducing the risk of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Korte D

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dirk de Korte,1 Jan H Marcelis2 1Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, 2Department of Microbiology, St Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg, the Netherlands Abstract: The introduction of a combination of interventions during collection of whole-blood or platelet concentrates has been successful in lowering the degree of bacterial contamination in the final product, the platelet concentrate, by 50%–75%. These interventions were improved donor questionnaires, best-practice skin disinfection, and diversion of first blood volume. These interventions have reduced the number of bacteria present in the platelet concentrates. In combination with screening for bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates with a culture method, the degree of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection has been reduced significantly. Due to the very low initial bacteria counts upon collection of the products, the need for improved sensitivity of early screenings tests or highly selective point-of-issue tests remains. The latter should be rapid and easy to perform. An alternative approach might be the implementation of pathogen-inactivation methods for cellular blood products to reduce the amount of pathogens. However, these methods are costly, and so far not proved to be cost-effective, especially in countries with an already-low incidence of transfusion-transmitted infections by viruses, parasites, or bacteria. Keywords: blood products, bacterial contamination, screening, point of issue, pathogen inactivation

  7. Transfusion-transmitted CMV infection - current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, M; Thiele, T

    2017-08-01

    Transmission of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) via transfusion (TT-CMV) may still occur and remains a challenge in the treatment of immunocompromised CMV-seronegative patients, e.g. after stem cell transplantation, and for low birthweight infants. Measures to reduce the risk of TT-CMV have been evaluated in clinical studies, including leucocyte depletion of cellular blood products and/or the selection of CMV-IgG-negative donations. Studies in large blood donor cohorts indicate that donations from newly CMV-IgG-positive donors should bear the highest risk for transmitting CMV infections because they contain the highest levels of CMV-DNA, and early CMV antibodies cannot neutralise CMV. Based on this knowledge, rational strategies to reduce the residual risk of TT-CMV using leucoreduced blood products could be designed. However, there is a lack of evidence that CMV is still transmitted by transfusion of leucoreduced units. In low birthweight infants, most (if not all) CMV infections are caused by breast milk feeding or congenital transmission rather than by transfusion of leucoreduced blood products. For other patients at risk, no definitive data exist about the relative importance of alternative transmission routes of CMV compared to blood transfusion. As a result, only the conduction of well-designed studies addressing strategies to prevent TT-CMV and the thorough examination of presumed cases of TT-CMV will achieve guidance for the best transfusion regimen in patients at risk. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  8. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Jordan R; Roberts, Sally A; Humphreys, Tricia L

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU) that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA), serum resistance protein (dsrA), and a collagen adhesin (ncaA) contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts.

  9. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of non-sexually transmitted strains of Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan R Gaston

    Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been previously reported to show genetic variance in several key virulence factors, placing strains of the bacterium into two genetically distinct classes. Recent studies done in yaws-endemic areas of the South Pacific have shown that H. ducreyi is also a major cause of cutaneous limb ulcers (CLU that are not sexually transmitted. To genetically assess CLU strains relative to the previously described class I, class II phylogenetic hierarchy, we examined nucleotide sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, which encompass approximately 1% of the H. ducreyi genome. Sequences for all 11 loci indicated that strains collected from leg ulcers exhibit DNA sequences homologous to class I strains of H. ducreyi. However, sequences for 3 loci, including a hemoglobin receptor (hgbA, serum resistance protein (dsrA, and a collagen adhesin (ncaA contained informative amounts of variation. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these non-sexually transmitted strains of H. ducreyi comprise a sub-clonal population within class I strains of H. ducreyi. Molecular dating suggests that CLU strains are the most recently developed, having diverged approximately 0.355 million years ago, fourteen times more recently than the class I/class II divergence. The CLU strains' divergence falls after the divergence of humans from chimpanzees, making it the first known H. ducreyi divergence event directly influenced by the selective pressures accompanying human hosts.

  10. Current strategies and future directions for the prevention of transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmon CM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Charles M Harmon, Laura L Cooling Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a pervasive DNA virus that infects a significant portion of individuals worldwide, and may be transmitted through the transfusion of blood products. Although CMV infection is of little consequence in immunocompetent individuals, patients with an impaired immune system are at risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Unlike other blood-borne infectious agents, it is impractical to defer all CMV-positive individuals from blood donation as this would exclude a substantial number of otherwise eligible donors. Other methods such as transfusion of CMV-seronegative and leukoreduced blood products must be employed to prevent the transmission of CMV to at-risk patients. In this study, the widespread use of current strategies for the prevention of transfusion-transmitted CMV (TT-CMV infection and the evidence to support these methods in various at-risk groups were reviewed. In addition, emerging pathogen inactivation technologies that have the potential to eliminate TT-CMV were also discussed. Keywords: blood transfusion, cytomegalovirus, leukoreduction, pathogen inactivation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, very low birth weight infants

  11. Sealing of transmitted-heat lines at wall piercings; Abdichtung von Fernwaermeleitungen in Mauerdurchfuehrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, A.; Ney, K. [Doyma GmbH und Co., Oyten (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    Flexible sealing systems are necessary to provide permanent protection of transmitted-heat pipe wall penetrations against the ingress of water. Unlike the rigid sealing methods in widespread use, flexible sealing systems are capable of absorbing thermally induced pipe movements and thus of preventing leaks around such piercings. The following article provides an introduction to the subject and offers practical suggestions for the ideal design of transmitted-heat pipe wall penetrations. Sealing system variants with a range of degrees of flexibility are discussed, in addition to measures which need to be taken into account as early as the installation of the pipe itself. Prime attention is devoted not to methods already practised, but to recent, potentially marketable developments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um Mauerdurchfuehrungen von Fernwaermeleitungen dauerhaft gegen das Eindringen von Wasser zu schuetzen, sind flexible Abdichtsysteme notwendig. Im Gegensatz zu den verbreiteten starren Abdichtungsmethoden koennen flexible Systeme die thermisch bedingten Rohrbewegungen aufnehmen und damit Undichtigkeiten im Bereich der Durchfuehrungen verhindern. Der folgende Beitrag fuehrt in die Thematik ein und gibt praktische Hinweise, wie eine Mauerdurchfuehrung von Fernwaermeleitungen idealerweise gestaltet werden sollte. Neben Massnahmen, die bereits bei der Rohrverlegung zu beachten sind, werden Abdichtvarianten mit unterschiedlichem Flexibilitaetsgrad skizziert. Schwerpunkt der Untersuchung liegt hier nicht nur auf bereits bekannten Verfahren sondern auch auf marktfaehigen Neuentwicklungen. (orig.)

  12. Automated measurement of spatial preference in the open field test with transmitted lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Alexander V; Tikhonova, Maria A; Kulikov, Victor A

    2008-05-30

    New modification of the open field was designed to improve automation of the test. The main innovations were: (1) transmitted lighting and (2) estimation of probability to find pixels associated with an animal in the selected region of arena as an objective index of spatial preference. Transmitted (inverted) lighting significantly ameliorated the contrast between an animal and arena and allowed to track white animals with similar efficacy as colored ones. Probability as a measure of preference of selected region was mathematically proved and experimentally verified. A good correlation between probability and classic indices of spatial preference (number of region entries and time spent therein) was shown. The algorithm of calculation of probability to find pixels associated with an animal in the selected region was implemented in the EthoStudio software. Significant interstrain differences in locomotion and the central zone preference (index of anxiety) were shown using the inverted lighting and the EthoStudio software in mice of six inbred strains. The effects of arena shape (circle or square) and a novel object presence in the center of arena on the open field behavior in mice were studied.

  13. Detecting the Use of Intentionally Transmitting Personal Electronic Devices Onboard Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Randy; Ely, Jay J.; Vahala, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The need to detect unauthorized usage of intentionally transmitting portable electronic devices (PEDs) onboard commercial aircraft is growing, while still allowing passengers to use selected unintentionally transmitting devices, such as laptop computers and CD players during non-critical stages of flight. The following paper presents an installed system for detecting PEDs over multiple frequency bands. Additionally, the advantages of a fixed verses mobile system are discussed. While data is presented to cover the frequency range of 20 MHz to 6.5 GHz, special attention was given to the Cellular/PCS bands as well as Bluetooth and the FRS radio bands. Measurement data from both the semi-anechoic and reverberation chambers are then analyzed and correlated with data collected onboard a commercial aircraft to determine the dominant mode of coupling inside the passenger cabin of the aircraft versus distance from the source. As a final check of system feasibility, several PEDs transmission signatures were recorded and compared with the expected levels.

  14. Soil transmitted Helminthiasis and associated risk factors among elementary school children in ambo town, western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Fikreslasie; Demsew, Asalif; Alem, Yonas; Hailesilassie, Yonas

    2017-10-10

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are widespread in underdeveloped countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence and distribution of helminth infection varies by different exposing risk factors. We therefore investigated the prevalence of and risk factors of STHs infection in school children living in Ambo town, west Shoa Ethiopia. In 2014/15, among 375 school children planed to be included in this study, only 321 school children were recruited in the study. Data onto school children from different schools were collected, including stool samples for qualitative STHs analysis. Questionnaire data on various demographic, housing and lifestyle variables were also available. Prevalence of any STHs infection was 12.6%. The respective prevalence of major soil-transmitted helminths is Ascaris (7.8%), Hookworm (2.8%) and Trichuris (2.2%). This study result shows STHs prevalence varies regards to age, sex, latrine use, family size and nail trimming. The results of the present study indicated that the percentage of positive finding for STHs in Ambo area is low. Besides, Large Family size, not nail trimming and unavailability of improved latrine were identified as predisposing factor for STHs infections. All school children enrolled and not enrolled in this study should be treated twice a year until the prevalence falls below the level of public health importance.

  15. Health Care Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes About Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Legal Aspects of Medical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpak Yaşam Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate healthcare professionals’ (HCPs general level of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases, their attitudes towards these patients and legal aspects of medical services. Materials and Methods: This was a multi-centered study. The participants were given 28 questions that mainly asked their level of knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs patients, their attitudes towards such patients, and their legal as well as ethical views on them. Results: A total of 234 HCPs, 124 (53% female and 110 (47% male, participated in the study. The majority of married HCPs have reported monogamy as the most reliable protection method, whereas single participants have marked "condoms." The most commonly known STD has been reported as AIDS in all groups. Even though HCPs find it medically unethical not to offer a medical intervention to patients with STDs, more than one-third of the participants believe that HCPs should have the right not to do so. Conclusion: It has been concluded that HCPs need further education on STDs. Nevertheless, such high level of care and attention on HCPs’ part does not necessarily decrease their need for proper medico legal regulations on such issues.

  16. FREKUENSI SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS PADA SISWA SEKOLAH DASAR NEGERI DESA SENAMAT KECAMATAN PELEPAT KABUPATEN BUNGO JAMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustina Indriati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available high. Most of health problem caused by infection of intestinum Soil transmitted helminth, frequently infected children. Based on this problem, the study is done to find out the frequensi of STH on the studens of SD Desa Senamat Kecamatan Pelepat Kabupaten Bungo, Jambi Province. The reseacrh is done on August 2010 at SDN 02/II Senamat and SDN 49/II Senamat. The reseacrh used Total sampling Technique. The amount of the sample of this study is 151. The result of this study shows that there are 30,34% infected by STH (Ascaris lumbricoides 22,47% ; Trichuris trichiura 0%, and 11,23% infected by cacing tambang, and infected by Ascaris lumbricoides and cacing tambang 3,37%. While, there are 41,49% infected by STH (Trichuris trichiura 0%, infected cacing tambang 19,35%, and infected Ascaris lumbricoides and cacing tambang 9,67%. This highest infection of STH was found on students of SDN 49/II Senamat, that was Ascaris lumbricoides 32,26% from 62 student. Key words: soil transmitted helminth, student

  17. Which colors would extraterrestrial civilizations use to transmit signals?: The ;magic wavelengths; for optical SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusawa, Shin-ya; Aota, Tatusya; Kishimoto, Ryo

    2018-04-01

    In the case of radio SETI, there are predicted frequencies which extraterrestrial beings select to send messages to other civilizations. Those are called ;magic frequencies. Considering the optical region, terrestrial technologies can not transmit arbitrary wavelengths of high-power optical lasers, easily. In this article, we discuss communications among civilizations with the same level of technology as us to enhance the persuasive power. It might be possible to make a reasonable assumption about the laser wavelengths transmitted by extraterrestrial intelligences to benefit optical SETI (OSETI) methods. Therefore, we propose some ;magic wavelengths; for spectroscopic OSETI observations in this article. From the senders point of view, we argue that the most favorable wavelength used for interstellar communication would be the one of YAG lasers, at 1.064 μm or its Second Harmonic Generation (532.1 nm). On the contrary, there are basic absorption lines in the optical spectra, which are frequently observed by astrophysicists on Earth. It is possible that the extraterrestrials used lasers, which wavelengths are tuned to such absorption lines for sending messages. In that case, there is a possibility that SHG and/or Sum Frequency Generation of YAG and YLF lasers are used. We propose three lines at, 393.8 nm (near the Ca K line), 656.5 nm (near the Hα line) and 589.1 nm (Na D2 line) as the magic wavelengths.

  18. Hybrid Access Femtocells in Overlaid MIMO Cellular Networks with Transmit Selection under Poisson Field Interference

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Nabi, Amr A

    2017-09-21

    This paper analyzes the performance of hybrid control-access schemes for small cells (such as femtocells) in the context of two-tier overlaid cellular networks. The proposed hybrid access schemes allow for sharing the same downlink resources between the small-cell network and the original macrocell network, and their mode of operations are characterized considering post-processed signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs) or pre-processed interference-aware operation. The work presents a detailed treatment of achieved performance of a desired user that benefits from MIMO arrays configuration through the use of transmit antenna selection (TAS) and maximal ratio combining (MRC) in the presence of Poisson field interference processes on spatial links. Furthermore, based on the interference awareness at the desired user, two TAS approaches are treated, which are the signal-to-noise (SNR)-based selection and SINR-based selection. The analysis is generalized to address the cases of highly-correlated and un-correlated aggregated interference on different transmit channels. In addition, the effect of delayed TAS due to imperfect feedback and the impact of arbitrary TAS processing are investigated. The analytical results are validated by simulations, to clarify some of the main outcomes herein.

  19. Computer Aided Medical Diagnosis for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Disease (Gonorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu M. Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO report on the circumstances of clinical facilities in developing countries indicates that, there is considerable efficient delivery of medical services to the rural inhabitants where the services are available, these services are very expensive and not affordable to the average citizen. This has risen inadequacies such as prolonged suffering and even death. The slow process of diagnosis trial and error of diseases can be disastrous when a patient is at the advanced stage of a disease. Here we propose an automated system that can aid the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases and suggest adequate drug prescriptions and treatment. To achieve this, an extensive review on related diseases were reevaluated and a common type (gonorrhea was used as an exemplary study. This is based on the Structure Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM. The paper as shown a system that is most effective and have a fast way of diagnosing and treating sexually transmitted diseases, which serves as a great relief for the doctors and even non-experts in the field.

  20. Interplanetary shock transmitted into the Earth's magnetosheath: Cluster and Double Star observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pallocchia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available On day 7 May 2005, the plasma instruments on board Double Star TC1 and Cluster SC3 spacecraft register inside the magnetosheath, at 19:15:12 and 19:16:20 UT, respectively, a strong pressure pulse due to the impact of an interplanetary shock wave (IS on the terrestrial bow shock. The analysis of this event provides clear and quantitative evidences confirming and strengthening some results given by past simulations and observational studies. In fact, here we show that the transmitted shock is slowed down with respect to the incident IS (in the Earth's reference frame and that, besides the transmitted shock, the IS – bow shock interaction generates a second discontinuity. Moreover, supported also by a special set three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation, we discuss, as further effects of the interaction of the IS with the magnetosphere, other two interesting aspects of the present event, that is: the TC1 double crossing of the bow shock (observed few minutes after the impact of the IS and the presence, only in the SC3 data, of a third discontinuity produced inside the magnetosheath.

  1. Selection of unadapted, pathogenic SHIVs encoding newly transmitted HIV-1 envelope proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Gregory Q; Ailers, Braiden; Moldt, Brian; Keele, Brandon F; Estes, Jacob D; Rodriguez, Anthony; Sampias, Marissa; Oswald, Kelli; Fast, Randy; Trubey, Charles M; Chertova, Elena; Smedley, Jeremy; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Burton, Dennis R; Shaw, George M; Markowitz, Marty; Piatak, Michael; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Bieniasz, Paul D; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Hatziioannou, Theodora

    2014-09-10

    Infection of macaques with chimeric viruses based on SIVMAC but expressing the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins (SHIVs) remains the most powerful model for evaluating prevention and therapeutic strategies against AIDS. Unfortunately, only a few SHIVs are currently available. Furthermore, their generation has required extensive adaptation of the HIV-1 Env sequences in macaques so they may not accurately represent HIV-1 Env proteins circulating in humans, potentially limiting their translational utility. We developed a strategy for generating large numbers of SHIV constructs expressing Env proteins from newly transmitted HIV-1 strains. By inoculating macaques with cocktails of multiple SHIV variants, we selected SHIVs that can replicate and cause AIDS-like disease in immunologically intact rhesus macaques without requiring animal-to-animal passage. One of these SHIVs could be transmitted mucosally. We demonstrate the utility of the SHIVs generated by this method for evaluating neutralizing antibody administration as a protection against mucosal SHIV challenge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hybrid Access Femtocells in Overlaid MIMO Cellular Networks with Transmit Selection under Poisson Field Interference

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Nabi, Amr A; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz S.; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Shaqfeh, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of hybrid control-access schemes for small cells (such as femtocells) in the context of two-tier overlaid cellular networks. The proposed hybrid access schemes allow for sharing the same downlink resources between the small-cell network and the original macrocell network, and their mode of operations are characterized considering post-processed signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs) or pre-processed interference-aware operation. The work presents a detailed treatment of achieved performance of a desired user that benefits from MIMO arrays configuration through the use of transmit antenna selection (TAS) and maximal ratio combining (MRC) in the presence of Poisson field interference processes on spatial links. Furthermore, based on the interference awareness at the desired user, two TAS approaches are treated, which are the signal-to-noise (SNR)-based selection and SINR-based selection. The analysis is generalized to address the cases of highly-correlated and un-correlated aggregated interference on different transmit channels. In addition, the effect of delayed TAS due to imperfect feedback and the impact of arbitrary TAS processing are investigated. The analytical results are validated by simulations, to clarify some of the main outcomes herein.

  3. Encoding methods for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Desmond H. Y.; Poole, Michael S.; Magill, Arthur W.; Felder, Jörg; Brenner, Daniel; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-08-01

    Parallel radiofrequency (RF) transmission, either in the form of RF shimming or pulse design, has been proposed as a solution to the B1+ inhomogeneity problem in ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging. As a prerequisite, accurate B1+ maps from each of the available transmit channels are required. In this work, four different encoding methods for B1+ mapping, namely 1-channel-on, all-channels-on-except-1, all-channels-on-1-inverted and Fourier phase encoding, were evaluated using dual refocusing acquisition mode (DREAM) at 9.4 T. Fourier phase encoding was demonstrated in both phantom and in vivo to be the least susceptible to artefacts caused by destructive RF interference at 9.4 T. Unlike the other two interferometric encoding schemes, Fourier phase encoding showed negligible dependency on the initial RF phase setting and therefore no prior B1+ knowledge is required. Fourier phase encoding also provides a flexible way to increase the number of measurements to increase SNR, and to allow further reduction of artefacts by weighted decoding. These advantages of Fourier phase encoding suggest that it is a good choice for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field.

  4. Case and partnership reproduction numbers for a curable sexually transmitted infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijne, Janneke C M; Herzog, Sereina A; Althaus, Christian L; Low, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    2013-08-21

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are, by definition, transmitted between sexual partners. For curable STIs an infected index case can potentially re-infect the same partner multiple times. Thus, R0, the average number of secondary infections one typical infected individual will produce during his or her infectious period is not necessarily the same as the average number of secondary cases (infected persons). Here we introduce the new concept of the case reproduction number (Rc). In addition, we define the partnership reproduction number (Rp) as the average number of secondary partnerships consisting of two infected individuals one typical infected individual will produce over his or her infectious lifetime. Rp takes into account clearance and re-infection within partnerships, which results in a prolongation of the duration of the infectious period. The two new reproduction numbers were derived for a deterministic pair model with serial monogamous partnerships using infection parameters for Chlamydia trachomatis, an example of a curable STI. We showed that re-infection within partnerships means that curable STIs can be sustained endemically even when the average number of secondary cases a person produces during his or her infectious period is below one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Home Healthcare Program for Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Schoolchildren along the Mekong River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-05-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are among the most important groups of infectious agents responsible for physical and intellectual growth retardation in children worldwide. Current status is need requiredfor the development of control programs. To determine the STH infections among the schoolchildren in the Mekong River basin near rural Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand and Champassak, Laos PDR, including their caregiver knowledge and attitude concerning prevention of STH infections. A cross sectional survey was designed as a home healthcare programfrom October 2009 to April 2012. 1,957 fecal samples were collected from children aged 5-12 years in five districts of Ubon Ratchathani province (1,012 fecal samples; Khong Chiam, Si Mueang Mai, Phibun Mangsahan, Sirindhorn, and Pho Sai), Thailand, and one district of Champassak Province (945 fecal samples; Pakse), Lao PDR. Fecal samples were prepared by the modified formalin ethylacetate concentration technique, and determined by light microscope. The knowledge and attitude of children's caregivers concerning prevention of soil-transmitted helminth infections were completed interviewed by semi-structured questionnaires. The overall intestinal helminth prevalence rate was 11.88%. Classified by species the STHs were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides (30.9%), Trichuris trichiura (21.7%), and hookworm (20.5%). The highest prevalence was recorded in children aged 9 years and above. The highest prevalence of STH infection was found in the Pakse district of Laos PDR (16.08%). The intensities of infection with A. lumbricoides, T trichiura, and Hookworm were 1.82 ± 0.36, 1.32 ± 0.30, and 1.29 ± 0.32, respectively. 1,077 of caregivers were completed interviewed and found that the caregivers had fair levels of knowledge and attitude regarding soil-transmitted helminthiasis. These results suggest that priority should be given to STH eradication, the development of control programs in the Mekong River Basin, and the provision of

  6. [Trematodes (Trematoda) of bats (Chiroptera) from the Middle Volga Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu; Vekhnik, V P

    2012-01-01

    The data on species diversity of trematodes from bats collected in the Middle Volga Region are summarized. According to original and literary data, 20 trematode species were recorded in bats of the region examined. Plagiorchis elegans, Lecithodendrium skrjabini, L. rysavyi, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, and Pycnoporus megacotyle are specified for the bat fauna of Russia for the first time. For 11 species of parasites, new hosts are recorded. The analysis of bat helminthes demonstrated that the fauna of trematodes of the northern bat (12 species of trematodes), of the pond, and of the Brandt's bats is the most diverse, constituting more than 10 parasite species per bat species. The largest number of final hosts in the Middle Volga Region is characteristic of Plagiorchis koreanus and Prosthodendrium chilostomum; the latter species were revealed in 8 and 7 bat species, respectively. Trematodes of bats possess a high degree of host specificity. 17 species parasitize exclusively in bats out of 20 parasite species registered for the order Chiroptera. Only 3 species (Plagiorchis elegans, P. vespertilionis, and Prosthodendrium chilostomum) show wide degree of specificity, being found in other animals. Taxonomic position, the circle of hosts, collecting sites, and brief data in biology and geographical distribution for each helminth species are specified. Morphological descriptions and original figures for all the trematode species revealed in bats of the Middle Volga Region are given.

  7. A Checklist of the Aspidogastrea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) of the World

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alves, P.V.; Vieira, F.M.; Santos, C. P.; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3918, č. 3 (2015), s. 339-396 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * taxonomy * Aspidogastridae * Multicalycidae * Rugogastridae * Stichocotylidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.994, year: 2015

  8. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, David M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  9. Tailoring Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Targets for Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Schistosomiasis Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Suzy J; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Woods, Geordie; Velleman, Yael; Fleming, Fiona; Stothard, J Russell

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) 2015-2020 Global Strategy on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) encourages integration, whilst maintaining existing structured NTD investments, and acceleration towards Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets. Accordingly, SDG-associated and WASH-NTD indicators have been developed, commencing important intersectoral dialogue, alongside opportunities for future disease-specific refinements. The rationale for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH)- and schistosomiasis-specific WASH considerations, and a traffic-light figure, are presented here to indicate where current international definitions may, or may not, suffice. Certain unique aspects in control dynamics and parasitic lifecycles, however, necessitate additional implementation research with more appropriate measurement indicators developed to record programmatic interventions and to define strategic priorities more effectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of Heat Flow Transmitted through a Stacked-Screen Regenerator of Thermoacoustic Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Han Hsu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A stacked-screen regenerator is a key component in a thermoacoustic Stirling engine. Therefore, the choice of suitable mesh screens is important in the engine design. To verify the applicability of four empirical equations used in the field of thermoacoustic engines and Stirling engines, this report describes the measurements of heat flow rates transmitted through the stacked screen regenerator inserted in an experimental setup filled with pressurized Argon gas having mean pressure of 0.45 MPa. Results show that the empirical equations reproduce the measured heat flow rates to a mutually similar degree, although their derivation processes differ. Additionally, results suggest that two effective pore radii would be necessary to account for the viscous and thermal behaviors of the gas oscillating in the stacked-screen regenerators.

  11. Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Policies in the United States: Evidence and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Seiler, Naomi; Wohlfeiler, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Policies are an important part of public health interventions, including in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention. Similar to other tools used in public health, policies are often evaluated to determine their usefulness. Therefore, we conducted a nonsystematic review of policy evidence for STD prevention. Our review considers assessments or evaluations of STD prevention-specific policies, health care system policies, and other, broader policies that have the potential to impact STD prevention through social determinants of health. We also describe potential policy opportunity in these areas. It should be noted that we found gaps in policy evidence for some areas; thus, additional research would be useful for public health policy interventions for STD prevention.

  12. Stabilization of Phase of a Sinusoidal Signal Transmitted Over Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAddario, Larry R.; Trink, Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of connecting widely distributed antennas into a coherent array, it is necessary to synchronize the timing of signals at the various locations. This can be accomplished by distributing a common reference signal from a central source, usually over optical fiber. A high-frequency (RF or microwave) tone is a good choice for the reference. One difficulty is that the effective length of the optical fiber changes with temperature and mechanical stress, leading to phase instability in the received tone. This innovation provides a new way to stabilize the phase of the received tone, in spite of variations in the electrical length of the fiber. Stabilization is accomplished by two-way transmission in which part of the received signal is returned to the transmitting end over an identical fiber. The returned signal is detected and used to close an electrical servo loop whose effect is to keep constant the phase of the tone at the receiving end.

  13. Sexually transmitted infections and use of contraceptives in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Storgaard, Merete

    2016-01-01

    , and herpes simplex (HSV-1 and HSV-2). At follow-up, predictors of condom use were estimated in sexually active WLWH. RESULTS: In total, 334 of the 1,392 eligible WLWH in Denmark were included (median age and HIV duration: 42.5 and 11.3 years). Chlamydia trachomatis was present in four individuals (1......BACKGROUND: No Danish guidelines for screening of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women living with HIV (WLWH) exist, except for annual syphilis testing. Drug-drug interaction between hormonal contraceptives and some types of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) occurs. We...... criteria were HIV-1 infection and ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, alcohol- or drug abuse impeding adherence to the protocol. At entry, participants were tested (and where appropriate, treated according to guidelines) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis...

  14. Evaluation of dynamic binaural reproduction system for live transmitted xylophone recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Esben; Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    For a special teaching application of the telepresence research project BEAMING, a scenario of a remote teacher (the Visitor) teaching a local student to play a xylophone through an embodiment is defined. In order to achieve this, a system is required to record, transmit and render the sound....... Finally head tracking allows for a dynamic binaural rendering of the xylophone sound. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the realism of this virtual (auditory) representation of a real xylophone. A listening test is designed to compare characteristics of a real physical xylophone in front...... of the listener with a rendering using the described system. The evaluation is done with a basis in methods previously used for evaluating the subjective sensation of presence in virtual reality systems, mainly based on questionnaires....

  15. Transmit selection for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in Rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2010-01-01

    The performance of multiple-antenna diversity systems in which the receiver combines signal replicas per thresholdbased maximal ratio combining (MRC) and the transmitter uses only a single antenna according to receive combined signal strength is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation is considered when the received signal replicas undergo independent and flat multipath fading. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection when the multiple-antenna channels experience identically distributed and non-identically distributed Rayleigh fading conditions. New closed-form expressions for the combined SNR statistics and some performance measures are presented. The system models adopted herein and the presented analytical results can be used to study the performance of different system architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. © 2009 IEEE.

  16. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Michaela S.; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Zida, Elisabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    -day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA. Eighteen Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified......Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven...... samples collected in Central Burkina Faso confirming a common occurrence. E. sorghinum was highly predominant in seedlings both measured by DNA analysis and by isolation. The dominance of E. sorghinum was particularly strong in roots from poorly growing seedlings. Pathogenicity of E. sorghinum isolates...

  17. On the glitches in the force transmitted by an electrodynamic exciter to a structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dantam K.

    1987-01-01

    Around resonance, the force transmitted by an exciter into a structure will be smaller or greater than a reference force generated by its coils due to electromechanical interaction. A simple analysis is presented which reveals how this phenomenon of force drop-off is controlled by three factors. The first factor, called Armature Mass Factor, describes a purely mechanical interaction between the structure and the exciter. The electromechanical energy conversion and its interaction with the structure yields two additional factors, called Electrical Resistance and Electrical Inductance Factors. They describe the effects of coil resistance, inductance and magnetic field strength relative to structural damping and stiffness. Present analysis indicates that, under proper circumstances, more than 90 percent of the force drop-off can be eliminated if armature-to-structure mass ratio is smaller or equal to half of modal loss factor.

  18. Soil transmitted helminths in animals – how is it possible for human transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo Jia-Chi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the current prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH infections among cats and dogs in an animal shelter. Methods: A total of 442 animal's faecal samples were collected from the selected animal shelter located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The samples were screened by direct smear and further confirmed by formalin-ether sedimentation methods. Results: The overall prevalence of STH in animals was 48.4%. Among these, 51.5% and 45.8% were found in dogs and cats respectively. Among feline, hookworm was found to be the most predominant (41.7%, followed by Toxocara cati (4.6%. Whereas, hookworm was found to be the most predominant in canine (47%, followed by Toxocara canis (15.8% and Trichuris vulpis (5.9%. Conclusions: A high prevalence of STH infections was found among animals living in this local shelter. Hence, appropriate preventive measures should be taken to eradicate these infections.

  19. Microbiological Zoonotic Emerging Risks, Transmitted Between Livestock Animals and Humans (2007-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippitzi, M E; Goumperis, T; Robinson, T; Saegerman, C

    2017-08-01

    As part of the Emerging Risk Identification (ERI) activities of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), a literature search was conducted to identify the microbiological agents transmitted between livestock animals and humans that have been suggested as having emerged between 2007 and 2015 in peer-reviewed scientific literature published during the same period (2007-2015). According to the criteria set, the search identified seven such zoonotic agents, namely West Nile Fever virus, Rift Valley Fever virus, Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus, Influenza A H1N1 virus, Coxiella burnetii, Streptococcus suis and livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398. An explanation of the agents' consideration as emerging risks is provided. The experience gained from these emergences has shown that the detection of and response to such risks can be achieved faster and more successfully within a multidisciplinary, collaborative context at the field, local, national and international levels. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. The Drosophila Nora virus is an enteric virus, transmitted via feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habayeb, Mazen S; Cantera, Rafael; Casanova, Gabriela; Ekström, Jens-Ola; Albright, Shannon; Hultmark, Dan

    2009-04-01

    The biology of the Drosophila viruses has not been intensely investigated. Here we have investigated the biology of the Nora virus, a persistent Drosophila virus. We find that injected Nora virus is able to replicate in the files, reaching a high titer that is maintained in the next generation. There is a remarkable variation in the viral loads of individual flies in persistently infected stocks; the titers can differ by three orders of magnitude. The Nora virus is mainly found in the intestine of infected flies, and the histology of these infected intestines show increased vacuolization. The virus is excreted in the feces and is horizontally transmitted. The Nora virus infection has a very mild effect on the longevity of the flies, and no significant effect on the number of eggs laid and the percent of eggs that develop to adults.

  1. Deformed wing virus can be transmitted during natural mating in honey bees and infect the queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina D.; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    prevalence of deformed wing virus, queens (n = 30) were trapped upon their return from natural mating flights. The last drone’s endophallus (n = 29), if present, was removed from the mated queens for deformed wing virus quantification, leading to the detection of high-level infection in 3 endophalli. After...... oviposition, viral quantification revealed that seven of the 30 queens had high-level deformed wing virus infections, in all tissues, including the semen stored in the spermathecae. Two groups of either unmated queens (n = 8) with induced egg laying, or queens (n = 12) mated in isolation with drones showing...... comparatively low deformed wing virus infections served as control. None of the control queens exhibited high-level viral infections. Our results demonstrate that deformed wing virus infected drones are competitive to mate and able to transmit the virus along with semen, which occasionally leads to queen...

  2. Epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminthiases-related mortality in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco R; Ramos, Alberto N; Alencar, Carlos H; Lima, Mauricélia S; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2017-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study including all deaths in Brazil from 2000 to 2011, in which STHs (ascariasis, trichuriasis and/or hookworm infection) were mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated causes of death. Epidemiological characteristics, time trends and spatial analysis of STH-related mortality were analysed. STHs was identified on 853/12 491 280 death certificates: 827 (97·0%) deaths related to ascariasis, 25 (2·9%) to hookworm infections, and 1 (0·1%) to trichuriasis. The average annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 0·34/1 000 000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval: 0·27-0·44). Females, children Brazil, a considerable number of deaths is caused by STHs, with ascariasis responsible for the vast majority. There were marked regional differences, affecting mainly children and vulnerable populations.

  3. Infection of guinea pigs with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus Transmitted by Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez De León, Adalberto A; O'Toole, Donal; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-05-01

    Intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) during blood feeding on the abdomen of six guinea pigs. None of the guinea pigs infected in this manner developed clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis despite seroconversion for VSNJV. Guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the abdomen also failed to develop clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis. Three guinea pigs given intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the foot pad developed lesions typical of vesicular stomatitis. Transmission by the bite of C. sonorensis may have facilitated guinea pig infection with VSNJV because a single infected C. sonorensis caused seroconversion and all guinea pigs infected by insect bite seroconverted compared with 50% of the guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculation with a higher titer VSNJV inoculum. The role of C. sonorensis in the transmission of VSNJV is discussed.

  4. Dynamic modeling and analysis of sexually transmitted diseases on heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuping; Jin, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Considering homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts in the course of sexual contacts, double degrees which describe the numbers of homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts are introduced, correlation coefficients about degrees based on the joint probability distribution are given, and an SIS mean-field model about sexually transmitted diseases is presented when degrees are uncorrelated. The basic reproduction number of diseases is studied by the method of next generation matrix. Results show that, when homosexual contacts and heterosexual contacts all exist, once the disease is epidemic in the interior of male (female) population which is caused by male (female) homosexual transmissions, or the disease is epidemic between the two species which is caused by heterosexual transmissions, the disease must be epidemic in the whole population. Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical results.

  5. Rationale for Quality Assurance in Fecal Egg Monitoring of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekendijk, David J. L.; Hill, Philip C.; Sowerby, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial investment has been made into the once “neglected” tropical disease, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and into control programs that operate within a framework of mapping baseline disease distribution, measuring the effectiveness of applied interventions, establishing when to cease drug administration, and for posttreatment evaluations. However, critical to each of these stages is the determination of helminth infection. The limitations of traditional microscope-based fecal egg diagnostics have not provided quality assurance in the monitoring of parasite disease and suboptimal treatment regimes provide for the potential development of parasite resistance to anthelmintic drugs. Improved diagnostic and surveillance tools are required to protect therapeutic effectiveness and to maintain funder confidence. Such tools may be on the horizon with emergent technologies that offer potential for enhanced visualization and quality-assured quantitation of helminth eggs. PMID:27352875

  6. Partial Transmit Sequence Optimization Using Improved Harmony Search Algorithm for PAPR Reduction in OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the use of the Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS technique to reduce the Peak‐to‐Average Power Ratio (PAPR of an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing signal in wireless communication systems. Search complexity is very high in the traditional PTS scheme because it involves an extensive random search over all combinations of allowed phase vectors, and it increases exponentially with the number of phase vectors. In this paper, a suboptimal metaheuristic algorithm for phase optimization based on an improved harmony search (IHS is applied to explore the optimal combination of phase vectors that provides improved performance compared with existing evolutionary algorithms such as the harmony search algorithm and firefly algorithm. IHS enhances the accuracy and convergence rate of the conventional algorithms with very few parameters to adjust. Simulation results show that an improved harmony search‐based PTS algorithm can achieve a significant reduction in PAPR using a simple network structure compared with conventional algorithms.

  7. Relationship between intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Renee; Casapia, Martin; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2005-10-01

    A direct relationship exists between the intensity of hookworm infection and blood loss. Other parasites may also contribute to blood loss. Our objective was to assess the relationship between the intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia in pregnant women in a highly endemic area of Peru. Recruitment occurred between April and November 2003. Overall, 47.31% of 1,042 women had anemia (hemoglobin anemia. However, those infected with moderate and heavy intensities of hookworm infection (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.17) and those with moderate and heavy intensities of both hookworm and Trichuris infections (OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.13) were more likely to suffer from anemia than women having no or light intensities. These results support routine anthelminthic treatment within prenatal care programs in highly endemic areas.

  8. Emotional and social representations of future teachers about sexually transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aránzazu Cejudo Cortés Carmen María

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Health Education programs for young people have drastically increased in recent years in Spanish universities. In part, this is due to the fact that new cases of infection of a sexually transmitted disease continue happening, especially at this stage, and universities as an educational space in which a large number of young people are concentrated, must address this problem. Training young students in promoting healthy sexual habits will prevent not only new infections, but also facilitate the acquisition of competences in the students of the health and socio-educational areas, necessary for their later professional development. This research provides some information about the knowledge and attitudes of students of educational qualifications about HIV/AIDS, with particular relevance to the emotions and social representations that the students have about this fact and that can interfere in their lack of information making them more vulnerable to the disease.

  9. TRANSMITTING ISLAM THROUGH STORIES: The Sociology of Production and Consumption of Islam in Novel Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akh. Muzakki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Islamic novel literature has become a new commodity in Indonesia. This paper examines the Islamic creative and cultural industry in recent development in Indonesia, exploring the Islamic publication through its exploitation of storytelling method as a means of produc­tion and consumption of Islamic commodities. As an object of analysis, it focuses on Islamic novel Ayat-Ayat Cinta. It particularly argues that Islamic publication has extended its capacity as a medium for transmitting religious ideas to producing and consuming economic commodities. It further argues that storytelling appears to be an effective method for both the transmission of Islamic teaching and the production and consumption of Islamic commodities. It maintains that positive responses from the market are not only in the form of purchasing the product of Islamic novel literature, but also in the form of following up the essence of cases in life exploited in stories developed in such an Islamic novel literature.

  10. Effect of Message Format and Content on Attitude Accessibility Regarding Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Parul; Hoffman, Eric; Beam, Michael; Xu, Shan Susan

    2017-11-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are widespread in the United States among people ages 15-24 years and cost almost $16 billion yearly. It is therefore important to understand message design strategies that could help reduce these numbers. Guided by exemplification theory and the extended parallel process model (EPPM), this study examines the influence of message format and the presence versus absence of a graphic image on recipients' accessibility of STI attitudes regarding safe sex. Results of the experiment indicate a significant effect from testimonial messages on increased attitude accessibility regarding STIs compared to statistical messages. Results also indicate a conditional indirect effect of testimonial messages on STI attitude accessibility, though threat is greater when a graphic image is included. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Secure diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of zero-forcing transmit scheme at finite-SNR

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we address the finite Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT) of the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wiretap channel, where a Zero-Forcing (ZF) transmit scheme, that intends to send the secret information in the orthogonal space of the eavesdropper channel, is used. First, we introduce the secrecy multiplexing gain at finite-SNR that generalizes the definition at high-SNR. Then, we provide upper and lower bounds on the outage probability under secrecy constraint, from which secrecy diversity gain estimates of ZF are derived. Through asymptotic analysis, we show that the upper bound underestimates the secrecy diversity gain, whereas the lower bound is tight at high-SNR, and thus its related diversity gain estimate is equal to the actual asymptotic secrecy diversity gain of the MIMO wiretap channel. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Historical perspective of sexually transmitted infections and their control in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, P J

    2010-04-01

    In designing an effective national response to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), one must incorporate a historical perspective of previous efforts that have addressed different aspects of STIs. One must understand who have been the key players, what aspects of STIs were the focus of efforts (prevention, treatment or control), and which, if any, societal subgroups were targeted (i.e. sex workers, military, men who have sex with men [MSM], etc.). In addition, one must consider historical and modern attitudes towards sex, sexuality and STIs, especially in terms of taboos and stigmas that may be attached to each. Most importantly, one must recognize which efforts have succeeded, which have failed, and why. This paper presents a historical overview of the perceptions of and responses to STIs at different points in Peru's history, and discusses current efforts to build upon past successes and avoid repeating previous failures that could be helpful for other countries in the Latin American region.

  13. Depression and Social Stigma Among MSM in Lesotho: Implications for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Grosso, Ashley; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Mothopeng, Tampose; Taruberekera, Noah; Nkonyana, John; Baral, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Social stigma is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa, and may influence risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) via its association with depression. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 530 MSM in Lesotho accrued via respondent-driven sampling. Using generalized structural equation models we examined associations between stigma, social capital, and depression with condom use and testing positive for HIV/STIs. Depression was positively associated with social stigma experienced or perceived as a result of being MSM. In contrast, increasing levels of social cohesion were negatively associated with depression. Social stigma was associated with testing positive for HIV; however, this association did not appear to be mediated by depression or condom use. These data suggest a need for integrated HIV and mental health care that addresses stigma and discrimination and facilitates positive social support for MSM.

  14. Suboptimal Partial Transmit Sequence-Active Interference Cancellation with Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasak Poramate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Active interference cancellation (AIC is an effective technique to provide interference avoidance feature for an ultrawideband (UWB OFDM transmitter. Partial transmit sequence-AIC (PTS-AIC, which was recently proposed as an improvement of AIC, requires high computational complexity by doing the exhaustive search of all possible weighting factors whose number grows exponentially with the number of subblocks used. To reduce the complexity of PTS-AIC, this paper proposes a suboptimal way, called particle swarm optimization (PSO, to choose the weighting factors suboptimally without much performance degradation. Both continuous and discrete versions of PSO have been evaluated, and it has been shown that the discrete PSO is able to reduce the complexity significantly without sacrificing the performance of PTS-AIC in many cases.

  15. Management of recurrent fracture of central incisor with internal resorption using light transmitting (luminex post

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The normal root canal anatomy may be altered in various pathological processes and making it very difficult and at times impossible to achieve ideal obturation by normal methods. Internal resorption is one among them. There are several treatment protocols advised for this pathological condition. A crown-root fracture is defined as a fracture involving enamel, dentin and cementum and accounts for 5% of all traumatic injuries to the permanent dentition. In anterior teeth, these fractures are usually caused by direct trauma and often complicated in fully erupted teeth. In cases where the fracture line extends down along the long axis of the root, extraction of the tooth is indicated. The purpose of this report is to present the use of light transmitting post system to reinforce the crown root fractured maxillary central incisor due to trauma and internal resorption.

  16. [Sexually transmitted diseases and other risks in the adult film industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, N

    2014-02-01

    The adult film industry nowadays represents a legal multi-billion dollar business. The main health risks of adult performers are well known. They mainly include the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, herpes and papillomavirus. However, despite regular follow-up, the frequency of STD remains significant in this high-risk population since a large part of the industry continues to reject systematic use of condoms. Besides, performers are also exposed to other physical and mental health issues often not known to the public. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known about STD and other risks among the community of performers in the adult film industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil-transmitted helminthiases: implications of climate change and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Haylee J; Hawdon, John M; Hoberg, Eric P

    2010-12-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) collectively cause the highest global burden of parasitic disease after malaria and are most prevalent in the poorest communities, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change is predicted to alter the physical environment through cumulative impacts of warming and extreme fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, with cascading effects on human health and wellbeing, food security and socioeconomic infrastructure. Understanding how the spectrum of climate change effects will influence STHs is therefore of critical importance to the control of the global burden of human parasitic disease. Realistic progress in the global control of STH in a changing climate requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes the sciences (e.g. thermal thresholds for parasite development and resilience) and social sciences (e.g. behavior and implementation of education and sanitation programs). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Hepatitis A and E enterically transmitted virus infections of the liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegl, G

    2004-08-01

    Hepatitis A virus (a picornavirus) and hepatitis E virus (so far unclassified) are small, non-enveloped and relatively stable RNA viruses with many similar, yet, not identical characteristics. Both viruses are transmitted preferentially by the fecal-oral route. Consequently, their spread is favoured by poor personal hygiene and inappropriate sanitary conditions. Infection can pass subclinically, take an acute and self limiting course, and can also manifest as fulminant hepatitis with liver failure. True chronic disease is unknown. Laboratory diagnosis is preferentially performed by serology, but can also be complemented by assay for viral RNA in stool or serum. Resolution of infection leads to immunity which, in the case of hepatitis A, is known to be fully protective and most likely lifelong. Available hepatitis A vaccines are able to induce a similar state of protection. Vaccines for hepatitis E are under development. Specific antiviral treatment is not yet available, neither for hepatitis A nor for hepatitis E.

  19. Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3% out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23% were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae; Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi 18 cases (14.3% and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis 11 cases (8.7%. Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  20. Benchmark experiments with 14 MeV neutrons transmitted through Pe, Fe, Ni and Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichy, M.; Kralik, M.; Pulpan, J.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra of 14 MeV neutrons transmitted through 7.6 cm of Pb, Fe, Ni and Al are presented. The target of d-t generator was placed to the center of the sphere from the tested material (outer diam. 24 cm). The detector (NE-213 scintillator diameter 5.08 cmx5.08 cm) was located at the distance 3 m and background was subtracted by means of 1 m iron cone. Measured pulse height spectra were processed by two methods and the results were compared with spectra calculated by means of the Blank and Brand codes using Endl and ENDF/B-IV libraries. Preliminary results show remarkable differences between calculation and experiment which requires additional calculations and an improvement of experimental equipment. (orig.)